WorldWideScience

Sample records for models hairy woodpecker

  1. Transferability of habitat suitability models for nesting woodpeckers associated with wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; Vicki Saab; Jeff P. Hollenbeck; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2016-01-01

    Following wildfire, forest managers are challenged with meeting both socioeconomic demands (e.g., salvage logging) and mandates requiring habitat conservation for disturbance-associated wildlife (e.g., woodpeckers). Habitat suitability models for nesting woodpeckers can be informative, but tests of model transferability are needed to understand how broadly...

  2. Hairy Root as a Model System for Undergraduate Laboratory Curriculum and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Carol A.; Subramanian, Senthil; Yu, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Hairy root transformation has been widely adapted in plant laboratories to rapidly generate transgenic roots for biochemical and molecular analysis. We present hairy root transformations as a versatile and adaptable model system for a wide variety of undergraduate laboratory courses and research. This technique is easy, efficient, and fast making…

  3. Detection probabilities of woodpecker nests in mixed conifer forests in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin E. Russell; Victoria A. Saab; Jay J. Rotella; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2009-01-01

    Accurate estimates of Black-backed (Picoides arcticus) and Hairy Woodpecker (P. villosus) nests and nest survival rates in post-fire landscapes provide land managers with information on the relative importance of burned forests to nesting woodpeckers. We conducted multiple-observer surveys in burned and unburned mixed coniferous forests in Oregon to identify important...

  4. Response Surface Modelling of Noradrenaline Production in Hairy Root Culture of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghorbani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an annual plant as one of the natural sources for noradrenaline hormone. In this research, hairy root culture of purslane was established by using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834. In the following, Box-Behnken model of response surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize B5 medium for the growth of P. oleracea L. hairy root line. According to the results, modelling and optimization conditions, including sucrose, CaCl2.H2O, H2PO4 and NO3-/NH4+ concentrations on maximum dry weight (0.155 g and noradrenaline content (0.36 mg.g-1 DW was predicted. These optimal conditions predicted by RSM were confirmed the enhancement of noradrenaline production as an application potential for production by hairy root cultures.

  5. Improving inferences from short-term ecological studies with Bayesian hierarchical modeling: white-headed woodpeckers in managed forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Daniel W; Roloff, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    Pilot studies are often used to design short-term research projects and long-term ecological monitoring programs, but data are sometimes discarded when they do not match the eventual survey design. Bayesian hierarchical modeling provides a convenient framework for integrating multiple data sources while explicitly separating sample variation into observation and ecological state processes. Such an approach can better estimate state uncertainty and improve inferences from short-term studies in dynamic systems. We used a dynamic multistate occupancy model to estimate the probabilities of occurrence and nesting for white-headed woodpeckers Picoides albolarvatus in recent harvest units within managed forests of northern California, USA. Our objectives were to examine how occupancy states and state transitions were related to forest management practices, and how the probabilities changed over time. Using Gibbs variable selection, we made inferences using multiple model structures and generated model-averaged estimates. Probabilities of white-headed woodpecker occurrence and nesting were high in 2009 and 2010, and the probability that nesting persisted at a site was positively related to the snag density in harvest units. Prior-year nesting resulted in higher probabilities of subsequent occurrence and nesting. We demonstrate the benefit of forest management practices that increase the density of retained snags in harvest units for providing white-headed woodpecker nesting habitat. While including an additional year of data from our pilot study did not drastically alter management recommendations, it changed the interpretation of the mechanism behind the observed dynamics. Bayesian hierarchical modeling has the potential to maximize the utility of studies based on small sample sizes while fully accounting for measurement error and both estimation and model uncertainty, thereby improving the ability of observational data to inform conservation and management strategies.

  6. Integration of Long-Term Research into a GIS Based Landscape Habitat Model for the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, K.; Lloyd, F.T.

    2000-10-01

    The red cockaded woodpecker has been intensively studied since 1985 when the population was on the verge of extinction. The population decline is primarily the result of timber harvesting prior to 1950 and restricted burning. Construction of artificial cavities, translocations, competitor control, and removal of hardwood mid-story has provided suitable habitat. Since 1985, the population has increased from 4 to 99 birds. A GIS model is being developed to simulate the development of habitat at SRS in relation to management and existing vegetation.

  7. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of mass transfer behavior in a bioreactor for hairy root culture. I. Model development and experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Sun, Wei; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2011-01-01

    A two-dimensional axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on a porous media model and a discrete population balance model was established to investigate the hydrodynamics and mass transfer behavior in an airlift bioreactor for hairy root culture.During the hairy root culture of Echinacea purpurea, liquid and gas velocity, gas holdup, mass transfer rate, as well as oxygen concentration distribution in the airlift bioreactor were simulated by this CFD model. Simulative results indicated that liquid flow and turbulence played a dominant role in oxygen mass transfer in the growth domain of the hairy root culture. The dissolved oxygen concentration in the hairy root clump increased from the bottom to the top of the bioreactor cultured with the hairy roots, which was verified by the experimental detection of dissolved oxygen concentration in the hairy root clump. This methodology provided insight understanding on the complex system of hairy root culture and will help to eventually guide the bioreactor design and process intensification of large-scale hairy root culture. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  8. Global variation in woodpecker species richness shaped by tree availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Sigrid Kistrup; Kissling, W. Daniel; Fjeldså, Jon

    2017-01-01

    heterogeneity and biogeographical region. We further used structural equation models to test for direct and indirect effects of predictor variables. Results: There was a strong positive relationship between woodpecker species richness and current tree cover and annual precipitation, respectively. Precipitation...... a negative indirect effect on woodpecker species richness. Main conclusions: Global species richness of woodpeckers is primarily shaped by current tree cover and precipitation, reflecting a strong biotic association between woodpeckers and trees. Human influence can have a negative effect on woodpecker...... diversity when humans reduce tree availability. Hence, woodpeckers exemplify how broad-scale diversity patterns are predominantly shaped by a biotic factor, and how climate and human influence can have indirect effects on animal biodiversity via the effects on tree availability and forest cover....

  9. hairy elbows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, WC1N 3JH, United Kingdom. 7Institute of Neurological Sciences, National ... There was no family history of significance and all four sib- lings were healthy. At birth, a small hairy ... delay; children. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 94, No. 4, December 2015.

  10. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of mass-transfer behavior in a bioreactor for hairy root culture. II. Analysis of ultrasound-intensified process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Sun, Wei; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Recently, cichoric acid production from hairy roots of Echinacea purpurea was significantly improved by ultrasound stimulation in an airlift bioreactor. In this article, the possible mechanism on ultrasound-intensified hairy root culture of E. purpurea in the bioreactor was elucidated with the help of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, membrane permeability detection, dissolved oxygen concentration detection, confocal laser-scanning microscopy (LSM) observation, and phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL) activity analysis. The CFD model developed in Part I was used to simulate the hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer in hairy root bioreactor culture stimulated by ultrasound. A dynamic mesh model combined with a changing Schmidt number method was used for the simulation of the ultrasound field. Simulation results and experimental data illustrated that ultrasound intensified oxygen mass transfer in the hairy root clump, which subsequently stimulated root growth and cichoric acid biosynthesis. Ultrasound increased the hairy root membrane permeability, and a high root membrane permeability of 0.359 h(-1) was observed at the bottom region in the bioreactor. LSM observation showed that the change in the membrane permeability recovered to normal in the further culture after ultrasound stimulation. PAL activity in the hairy roots was stimulated by ultrasound increase and was correlated well to cichoric acid accumulation in the hairy roots of E. purpurea. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  11. Evaluating habitat suitability models for nesting white-headed woodpeckers in unburned forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; Victoria A. Saab; Kim Mellen-Mclean; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2015-01-01

    Habitat suitability models can provide guidelines for species conservation by predicting where species of interest are likely to occur. Presence-only models are widely used but typically provide only relative indices of habitat suitability (HSIs), necessitating rigorous evaluation often using independently collected presence-absence data. We refined and evaluated...

  12. Using satellite and airborne LiDAR to model woodpecker habitat occupancy at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Vierling; Kerri T. Vierling; Patrick Adam; Andrew T. Hudak

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating vertical vegetation structure into models of animal distributions can improve understanding of the patterns and processes governing habitat selection. LiDAR can provide such structural information, but these data are typically collected via aircraft and thus are limited in spatial extent. Our objective was to explore the utility of satellite-based LiDAR...

  13. Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis Microhabitat Characteristics and Reproductive Success in a Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Douglas R.; Burger, L. Wesley; Vilella, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success and microhabitat characteristics in a southeastern loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pine forest. From 1997 to 1999, we recorded reproductive success parameters of 41 red-cockaded woodpecker groups at the Bienville National Forest, Mississippi. Microhabitat characteristics were measured for each group during the nesting season. Logistic regression identified understory vegetation height and small nesting season home range size as predictors of red-cockaded woodpecker nest attempts. Linear regression models identified several variables as predictors of red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success including group density, reduced hardwood component, small nesting season home range size, and shorter foraging distances. Red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success was correlated with habitat and behavioral characteristics that emphasize high quality habitat. By providing high quality foraging habitat during the nesting season, red-cockaded woodpeckers can successfully reproduce within small home ranges.

  14. Why do woodpeckers resist head impact injury: a biomechanical investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Wang

    Full Text Available Head injury is a leading cause of morbidity and death in both industrialized and developing countries. It is estimated that brain injuries account for 15% of the burden of fatalities and disabilities, and represent the leading cause of death in young adults. Brain injury may be caused by an impact or a sudden change in the linear and/or angular velocity of the head. However, the woodpecker does not experience any head injury at the high speed of 6-7 m/s with a deceleration of 1000 g when it drums a tree trunk. It is still not known how woodpeckers protect their brain from impact injury. In order to investigate this, two synchronous high-speed video systems were used to observe the pecking process, and the force sensor was used to measure the peck force. The mechanical properties and macro/micro morphological structure in woodpecker's head were investigated using a mechanical testing system and micro-CT scanning. Finite element (FE models of the woodpecker's head were established to study the dynamic intracranial responses. The result showed that macro/micro morphology of cranial bone and beak can be recognized as a major contributor to non-impact-injuries. This biomechanical analysis makes it possible to visualize events during woodpecker pecking and may inspire new approaches to prevention and treatment of human head injury.

  15. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myczko, Lukasz; Rosin, Zuzanna M; Skórka, Piotr; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland) in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species.

  16. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Myczko

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species.

  17. Viscous entrainment on hairy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasto, Alice; Brun, P.-T.; Hosoi, A. E.

    2018-02-01

    Nectar-drinking bats and honeybees have tongues covered with hairlike structures, enhancing their ability to take up viscous nectar by dipping. Using a combination of model experiments and theory, we explore the physical mechanisms that govern viscous entrainment in a hairy texture. Hairy surfaces are fabricated using laser cut molds and casting samples with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. We model the liquid trapped within the texture using a Darcy-Brinkmann-like approach and derive the drainage flow solution. The amount of fluid that is entrained is dependent on the viscosity of the fluid, the density of the hairs, and the withdrawal speed. Both experiments and theory reveal an optimal hair density to maximize fluid uptake.

  18. How does a woodpecker work? An impact dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuzhe; Qiu, Xinming; Yu, Tongxi; Tao, Jiawei; Cheng, Ze

    2015-04-01

    To understand how a woodpecker is able accelerate its head to such a high velocity in a short amount of time, a multi-rigid-segment model of a woodpecker's body is established in this study. Based on the skeletal specimen of the woodpecker and several videos of woodpeckers pecking, the parameters of a three-degree-of-freedom system are determined. The high velocity of the head is found to be the result of a whipping effect, which could be affected by muscle torque and tendon stiffness. The mechanism of whipping is analyzed by comparing the response of a hinged rod to that of a rigid rod. Depending on the parameters, the dynamic behavior of a hinged rod is classified into three response modes. Of these, a high free-end velocity could be achieved in mode II. The model is then generalized to a multihinge condition, and the free-end velocity is found to increase with hinge number, which explains the high free-end velocity resulting from whipping. Furthermore, the effects of some other factors, such as damping and mass distribution, on the velocity are also discussed.

  19. Analyzing the effect of decreasing cytosolic triosephosphate isomerase on Solanum tuberosum hairy root cells using a kinetic-metabolic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valancin, Alexandre; Srinivasan, Balasubrahmanyan; Rivoal, Jean; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2013-03-01

    A kinetic-metabolic model of Solanum tuberosum hairy roots is presented in the interest of understanding the effect on the plant cell metabolism of a 90% decrease in cytosolic triosephosphate isomerase (cTPI, EC 5.3.1.1) expression by antisense RNA. The model considers major metabolic pathways including glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and TCA cycle, as well as anabolic reactions leading to lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids, and structural hexoses synthesis. Measurements were taken from shake flask cultures for six extracellular nutrients (sucrose, fructose, glucose, ammonia, nitrate, and inorganic phosphate) and 15 intracellular compounds including sugar phosphates (G6P, F6P, R5P, E4P) and organic acids (PYR, aKG, SUCC, FUM, MAL) and the six nutrients. From model simulations and experimental data it can be noted that plant cell metabolism redistributes metabolic fluxes to compensate for the cTPI decrease, leading to modifications in metabolites levels. Antisense roots showed increased exchanges between the pentose phosphate pathway and the glycolysis, an increased oxygen uptake and growth rate. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Experimental reintroduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Dawn K. Carrie; Richard R. Schaefer

    1992-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to the pine forests of the southeastern United States (Jackson 1971). Deforestation and habitat alteration have severely affected Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations; current populations are isolated and most are declining (Jackson 1971, Lennartz et al. 1983, Conner and Rudolph 1989, Costa...

  1. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  2. Factors affecting breeding season survival of Red-Headed Woodpeckers in South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgo, John, C.; Vukovich, Mark

    2011-11-18

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006-2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in South Carolina. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to estimate survival within and between years and to evaluate the effects of foliar cover (number of available cover patches), snag density treatment (high density vs. low density), and sex and age of woodpeckers. Weekly survival probabilities followed a quadratic time trend, being lowest during mid-summer, which coincided with the late nestling and fledgling period. Avian predation, particularly by Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), accounted for 85% of all mortalities. Our best-supported model estimated an 18-week breeding season survival probability of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.54-0.85) and indicated that the number of cover patches interacted with sex of woodpeckers to affect survival; females with few available cover patches had a lower probability of survival than either males or females with more cover patches. At the median number of cover patches available (n = 6), breeding season survival of females was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.54-0.94) and of males was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.76). The number of cover patches available to woodpeckers appeared in all 3 of our top models predicting weekly survival, providing further evidence that woodpecker survival was positively associated with availability of cover. Woodpecker survival was not associated with snag density. Our results suggest that protection of {ge}0.7 cover patches per ha during vegetation control activities in mature pine forests will benefit survival of this Partners In Flight Watch List species.

  3. General Information About Hairy Cell Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Hairy Cell Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Hairy ...

  4. Hairy AdS solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales and Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Av. Padre Hurtado 750, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru, E-mail: dumitru.astefanesei@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Choque, David, E-mail: brst1010123@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2016-11-10

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  5. Global population decline of the Great Slaty Woodpecker (Mulleripicus pulverulentus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammertink, M.; Prawiradilaga, D.M.; Setiorini, U.; Zaw Naing, T.; Duckworth, J.W.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Great Slaty Woodpecker (Mulleripicus pulverulentus) of South and Southeast Asia, the third largest woodpecker species in the world, is currently in the IUCN Red List category of Least Concern. This woodpecker appears associated with old-growth forests, and the rapid reductions in forest cover

  6. Aspects of hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon-at@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-03-26

    We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.

  7. Tapping the woodpecker tree for evolutionary insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Subir B; Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc; Sheldon, Frederick H

    2017-11-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies of woodpeckers (Picidae) have generally focused on relationships within specific clades or have sampled sparsely across the family. We compared DNA sequences of six loci from 203 of the 217 recognized species of woodpeckers to construct a comprehensive tree of intrafamilial relationships. We recovered many known, but also numerous unknown, relationships among clades and species. We found, for example, that the three picine tribes are related as follows (Picini, (Campephilini, Melanerpini)) and that the genus Dinopium is paraphyletic. We used the tree to analyze rates of diversification and biogeographic patterns within the family. Diversification rate increased on two occasions during woodpecker history. We also tested diversification rates between temperate and tropical species but found no significant difference. Biogeographic analysis supported an Old World origin of the family and identified at least six independent cases of New World-Old World sister relationships. In light of the tree, we discuss how convergence, mimicry, and potential cases of hybridization have complicated woodpecker taxonomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Looking out for the pileated woodpecker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen Parks

    2009-01-01

    The pileated woodpecker is a species of conservation concern and a keystone species in mature and old forests of the Pacific Northwest. In the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon, researchers from the PNW Research Station in La Grande, Oregon, studied the effects of natural and human-caused disturbance on pileated populations and their habitat over a period spanning...

  9. Burning and chopping for woodpeckers and wiregrass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joan L. Walker; Brian P. van Eerden; David Robinson; Mike Hausch

    2004-01-01

    To restore red-cockaded woodpecker habitat managers must reduce hardwoods while maintaining native ground cover. Fire, chemical, and mechanical methods are used alone or in combination to reduce oaks. Previous studies have reported selected single treatment effects (e.g., Outcalt and Lewis 1990, Robbins and Myers 1992, Glitzenstein et al. 1995, Provencher et al. 2001...

  10. Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment Option Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Hairy Cell Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  11. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with hairy cell leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L; Shaw, A; Slupsky, J; Vos, H; Poppema, S

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with hairy cell leukemia were developed to aid in the diagnosis of this subtype of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and to gain better insight into the origin of hairy cells. Three antibodies were found to be of value in the diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia.

  12. Forest habitat loss, fragmentation, and red-cockaded woodpecker populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1991-01-01

    Loss of mature forest habitat was measured around Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity tree clusters (colonies) in three National Forests in eastern Texas. Forest removal results in a loss of foraging habitat and causes habitat fragmentation of the remaining mature forest. Habitat loss was negatively associated with woodpecker group size in small...

  13. Population trends of red-cockaded woodpeckers in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2006-01-01

    tracked population trends of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in eastern Texas from 1983 through 2004. After declining precipitously during the 1980s, woodpecker population trends on federal lands (National Forests and Grasslands in Texas, but excluding the Big Thicket National Preserve) increased between 1990 and 2000, and have been...

  14. Effects of gypsy moth outbreaks on North American woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter D. Koenig; Eric L. Walters; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of the introduced gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) on seven species of North American woodpeckers by matching spatially explicit data on gypsy moth outbreaks with data on breeding and wintering populations. In general, we detected modest effects during outbreaks: during the breeding season one species, the Red-headed Woodpecker...

  15. Foraging ecology of pileated woodpeckers in coastal forests of Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.M. Raley; K.B. Aubry

    2006-01-01

    Providing habitat for pileated woodpeckers in the Pacific Northwest has been a key component of forest management strategies for over 20 years. We investigated the diet of pileated woodpeckers, and selection by birds of both individual structure and site characteristics for foraging. Birds foraged amost exclusively in closed-canopy habitats and selected relatively tall...

  16. Relative importance of social factors, conspecific density, and forest structure on space use by the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker: A new consideration for habitat restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, James E. [Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA; Moorman, Christopher E. [Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA; Peterson, M. Nils [Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA; Kilgo, John C. [Southern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, South Carolina, USA

    2018-03-14

    Understanding how the interplay between social behaviors and habitat structure influences space use is important for conservation of birds in restored habitat. We integrated fine-grained LiDAR-derived habitat data, spatial distribution of cavity trees, and spatially explicit behavioral observations in a multi-scale model to determine the relative importance of conspecific density, intraspecific interactions, and the distribution of cavities on space use by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) on 2 sites in South Carolina, USA. We evaluated candidate models using information theoretic methods. Top scale-specific models included effects of conspecific density and number of cavity tree starts within 200 m of Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging locations, and effects of the number of intraspecific interactions within 400 m of Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging locations. The top multi-scale model for 22 of 34 Red-cockaded Woodpecker groups included covariates for the number of groups within 200 m of foraging locations and LiDARderived habitat with moderate densities of large pines (Pinus spp.) and minimal hardwood overstory. These results indicate distribution of neighboring groups was the most important predictor of space use once a minimal set of structural habitat thresholds was reached, and that placing recruitment clusters as little as 400 m from foraging partitions of neighboring groups may promote establishment of new breeding groups in unoccupied habitat. The presence of neighboring groups likely provides cues to foraging Red-cockaded Woodpeckers that facilitate prospecting prior to juvenile dispersal and, to a lesser extent, indicates high-quality forage resources. Careful consideration of local distribution of neighboring groups in potential habitat may improve managers’ ability to increase Red-cockaded Woodpecker density on restored landscapes and mitigate isolation of Red-cockaded Woodpecker groups, a problem that negatively affects fitness across the

  17. Range-Wide Meta-Analysis of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Foraging Habitat Suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    facilitate recovery and increase population sizes. The standard for managed stability, on the other hand, was not designed to increase population size, but to... designate these categories. Eglin AFB provided us with Eglin Model scores in the form of a geodatabase that covered the study site. Space use analysis...the niche gestalt of the red-cockaded woodpecker in longleaf pine forests. Ecological Applications 11:854-870. Koper, N., and M. Manseau. 2009

  18. [Reduction of hairiness of a transsexual person].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of male pattern hairiness--especially facial hairiness--is important for the identity of a transsexual female. Methods of treatment include epilation, waxing, chemical depilation, planing, electrolysis, eflornitine cream and methods based on optical light. Also the hormonal therapies utilized in the treatment process reduce the degree of hairiness and make the hairs thinner. Instead of hair removal, one should rather speak of reducing hairiness, since life-long hairlessness is usually not achieved even by the most effective methods of hair reduction. Aspects affecting the choice of treatment include skin type, quality of hair, tolerability and availability of treatment, among other things.

  19. Hairy cell leukemia: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Timothy; Mobarek, Dalia; Wegge, Julia; Tabbara, Imad A

    2008-10-01

    Hairy cell Leukemia (HCL) is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder that was characterized in the late 1950s. HCL is defined, according to the WHO classification, as a mature (peripheral) B-cell neoplasm (1). HCL accounts for between 2-3% of all leukemia cases, with about 600 new cases diagnosed in the U.S. each year (1). HCL occurs more commonly in males, with an overall male to female ratio of approximately 4:1. The median age of onset is 52 years. This disease is seen more commonly in Caucasians and appears to be especially frequent in Ashkenazi Jewish males, with rare occurrence in persons of Asian and African descents (1). Hairy cells are distinct, clonal B cells arrested at a late stage of maturation. They are small B lymphoid cells that possess oval nuclei and abundant cytoplasm with characteristic micro-filamentous ("hairy") projections. They strongly express CD103, CD22, and CD11c (2). These cells typically infiltrate the bone marrow, the spleen, and to a lesser extent the liver, lymph nodes, and skin. Many patients present with splenomegaly and pancytopenia. Other clinical manifestations include recurrent opportunistic infections and vasculitis. Historically, HCL was considered uniformly fatal (2). However, recent treatment advances, using purine analogues such as Cladribine and Pentostatin, led to a significant improvement in prognosis with achievement of high response rates and durable remissions (2).

  20. Hairy AdS black holes with a toroidal horizon in 4D Einstein-nonlinear omega-model system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Astorino, M.; Canfora, F.; Giacomini, A.; Ortaggio, Marcello

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 776, 10 January (2018), s. 236-241 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37086G Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : AdS black holes * nonlinear sigma model Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 4.807, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article /pii/S0370269317309437

  1. Hairy AdS black holes with a toroidal horizon in 4D Einstein-nonlinear omega-model system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Astorino, M.; Canfora, F.; Giacomini, A.; Ortaggio, Marcello

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 776, 10 January (2018), s. 236-241 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37086G Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : AdS black holes * nonlinear sigma model Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 4.807, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269317309437

  2. The upside of the emerald ash borer catastrophe: a feast for woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Cappaert; Deborah McCullough; Therese Poland

    2005-01-01

    Under the most favorable conditions, woodpeckers reduce larval EAB density as effectively as the best pesticides. Woodpeckers work over the entire core region for free and are always more popular than spray trucks.

  3. Density and abundance of black-backed woodpeckers in a Ponderosa pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean R. Mohren; Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are usually associated with forest disturbance resulting in recently killed trees. While black-backed woodpeckers are attracted to areas affected by these disturbances, in the Black Hills they exist during interim disturbance periods in largely undisturbed forests. In 2012, a petition for listing black-backed woodpeckers in...

  4. Hypophosphatemic rickets associated with giant hairy nevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of multisystem pathologic conditions and epidermal nevi, known as the epidermal nevus syndrome, includes disorders of bone, central nervous system, eye, kidney, vasculature and skin. Rarely, congenital nevomelanocytic nevus also known as hairy nevus has also been reported in association with hypophosphatemic rickets. Studies suggest that phosphaturia, caused by circulating factors, called "phosphatonins" may be secreted by an epidermal or hairy nevus. We report here, a rare case of hypophosphatemic rickets associated with a giant hairy nevus in a 10-year-old boy.

  5. Current and Future Dynamics of the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Population Inhabiting the Savannah River National Environmental Research Park: Managing For Population Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, J.R.; Taylor, T.B.; Daniels, S.J.; Crowder, L.B.; Pridd, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Research aimed to study the dynamics of the SRS population of Red-Cockaded woodpecker and compare to those of other populations to identify factors limiting population growth; recruitment clusters were evaluated to determine what properties of individual cavity trees, surrounding habitat and the surrounding landscape might limit occupancy through natural dispersal. A spatial simulation model was used to project expected dispersal rates and population growth under current conditions and compare those estimates to observed dispersal and population growth. Red cockaded woodpecker populations at SRS are stable considering size. Research reveals that closer placement of recruitment clusters to active territories would produce higher growth rates while decreasing management intensity

  6. Eliminating Hairy Cell Leukemia Minimal Residual Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, patients with hairy cell leukemia who have disease-related symptoms that require treatment will be randomly assigned to receive cladribine with either concurrent rituximab or rituximab at least 6 months after completing cladribine therapy.

  7. Dermatophilus congolensis and "hairy" leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, M L; Chewning, L; Wang, S E; Gordon, M A

    1988-05-01

    The authors report the first human case (to our knowledge) of infection of the oral mucosa by Dermatophilus congolensis. Septate branching filaments morphologically identical to those of D. congolensis were identified in the lingual epithelium of a male homosexual employed as an animal handler. This actinomycete is the cause of dermatophilosis, a proliferative exudative dermatitis affecting many animal species. Clinical features suggested "hairy" leukoplakia (HL), a hyperkeratotic tongue lesion for which human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been implicated as etiologic agents. Immunoperoxidase staining for HPV capsid antigen was negative. Direct immunofluorescent staining with a conjugate specific for D. congolensis identified the bacterial structures as those of this species while excluding morphologically similar organisms.

  8. Stimulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    . Hairy root (HR3) of A. annua was used in this study, which was routinely ... H2O2 generation. H2O2 production from elicited hairy roots was measured by chemiluminescence method (Hu et al., 2003). The luminescence.

  9. Stimulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , the OGA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in stimulating the artemisinin biosynthesis in the hairy roots. This is the first report on the stimulation of artemisinin production in hairy roots by an oligogalacturonide elicitor.

  10. Hairy root transformation using Agrobacterium rhizogenes as a tool for exploring cell type-specific gene expression and function using tomato as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Mily; Kajala, Kaisa; Pauluzzi, Germain; Wang, Dongxue; Reynoso, Mauricio A; Zumstein, Kristina; Garcha, Jasmine; Winte, Sonja; Masson, Helen; Inagaki, Soichi; Federici, Fernán; Sinha, Neelima; Deal, Roger B; Bailey-Serres, Julia; Brady, Siobhan M

    2014-10-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes (or Rhizobium rhizogenes) is able to transform plant genomes and induce the production of hairy roots. We describe the use of A. rhizogenes in tomato (Solanum spp.) to rapidly assess gene expression and function. Gene expression of reporters is indistinguishable in plants transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens as compared with A. rhizogenes. A root cell type- and tissue-specific promoter resource has been generated for domesticated and wild tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum pennellii, respectively) using these approaches. Imaging of tomato roots using A. rhizogenes coupled with laser scanning confocal microscopy is facilitated by the use of a membrane-tagged protein fused to a red fluorescent protein marker present in binary vectors. Tomato-optimized isolation of nuclei tagged in specific cell types and translating ribosome affinity purification binary vectors were generated and used to monitor associated messenger RNA abundance or chromatin modification. Finally, transcriptional reporters, translational reporters, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated nuclease9 genome editing demonstrate that SHORT-ROOT and SCARECROW gene function is conserved between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tomato. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Search efforts for ivory-billed woodpecker in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Moskwik; Theresa Thom; Laurel M. Barnhill; Craig Watson; Jennifer Koches; John Kilgo; Bill Hulslander; Colette Degarady; Gary. Peters

    2013-01-01

    Following the reported rediscovery of Campephilus principalis (Ivory-billed Woodpecker) in Arkansas, we initiated searches in South Carolina in February 2006, with additional searches in the winter and spring of 2006–2007 and 2007–2008, concentrating in the Congaree, Santee, and Pee Dee river basins. We accrued a cumulative total of 8893 survey hours...

  12. Resveratrol production in hairy root culture of peanut, Arachis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... hypogaea L.) hairy roots and also showed varying effects on the growth and resveratrol production in hairy root cultures. ... (7.6 g/l) and resveratrol production (1.5 mg/g) in hairy root of peanut. Our results demonstrate that the .... and proliferation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells via extracellular ...

  13. Development and optimization of hairy root culture systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of Withania somnifera was carried out by using three Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains (ATCC 15834, R1000 and K599) for hairy root induction. Induction of hairy root was carried out in leaf, petiole and internodal explants. Hairy root induction was successful only in ATCC 15834 and R1000. The highest ...

  14. Scalar hairy black holes and scalarons in the isolated horizons formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Nucamendi, Ulises; Salgado, Marcelo

    2006-01-01

    The Isolated Horizons (IH) formalism, together with a simple phenomenological model for colored black holes has been used to predict nontrivial formulas that relate the ADM mass of the solitons and hairy Black Holes of Gravity-Matter system on the one hand, and several horizon properties of the black holes in the other. In this article, the IH formalism is tested numerically for spherically symmetric solutions to an Einstein-Higgs system where hairy black holes were recently found to exist. It is shown that the mass formulas still hold and that, by appropriately extending the current model, one can account for the behavior of the horizon properties of these new solutions. An empirical formula that approximates the ADM mass of hairy solutions is put forward, and some of its properties are analyzed

  15. The Conservation Value of Traditional Rural Landscapes: The Case of Woodpeckers in Transylvania, Romania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ine Dorresteijn

    Full Text Available Land use change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Forest species face the dual threats of deforestation and intensification of forest management. In regions where forests are under threat, rural landscapes that retain structural components of mature forests potentially provide valuable additional habitat for some forest species. Here, we illustrate the habitat value of traditional wood pastures for a woodpecker assemblage of six species in southern Transylvania, Romania. Wood pastures are created by long-term stable silvo-pastoral management practices, and are composed of open grassland with scattered large, old trees. Because of their demanding habitat requirements, woodpeckers share habitat with many other bird species, and have been considered as possible indicator species for bird species diversity. We first compared woodpecker assemblages between forests and wood pastures. Second, we grouped features of wood pastures into three spatial contexts and addressed how these features related to the occurrence of three woodpecker species that are formally protected. Woodpecker species composition, but not the number of species, differed between forests and wood pastures, with the green woodpecker occurring more commonly in wood pastures, and the lesser spotted woodpecker more commonly in forests. Within wood pastures, the intermediate context (especially surrounding forest cover best explained the presence of the grey-headed and middle spotted woodpecker. By contrast, variables describing local vegetation structure and characteristics of the surrounding landscape did not affect woodpecker occurrence in wood pastures. In contrast to many other parts of Europe, in which several species of woodpeckers have declined, the traditional rural landscape of Transylvania continues to provide habitat for several woodpecker species, both in forests and wood pastures. Given the apparent habitat value of wood pastures for woodpeckers we recommend wood

  16. The Conservation Value of Traditional Rural Landscapes: The Case of Woodpeckers in Transylvania, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorresteijn, Ine; Hartel, Tibor; Hanspach, Jan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Fischer, Joern

    2013-01-01

    Land use change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Forest species face the dual threats of deforestation and intensification of forest management. In regions where forests are under threat, rural landscapes that retain structural components of mature forests potentially provide valuable additional habitat for some forest species. Here, we illustrate the habitat value of traditional wood pastures for a woodpecker assemblage of six species in southern Transylvania, Romania. Wood pastures are created by long-term stable silvo-pastoral management practices, and are composed of open grassland with scattered large, old trees. Because of their demanding habitat requirements, woodpeckers share habitat with many other bird species, and have been considered as possible indicator species for bird species diversity. We first compared woodpecker assemblages between forests and wood pastures. Second, we grouped features of wood pastures into three spatial contexts and addressed how these features related to the occurrence of three woodpecker species that are formally protected. Woodpecker species composition, but not the number of species, differed between forests and wood pastures, with the green woodpecker occurring more commonly in wood pastures, and the lesser spotted woodpecker more commonly in forests. Within wood pastures, the intermediate context (especially surrounding forest cover) best explained the presence of the grey-headed and middle spotted woodpecker. By contrast, variables describing local vegetation structure and characteristics of the surrounding landscape did not affect woodpecker occurrence in wood pastures. In contrast to many other parts of Europe, in which several species of woodpeckers have declined, the traditional rural landscape of Transylvania continues to provide habitat for several woodpecker species, both in forests and wood pastures. Given the apparent habitat value of wood pastures for woodpeckers we recommend wood pastures be explicitly

  17. On the thermodynamics of hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Choque, David, E-mail: brst1010123@gmail.com [Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2015-04-09

    We investigate the thermodynamics of a general class of exact 4-dimensional asymptotically Anti-de Sitter hairy black hole solutions and show that, for a fixed temperature, there are small and large hairy black holes similar to the Schwarzschild–AdS black hole. The large black holes have positive specific heat and so they can be in equilibrium with a thermal bath of radiation at the Hawking temperature. The relevant thermodynamic quantities are computed by using the Hamiltonian formalism and counterterm method. We explicitly show that there are first order phase transitions similar to the Hawking–Page phase transition.

  18. When is an "Extinct" Species Really Extinct? Gauging the Search Efforts for Hawaiian Forest Birds and the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael. Scott

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare species, particularly those in inaccessible habitat, can go years without being observed. If we are to allocate conservation resources appropriately to conserving such species, it is important to be able to distinguish "rare" from "extinct." Criteria for designating extinction, however, tend to be arbitrary or vaguely defined. This designation should not be made unless the search effort has been sufficient to yield a high degree of confidence that the species is in fact absent. We develop models to assess the probability of extinction and the search effort necessary to detect an individual in a small population. We apply these models to searches for nine potentially extinct Hawaiian forest birds and for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis in intensively searched areas in Arkansas. The Hawaiian forest bird survey was extensive, providing excellent information on population sizes and habitat associations of species encountered during the survey. Nonetheless, we conclude that the survey effort was not sufficient to conclude extinction (p > 0.90 for populations of 10 or fewer individuals for those species that were not encountered during surveys. In contrast, our analysis for Ivory-billed Woodpeckers suggests that, unless there were actually two or fewer birds present, the search effort was sufficient to conclude (p > 0.95 that Ivory-billed woodpeckers were not present in the intensively searched area. If one assumes distributions other than uniform, there is a greater chance that Ivory-billed Woodpeckers may persist in the intensively searched areas. Conclusions regarding occupancy of suitable habitat throughout the rest of the former range will require similarly intensive survey efforts. The degree of confidence in the absence of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker depended in part on our assumptions about the distribution of birds in the search area. For species with limited detection distance and small populations, a massive search

  19. Genetically modified hairy roots of Withania somnifera Dunal: a potent source of rejuvenating principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Murthy, Kotamballi N Chidambara; Bhamid, Suresh; Sudha, C G; Ravishankar, Gokare A

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic hairy roots were induced from Withania somnifera Dunal, by infecting leaf explants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Polymerase chain reaction for rol A gene and Southern blot confirmed the integration of T-DNA in the genome. Cultures were grown in Murashige and Skoog solid as well as in liquid medium. The antioxidant activity was assayed in roots grown in solid media and liquid media. Hairy roots grown in liquid media found to possess highly significant activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-pecryl-hydrazyl radical, beta-carotene linoleic acid model system. The activity was 57.34%, 75.64%, and 93.41% in case DPPH model and 55.3%, 76.3%, and 90.5% in case of b-CLAMS in 25, 50, and 100 mg L(-1) concentration, respectively. In case of hydroxyl radical trapping and brain lipid peroxidation assay, the activity was more significant in hairy roots grown on solid medium in comparison with commercial formulation prepared using normal roots and standard withanaloids. Root extract grown in solid medium has shown 93.2% hydroxyl radical trapping activity at 100 mg L(-1) concentration, and 500 mg L(-1) has shown 83.6% in case of brain lipid peroxidation assay. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated the presence of withanaloids in the hairy root extracts. The results of the study clearly indicate that there is enhancement of secondary metabolites in hairy roots, which is indicated through significant enhancement of the antioxidant activity, since these are the major constituents responsible for the activity. This is the first report on the presence of antioxidant principles in genetically modified roots of W. somnifera. These results of the present study may aid in utilization of the W. somnifera hairy roots for its rejuvenating principles.

  20. Holographic superconductor in the analytic hairy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Park, Chanyong

    2011-01-01

    We study the charged black hole of hyperbolic horizon with scalar hair (charged Martinez-Troncoso-Zanelli: CMTZ black hole) as a model of analytic hairy black hole for holographic superconductor. For this purpose, we investigate the second order phase transition between CMTZ and hyperbolic Reissner-Nordstroem-AdS (HRNAdS) black holes. However, this transition unlikely occurs. As an analytic treatment for holographic superconductor, we develop superconductor in the bulk and superfluidity on the boundary using the CMTZ black hole below the critical temperature. The presence of charge destroys the condensates around the zero temperature, which is in accord with the thermodynamic analysis of the CMTZ black hole.

  1. Does red-cockaded woodpecker excavation of resin wells increase risk of bark beetle infestation of cavity trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; William G. Ross; David L. Kulhavy; Robert N. Coulson

    2001-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is unique among North American woodpeckers in that it nests and roosts almost exclusively in living pines (Pinus spp.) The red-cockaded woodpecker makes daily excavations at small wounds, termed "resin wells," around the cavity entrance and on the bole of the cavity tree...

  2. Splenic irradiation for hairy cell leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Moundhri, A.; Graham, P.H. [St George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW, (Australia). Department of Radiation Oncology

    1997-11-01

    Splenic irradiation in the management of hairy cell leukaemia is previously unreported. A case is presented here to illustrate that splenic irradiation may be a useful addition to systemic therapies. It achieved local splenic and blood picture response and remission similar to splenectomy without any significant toxicity. (authors). 7 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, David E; Gould, Juli R; Vandenberg, John D; Duan, Jian J; Shrewsbury, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.

  4. Red-cockaded woodpecker cavity-tree damage by Hurricane Rita: an evaluation of contributing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bainbridge; Kristen A. Baum; Daniel Saenz; Cory K. Adams

    2011-01-01

    Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker) is an endangered species inhabiting pine savannas of the southeastern United States. Because the intensity of hurricanes striking the southeastern United States is likely to increase as global temperatures rise, it is important to identify factors contributing to hurricane damage to Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity-trees. Our...

  5. Evidence Suggesting that Ivory-billed Woodpeckers (Campephilus principalis Exist in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Mennill

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis disappeared from the forests of southeastern North America in the early 20th Century and for more than 50 years has been widely considered extinct. On 21 May 2005, we detected a bird that we identified as an Ivory-billed Woodpecker in the mature swamp forest along the Choctawhatchee River in the panhandle of Florida. During a subsequent year of research, members of our small search team observed birds that we identified as Ivory-billed Woodpeckers on 14 occasions. We heard sounds that matched descriptions of Ivory-billed Woodpecker acoustic signals on 41 occasions. We recorded 99 putative double knocks and 210 putative kent calls. We located cavities in the size range reported for Ivory-billed Woodpeckers and larger than those of Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus that have been reported in the literature or that we measured in Alabama. We documented unique foraging signs consistent with the feeding behavior of Ivory-billed Woodpeckers. Our evidence suggests that Ivory-billed Woodpeckers may be present in the forests along the Choctawhatchee River and warrants an expanded search of this bottomland forest habitat.

  6. Red-cockaded woodpecker nutritional status in relation to habitat: Evidence from ptilochronology and body mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard R. Schaefer; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    Sexual divergence in foraging behavior exhibited by red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) should reduce intersexual competition for foraging sites. Males tend to forage at greater heights and on smaller stem diameters than females. It is well known that red-cockaded woodpeckers have an aversion to a well-developed stratum of midstory...

  7. Heart rot hotel: fungal communities in red-cockaded woodpecker excavations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel L. Lindner; Mark T. Banik; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2015-01-01

    Tree-cavity excavators such as woodpeckers are ecosystem engineers that have potentially complex but poorly documented associations with wood decay fungi. Fungi facilitate cavity excavation by preparing and modifying excavation sites for cavity excavators. Associations between fungi and endangered red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCWs) are particularly interesting because...

  8. Seasonal use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, Susan C; Ruth, Deanna L

    2004-12-31

    Loeb, Susan C., and Deanna L. Ruth. 2004. Seasonal use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 8. Cavities, Cavity Trees, and Cavity Communities. Pp 501-502. Abstract: Southern flying squirrels can significantly impact red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success (Laves and Loeb 1999). Thus exclusion or removal of flying squirrels from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities and clusters may be warranted in small woodpecker populations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2003). However, development of effective and efficient protocols for southern flying squirrel control requires an understanding of the seasonal dynamics of southern flying squirrel cavity use. Most studies of southern flying squirrel use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities have been conducted during spring (e.g., Harlow and Lennartz 1983, Rudolph et al. 1990a, Loeb 1993) and no studies have examined the effects of long term flying squirrel control on subsequent cavity use. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) whether flying squirrel use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities varies with season or cavity type, and (2) the long term effect of continuous squirrel removal.

  9. Drill, baby, drill: the influence of woodpeckers on post-fire vertebrate communities through cavity excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gina L. Tarbill; Patricia N. Manley; Angela M. White

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the importance of woodpeckers as ecological engineers in forests due to their excavation of cavities. Although research in green, unburned forests has identified the influence of different excavators on secondary use by cavity-dependent species, little is known about the relative importance of cavities created by woodpeckers in recently...

  10. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2010-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinusspp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in...

  11. Foraging-habitat selection of Black-backed Woodpeckers in forest burns of southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan G. Dudley; Victoria A. Saab; Jeffrey P. Hollenbeck

    2012-01-01

    We examined foraging-habitat selection of Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in burned forests of southwestern Idaho during 2000 and 2002 (6 and 8 years following wildfire). This woodpecker responds positively to large-scale fire disturbances and may be at risk from logging and post-fire management. With 100 radio-locations of four adult males, we used...

  12. Habitat use and avoidance by foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers in east Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John N. Macey; D. Brent Burt; Daniel Saenz; Richard N. Conner

    2016-01-01

    Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker) is an endangered bird endemic to the Pinus (pine) ecosystems of the southeastern US. Mature pine savannahs with a minimal midstory and lush herbaceous groundcover represent high-quality habitat. This study examines the foraging-habitat patterns of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers in East...

  13. Woodpecker-inspired shock isolation by microgranular bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang-Hee; Roh, Jin-Eep; Kim, Ki Lyug

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a woodpecker-inspired shock isolation (SI) using a microgranular bed to protect micromachined electronic devices (MEDs) for high-g military applications where mechanical excitations reach up to tens of thousands of gs and several hundreds of kHz. The shock isolating phenomenon in the microgranular bed within a metal housing, biomimetically inspired from a spongy bone within a skull of the woodpecker, controls unwanted high-frequency mechanical excitations so that their adverse effects on the embedded MEDs are kept within acceptable limit. The microgranular bed composed of close-packed microglass beads reduces the mechanical excitations transmitted to the MEDs through kinetic energy absorption. Two kinds of tests, a laboratory test and a 60 mm air-gun test, have been made. The laboratory test using a vibration exciter up to 25 kHz has demonstrated that the cut-off frequency (2.2-15.8 kHz) and roll-off steepness (-155.0 to -78.7 dB decade -1 ) are inversely proportional to the diameter of the close-packed microglass beads (68-875 μm), whereas the vibration absorptivity (0.23-0.87) is proportional. The 60 mm air-gun test under high-g environments of up to 60 000 g has verified that the woodpecker-inspired SI is superior in improving the shock survivability of the MEDs to the conventional one using hard resin.

  14. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 9. Habitat Management and Habitat Relationships. Pp 553-561. Abstract: I constructed a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined the foraging behavior and reproductive success of 7 groups of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

  15. Biologically inspired hairy surfaces for liquid repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shu-Hau

    Owing to remarkable features, such as self-cleaning, anti-biofouling and drag reduction, interest on rendering surfaces water-repellent has significantly grown within this decade. Attempts on making surfaces "superhydrophobic", where high water contact angle (θc >150°) accompanied with only few degrees of roll-off angle, have been extensively demonstrated through the mimicking of the surface chemistry and morphology of lotus leaves. This appealing phenomenon also exists on another structure from nature: surfaces comprising soft hairs. Although the role of this piliferous integument has long been recognized for providing life, arthropods in particular, waterrepellency, the synthetic superhydrophobic surfaces based on this structure are still very limited. In this study, the goal was to develop a novel liquid-repellent surface by mimicking the hairy exterior of species. The artificial hairy surfaces were prepared by means of pressurized membrane casting, in which thermoplastic sheets were forced to flow into porous membranes at elevated temperature. The G-shaped pillars on the membrane cast polypropylene substrate are particularly similar to the conformation of natural hairs. The principle of this fabrication technique is relatively accessible and is expected to be compatible with large-area fabrication of superhydrophobic interfaces. The artificial hairy surface features perfectly hydrophobic response where no contact angle hysteresis was observed from video assessment. Thus the artificial hairy surface of the current work appears to be the first report to have such extreme hydrophobicity with only structural modification from the original substrate. This ultralow adhesion to water droplet is believed to be attributed to the hydrophobic methyl groups and the mechanical response of the artificial hairs. Liquid repellency of the hairy surfaces was further enhanced by coating with fluorocarbon (CF) layers via deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The contact angle of

  16. Hairy roots culture as a source of valuable biopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kowalczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been exploited as a source of medicinal substances for years. Nowadays, achievements of modern science, including molecular biotechnology, allow their huge potential to be utilized. They have become a promising platform for the production of valuable compounds such as biopharmaceuticals. Among the various plant systems used for this purpose, hairy root cultures are also applied for the production of recombinant proteins and secondary metabolites. For this purpose plant cells of selected species are genetically transformed using different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes carrying the desired genes. The next steps of this process include stable and efficient expression of these genes. Hairy root cultures exhibit a number of features which make them attractive compared to various pro- and eukaryotic cell systems including other plant models. Their main advantages are: relatively low production costs, ease of scale-up, production of compounds typical for eukaryotic cells with post-translational modifications, biological safety, and in many cases there is no need for complex purification techniques of the final product. Several compounds that are successfully obtained using this production strategy are valuable pharmaceuticals. This group includes selected cytokines, vaccine antigens and antibodies.

  17. Hairy planar black holes in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceña, Andrés; Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Mann, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We construct exact hairy planar black holes in D-dimensional AdS gravity. These solutions are regular except at the singularity and have stress-energy that satisfies the null energy condition. We present a detailed analysis of their thermodynamical properties and show that the first law is satisfied. We also discuss these solutions in the context of AdS/CFT duality and construct the associated c-function

  18. Hairy planar black holes in higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceña, Andrés [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo,Mendoza (Argentina); Anabalón, Andrés [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias,Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Université de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique,UMR 5672, CNRS, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon,46 allé d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso,Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Mann, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute,31 Caroline Street North Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2014-01-28

    We construct exact hairy planar black holes in D-dimensional AdS gravity. These solutions are regular except at the singularity and have stress-energy that satisfies the null energy condition. We present a detailed analysis of their thermodynamical properties and show that the first law is satisfied. We also discuss these solutions in the context of AdS/CFT duality and construct the associated c-function.

  19. Rotating hairy black holes in arbitrary dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erices, Cristián; Martínez, Cristián

    2018-01-01

    A class of exact rotating black hole solutions of gravity nonminimally coupled to a self-interacting scalar field in arbitrary dimensions is presented. These spacetimes are asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter manifolds and have a Ricci-flat event horizon hiding a curvature singularity at the origin. The scalar field is real and regular everywhere, and its effective mass, coming from the nonminimal coupling with the scalar curvature, saturates the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound for the corresponding spacetime dimension. The rotating black hole is obtained by applying an improper coordinate transformation to the static one. Although both spacetimes are locally equivalent, they are globally different, as it is confirmed by the nonvanishing angular momentum of the rotating black hole. It is found that the mass is bounded from below by the angular momentum, in agreement with the existence of an event horizon. The thermodynamical analysis is carried out in the grand canonical ensemble. The first law is satisfied, and a Smarr formula is exhibited. The thermodynamical local stability of the rotating hairy black holes is established from their Gibbs free energy. However, the global stability analysis establishes that the vacuum spacetime is always preferred over the hairy black hole. Thus, the hairy black hole is likely to decay into the vacuum one for any temperature.

  20. Genetic signals of demographic expansion in Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens after the last North American glacial maximum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C Pulgarín-R

    Full Text Available The glacial cycles of the Pleistocene have been recognized as important, large-scale historical processes that strongly influenced the demographic patterns and genetic structure of many species. Here we present evidence of a postglacial expansion for the Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens, a common member of the forest bird communities in North America with a continental distribution. DNA sequences from the mitochondrial tRNA-Lys, and ATPase 6 and 8 genes, and microsatellite data from seven variable loci were combined with a species distribution model (SDM to infer possible historical scenarios for this species after the last glacial maximum. Analyses of Downy Woodpeckers from 23 geographic areas suggested little differentiation, shallow genealogical relationships, and limited population structure across the species' range. Microsatellites, which have higher resolution and are able to detect recent differences, revealed two geographic groups where populations along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains (Montana, Utah, Colorado, and southern Alberta were genetically isolated from the rest of the sampled populations. Mitochondrial DNA, an important marker to detect historical patterns, recovered only one group. However, populations in Idaho and southeast BC contained high haplotype diversity and, in general were characterized by the absence of the most common mtDNA haplotype. The SDM suggested several areas in the southern US as containing suitable Downy Woodpecker habitat during the LGM. The lack of considerable geographic structure and the starburst haplotype network, combined with several population genetic tests, suggest a scenario of demographic expansion during the last part of Pleistocene and early Holocene.

  1. Assessment of hairy roots induction in Solenostemon scutellarioides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hairy roots of Solenostemon scutellarioides were induced by inoculation of leaf explants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains TR 105, LBA 9402, 8196 and ATCC 15834. These strains showed different abilities to induce hairy root formation on the leaf explants. Assessment of the plant's susceptibility to the different strains ...

  2. Defective monocyte function in Legionnaires' disease complicating hairy cell leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Rechnitzer, C

    1986-01-01

    We describe a case of Legionnaires' disease in a 64-year-old man, in which hairy cell leukaemia was diagnosed after the onset of the infection. Immunological studies revealed a complete suppression of blood monocyte chemotactic and oxidative burst activities. We suggest that in hairy cell leukaem...

  3. Resveratrol production in hairy root culture of peanut, Arachis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes differed in their ability to induce peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) hairy roots and also showed varying effects on the growth and resveratrol production in hairy root cultures. A. rhizogenes R1601 is the most effective strain for the induction (75.8%), growth (7.6 g/l) and ...

  4. Influence of Agrobacterium rhizogenes on induction of hairy roots for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harish Tomar

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... Artemisinin production from plant tissue cultures and induction of hairy roots in vitro have been considered to be a promising alternative, which offer a high degree of genetic stability, grow rapidly and produce the higher spectrum of secondary metabolites than wild type plants. Hairy root cultures developed ...

  5. Diet of Nesting Red-Cockaded Woodpecker at Three Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, J.L.; Lipcomb, D.; Franzreb, K.E.; Loeb, S.C.

    1998-12-03

    The authors studied diets of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers for two years on three sites in South Carolina and Georgia. Cameras recorded 33 different types of prey. Wood roaches were the most common, amounting to 50% of the prey. In addition, blueberries and saw fly larvae were collected by birds. Snail shells were also collected. Morista's index of diet overlap ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 for breeding males and females. We conclude that nestling diets are similar across the region.

  6. Investigations on Genetic Architecture of Hairy Loci in Dairy Cattle by Using Single and Whole Genome Regression Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Karacaören

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of body hair is an important physiological and cellular process that leads to better adaption in tropical environments for dairy cattle. Various studies suggested a major gene and, more recently, associated genes for hairy locus in dairy cattle. Main aim of this study was to i employ a variant of the discordant sib pair model, in which half sibs from the same sires are randomly sampled using their affection statues, ii use various single marker regression approaches, and iii use whole genome regression approaches to dissect genetic architecture of the hairy gene in the cattle. Whole and single genome regression approaches detected strong genomic signals from Chromosome 23. Although there is a major gene effect on hairy phenotype sourced from chromosome 23: whole genome regression approach also suggested polygenic component related with other parts of the genome. Such a result could not be obtained by any of the single marker approaches.

  7. Availability and abundance of prey for the red-cockaded woodpecker.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, James, L.; Horn, Scott

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 11. Prey, Fire, and Community Ecology. Pp 633-645. Abstract: Over a 10-year period we investigated red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) prey use, sources of prey, prey distribution within trees and stands, and how forest management decisions affect prey abundance in South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Florida. Cameras were operated at 31 nest cavities to record nest visits with prey in 4 locations that ranged in foraging habitat from pine stands established in old fields to an old-growth stand in South Georgia. Examination of nearly 12,000 photographs recorded over 5 years revealed that, although red-cockaded woodpeckers used over 40 arthropods for food, the majority of the nestling diet is comprised of a relatively small number of common arthropods.

  8. Assessment of Training Noise Impacts on the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker: 1999 Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delaney, David

    2000-01-01

    .... Increased importance has been placed on determining how noise affects these species. This report presents second year results of a multiyear study to determine the effects of certain kinds of training noise on the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker...

  9. The effect of using a "soft" release on translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004 The effect of using a "soft" release on translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 301-306. Abstract: Translocations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker have been conducted since 1986 to enhance critically small subpopulations, to minimize the likelihood of local extirpations, and to reduce the adverse effects of fragmentation and isolation among existing populations. Such attempts have had mixed success. This article compares "hard" releases with a "soft" release technique where the birds are temporarily interned in a large aviary at the release point for a period of 9 to 14 days.

  10. The response of adult red-cockaded woodpeckers to a fallen nestling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard R. Schaefer; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner

    1991-01-01

    The response of adult Red-cockaded Woodpeckers to a fallen nestling- On 31 May 1990, while watching a pair of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) feeding two 20- day-old nestlings, we observed the following behavior. At 6:30 DST, the adult male flew to the entrance of the nest cavity with prey. He did not immediately offer the prey to the...

  11. Hairy cell leukemia – immunotargets and therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheer F

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Faisal Basheer, David M Bloxham, Mike A Scott, George A FollowsDepartment of Haematology, Addenbrookes Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKAbstract: Hairy cell leukemia (HCL is an indolent low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder that is reasonably sensitive to standard first-line purine analog therapy. However, in many cases, repeat relapses occur, requiring multiple courses of purine analog therapy, promoting eventual drug resistance. This, coupled with the concerning side effects of repeated purine analog exposure, has prompted the search for alternative targets and therapies that may provide deeper remissions. Novel strategies employing immune-mediated targeting via monoclonal antibody therapies and recombinant immunotoxins appear promising in HCL and are currently under investigation. More recently, the concept of targeted kinase inhibition using small-molecule inhibitors in HCL has emerged as another potentially viable option. As a deeper understanding of the aberrant molecular pathways contributing to the pathogenesis of HCL develops, the landscape of management for HCL, particularly in the relapse setting, may change significantly in the future as a result of these promising immunotargets and therapies.Keywords: hairy cell leukemia, immunotargets, therapies

  12. [Oral hairy leukoplakia induced by topical steroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigarios, E; Fricain, J-C; Projetti, F; Boulanger, M; Sibaud, V

    2015-10-01

    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is an EBV-associated condition of the oral mucosa, which is often painless. It is found predominantly in HIV-positive patients and is considered a clinical indicator of immunosuppression. OHL has rarely been described in HIV-negative patients, being found most often in association with iatrogenic immunosuppression. OHL induced by topical steroids remains extremely rare. An 81-year-old HIV-negative woman, treated for 3 months with topical steroids for oral lichen planus, developed an asymptomatic white, corrugated, non-removable plaque with vertical folds on the lateral edge of the tongue. Associated oral candidiasis was noted. Based upon histological findings and in situ hybridisation showing numerous EBV-infected epithelial cells, a diagnosis of oral hairy leucoplakia was made. To our knowledge, we report herein only the second recorded case of OHL induced strictly by topical steroids. Self-medication and poor adherence to dosage recommendations were noted in the patient's medical history. Physicians must be aware of the rare but nevertheless possible adverse events associated with topical steroid use, particularly when such medication is prescribed over a long period for inflammatory diseases of the oral mucosa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Intra-annual variation in habitat choice by an endemic woodpecker: Implications for forest management and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-del-Rey, Eduardo; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Muñoz, Pascual Gil

    2009-09-01

    The Canary Islands great spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos major canariensis is an endemic bird restricted to the Pinus canariensis forests of Tenerife and Gran Canaria. Classification tree models were applied to explore the relationship of the occurrence of this picid and habitat variables between two contrasting periods (breeding vs. non-breeding seasons) and for the entire annual cycle. During the reproductive period the availability of mature trees (DBH > 60 cm), and snags (dead trees), for nesting and roosting, characterize the breeding territory. Outside the breeding season the choice of locations was driven by a tree cover larger than 28.5% and the presence of trees taller than 8.5 m on average, a pattern explained by the availability of pine seeds in the cones of well-developed canopies, and less so by predation risk. Overall, during the annual cycle, well-developed canopy sites influenced the presence of this picidae (tree cover > 38%) and on more open sites ( 60 cm) became the second most important predictor of occurrence. We suggest that food abundance and availability could be the ultimate factor explaining the intra-annual variation observed, with the availability of snags being an important factor during nesting. In the range of this endemic, we recommend selective cuts in pine plantations, to allow the trees to set seed and improve their crops, minimizing the elimination of snags, and killing some large pine trees if the priority is to expand the distributional range of the woodpecker.

  14. Keeping warm with fur in cold water: entrainment of air in hairy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasto, Alice; Regli, Marianne; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Clanet, Christophe; Hosoi, Anette

    2015-11-01

    Instead of relying on a thick layer of body fat for insulation as many aquatic mammals do, fur seals and otters trap air in their dense fur for insulation in cold water. Using a combination of model experiments and theory, we rationalize this mechanism of air trapping underwater for thermoregulation. For the model experiments, hairy surfaces are fabricated using laser cut molds and casting samples with PDMS. Modeling the hairy texture as a network of capillary tubes, the imbibition speed of water into the hairs is obtained through a balance of hydrostatic pressure and viscous stress. In this scenario, the bending of the hairs and capillary forces are negligible. The maximum diving depth that can be achieved before the hairs are wetted to the roots is predicted from a comparison of the diving speed and imbibition speed. The amount of air that is entrained in hairy surfaces is greater than what is expected for classic Landau-Levich-Derjaguin plate plunging. A phase diagram with the parameters from experiments and biological data allows a comparison of the model system and animals.

  15. Treating Multiply Relapsed or Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, patients with hairy cell leukemia who have not responded or relapsed after initial chemotherapy will be randomly assigned to receive rituximab combined with either pentostatin or bendamustine.

  16. [Biotransformation of furannoligularenone by hairy root cultures of Polygonum multiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chun-Yan; Ma, Wei-Li; Yan, Wen-Wen; Yu, Rong-Min

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the biotransformation of furannoligularenone by hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum. Furannoligularenone was added to the medium of hairy roots of P. multiflorum after precultured for 9 days, then they were co-cultured. The products were isolated and identified on the basis of their physical chemical properties and spectroscopic data. The T-C curve of biotransformation was investigated with HPLC. The hairy roots of P. multiflorum transformed the substrate to two products, 3-oxo-eremophila-1,7(11)-dien-12,8-olide(II) and 3-oxo-8-hydroxy-eremophila-1,7(11)-dien-12,8-olide(III). After co-cultured for 3 days, the mole conversion ratio of the substrate reached the highest (27.2%). It's possible to biotransform furannoligularenone by hairy roots of P. multiflorum.

  17. Soft hairy warped black hole entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumiller, Daniel; Hacker, Philip; Merbis, Wout

    2018-02-01

    We reconsider warped black hole solutions in topologically massive gravity and find novel boundary conditions that allow for soft hairy excitations on the horizon. To compute the associated symmetry algebra we develop a general framework to compute asymptotic symmetries in any Chern-Simons-like theory of gravity. We use this to show that the near horizon symmetry algebra consists of two u (1) current algebras and recover the surprisingly simple entropy formula S = 2 π( J 0 + + J 0 - ), where J 0 ± are zero mode charges of the current algebras. This provides the first example of a locally non-maximally symmetric configuration exhibiting this entropy law and thus non-trivial evidence for its universality.

  18. The Hairy-Nosed Otter (Lutra sumatrana) in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Long B.

    2000-01-01

    With the change in the political situation in Cambodia, it has been possible since 1998 to undertake conservation activities in the country. During field work in the Cardomon mountains, a single hairy-nosed otter was seen in a market. The author requests information on the distribution of the hairy-nosed otter in Indochina and Thailand, and additional funds to support surveys in Cambodia in February and April.

  19. Comparative analysis of the essential oils from normal and hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-20

    Jan 20, 2011 ... Table 1. Constituents of the essential oils from the roots and hairy roots of P. japonicus. No. Compound name. Rt./min. Molecular formula. Relative content. (%). Normal roots. Hairy roots. 1. 2-ethoxy-propane. 5. 978. C5H12O. 6.56. 3.09. 2. 3-methyl-Butanoic acid. 6. 328. C5H10O2. 9.56. -. 3. Octanal. 7. 025.

  20. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue: a rare side effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M

    2014-01-01

    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue is a rare benign reversible side effect of linezolid therapy. We report a case of a 61 year old diabetic lady who developed thrombocytopenia and black hairy discoloration of the tongue after being prescribed linezolid for foot osteomyelitis by the orthopaedic surgeon. Patient was encouraged to practice good oral dental hygiene, advised to use a soft tooth brush, regular mouth wash and baking soda containing tooth paste. The condition resolved four weeks after cessation of the antibiotic therapy.

  1. Injection of 2,4-D to remove hardwood midstory within red-cockaded woodpecker colony areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner

    1989-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) colonies on the Angelina National Forest were monitored from 1984 to 1986, after hardwoods on the site had been injected with the herbicide 2,4-D. The herbicide effectively reduced the hardwood midstory; however, possible toxicity to woodpeckers and cavity tree mortality are problems associated with the...

  2. BRAF mutation in hairy cell leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BRAF is a serine/threonine kinase with a regulatory role in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. A mutation in the RAF gene, especially in BRAF protein, leads to an increased stimulation of this cascade, causing uncontrolled cell division and development of malignancy. Several mutations have been observed in the gene coding for this protein in a variety of human malignancies, including hairy cell leukemia (HCL. BRAF V600E is the most common mutation reported in exon15 of BRAF, which is observed in almost all cases of classic HCL, but it is negative in other B-cell malignancies, including the HCL variant. Therefore it can be used as a marker to differentiate between these B-cell disorders. We also discuss the interaction between miRNAs and signaling pathways, including MAPK, in HCL. When this mutation is present, the use of BRAF protein inhibitors may represent an effective treatment. In this review we have evaluated the role of the mutation of the BRAF gene in the pathogenesis and progression of HCL.

  3. Hairy black holes in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Pallab [International Center for Theoretical Sciences,IISc Campus, Bangalore 560012 (India); Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P.N. Bala [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-11-08

    We do a systematic study of the phases of gravity coupled to an electromagnetic field and charged scalar in flat space, with box boundary conditions. The scalar-less box has previously been investigated by Braden, Brown, Whiting and York (and others) before AdS/CFT and we elaborate and extend their results in a language more familiar from holography. The phase diagram of the system is analogous to that of AdS black holes, but we emphasize the differences and explain their origin. Once the scalar is added, we show that the system admits both boson stars as well as hairy black holes as solutions, providing yet another way to evade flat space no-hair theorems. Furthermore both these solutions can exist as stable phases in regions of the phase diagram. The final picture of the phases that emerges is strikingly similar to that found recently for holographic superconductors in global AdS, http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.07211. Our construction lays bare certain previously unnoticed subtleties associated to the definition quasi-local charges for gravitating scalar fields in finite regions.

  4. Rediscovering the King of Woodpeckers: Exploring the Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Walters

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ivory-billed Woodpecker has long held a special place in the psyche of North American conservation, eliciting unusually colorful prose, even from scientists, as an icon of the wild. The reverence in which it was held did little to slow the habitat loss that led to its apparent extinction 60 years ago. A consequence of the emotion and attention associated with the amazing rediscovery of this species is that conservation biologists will be under considerable pressure to make good on this "second chance." This poses a challenge to conservation paradigms that has important political consequences. First, the decline of the species is due to habitat loss, recovery from which has been much more seldom achieved than recovery from declines due to impacts on vital rates. This challenge is exacerbated by the enormous area requirements of the species. Second, the species at best exists as a critically small population. It will be difficult to make the case that a viable population can be established without undermining the small population paradigm that underlies conservation strategies for many other species. This has already resulted in some political backlash. Conservation of this species is best based on the one point of clear scientific consensus, that habitat is limiting, but this may result in additional political backlash because of conflicts with other land uses.

  5. Hernandulcin in hairy root cultures of Lippia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, M; Yamazaki, T; Shimomura, K

    1991-02-01

    The hairy root culture of Lippia dulcis Trev., Verbenaceae, was established by transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4. The transformed roots grew well in Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2% sucrose. The roots turned light green when they were cultured under 16 h/day light. The green hairy roots produced the sweet sesquiterpene hernandulcin (ca. 0.25 mg/g dry wt) together with 20 other mono- and sesquiterpenes, while no terpenes were detected in the nontransformed root cultures. The growth and hernandulcin production in the hairy root cultures were influenced by the addition of auxins to the medium. The addition of a low concentration of chitosan (0.2 - 10.0 mg / l) enhanced the production of hernandulcin 5-fold.

  6. Occurrence patterns of Black-backed Woodpeckers in green forest of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa M. Fogg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus are a rare habitat specialist typically found in moderate and high severity burned forest throughout its range. It also inhabits green forest but little is known about occurrence and habitat use patterns outside of burned areas, especially in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA. We used point count and playback surveys to detect Black-backed Woodpeckers during 2011 - 2013 on 460 transects on 10 national forest units. We defined green forest as areas that had not burned at moderate or high severity since 1991 and were more than 2 km from areas burned at moderate or high severity within the previous eight years (n = 386 transects. We used occupancy models to examine green forest habitat associations and found positive relationships with elevation, latitude, northern aspects, number of snags, tree diameter, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forest, and a negative relationship with slope. Estimated occupancy in green forest was higher than previously understood (0.21. In addition site colonization and extinction probability in green forest were low (0.05 and 0.19, respectively and suggest that many of the individuals detected in green forest were not just actively dispersing across the landscape in search of burned areas, but were occupying relatively stable home ranges. The association with high elevation and lodgepole pine forest may increase their exposure to climate change as these elevation forest types are predicted to decrease in extent over the next century. Although density is high in burned forest, green forest covers significantly more area in the Sierra Nevada and should be considered in efforts to conserve this rare species.

  7. Oral hairy leukoplakia in nonimmunosuppressed patients. Report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada-Nur, F; Robinson, J; Regezi, J A

    1994-11-01

    Hairy leukoplakia was first described in association with HIV infection. Today hairy leukoplakia has come to represent a sign of immunosuppression and not just of HIV infection. Although molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, Epstein-Barr virus appears to play a significant role in its etiopathogenesis. We present four cases that illustrate that HL may be seen in non-HIV and nonimmunocompromised patients. The use of high potency topical steroids for the treatment of oral vesiculoerosive diseases seems to have been a contributing factor in two of these cases.

  8. Radioprotective Effects of Hairy Roots of Ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Young; Yang, Deok Cho [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Panax ginseng is an important medicinal plant in Korea, which has broad efficacious effects against hypertension, diabetes, nociception and cancer. And it improves weakness. The native ginseng is a slow growing plant taking 5-7 years from seed planting to mature root harvesting, during which time much care is needed since its growth is susceptible to many environmental factors such as soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. Nowadays, a wild ginseng has become extremely scarce and the ginseng supply depends almost exclusively on field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. To meet the demand for the plant in the international market, a bioreactor technology is a useful tool for production of root biomass on a large scale. Therefore, suspension culture of ginseng roots in bioreactors is viewed as a primary alternative method for large-scale production and recently our laboratory has developed a protocol for the in vitro culture of P. ginseng. About 60-70% of cellular DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation is caused by OH, formed from the radiolysis of water. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an excessive free radical production and/or low antioxidant defense, and results in the chemical alterations of biomolecules causing structural and functional modifications. The generation of the reactive oxygen metabolites plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the irradiation-induced tissue injury. An extensive literature review implicates cellular DNA as the primary target for the biological and lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Besides DNA, lipids and proteins are also attacked by free radicals. The purpose of this study, aimed at investigating the possible radioprotective effect of the hairy roots of P. ginseng on irradiation-induced damage by the comet assay.

  9. Radioprotective Effects of Hairy Roots of Ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Eun Young; Yang, Deok Cho

    2005-01-01

    Panax ginseng is an important medicinal plant in Korea, which has broad efficacious effects against hypertension, diabetes, nociception and cancer. And it improves weakness. The native ginseng is a slow growing plant taking 5-7 years from seed planting to mature root harvesting, during which time much care is needed since its growth is susceptible to many environmental factors such as soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. Nowadays, a wild ginseng has become extremely scarce and the ginseng supply depends almost exclusively on field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. To meet the demand for the plant in the international market, a bioreactor technology is a useful tool for production of root biomass on a large scale. Therefore, suspension culture of ginseng roots in bioreactors is viewed as a primary alternative method for large-scale production and recently our laboratory has developed a protocol for the in vitro culture of P. ginseng. About 60-70% of cellular DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation is caused by OH, formed from the radiolysis of water. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an excessive free radical production and/or low antioxidant defense, and results in the chemical alterations of biomolecules causing structural and functional modifications. The generation of the reactive oxygen metabolites plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the irradiation-induced tissue injury. An extensive literature review implicates cellular DNA as the primary target for the biological and lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Besides DNA, lipids and proteins are also attacked by free radicals. The purpose of this study, aimed at investigating the possible radioprotective effect of the hairy roots of P. ginseng on irradiation-induced damage by the comet assay

  10. Nest-site selection and nest survival of Lewis's woodpecker in aspen riparian woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen R. Newlon; Victoria A. Saab

    2011-01-01

    Riparian woodlands of aspen (Populus tremuloides) provide valuable breeding habitat for several cavity-nesting birds. Although anecdotal information for this habitat is available for Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), no study has previously examined the importance of aspen woodlands to this species' breeding biology. From 2002 to 2004, we monitored 76...

  11. Texas ratsnake predation on southern flying squirrels in red-cockaded woodpecker cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer; Josh B. Pierce; Dan Saenz; Richard N. Conner

    2009-01-01

    Elaphe spp. (ratsnakes) are frequent predators on cavity-nesting birds and other vertebrates, including Glaucomys volans (Southern Flying Squirrels). They are known predators of Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpeckers), especially during the nestling phase. Picoides borealis cavities are frequently occupied by Southern Flying Squirrels, often several squirrels per...

  12. Experimental evidence of a symbiosis between red-cockaded woodpeckers and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel L. Lindner; Mark T. Banik; Kevin R. Rose; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2016-01-01

    Primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers, are ecosystem engineers in many systems. Associations between cavity excavators and fungi have long been hypothesized to facilitate cavity excavation, but these relationships have not been experimentally verified. Fungi may help excavators by softening wood, while excavators may facilitate fungal dispersal. Here we...

  13. Consumption of Mullerian Bodies by Golden-olive Woodpecker (Colaptes rubiginosus) in Nicaragua's Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Torrez; Wayne Arendt; L. Diaz

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-olive Woodpecker is a generalist species found in a wide range of habitats, being particularly common in coffee plantations within Nicaraguan cloud forests. Observations of an individual feeding at the base of Cecropia leaves revealed it was consuming Mullerian bodies that the Cecropia produces to feed Azteca ants as part of a host-inhabitant mutualistic...

  14. Monitoring interactions between red-cockaded woodpeckers and southern flying squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas S. Risch; Susan C. Loeb

    2004-01-01

    Although several studies have suggested that southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) may have a signif- icant negative impact on red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) (Loeb and Hooper 1997, Laves and Loeb 1999), the nature of the interactions between the species remains unclear. Particularly lacking are data that address if southern flying squirrels...

  15. Acorns and acorn woodpeckers: ups and downs in a long-term relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter D. Koenig; Eric L. Walters; Johannes M.H. Knops; William J. Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Acorn woodpeckers are one of the most conspicuous and abundant birds in California oak forests due to their unique dependence on acorns, a food resource eaten directly and stored in specialized structures on their territories for later use when acorns are no longer present on trees. Parallel long-term studies of the demography and behavior of this species and of...

  16. Temporal dynamics of woodpecker predation on the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodpeckers (Picidae) are among the most prevalent natural enemies attacking the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in North America, but there can be considerable variation in the levels of EAB predation on ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus) within and between sites as wel...

  17. Habitat Characteristics of Active and Abandoned Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan C. Loeb; William D. Pepper; Arlene T. Doyle

    1992-01-01

    Active red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) colonies in the Piedmont of Georgia are mature pine stands (mean age = 87 ± 1 yr old) with relatively sparse midstories (mean basal area = 31 ± 3 ft2/ac). Active and abandoned colony sites have similar overstory characteristics, but midstories are significantly denser in...

  18. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-05-01

    ABSTRACT. Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior of and use of cavities byRed-headedWoodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus). Using backpack harnesses, we attached 2.1-g transmitter packages that averaged 3.1% of body weight (range = 2.5–3.6%) to Red-headed Woodpeckers. We observed both radio-tagged (N = 23) and nonradio-tagged (N = 28) woodpeckers and determined the percentage of time spent engaged in each of five behaviors: flight, foraging, perching, preening, and territorial behavior. We found no difference between the two groups in the percentage of time engaged in each behavior. In addition, we found that transmitters had no apparent effect on use of cavities for roosting by radio-tagged woodpeckers (N = 25).We conclude that backpack transmitters weighing less than 3.6% of body weight had no impact on either their behavior or their ability to use cavities.

  19. Systematic review of the influence of foraging habitat on red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Garabedian; Christopher E. Moorman; M. Nils Peterson; John C. Kilgo

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between foraging habitat and reproductive success provide compelling evidence of the contribution of specific vegetative features to foraging habitat quality, a potentially limiting factor for many animal populations. For example, foraging habitat quality likely will gain importance in the recovery of the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides...

  20. Comparative analysis of the essential oils from normal and hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oils were extracted with steam distillation from normal and hairy roots of Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer. The constituents of essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that 40 and 46 kinds of compounds were identified from the essential oils of normal ...

  1. Hairy roots induction and artemisinin analysis in Artemisia dubia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... 1976), antifungal (Maruzzella et al., 1960), anthelmintic, antihepatitic (Gilani and Janbaz, 1995), and antidiabetic activities (Tan et al., 1999). The objectives of the present work were to study hairy root induction and artemisinin production by two Arte- misia species (A. dubia and A. indica) transformed by two.

  2. Laparoscopic Splenectomy for Hairy Cell Leukemia in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beni Adegoke Adeniji

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion. Hairy cell leukemia is a clonal B-Cell malignancy, for which there is very limited experience worldwide for its management when it occurs during pregnancy. Laparoscopic splenectomy should be considered as a therapeutic option, even with a significantly enlarged spleen, in order to avoid the risks of fetal exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. Unique considerations relating to pregnancy are highlighted.

  3. High efficiency protoplast isolation from in vitro cultures and hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro cultures of the medicinal plant Maesa lanceolata were established to enable the cultivation of plant material for the production of protoplasts. Callus cultures were initiated using leaves collected from shoot cultures and the root tips from hairy root cultures obtained upon Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation.

  4. High efficiency protoplast isolation from in vitro cultures and hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. High efficiency protoplast isolation from in vitro cultures and hairy roots of Maesa lanceolata. E. Lambert and D. Geelen*. Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, University of Ghent, Coupure Links 653, 9000. Ghent, Belgium. Accepted 16 July, 2010.

  5. Hairy root induction from hypocotyl segments of groundnut (Arachis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... Biol. 40: 441. Morgan AJ, Cox PN, Turner DA, Peel E, Davey MR, Gartland KMA,. Mulligan BJ (1987). Transformation of Tomato using an Ri plasmid vector, Plant Sci. 49: 37. Mugnier AJ (1988). Establishment of new axenic hairy root lines by inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Plant Cell Rep. p. 79.

  6. Assessment of hairy roots induction in Solenostemon scutellarioides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Malaysia, 43400 Serdang Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Accepted 2 June ... hairy root culture of S. scutellarioides has been docu- mented. ... 3520 Afr. J. Biotechnol. Table 1. Characteristic of selected A. rhizogenes strains. Strain. Plasmida. Opine type. Reference. 8196. pRi8196. Mannopine. Dommisse ...

  7. Red-cockaded woodpecker colony status and trends on the Angelina, Davy Crockett and Sabine national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1989-01-01

    Abundant hardwood midstory, colony isolation, and habitat fragmentation are believed to be the causes for severe population declines of red-cockaded woodpeckers on three national forests in eastern Texas.

  8. Systematic review of the influence of foraging habitat on red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, James E. [North Carolina State University

    2014-04-01

    Relationships between foraging habitat and reproductive success provide compelling evidence of the contribution of specific vegetative features to foraging habitat quality, a potentially limiting factor for many animal populations. For example, foraging habitat quality likely will gain importance in the recovery of the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis (RCW) in the USA as immediate nesting constraints are mitigated. Several researchers have characterized resource selection by foraging RCWs, but emerging research linking reproductive success (e.g. clutch size, nestling and fledgling production, and group size) and foraging habitat features has yet to be synthesized. Therefore, we reviewed peer-refereed scientific literature and technical resources (e.g. books, symposia proceedings, and technical reports) that examined RCW foraging ecology, foraging habitat, or demography to evaluate evidence for effects of the key foraging habitat features described in the species’ recovery plan on group reproductive success. Fitness-based habitat models suggest foraging habitat with low to intermediate pine Pinus spp. densities, presence of large and old pines, minimal midstory development, and herbaceous groundcover support more productive RCW groups. However, the relationships between some foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success are not well supported by empirical data. In addition, few regression models account for > 30% of variation in reproductive success, and unstandardized multiple and simple linear regression coefficient estimates typically range from -0.100 to 0.100, suggesting ancillary variables and perhaps indirect mechanisms influence reproductive success. These findings suggest additional research is needed to address uncertainty in relationships between foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success and in the mechanisms underlying those relationships.

  9. A Risk-Based Approach to Evaluating Wildlife Demographics for Management in a Changing Climate: A Case Study of the Lewis's Woodpecker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towler, Erin; Saab, Victoria A.; Sojda, Richard S.; Dickinson, Katherine; Bruyère, Cindy L.; Newlon, Karen R.

    2012-12-01

    Given the projected threat that climate change poses to biodiversity, the need for proactive response efforts is clear. However, integrating uncertain climate change information into conservation planning is challenging, and more explicit guidance is needed. To this end, this article provides a specific example of how a risk-based approach can be used to incorporate a species' response to climate into conservation decisions. This is shown by taking advantage of species' response (i.e., impact) models that have been developed for a well-studied bird species of conservation concern. Specifically, we examine the current and potential impact of climate on nest survival of the Lewis's Woodpecker ( Melanerpes lewis) in two different habitats. To address climate uncertainty, climate scenarios are developed by manipulating historical weather observations to create ensembles (i.e., multiple sequences of daily weather) that reflect historical variability and potential climate change. These ensembles allow for a probabilistic evaluation of the risk posed to Lewis's Woodpecker nest survival and are used in two demographic analyses. First, the relative value of each habitat is compared in terms of nest survival, and second, the likelihood of exceeding a critical population threshold is examined. By embedding the analyses in a risk framework, we show how management choices can be made to be commensurate with a defined level of acceptable risk. The results can be used to inform habitat prioritization and are discussed in the context of an economic framework for evaluating trade-offs between management alternatives.

  10. A risk-based approach to evaluating wildlife demographics for management in a changing climate: A case study of the Lewis's Woodpecker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towler, Erin; Saab, Victoria A.; Sojda, Richard S.; Dickinson, Katherine; Bruyere, Cindy L.; Newlon, Karen R.

    2012-01-01

    Given the projected threat that climate change poses to biodiversity, the need for proactive response efforts is clear. However, integrating uncertain climate change information into conservation planning is challenging, and more explicit guidance is needed. To this end, this article provides a specific example of how a risk-based approach can be used to incorporate a species' response to climate into conservation decisions. This is shown by taking advantage of species' response (i.e., impact) models that have been developed for a well-studied bird species of conservation concern. Specifically, we examine the current and potential impact of climate on nest survival of the Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) in two different habitats. To address climate uncertainty, climate scenarios are developed by manipulating historical weather observations to create ensembles (i.e., multiple sequences of daily weather) that reflect historical variability and potential climate change. These ensembles allow for a probabilistic evaluation of the risk posed to Lewis's Woodpecker nest survival and are used in two demographic analyses. First, the relative value of each habitat is compared in terms of nest survival, and second, the likelihood of exceeding a critical population threshold is examined. By embedding the analyses in a risk framework, we show how management choices can be made to be commensurate with a defined level of acceptable risk. The results can be used to inform habitat prioritization and are discussed in the context of an economic framework for evaluating trade-offs between management alternatives.

  11. Hairy carbon electrodes studied by cyclic voltammetry and battery discharge testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Deborah D. L.; Shui, Xiaoping; Frysz, Christine A.

    1993-01-01

    Hairy carbon is a new material developed by growing submicron carbon filaments on conventional carbon substrates. Typical substrate materials include carbon black, graphite powder, carbon fibers, and glassy carbon. A catalyst is used to initiate hair growth with carbonaceous gases serving as the carbon source. To study the electrochemical behavior of hairy carbons, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and discharge testing were conducted. In both cases, hairy carbon results surpassed those of the substrate material alone.

  12. Alkaloid spectrum in diploid and tetraploid hairy root cultures of Datura stramonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkov, Strahil; Pavlov, Atanas; Kovatcheva, Petia; Stanimirova, Pepa; Philipov, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Hairy root cultures were obtained from diploid and induced tetraploid plants of Datura stramonium and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Twenty alkaloids (19 for diploid and 9 for tetraploid hairy root cultures) were identified. A new tropane ester 3-tigloyloxy-6-propionyloxy-7-hydroxytropane was identified on the basis of mass spectral data. Hyoscyamine was the main alkaloid in both diploid and tetraploid cultures. In contrast to diploid hairy roots, the percentage contributions of the alkaloids, with exceptions for hyoscyamine and apoatropine, were higher in the total alkaloid mixture of tetraploid hairy roots.

  13. Hyoscyamine biosynthesis in Datura stramonium hairy root in vitro systems with different ploidy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A; Berkov, S; Weber, J; Bley, Th

    2009-05-01

    Hyoscyamine biosynthesis in Datura stramonium hairy roots with different ploidy levels was investigated. For the first time, we report that hairy roots undergo endoreduplication and therefore consist mainly of cells with doupled sets of chromosomes of primary plant tissues, used for Agrobacterium transformation. The alkaloid profiles of hairy roots obtained from diploid and tetraploid plants were similar in terms of the major compounds, but they differed significantly with respect to the minor compounds (here defined as those that accounted for stramonium hairy root cultures are also presented.

  14. Functional visual sensitivity to ultraviolet wavelengths in the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), and its influence on foraging substrate selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Daniels, Sean T.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Mihail, Jeanne D.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Werner, Scott J.

    2017-01-01

    Most diurnal birds are presumed visually sensitive to near ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, however, controlled behavioral studies investigating UV sensitivity remain few. Although woodpeckers are important as primary cavity excavators and nuisance animals, published work on their visual systems is limited. We developed a novel foraging-based behavioral assay designed to test UV sensitivity in the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus). We acclimated 21 wild-caught woodpeckers to foraging for frozen mealworms within 1.2 m sections of peeled cedar (Thuja spp.) poles. We then tested the functional significance of UV cues by placing frozen mealworms behind UV-reflective covers, UV-absorptive covers, or decayed red pine substrates within the same 1.2 m poles in independent experiments. Behavioral responses were greater toward both UV-reflective and UV-absorptive substrates in three experiments. Study subjects therefore reliably differentiated and attended to two distinct UV conditions of a foraging substrate. Cue-naïve subjects showed a preference for UV-absorptive substrates, suggesting that woodpeckers may be pre-disposed to foraging from such substrates. Behavioral responses were greater toward decayed pine substrates (UV-reflective) than sound pine substrates suggesting that decayed pine can be a useful foraging cue. The finding that cue-naïve subjects selected UV-absorbing foraging substrates has implications for ecological interactions of woodpeckers with fungi. Woodpeckers transport fungal spores, and communication methods analogous to those of plant-pollinator mutualisms (i.e. UV-absorbing patterns) may have evolved to support woodpecker-fungus mutualisms.

  15. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome and Hairy Skin Patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notay, Manisha; Kamangar, Faranak; Awasthi, Smita; Fazel, Nasim

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of an increasing number of discrete patches of darkly pigmented terminal hair in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This case adds to a small case series of three patients which have previously reported this observation. We report this case to highlight hairy patches as an important clinical feature associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Scaling symmetry and scalar hairy Lifshitz black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Seungjoon [Department of Physics, College of Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jaehoon [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Park, Sang-A; Yi, Sang-Heon [Department of Physics, College of Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    By utilizing the scaling symmetry of the reduced action for planar black holes, we obtain the corresponding conserved charge. We use the conserved charge to find the generalized Smarr relation of static hairy planar black holes in various dimensions. Our results not only reproduce the relation in the various known cases but also give the new relation in the Lifshitz planar black holes with the scalar hair.

  17. Relationship of Course Woody Debris to Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Prey Diversity and Abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, G.S.

    1999-09-03

    The abundance of diversity of prey commonly used by the red-cockaded woodpecker were monitored in experimental plots in which course woody debris was manipulated. In one treatment, all the woody debris over four inches was removed. In the second treatment, the natural amount of mortality remained intact. The overall diversity of prey was unaffected; however, wood roaches were significantly reduced by removal of woody debris. The latter suggests that intensive utilizations or harvesting practices may reduce foraging.

  18. Red-cockaded woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinus spp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in contrast to earlier foraging behavior studies that focused on more mature forest. The Redcockaded Woodpecker at the Savannah River site is intensively managed including monitoring, translocation, and installation of artificial cavity inserts for roosting and nesting. Over a 3-year period, 6,407 foraging observations covering seven woodpecker family groups were recorded during all seasons of the year and all times of day. The most striking differences occurred in foraging method (males usually scaled [45% of observations] and females mostly probed [47%]),substrate used (females had a stronger preference [93%] for the trunk than males [79%]), and foraging height from the ground (mean 6 SE foraging height was higher for males [11.1 6 0.5 m] than females [9.8 6 0.5 m]). Niche overlap between males and females was lowest for substrate (85.6%) and foraging height (87.8%), and highest for tree species (99.0%), tree condition (98.3%), and tree height (96.4%). Both males and females preferred to forage in older, large pine trees. The habitat available at the Savannah River Site was considerably younger than at most other locations, but the pattern of male/female habitat partitioning observed was similar to that documented elsewhere within the range attesting to the species’ ability to adjust behaviorally.

  19. Abrasion properties of self-suspended hairy titanium dioxide nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao-xia; Liu, Si; Yan, Chao; Wang, Xiao-jing; Wang, Lei; Yu, Ya-ming; Li, Shi-yun

    2017-11-01

    Considering the excellent solubility of pyrrolidone ring organic compounds, the synthesized N-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl- N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone chlorides was tethered onto titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles to improve dispersion of TiO2, and then polyethylene oxide (PEO) oligomer through ion exchange embraced the tethered TiO2 to obtain a novel self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials without any solvent. A variety of techniques were carried out to illustrate the structure and properties of the self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials. It was found that TiO2 nanoparticles embody monodispersity in the hybrid system though the "false reunion" phenomenon occurring due to nonpermanent weak physical cross-linking. Remarkably, self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials exhibit lower viscosity, facilitating maneuverable and outstanding antifriction and wear resistance properties, due to the synergistic lubricating effect between spontaneously forming lubricating film and nano-lubrication of TiO2 cores, overcoming the deficiency of both solid and liquid lubricants. This make them promising candidates for the micro-electromechanic/nano-electromechanic systems (MEMS/NEMS).

  20. Blastic Transformation in a Case of Hairy Cell Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline; Crisan; Chen

    1998-09-01

    Background: Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a slowly progressive lymphoproliferative disorder that tends to afflict middle-aged adults, especially men. Blastic transformation of this form of leukemia is extremely rare. To date, a single case has been reported. Methods and Results: A case of HCL, evolving with blastic transformation after a 9- year clinical course, is reported. Routine histology, cytochemistry, flow cytometry immunophenotyping, and Southern blot analysis for B- and T-cell gene rearrangements were used in the evaluation. Although morphology at the time of presentation was characteristic of HCL, the cells were initially tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) negative. During a clinical course over several years, the hairy cells became progressively TRAP positive. The morphology of the leukemic cells changed 9 years after initial diagnosis, with blastic transformation and retaining strong TRAP positivity. Immunophenotypic analysis showed evolution from a characteristic hairy cell leukemic phenotype to a phenotype indicative of marked immaturity. Genotypic analysis showed an evolving pattern of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements, paralleling the morphology and phenotypic evolution and ruling out a second B-cell malignancy. Conclusions: This case report of blastic transformation in a patient with HCL is only the second such case identified in the medical literature to date.

  1. The red-cockaded woodpecker on the Savannah River Site: Aspects of reproductive success.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Peter A; Imm, Donald, W.; Jarvis, William L

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 5. Status and Trends of Populations. Pp 224-229. Abstract: The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population on the Savannah River Site has been closely monitored and studied over the last 17 years. In 1985, the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station was given responsibility to study and manage this population in an effort to prevent its extirpation. In December 1985, there were only 4 individuals on the site: 1 pair and 2 solitary males. The population had increased to a total of 175 individuals in 42 active clusters in 2002. Although this represents a very successful recovery effort, there has been substantial annual variation in nesting survival from banding to fledging. Data were analyzed to more completely understand the factors affecting reproduction. No significant effects of age of the breeding male and female, years paired, number of helpers, habitat quality, number of nestings, and time of nest initiation were found when comparing reproductive success in 117 nesting attempts from 1999 to 2002. However, the number of neighboring groups had a direct effect on mortality rates, possibly demonstrating the importance of cluster spacing.

  2. The Potential for Long-Term Sustainability in Seminatural Forestry: A Broad Perspective Based on Woodpecker Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõhmus, Asko; Nellis, Renno; Pullerits, Mirjam; Leivits, Meelis

    2016-03-01

    We assessed ecological sustainability of seminatural forestry by analyzing 80-year dynamics and the current distribution of all woodpecker species in Estonia. We found that, despite the clear-cutting-based forestry system, woodpeckers inhabited commercial seminatural forests in substantial numbers, including the species generally considered vulnerable to timber harvesting. The only negative trend, a drastic decline in the Green Woodpecker, paralleled the loss of seminatural, wooded grasslands and is mostly an issue for landscape planning and agricultural land use. Major silvicultural factors supporting other species in commercial forests include natural regeneration with multiple native tree species and deadwood abundance. In such context, the main role of protected areas is to provide ecological resilience; however, we estimated that the current strict reserves could further double their carrying capacities for woodpeckers through successional recovery and, perhaps, active restoration. The long time series used were instrumental in detecting unexpected dynamics and the impacts of climatically extreme years. We conclude that (1) seminatural forestry can serve as a basis for reconciling timber harvesting and biodiversity protection at the landscape scale, given appropriate attention to key structures and landscape zoning and (2) woodpeckers represent a biological indicator system for the sustainability of forest landscapes in Europe.

  3. Foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; King, Sammy L.; Kaller, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    In bottomland hardwood forests, partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife like Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Neotropical migrants. Although partial cutting may be beneficial to some species, those that use dead wood may be negatively affected since large diameter and poor quality trees (deformed, moribund, or dead) are rare, but normally targeted for removal. On the other hand, partial cutting can create dead wood if logging slash is left on-site. We studied foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in one- and two-year-old partial cuts designed to benefit priority species and in uncut forest during winter, spring, and summer of 2006 and 2007 in Louisiana. Males and females did not differ in their use of tree species, dbh class, decay class, foraging height, use of foraging tactics or substrate types; however, males foraged on larger substrates than females. In both partial cut and uncut forest, standing live trees were most frequently used (83% compared to 14% for standing dead trees and 3% for coarse woody debris); however, dead trees were selected (i.e. used out of proportion to availability). Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) and bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) were also selected and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) avoided. Pileated woodpeckers selected trees >= 50 cm dbh and avoided trees in smaller dbh classes (10-20 cm). Density of selected foraging substrates was the same in partial cut and uncut forest. Of the foraging substrates, woodpeckers spent 54% of foraging time on live branches and boles, 37% on dead branches and boles, and 9% on vines. Of the foraging tactics, the highest proportion of foraging time was spent excavating (58%), followed by pecking (14%), gleaning (14%), scaling (7%), berry-eating (4%), and probing (3%). Woodpecker use of foraging tactics and substrates, and foraging height and substrate

  4. The relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population genetic variation in the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Douglas J; Wiegand, Thorsten; Fernández, Néstor

    2010-09-01

    The relative influence of habitat loss, fragmentation and matrix heterogeneity on the viability of populations is a critical area of conservation research that remains unresolved. Using simulation modelling, we provide an analysis of the influence both patch size and patch isolation have on abundance, effective population size (N(e)) and F(ST). An individual-based, spatially explicit population model based on 15 years of field work on the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) was applied to different landscape configurations. The variation in landscape patterns was summarized using spatial statistics based on O-ring statistics. By regressing demographic and genetics attributes that emerged across the landscape treatments against proportion of total habitat and O-ring statistics, we show that O-ring statistics provide an explicit link between population processes, habitat area, and critical thresholds of fragmentation that affect those processes. Spatial distances among land cover classes that affect biological processes translated into critical scales at which the measures of landscape structure correlated best with genetic indices. Therefore our study infers pattern from process, which contrasts with past studies of landscape genetics. We found that population genetic structure was more strongly affected by fragmentation than population size, which suggests that examining only population size may limit recognition of fragmentation effects that erode genetic variation. If effective population size is used to set recovery goals for endangered species, then habitat fragmentation effects may be sufficiently strong to prevent evaluation of recovery based on the ratio of census:effective population size alone.

  5. Spatial temperature distribution in human hairy and glabrous skin after infrared CO2 laser radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Ken S; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mørch, Carsten D

    2010-11-08

    CO2 lasers have been used for several decades as an experimental non-touching pain stimulator. The laser energy is absorbed by the water content in the most superficial layers of the skin. The deeper located nociceptors are activated by passive conduction of heat from superficial to deeper skin layers. In the current study, a 2D axial finite element model was developed and validated to describe the spatial temperature distribution in the skin after infrared CO2 laser stimulation. The geometry of the model was based on high resolution ultrasound scans. The simulations were compared to the subjective pain intensity ratings from 16 subjects and to the surface skin temperature distributions measured by an infrared camera. The stimulations were sensed significantly slower and less intense in glabrous skin than they were in hairy skin (MANOVA, p 0.90, p CO2 laser stimulation intensity, temperature levels and nociceptor activation.

  6. An efficient hairy root culture system for Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the presence of acetosyringone (100 µM) attained a higher frequency (88%) of hairy root induction. By adopting this protocol, we could utilize the hairy root culture for industrial scale production of withanolides. Keywords: Leaf explant, Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Withania somnifera, co-cultivation period, acetosyringone.

  7. Magnetic flux lines in type-II superconductors and the 'hairy ball' theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laver, Mark; Forgan, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    Many prominent phenomena originate from geometrical effects rather than from local physics. For example, the 'hairy ball' (HB) theorem asserts that a hairy sphere cannot be combed without introducing at least one singularity, and is fulfilled by the atmospheric circulation with the existence...

  8. Elicitation of Valerenic Acid in the Hairy Root Cultures of Valeriana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of magnesium and calcium as abiotic elicitors on Valeriana officinalis hairy roots for scale-up production of valerenic acid. Methods: Hairy roots were established in different explants of Valeriana officinalis via a mikimopine type strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes 'A13'. Transgenic status of ...

  9. The Role of Wildfire, Prescribed Fire, and Mountain Pine Beetle Infestations on the Population Dynamics of Black-Backed Woodpeckers in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Christopher T.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Rumble, Mark A.; Lehman, Chad P.; Kesler, Dylan C.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire. PMID:24736502

  10. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the black hills, South Dakota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T Rota

    Full Text Available Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.

  11. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the black hills, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Christopher T; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Rumble, Mark A; Lehman, Chad P; Kesler, Dylan C

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.

  12. Biosynthesis of sterols and ecdysteroids in Ajuga hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Y; Ohyama, K; Nomura, K; Hyodo, R; Takahashi, K; Yamada, J; Morisaki, M

    2000-03-01

    Hairy roots of Ajuga reptans var. atropurpurea produce clerosterol, 22-dehydroclerosterol, and cholesterol as sterol constituents, and 20-hydroxyecdysone, cyasterone, isocyasterone, and 29-norcyasterone as ecdysteroid constituents. To better understand the biosynthesis of these steroidal compounds, we carried out feeding studies of variously 2H- and 13C-labeled sterol substrates with Ajuga hairy roots. In this article, we review our studies in this field. Feeding of labeled desmosterols, 24-methylenecholesterol, and 13C2-acetate established the mechanism of the biosynthesis of the two C29-sterols and a newly accumulated codisterol, including the metabolic correlation of C-26 and C-27 methyl groups. In Ajuga hairy roots, 3alpha-, 4alpha-, and 4beta-hydrogens of cholesterol were all retained at their original positions after conversion into 20-hydroxyecdysone, in contrast to the observations in a fern and an insect. Furthermore, the origin of 5beta-H of 20-hydroxyecdysone was found to be C-6 hydrogen of cholesterol exclusively, which is inconsistent with the results in the fern and the insect. These data strongly support the intermediacy of 7-dehydrocholesterol 5alpha,6alpha-epoxide. Moreover, 7-dehydrocholesterol, 3beta-hydroxy-5beta-cholest-7-en-6-one (5beta-ketol), and 3beta,14alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-cholest-7-en-6-one (5beta-ketodiol) were converted into 20-hydroxyecdysone. Thus, the pathway cholesterol-->7-dehydrocholesterol-->7-dehydrocholesterol 5alpha,6alpha-epoxide-->5beta-ketol-->5beta-k etodiol is proposed for the early stages of 20-hydroxyecdysone biosynthesis. 3beta-Hydroxy-5beta-cholestan-6-one was also incorporated into 20-hydroxyecdysone, suggesting that the introduction of a 7-ene function is not necessarily next to cholesterol. C-25 Hydroxylation during 20-hydroxyecdysone biosynthesis was found to proceed with ca. 70% retention and 30% inversion. Finally, clerosterol was shown to be a precursor of cyasterone and isocyasterone.

  13. Application of image processing technology in yarn hairiness detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong ZHANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital image processing technology is one of the new methods for yarn detection, which can realize the digital characterization and objective evaluation of yarn appearance. This paper overviews the current status of development and application of digital image processing technology used for yarn hairiness evaluation, and analyzes and compares the traditional detection methods and this new developed method. Compared with the traditional methods, the image processing technology based method is more objective, fast and accurate, which is the vital development trend of the yarn appearance evaluation.

  14. Volatile oils from the plant and hairy root cultures of Ageratum conyzoides L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Mohamed Salaheldin A; Lockwood, George B

    2011-05-01

    Two lines of hairy root culture of Ageratum conyzoides L. induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834 were established under either complete darkness or 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod conditions. The volatile oil yields from aerial parts and roots of the parent plant, the hairy root culture photoperiod line and the hairy root culture dark line were 0.2%, 0.08%, 0.03% and 0.02%, (w/w), respectively. The compositions of the volatiles from the hairy roots, plant roots and aerial parts were analysed by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the volatiles from the hairy root cultures were β-farnesene, precocene I and β-caryophyllene, in different amounts, depending on light conditions and also on the age of cultures. Precocene I, β-farnesene, precocene II and β-caryophyllene were the main constituents of the volatile oils from the parent plant roots, whereas precocene I, germacrene D, β-caryophyllene and precocene II were the main constituents of the aerial parts of the parent plant. Growth and time-course studies of volatile constituents of the two hairy root lines were compared. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found between the volatile oils from the roots of the parent plant and those from the hairy roots.

  15. Biotransformation of thymol by hairy roots of transgenic Polygonum multiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quan-Feng; Jia, Jun-Zhang; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Yu, Rong-Min

    2009-10-01

    The exogenous substrate, thymol, was firstly biotransformed by using suspension hairy roots of transgenic Polygonum multflorum, and its biotransformed situation was also investigated. After five days co-cultivated period, the transformed product was isolated by Thin Layer Chromatograph and Column Chromatograph, with the structure elucidated by physic-chemical methods and spectra data. Meanwhile, the time course of biotransformation (T-C) for thymol was also measured by HPLC to illuminate its bio-transformed situation. The glycosylated product, namely DMP, was isolated and purified, which structure was determined as 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl) phenyl- beta-D-glucopyranoside. And the distribution of DMP in the medium or culture was varied in different co-cultivated periods, and for five days co-cultivated period, it mainly existed in the medium. The hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum were able to convert the aromatic exogenous substrate, thymol, into its glycoside. Furthermore, the time course indicated the relationship between DMP and co-cultivated period.

  16. Influences of various factors on hairy root induction in Agastache foeniculum (Pursh Kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz NOUROZI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium rhizogenes is known as a natural tool of genetic engineering in many plant species. For the first time, hairy root induction in Agastache foeniculum using A. rhizogenes, rosmarinic acid content and the effect of different culture media and inoculation methods on hairy root growth rate were investigated. Hairy root culture of A. foeniculum was established by inoculation of the 1-month-old leaf explant with A4 strain of A. rhizogenes and the effectiveness of light – dark conditions and two inoculation methods (immersion and injection were tested. Furthermore, in immersion method, the effects of inoculation time (3, 5 and 7 min on root induction were investigated. In the second part of the study, the hairy root culture of A. foeniculum was studied using different basal culture media (MS, 1/2 MS and B5. Rosmarinic acid content in hairy roots and non- transformed roots was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. There was no significant difference between various inoculation methods in the ability of hairy roots induction. Observations showed that percentage of hairy root induction was higher when the explants were immersed for 5 min in bacterial suspension. Light conditions displayed the highest hairy root induction rates compared with dark condition. Various culture media are different in terms of types and amounts of nutrients and have influence on growth rate. The maximum growth rate (1.61 g fr wt/50 ml of hairy roots were obtained in 1/2 MS medium. Rosmarinic acid content in transformed roots (213.42 µg/g dry wt was significantly higher than non-transformed roots (52.28 µg/ g dry wt.

  17. Forest landscapes: Their effect on the interaction of the southern pine beetle and red-cockaded woodpecker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert N. Coulson; Maria D. Guzman; Karen Skordinski; Jeffrey W. Fitzgerald; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Forrest L. Oliveria; Douglas F. Wunneburger; Paul E. Pulley

    1999-01-01

    The nature of the interaction of the southern pine beetle and red-cockaded woodpecker was investidgated using spatially explicit information on the structure of a forest landscape mosiac and knowledge of the behavior of the two organisms. This interaction is the basis for defind functional heterogeneity - how an organism perceives and responds to the elements forming...

  18. Implications of home-range estimation in the management of red-cockaded woodpeckers in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2006-01-01

    I undertook a behavioral study to determine red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) home-range size at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA. In this location, because much of the timber was harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 45 years old), not generally...

  19. Foraging plasticity by a keystone excavator, the white-headed woodpecker, in managed forests: Are there consequences for productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Kerri T. Vierling; Jeffrey M. Kozma; Janet E. Millard

    2016-01-01

    Information on the foraging ecology of animals is important for conservation and management, particularly for keystone species whose presence affects ecosystem health. We examined foraging by an at-risk cavity excavator, the white-headed woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus). The foraging needs of this species are used to inform management of...

  20. Between-year breeding dispersal by White-headed Woodpeckers: A caution about using color bands to estimate survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa J Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Between-year breeding dispersal has not been previously documented in White-headed Woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus). Therefore, resightings of color-banded adults on previous years’ breeding territories have been considered a means of estimating annual adult survival. From 2013 to 2015, I observed 2 cases of between-year breeding dispersal by...

  1. Use of a barbed tool by an adult and a juvenile woodpecker finch (Cactospiza pallida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine, Tebbich; Irmgard, Teschke; Erica, Cartmill; Sophia, Stankewitz

    2012-02-01

    Here we describe the modification and use of a new tool type in the woodpecker finch (Cactospiza pallida). This species is known to habitually use twigs or cactus spines to extract arthropods out of tree holes. We observed an adult and a juvenile bird using several barbed twigs from introduced blackberry bushes (Rubus niveus) which the adult bird had first modified by removing leaves and side twigs. The barbs of blackberry tools provide a novel functional feature not present in tools made from native plants and de-leafing of twigs never has been observed before. Both birds were observed using several of these tools to extract prey from under the bark of the native scalesia tree (Scalesia penduculta). They oriented the twigs such that the barbs pointed towards themselves; this rendered the barbs functional as they could be used to drag prey out of a crevice. The juvenile bird first watched the adult using the tool and then used the tool that the adult bird had left under the bark at the same location and in the same way as the adult. Our observation highlights the fact that opportunities for the transmission of social information do occur in the wild and indicates that woodpecker finches are flexible in their choice of tool material and tool modification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Temporal variability and cooperative breeding: testing the bet-hedging hypothesis in the acorn woodpecker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Walter D; Walters, Eric L

    2015-10-07

    Cooperative breeding is generally considered an adaptation to ecological constraints on dispersal and independent breeding, usually due to limited breeding opportunities. Although benefits of cooperative breeding are typically thought of in terms of increased mean reproductive success, it has recently been proposed that this phenomenon may be a bet-hedging strategy that reduces variance in reproductive success (fecundity variance) in populations living in highly variable environments. We tested this hypothesis using long-term data on the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). In general, fecundity variance decreased with increasing sociality, at least when controlling for annual variation in ecological conditions. Nonetheless, decreased fecundity variance was insufficient to compensate for reduced per capita reproductive success of larger, more social groups, which typically suffered lower estimated mean fitness. We did, however, find evidence that sociality in the form of larger group size resulted in increased fitness in years following a small acorn crop due to reduced fecundity variance. Bet-hedging, although not the factor driving sociality in general, may play a role in driving acorn woodpecker group living when acorns are scarce and ecological conditions are poor. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Biological Assessment of the Effects of the Proposed Revision of the 1996 Management Guidelines for the Red-cockaded Woodpecker on Army Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayden, Timothy J

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, in an effort to meet conservation obligations under the Endangered Species Act, the Army revised earlier programmatic guidance for management of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (RCW) on Army lands...

  4. [In situ extraction effect of macroporous resins on tanshinones in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lin

    2007-09-01

    To investigate the in situ extraction effect of macroporous resins on tanshinones in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root. Macroporous resins were added to S. miltiorrhiza hairy root culture and the contents of three major tanshinones (crypotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone II(A)) in root, medium and resin were analyzed by HPLC. The macroporous resin X - 5 had the best adsorption effect on total tanshinones among three chosen resins (X - 5, AB - 8, XAD - 4) during the S. miltiorrhiza hairy root culture. The adsorption reached equilibrium after four hours with the addition of the resin X -5. The saturation of X - 5 on total tanshinones was 1.2 mg g)-1) resin and the adsorption ratio reached 92.4%. The macroporous resin X -5 could extract tanshinones in situ effectively during S. miltiorrhiza hairy root culture and simplify the further separation process.

  5. Elicitation Approaches for Withanolide Production in Hairy Root Culture of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2016-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is a versatile medicinal plant extensively utilized for production of phytochemical drug preparations. The roots and whole plants are traditionally used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha medicines, as well as in homeopathy. Several studies provide evidence for an array of pharmaceutical properties due to the presence of steroidal lactones named "withanolides." A number of research groups have focused their attention on the effects of biotic and abiotic elicitors on withanolide production using cultures of adventitious roots, cell suspensions, shoot suspensions, and hairy roots in large-scale bioreactor for producing withanolides. This chapter explains the detailed procedures for induction and establishment of hairy roots from leaf explants of W. somnifera, proliferation and multiplication of hairy root cultures, estimation of withanolide productivity upon elicitation with salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, and quantification of major withanolides by HPLC. The protocol herein described could be implemented for large-scale cultivation of hairy root biomass to improve withanolide production.

  6. Rotating and rolling rigid bodies and the "hairy ball" theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Kazachkov, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Rotating and rolling rigid bodies exemplify a fascinating theorem of topology, jokingly called the "hairy ball" theorem, which demands that any continuous tangent vector field on the sphere has at least one point where the field is zero. We demonstrate via a gedanken experiment how drilling through a rotating ball, thereby converting it into a torus, leads to the elimination of zero-velocity points on the ball surface. Using the same reasoning, zero-velocity points can be removed from the surface of a drilled spinning top. We discuss the location of zero-velocity points on the surfaces of rigid bodies rolling with no slip and with slip. Observations made from different reference frames identify various zero-velocity points. Illustrative experiments visualizing zero-velocity points are presented.

  7. Thermodynamics of hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennigar, Robie A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Tjoa, Erickson [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences,Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637371 (Singapore); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Mann, Robert B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2017-02-14

    We perform a thorough study of the thermodynamic properties of a class of Lovelock black holes with conformal scalar hair arising from coupling of a real scalar field to the dimensionally extended Euler densities. We study the linearized equations of motion of the theory and describe constraints under which the theory is free from ghosts/tachyons. We then consider, within the context of black hole chemistry, the thermodynamics of the hairy black holes in the Gauss-Bonnet and cubic Lovelock theories. We clarify the connection between isolated critical points and thermodynamic singularities, finding a one parameter family of these critical points which occur for well-defined thermodynamic parameters. We also report on a number of novel results, including ‘virtual triple points’ and the first example of a ‘λ-line’ — a line of second order phase transitions — in black hole thermodynamics.

  8. Black hairy tongue in a patient with chronic аlcholism (lingua villosa nigra)

    OpenAIRE

    BAKHTIYAROVA GAUKHAR; TINAZLI MEHTAP; GRANIT DENIZ; GOKCEN ASVAROGLU SABIHA

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Black Hairy Tongue (BHT) is a hereditary benign condition which is characterized by the appaerance of abnormally hypertrophied and elongated pilliform papilla on dorsal surface of tongue. Its exact pathogenesis is unknown; however, there is significant involvement of secondary papillary cells producing hairy-type keratin. Known predisposing factors include smoking, consumption of excessive coffee / black tea, bad oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, poverty, xesrostomia, drugs and alc...

  9. A case of black hairy tongue responding to oral nystatin and vitamin B complex treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Kutlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Black hairy tongue, also known as lingua villosa nigra, is characterized by desquamation defects on the dorsal side of the tongue with reactive hypertrophy of the filiform papillae. Although the etiology of the disease is unknown, conditions such as smoking, alcohol and candidal infection are accused. In this study, a case of black hairy tongue which is considered to occur due to poor oral hygiene and candidal infection is presented.

  10. Hairy black holes and the endpoint of AdS4 charged superradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Óscar J.C.; Masachs, Ramon

    2017-01-01

    We construct hairy black hole solutions that merge with the anti-de Sitter (AdS 4 ) Reissner-Nordström black hole at the onset of superradiance. These hairy black holes have, for a given mass and charge, higher entropy than the corresponding AdS 4 -Reissner-Nordström black hole. Therefore, they are natural candidates for the endpoint of the charged superradiant instability. On the other hand, hairy black holes never dominate the canonical and grand-canonical ensembles. The zero-horizon radius of the hairy black holes is a soliton (i.e. a boson star under a gauge transformation). We construct our solutions perturbatively, for small mass and charge, so that the properties of hairy black holes can be used to testify and compare with the endpoint of initial value simulations. We further discuss the near-horizon scalar condensation instability which is also present in global AdS 4 -Reissner-Nordström black holes. We highlight the different nature of the near-horizon and superradiant instabilities and that hairy black holes ultimately exist because of the non-linear instability of AdS.

  11. Kirenol production in hairy root culture of Siegesbeckea orientalis and its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Ping; Zhou, Ya-Ming; Zhang, Yong-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite the excellent anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic efficacy associated with kirenol generation, the content of kirenol in Siegesbeckea orientalis is quite low. Objective: This study was designed to establish a reliable kirenol production protocol by transformed root cultures of S. orientalis and to investigate the antimicrobial activities of kirenol, hairy root, and S. orientalis. Materials and Methods: Transformed root cultures of S. orientalis were established by the transformation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4. Transgenic status of the roots was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using rolB specific primers. The biomass and kirenol accumulation of hairy root clones were assessed using four different culture media: MS, MS/2, B5, and white. The antimicrobial activities of kirenol, hairy root, and S. orientalis were evaluated by the disc diffusion method. Results: The optimum media for kirenol synthesis was MS. The content of kirenol in transformed hairy roots made up about 80% of that observed in natural leaves of S. orientalis (1.6 mg/g dry weight). All tested samples displayed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, with MIC ranging from 78 to 625 μg/mL. Discussion and Conclusion: The high level of kirenol contents was obtained from hairy roots of S. orientalis. Kirenol was effective against gram-positive bacteria. Interestingly, the extract from hairy roots showed a diverse antimicrobial effect from that of kirenol and S. orientalis. PMID:22701289

  12. Hairy black holes and the endpoint of AdS{sub 4} charged superradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Óscar J.C.; Masachs, Ramon [STAG research centre and Mathematical Sciences, University of Southampton,Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-24

    We construct hairy black hole solutions that merge with the anti-de Sitter (AdS{sub 4}) Reissner-Nordström black hole at the onset of superradiance. These hairy black holes have, for a given mass and charge, higher entropy than the corresponding AdS{sub 4}-Reissner-Nordström black hole. Therefore, they are natural candidates for the endpoint of the charged superradiant instability. On the other hand, hairy black holes never dominate the canonical and grand-canonical ensembles. The zero-horizon radius of the hairy black holes is a soliton (i.e. a boson star under a gauge transformation). We construct our solutions perturbatively, for small mass and charge, so that the properties of hairy black holes can be used to testify and compare with the endpoint of initial value simulations. We further discuss the near-horizon scalar condensation instability which is also present in global AdS{sub 4}-Reissner-Nordström black holes. We highlight the different nature of the near-horizon and superradiant instabilities and that hairy black holes ultimately exist because of the non-linear instability of AdS.

  13. Study of artemisinin and sugar accumulation in Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia dracunculus "hairy" root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobot, Kateryna O; Matvieieva, Nadiia A; Ostapchuk, Andriy M; Kharkhota, Maxim A; Duplij, Volodymyr P

    2017-09-14

    We studied the effect of genetic transformation on biologically active compound (artemisinin and its co-products (ART) as well as sugars) accumulation in Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia dracunculus "hairy" root cultures. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and mannitol were accumulated in A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus "hairy" root lines. Genetic transformation has led in some cases to the sugar content increasing or appearing of nonrelevant for the control plant carbohydrates. Sucrose content was 1.6 times higher in A. vulgaris "hairy" root lines. Fructose content was found to be 3.4 times higher in A. dracunculus "hairy" root cultures than in the control roots. The accumulation of mannitol was a special feature of the leaves of A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus control roots. A. vulgaris "hairy" root lines differed also in ART accumulation level. The increase of ART content up to 1.02 mg/g DW in comparison with the nontransformed roots (up to 0.687 mg/g DW) was observed. Thus, Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated genetic transformation can be used for obtaining of A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus "hairy" root culture produced ART and sugars in a higher amount than mother plants.

  14. Metabolomic analysis and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in hairy root culture of tartary buckwheat cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Aye Thwe

    Full Text Available Buckwheat, Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn., is an important medicinal plant, which contains several phenolic compounds, including one of the highest content of rutin, a phenolic compound with anti-inflammatory properties. An experiment was conducted to investigate the level of expression of various genes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway to analyze in vitro production of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds from hairy root cultures derived from 2 cultivars of tartary buckwheat (Hokkai T8 and T10. A total of 47 metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS and subjected to principal component analysis (PCA in order to fully distinguish between Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The expression levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, through qRT-PCR, showed higher expression for almost all the genes in T10 than T8 hairy root except for FtF3'H-2 and FtFLS-2. Rutin, quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 2 anthocyanin compounds were identified in Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The concentration of rutin and anthocyanin in Hokkai T10 hairy roots of tartary buckwheat was several-fold higher compared with that obtained from Hokkai T8 hairy root. This study provides useful information on the molecular and physiological dynamic processes that are correlated with phenylpropanoid biosynthetic gene expression and phenolic compound content in F. tataricum species.

  15. Adsorption of hairy particles with mobile ligands: Molecular dynamics and density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borówko, M.; Sokołowski, S.; Staszewski, T.; Pizio, O.

    2018-01-01

    We study models of hairy nanoparticles in contact with a hard wall. Each particle is built of a spherical core with a number of ligands attached to it and each ligand is composed of several spherical, tangentially jointed segments. The number of segments is the same for all ligands. Particular models differ by the numbers of ligands and of segments per ligand, but the total number of segments is constant. Moreover, our model assumes that the ligands are tethered to the core in such a manner that they can "slide" over the core surface. Using molecular dynamics simulations we investigate the differences in the structure of a system close to the wall. In order to characterize the distribution of the ligands around the core, we have calculated the end-to-end distances of the ligands and the lengths and orientation of the mass dipoles. Additionally, we also employed a density functional approach to obtain the density profiles. We have found that if the number of ligands is not too high, the proposed version of the theory is capable to predict the structure of the system with a reasonable accuracy.

  16. Evaluating red-cockaded woodpeckers for exposure to West Nile Virus and blood parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Richardson, D.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Heisey, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    A marked decline in the Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker [RCW]) population at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, MS, was observed in 2002. Demographic changes - including absence of hatch-year birds, decreases in size of known groups, and loss of known groups-were identified during annual fall surveys and are uncharacteristic of RCW populations. In 2003, a serosurvey of 28 adult RCWs was conducted to investigate the presence of West Nile virus (WNV) exposure in the population, possibly providing insight into whether WNV may have been responsible for this decline. Blood smears were also examined from these birds for blood parasites. We found no evidence of West Nile virus exposure or blood parasites in any of the RCWs sampled. Further monitoring of the RCW population and WNV activity in other species at Noxubee NWR is recommended to further evaluate the potential role of WNV and blood parasites in their decline.

  17. Hairy root biotechnology--indicative timeline to understand missing links and future outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Srivastava, Vikas; Ur Rahman, Laiq; Kukreja, A K

    2015-09-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots (HR) were developed in the laboratory to mimic the natural phenomenon of bacterial gene transfer and occurrence of disease syndrome. The timeline analysis revealed that during 90 s, the research expanded to the hairy root-based secondary metabolite production and different yield enhancement strategies like media optimization, up-scaling, metabolic engineering etc. An outlook indicates that much emphasis has been given to the strategies that are helpful in making this technology more practical in terms of high productivity at low cost. However, a sequential analysis of literature shows that this technique is upgraded to a biotechnology platform where different intra- and interdisciplinary work areas were established, progressed, and diverged to provide scientific benefits of various hairy root-based applications like phytoremediation, molecular farming, biotransformation, etc. In the present scenario, this biotechnology research platform includes (a) elemental research like hairy root-mediated secondary metabolite production coupled with productivity enhancement strategies and (b) HR-based functional research. The latter comprised of hairy root-based applied aspects such as generation of agro-economical traits in plants, production of high value as well as less hazardous molecules through biotransformation/farming and remediation, respectively. This review presents an indicative timeline portrayal of hairy root research reflected by a chronology of research outputs. The timeline also reveals a progressive trend in the state-of-art global advances in hairy root biotechnology. Furthermore, the review also discusses ideas to explore missing links and to deal with the challenges in future progression and prospects of research in all related fields of this important area of plant biotechnology.

  18. Concordant genetic structure in two species of woodpecker distributed across the primary West African biogeographic barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Bowie, Rauri C K

    2015-07-01

    The lowland forests of western and central tropical Africa are separated by several potential biogeographic barriers to dispersal for forest adapted vertebrates. The two primary barriers are (1) the Dahomey Gap, a savanna corridor that reaches the coast of southern Ghana, Togo and Benin, and separates the West African rainforest into the Upper (Ghana west to Guinea) and Lower Guinea (Nigeria to Uganda and Angola) forest blocks, and (2) the Lower Niger River, a large delta that separates Western and Eastern Nigeria. Previous studies on terrestrial vertebrates (lizards, mammals and birds) have highlighted a genetic break in the Dahomey Gap/Lower Niger River area although the relative importance of each barrier has not been assessed due to limitations in geographic sampling. We compared the phylogeographic history of two co-distributed sister-species of woodpeckers (Campethera caroli and C. nivosa) using data from three loci representing all inheritance modes. Our analyses revealed that both the Dahomey Gap and possibly the Lower Niger River acted as strong biogeographic barriers for the two woodpecker species, with the Lower Niger River being the first barrier to have formed, leading to three distinct populations of C. nivosa. Our divergence time analyses revealed that both these biogeographic barriers formed during the Pleistocene, supporting the Pleistocene refuge hypothesis, with the Dahomey Gap likely appearing about 0.5 myr BP. No genetic structure was recovered among sampled populations in either the Upper or the Lower Guinea Forest Block for both species, despite the considerable geographic area covered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Elicitation Enhanced the Production of Phenolic Compounds and Biological Activities in Hairy Root Cultures of Bitter melon ( Momordica charantia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ill-Min Chung

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae is an important vegetable and also medicinal crop which produces the bioactive compounds for various biological activities with potential uses in human health. The present investigation relates to elicitors of jasmonic acid (JA and salicylic acid (SA to enhance biomass accumulation and phenolic compound production in hairy root cultures of M. charantia. Hairy root cultures were elicited with JA and SA at 0, 25, 50 and 100 μM concentrations respectively. The adding of elicitation to the hairy root cultures on the 15th day of culture and the roots were harvested on day 25. Cultures supplemented with 100 μM JA and SA enhanced the phenolic compounds significantly compared to that of non-elicited hairy root cultures. The biomass of hairy root culture significantly increased by SA whereas decreased in JA elicitation at 100 μM. JA and SA-elicited hairy root cultures significantly produced a higher amount of phenolic compounds (12811.23 and 11939.37µg/g, total phenolic (4.1 and 3.7 mg/g and flavonoid (3.5 and 3.2 mg/g contents than non-elicited hairy root cultures (10964.25 µg/g, 2.8 and 2.5 mg/g. JA and SA-elicited hairy root cultures were significantly higher antioxidant activity of DPPH (84 and 78%, reducing potential (0.53 and 0.48, phosphomolybdenum (3.6 and 3.2 mg/g and ferrous ion chelating assays (80 and 74% than non-elicited hairy root cultures. The higher antimicrobial and anticancer activity were exhibited in JA and SA-elicited than non-elicited hairy root cultures. This protocol can be developed for the production of phenolic compounds from JA and SA-elicited hairy root cultures.

  20. Ecological Risk Assessment of the Effects of Military Fog Oil Obscurant Smoke on the Red-cockaded Woodpecker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    possible that any observed reductions in biomass are caused by a disruption of the symbiotic fungal endophyte associations that many perennial grasses...support. Unfortunately, no data are available on the effects of fog oil on soil fungi . Microbial Effects From a taxonomic and apparently...Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX. . Conner, R.N. and B.A. Locke. 1982. Fungi and Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity trees. Wilson

  1. Exploring the metabolic stability of engineered hairy roots after 16 years maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Tuulikki Häkkinen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants remain a major source of new drugs, leads and fine chemicals. Cell cultures deriving from plants offer a fascinating tool to study plant metabolic pathways and offer large scale production systems for valuable compounds – commercial examples include compounds such as paclitaxel. The major constraint with undifferentiated cell cultures is that they are generally considered to be genetically unstable and cultured cells tend to produce low yields of secondary metabolites especially over time. Hairy roots, a tumour tissue caused by infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a relevant alternative for plant secondary metabolite production for being fast growing, able to grow without phytohormones, and displaying higher stability than undifferentiated cells. Although genetic and metabolic stability has often been connected to transgenic hairy roots, there are only few reports on how a very long-term subculturing effects on the production capacity of hairy roots. In this study, hairy roots producing high tropane alkaloid levels were subjected to 16 -year follow-up in relation to genetic and metabolic stability. Cryopreservation method for hairy roots of H. muticus was developed to replace laborious subculturing, and although the post-thaw recovery rates remained low, the expression of transgene remained unaltered in cryopreserved roots. It was shown that although displaying some fluctuation in the metabolite yields, even an exceedingly long-term subculturing was successfully applied without significant loss of metabolic activity.

  2. Genetic Transformation and Hairy Root Induction Enhance the Antioxidant Potential of Lactuca serriola L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Esawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactuca serriola L. is a herbaceous species, used for human nutrition and medicinal purposes. The high antioxidant capacity of L. serriola indicates the possibility of enhancing its edible and health potential by increasing the flavonoid and phenolic contents. The present study aimed at enhancing the production of phenolics and flavonoids by hairy root cultures in Lactuca serriola transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain AR15834 harbouring the rolB gene. The genetic transformation of rolB in transformed roots was validated, and rolB expression level was evaluated using real-time qPCR analysis. Expression levels of flavonoid biosynthesis genes (CHI, PAL, FLS, and CHS were assessed in the hairy and nontransformed roots. Results showed higher expression levels in the transgenic roots than in the nontransformed ones (p<0.01. Transgenic hairy roots exhibited a 54.8–96.7% increase in the total phenolic content, 38.1–76.2% increase in the total flavonoid content, and 56.7–96.7% increase in the total reducing power when compared with the nontransgenic roots (p<0.01. DPPH results also revealed that the transgenic hairy roots exhibited a 31.6–50% increase in antioxidant potential, when compared to normal roots. This study addressed the enhancement of secondary metabolite biosynthesis by hairy root induction in L. serriola.

  3. Glucosinolate biosynthesis in hairy root cultures of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Woo Tae; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Nam, Sang-Yong; Jho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Sang Un

    2013-02-01

    Here we present previously unreported glucosinolate production by hairy root cultures of broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica). Growth media greatly influenced the growth and glucosinolate content of hairy root cultures of broccoli. Seven glucosinolates, glucoraphanin, gluconapin, glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, gluconasturtiin, and neoglucobrassicin, were identified by analysis of the broccoli hairy root cultures. Both half and full strength B5 and SH media enabled the highest accumulation of glucosinolates. In most cases, the levels of glucosinolates were higher in SH and BS media. Among the 7 glucosinolates, the accumulation of neoglucobrassicin was very high, irrespective of growth medium. The neoglucobrassicin content was 7.4-fold higher in SH medium than 1/2 MS, in which its level was the lowest. The 1/2 B5 medium supported the production of the highest amounts of glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, the levels for which were 36.2- and 7.9- fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. The 1/2 SH medium enabled the highest accumulation of glucoraphanin and gluconapin in the broccoli hairy root cultures, whose levels were 1.8- and 4.6-fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. Our results suggest that hairy root cultures of broccoli could be a valuable alternative approach for the production of glucosinolate compounds.

  4. Hairy Graphenes: Wrapping Nanocellulose Nets around Graphene Oxide Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Rui; Kim, Ho Shin; Korolovych, Volodymyr F; Zhang, Shuaidi; Yingling, Yaroslava; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2018-04-17

    Constructing advanced functional nanomaterials with pre-designed organized morphologies from low-dimension synthetic and biological components is extremely challenging because of complex inter-component interactions, high-aspect ratios, flexible shapes, crumpling instabilities and limited common wet-chemistry processing conditions. Herein, we report an efficient and universal amphiphilicity-driven assembly strategy to construct "hairy" flexible hybrid nanosheets with the net of 1D cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) conformally wrapped around 2D graphene oxide (GO) monolayers. This interface-driven bio-synthetic assembly is facilitated by variable amphiphilic interfacial balance via tailoring the surface chemistry of flexible GO sheets as controllably pre-oxidized 2D template cores, resulting in individual sheets tightly surrounded by dense conformal nanocellulose network. These nanocellulose-net wrapped GO nanosheets demonstrate extremely high compressive elastic modulus above 180 GPa due to the strong bonding between nanofibers and GO sheets and arrest of the buckling events. This unique mechanical stability far exceeds the compressive instability limits of both individual components, 1D cellulose nanofibers and 2D graphene monolayers. Additionally, the presence of CNF reinforced nanocellulose network significantly enhances the wetting ability of initial hydrophobic reduced GO nanosheets, enabling the long-term stability of CNFs-rGO dispersion and allowing fast water transport combined with high filtration efficiency for CNFs-rGO membranes. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Investigation of Linum flavum (L. Hairy Root Cultures for the Production of Anticancer Aryltetralin Lignans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Renouard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Linum flavum hairy root lines were established from hypocotyl pieces using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains LBA 9402 and ATCC 15834. Both strains were effective for transformation but induction of hairy root phenotype was more stable with strain ATCC 15834. Whereas similar accumulation patterns were observed in podophyllotoxin-related compounds (6-methoxy-podophyllotoxin, podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin, significant quantitative variations were noted between root lines. The influence of culture medium and various treatments (hormone, elicitation and precursor feeding were evaluated. The highest accumulation was obtained in Gamborg B5 medium. Treatment with methyl jasmonate, and feeding using ferulic acid increased the accumulation of aryltetralin lignans. These results point to the use of hairy root culture lines of Linum flavum as potential sources for these valuable metabolites as an alternative, or as a complement to Podophyllum collected from wild stands.

  6. Hairy maggot of Chrysomya villeneuvi (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Piangjai, Somsak; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Boonchu, Noppawan; Kurahashi, Hiromu

    2003-11-01

    We reported on the hairy maggot of Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, collected from a human corpse in Thailand. Although the general morphology of the third instar closely resembled the more common hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), the spines along the tubercles of each body segment could be used as a feature to distinguish between these species, with those of C. villeneuri bearing sharp-ended spines that encircle the entire tubercle. Not only has the resemblance of a hairy appearance between C. villeneuvi and C. rufifacies larvae been documented but also their similarity in predacious feeding behavior. The differentiation between these two species is necessary for post-mortem interval estimation in the corpse.

  7. Potential for rhizofiltration of uranium using hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea and Chenopodium amaranticolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, Susan; Suseelan, K.N.; Tivarekar, Suchita; Kotwal, S.A.; Mitra, R.

    2003-01-01

    Hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea and Chenopodium amaranticolor were developed by genetic transformation using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The stable, transformed root systems demonstrated a high growth rate of 1.5-3. g/g dry weight/day in Murashige and Skoog medium. In the present study, hairy root system was used for removal of uranium from the solution of concentration up to 5000 μM. The results indicated that the hairy roots could remove uranium from the aqueous solution within a short period of incubation. B. juncea could take up 20-23% of uranium from the solution containing up to 5000 μM, when calculated on g/g dry weight basis. C. amaranticolor showed a slow and steady trend in taking up uranium, with 13 uptake from the solution of 5000 μM concentration. Root growth was not affected up to 500 μM of uranium nitrate over a period of 10 days

  8. [Biotransformation of 4-methyl-7-allyloxy coumarin by transgenic hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Deng, Wen-juan; Zhou, Liang-bin; Yan, Chun-yan; Yu, Rong-min

    2011-06-01

    To synthesis 4-methyl-7-allyloxy coumarin by Williamson etherification from 4-methyl-7-hydroxy coumarin and apply as a substrate in hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum. The synthesis reaction of 4-methyl-7-allyloxy coumarin used the allyl bromide and potassium carbonate as catalysts, and acetone as solvent reacted for 17 hours, then the product was isolated. 4-methyl-7-allyloxy coumarin was added into the media of supension transgenic hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum which had been precultured for 8 d, and then co-cultured for another 7 d. The biotransformation products were detected by TLC and HPLC and isolated by various chromatographic methods. Two biotransformation products, 4-methyl-7-hydroxy coumarin and 4-methyl-coumarin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside were isolated and identified. Hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum contains not only glycosyltransferase but also hydrolysis enzymes.

  9. Infection of hairy roots of strawberry (Fragaria x Ananassa Duch.) with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuutila, A M; Vestberg, M; Kauppinen, V

    1995-05-01

    Hairy root cultures of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) were induced with the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4. Cultures were maintained on B50 medium but could also grow on a minimal medium, which did not inhibit the growth of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The growth and nutrient uptake were characterized in shake flasks and in a bioreactor. Spores of the native Finnish arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus fistulosum V128 were used to infect strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. 'Senga Sengana') hairy roots in vitro. During cultivation, vegetative spore formation was observed. At the end of the cultivation, hyphae and arbuscules were observed in the stained roots.

  10. Production of anthraquinones, phenolic compounds and biological activities from hairy root cultures of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Praveen, Nagella; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Ill-Min

    2014-05-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. is a highly important medicinal plant producing anthraquinones (emodin and physcion) and phenolic compounds which has pharmaceutical use. In vitro seedling explants such as roots, internodals, nodals and leaves were inoculated with A. rhizogenes strain KCTC 2703. Transformed roots were induced from internodals and leaf explants. Six transgenic clones of hairy roots were established and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) using rolC specific primers. Hairy roots cultured using MS liquid medium supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose showed highest accumulation of biomass (99.05 g/l FW [fresh weight] and 10.95 g/l DW [dry weight]) and highest production of anthraquinones content (emodin 211.32 μg/g DW and physcion 353.23 μg/g DW) were observed at 20 days. Nearly 9.5-fold increment of biomass was evident in suspension cultures at 20 days of culture and hairy root biomass produced in suspension cultures possessed 3.7- and 3.5-fold higher content of emodin and physcion, respectively, when compared with the untransformed control roots. MS basal liquid medium was superior for the growth of hairy roots and production of anthraquinones compared with other culture media evaluated (SH, B5 and N6), with MS-basal liquid medium supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose was optimal for secondary metabolite production. A total of 23 polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified from P. multiflorum untransformed and hairy roots, which includes hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and other groups of phenolic compounds. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis of the phenolic compounds profile revealed that pyrogallol, hesperidin, naringenin and formononetin were higher in hairy roots compared to untransformed roots. The total phenolics, flavonoids content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity was high in hairy roots compared to untransformed roots. This is the first

  11. Biosynthesis of coumarin glycosides by transgenic hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liangbin; Tian, Tian; Xue, Bailin; Song, Liyan; Liu, Ling; Yu, Rongmin

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the substrate specificity and regio-selectivity of coumarin glycosyltransferases in transgenic hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum, esculetin (1) and eight hydroxycoumarins (2-9) were employed as substrates. Nine corresponding glycosides (10-18) involving four new compounds, 6-chloro-4-methylcoumarin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (15), 6-chloro-4-phenylcoumarin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (16), 8-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (17), and 8-allyl-4-methylcoumarin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (18), were biosynthesized by the hairy roots.

  12. Apoptosis-associated proteins in oral hairy leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysomali, E; Greenspan, J S; Dekker, N; Greenspan, D; Regezi, J A

    1996-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that the anti-apoptotic ability of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may result in altered expression of apoptosis-associated proteins in oral hairy leukoplakia (HL), we evaluated HL tissue and normal epithelium for these proteins by immunohistochemistry. Twenty formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of HL lesions and six specimens of normal control mucosa were selected from archived tissue specimens. Bcl-2, Bcl-x, Bax and p53 apoptosis-associated proteins were evaluated in immunohistochemically stained tissue sections according to staining intensity and pattern. The percentage of p53-positive basal cells was estimated in sequential fields. Generally, there were only slight differences in the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x proteins in the epithelium of HL and control tissue. The staining for Bcl-2 was weaker in keratinocytes than in putative melanocytes and Langerhans cells. Equivocal diffuse cytoplasmic staining of prickle cells was also noted. Keratinocytes throughout the epithelium stained positively for Bcl-x protein, although upper layers were more weakly stained. The 'balloon' keratinocytes in HL were infrequently positive for Bcl-x. Bax staining in HL differed from that in control tissue in being more heterogeneous. The staining reaction in HL was weak to negative in upper epithelial levels where 'balloon' keratinocytes were located. Weak to moderate nuclear p53 protein staining was detected in a mean of 25.3% of basal keratinocytes in all but one of the HL specimens; weak staining was seen in only two control specimens. We found only slight immunohistochemical evidence that expression of the apoptosis-associated proteins is altered in HL. p53 appears to over-expressed in HL; we speculate that this may be related to up-regulation or stabilization of wild-type p53 protein related to EBV infection.

  13. Comparison of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker (Piciodes borealis) Nestling Diet in Old-Growth and Old-Field Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, J.L.; Engstrom, R.T.

    1999-10-01

    Automatic cameras were used to record adult woodpecker diets in old-growth and old-field longleaf pine in the South. Roaches were the number one prey for the woodpeckers based on either biomass or numbers. The latter ranged from 37% to 57% of the prey numbers and 55%-73% of the biomass. Morisita's index of similarity between old-field and old growth varied from 0.89 to 0.95. The authors conclude that the prey base is similar in both conditions and that old-growth provides similar foraging habitat.

  14. Metabolic shift from withasteroid formation to phenylpropanoid accumulation in cryptogein-cotransformed hairy roots of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Bipradut; Mukherjee, Chiranjit; Jha, Sumita; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2015-07-01

    Cotransformed hairy roots containing a gene that encodes a fungal elicitor protein, β-cryptogein, were established in Withania somnifera, a medicinal plant widely used in Indian systems of medicine. To find out whether β-cryptogein protein endogenously elicits the pathway of withasteroid biosynthesis, withaferin A and withanolide A contents along with transcript accumulation of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), and sterol glycosyltransferase (SGT) were analyzed in both cryptogein-cotransformed and normal hairy roots of W. somnifera. It was observed that the withaferin A and withanolide A contents were drastically higher in normal hairy roots than cryptogein-cotransformed ones. Similar trends were also observed on the levels of transcript accumulation. Subsequently, the enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), one of the key enzymes of phenylpropanoid pathway, was measured in both cryptogein-cotransformed and normal hairy roots of W. somnifera along with the levels of PAL transcript accumulation. Upliftment of PAL activity was observed in cryptogein-cotransformed hairy roots as compared to the normal ones, and the PAL expression also reflected a similar trend, i.e., enhanced expression in the cryptogein-cotransformed lines. Upliftment of wall-bound ferulic acid accumulation was also observed in the cryptogein-cotransformed lines, as compared to normal hairy root lines. Thus, the outcome of the above studies suggests a metabolic shift from withanolide accumulation to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in cryptogein-cotransformed hairy roots of W. somnifera.

  15. Cultivation of diploid and tetraploid hairy roots of Datura stramonium L. in stirred tank bioreactor for tropane alkaloids production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATANAS PAVLOV

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass accumulation and tropane alkaloids production by diploid and tetraploid hairy root cultures of Datura stramonium L. cultivated in stirred tank bioreactor at different aeration rates were investigated. The maximal growth for both hairy root cultures (ADB = 8.3 g/L and 6.8 g/L for diploid and tetraploid line, respectively was achieved at aeration rate of 15.0 L/(L.h. The corresponding growth indexes were remarkably high (GIDW = 9.0 and 7.8 for diploid and tetraploid line, respectively compared to the values, usually reported for other hairy root cultures. The optimal aeration rate for biomass accumulation was also optimal for alkaloids biosynthesis. According to our survey, the achieved maximal amounts of accumulated hyoscyamine (35.0 mg/L and 27.0 mg/L for diploid and tetraploid line were the highest reported in the scientific literature for D. stramonium L. hairy roots. During the cultivation in stirred tank bioreactor, the hairy roots biosynthesized pharmaceutically important alkaloid scopolamine in minor concentrations. This is an important observation since scopolamine was not detected during submerged cultivation of these hairy root lines in other bioreactor types. However, the ploidy level was found to be the most important factor concerning scopolamine production by D. stramonium L. hairy roots cultures. The present work demonstrated the effect of ploidity levels on biomass accumulation and tropane alkaloids production by D. stramonium L. hairy roots cultivated in stirred tank bioreactor. This investigation show that the stirred tank bioreactor could be successfully applied for both maximal biomass accumulations, as well as for manipulation of tropane alkaloids production by diploid and tetraploid D. stramonium L. hairy root cultures.

  16. "Hairy" Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Particles Prepared via Surface-Initiated Kumada Catalyst-Transfer Polycondensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senkovskyy, Volodymyr; Tkachov, Roman; Beryozkina, Tetyana

    2009-01-01

    electronics, was selectively grown by SI-KCTP from (nano)particles bearing surface-immobilized Ni catalysts supported by bidentate phosphorus ligands, that resulted in hairy (nano)particles with end-tethered P3HT chains. Densely grafted P3HT chains exhibit strongly altered optical properties compared...

  17. Validation of a hairy roots system to study soybean-soybean aphid interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss, Stephanie C.; Studham, Matthew E.; Tylka, Gregory L.

    2017-01-01

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) is one of the main insect pests of soybean (Glycine max) worldwide. Genomics approaches have provided important data on transcriptome changes, both in the insect and in the plant, in response to the plant-aphid interaction. However, the difficulties to transform soybean and to rear soybean aphid on artificial media have hindered our ability to systematically test the function of genes identified by those analyses as mediators of plant resistance to the insect. An efficient approach to produce transgenic soybean material is the production of transformed hairy roots using Agrobacterium rhizogenes; however, soybean aphids colonize leaves or stems and thus this approach has not been utilized. Here, we developed a hairy root system that allowed effective aphid feeding. We show that this system supports aphid performance similar to that observed in leaves. The use of hairy roots to study plant resistance is validated by experiments showing that roots generated from cotyledons of resistant lines carrying the Rag1 or Rag2 resistance genes are also resistant to aphid feeding, while related susceptible lines are not. Our results demonstrate that hairy roots are a good system to study soybean aphid-soybean interactions, providing a quick and effective method that could be used for functional analysis of the resistance response to this insect. PMID:28358854

  18. Artemisia tilesii Ledeb hairy roots establishment using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvieieva, N A; Shakhovsky, A M; Belokurova, V B; Drobot, K O

    2016-05-18

    An efficient and rapid protocol for the establishment of Artemisia tilesii "hairy" root culture is reported. Leaf explants of aseptically growing plants were cocultured with Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 wild strain or A. rhizogenes carrying the plasmids with nptII and ifn-α2b genes. Root formation on the explants started in 5-6 days after their cocultivation with bacterial suspension. Prolongation of explant cultivation time on the medium without cefotaxime led to stimulation of root growth. The effects of sucrose concentration as well as of the levels of synthetic indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and native growth regulator Emistim on the stimulation of A. tilesii "hairy" root growth were studied. Maximum stimulating effect both for the control and for transgenic roots was observed in case of root cultivation on the media supplemented with IBA-up to 7.95- and 9.1-fold biomass increase, respectively. Cultivation on the medium with 10 μl/L Emistime has also led to the control roots growth stimulation (up to 2.75-fold). Emistime at 5 μl/L concentration led to 5.46-fold mass increase in only one "hairy" root line. Higher sucrose content (40 g/L) stimulated growth of two hairy root lines but had no effect on growth of the control roots.

  19. Small hairy black holes in AdS(5) x S-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Minwalla, Shiraz; Papadodimas, Kyriakos

    2011-01-01

    We study small hairy black holes in a consistent truncation of N = 8 gauged supergravity that consists of a single charged scalar field interacting with the metric and a U(1) gauge field. Small very near extremal RNAdS black holes in this system are unstable to decay by superradiant emission. The

  20. E-p-methoxycinnamic acid production in hairy root cultures of Scrophularia buergeriana Miquel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sang Un

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available E-p-methoxycinnamic acid (MCA is one of the main active constituents of Scrophularia buergeriana Miquel and has hepatoprotective, anti-amnestic, and neuroprotective activities. For studying in vitro production of MCA, we established a hairy root culture of S. buergeriana by infecting leaf explants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000, and tested the growth and MCA production of these cultures using different strengths of media and concentrations of auxins. Hairy roots grown in half-strength MS medium showed the highest levels of growth (10.3 g/l as well as MCA production (0.83 mg/100 g dry weight. Hairy root culture with the treatment of 0.5 mg/l IBA produced the highest amount of dry weight (11.8 g/l and MCA (1.26 mg/100 g dry weight production. These results demonstrate that the hairy root culture of S. buergeriana is a valuable alternative approach for the production of MCA. .

  1. Interactions of a hairy vetch-corn rotation and P fertilizer on the NPK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... corn (Zea mays L.) rotation system in a highland area of Yunnan Province, China. Effects of phosphate. (P) fertilization, combined with hairy vetch returned to the soil, on crop yield and soil fertility were studied, and the balances of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in the rotation system.

  2. Interactions of a hairy vetch-corn rotation and P fertilizer on the NPK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vicia villosa Roth) and corn (Zea mays L.) rotation system in a highland area of Yunnan Province, China. Effects of phosphate (P) fertilization, combined with hairy vetch returned to the soil, on crop yield and soil fertility were studied, and the ...

  3. Hairy Mary: Natal Government Railways 2-8-2 (Tanic Tender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hairy Mary: Natal Government Railways. 2-8-2 (Tanic Tender Locomotive Havelock) won J.A. Hattingh*. This locomotive was actually a Havelock tank. Tender-Locomotive with the wheel arrangement of 2-8-2. It was designed in 1887 and built in the. Durban workshops. Itwas the first locomotive to be built in South Africa.

  4. Hairy nightshade is an alternative host of spongospora subterranea, the potato powdery scab pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structures, similar to galls developing on potato roots infected by the powdery scab pathogen S. subterranea, were observed on roots of hairy nightshades (Solanum physalifolium, formerly S. sarrachoides) collected from commercial potato fields in Washington State where populations of S. subterranea ...

  5. 75 FR 54496 - Diseases Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents (Hairy Cell Leukemia and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN54 Diseases Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents (Hairy Cell Leukemia and Other Chronic B-Cell Leukemias, Parkinson's Disease and... leukemia and other chronic B-cell leukemias, Parkinson's disease and ischemic heart disease to the list of...

  6. Isolation and photoisomerization of a new anthraquinone from hairy root cultures of Sesamum indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumoto, Toshio; Jindai, Atsushi

    2008-10-01

    An unstable anthraquinone was isolated from hairy root cultures of Sesamum indicum after preventing light throughout all experimental procedures. The structure of the (Z)-isomer of a previously isolated anthraquinone was determined to be 2-[(Z)-4-methylpenta-1,3-dien-1-yl]anthraquinone by spectroscopic methods. This compound was readily isomerized to the known (E)-isomer under light.

  7. Molecular farming in tobacco hairy roots by triggering the secretion of a pharmaceutical antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Häkkinen, S.T.; Raven, N.; Henquet, M.G.L.; Laukkanen, M.L.; Anderlei, T.; Pitkänen, J.P.; Twyman, R.M.; Bosch, H.J.; Oksman-Caldentey, K.M.; Schillberg, S.; Ritala, A.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant pharmaceutical proteins expressed in hairy root cultures can be secreted into the medium to improve product homogeneity and to facilitate purification, although this may result in significant degradation if the protein is inherently unstable or particularly susceptible to proteases. To

  8. 75 FR 53202 - Diseases Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents (Hairy Cell Leukemia and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... association between exposure to certain herbicides and the subsequent development of hairy cell leukemia and... address only one tier of possible association between exposure to herbicides and the development of long... relationship between PTSD or stress and cardiovascular disease. Another commenter wanted VA to give greater...

  9. Growth and steroidal saponin production in hairy root cultures of Solanum aculeatissimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, T; Oyama, T; Muranaka, T

    1995-04-01

    Hairy root cultures of Solanum aculeatissimum were established by trans-formation using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 15834. Root growth and production of steroidal saponin were investigated under various culture conditions. Transformed roots grew better in Gamborg's B5 medium containing 3 % sucrose under continuous light than in the dark. Also, the roots turned light green when cultured under continuous light. Green hairy roots produced aculeatiside A (6.71mg ·) L(-1) and aculeatiside B (6.39mg · L(-1)) after 8 weeks of culture, while no steroidal saponin was detected in hairy roots cultured in the dark. Of the three culture media tested, Gamborg's B5 medium was superior for growth and steroidal saponin production. Growth and steroidal saponin production were enhanced when 100μg · L(-1) auxin except for 2,4-D was added to the medium. The addition of 2,4-D inhibited growth. Production of steroidal saponin was highest with NAA. Transformed roots used in this experiment were confirmed that hairy roots examined contain both TL-DNA and TR-DNA region of Ri plasmid by PCR amplification analysis of DNA.

  10. In vitro production of thiophenes using hairy root cultures of Tagetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marigold (Tagetes spp.) is a source of thiophenes, which are a group of heterocyclic sulfurous compounds possessing strong biocidal activity, thus making Tagetes plants very useful as natural source of agents for controlling pathogens such as nematodes, insects, fungi and bacteria. Hairy root cultures of Tagetes erecta L.

  11. Droplet evaporation and spread on waxy and hairy leaves associated with type and concentration of adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linyun; Zhu, Heping; Ozkan, H Erdal; Bagley, William E; Krause, Charles R

    2011-07-01

    Adjuvants can improve pesticide application efficiency and effectiveness. However, quantifications of the adjuvant-amended pesticide droplet actions on foliage, which could affect application efficiencies, are largely unknown. Droplet evaporation rates and spread on waxy or hairy leaves varied greatly with the adjuvant types tested. On waxy leaves, the wetted areas of droplets containing crop oil concentrate (COC) were significantly smaller than those containing modified seed oil (MSO), non-ionic surfactant (NIS) or oil surfactant blend (OSB), whereas the evaporation rates of COC-amended droplets were significantly higher. On hairy leaves, COC-amended droplets remained on top of the hairs without wetting the epidermis. When the relative concentration was 1.50, the wetted area of droplets with NIS was 9.2 times lower than that with MSO and 6.1 times lower than that with OSB. The wetted area increased as the adjuvant concentration increased. MSO- or OSB-amended droplets spread extensively on the hairy leaf surface until they were completely dried. These results demonstrated that the proper concentration of MSO, NIS or OSB in spray mixtures improved the homogeneity of spray coverage on both waxy and hairy leaf surfaces and could reduce pesticide use. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures, a suitable system for polyunsaturated fatty acid studies and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravelo Ángel G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic and health promoting role of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs from fish, i.e. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 are well known. These same benefits may however be shared by some of their precursors, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, such as stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4 n-3. In order to obtain alternative sources for the large-scale production of PUFAs, new searches are being conducted focusing on higher plants oils which can contain these n-3 and n-6 C18 precursors, i.e. SDA and GLA (18:3n-6, γ-linolenic acid. Results The establishment of the novel Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures represents a powerful tool in order to research the accumulation and metabolism of fatty acids (FAs in a plant particularly rich in GLA and SDA. Furthermore, this study constitutes the first example of a Boraginaceae species hairy root induction and establishment for FA studies and production. The dominant PUFAs, 18:2n-6 (LA, linoleic acid and 18:3n-6 (GLA, accounted for about 50% of total FAs obtained, while the n-3 PUFAs, 18:3n-3 (ALA, α-linolenic acid and 18:4n-3 (SDA, represented approximately 5% of the total. Production of FAs did not parallel hairy root growth, and the optimal productivity was always associated with the highest biomass density during the culture period. Assuming a compromise between FA production and hairy root biomass, it was determined that sampling times 4 and 5 gave the most useful FA yields. Total lipid amounts were in general comparable between the different hairy root lines (29.75 and 60.95 mg/g DW, with the major lipid classes being triacylglycerols. The FAs were chiefly stored in the hairy roots with very minute amounts being released into the liquid nutrient medium. Conclusions The novel results presented here show the utility and high potential of E. acanthocarpum hairy roots. They are capable of biosynthesizing and accumulating a large

  13. Habitat selection and reproductive success of Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis at its northern limit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhu

    Full Text Available Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis has experienced population declines in both Canada and the United States and in 2010 was assigned a national listing of threatened in Canada. We conducted a two-year study (2004-2005 of this species at its northern range limit, the South Okanagan Valley in British Columbia, Canada. Our main objective was to determine whether the habitat features that influenced nest-site selection also predicted nest success, or whether other factors (e.g. cavity dimensions, clutch initiation date or time of season were more important. Nest tree decay class, density of suitable cavities and total basal area of large trees were the best predictors of nest-site selection, but these factors were unrelated to nesting success. Estimates of demographic parameters (mean ± SE included daily nest survival rate (0.988±0.003, years combined, nest success (0.52±0.08, clutch size (5.00±0.14 eggs, female fledglings per successful nest (1.31±0.11, and annual productivity (0.68±0.12 female fledglings per nest per year. Although higher nest survival was associated with both early and late initiated clutches, early-initiated clutches allowed birds to gain the highest annual productivity as early clutches were larger. Nests in deep cavities with small entrances experienced lower predation risk especially during the peak period of nest predation. We concluded that nest-site selection can be predicted by a number of easily measured habitat variables, whereas nest success depended on complicated ecological interactions among nest predators, breeding behaviors, and cavity features. Thus, habitat-based conservation strategies should also consider ecological factors that may not be well predicted by habitat.

  14. Optimal inductive and cultural conditions of Polygonum multiflorum transgenic hairy roots mediated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1601 and an analysis of their anthraquinone constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bing; Lin, Huanjie; Yan, Chuanyan; Qiu, Hongyan; Qiu, Lipeng; Yu, Rongmin

    2014-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum is an important medicinal plant. Hairy roots systems obtained by transforming plant tissues with the natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium rhizogenes can produce valuable biological active substances, which have immense potential in the pharmaceutical industry. To optimize the inductive and cultural conditions of P. multiflorum hairy roots and to identify the major active secondary metabolites in hairy roots. P. multiflorum hairy root were mediated with A. rhizogenes R1601 to induce hairy roots. Four combinations, including Murashige-Skoog (MS), 1/2 MS, B5, and White, were investigated to optimize the culture medium. MS medium was selected for the growth measurement. The qualitative and quantitative determinations of free anthraquinone in hairy roots were compared with the calli and aseptic plantlets using high-performance liquid chromatography. The inductive rates of hairy roots by leaves were higher than for any other explants. The presence of agropine in the P. multiflorum hairy roots confirmed that they were indeed transgenic. MS medium was the most suitable of the four media for hairy root growth. Meanwhile, the growth kinetics and nutrient consumption results showed that the hairy roots displayed a sigmoidal growth curve and that their optimal inoculation time was 18-21 days. The determination of the anthraquinone constituents indicated that the rhein content of the hairy roots reached 2.495 μg g(-1) and was 2.55-fold higher than that of natural plants. Transgenic hairy roots of P. multiflorum could be one of the most potent materials for industrial-scale production of bioactive anthraquinone constituents.

  15. Epstein-Barr Virus and Its Association with Oral Hairy Leukoplakia: A Short Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammissa, Razia Abdool Gafaar; Fourie, Jeanine; Chandran, Rakesh; Lemmer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    In immunocompromised subjects, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of terminally differentiated oral keratinocytes may result in subclinical productive infection of the virus in the stratum spinosum and in the stratum granulosum with shedding of infectious virions into the oral fluid in the desquamating cells. In a minority of cases this productive infection with dysregulation of the cell cycle of terminally differentiated epithelial cells may manifest as oral hairy leukoplakia. This is a white, hyperkeratotic, benign lesion of low morbidity, affecting primarily the lateral border of the tongue. Factors that determine whether productive EBV replication within the oral epithelium will cause oral hairy leukoplakia include the fitness of local immune responses, the profile of EBV gene expression, and local environmental factors. PMID:27047546

  16. Biosynthesis of anthraquinone derivatives in a Sesamum indicum hairy root culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumoto, Toshio; Sato, Ryuta

    2017-10-01

    In order to investigate the intermediacy of 2-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)anthraquinone (MPAQ), a possible intermediate for the biosynthesis of anthraquinone derivatives in sesame (Sesamum indicum), 2 H-labeled MPAQ was administered to a hairy root culture of S. indicum. Efficient conversion of fed MPAQ to 2-[(Z)-4-methylpenta-1,3-dien-1-yl]anthraquinone ((Z)-MPDEAQ) was observed. Furthermore, administration experiment with 2 H-labeled 2-geranyl-1,4-naphthohydroquinone, another possible intermediate, showed that it was converted to MPAQ and (Z)-MPDEAQ. The results clearly demonstrated that these substrates are the actual precursors for the production of (Z)-MPDEAQ. In contrast, neither MPAQ nor 2-geranyl-1,4-naphthohydroquinone was converted to anthrasesamone B and 2,3-epoxyanthrasesamone B, other anthraquinone derivatives in the hairy roots, suggesting that these substrates may not be the common precursors in the biosynthesis of anthraquinone derivatives.

  17. 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production in elicited hairy roots culture of Eurycoma longifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nazirah; Ismail, Ismanizan; Hassan, Nor Hasnida; Basherudin, Norlia

    2016-11-01

    Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) is a highly sought after medicinal plant in Malaysia. Propagation of E. longifolia through tissue culture has been reported in order to cater the industry demands for planting and raw materials as well as for conservation purposes. E. longifolia hairy roots culture has been developed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of Tongkat Ali phytochemicals. Effects of three elicitors; methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and yeast extract at different concentrations were evaluated on the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in E. longifolia hairy roots. The cultures were elicited at early exponential growth phase, followed by extraction of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one using methanol and HPLC analysis. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate at all concentrations increased 9-methoxycanthin-6-one up to 1-3 fold and treatment with (0.1 mM) was most efficient in enhancing 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production up to 3.902 mg/g dry weight after 7 days (168 hours) elicitation.

  18. Photosynthetic Activity in Green Hairy Roots : Ultrastructure of Plastid and Correlation of Chlorophyll and Secondary Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Yumio, Toda; Toshio, Aoki; Kayo, Yoshimatsu; Koichiro, Shimomura; Nano-Fabrication Group, Nanomaterial Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science; Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Nihon University; Tsukuba Medicinal Plant Research Station, National Institute of Health Sciences; Faculty of Life Science, Toyo University

    2002-01-01

    Ultrastructure of the plastid and photosynthetic activity in green hairy roots of Amsonia elliptica, Lippia dulcis and Digitalis lanata were investigated. Plastids observed in A. elliptica were not like normal chloroplasts in leaves or leucoplasts in roots, but an amyloplast-like structure, containing large starch granules with thylakoid membranes around them. In contrast the plastids in D. lanata were chloroplast-like, and just intermediate in L. dulcis. The photosynthetic oxygen evolution a...

  19. Changes in finances, insurance, employment, and lifestyle among persons diagnosed with hairy cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounshell, J; Tomori, C; Newlin, R; Knox, K; Rundhaugen, L; Tallman, M; Bennett, C

    2001-01-01

    While being cured of cancer generally leads to a life expectancy similar to that of the general population, the extent to which other aspects of life are affected is unknown. To address these concerns, patients with hairy cell leukemia, a cancer with a very high cure rate, were queried about employment, insurance, finances, and lifestyle during and following their treatment. Study participants (n = 31) ranging in age from 24 to 73 years at the time of diagnosis (median, 49 years) were surveyed regarding changes in health and life insurance, employment, out-of-pocket medical costs, exercise, diet, and use of mental and alternative health services that occurred during or following hairy cell leukemia treatment. Following a diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia, 61.3% of the respondents paid for some aspect of medical care in spite of having health insurance coverage at the time of diagnosis. Four respondents (12.9%) could not obtain health insurance following treatment, and the occupational choices of several individuals or their spouses were based in large part on a desire to obtain or maintain comprehensive health insurance. Of the 13 individuals who attempted to purchase life insurance, 10 had difficulty obtaining a policy or were denied coverage. Lifestyle changes were noted by 40% to 60% of respondents, and included reports of more frequent exercise, adoption of a healthier diet, and having a greater appreciation for life, loved ones, and physical health. While hairy cell leukemia is a highly curable malignancy, cancer survivors' lives and lifestyles are altered substantially after receiving treatment for the illness.

  20. Auxins affected ginsenoside production and growth of hairy roots in Panax hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washida, Daisuke; Shimomura, Koichiro; Takido, Michio; Kitanaka, Susumu

    2004-05-01

    Hairy roots of interspecific hybrid ginseng (Panax ginseng x P. quinquefolium), induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834, grew well in B5 liquid media supplemented with 2.5 microM auxins (3-indole butyric acid (IBA), 1-naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA)). The hairy roots cultured in B5 liquid medium supplemented with 2.5 microM IBA showed best growth (6.39 g fresh weight per a flask, at week 8). The highest content of the total ginsenosides was 1.63% as dry weight at week 8 when cultured with 2.5 microM NAA. The different auxins affected the numbers and lateral branching roots. Especially, 2.5 microM IBA promoted the lateral root formation (43.7+/-4.0 roots, at week 8), and 2.5 microM NAA promoted the lateral root growth (45.3+/-5.6 mm, at week 8). The growth and ginsenosides production of 8-week old hairy roots cultured in B5 liquid media supplemented with IBA and NAA combinations were also investigated. Hairy roots produced higher amounts of ginsenosides in B5 liquid media supplemented with 0.5-1.0 microM IBA and NAA combinations than that cultured in B5 liquid media supplemented with only IBA and NAA. The highest yield of ginsenoside was obtained when cultured with 0.5 microM IBA and 1.0 microM IBA combination (6.38 mg per a flask, at week 8).

  1. Biosynthetic origin of 2,3-epoxysesamone in a Sesamum indicum hairy root culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumoto, Toshio

    2009-11-01

    The incorporation of [1-(13)C]glucose into 2,3-epoxysesamone, the main prenylnaphthoquinone in a hairy root culture of Sesamum indicum, indicated that the naphthoquinone moiety and dimethylallyl group were respectively derived from o-succinylbenzoate produced through a shikimate pathway and non-mevalonate pathway. The labeling pattern also demonstrated that prenylation occurred at C-2 in 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate.

  2. Uranium uptake and stress responses of in vitro cultivated hairy root culture of Armoracia rusticana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2011), s. 15-28 ISSN 0002-1857 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09082; GA MŠk 2B06187 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Armoracia rusticana * hairy-root culture * phytoremediation Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2011 http://home.ueb.cas.cz/publikace/2011_Soudek_AGROCHIMICA_15.pdf

  3. Production of chlorogenic acid and its derivatives in hairy root cultures of Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Yin, Zhong-Ping; Chen, Ji-Guang; Shangguan, Xin-Chen; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Qing-Feng; Peng, Da-Yong

    2015-01-14

    Chlorogenic acid and its derivatives (CADs) are valuable bioactive plant secondary metabolites with many health benefits. In the present study, Stevia rebaudiana hairy root cultures were established, and the culture conditions for the production of CADs were optimized. The hairy roots were induced by coculture of S. rebaudiana leaves and Agrobacterium rhizogenes (C58C1) after infection, which were further verified by PCR detection of rolB and rolC genes. HPLC-MS and HPLC analysis showed that chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-CQA), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-CQA), and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4,5-CQA) were the major CADs in the hairy roots. Eight single roots with rapid growth rate were selected. Among them, T3 had the highest yield of CADs. B5 medium supplemented with 40 g/L sucrose was more suitable for the production of CADs than others. Under optimal culture conditions, the total content of these three compounds reached 105.58 mg/g and total yield was 234.40 mg/100 mL.

  4. Production of oleanolic acid glycosides by hairy root established cultures of Calendula officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Marek; Wiktorowska, Ewa; Wiśniewska, Anita; Pączkowski, Cezary

    2013-01-01

    In order to initiate hairy root culture initiation cotyledons and hypocotyls of Calendula officinalis L. were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834 or the same strain containing pCAMBIA 1381Z vector with β-glucuronidase reporter gene under control of promoter of NIK (Nematode Induced Kinase) gene. The efficiency of induction of hairy roots reached 33.8% for cotyledons and 66.6% for hypocotyls together for both transformation experiments. Finally, eight control and nine modified lines were established as a long-term culture. The hairy root cultures showed the ability to synthesize oleanolic acid mainly (97%) as glycosides; control lines contained it at the average 8.42 mg · g(-1) dry weight in tissue and 0.23 mg · dm(-3) in medium; modified lines: 4.59 mg · g(-1) for the tissue, and 0.48 mg · dm(-3) for the medium. Additionally lines showed high positive correlation between dry/fresh weight and oleanolic acid concentration in tissue. Using the Killiani mixture in acidic hydrolysis of oleanolic acid glycosides released free aglycones that were partially acetylated in such conditions.

  5. Root isoflavonoids and hairy root transformation influence key bacterial taxa in the soybean rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laura J; Ge, Xijin; Brözel, Volker S; Subramanian, Senthil

    2017-04-01

    Rhizodeposits play a key role in shaping rhizosphere microbial communities. In soybean, isoflavonoids are a key rhizodeposit component that aid in plant defense and enable symbiotic associations with rhizobia. However, it is uncertain if and how they influence rhizosphere microbial communities. Isoflavonoid biosynthesis was silenced via RNA interference of isoflavone synthase in soybean hairy root composite plants. Rhizosphere soil fractions tightly associated with roots were isolated, and PCR amplicons from 16S rRNA gene variable regions V1-V3 and V3-V5 from these fractions were sequenced using 454. The resulting data was resolved using MOTHUR and vegan to identify bacterial taxa and evaluate changes in rhizosphere bacterial communities. The soybean rhizosphere was enriched in Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and had relatively lower levels of Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria compared with bulk soil. Isoflavonoids had a small effect on bacterial community structure, and in particular on the abundance of Xanthomonads and Comamonads. The effect of hairy root transformation on rhizosphere bacterial communities was largely similar to untransformed plant roots with approximately 74% of the bacterial families displaying similar colonization underscoring the suitability of this technique to evaluate the influence of plant roots on rhizosphere bacterial communities. However, hairy root transformation had notable influence on Sphingomonads and Acidobacteria. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Enhanced Diterpene Tanshinone Accumulation and Bioactivity of Transgenic Salvia miltiorrhiza Hairy Roots by Pathway Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Luo, Xiuqin; Ju, Guanhua; Li, Leilei; Huang, Shengxiong; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Huizhong; Kai, Guoyin

    2016-03-30

    Tanshinones are health-promoting diterpenoids found in Salvia miltiorrhiza and have wide applications. Here, SmGGPPS (geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase) and SmDXSII (1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase) were introduced into hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza. Overexpression of SmGGPPS and SmDXSII in hairy roots produces higher levels of tanshinone than control and single-gene transformed lines; tanshinone production in the double-gene transformed line GDII10 reached 12.93 mg/g dry weight, which is the highest tanshinone content that has been achieved through genetic engineering. Furthermore, transgenic hairy root lines showed higher antioxidant and antitumor activities than control lines. In addition, contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, indoleacetic acid, and gibberellins were significantly elevated in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. These results demonstrate a promising method to improve the production of diterpenoids including tanshinone as well as other natural plastid-derived isoprenoids in plants by genetic manipulation of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway.

  7. Determination of terpenoid indole alkaloids in hairy roots of Rhazya stricta (Apocynaceae) by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhgari, Amir; Laakso, Into; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Rischer, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Rhazya stricta Decne. (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant rich in terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), some of which possess important pharmacological properties. The study material including transgenic hairy root cultures have been developed and their potential for alkaloid production are being investigated. In this study, a comprehensive GC-MS method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of alkaloids from Rhazya hairy roots was developed. The composition of alkaloids was determined by using GC-MS. In quantification, the ratio between alkaloid and internal standard was based on extracted ion from total ion current (TIC) analyses. The developed method was validated. An acceptable precision with RSD ≤ 8% over a linear range of 1 to 100 µg/mL was achieved. The accuracy of the method was within 94-107%. Analysis of hairy root extracts indicated the occurrence of a total of 20 TIAs. Six of them, pleiocarpamine, fluorocarpamine, vincamine, ajmalicine and two yohimbine isomers are reported here for the first time in Rhazya. Trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatisation of the extracts resulted in the separation of two isomers for yohimbine and also for vallesiachotamine. Clearly improved chromatographic profiles of TMS-derivatives were observed for vincanine and for minor compounds vincamine and rhazine. The results show that the present GC-MS method is reliable and well applicable for studying the variation of indole alkaloids in Rhazya samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. [Biotransformation of daphnetin by suspension transgenic hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenjuan; Zhou, Liangbin; Yu, Rongmin

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the biotransformation of daphnetin by suspension transgenic hairy root of Polygonum multiflorum and provide a biotechnological method for large-scale production of the daphnetin-8-O-beta-D-glucoside using this new culture system. Daphnetin was added into the media of suspension to culture 36 h. The biotransformation product was detected with TLC and HPLC, and isolated by various chromatographic methods. The influence of co-cultured time on conversion ratio, content of degradation product and the reason for the degradation of product II were investigated using HPLC. One biotransformation product, daphnetin-8-O-beta-D-glucoside, was obtained, the optimal co-cultured time in suspension hairy root of P. multiflorum was 36 h with the highest biotransformation molar ratio of 32.11%, the sucrose medium (sucrose-only) can increase the biotransformation molar ratio to 72.44%. The result demonstrated that the degradation products of the product II was induced by the MS medium. The potential application of suspension transgenic hairy root of P. multflorum in the sucrose-only medium on generating daphnetin-8-Obeta-D- glucoside could be prospective.

  9. The seminiferous epithelial cycle and microanatomy of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) and southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Motoharu; Takahashi, Mei; Amasaki, Hajime; Janssen, Tina; Johnston, Stephen D

    2013-03-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) and southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) are iconic Australian fauna that share a close phylogenetic relationship but there are currently no comparative studies of the seminiferous epithelial cell or testicular microanatomy of either species. Koala and wombat spermatozoa are unusual for marsupials as they possess a curved stream-lined head and lateral neck insertion that superficially is similar to murid spermatozoa; the koala also contains Sertoli cells with crystalloid inclusions that closely resemble the Charcot-Bottcher crystalloids described in human Sertoli cells. Eighteen sexually mature koalas and four sexually mature southern hairy-nosed (SHN) wombats were examined to establish base-line data on quantitative testicular histology. Dynamics of the seminiferous epithelial cycle in the both species consisted of eight stages of cellular association similar to that described in other marsupials. Both species possessed a high proportion of the pre-meiotic (stages VIII, I - III; koala - 62.2 ± 1.7% and SHN wombat - 66.6 ± 2.4%) when compared with post-meiotic stages of the seminiferous cycle. The mean diameters of the seminiferous tubules found in the koalas and the SHN wombats were 227.8 ± 6.1 and 243.5 ± 3.9 μm, respectively. There were differences in testicular histology between the species including the koala possessing (i) a greater proportion of Leydig cells, (ii) larger Sertoli cell nuclei, (iii) crystalloids in the Sertoli cell cytoplasm, (iv) a distinctive acrosomal granule during spermiogenesis and (v) a highly eosinophilic acrosome. An understanding of the seminiferous epithelial cycle and microanatomy of testis is fundamental for documenting normal spermatogenesis and testicular architecture; recent evidence of orchitis and epididymitis associated with natural chlamydial infection in the koala suggest that this species might be useful as an experimental model for understanding Chlamydia

  10. Establishment of Hairy Root Cultures of Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd. Iljin for the Production of Biomass and Caffeic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Skała

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to obtain transformed roots of Rhaponticum carthamoides and evaluate their phytochemical profile. Hairy roots were induced from leaf explants by the transformation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains A4 and ATCC 15834. The best response (43% was achieved by infection with A4 strain. The effects of different liquid media (WPM, B5, SH with full and half-strength concentrations of macro- and micronutrients on biomass accumulation of the best grown hairy root line (RC3 at two different lighting conditions (light or dark were investigated. The highest biomass (93 g L−1 of the fresh weight after 35 days was obtained in WPM medium under periodic light. UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS3 and HPLC-PDA analyses of 80% aqueous methanol extracts from the obtained hairy roots revealed the presence of eleven caffeoylquinic acids and their derivatives and five flavonoid glycosides. The production of caffeoylquinic acids and their derivatives was elevated in hairy roots grown in the light. Only light-grown hairy roots demonstrated the capability for the biosynthesis of such flavonoid glycosides as quercetagetin, quercetin, luteolin, and patuletin hexosides. Chlorogenic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and a tentatively identified tricaffeoylquinic acid derivative were detected as the major compounds present in the transformed roots.

  11. [Impact of 2, 3-dihydrocyclopentacoumarins to growth of transgenic hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum and accumulation of stilbene glucosides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Zhou, Liangbin; Zhang, Minghua; Yu, Rongmin

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the influence of 2,3-dihydrocyclopenta coumarins to the growth of transgenic hairy root of Polygonum multiflorum and the accumulation of active ingredient stilbene glucoside in the culture. In different culture time, 2,3-dihydrocyclopenta coumarin compounds were administrated to the hairy roots. The yield of stilbene glucoside and the growth of the hairy roots were determined after some period of co-culture. Through the investigation of the different concentrations of the 2,3-dihydrocyclopentacoumarin, and sub-culture times, the optimal experimental conditions were established. The optimal administration time of the 2,3-dihydrocyclopentacoumarin was on the fourth day, the optimal concentration of 2,3-dihydrocyclopentacoumarin was 0.025 g x L(-1). Under this condition, the growth of the hairy root greatly increased. Comparing with control group, the accumulation of stilbene glucoside was increased about four times. 2, 3-dihydrocyclopentacoumarins could promote the hairy hair root growth and stimulate the stilbene glucoside accumulation.

  12. Implant-retained skull prosthesis to cover a large defect of the hairy skull resulting from treatment of a basal cell carcinoma : A clinical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Jitske; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Visser, Anita

    Skin carcinoma, particularly basal cell carcinoma, and its treatment can result in large defects of the hairy skull. A 53-year-old man is described who was surgically treated for a large basal cell carcinoma invading the skin and underlying tissue at the top of the hairy skull. Treatment consisted

  13. Habitat quantity of Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae in its former historic landscape near the Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Thapa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We quantified pine-forested habitat suitable for Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis in the former historic range of the species to assess the potential for possible re-colonization.  We used a remotely-sensed image and geographic information systems (GIS to create a land-use/land (LU/LC binary cover map, from which we calculated the habitat suitability index (HSI based on an estimated home range of 50ha.  A sensitivity analysis revealed the necessity for more data to make an accurate estimate, but our analysis of landscape metrics indicates more than 930ha of suitable habitat patches.  These patches are heavily fragmented and mostly located on private lands.  They can be assessed for understory and herbaceous vegetation and can be restored for possible re-establishment of approximately 18 groups/colonies of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers

  14. Molecular cloning and expression profiling of a chalcone synthase gene from hairy root cultures of Scutellaria viscidula Bunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A cDNA encoding chalcone synthase (CHS, the key enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, was isolated from hairy root cultures of Scutellaria viscidula Bunge by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. The full-length cDNA of S. viscidula CHS, designated as Svchs (GenBank accession no. EU386767, was 1649 bp with a 1170 bp open reading frame (ORF that corresponded to a deduced protein of 390 amino acid residues, a calculated molecular mass of 42.56 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI of 5.79. Multiple sequence alignments showed that SvCHS shared high homology with CHS from other plants. Functional analysis in silico indicated that SvCHS was a hydrophilic protein most likely associated with intermediate metabolism. The active sites of the malonyl-CoA binding motif, coumaroyl pocket and cyclization pocket in CHS of Medicago sativa were also found in SvCHS. Molecular modeling indicated that the secondary structure of SvCHS contained mainly α-helixes and random coils. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SvCHS was most closely related to CHS from Scutellaria baicalensis. In agreement with its function as an elicitor-responsive gene, the expression of Svchs was induced and coordinated by methyl jasmonate. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the isolation and expression of a gene from S. viscidula.

  15. Specimen-based modeling, stopping rules, and the extinction of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Chao, Anne; Colwell, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing species survival status is an essential component of conservation programs. We devised a new statistical method for estimating the probability of species persistence from the temporal sequence of collection dates of museum specimens. To complement this approach, we developed quantitative...... (Campephilus principalis), long assumed to have become extinct in the United States in the 1950s, but reportedly rediscovered in 2004. We analyzed the temporal pattern of the collection dates of 239 geo-referenced museum specimens collected throughout the southeastern United States from 1853 to 1932...

  16. Hairy B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder and its differential diagnosis: a case with long-term follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Matsuda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hairy B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (HBLD is one of chronic polyclonal B-cell lymphocytosis. We report a 47-year-old female Japanese patient diagnosed as having HBLD based on lymphocytosis with hairy cell appearance and characteristic phenotypes including CD11c+, and without B-cell monoclonalities. She was a non-smoker, and possessed HLA-DR4. She has been closely followed up without treatment and lymphoma development for over five years. Although this disease is quite rare and has been reported, to our knowledge, in only 13 Japanese cases, an accurate diagnosis, particularly differential diagnosis from persistent polyclonal B-cell lymphocytosis or hairy cell leukemia-Japanese variant is essential for the prevention of unnecessary treatments.

  17. Accumulation of cell wall-bound phenolic metabolites and their upliftment in hairy root cultures of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2008-07-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis of cell wall material of tomato hairy roots yielded ferulic acid as the major phenolic compound. Other phenolics were 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and 4-coumaric acid. The content of phenolics was much higher at the early stage of hairy root growth. The ferulic acid content decreased up to 30 days and then sharply increased to 360 microg/g at 60 days of growth. Elicitation of hairy root cultures with Fusarium mat extract (FME) increased ferulic acid content 4-fold after 24 h. As the pathogen-derived elicitors have specific receptors in plants, FME may thus be used for inducing resistance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.

  18. Hairy polyelectrolyte brushes-grafted thermosensitive microgels as artificial synovial fluid for simultaneous biomimetic lubrication and arthritis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Liu, Zhilu; Li, Na; Wang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Weimin

    2014-11-26

    We report the fabrication of poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt) (PSPMK) brushes grafted poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) microgels and their potential as artificial synovial fluid for biomimetic aqueous lubrication and arthritis treatment. The negatively charged PSPMK brushes and thermosensitive PNIPAAm microgels play water-based hydration lubrication and temperature-triggered drug release, respectively. Under soft friction pairs, an ultralow coefficient of friction was achieved, while the hairy thermosensitive microgels showed a desirable temperature-triggered drugs release performance. Such a soft charged hairy microgel offers great possibility for designing intelligent synovial fluid. What is more, the combination of lubrication and drug loading capabilities enables the large clinical potential of novel soft hairy nanoparticles as synthetic joint lubricant fluid in arthritis treatment.

  19. Oral Hairy Leukoplakia: Clinical Indicator of an Immunusuppressive Condition and Challenges in Patient Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohana Alfa Agustina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral hairy leukoplakia is defined as an asymptomatic white patch with vertical corrugation pattern on the lateral borders of the tongue, that is associated with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV infection. Generally, it is related to immunosuppressive condition found in HIV-positive patients and patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy. Sometimes, its clinical appearances could mimic other white lesions. Although most OHL cases are found in HIV seropositive individuals, finding in the immunocompetent individuals has also been reported. Appropriate clinical evaluations and laboratory investigations are important for patient’s comprehensive management. Objective: To report a finding of oral hairy leukoplakia as a clinical indicator of an immunosuppressive condition in otherwise a clinically healthy-looking individual and to discuss the challenges on patient management. Case Report: A 40 year-old man presented with asymptomatic, bilateral and homogenous white hyperkeratotic plaques with a hairy appearance located on the dorsal of the tongue, extended to the lateral tongue mucosa. The patient failed to remember the lesion’s first appearance, until three weeks before a visit. Working diagnosis of oral hairy leukoplakia was made with differential diagnoses including white sponge nevus, leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. Histopathological assessment was consistent with oral hairy leukoplakia, without the presence of epithelial dysplastic changes. Challenges on patient management include identifying possible risk factors and assuring patient for HIV testing.  Conclusion: This case reported findings of OHL as the first clinical indicator of immunosuppressive condition that might be related to HIV-infection. The

  20. Quantifying the sensory and emotional perception of touch: differences between glabrous and hairy skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle eAckerley

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The perception of touch is complex and there has been a lack of ways to describe the full tactile experience quantitatively. Guest et al. (2011 developed a Touch Perception Task (TPT in order to capture such experiences, and here we used the TPT to examine differences in sensory and emotional aspects of touch at different skin sites. We compared touch on three skin sites: the hairy arm and cheek, and the glabrous palm. The hairy skin contains C-tactile (CT afferents, which play a role in affective touch, whereas glabrous skin does not contain CT afferents and is involved in more discriminative touch. In healthy volunteers, three different materials (soft brush, sandpaper, fur were stroked across these skin sites during self-touch or experimenter-applied touch. After each stimulus, participants rated the tactile experience using descriptors in the TPT. Sensory and emotional descriptors were analysed using factor analyses. Five sensory factors were found: Texture, Pile, Moisture, Heat/Sharp and Cold/Slip, and three emotional factors: Positive Affect, Arousal and Negative Affect. Significant differences were found in the use of descriptors in touch to hairy versus glabrous skin: this was most evident in touch on forearm skin, which produced higher emotional content. The touch from another was also judged as more emotionally positive then self-touch, and participants readily discriminated between the materials on all factors. The TPT successfully probed sensory and emotional percepts of the touch experience, which aided in identifying skin where emotional touch was more pertinent. It also highlights the potentially important role for CTs in the affective processing of inter-personal touch, in combination with higher-order influences, such as through cultural belonging and previous experiences.

  1. Enhanced Stilbene Production and Excretion in Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir Hairy Root Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisserant, Leo-Paul; Aziz, Aziz; Jullian, Nathalie; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Courot, Eric; Boitel-Conti, Michèle

    2016-12-10

    Stilbenes are defense molecules produced by grapevine in response to stresses including various elicitors and signal molecules. Together with their prominent role in planta, stilbenes have been the center of much attention in recent decades due to their pharmaceutical properties. With the aim of setting up a cost-effective and high purity production of resveratrol derivatives, hairy root lines were established from Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir 40024 to study the organ-specific production of various stilbenes. Biomass increase and stilbene production by roots were monitored during flask experiments. Although there was a constitutive production of stilbenes in roots, an induction of stilbene synthesis by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) after 18 days of growth led to further accumulation of ε-viniferin, δ-viniferin, resveratrol and piceid. The use of 100 µM MeJA after 18 days of culture in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrins (MCDs) improved production levels, which reached 1034µg/g fresh weight (FW) in roots and 165 mg/L in the extracellular medium, corresponding to five-and 570-foldincrease in comparison to control. Whereas a low level of stilbene excretion was measured in controls, addition of MeJA induced excretion of up to 37% of total stilbenes. The use of MCDs increased the excretion phenomenon even more, reaching up to 98%. Our results demonstrate the ability of grapevine hairy roots to produce various stilbenes. This production was significantly improved in response to elicitation by methyl jasmonate and/or MCDs. This supports the interest of using hairy roots as a potentially valuable system for producing resveratrol derivatives.

  2. Scale up of 2,4-dichlorophenol removal from aqueous solutions using Brassica napus hairy roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, Vanina A. [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Orejas, Joaquin [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Medina, Maria I. [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Agostini, Elizabeth, E-mail: eagostini@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields}B. napus hairy roots were effectively used for a large scale removal of 2,4-DCP. {yields} High removal efficiencies were obtained (98%) in a short time (30 min). {yields} Roots were re-used for six consecutive cycles with high efficiency. {yields} Post removal solutions showed no toxicity. {yields} This method could be used for continuous and safe treatment of phenolic effluents. - Abstract: Chlorophenols are harmful pollutants, frequently found in the effluents of several industries. For this reason, many environmental friendly technologies are being explored for their removal from industrial wastewaters. The aim of the present work was to study the scale up of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) removal from synthetic wastewater, using Brassica napus hairy roots and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a discontinuous stirred tank reactor. We have analyzed some operational conditions, because the scale up of such process was poorly studied. High removal efficiencies were obtained (98%) in a short time (30 min). When roots were re-used for six consecutive cycles, 2,4-DCP removal efficiency decreased from 98 to 86%, in the last cycle. After the removal process, the solutions obtained from the reactor were assessed for their toxicity using an acute test with Lactuca sativa L. seeds. Results suggested that the treated solution was less toxic than the parent solution, because neither inhibition of lettuce germination nor effects in root and hypocotyl lengths were observed. Therefore, we provide evidence that Brassica napus hairy roots could be effectively used to detoxify solutions containing 2,4-DCP and they have considerable potential for a large scale removal of this pollutant. Thus, this study could help to design a method for continuous and safe treatment of effluents containing chlorophenols.

  3. Enhanced Stilbene Production and Excretion in Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir Hairy Root Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo-Paul Tisserant

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes are defense molecules produced by grapevine in response to stresses including various elicitors and signal molecules. Together with their prominent role in planta, stilbenes have been the center of much attention in recent decades due to their pharmaceutical properties. With the aim of setting up a cost-effective and high purity production of resveratrol derivatives, hairy root lines were established from Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir 40024 to study the organ-specific production of various stilbenes. Biomass increase and stilbene production by roots were monitored during flask experiments. Although there was a constitutive production of stilbenes in roots, an induction of stilbene synthesis by methyl jasmonate (MeJA after 18 days of growth led to further accumulation of ε-viniferin, δ-viniferin, resveratrol and piceid. The use of 100 µM MeJA after 18 days of culture in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrins (MCDs improved production levels, which reached 1034µg/g fresh weight (FW in roots and 165 mg/L in the extracellular medium, corresponding to five-and 570-foldincrease in comparison to control. Whereas a low level of stilbene excretion was measured in controls, addition of MeJA induced excretion of up to 37% of total stilbenes. The use of MCDs increased the excretion phenomenon even more, reaching up to 98%. Our results demonstrate the ability of grapevine hairy roots to produce various stilbenes. This production was significantly improved in response to elicitation by methyl jasmonate and/or MCDs. This supports the interest of using hairy roots as a potentially valuable system for producing resveratrol derivatives.

  4. Hairy black hole solutions in U(1) gauge-invariant scalar-vector-tensor theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2018-05-01

    In U (1) gauge-invariant scalar-vector-tensor theories with second-order equations of motion, we study the properties of black holes (BH) on a static and spherically symmetric background. In shift-symmetric theories invariant under the shift of scalar ϕ → ϕ + c, we show the existence of new hairy BH solutions where a cubic-order scalar-vector interaction gives rise to a scalar hair manifesting itself around the event horizon. In the presence of a quartic-order interaction besides the cubic coupling, there are also regular BH solutions endowed with scalar and vector hairs.

  5. Immunological and molecular biological identification of a true case of T-hairy cell leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demeter, J; Pálóczi, K; Földi, J

    1990-01-01

    A hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) patient is presented in whom the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) carried suppressor T-cell markers (CD3+, CD2+, CD8+/CD4-, CD38+). Analysis of genomic DNA of PBMNC showed the presence of a monoclonal population of T cells, the T-cell receptor (TCR) beta......-chain gene being rearranged on both alleles (DR/DR), while the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain-genes were in germline configuration. The neoplastic cells were found to react with the monoclonal antibody RAB-1 - originally described as belonging to the B lineage-restricted monoclonal antibodies - and to carry...

  6. Biomass decomposition and nutrient release from black oat and hairy vetch residues deposited in a vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ademar Avelar Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A significant quantity of nutrients in vineyards may return to the soil each year through decomposition of residues from cover plants. This study aimed to evaluate biomass decomposition and nutrient release from residues of black oats and hairy vetch deposited in the vines rows, with and without plastic shelter, and in the between-row areas throughout the vegetative and productive cycle of the plants. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, from October 2008 to February 2009. Black oat (Avena strigosa and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa residues were collected, subjected to chemical (C, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg and biochemical (cellulose - Cel, hemicellulose - Hem, and lignin - Lig content analyses, and placed in litter bags, which were deposited in vines rows without plastic shelter (VPRWS, in vines rows with plastic shelter (VPRS, and in the between-row areas (BR. We collected the residues at 0, 33, 58, 76, and 110 days after deposition of the litter bags, prepared the material, and subjected it to analysis of total N, P, K, Ca, and Mg content. The VPRS contained the largest quantities and percentages of dry matter and residual nutrients (except for Ca in black oat residues from October to February, which coincides with the period from flowering up to grape harvest. This practice led to greater protection of the soil surface, avoiding surface runoff of the solution derived from between the rows, but it retarded nutrient cycling. The rate of biomass decomposition and nutrient release from hairy vetch residues from October to February was not affected by the position of deposition of the residues in the vineyard, which may especially be attributed to the lower values of the C/N and Lig/N ratios. Regardless of the type of residue, black oat or hairy vetch, the greatest decomposition and nutrient release mainly occurred up to 33 days after deposition of the residues on the soil surface, which coincided with the

  7. Determination of escin content in androgenic embryos and hairy root culture of Aesculus hippocastanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calić-Dragosavac, Dusica; Zdravković-Korać, Snezana; Savikin-Fodulović, Katarina; Radojević, Ljiljana; Vinterhalter, Branka

    2010-05-01

    Escin, a group of chemically related triterpenic glycosides, is widely used in commercial preparations for the treatment of venous insufficiency. Since the zygotic embryo cotyledons accumulate the highest amount of escin, it is currently extracted from the seeds of horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae), on a large scale. As this material is available during only short period of the year, we studied the possibility of using plant tissue culture to obtain escin. For this purpose, the content of escin in androgenic embryos and hairy root cultures of horse chestnut was studied. Escin content was found to be dependent on the stage of androgenic embryo development and the type of phytoregulator supplemented to the nutritive medium. In the absence of phytoregulators, androgenic embryos at the globular stage of development contained approximately four times less escin than those at the cotyledonary stage. Inclusion of various phytoregulators in the nutritive media stimulated escin production. Among them, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) showed the most pronounced effect, with escin content almost reaching that found in zygotic embryos (6.77% versus 6.96%). Two hairy root clones produced substantial amounts of escin (3.57% and 4.09%), less than zygotic embryos, but higher than cotyledonary embryos on phytoregulator-free medium.

  8. Regulation of sesquiterpenoid metabolism in recombinant and elicited Valeriana officinalis hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricigliano, Vincent; Kumar, Santosh; Kinison, Scott; Brooks, Christopher; Nybo, S Eric; Chappell, Joe; Howarth, Dianella G

    2016-05-01

    The medicinal properties of Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) root preparations are attributed to the anxiolytic sesquiterpenoid valerenic acid and its biosynthetic precursors valerenal and valerenadiene, as well as the anti-inflammatory sesquiterpenoid β-caryophyllene. In order to study and engineer the biosynthesis of these pharmacologically active metabolites, a binary vector co-transformation system was developed for V. officinalis hairy roots. The relative expression levels and jasmonate-inducibility of a number of genes associated with sesquiterpenoid metabolism were profiled in roots: farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (VoFPS), valerendiene synthase (VoVDS), germacrene C synthase (VoGCS), and a cytochrome P450 (CYP71D442) putatively associated with terpene metabolism based on sequence homology. Recombinant hairy root lines overexpressing VoFPS or VoVDS were generated and compared to control cultures. Overexpression of the VoFPS cDNA increased levels of the corresponding transcript 4- to 8-fold and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon accumulation by 1.5- to 4-fold. Overexpression of the VoVDS cDNA increased the corresponding transcript levels 5- to 9-fold and markedly increased yields of the oxygenated sesquiterpenoids valerenic acid and valerenal. Our findings suggest that the availability of cytoplasmic farnesyl diphosphate and valerenadiene are potential bottlenecks in Valeriana-specific sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, which is also subject to regulation by methyl jasmonate elicitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidant compounds in Salvia officinalis L. shoot and hairy root cultures in the nutrient sprinkle bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the production of compounds with antioxidant activity in hairy root and shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis grown in laboratory-scale sprinkle nutrient bioreactors. HPLC analysis showed that production of rosmarinic acid in transformed roots (34.65 ±1.07 mg l-1 was higher that in shoot culture (26.24 ±0.48 mg l-1. In the latter diterpenoids: carnosic acid (1.74 ±0.02 mg l-1 and carnosol (1.34 ±0.01 mg l-1 were also found. Biomass accumulation after a growth period in the bioreactor was also studied. An 18-fold increase in hairy root biomass was recorded after 40 days of culture. In sage shoot culture, biomass increased 43 times after 21 days of bioreactor run. The current operating conditions of the bioreactor were not suitable for the propagation of Salvia officinalis mainly due to the hyperhydricity problem of leaves and stems.

  10. Antimalarial Evaluation of the Chemical Constituents of Hairy Root Culture of Bixa orellana L.

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    Bo Zhai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 216 million malaria cases are reported annually worldwide and about a third of these cases, primarily children under the age of five years old, will not survive the infection. Despite this significant world health impact, only a limited number of therapeutic agents are currently available. The lack of scaffold diversity poses a threat in the event that multi-drug–resistant strains emerge. Terrestrial natural products have provided a major source of chemical diversity for starting materials in many FDA approved drugs over the past century. Bixa orellana L. is a popular plant used in South America for the treatment of malaria. In search of new potential therapeutic agents, the chemical constituents of a selected hairy root culture line of Bixa orellana L. were characterized utilizing NMR and mass spectrometry methods, followed by its biological evaluation against malaria strains 3D7 and K1. The crude extract and its isolated compounds demonstrated EC50 values in the micromolar range. Herein, we report our findings on the chemical constituents of Bixa orellana L. from hairy roots responsible for the observed antimalarial activity.

  11. Variation of Human Hairiness: A Possible Adaptation to Solar Radiation and Melanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhugga Amrita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many theories have been advanced to explain human hairlessness, however, there is no consensus. This study of 76 males observed that skin reflectance measuring skin colouration and melanin pigmentation correlated with hair size and follicle density. Individuals with a greater concentration of melanin within the superficial layer of the skin had a lower follicle density and smaller sizes of hairs. In contrast, individuals with a lower melanin concentration and lighter skin colour had a full range of hairiness. This leads to the suggestion that over the course of human evolution, high concentrations of melanin in consistently exposed to ultraviolet radiation areas developed first and that hair loss was a consequence of competition in the skin between melanin production and hair growth. Darker pigmented skin and lower follicle density are significantly correlated (R2=0.283; p<0.05. Individuals with darker skin had a mean of 4.91 follicles per cm2 whereas those with lighter skin reflectance had 11.20 follicles per cm2. This suggests that increased concentrations of melanin in the basal layer of the epidermis may limit hairiness by negatively influencing the skin's ability to produce hair.

  12. Evaporation and wetted area of single droplets on waxy and hairy leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H; Yu, Y; Ozkan, H E; Derksen, R C; Krause, C R

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the evaporation of pesticide droplets and wetting of Leaf surfaces can increase foliar application efficiency and reduce pesticide use. Evaporation time and wetted area of single pesticide droplets on hairy and waxy geranium leaf surfaces were measured under the controlled conditions for five droplet sizes and three relative humidities. The sprays used to form droplets included water, a nonionic colloidal polymer drift retardant, an alkyl polyoxyethylene surfactant, and an insecticide. Adding the surfactant into spray mixtures greatly increased droplet wetted area on the surfaces while droplet evaporation time was greatly reduced. Adding the drift retardant into spray mixture slightly increased the droplet evaporation time and the wetted area. Also, droplets had Longer evaporation times on waxy leaves than on hairy leaves for all droplet diameters and all relative humidity conditions. Increasing relative humidity could increase the droplet evaporation time greatly but did not change the the wetted area. The droplet evaporation time and wetted area increased exponentially as the droplet size increased. Therefore, droplet size, surface characteristics of the target, relative humidity, and chemical composition of the spray mixtures (water alone, pesticide, additives) should be included as important factors that affect the efficacy and efficiency of pesticide applications.

  13. Listeria monocytogenes Infection in Hairy Cell Leukemia: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Barton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes infections have been described in patients with diverse types of malignancy, especially leukemia. We report the case of a 65-year-old man with previously untreated hairy cell leukemia characterized by CD5 positivity and trisomy 12 (3% of blood lymphocytes who developed bacteremia due to L. monocytogenes serotype 1/2b. We summarize clinical features and treatment of this patient and five previously reported patients with hairy cell leukemia who also had L. monocytogenes infections. All six patients were men. Their mean age at infection diagnosis was 70 y. Three men had undergone splenectomy 4–11 y before they developed L. monocytogenes infection. The central nervous system was the primary site of infection in four men. Bacteremia alone occurred in two other men. At diagnosis of infection, one man was receiving antileukemia chemotherapy and another man was receiving treatment for Kaposi’s sarcoma. Two other patients had other comorbid conditions. All six men recovered from their infections.

  14. Antioxidant activity of selected stilbenoids and their bioproduction in hairy root cultures of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopo-Olazabal, Cesar; Hubstenberger, John; Nopo-Olazabal, Luis; Medina-Bolivar, Fabricio

    2013-12-04

    Stilbenoids are polyphenolic phytoalexins with health-related properties in humans. Muscadine grape ( Vitis rotundifolia ) hairy root cultures were established via Agrobacterium rhizogenes -mediated transformation, and the effects of growth regulators (3-indolebutyric acid and 6-benzylaminopurine) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on stilbenoid production were studied. Twenty-one-day-old hairy root cultures were treated with 100 μM MeJA for 24 h, and then the stilbenoids were extracted from the medium and tissue with ethyl acetate and analyzed by HPLC. Resveratrol, piceid, and ε-viniferin were observed preferentially in tissue, whereas piceatannol was observed only in medium. Growth regulators did not affect the yield of stilbenoids, whereas higher levels were found upon treatment with MeJA. Stilbenoids identified in the hairy root cultures were analyzed for their radical scavenging capacity showing piceatannol and ε-viniferin as the strongest antioxidants. Muscadine grape hairy root cultures were demonstrated to be amenable systems to study stilbenoid biosynthesis and a sustainable source of these bioactive compounds.

  15. Biodegradation of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane by transgenic hairy root cultures of Cucurbita moschata that accumulate recombinant bacterial LinA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Namiki, Sayuri; Oshima, Masao; Moriuchi, Ryota; Konagaya, Ken-Ichi; Seike, Nobuyasu; Otani, Takashi; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka; Tabei, Yutaka

    2016-09-01

    γ-HCH was successfully degraded using LinA-expressed transgenic hairy root cultures of Cucurbita moschata . Fusing an endoplasmic reticulum-targeting signal peptide to LinA was essential for stable accumulation in the hairy roots. The pesticide γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that raises public health and environmental pollution concerns worldwide. Although several isolates of γ-HCH-degrading bacteria are available, inoculating them directly into γ-HCH-contaminated soil is ineffective because of the bacterial survival rate. Cucurbita species incorporate significant amounts of POPs from soils compared with other plant species. Here, we describe a novel bioremediation strategy that combines the bacterial degradation of γ-HCH and the efficient uptake of γ-HCH by Cucurbita species. We produced transgenic hairy root cultures of Cucurbita moschata that expressed recombinant bacterial linA, isolated from the bacterium Sphingobium japonicum UT26. The LinA protein was accumulated stably in the hairy root cultures by fusing an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeting signal peptide to LinA. Then, we demonstrated that the cultures degraded more than 90 % of γ-HCH (1 ppm) overnight and produced the γ-HCH metabolite 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, indicating that LinA degraded γ-HCH. These results indicate that the gene linA has high potential for phytoremediation of environmental γ-HCH.

  16. Improvement of the Value of Green Manure via Mixed Hairy Vetch and Barley Cultivation in Temperate Paddy Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwang, Hyun Young; Kim, Gil Won; Lee, Yong Bok; Kim, Pil Joo; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Legume hairy vetch and non-legume barley mixtures are broadly cultivated to improve the value of cover crops in mono-rice paddies. Nevertheless, the effects of mixing conditions of the two cover crops on biomass and nutrient productivities and on the yield characteristics of subsequent rice crops

  17. Metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls by Solanum nigrum hairy root clone SNC-90 and analysis of transformation products

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučerová, P.; Macková, M.; Chromá, L.; Burkhard, J.; Tříska, Jan; Demnerová, K.; Macek, Tomáš

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 225, - (2000), s. 109-115 ISSN 0032-079X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/1628; GA AV ČR IAB6127901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : environment * hairy root * phytoremediation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.218, year: 2000

  18. A rotating hairy AdS{sub 3} black hole with the metric having only one Killing vector field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, Norihiro [Department of Physics, Osaka University,Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ishibashi, Akihiro [Department of Physics, Kinki University,Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Maeda, Kengo [Faculty of Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology,Saitama 330-8570 (Japan)

    2015-08-24

    We perturbatively construct a three-dimensional rotating AdS black hole with a real scalar hair. We choose the mass of a scalar field slightly above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound and impose a general boundary condition for the bulk scalar field at AdS infinity. We first show that rotating BTZ black holes are unstable against scalar field perturbations under our more general boundary condition. Next we construct a rotating hairy black hole perturbatively with respect to a small amplitude ϵ of the scalar field, up to O(ϵ{sup 4}). Our hairy black hole is stationary and exhibits no dissipation, but the lumps of the non-linearly perturbed geometry break axial symmetry, thus providing the first example of a rotating black hole whose metric admits only one Killing vector field. Furthermore, we numerically show that the entropy of our hairy black hole is larger than that of the BTZ black hole with the same energy and the angular momentum. We briefly discuss if our rotating hairy black hole in lumpy geometry could be the endpoint of the instability.

  19. 16D10 siRNAs inhibit root-knot nematode infection in transgenic grape hairy roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop a biotech-based solution for controlling Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) in grapes, we evaluated the efficacy of plant-derived RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of a conserved RKN effector gene, 16D10, for nematode resistance in transgenic grape hairy roots. Two hairpin-based silencing constru...

  20. Morphometric and biochemical characterization of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots obtained after single and double transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmaraju, R; Venkatachalam, L; Bhagyalakshmi, N

    2008-06-01

    It is known that T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes affects processes of plant development and activates the synthesis of secondary metabolites in transformed plant cells. In the present investigation, we provide evidence that different strains of A. rhizogenes significantly affect morphometric, morphological and functional characteristics of hairy roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Infection with four strains of A. rhizogenes (A4, A 2/83, A 20/83 and LMG-150) resulted in ten clones of hairy roots, which were named accordingly as A4(1), A4(2), A4(3), A 2/83(1), A 2/83(2), A 2/83(3), A 20/83(1), A 20/83(2), A 20/83(3) and LMG-150. Their growth characteristics, pigment content, levels of endogenous auxin and T-DNA copy number showed significant differences probably due to the physiological status of the host cell rather than the T-DNA copy number. Although A 2/83 showed highest hairy root induction capacity, the best hairy root clone was obtained with strain LMG-150 that produced highest biomass and pigments. In this root clone, the enzyme peroxidase was found involved in altering the endogenous auxin pool. When root clone LMG-150 was re-transformed to insert additional individual rol genes, two double transformed clones were obtained, one for rolABC and the other for rolC gene where the former produced higher biomass and betalaine than the latter. Despite the established fact that rol genes of T-DNA influence endogenous phytohormones, no direct correlation among the single transformants and the double transformants was found. This is the first report, in our knowledge, where a hairy root clone has been used to obtain double transformants.

  1. Chitosan (middle-viscous as an effective elicitor for silymarin production in Silybum marianum hairy root cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hasanloo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elicitation with middle-viscous chitosan (30 mg/50 mL significantly stimulated silymarin synthesis in Silybum marianum hairy root cultures. The root cultures established by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes AR15834 showed a potential for production of silymarin. Elicitation with medium molecular weight of chitosan (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg/50 mL was used in order to improve silymarin production. Total silymarin increased about 5.26-fold after 96 h of treatment with 30 mg/50 mL chitosan. Dry weight of the hairy roots reached the highest point (0.530 and 0.535 g after 96 h in presence of 20 and 30 mg/50 mL chitosan, respectively. Five different flavonolignans were isolated; taxifolin, silychristin, silydianin, silybin and isosilybin 0.133, 0.200, 0.120, 0.041 and 0.056 mg/g dry weight, respectively. 30 days old hairy roots were treated by 30 mg/50 mL chitosan in different times (12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. The amount of silymarin accumulation significantly increased (0.705 mg/gDW in hairy roots after 96 h treatment. These observations suggested that the medium molecular weight of chitosan could be elicited by S. marianum hairy root cultures that lead to the higher production of silymarin. These results correlated with the culture time, and the biosynthesis which reached to a maximum of 0.705 mg/gDW by 96 h after culture. (2.9-fold higher than the control.

  2. An extensive case study of hairy-root cultures for enhanced secondary-metabolite production through metabolic-pathway engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Rahman, Laiq Ur; Kukreja, Arun Kumar

    2010-08-23

    An intrinsic improvement is taking place in the methodologies for the development of culture systems with first-rate production of plant-based molecules. The blending of HR (hairy root) cultures with ME (metabolic engineering) approaches offers new insights into, and possibilities for, improving the system productivity for known and/or novel high-value plant-derived active compounds. The introduction and expression of foreign genes in plants results in improvement of cellular activities by manipulating enzymatic, regulatory and transport function of the cell. The rational amendments in the rate-limiting steps of a biosynthetic pathway as well as inactivating the inefficient pathway(s) for by-product formation can be accomplished either through single-step engineering or through the multi-step engineering. The hierarchical control of any metabolic process can lead the engineer to apply the ME ideas and principles to any of the strata, including transcriptional, moving on to translational and enzymatic activity. The HR culture systems offer a remarkable potential for commercial production of a number of low-volume, but high-value, secondary metabolites. Taking HR as a model system, in the present review, we discuss engineering principles and perceptions to exploit secondary-metabolite pathways for the production of important bioactive compounds. We also talk about requisites and possible challenges that occur during ME, with emphasis on examples of various HR systems. Furthermore, it also highlights the utilization of global information obtained from '-omic' platforms in order to explore pathway architecture, structural and functional aspects of important enzymes and genes that can support the design of sets of engineering, resulting in the generation of wide-ranging views of DNA sequence-to-metabolite passageway networking and their control to obtain desired results.

  3. Coping with uncertainty: woodpecker finches (Cactospiza pallida from an unpredictable habitat are more flexible than birds from a stable habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Tebbich

    Full Text Available Behavioural flexibility is thought to be a major factor in evolution. It may facilitate the discovery and exploitation of new resources, which in turn may expose populations to novel selective forces and facilitate adaptive radiation. Darwin's finches are a textbook example of adaptive radiation. They are fast learners and show a range of unusual foraging techniques, probably as a result of their flexibility. In this study we aimed to test whether variability of the environment is correlated with flexibility. We compared woodpecker finches from a dry area (hereafter, Arid Zone, where food availability is variable, with individuals from a cloud forest (hereafter, Scalesia zone where food abundance is stable. As parameters for flexibility, we measured neophilia and neophobia, which are two aspects of reaction to novelty, reversal learning and problem-solving. We found no differences in performance on a problem-solving task but, in line with our prediction, individuals from the Arid Zone were significantly faster reversal learners and more neophilic than their conspecifics from the Scalesia zone. The latter result supports the notion that environmental variability drives flexibility. In contrast to our prediction, Arid Zone birds were even more neophobic than birds from the Scalesia Zone. The latter result could be the consequence of differences in predation pressure between the two vegetation zones.

  4. Extrapair paternity and maternity in the three-toed woodpecker, Picoides tridactylus: insights from microsatellite-based parentage analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hua Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques have revealed that avian mating systems are more diverse and complex than previously thought. We used microsatellite markers to determine genetic parentage, the prevalence of extrapair paternity and quasi-parasitism (i.e. situations where a male's extrapair mate lay in his nest in a socially monogamous population of three-toed woodpeckers (Picoides tridactylus in southern Finland. A total of 129 adults and nestlings, representing 5-9 families annually from 2004-2007, were genotyped at up to ten microsatellite loci. The results of genetic assignment tests confirmed that monogamous parentage characterized the majority (84.6%, 22/26 of broods, and that most (93.8%, 75/80 nestlings were the offspring of their social parents. Two of 80 nestlings (2.5% in two of 26 broods (7.7% were sired by extrapair males and quasi-parasitism occurred in 3.8% (3/80 of nestlings and 7.7% (2/26 of broods. Hence, the levels of extrapair parentage were low, possibly because both genetic polygyny and polyandry are constrained by the high paternal effort required for parental care. The co-occurrence of low levels of extrapair paternity and quasi-parasitism are discussed in light of ecological and behavioural factors characterizing the species biology.

  5. Extrapair paternity and maternity in the three-toed woodpecker, Picoides tridactylus: insights from microsatellite-based parentage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Hua; Välimäki, Kaisa; Piha, Markus; Pakkala, Timo; Merilä, Juha

    2009-11-18

    Molecular techniques have revealed that avian mating systems are more diverse and complex than previously thought. We used microsatellite markers to determine genetic parentage, the prevalence of extrapair paternity and quasi-parasitism (i.e. situations where a male's extrapair mate lay in his nest) in a socially monogamous population of three-toed woodpeckers (Picoides tridactylus) in southern Finland. A total of 129 adults and nestlings, representing 5-9 families annually from 2004-2007, were genotyped at up to ten microsatellite loci. The results of genetic assignment tests confirmed that monogamous parentage characterized the majority (84.6%, 22/26) of broods, and that most (93.8%, 75/80) nestlings were the offspring of their social parents. Two of 80 nestlings (2.5%) in two of 26 broods (7.7%) were sired by extrapair males and quasi-parasitism occurred in 3.8% (3/80) of nestlings and 7.7% (2/26) of broods. Hence, the levels of extrapair parentage were low, possibly because both genetic polygyny and polyandry are constrained by the high paternal effort required for parental care. The co-occurrence of low levels of extrapair paternity and quasi-parasitism are discussed in light of ecological and behavioural factors characterizing the species biology.

  6. In vitro culture of the obligate parasite Spongospora subterranea (cercozoa; plasmodiophorida) associated with root-inducing transferred-DNA transformed potato hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xinshun; Christ, Barbara J

    2007-01-01

    Spongospora subterranea is a soil-borne, obligate parasitic protist that causes powdery scab of potatoes. In this study, an in vitro culture system was developed for the maintenance and proliferation of the protist in potato hairy roots. The hairy roots of potato were induced in vitro with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Cystosori of S. subterranea from potato scab lesions were surface disinfested and used to inoculate potato hairy roots. Plasmodia, zoosporangia, and cystosori were observed microscopically in the hairy roots within 6 wk after inoculation, indicating the completion of the life cycle of S. subterranea in vitro. This is the first in vitro culture system for S. subterranea, and will be a valuable tool to study fundamental and practical aspects of the biology of the parasite.

  7. Effect of {sup 15}n-labeled hairy vetch and nitrogen fertilization on maize nutrition and yield under no-tillage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Acosta, Jose Alan de [Drakkar Solos, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Amado, Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Silva, Leandro Souza da, E-mail: tamado@smail.ufsm.b, E-mail: leandro@smail.ufsm.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Soil Dept.; Neergaard, Andreas de; Vinther, Mads, E-mail: adn@life.ku.d [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Silveira Nicoloso, Rodrigo da, E-mail: rodrigo.nicoloso@cnpsa.embrapa.b [Embrapa Swine and Poultry, Concordia, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    This study evaluated the effect of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) as cover crop on maize nutrition and yield under no tillage using isotope techniques. For this purpose, three experiments were carried out: quantification of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in hairy vetch; estimation of the N release rate from hairy vetch residues on the soil surface; quantification of {sup 15}N recovery by maize from labeled hairy vetch under three rates of mineral N fertilization. This two year field experiment was conducted on a sandy Acrisol (FAO soil classification) or Argissolo Vermelho distrofico arenico (Brazilian Soil Classification), at a mean annual temperature of 18 deg C and mean annual rainfall of 1686 mm. The experiment was arranged in a double split-plot factorial design with three replications. Two levels of hairy vetch residue (50 and 100 % of the aboveground biomass production) were distributed on the surface of the main plots (5 x 12 m). Maize in the sub-plots (5 x 4 m) was fertilized with three N rates (0, 60, and 120 kg ha{sup -1} N), with urea as N source. The hairy vetch-derived N recovered by maize was evaluated in microplots (1.8 x 2.2 m). The BFN of hairy vetch was on average 72.4 %, which represents an annual input of 130 kg ha{sup -1} of atmospheric N. The N release from hairy vetch residues was fast, with a release of about 90 % of total N within the first four weeks after cover crop management and soil residue application. The recovery of hairy vetch {sup 15}N by maize was low, with an average of 12.3 % at harvest. Although hairy vetch was not directly the main source of maize N nutrition, the crop yield reached 8.2 Mg ha{sup -1}, without mineral fertilization. There was an apparent synergism between hairy vetch residue application and the mineral N fertilization rate of 60 kg ha{sup -1}, confirming the benefits of the combination of organic and inorganic N sources for maize under no tillage. (author)

  8. Lignan formation in hairy root cultures of Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale ssp. alpinum (Cass.) Greuter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrosch, Christoph; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Kopp, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    A hairy root line of Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale ssp. alpinum (Cass.) Greuter) was obtained upon transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC15834. Elicitation of this line with silver nitrate, sucrose, methyl jasmonate and yeast extract at various concentrations in most cases resulted in a stimulation of lignan biosynthesis. Through elicitation with 6% sucrose the roots accumulated the pharmacologically active lignans leoligin and 5-methoxy-leoligin at levels of 0.0678% and 0.0372%, respectively, without significant growth inhibition. These lignan levels were comparable to those found in intact roots of cultivated Edelweiss. The biotechnological production of leoligin could be an attractive option for the continuous, field culture-independent production of the valuable secondary metabolites leoligin and 5-methoxy-leoligin. PMID:24932777

  9. Biochemical mechanisms of organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in red hairy caterpillar Amsacta albistriga (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muthusamy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The red hairy caterpillar, Amsacta albistriga Walker, is an important pest of groundnut, castor and cotton in India. We determined the susceptibility of Amsacta albistriga to organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides under laboratory conditions. Biochemical profile of esterase, acetylcholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione S-dehydrogenase was assessed. Synthetic pyrethroid (8.82 ppm was highly toxic as compared to organophosphate insecticide (11.5 ppm: high esterase and acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in temephos treatment. GST activity was significantly higher in λ-cyhalothrin treatment. Esterase isozyme profiling using native PAGE shows inhibition of esterase bands in λ-cyhalothrin treatment, while three distinct bands (43, 66 and 70 kDa were observed in temephos and dichlorvos treatment. The results of the present study suggest that esterase and AChE are dominant organophosphate detoxification enzymes in Amsacta albistriga.

  10. A highly reversible room-temperature lithium metal battery based on crosslinked hairy nanoparticles.

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2015-12-04

    Rough electrodeposition, uncontrolled parasitic side-reactions with electrolytes and dendrite-induced short-circuits have hindered development of advanced energy storage technologies based on metallic lithium, sodium and aluminium electrodes. Solid polymer electrolytes and nanoparticle-polymer composites have shown promise as candidates to suppress lithium dendrite growth, but the challenge of simultaneously maintaining high mechanical strength and high ionic conductivity at room temperature has so far been unmet in these materials. Here we report a facile and scalable method of fabricating tough, freestanding membranes that combine the best attributes of solid polymers, nanocomposites and gel-polymer electrolytes. Hairy nanoparticles are employed as multifunctional nodes for polymer crosslinking, which produces mechanically robust membranes that are exceptionally effective in inhibiting dendrite growth in a lithium metal battery. The membranes are also reported to enable stable cycling of lithium batteries paired with conventional intercalating cathodes. Our findings appear to provide an important step towards room-temperature dendrite-free batteries.

  11. Hairy nanoparticle assemblies as one-component functional polymer nanocomposites: opportunities and challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil J.

    2013-03-01

    Over the past three decades, the combination of inorganic-nanoparticles and organic-polymers has led to a wide variety of advanced materials, including polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). Recently, synthetic innovations for attaching polymers to nanoparticles to create hairy nanoparticles (HNPs) has expanded opportunities in this field. In addition to nanoparticle compatibilization for traditional particle-matrix blending, neat-HNPs afford one-component hybrids, both in composition and properties, which avoids issues of mixing that plague traditional PNCs. Continuous improvements in purity, scalability, and theoretical foundations of structure-performance relationships are critical to achieving design control of neat-HNPs necessary for future applications, ranging from optical, energy, and sensor devices to lubricants, green-bodies, and structures. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  12. Understanding to Hierarchical Microstructures of Crab (Chinese hairy) Shell as a Natural Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuanqiang, Zhou; Xiangxiang, Gong; Jie, Han

    2016-01-01

    This work was done to better understand the microstructures, composition and mechanical properties of Chinese hairy crab shell. For fully revealing its hierarchical microstructure, the crab shell was observed with electron microscope under different magnifications from different facets. XRD, EDS, FTIR and TGA techniques have been used to characterize the untreated and chemically-treated crab shells, which provided enough information to determine the species and relative content of components in this biomaterial. Combined the microstructures with constituents analysis, the structural principles of crab shell was detailedly realized from different structural levels beyond former reports. To explore the relationship between structure and function, the mechanical properties of shell have been measured through performing tensile tests. The contributions of organics and minerals in shell to the mechanical properties were also discussed by measuring the tensile strength of de-calcification samples treated with HCl solution

  13. Polymer-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography on hairy skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Miyako; Kudo, Yuta; Miki, Norihisa

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the optimization of the shape of dry microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography (EEG) on hairy locations and compare the electrodes we developed with conventional wet electrodes. We propose the use of SU-8-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes (CMEs), which have pillars of 1.0 mm height and 0.4 mm diameter with a gap of 0.43 mm between pillars. Microneedles are formed on the top of the pillars. The shape was determined by how well the pillars can avoid hairs and support the microneedles to penetrate through the stratum corneum. The skin-electrode contact impedances of the fabricated CMEs were found to be higher and less stable than those of conventional wet electrodes. However, the CMEs successfully acquired signals with qualities as good as those of conventional wet electrodes. Given the usability of the CMEs, which do not require skin preparation or gel, they are promising alternatives to conventional wet electrodes.

  14. Understanding to Hierarchical Microstructures of Crab (Chinese hairy) Shell as a Natural Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuanqiang, Zhou [Testing Center, Yangzhou University, No. 48 Wenhui East Road, Yangzhou (China); Xiangxiang, Gong [Testing Center, Yangzhou University, No. 48 Wenhui East Road, Yangzhou (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China); Jie, Han [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China)

    2016-03-07

    This work was done to better understand the microstructures, composition and mechanical properties of Chinese hairy crab shell. For fully revealing its hierarchical microstructure, the crab shell was observed with electron microscope under different magnifications from different facets. XRD, EDS, FTIR and TGA techniques have been used to characterize the untreated and chemically-treated crab shells, which provided enough information to determine the species and relative content of components in this biomaterial. Combined the microstructures with constituents analysis, the structural principles of crab shell was detailedly realized from different structural levels beyond former reports. To explore the relationship between structure and function, the mechanical properties of shell have been measured through performing tensile tests. The contributions of organics and minerals in shell to the mechanical properties were also discussed by measuring the tensile strength of de-calcification samples treated with HCl solution.

  15. Suspected pyrrolizidine alkaloid hepatotoxicosis in wild southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Lucy; Fletcher, Mary T; Boardman, Wayne S J

    2014-07-30

    Southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) inhabiting degraded habitat in South Australia were recently identified with extensive hair loss and dermatitis and were in thin to emaciated body condition. Pathological and clinicopathological investigations on affected juvenile wombats identified a toxic hepatopathy suggestive of plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids, accompanied by photosensitive dermatitis. Hepatic disease was suspected in additional wombats on the basis of serum biochemical analysis. Preliminary toxicological analysis performed on scats and gastrointestinal contents from wombats found in this degraded habitat identified a number of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids consistent with ingestion of Heliotropeum europaeum. Although unpalatable, ingestion may occur by young animals due to decreased availability of preferred forages in degraded habitats and the emergence of weeds around the time of weaning of naive animals. Habitat degradation leading to malnutrition and ingestion of toxic weed species is a significant welfare issue in this species.

  16. Instability of hairy black holes in spontaneously broken Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, E.; Mavromatos, N. E.

    1995-02-01

    The stability of a new class of hairy black-hole solutions in the coupled system of Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs is examined, generalising a method suggested by Brodbeck and Straumann and collaborators, and Volkov and Gal'tsov. The method maps the algebraic system of linearised radial perturbations of the various field modes around the black-hole solution into a coupled system of radial equations of Schrödinger type. No detailed knowledge of the black-hole solution is required, except from the fact that the boundary conditions at the physical space-time boundaries (horizons) must be such so as to guarantee thefiniteness of the various expressions involved. In this way, it is demonstrated that the above Schrödinger equations have bound states, which implies the instability of the associated black-hole solution.

  17. Light-enabled reversible self-assembly and tunable optical properties of stable hairy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yihuang; Wang, Zewei; He, Yanjie; Yoon, Young Jun; Jung, Jaehan; Zhang, Guangzhao; Lin, Zhiqun

    2018-02-01

    The ability to dynamically organize functional nanoparticles (NPs) via the use of environmental triggers (temperature, pH, light, or solvent polarity) opens up important perspectives for rapid and convenient construction of a rich variety of complex assemblies and materials with new structures and functionalities. Here, we report an unconventional strategy for crafting stable hairy NPs with light-enabled reversible and reliable self-assembly and tunable optical properties. Central to our strategy is to judiciously design amphiphilic star-like diblock copolymers comprising inner hydrophilic blocks and outer hydrophobic photoresponsive blocks as nanoreactors to direct the synthesis of monodisperse plasmonic NPs intimately and permanently capped with photoresponsive polymers. The size and shape of hairy NPs can be precisely tailored by modulating the length of inner hydrophilic block of star-like diblock copolymers. The perpetual anchoring of photoresponsive polymers on the NP surface renders the attractive feature of self-assembly and disassembly of NPs on demand using light of different wavelengths, as revealed by tunable surface plasmon resonance absorption of NPs and the reversible transformation of NPs between their dispersed and aggregated states. The dye encapsulation/release studies manifested that such photoresponsive NPs may be exploited as smart guest molecule nanocarriers. By extension, the star-like block copolymer strategy enables the crafting of a family of stable stimuli-responsive NPs (e.g., temperature- or pH-sensitive polymer-capped magnetic, ferroelectric, upconversion, or semiconducting NPs) and their assemblies for fundamental research in self-assembly and crystallization kinetics of NPs as well as potential applications in optics, optoelectronics, magnetic technologies, sensory materials and devices, catalysis, nanotechnology, and biotechnology.

  18. Hairy Leukoplakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images For Reporters About Us - + Mission Strategic Plan Leadership & Staff Advisory Committees Budget & Congressional Job Openings Diversity Getting to NIDCR Contact Us Advancing the nation's ...

  19. hairy elbows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electromyography (EMG) showed a nonspecific myopathic pattern, so quadriceps muscle biopsy was arranged. This showed mild nonpecific myo- pathic changes with some of persistence foetal myosin. Ini- tial genetic investigations were also normal, including kary- otype (46 XX), genomic comparative hybridization (CGH).

  20. In vitro production of secondary metabolite using Atropa komarovii Bline&Shal (Solanaceae hairy root culture via Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Banihashemi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim:A new sustainable tissue-based system is presented by plant hairy roots, preserving all of the several specialized types of cell with critical roles in allowing bioactive secondary molecules to be synthesized more consistently as usual. The system is also essential for studying the production of alkaloid in culture. Experimental: The Atropa komarovii leaves were wounded and infected with soil gram-negative bacterium Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834. After three weeks, the transformation roots and control roots without infection, appeared, and for confirming that T-DNA Ri plasmid fragments were transformed and integrated to plant genome, the rolB gene region, was amplified using PCR. HPLC method was then used for assaying how two tropane alkaloids such as atropine (hyosciamine and scopolamine (hyoscine were produced in hairy roots,control roots, leaves and roots of plantlet. Results: The data indicated that diagnostic 500bp rol B product amplification was exhibited to be present by all the transformed hairy roots. Scopolamine content in hairy roots was considerably greater than that in control roots but greatest (Hyoscyamine atropine content was observed in control roots. Analysis of DW, FW and root length showed that fresh and dry root weight increased in hairy roots compared with that in non transformed root. Recommended applications/industries: The present study demonstrated that secondary metabolite production using medicinal plants concerns many researchers worldwide today and hairy root culture is a useful method for producing tropane alkaloids in solanaceae.

  1. A donor-specific QTL, exhibiting allelic variation for leaf sheath hairiness in a nested association mapping population, is located on barley chromosome 4H

    KAUST Repository

    Saade, Stephanie

    2017-12-07

    Leaf sheath hairiness is a morphological trait associated with various advantages, including tolerance to both abiotic and biotic stresses, thereby increasing yield. Understanding the genetic basis of this trait in barley can therefore improve the agronomic performance of this economically important crop. We scored leaf sheath hairiness in a two-year field trial in 1,420 BC1S3 lines from the wild barley nested association mapping (NAM) population HEB-25. Leaf sheath hairiness segregated in six out of 25 families with the reference parent Barke being glabrous. We detected the major hairy leaf sheath locus Hs (syn. Hsh) on chromosome 4H (111.3 cM) with high precision. The effects of the locus varied across the six different wild barley donors, with donor of HEB family 11 conferring the highest score of leaf sheath hairiness. Due to the high mapping resolution present in HEB-25, we were able to discuss physically linked pentatricopeptide repeat genes and subtilisin-like proteases as potential candidate genes underlying this locus. In this study, we proved that HEB-25 provides an appropriate tool to further understand the genetic control of leaf sheath hairiness in barley. Furthermore, our work represents a perfect starting position to clone the gene responsible for the 4H locus observed.

  2. A donor-specific QTL, exhibiting allelic variation for leaf sheath hairiness in a nested association mapping population, is located on barley chromosome 4H.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Saade

    Full Text Available Leaf sheath hairiness is a morphological trait associated with various advantages, including tolerance to both abiotic and biotic stresses, thereby increasing yield. Understanding the genetic basis of this trait in barley can therefore improve the agronomic performance of this economically important crop. We scored leaf sheath hairiness in a two-year field trial in 1,420 BC1S3 lines from the wild barley nested association mapping (NAM population HEB-25. Leaf sheath hairiness segregated in six out of 25 families with the reference parent Barke being glabrous. We detected the major hairy leaf sheath locus Hs (syn. Hsh on chromosome 4H (111.3 cM with high precision. The effects of the locus varied across the six different wild barley donors, with donor of HEB family 11 conferring the highest score of leaf sheath hairiness. Due to the high mapping resolution present in HEB-25, we were able to discuss physically linked pentatricopeptide repeat genes and subtilisin-like proteases as potential candidate genes underlying this locus. In this study, we proved that HEB-25 provides an appropriate tool to further understand the genetic control of leaf sheath hairiness in barley. Furthermore, our work represents a perfect starting position to clone the gene responsible for the 4H locus observed.

  3. Hairy polyp of the pharynx obscured on physical examination by endotracheal tube, but diagnosed on brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budenz, Cameron L.; Lesperance, Marci M. [University of Michigan Medical School, Departments of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gebarski, Stephen [University of Michigan Medical School, Departments of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2005-11-01

    We report a case of hairy polyp of the pharynx diagnosed on brain MRI in order to stress the need to examine carefully all tissues included on an imaging study, even those outside the clinically stated region of interest, and to remind practitioners to consider unusual as well as common etiologies for neonatal respiratory distress. Our case is unique in that thorough examination of a brain MRI, ordered in the evaluation of presumed central apnea, led to the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. Synergistic effects of polyploidization and elicitation on biomass and hyoscyamine content in hairy roots of Datura stramonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belabbassi, O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The hyoscyamine, a tropane alkaloid, widely used in medicine, can be produced from Datura sp. (Solanaceae. However, its content in the spontaneous roots remains low; therefore, hairy roots (HRs were envisaged as a potential alternative to improve its biosynthesis. The hairy roots are characterized by a good genetic stability and a rapid growth. Indeed, Datura stramonium HRs have widely been studied in the perspective of improving the yield of hyoscyamine. This study is part of this same perspective. Objectives. This paper aims to study the effects of polyploidization of HRs induced by colchicine in synergy with elicitation (with acetylsalicylic [ASA] or salicylic acids [SA] on the hyoscyamine content in D. stramonium. Method. Colchicine was applied at different concentrations and periods, on a selected hairy root line (LDS of D. stramonium obtained by infection with Agrobactrium rhizogenes strain A4. The selection of tetraploid HR lines was performed by the cytogenetic analysis using light microscopy. The effect of polyploidization and elicitation was studied on the biomass (dry weight and hyoscyamine content of HRs. Results. The untreated HR line (control shows a diploid level with 2n = 24 chromosomes. However, the HR lines treated with colchicine show, in most cases, an endoreduplication of their genetic material. The survival rate of endoreduplicated lines varies between 30% and 93%, depending on concentration and exposure time to colchicine. Moreover, the tetraploid HR line shows an increase in its biomass and hyoscyamine content in comparison to the diploid HR line (LDS. Further, elicitation of HRs by ASA or AS at the 10-4 M concentration causes a low decrease or increase in dry weight, respectively. However, the same treatments show a significant increase in the yield of hyoscyamine in elicited HR lines. Consequently, our work indicates that the combination of polyploidy and elicitation can lead to significant

  5. Striga parasitizes transgenic hairy roots of Zea mays and provides a tool for studying plant-plant interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runo Steven

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Striga species are noxious root hemi-parasitic weeds that debilitate cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Control options for Striga are limited and developing Striga resistant crop germplasm is regarded as the best and most sustainable control measure. Efforts to improve germplasm for Striga resistance by a non-Genetic Modification (GM approach, for example by exploiting natural resistance, or by a GM approach are constrained by limited information on the biological processes underpinning host-parasite associations. Additionaly, a GM approach is stymied by lack of availability of candidate resistance genes for introduction into hosts and robust transformation methods to validate gene functions. Indeed, a majority of Striga hosts, the world’s most cultivated cereals, are recalcitrant to genetic transformation. In maize, the existing protocols for transformation and regeneration are tedious, lengthy, and highly genotype-specific with low efficiency of transformation. Results We used Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain K599 carrying a reporter gene construct, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP, to generate transgenic composite maize plants that were challenged with the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica. Eighty five percent of maize plants produced transgenic hairy roots expressing GFP. Consistent with most hairy roots produced in other species, transformed maize roots exhibited a hairy root phenotype, the hallmark of A. rhizogenes mediated transformation. Transgenic hairy roots resulting from A. rhizogenes transformation were readily infected by S. hermonthica. There were no significant differences in the number and size of S. hermonthica individuals recovered from either transgenic or wild type roots. Conclusions This rapid, high throughput, transformation technique will advance our understanding of gene function in parasitic plant-host interactions.

  6. Kytococcus schroeteri Bacteremia in a Patient with Hairy Cell Leukemia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Amaraneni, Akshay; Malik, Devin; Jasra, Sakshi; Chandana, Sreenivasa R.; Garg, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    The Kytococcus genus formerly belonged to Micrococcus. The first report of a Kytococcus schroeteri infection was in 2002 in a patient diagnosed with endocarditis. We report a case of central line associated Kytococcus schroeteri bacteremia in a patient with underlying Hairy Cell Leukemia. Kytococcus schroeteri is an emerging infection in the neutropenic population and in patients with implanted artificial tissue. It is thought to be a commensal bacterium of the skin; however, attempts to cult...

  7. Dehydroanthrasesamones A and B, anthraquinone derivatives containing a dienyl side-chain from Sesamum indicum hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumoto, Toshio; Hoshikuma, Arata

    2013-01-01

    Two additional anthraquinone derivatives containing a (Z)-dienyl side-chain, dehydroanthrasesamones A (2) and B (3), were isolated from a hairy root culture of Sesamum indicum after preventing light throughout all experimental procedures. Their respective structures were determined to be 1-hydroxy-2-[(Z)-4-methylpenta-1,3-dien-1-yl]anthraquinone and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-[(Z)-4-methylpenta-1,3-dien-1-yl]anthraquinone by spectroscopic methods.

  8. [Effects of methyl jasmonate on accumulation and release of main tropane alkaloids in liquid cultures of Datura stramonium hairy root].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ji-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Feng-Ying; Sun, Yi-Ming; Sun, Min

    2013-06-01

    To study the effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ) on the accumulation and release of main secondary metabolites i. e. scopolamine and hyoscyamine in liquid cultures of Datura stramonium hairy roots. After 18 days liquid culture of D. stramonium hairy roots induced by agrobacterium rhizogenes C58C1, the chemical elicitor methyl jasmonate was added into 1/2 MS liquid cultures and scopolamine and hyoscyamine on the day 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12, after dealing with MJ, was determined by HPLC. After dealing with MJ on the day 3, 6, 9 and 12,the concentration of scopolamine reached to 0.419, 0.439, 0.431, 0.374 mg x g(-1), respectively, the increase of scopolamine were 1.36, 1.42, 1.17 and 1.12 fold higher than that of the control, respectively. And hyoscyamine reached 1.493, 0.817, 0.723 and 0.698 mg x g(-1), respectively, the increase of hyoscyamine were 2.28, 1.11, 0.63 and 0.70 fold higher than that of the control, respectively. MJ could stimulate the accumulation of scopolamine and hyoscyamine (3,6 d) in D. stramonium hairy root and have released them into the culture medium.

  9. Establishment of a transgenic hairy root system in wild and domesticated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) for studying root vigor under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Masataka; Morikawa, Kaoru; Abe, Yosuke; Yokota, Akiho; Akashi, Kinya

    2010-07-01

    Root vigor is an important trait for the growth of terrestrial plants, especially in water-deficit environments. Although deserts plants are known for their highly developed root architecture, the molecular mechanism responsible for this trait has not been determined. Here we established an efficient protocol for the genetic manipulation of two varieties of watermelon plants: a desert-grown wild watermelon that shows vigorous root growth under drought, and a domesticated cultivar showing retardation of root growth under drought stress. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transgenic hairy roots were efficiently induced and selected from the hypocotyls of these plants. Transgenic GUS expression was detected in the roots by RT-PCR and histochemical GUS staining. Moreover, a liquid culture system for evaluating their root growth was also established. Interestingly, growth of the hairy roots derived from domesticated variety of watermelon strongly inhibited under high osmotic condition, whereas the hairy roots derived from wild variety of watermelon retained substantial growth rates under the stress condition. The new protocol presented here offers a powerful tool for the comparative study of the molecular mechanism underlying drought-induced root growth in desert plants.

  10. [Research of mechanism of secondary metabolites of phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root induced by jasmonate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyuan; Gao, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Cui, Guanghong; Shao, Aijuan; Huang, Luqi

    2012-01-01

    To study the mechanism of secondary metabolites of some phenolic acids in the hairy roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza induced by methyl jasmonate. The hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza were induced with methyl jasmonate (100 micromol x L(-1)) and collected at 0, 12, 24, 36 h after treatment. Real-time quantitative PCR was used for detecting the mRNA expression level of the key enzyme genes on the secondary metabolites pathway of rosmarinic acid, while a LC-MS method was developed to determine the content of rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and salvianolic acid B. The concentration of phenolic acids grew up and accumulated quickly in the hairy roots with exogenous signal molecule MJ induced, and it was showed that the content of CA and RA reached the maximum after 24 h and the content of LAB reached the maximum in 36 h by MJ induced. The induction mechanism may be activated with different levels of RA synthesis in PAL, 4CL, C4H genes on the key enzyme phenylalanine pathway and TAT, HPPR genes on tyrosine pathway. The time of gene expression was different, among them, 4CL and PAL genes were more important. In a word, the result can provide some basis data about the mechanism of secondary metabolites of phenolic acids for further research.

  11. Yeast Extract Stimulates Ginsenoside Production in Hairy Root Cultures of American Ginseng Cultivated in Shake Flasks and Nutrient Sprinkle Bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, Ewa; Szymczyk, Piotr; Kuźma, Łukasz; Lipert, Anna; Szymańska, Grażyna

    2017-05-26

    One of the most effective strategies to enhance metabolite biosynthesis and accumulation in biotechnological systems is the use of elicitation processes. This study assesses the influence of different concentrations of yeast extract (YE) on ginsenoside biosynthesis in Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) hairy roots cultivated in shake flasks and in a nutrient sprinkle bioreactor after 3 and 7 days of elicitation. The saponin content was determined using HPLC. The maximum yield (20 mg g -1 d.w.) of the sum of six examined ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re and Rg1) in hairy roots cultivated in shake flasks was achieved after application of YE at 50 mg L -1 concentration and 3 day exposure time. The ginsenoside level was 1.57 times higher than that attained in control medium. The same conditions of elicitation (3 day time of exposure and 50 mg L -1 of YE) also favourably influenced the biosynthesis of studied saponins in bioreactor cultures. The total ginsenoside content was 32.25 mg g -1 d.w. and was higher than that achieved in control medium and in shake flasks cultures. Obtained results indicated that yeast extract can be used to increase ginsenoside production in hairy root cultures of P. quinquefolium .

  12. Sporamin-mediated resistance to beet cyst nematodes (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) is dependent on trypsin inhibitory activity in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Daguang; Thurau, Tim; Tian, Yanyan; Lange, Tina; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Jung, Christian

    2003-04-01

    Sporamin, a sweet potato tuberous storage protein, is a Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor. Its capability of conferring insect-resistance on transgenic tobacco and cauliflower has been confirmed. To test its potential as an anti-feedant for the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm.), the sporamin gene SpTI-1 was introduced into sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Twelve different hairy root clones expressing sporamin were selected for studying nematode development. Of these, 8 hairy root clones were found to show significant efficiency in inhibiting the growth and development of the female nematodes whereas 4 root clones did not show any inhibitory effects even though the SpTI-1 gene was regularly expressed in all of the tested hairy roots as revealed by northern and western analyses. Inhibition of nematode development correlated with trypsin inhibitor activity but not with the amount of sporamin expressed in hairy roots. These data demonstrate that the trypsin inhibitor activity is the critical factor for inhibiting growth and development of cyst nematodes in sugar beet hairy roots expressing the sporamin gene. Hence, the sweet potato sporamin can be used as a new and effective anti-feedant for controlling cyst nematodes offering an alternative strategy for establishing nematode resistance in crops.

  13. Enhancement of Chlorogenic Acid Production in Hairy Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum by Over-Expression of An Arabidopsis thaliana Transcription Factor AtPAP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Anh Tuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To improve the production of chlorogenic acid (CGA in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, we induced over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor production of anthocyanin pigment (AtPAP1 using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system. Twelve hairy root lines showing over-expression of AtPAP1 were generated. In order to investigate the regulation of AtPAP1 on the activities of CGA biosynthetic genes, the expression levels of seven P. grandiflorum CGA biosynthetic genes were analyzed in the hairy root line that had the greatest accumulation of AtPAP1 transcript, OxPAP1-1. The introduction of AtPAP1 increased the mRNA levels of all examined CGA biosynthetic genes and resulted in a 900% up-regulation of CGA accumulation in OxPAP1-1 hairy roots relative to controls. This suggests that P. grandiflorum hairy roots that over-express the AtPAP1 gene are a potential alternative source of roots for the production of CGA.

  14. Expression of important pathway genes involved in withanolides biosynthesis in hairy root culture of Withania somnifera upon treatment with Gracilaria edulis and Sargassum wightii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Arunachalam, Chinnathambi; Selvaraj, Natesan; Sulaiman, Ali Alharbi; Lim, Yong Pyo; Ganapathi, Andy

    2015-06-01

    The investigation of seaweeds, Gracilaria edulis and Sargassum wightii extracts was carried out for the estimation of growth characteristics and major withanolides production in hairy root culture of Withania somnifera. The extract of G. edulis (50%) in MS liquid basal medium enabled maximum production of dry biomass (5.46 g DW) and withanolides contents (withanolide A 5.23 mg/g DW; withaferin A 2.24 mg/g DW and withanone 4.83 mg/g DW) in hairy roots after 40 days of culture with 48 h contact time. The obtained withanolides contents were significantly higher (2.32-fold-2.66-fold) in hairy root culture when compared to the control. RT PCR analysis of important pathway genes such as SE, SS, HMGR and FPPS exhibited substantial higher expression upon the seaweed extracts treatment in hairy root culture. This experiment would paw a platform for withanolides production in hairy root culture with the influence of sea weed extracts for pharmaceutical companies in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. [The dose of alpha interferon in induction and maintainance therapy of hairy cell leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloke, O; May, D; Wandl, U; Niederle, N

    1988-01-01

    The efficacy of different doses of interferon (IFN) alpha in the induction therapy of hairy cell leukemia was studied. Recombinant IFN alpha-2b was administered subcutaneously every second day at an initial dose of 4 x 10(6) U/m2 (7 patients), 2 x 10(6) U/m2 (14 patients) and 1 x 10(6) U/m2 (13 patients). Each dose was effective to induce a normalization of blood cell counts and a reduction of bone marrow infiltration in the majority of patients treated. A delayed increase in granulocyte counts, however, was noted in patients treated with 1 x 10(6) U/m2, and 2 of them only achieved a partial hematological remission after 1 year of treatment. After the induction of stable remission, patients were randomized into 2 different schedules of maintenance therapy. Five of 7 patients receiving IFN alpha-2b at a total dose of 1 x 10(6) U twice a week, and 6/8 patients treated with 2 x 10(6) U once weekly, respectively, received this therapy for 1 year and remained in stable remission.

  16. Brassica rapa hairy root extracts promote skin depigmentation by modulating melanin production and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Luigi Michele; Zappelli, Claudia; Apone, Fabio; Barbulova, Ani; Tito, Annalisa; Leone, Antonella; Oliviero, Teresa; Ferracane, Rosalia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Colucci, Gabriella

    2017-07-03

    Skin whitening products, used for ages by Asian people for cultural and esthetic purposes, are very popular nowadays in Western countries as well, where the need to inhibit skin spots after sun exposure has become not only a cosmetic but also a health-related issue. Thus, the development of effective and safe depigmenting agents derived from natural products gets continuous attention by cosmetic brands and consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two preparations, obtained from the hairy root cultures of the species Brassica rapa, on melanogenesis and the expression of the extracellular matrix proteins involved in a correct pigment distribution. The two preparations, obtained by water-ethanol extraction and by digestion of cell-wall glycoproteins of the root cells, were chemically characterized and tested on skin cell cultures and on human skin explants to investigate on their dermatological activities. Both the extracts were able to decrease melanin synthesis pathway in melanocytes and modulate the expression of genes involved in melanin distribution. One of the extracts was also effective in inducing the expression of laminin-5 and collagen IV, involved into the maintenance of tissue integrity. The two extracts, when tested together on human skin explants, demonstrated a good synergic hypopigmenting activity. Taken together, the results indicate that the extracts from B. rapa root cultures can be employed as cosmetic active ingredients in skin whitening products and as potential therapeutic agents for treating pigmentation disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Racial Differences in the Overall Survival of Hairy Cell Leukemia in the United States: A Population-Based Analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Smith; Shrestha, Rajesh; Pathak, Ranjan; Bhatt, Vijaya Raj

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have reported excellent long-term overall survival (OS) of patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) without racial disparity. Studies in other cancers have demonstrated worse mortality among African American (AA) individuals. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 database to identify HCL patients diagnosed between 1978 and 2011. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to estimate OS. Univariate analysis using the life table method and multivariate Cox regression model were used to determine the independent effect of race on OS. The study population included 78% men and had a median age of 56 years. Race included 93% white, 3.5% Asian/Pacific Islander, and 3.5% AA. The 10-year OS was significantly less for AA as compared with white and Asian/Pacific Islander individuals (54% vs. 72% vs. 75%; P population-based study, only half of AA patients but more than two-thirds of HCL patients from other racial groups were alive at 10 years. Such drastic racial differences in OS of HCL patients at the population level mandates further evaluation of the contributory biological, socioeconomic, health system, and other factors. Understanding and overcoming such racial disparities might close the racial differences in OS of this potentially curable disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunological recovery and dose evaluation in IFN-alpha treatment of hairy cell leukemia: analysis of leukocyte differentiation antigens, NK and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B; Hokland, M; Justesen, J

    1989-01-01

    , the number of NK cells normalized in 90 to 180 d, whereas normalization of B cell number was seen only after 180 to 360 d of treatment. Mean pretreatment 2-5A synthetase activity was normal or low, but upon treatment the levels rose immediately to higher than normal values and remained high throughout......A low-dose interferon (IFN)-alpha regimen for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) was evaluated by following changes in leukocyte differentiation antigens (LDA), natural killer cell (NK) and 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetase activities. Due to hairy cells' (HC) weak expression...... of several antigens positive for T cells, B cells, NK cells and monocytes, the use of a double marker specific for hairy cells was needed to distinguish the different subpopulations. Analysis of LDA in peripheral blood (PB) showed a total normalization of the T cell and monocyte numbers within 90 days...

  19. Effect of chloride ions on anthrasesamone C production in a Sesamum indicum hairy root culture and identification of the precursor for its abiotic formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumoto, Toshio; Hoshikuma, Arata

    2012-01-01

    The content of anthrasesamone C (5), a rare chlorine-containing anthraquinone, in a hairy root culture of Sesamum indicum increased with increasing chloride ion concentration in the culture medium and reached a maximum at 100 mM. However, the amount of anthrasesamone C (5) in the extract obtained from the hairy roots was increased by incubating the extract. This result suggests that anthrasesamone C (5) was produced from an unidentified metabolite by an abiotic process. 2,3-Epoxyanthrasesamone B (1), a precursor for the non-enzymatic formation of anthrasesamone C (5), was isolated from S. indicum hairy roots cultured in a chloride-deficient medium. Its structure was elucidated to be 2,3-epoxy-9,10-dihydroxy-2-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)-2,3-dihydroanthracene-1,4-dione by spectroscopic methods.

  20. Yield enhancement strategies for the production of picroliv from hairy root culture of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Harpal; Negi, Arvind Singh; Saxena, Gauri; Rahman, Laiq-Ur; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    Fast-growing hairy root cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes offers a potential production system for iridoid glycosides. In present study we have investigated the effects of various nutrient medium formulations viz B5, MS, WP and NN, and sucrose concentrations (1-8%) on the biomass and glycoside production of selected clone (14-P) of P. kurroa hairy root. Full strength B5 medium was found to be most suitable for maximum biomass yield on the 40th day of culture (GI = 32.72 ± 0.44) followed by the NN medium of the same strength (GI = 22.9 ± 0.43). Secondary metabolite production was 1.1 and 1.3 times higher in half strength B5 medium respectively in comparison to MS medium. Maximum biomass accumulation along with the maximum picroliv content was achieved with 4% sucrose concentration in basal medium. RT vitamin and Thiamine-HCl effected the growth and secondary metabolite production of hairy roots growing on MS medium but did not show any effect on other media. The pH of the medium played significant role in growth and secondary metabolite production and was found to be highest at pH 6.0 while lowest at pH 3.0 and pH 8.0. To enhance the production of biomass and Picroliv 5 liter working capacity bioreactor was used, 27-fold (324 g FW) higher growth was observed in bioreactor than shake flask and secondary metabolite production was similarly enhanced.

  1. Correlation of BRAF V600E Mutation in Peripheral Blood Smears of Hairy Cell Leukemia with Morphology and Immunophenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Jafarzadeh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hairy cell leukemia being defined as a mature B-cell lymphoma shows unique clinicopathological, immunophenotype, and genetic alteration features among another mature B-cell malignancy. Although lymphocytes with hairy appearance and co-expression of CD25, CD11c and CD103 markers on B-cells are compatible with hairy cell leukemia, there are some difficulties in differential diagnosis between HCL with its variant and splenic marginal zone lymphoma. The presence of kinase-activating BRAF V600E mutation in classical HCL clone and in no other mature B-cell lymphomas/ leukemia has implication in differential diagnosis. In this study, we evaluated BRAF V600E mutation detection of H&E stained peripheral blood smears by Sanger sequencing method in patients with classical HCL and findings related to morphology and immunophenotype. Peripheral smear review indicated a subpopulation of atypical lymphocytes with villous cytoplasmic projections. By flow cytometry analysis, B-cells represented immunophenotype of CD19+ CD20(bright+ CD11c+ CD25+ CD103+. Sanger sequencing demonstrated that presence of BRAF V600E mutation in 86.6% (13/15 of analyzed HCL DNA. Hence, gain-of-function mutation of BRAF V600E is detectable in DNA of peripheral blood smear of patients with classical HCL that were evaluated by immunophenotyping. In conclusion, DNA from peripheral blood smear can be used to identify BRAF V600E mutation using Sanger sequencing method in samples with at least 10% HCL clone as supplementary approach to aid in the diagnosis of classical HCL.

  2. Control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis with dicamba and 2,4-D Controle de buva (Conyza bonariensis resistente ao glyphosate com dicamba e 2,4-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Soares

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Auxyn type herbicides such as dicamba and 2,4-D are alternative herbicides that can be used to control glyphosate-resistant hairy fleabane. With the forthcoming possibility of releasing dicamba-resistant and 2,4-D-resistant crops, use of these growth regulator herbicides will likely be an alternative that can be applied to the control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis. The objective of this research was to model the efficacy, through dose-response curves, of glyphosate, 2,4-D, isolated dicamba and glyphosatedicamba combinations to control a brazilian hairy fleabane population resistant to glyphosate. The greenhouse dose-response studies were conducted as a completely randomized experimental design, and the rates used for dose response curve construction were 0, 120, 240, 480, 720 and 960 g a.i. ha-1 for 2,4-D, dicamba and the dicamba combination, with glyphosate at 540 g a.e. ha-1. The rates for glyphosate alone were 0, 180, 360, 540, 720 and 960 g a.e. ha-1. Herbicides were applied when the plants were in a vegetative stage with 10 to 12 leaves and height between 12 and 15 cm. Hairy fleabane had low sensitivity to glyphosate, with poor control even at the 960 g a.e. ha-1 rate. Dicamba and 2,4-D were effective in controlling the studied hairy fleabane. Hairy fleabane responds differently to 2,4-D and dicamba. The combination of glyphosate and dicamba was not antagonistic to hairy fleabane control, and glyphosate may cause an additive effect on the control, despite the population resistance.Os herbicidas mimetizadores de auxinas como dicamba e 2,4-D são alternativas para o controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. Com a possível futura liberação comercial de culturas resistentes ao dicamba e 2,4-D, a aplicação destes herbicidas reguladores de crescimento será uma provável alternativa de controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi modelar por meio de curvas de dose-resposta a efic

  3. Optimization of the Culture Medium Composition to Improve the Production of Hyoscyamine in Elicited Datura stramonium L. Hairy Roots Using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gontier

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, optimization in biological analyses has been carried out by monitoring the influence of one factor at a time; this technique is called one‑variable‑at‑a‑time. The disadvantage of this technique is that it does not include any interactive effects among the variables studied and requires a large number of experiments. Therefore, in recent years, the Response Surface Methodology (RSM has become the most popular optimization method. It is an effective mathematical and statistical technique which has been widely used in optimization studies with minimal experimental trials where interactive factors may be involved. This present study follows on from our previous work, where RSM was used to optimize the B5 medium composition in [NO3−], [Ca2+] and sucrose to attain the best production of hyoscyamine (HS from the hairy roots (HRs of Datura stramonium elicited by Jasmonic Acid (JA. The present paper focuses on the use of the RSM in biological studies, such as plant material, to establish a predictive model with the planning of experiments, analysis of the model, diagnostics and adjustment for the accuracy of the model. With the RSM, only 20 experiments were necessary to determine optimal concentrations. The model could be employed to carry out interpolations and predict the response to elicitation. Applying this model, the optimization of the HS level was 212.7% for the elicited HRs of Datura stramonium, cultured in B5-OP medium (optimized, in comparison with elicited HRs cultured in B5 medium (control. The optimal concentrations, under experimental conditions, were determined to be: 79.1 mM [NO3−], 11.4 mM [Ca2+] and 42.9 mg/L of sucrose.

  4. Optimization of the culture medium composition to improve the production of hyoscyamine in elicited Datura stramonium L. hairy roots using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryad, Amdoun; Lakhdar, Khelifi; Majda, Khelifi-Slaoui; Samia, Amroune; Mark, Asch; Corinne, Assaf-Ducrocq; Eric, Gontier

    2010-11-18

    Traditionally, optimization in biological analyses has been carried out by monitoring the influence of one factor at a time; this technique is called one-variable-at-a-time. The disadvantage of this technique is that it does not include any interactive effects among the variables studied and requires a large number of experiments. Therefore, in recent years, the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has become the most popular optimization method. It is an effective mathematical and statistical technique which has been widely used in optimization studies with minimal experimental trials where interactive factors may be involved. This present study follows on from our previous work, where RSM was used to optimize the B5 medium composition in [NO(3-)], [Ca(2+)] and sucrose to attain the best production of hyoscyamine (HS) from the hairy roots (HRs) of Datura stramonium elicited by Jasmonic Acid (JA). The present paper focuses on the use of the RSM in biological studies, such as plant material, to establish a predictive model with the planning of experiments, analysis of the model, diagnostics and adjustment for the accuracy of the model. With the RSM, only 20 experiments were necessary to determine optimal concentrations. The model could be employed to carry out interpolations and predict the response to elicitation. Applying this model, the optimization of the HS level was 212.7% for the elicited HRs of Datura stramonium, cultured in B5-OP medium (optimized), in comparison with elicited HRs cultured in B5 medium (control). The optimal concentrations, under experimental conditions, were determined to be: 79.1 mM [NO(3-)], 11.4 mM [Ca(2+)] and 42.9 mg/L of sucrose.

  5. Biosynthetic origin of 2-geranyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and its related anthraquinone in a Sesamum indicum hairy root culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumoto, Toshio; Hoshikuma, Arata

    2011-06-01

    In order to clarify the biosynthetic origin of 2-geranyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and its biogenetically related anthraquinone, which are possible intermediates of anthrasesamones, [1-(13)C]glucose was administered to a hairy root culture of Sesamum indicum. The labeling patterns of these quinone derivatives indicated that the naphthoquinone ring and geranyl side-chain of geranylnaphthoquinone were respectively biosynthesized through the shikimate and methylerythritol phosphate pathways, and that these quinone derivatives have the same biosynthetic origin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Response to cadmium of Daucus carota hairy roots dual cultures with Glomus intraradices or Gigaspora margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janousková, Martina; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2005-05-01

    Ri T-DNA-transformed carrot roots were cultivated in two experiments either non-inoculated or inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus intraradices or Gigaspora margarita. The influence of two concentrations of cadmium (Cd) in the medium (2 mg l(-1), 4 mg l(-1)) on both root and mycelium growth was tested. Both parameters were estimated at 10-day intervals for 70 or 100 days for G. intraradices and Gi. margarita, respectively. In the first experiment, G. intraradices showed a rapid spread of extraradical mycelium (ERM) and reached average densities per treatment of about 90 cm cm(-2) agar medium after 70 days. At the higher Cd level, the growth of ERM was delayed in comparison to the treatment without Cd addition. Root growth was inhibited by both Cd levels; the inhibition was, however, significantly lower in the treatments inoculated with G. intraradices compared to the non-inoculated control. In the second experiment, the ERM of Gi. margarita started to grow after a period of 50 days and reached average densities per treatment of only up to 27 cm cm(-2) by the end of the cultivation. The growth of Gi. margarita mycelium was not inhibited by Cd. No differences in root growth were observed between the Gi. margarita inoculated and non-inoculated treatments. The inhibitory effect of Cd on root growth differed between the non-inoculated treatments in both experiments. The study has shown that the AM fungus Glomus intraradices can alleviate Cd-induced growth inhibition to carrot hairy roots. The potential and limits of the monoxenic system in studying the interaction between AM fungi and heavy metals are discussed.

  7. Beneath the hairy look: the hidden reproductive diversity of the Gibsmithia hawaiiensis complex (Dumontiaceae, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Daniela; Draisma, Stefano G A; Schmidt, William E; Schils, Tom; Sauvage, Thomas; Maridakis, Clio; Gurgel, C Frederico D; Harris, D James; Fredericq, Suzanne

    2017-12-01

    The tropical alga previously recognized as Gibsmithia hawaiiensis (Dumontiaceae, Rhodophyta) was recently suggested to represent a complex of species distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific Ocean and characterized by a peculiar combination of hairy (pilose) gelatinous lobes growing on cartilaginous stalks. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on three genetic markers are presented here with the inclusion of new samples. Further diversity is reported within the complex, with nine lineages spread in four major phylogenetic groups. The threshold between intra- and interspecific relationships was assessed by species delimitation methods, which indicate the existence of 8-10 putative species in the complex. Two species belonging to the G. hawaiiensis complex are described here: Gibsmithia malayensis sp. nov. from the Coral Triangle and Gibsmithia indopacifica sp. nov., widely distributed in the Central and Eastern Indo-Pacific. Morphological differences in the vegetative and reproductive structures of the newly described species are provided and compared to the previously described species of the complex. Additional lineages represent putative species, which await further investigation to clarify their taxonomic status. Gibsmithia hawaiiensis sensu stricto is confirmed to be endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, and Gibsmithia eilatensis is apparently confined to the Red Sea, with an expanded distribution in the region. New records of the G. hawaiiensis complex are reported from Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, Philippines, and the Federated States of Micronesia, indicating that the complex is more broadly distributed than previously considered. The isolated position of Gibsmithia within the Dumontiaceae is corroborated by molecular data. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  8. The role of the Suppressor of Hairy-wing insulator protein in Drosophila oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Ryan M.; Soshnev, Alexey A.; Koryakov, Dmitry E.; Zhimulev, Igor F.; Geyer, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    The Drosophila Suppressor of Hairy wing [Su(Hw)] insulator protein has an essential role in the development of the female germline. Here we investigate the function of Su(Hw) in the ovary. We show that Su(Hw) is universally expressed in somatic cells, while germ cell expression is dynamic. Robust levels accumulate in post-mitotic germ cells, where Su(Hw) localization is limited to chromosomes within nurse cells, the specialized cells that support oocyte growth. Although loss of Su(Hw) causes global defects in nurse cell chromosome structure, we demonstrate that these architectural changes are not responsible for the block in oogenesis. Connections between the fertility and insulator functions of Su(Hw) were investigated through studies of the two gypsy insulator proteins, Modifier of (mdg4)67.2 (Mod67.2) and Centrosomal Protein of 190 kD (CP190). Accumulation of these proteins is distinct from Su(Hw), with Mod67.2 and CP190 showing uniform expression in all cells during early stages of oogenesis that diminishes in later stages. Although Mod67.2 and CP190 extensively co-localize with Su(Hw) on nurse cell chromosomes, neither protein is required for nurse cell chromosome development or oocyte production. These data indicate that while the gypsy insulator function requires both Mod67.2 and CP190, these proteins are not essential for oogenesis. These studies represent the first molecular investigations of Su(Hw) function in the germline, which uncover distinct requirements for Su(Hw) insulator and ovary functions. PMID:21651900

  9. Retrospective analysis of the clinical behavior of oral hairy leukoplakia in 215 HIV-seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Assis do VALE

    Full Text Available Abstract Oral manifestations are common findings in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients and frequently influence the overall health. Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL is strongly associated with HIV infection demonstrating its relationship with the individual’s immune status and progression of immunosuppression. This study aims to retrospectively evaluate OHL in HIV patients, analyzing its incidence, demographic aspects and possible changes in clinical and epidemiological profile of the disease over 17 years. The records of 1600 HIV-infected patients were reviewed. The data were correlated and analyzed, considering HIV exposure category, age, gender, harmful habits, CD4 level, use and type of antiretroviral. OHL was observed in 215 (13.4% patients. Most were men in the fourth decade of life, 171 (79.5% and 112 (52,1% respectively, but an increase in the incidence of OHL among female patients and those in the fifth decade of life was observed. Tobacco smoking was the most frequent harmful habit reported by 114 (68% patients. OHL occurred mostly in patients with CD4 counts between 200 and 500 cells/mm3 35 (55.5%. The lower incidence of OHL was found among patients using at least one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI. OHL is related to CD4 count, use of ARVT and tobacco smoking and is also more prevalent in men in the fourth decade of life. These characteristics were recognized in absolute values, but when verifying the behavior over the years we noticed that the incidence of OHL is decreasing and its epidemiological characteristics changing.

  10. Does soil type drive social organization in southern hairy-nosed wombats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Faith M; Taylor, Andrea C; Sunnucks, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Spatiotemporal distributions of key resources are hypothesized to underpin sociobiological patterns. Burrow availability and quality is of paramount importance to fossorial animals. The southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) burrows in both hard and friable soils. Theoretical and empirical studies suggest that the harder substrate should promote closer geographical clustering of burrows than in softer soils. Clustered burrows are expected to be associated with larger group sizes. If sociality is driven by constraint rather than advantage, patterns of spatial and temporal distribution of animals within and among groups may show indications of avoidance or even antagonism, and 'making the best of a bad job' via positive kin associations to offset the disadvantages of high-density living. To test these ideas, we compared warren relatedness and social structure of L. latifrons on friable soils (Nullarbor Plain) and hard calcrete (Brookfield Conservation Park, BCP). Individuals were sampled by noninvasive collection of hairs for genotyping to identify individuals and to estimate their space-use and associative behaviour with respect to relatedness. Burrows in calcrete were indeed more clumped, and warren and group size larger. Differences in spatiotemporal organization and relatedness structure between sites were in the expected direction: (i) Nullarbor males associated and shared warrens less than at BCP; and (ii) Nullarbor spatial relatedness patterning data were not consistent with proposed female breeding dispersal, in contrast to those at BCP. Under Nullarbor (low density) conditions, cooperation or tolerance between males may be less advantageous, and accessing or digging burrows should be less of a constraint for juvenile females.

  11. Clinical and Laboratory Presentation of Hairy Cell Leukemia (Hcl and Rate of Response to Cladribine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Forat Yazdi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HCL is a rare malignant condition that is curable if diagnosed early. HCL can present with reduced blood cells and splenomegaly which maybe misdiagnosed with other conditions. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of early clinical and laboratory findings as well as the response rate of patients to the standard treatment regimen of Cladribine. Methods: The study was an uncontrolled clinical trial including 25 HCL patients referring to Oncology Clinics of Shahid Sadoughi (Yazd - Iran and Shahid Beheshti (Tehran - Iran between 1999 and 2005. Data was gathered by a pre–designed questionnaire. 21 out of 25 patients were treated with Cladribine and the clinical and laboratory response was assessed. Results: Of the 25 patients studied, 20 patients (80% were male and 5 patients (20% were female. Most of the patients at diagnosis were 55–67 years old and the most common presenting symptom was fatigue and lassitude secondary to anemia. Two patients were asymptomatic and were diagnosed incidentally. Splenomegaly was the main clinical finding which was present in about 80% of the males and all of the females. Accordingly, hairy cells in the peripheral blood smear, leukopenia and anemia were the most common laboratory findings. In contrast to previous results, pancytopenia was found in only 60% of the patients. Response rate was 90% (19 out of 21 of which 61.9% (13 patients and 28.5% (6 patients had complete remission (CR and partial remission (PR, respectively. Conclusion: According to the results, it can be concluded that HCL should be considered as a possible diagnosis in the context of fatigue, splenomegaly and reduced blood cell count. The results of the present study were similar to other similar international studies.

  12. Highly Stable, Functional Hairy Nanoparticles and Biopolymers from Wood Fibers: Towards Sustainable Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Amir; Yang, Han; Alam, Md Nur; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2016-07-20

    Nanoparticles, as one of the key materials in nanotechnology and nanomedicine, have gained significant importance during the past decade. While metal-based nanoparticles are associated with synthetic and environmental hassles, cellulose introduces a green, sustainable alternative for nanoparticle synthesis. Here, we present the chemical synthesis and separation procedures to produce new classes of hairy nanoparticles (bearing both amorphous and crystalline regions) and biopolymers based on wood fibers. Through periodate oxidation of soft wood pulp, the glucose ring of cellulose is opened at the C2-C3 bond to form 2,3-dialdehyde groups. Further heating of the partially oxidized fibers (e.g., T = 80 °C) results in three products, namely fibrous oxidized cellulose, sterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (SNCC), and dissolved dialdehyde modified cellulose (DAMC), which are well separated by intermittent centrifugation and co-solvent addition. The partially oxidized fibers (without heating) were used as a highly reactive intermediate to react with chlorite for converting almost all aldehyde to carboxyl groups. Co-solvent precipitation and centrifugation resulted in electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (ENCC) and dicarboxylated cellulose (DCC). The aldehyde content of SNCC and consequently surface charge of ENCC (carboxyl content) were precisely controlled by controlling the periodate oxidation reaction time, resulting in highly stable nanoparticles bearing more than 7 mmol functional groups per gram of nanoparticles (e.g., as compared to conventional NCC bearing AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) attested to the rod-like morphology. Conductometric titration, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), electrokinetic-sonic-amplitude (ESA) and acoustic attenuation spectroscopy shed light on the superior properties of these

  13. Morphological and immunophenotypical features of hairy cell leukaemia involving lymph nodes and extranodal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Jacqueline M; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Pinkus, Geraldine S; Morgan, Elizabeth A

    2017-07-01

    Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is a rare B cell neoplasm that mainly affects bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood (PB) and spleen. Involvement of lymph nodes and extranodal structures is considered infrequent. Herein we describe our institutional experience of nodal (n = 10) and extranodal (n = 3) HCL during a 30-year period. Ten patients had prior evidence of HCL within the BM or PB at a median 35.8 months before nodal/extranodal diagnosis (range: <1-175 months), and HCL was diagnosed concurrently within the bone marrow of one additional patient. Nodal involvement showed distinct architectural patterns, including diffuse (62% of cases), sinusoidal (25%) and nodular (13%). Extranodal involvement was characterized as diffuse infiltration through underlying structures in all cases. Morphological features ranged from classic 'fried-egg' cytology to a plasmacytoid appearance. Nodal/extranodal disease showed an overlapping immunophenotypical profile with other small B cell lymphomas, including expression of cyclin D1 (70%), CD43 (55%), CD10 (38%) and CD5 (8%). Rates of both CD43 and CD10 reactivity were higher than described previously in leukaemic HCL, suggesting that expression may be enriched in cases with extramedullary extension. Although uncommon, HCL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of small B cell neoplasms involving nodal/extranodal sites, given the therapeutic implications. In particular, recent discoveries including detection of the BRAF V 600E mutation in nearly all cases of HCL and the availability of an antibody to CD103 for use in paraffin-embedded tissues will facilitate the distinction of HCL from other small B cell lymphomas in the nodal/extranodal setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Toxicity and bioefficacy of individual and combination of diversified insecticides against jute hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, K; Ramesh, V; Gotyal, B S; Satpathy, S

    2015-11-01

    Toxicity of conventional (profenofos 50 EC and λ-cyhalothrin 5 EC) and non-conventional (flubendiamide 480 SC, chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC, emamectin benzoate 5 SG) insecticides was determined on the basis of median lethal concentration (LC50) values on third instar larvae of jute hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua under laboratory conditions. Further, the promising binary insecticides combinations with lesser LC50 values and adequate synergistic activity were evaluated under field conditions. The LC50 values calculated for insecticides viz., chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide emamectin benzoate, λ-cyhalothrin and profenophos were 0.212, 0.232, 0.511, 0.985 and 3.263 ppm, respectively. Likewise, the LC50 values for flubendiamide with λ-cyhalothrin in 3:1 proportion was most toxic (0.103 ppm) amongst all the other binary combinations with λ-cyhalothrin. Chlorantraniliprole in combination with λ-cyhalothrin at 1:1 proportion (0.209 ppm) was most toxic followed by 3:1 proportion (0.345 ppm). Similarly, emamectin benzoate in combination with λ-cyhalothrin at 1:1 proportion was more toxic (0.271 ppm) than 3:1 ratio (0.333 ppm). Toxicity index of flubendiamide + λ-cyhalothrin (3:1 ratio) was highest (970.87). Bioefficacy of synergistic binary combinations along with individual insecticides established the superiority of profenophos + λ-cyhalothrin (3:1) with 89.12% reduction in infestation and recorded maximum fibre yield 38.67qha' under field condition. Moreover, combination of diverse insecticides group might sustain toxicity against the target insect for longer period with least probability of resistance development.

  15. Differential expression of fungal genes at preinfection and mycorrhiza establishment between Terfezia boudieri isolates and Cistus incanus hairy root clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Marianna; Sitrit, Yaron; Mills, David; Roth-Bejerano, Nurit; Kagan-Zur, Varda

    2006-01-01

    Changes in gene expression by isolates of Terfezia boudieri during mycorrhization with Cistus incanus hairy roots were followed. Four fungus-hairy root clone combinations were cultivated under two sets of conditions, in which the root and the fungus were separated by a cellophane sheet or were allowed physical contact. One of the combinations produced endomycorrhizas, the other three solely ectomycorrhizas. Fragments isolated by cDNA-AFLP analysis from cellophane-separated cultures (preinfection) were used to identify differentially expressed genes by reverse Northern analysis. Genes showing no homology to known sequences constituted the largest group under both growth conditions. Some fungal genes were expressed transiently, while others exhibited altered expression patterns as conditions changed from individually growing through the preinfection stage to mycorrhizas. Genes expressed exclusively under combinations allowing either ectomycorrhiza or endomycorrhiza under a particular condition were detected. Our results point, for the first time, to some of the genes that might be involved in determining the type of association that will be formed: ecto- or endomycorrhiza.

  16. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Mohammad M; Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Song, Da-Peng; Liu, Guo-Feng; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Wei, Shu

    2016-07-15

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agrobacterium rhizognes strain ATCC 15834 was used as a mediator. Results showed that Agrobacterium growth, virulence (vir) gene expression and browning of explant tissue were greatly influenced by different supplements. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salts medium supplemented with 30 g·L(-1) sucrose, 0.1 g·L(-1) l-glutamine and 5 g·L(-1) polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) as co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media could maintain these parameters better that ultimately led to significant improvement of hairy root generation efficiency compared to that in the control (MS + 30 g·L(-1) sucrose). Additionally, the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gusA) and cyan fluorescent protein (cfp) were also stably expressed in the transgenic hairy roots. Our study would be helpful in establishing a feasible approach for tea biological studies and genetic improvement of tea varieties.

  17. Silencing the Transcriptional Repressor, ZCT1, Illustrates the Tight Regulation of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus Hairy Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen F Rizvi

    Full Text Available The Catharanthus roseus plant is the source of many valuable terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs, including the anticancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. Transcription factors (TFs are promising metabolic engineering targets due to their ability to regulate multiple biosynthetic pathway genes. To increase TIA biosynthesis, we elicited the TIA transcriptional activators (ORCAs and other unidentified TFs with the plant hormone, methyl jasmonate (MJ, while simultaneously silencing the expression of the transcriptional repressor ZCT1. To silence ZCT1, we developed transgenic hairy root cultures of C. roseus that expressed an estrogen-inducible Zct1 hairpin for activating RNA interference. The presence of 17β-estradiol (5μM effectively depleted Zct1 in hairy root cultures elicited with MJ dosages that either optimize or inhibit TIA production (250 or 1000μM. However, silencing Zct1 was not sufficient to increase TIA production or the expression of the TIA biosynthetic genes (G10h, Tdc, and Str, illustrating the tight regulation of TIA biosynthesis. The repression of the TIA biosynthetic genes at the inhibitory MJ dosage does not appear to be solely regulated by ZCT1. For instance, while Zct1 and Zct2 levels decreased through activating the Zct1 hairpin, Zct3 levels remained elevated. Since ZCT repressors have redundant yet distinct functions, silencing all three ZCTs may be necessary to relieve their repression of alkaloid biosynthesis.

  18. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Rana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis L. is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agrobacterium rhizognes strain ATCC 15834 was used as a mediator. Results showed that Agrobacterium growth, virulence (vir gene expression and browning of explant tissue were greatly influenced by different supplements. Murashige and Skoog (MS basal salts medium supplemented with 30 g·L−1 sucrose, 0.1 g·L−1 l-glutamine and 5 g·L−1 polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP as co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media could maintain these parameters better that ultimately led to significant improvement of hairy root generation efficiency compared to that in the control (MS + 30 g·L−1 sucrose. Additionally, the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gusA and cyan fluorescent protein (cfp were also stably expressed in the transgenic hairy roots. Our study would be helpful in establishing a feasible approach for tea biological studies and genetic improvement of tea varieties.

  19. A Cytotoxic and Anti-inflammatory Campesterol Derivative from Genetically Transformed Hairy Roots of Lopezia racemosa Cav. (Onagraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Elizabeth Moreno-Anzúrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetically transformed hairy root line LRT 7.31 obtained by infecting leaf explants of Lopezia racemosa Cav with the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC15834/pTDT, was evaluated to identify the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic compounds reported previously for the wild plant. After several subcultures of the LRT 7.31 line, the bio-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane–methanol (1:1 extract obtained from dry biomass afforded a fraction that showed important in vivo anti-inflammatory, and in vitro cytotoxic activities. Chemical separation of the active fraction allowed us to identify the triterpenes ursolic (1 and oleanolic (2 acids, and (23R-2α,3β,23,28-tetrahydroxy-14,15-dehydrocampesterol (3 as the anti-inflammatory principles of the active fraction. A new molecule 3 was characterized by spectroscopic analysis of its tetraacetate derivative 3a. This compound was not described in previous reports of callus cultures, in vitro germinated seedlings and wild plant extracts of whole L. racemosa plants. The anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities displayed by the fraction are associated to the presence of compounds 1–3. The present study reports the obtaining of the transformed hairy roots, the bioguided isolation of the new molecule 3, and its structure characterization.

  20. Hairy black hole stability in AdS, quantum mechanics on the half-line and holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales yFacultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Av. Padre Hurtado 750, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso,Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Oliva, Julio [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2015-10-09

    We consider the linear stability of 4-dimensional hairy black holes with mixed boundary conditions in Anti-de Sitter spacetime. We focus on the mass of scalar fields around the maximally supersymmetric vacuum of the gauged N=8 supergravity in four dimensions, m{sup 2}=−2l{sup −2}. It is shown that the Schrödinger operator on the half-line, governing the S{sup 2}, H{sup 2} or ℝ{sup 2} invariant mode around the hairy black hole, allows for non-trivial self-adjoint extensions and each of them corresponds to a class of mixed boundary conditions in the gravitational theory. Discarding the self-adjoint extensions with a negative mode impose a restriction on these boundary conditions. The restriction is given in terms of an integral of the potential in the Schrödinger operator resembling the estimate of Simon for Schrödinger operators on the real line. In the context of AdS/CFT duality, our result has a natural interpretation in terms of the field theory dual effective potential.

  1. The growth and saponin production of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. A. DC. (Chinese bellflower hairy roots cultures maintained in shake flasks and mist bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Urbańska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth and saponin accumulation were measured in two lines of transgenic hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, Pl 6 and Pl 17, cultured for 8 weeks in 250-ml shake flasks containing 50 ml of hormone-free woody plant medium supplemented with 40 g/l sucrose and in the Pl 17 line cultured for 12 weeks in a 5-l mist bioreactor containing 1.5 l of the same medium. With both methods, the growth of transgenic hairy roots was assessed as both fresh and dry weight and the biomass growth was correlated with the conductivity and sucrose uptake. The accumulation of saponins was measured and compared with that in roots derived from the field cultivation. The saponin concentrations were significantly higher in the two hairy root lines cultured in shake flasks [6.92 g/100 g d.w. (g% and 5.82 g% in Pl 6 and Pl 17, respectively] and the line cultured in the bioreactor (5.93 g% than in the roots derived from the field cultivation (4.02 g%. The results suggest that cultures of P. grandiflorum hairy roots may be a valuable source for obtaining saponins.

  2. BNYVV-derived dsRNA confers resistance to rhizomania disease of sugar beet as evidenced by a novel transgenic hairy root approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavli, R.; Panopoulos, N.J.; Goldbach, R.W.; Skaracis, G.N.

    2010-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed sugar beet hairy roots, expressing dsRNA from the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus replicase gene, were used as a novel approach to assess the efficacy of three intron-hairpin constructs at conferring resistance to rhizomania disease. Genetically engineered roots

  3. Influence of Polyamines on Growth of Hairy Root Cultures of Witloof Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. cv. Lucknow Local) and Formation of Coumarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais; George; Ravishankar

    1999-08-01

    The effect of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) was examined for growth and production of two coumarins, esculetin and esculin, in the hairy roots of chicory (Cichorium intybus L. cv. Lucknow local). Of the polyamines administered, 1.5 mm putrescine alone resulted in a 2.3-fold higher increase in the growth of hairy roots as well as in the production of esculetin and esculin, which was 3.37 times more than that of the control on day 21. The endogenous level of conjugated putrescine was more than fivefold that of free putrescine levels in untreated samples. The production of esculetin and esculin in hairy root cultures strictly correlated with growth in all of the treatments. Putrescine at 1.5 mm resulted in a greater length of primary root (18.29 +/- 1.37 cm) compared with the control (10.96 +/- 0.82 cm) and more secondary and tertiary roots. This study also provides insight into the morphogenetic changes that occur in roots in response to the external supply of polyamines.Key Words. Cichorium intybus L. cv. Lucknow local-Hairy root cultures-Polyamines-Coumarinshttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00344/bibs/18n1p33.html

  4. Whole blood assay for NK activity in splenectomized and non-splenectomized hairy cell leukemia patients during IFN-alpha-2b treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B; Hokland, P; Ellegaard, J

    1989-01-01

    Natural killer cell (NK) activity in peripheral blood (PB) was followed longitudinally for up to 2 yr after initiation of low-dose IFN-alpha-2b therapy in nine hairy cell leukemia (HCL) patients. A whole blood NK (WB-NK) assay was employed in order to measure the NK activity per unit blood. The p...

  5. Evaluation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havana SR1) hairy roots for the production of geraniol, the first committed step in terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritala, A.; Dong, L.; Imseng, N.; Seppanen-Laakso, T.; Vasilev, N.; Krol, van der A.R.; Rischer, H.; Maaheimo, H.; Virkki, A.; Brandli, J.; Schillberg, S.; Eibl, R.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Oksman-Caldentey, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    The terpenoid indole alkaloids are one of the major classes of plant-derived natural products and are well known for their many applications in the pharmaceutical, fragrance and cosmetics industries. Hairy root cultures are useful for the production of plant secondary metabolites because of their

  6. Examining the transcriptional response of overexpressing anthranilate synthase in the hairy roots of an important medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus by RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiayi; Manmathan, Harish; Sun, Cheng; Peebles, Christie A M

    2016-05-06

    Clinically important anti-cancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine are solely synthesized by the terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) pathway in Catharanthus roseus. Anthranilate synthase (AS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the TIA pathway. The transgenic C. roseus hairy root line overexpressing a feedback insensitive ASα subunit under the control of an inducible promoter and the ASβ subunit constitutively was previously created for the overproduction of TIAs. However, both increases and decreases in TIAs were detected after overexpressing ASα. Although genetic modification is targeted to one gene in the TIA pathway, it could trigger global transcriptional changes that can directly or indirectly affect TIA biosynthesis. In this study, Illumina sequencing and RT-qPCR were used to detect the transcriptional responses to overexpressing AS, which can increase understanding of the complex regulation of the TIA pathway and further inspire rational metabolic engineering for enhanced TIA production in C. roseus hairy roots. Overexpressing AS in C. roseus hairy roots altered the transcription of most known TIA pathway genes and regulators after 12, 24, and 48 h induction detected by RT-qPCR. Changes in the transcriptome of C. roseus hairy roots was further investigated 18 hours after ASα induction and compared to the control hairy roots using RNA-seq. A unigene set of 30,281 was obtained by de novo assembly of the sequencing reads. Comparison of the differentially expressed transcriptional profiles resulted in 2853 differentially expressed transcripts. Functional annotation of these transcripts revealed a complex and systematically transcriptome change in ASαβ hairy roots. Pathway analysis shows alterations in many pathways such as aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and other secondary metabolic pathways after perturbing AS. Moreover, many genes in overall stress response were differentially expressed after overexpressing ASα. The

  7. Envisaging the Regulation of Alkaloid Biosynthesis and Associated Growth Kinetics in Hairy Roots of Vinca minor Through the Function of Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Anjum, Shahin; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Roy, Sudeep; Odstrcilik, Jan; Mathur, Ajay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Artificial neural network based modeling is a generic approach to understand and correlate different complex parameters of biological systems for improving the desired output. In addition, some new inferences can also be predicted in a shorter time with less cost and labor. As terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in Vinca minor is very less investigated or elucidated, a strategy of elicitation with hydroxylase and acetyltransferase along with incorporation of various precursors from primary shikimate and secoiridoid pools via simultaneous employment of cyclooxygenase inhibitor was performed in the hairy roots of V. minor. This led to the increment in biomass accumulation, total alkaloid concentration, and vincamine production in selected treatments. The resultant experimental values were correlated with algorithm approaches of artificial neural network that assisted in finding the yield of vincamine, alkaloids, and growth kinetics using number of elicits. The inputs were the hydroxylase/acetyltransferase elicitors and cyclooxygenase inhibitor along with various precursors from shikimate and secoiridoid pools and the outputs were growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine. The approach incorporates two MATLAB codes; GRNN and FFBPNN. Growth kinetic studies revealed that shikimate and tryptophan supplementation triggers biomass accumulation (GI = 440.2 to 540.5); while maximum alkaloid (3.7 % dry wt.) and vincamine production (0.017 ± 0.001 % dry wt.) was obtained on supplementation of secologanin along with tryptophan, naproxen, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic anhydride. The study shows that experimental and predicted values strongly correlate each other. The correlation coefficient for growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine was found to be 0.9997, 0.9980, 0.9511 in GRNN and 0.9725, 0.9444, 0.9422 in FFBPNN, respectively. GRNN provided greater similarity between the target and predicted dataset in comparison to FFBPNN. The findings can provide future

  8. Differential Expression of Antioxidant Enzymes During Degradation of Azo Dye Reactive black 8 in Hairy roots of Physalis minima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pamela; Modi, Nikita; Jobby, Renitta; Desai, Neetin

    2015-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the protection of plant metabolism in presence of azo dye was characterized by studying activities of the role of antioxidant enzymes in the hairy roots (HRs) of Physalis minima L. during degradation of an azo dye, Reactive Black 8 (RB8). When the HRs were exposed to RB8 (30 mg L(-1)), a  nine fold increase in SOD activity was observed after 24 h, while 22 and 50 fold increase in activity was observed for POX and APX respectively after 72 h, whereas there was no significant change in activity of CAT. The activation of different antioxidant enzymes at different time intervals under dye stress suggests the synchronized functioning of antioxidant machinery to protect the HRs from oxidative damage. FTIR analysis confirmed the degradation of dye and the non-toxic nature of metabolites formed after dye degradation was confirmed by phytotoxicity study.

  9. Green manuring effect of pure and mixed barley - hairy vetch winter cover crops on maize and processing tomato N nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosti, Giacomo; Benincasa, Paolo; Farneselli, Michela

    2012-01-01

    with the appropriate critical N dilution curves. The results highlight the effectiveness of mixtures for the management of the winter cover crop practice. In the two considered years, the species proportion influences the aboveground biomass (ranging from 2.90 to 5.94 Mg ha-1) and N accumulation (ranging from 73......Adopting mixtures between legumes and non legumes can be an efficient tool to merge the advantages of the single species in the fall-sown cover crop practice. Nevertheless there is a lack of information on how the species proportion may affect N accumulation and C/N of the cover crops and how...... this can influence the N uptake and N status of different subsequent summer cash crops. In this study the N effect of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) grown in pure stands or in mixtures with different sowing proportion was tested on maize (Zea Mays L.) and processing...

  10. Kytococcus schroeteri Bacteremia in a Patient with Hairy Cell Leukemia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaraneni, Akshay; Malik, Devin; Jasra, Sakshi; Chandana, Sreenivasa R; Garg, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    The Kytococcus genus formerly belonged to Micrococcus. The first report of a Kytococcus schroeteri infection was in 2002 in a patient diagnosed with endocarditis. We report a case of central line associated Kytococcus schroeteri bacteremia in a patient with underlying Hairy Cell Leukemia. Kytococcus schroeteri is an emerging infection in the neutropenic population and in patients with implanted artificial tissue. It is thought to be a commensal bacterium of the skin; however, attempts to culture the bacteria remain unsuccessful. There have been a total of 5 cases (including ours) of K. schroeteri bacteremia in patients with hematologic malignancies and neutropenia and only 18 documented cases in any population. Four of the cases of bacteria in neutropenic patients have been fatal, but early detection and treatment could make a difference in clinical outcomes.

  11. Kytococcus schroeteri Bacteremia in a Patient with Hairy Cell Leukemia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Amaraneni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kytococcus genus formerly belonged to Micrococcus. The first report of a Kytococcus schroeteri infection was in 2002 in a patient diagnosed with endocarditis. We report a case of central line associated Kytococcus schroeteri bacteremia in a patient with underlying Hairy Cell Leukemia. Kytococcus schroeteri is an emerging infection in the neutropenic population and in patients with implanted artificial tissue. It is thought to be a commensal bacterium of the skin; however, attempts to culture the bacteria remain unsuccessful. There have been a total of 5 cases (including ours of K. schroeteri bacteremia in patients with hematologic malignancies and neutropenia and only 18 documented cases in any population. Four of the cases of bacteria in neutropenic patients have been fatal, but early detection and treatment could make a difference in clinical outcomes.

  12. Phylogeography of screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus: Successive disjunctions and extinctions due to cyclical climatic changes in southern South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Poljak

    Full Text Available Little is known about phylogeography of armadillo species native to southern South America. In this study we describe the phylogeography of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus, discuss previous hypothesis about the origin of its disjunct distribution and propose an alternative one, based on novel information on genetic variability. Variation of partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA Control Region (CR from 73 individuals from 23 localities were analyzed to carry out a phylogeographic analysis using neutrality tests, mismatch distribution, median-joining (MJ network and paleontological records. We found 17 polymorphic sites resulting in 15 haplotypes. Two new geographic records that expand known distribution of the species are presented; one of them links the distributions of recently synonimized species C. nationi and C. vellerosus. Screaming hairy armadillo phylogeographic pattern can be addressed as category V of Avise: common widespread linages plus closely related lineages confined to one or a few nearby locales each. The older linages are distributed in the north-central area of the species distribution range in Argentina (i.e. ancestral area of distribution. C. vellerosus seems to be a low vagility species that expanded, and probably is expanding, its distribution range while presents signs of genetic structuring in central areas. To explain the disjunct distribution, a hypothesis of extinction of the species in intermediate areas due to quaternary climatic shift to more humid conditions was proposed. We offer an alternative explanation: long distance colonization, based on null genetic variability, paleontological record and evidence of alternance of cold/arid and temperate/humid climatic periods during the last million years in southern South America.

  13. Phylogeography of screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus: Successive disjunctions and extinctions due to cyclical climatic changes in southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Sebastián; Ferreiro, Alejandro M; Chiappero, Marina B; Sánchez, Julieta; Gabrielli, Magalí; Lizarralde, Marta S

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about phylogeography of armadillo species native to southern South America. In this study we describe the phylogeography of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus, discuss previous hypothesis about the origin of its disjunct distribution and propose an alternative one, based on novel information on genetic variability. Variation of partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA Control Region (CR) from 73 individuals from 23 localities were analyzed to carry out a phylogeographic analysis using neutrality tests, mismatch distribution, median-joining (MJ) network and paleontological records. We found 17 polymorphic sites resulting in 15 haplotypes. Two new geographic records that expand known distribution of the species are presented; one of them links the distributions of recently synonimized species C. nationi and C. vellerosus. Screaming hairy armadillo phylogeographic pattern can be addressed as category V of Avise: common widespread linages plus closely related lineages confined to one or a few nearby locales each. The older linages are distributed in the north-central area of the species distribution range in Argentina (i.e. ancestral area of distribution). C. vellerosus seems to be a low vagility species that expanded, and probably is expanding, its distribution range while presents signs of genetic structuring in central areas. To explain the disjunct distribution, a hypothesis of extinction of the species in intermediate areas due to quaternary climatic shift to more humid conditions was proposed. We offer an alternative explanation: long distance colonization, based on null genetic variability, paleontological record and evidence of alternance of cold/arid and temperate/humid climatic periods during the last million years in southern South America.

  14. Target and Non-Target Site Mechanisms Developed by Glyphosate-Resistant Hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L. Populations from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2014 hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L. has been identified as being glyphosate-resistant in citrus orchards from Mexico. The target and non-target site mechanisms involved in the response to glyphosate of two resistant populations (R1 and R2 and one susceptible (S were studied. Experiments of dose-response, shikimic acid accumulation, uptake-translocation, enzyme activity and EPSPS gene sequencing were carried out in each population. The R1 and R2 populations were 20.4 and 2.8-fold less glyphosate sensitive, respectively, than the S population. The resistant populations showed a lesser shikimic acid accumulation than the S population. In the latter one, 24.9% of 14C-glyphosate was translocated to the roots at 96 h after treatment; in the R1 and R2 populations only 12.9 and 15.5%, respectively, was translocated. Qualitative results confirmed the reduced 14C-glyphosate translocation in the resistant populations. The EPSPS enzyme activity of the S population was 128.4 and 8.5-fold higher than the R1 and R2 populations of glyphosate-treated plants, respectively. A single (Pro-106-Ser, and a double (Thr-102-Ile followed by Pro-106-Ser mutations were identified in the EPSPS2 gene conferred high resistance in R1 population. Target-site mutations associated with a reduced translocation were responsible for the higher glyphosate resistance in the R1 population. The low-intermediate resistance of the R2 population was mediated by reduced translocation. This is the first glyphosate resistance case confirmed in hairy beggarticks in the world.

  15. Target and Non-target Site Mechanisms Developed by Glyphosate-Resistant Hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) Populations from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Ozuna, Carmen V; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo E; Domínguez-Valenzuela, José A; Barro, Francisco; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 hairy beggarticks ( Bidens pilosa L.) has been identified as being glyphosate-resistant in citrus orchards from Mexico. The target and non-target site mechanisms involved in the response to glyphosate of two resistant populations (R1 and R2) and one susceptible (S) were studied. Experiments of dose-response, shikimic acid accumulation, uptake-translocation, enzyme activity and 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene sequencing were carried out in each population. The R1 and R2 populations were 20.4 and 2.8-fold less glyphosate sensitive, respectively, than the S population. The resistant populations showed a lesser shikimic acid accumulation than the S population. In the latter one, 24.9% of 14 C-glyphosate was translocated to the roots at 96 h after treatment; in the R1 and R2 populations only 12.9 and 15.5%, respectively, was translocated. Qualitative results confirmed the reduced 14 C-glyphosate translocation in the resistant populations. The EPSPS enzyme activity of the S population was 128.4 and 8.5-fold higher than the R1 and R2 populations of glyphosate-treated plants, respectively. A single (Pro-106-Ser), and a double (Thr-102-Ile followed by Pro-106-Ser) mutations were identified in the EPSPS2 gene conferred high resistance in R1 population. Target-site mutations associated with a reduced translocation were responsible for the higher glyphosate resistance in the R1 population. The low-intermediate resistance of the R2 population was mediated by reduced translocation. This is the first glyphosate resistance case confirmed in hairy beggarticks in the world.

  16. Increased de novo riboflavin synthesis and hydrolysis of FMN are involved in riboflavin secretion from Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots under iron deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Higa, Ataru; Khandakar, Jebunnahar; Mori, Yuko; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Riboflavin secretion by Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots under Fe deficiency was examined to determine where riboflavin is produced and whether production occurs via an enhancement of riboflavin biosynthesis or a stimulation of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) hydrolysis. Confocal fluorescent microscopy showed that riboflavin was mainly localized in the epidermis and cortex of the root tip and, at the cellular level, in the apoplast. The expressions of three genes involved in the de novo biosynthesis ...

  17. In vitro production of secondary metabolite using Atropa komarovii Bline&Shal (Solanaceae) hairy root culture via Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834

    OpenAIRE

    Ofelia Banihashemi; Ramazan-Ali Khavari-Nejad; Narguess Yassa; Farzaneh Najafi

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aim:A new sustainable tissue-based system is presented by plant hairy roots, preserving all of the several specialized types of cell with critical roles in allowing bioactive secondary molecules to be synthesized more consistently as usual. The system is also essential for studying the production of alkaloid in culture. Experimental: The Atropa komarovii leaves were wounded and infected with soil gram-negative bacterium Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834. After three weeks, th...

  18. Influence of molecular weight on the phase behavior and structure formation of branched side-chain hairy-rod polyfluorene in bulk phase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaapila, M.; Stepanyan, R.; Torkkeli, M.; Lyons, B.P.; Ikonen, T.P.; Almasy, L.; Foreman, J.P.; Serimaa, R.; Guntner, R; Scherf, U.; Monkman, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of the self-organization and phase behavior of hairy-rod π -conjugated branched side-chain polyfluorene, poly[9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-fluorene-2,7-diyl]—i.e., poly[2,7–(9,9–bis(2–ethylhexyl)fluorene] (PF2∕6) —as a function of molecular weight (Mn) . The results have

  19. RNA viral vectors for improved Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of heterologous proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana cell suspensions and hairy roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen Jeffrey S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant cell suspensions and hairy root cultures represent scalable protein expression platforms. Low protein product titers have thus far limited the application of transient protein expression in these hosts. The objective of this work was to overcome this limitation by harnessing A. tumefaciens to deliver replicating and non-replicating RNA viral vectors in plant tissue co-cultures. Results Replicating vectors derived from Potato virus X (PVX and Tobacco rattle virus (TRV were modified to contain the reporter gene β-glucuronidase (GUS with a plant intron to prevent bacterial expression. In cell suspensions, a minimal PVX vector retaining only the viral RNA polymerase gene yielded 6.6-fold more GUS than an analogous full-length PVX vector. Transient co-expression of the minimal PVX vector with P19 of Tomato bushy stunt virus or HC-Pro of Tobacco etch virus to suppress post-transcriptional gene silencing increased GUS expression by 44 and 83%, respectively. A non-replicating vector containing a leader sequence from Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV-HT modified for enhanced translation led to 70% higher transient GUS expression than a control treatment. In hairy roots, a TRV vector capable of systemic movement increased GUS accumulation by 150-fold relative to the analogous PVX vector. Histochemical staining for GUS in TRV-infected hairy roots revealed the capacity for achieving even higher productivity per unit biomass. Conclusions For the first time, replicating PVX vectors and a non-replicating CPMV-HT vector were successfully applied toward transient heterologous protein expression in cell suspensions. A replicating TRV vector achieved transient GUS expression levels in hairy roots more than an order of magnitude higher than the highest level previously reported with a viral vector delivered by A. tumefaciens.

  20. The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skała, Ewa; Rijo, Patrícia; Garcia, Catarina; Sitarek, Przemysław; Kalemba, Danuta; Toma, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Pytel, Dariusz; Wysokińska, Halina; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the hairy roots (HR) and roots of soil-grown plants (SGR) of Rhaponticum carthamoides and were analyzed by GC-MS method. In the both essential oils 62 compounds were identified. The root essential oils showed the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (55-62%) dominated in both essential oils. The major compounds of HR essential oil were cyperene, 13-norcypera-1(5),11(12)-diene, and cadalene while aplotaxene, nardosina-1(10),11-diene, and dauca-4(11),8-diene dominated in SGR essential oil. Both essential oils showed antibacterial activity especially against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) (MIC value = 125  µ g/mL). HR and SGR essential oils also decreased the expression of IL-1 β , IL-6, and TNF- α and the ROS level in LPS-treatment astrocytes. This is the first report to describe the chemical composition of R. carthamoides essential oil from hairy roots, its protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation and ROS production in astrocytes, and its antimicrobial potential. The results show that R. carthamoides hairy roots may be a valuable source of the essential oil and may be an alternative to the roots of soil-grown plants.

  1. Scale-Up of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-Mediated Hairy Root Cultures of Rauwolfia serpentina: A Persuasive Approach for Stable Reserpine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Srivastava, Vikas; Goel, Manoj K; Kukreja, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Roots of Rauwolfia serpentina, also known as "Sarpagandha" possess high pharmaceutical value due to the presence of reserpine and other medicinally important terpene indole alkaloids. Ever increasing commercial demand of R. serpentina roots is the major reason behind the unsystematic harvesting and fast decline of the species from its natural environment. Considering Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root cultures as an alternative source for the production of plant-based secondary metabolites, the present optimized protocol offers a commercially feasible method for the production of reserpine, the most potent alkaloid from R. serpentina roots. This end-to-end protocol presents the establishment of hairy root culture from the leaf explants of R. serpentina through the infection of A. rhizogenes strain A4 in liquid B5 culture medium and its up-scaling in a 5 L bench top, mechanically agitated bioreactor. The transformed nature of roots was confirmed through PCR-based rol A gene amplification in genomic DNA of putative hairy roots. The extraction and quantification of reserpine in bioreactor grown roots has been done using monolithic reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  2. Maize root culture as a model system for studying azoxystrobin biotransformation in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautam, Maheswor; Elhiti, Mohamed Abdelsamad A; Fomsgaard, Inge S.

    2018-01-01

    Hairy roots induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes are well established models to study the metabolism of xenobiotics in plants for phytoremediation purposes. However, the model requires special skills and resources for growing and is a time-consuming process. The roots induction process alters...

  3. Efficient generation of mutations mediated by CRISPR/Cas9 in the hairy root transformation system of Brassica carinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Thomas W; Niehaus, Markus; Debener, Thomas; Schenk, Manfred K; Herde, Marco

    2017-01-01

    A protocol for the induction of site-directed deletions and insertions in the genome of Brassica carinata with CRISPR is described. The construct containing the Cas9 nuclease and the guide RNA (gRNA) was delivered by the hairy root transformation technique, and a successful transformation was monitored by GFP fluorescence. PAGE analysis of an amplified region, presumably containing the deletions and insertions, demonstrated up to seven different indels in one transgenic root and in all analyzed roots a wildtype allele of the modified gene was not detectable. Interestingly, many of these mutations consisted of relatively large indels with up to 112 bp. The exact size of the deletions was determined to allow an estimation whether the targeted gene was not functional due to a considerable deletion or a frame shift within the open reading frame. This allowed a direct phenotypic assessment of the previously characterized roots and, in fact, deletions in FASCICLIN-LIKE ARABINOGALACTAN PROTEIN 1 (BcFLA1)-a gene with an expression pattern consistent with a role in root hair architecture-resulted in shorter root hairs compared to control roots ectopically expressing an allele of the gene that cannot be targeted by the gRNA in parallel to the CRISPR construct. As an additional line of evidence, we monitored BcFLA1 expression with qPCR and detected a significant reduction of the transcript in roots with an active CRISPR construct compared to the control, although residual amounts of the transcript were detected, possibly due to inefficient nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Additionally, the presence of deletions and insertions were verified by Sanger sequencing of the respective amplicons. In summary we demonstrate the successful application of CRISPR/Cas9 in hairy roots of B. carinata, the proof of its effectiveness and its effect on the root hair phenotype. This study paves the way for experimental strategies involving the phenotypic assessment of gene lesions by CRISPR which

  4. Efficient generation of mutations mediated by CRISPR/Cas9 in the hairy root transformation system of Brassica carinata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Kirchner

    Full Text Available A protocol for the induction of site-directed deletions and insertions in the genome of Brassica carinata with CRISPR is described. The construct containing the Cas9 nuclease and the guide RNA (gRNA was delivered by the hairy root transformation technique, and a successful transformation was monitored by GFP fluorescence. PAGE analysis of an amplified region, presumably containing the deletions and insertions, demonstrated up to seven different indels in one transgenic root and in all analyzed roots a wildtype allele of the modified gene was not detectable. Interestingly, many of these mutations consisted of relatively large indels with up to 112 bp. The exact size of the deletions was determined to allow an estimation whether the targeted gene was not functional due to a considerable deletion or a frame shift within the open reading frame. This allowed a direct phenotypic assessment of the previously characterized roots and, in fact, deletions in FASCICLIN-LIKE ARABINOGALACTAN PROTEIN 1 (BcFLA1-a gene with an expression pattern consistent with a role in root hair architecture-resulted in shorter root hairs compared to control roots ectopically expressing an allele of the gene that cannot be targeted by the gRNA in parallel to the CRISPR construct. As an additional line of evidence, we monitored BcFLA1 expression with qPCR and detected a significant reduction of the transcript in roots with an active CRISPR construct compared to the control, although residual amounts of the transcript were detected, possibly due to inefficient nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Additionally, the presence of deletions and insertions were verified by Sanger sequencing of the respective amplicons. In summary we demonstrate the successful application of CRISPR/Cas9 in hairy roots of B. carinata, the proof of its effectiveness and its effect on the root hair phenotype. This study paves the way for experimental strategies involving the phenotypic assessment of gene lesions

  5. Relationship of coarse woody debris to arthropod Availability for Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers and other bark-foraging birds on loblolly pine boles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2008-04-01

    Abstract This study determined if short-term removal of coarse woody debris would reduce prey available to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis Vieillot) and other bark-foraging birds at the Savannah River Site in Aiken and Barnwell counties, SC. All coarse woody debris was removed from four 9-ha plots of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in 1997 and again in 1998. We sampled arthropods in coarse woody debris removal and control stands using crawl traps that captured arthropods crawling up tree boles, burlap bands wrapped around trees, and cardboard panels placed on the ground. We captured 27 orders and 172 families of arthropods in crawl traps whereas 20 arthropod orders were observed under burlap bands and cardboard panels. The most abundant insects collected from crawl traps were aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Forrnicidae). The greatest biomass was in the wood cockroaches (Blattaria: Blattellidae), caterpillars (Lepidoptera) in the Family Noctuidae, and adult weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The most common group observed underneath cardboard panels was lsoptera (termites), and the most common taxon under burlap bands was wood cockroaches. Overall, arthropod abundance and biomass captured in crawl traps was similar in control and removal plots. In contrast, we observed more arthropods under burlap bands (mean & SE; 3,021.5 k 348.6, P= 0.03) and cardboard panels (3,537.25 k 432.4, P= 0.04) in plots with coarse woody debris compared with burlap bands (2325 + 171.3) and cardboard panels (2439.75 + 288.9) in plots where coarse woody debris was removed. Regression analyses showed that abundance beneath cardboard panels was positively correlated with abundance beneath burlap bands demonstrating the link between abundance on the ground with that on trees. Our results demonstrate that short-term removal of coarse woody debris from pine forests reduced overall arthropod availability to bark-foraging birds.

  6. Ensemble modeling to predict habitat suitability for a large-scale disturbance specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Quresh S; Saab, Victoria A; Dudley, Jonathan G; Hollenbeck, Jeff P

    2013-11-01

    To conserve habitat for disturbance specialist species, ecologists must identify where individuals will likely settle in newly disturbed areas. Habitat suitability models can predict which sites at new disturbances will most likely attract specialists. Without validation data from newly disturbed areas, however, the best approach for maximizing predictive accuracy can be unclear (Northwestern U.S.A.). We predicted habitat suitability for nesting Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus; a burned-forest specialist) at 20 recently (≤6 years postwildfire) burned locations in Montana using models calibrated with data from three locations in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. We developed 8 models using three techniques (weighted logistic regression, Maxent, and Mahalanobis D (2) models) and various combinations of four environmental variables describing burn severity, the north-south orientation of topographic slope, and prefire canopy cover. After translating model predictions into binary classifications (0 = low suitability to unsuitable, 1 = high to moderate suitability), we compiled "ensemble predictions," consisting of the number of models (0-8) predicting any given site as highly suitable. The suitability status for 40% of the area burned by eastside Montana wildfires was consistent across models and therefore robust to uncertainty in the relative accuracy of particular models and in alternative ecological hypotheses they described. Ensemble predictions exhibited two desirable properties: (1) a positive relationship with apparent rates of nest occurrence at calibration locations and (2) declining model agreement outside surveyed environments consistent with our reduced confidence in novel (i.e., "no-analogue") environments. Areas of disagreement among models suggested where future surveys could help validate and refine models for an improved understanding of Black-backed Woodpecker nesting habitat relationships. Ensemble predictions presented here can help guide

  7. Do male secondary sexual characters correlate with testis size and sperm length in the small hairy maggot blowfly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie D; Wallman, James F; Byrne, Phillip G

    2015-12-01

    The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis proposes that secondary sexual characters (SSCs) advertise a male's fertility to prospective mates. However, findings from empirical studies attempting to test this hypothesis are often ambivalent or even contradictory, and few studies have simultaneously evaluated how both morphological and behavioural SSCs relate to ejaculate characteristics. Males of the small hairy maggot blowfly, Chrysomya varipes, possess conspicuous foreleg ornaments and display highly stereotyped courtship behaviour. These traits are favoured by females during pre-copulatory mate choice, but it remains unknown whether they correlate with post-copulatory traits expected to influence male fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate whether male courtship and ornamentation correlate with testis size and sperm length in C. varipes. We found that males investing more in courtship had bigger testes, and males with more extensive foreleg ornamentation released sperm with longer tails. Based on the assumption that larger testes enable males to produce more sperm, and that sperm with longer tails have greater propulsive force, our findings suggest that more vigorous and more ornamented males may be more fertile. These findings lend support to the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis. However, a complete test of this hypothesis will require evaluating whether testis size and sperm length influence male fertilisation ability, as well as female fecundity and/or fertility. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Primary Hairy Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma of the Breast: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Pilichowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairy cell leukemia/lymphoma (HCL is a rare B-cell neoplasm primarily involving spleen, bone marrow, and blood. However, other sites of primary involvement do occur and can present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We present an unusual case of HCL involving predominantly the breast that was diagnosed as an incidental finding during an elective reduction mammoplasty in an otherwise healthy asymptomatic woman. Bone marrow performed for staging revealed limited involvement by HCL. Notably, there was no splenomegaly and/or involvement of other extramedullary sites. The peripheral blood revealed minimal involvement detected by flow cytometry. Extensive immunohistochemical studies supported by positive BRAF V600E mutational status confirmed the diagnosis of HCL. The patient remains asymptomatic without treatment one year following the diagnosis. This is the first case of a well-documented HCL presenting primarily in the breast in an asymptomatic patient. We review the literature on extramedullary, extrasplenic involvement by HCL and discuss the diagnostic challenges as well as the utility of immunohistochemistry and molecular studies in the diagnosis of atypical presentations of HCL.

  9. Simultaneous determination of scopolamine, hyoscyamine and anisodamine in in vitro growth media of selected Solanaceae hairy roots by CE method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziomba, Szymon; Łepek, Teresa; Jaremicz, Zbigniew; Łuczkiewicz, Maria; Prahl, Adam; Kowalski, Piotr

    2015-09-15

    An electrophoretic method for fast separation of three tropane alkaloids (hyoscyamine, anisodamine and scopolamine) was presented. The substances were complete resolved in less than one minute due to utilization of relatively short capillary (20.2cm effective length) and high voltage (25kV). Detector probing frequency was found among the parameters that significantly affected the detection sensitivity. The performed experiments showed insufficient available probing frequency of used commercial spectrophotometric detector according to capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation potential. Under the optimized conditions the background electrolyte (BGE) was composed of 20mM Tris, 6mM HCl and 20mM NaCl (pH 8.50). All analyses were carried out in fused silica capillaries of 50μm (inner diameter) and 31.2cm (total capillary length). Samples were injected hydrodynamically (5s; 3.45kPa) without any sample preparation step and separation was performed at 25kV. The elaborated method was applied in plant cultures growth media analysis after incubation with hairy roots of selected Solanaceae species. The performed experiments proved the usefulness of CE in quality control of biotechnological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome-Wide Identification of the Mutation Underlying Fleece Variation and Discriminating Ancestral Hairy Species from Modern Woolly Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demars, Julie; Cano, Margarita; Drouilhet, Laurence; Plisson-Petit, Florence; Bardou, Philippe; Fabre, Stéphane; Servin, Bertrand; Sarry, Julien; Woloszyn, Florent; Mulsant, Philippe; Foulquier, Didier; Carrière, Fabien; Aletru, Mathias; Rodde, Nathalie; Cauet, Stéphane; Bouchez, Olivier; Pirson, Maarten; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Allain, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    The composition and structure of fleece variation observed in mammals is a consequence of a strong selective pressure for fiber production after domestication. In sheep, fleece variation discriminates ancestral species carrying a long and hairy fleece from modern domestic sheep (Ovis aries) owning a short and woolly fleece. Here, we report that the "woolly" allele results from the insertion of an antisense EIF2S2 retrogene (called asEIF2S2) into the 3' UTR of the IRF2BP2 gene leading to an abnormal IRF2BP2 transcript. We provide evidence that this chimeric IRF2BP2/asEIF2S2 messenger 1) targets the genuine sense EIF2S2 RNA and 2) creates a long endogenous double-stranded RNA which alters the expression of both EIF2S2 and IRF2BP2 mRNA. This represents a unique example of a phenotype arising via a RNA-RNA hybrid, itself generated through a retroposition mechanism. Our results bring new insights on the sheep population history thanks to the identification of the molecular origin of an evolutionary phenotypic variation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of Prunus as an alternative for gene functional analysis in hairy-roots and composite plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosselut, Nathalie; Van Ghelder, Cyril; Claverie, Michel; Voisin, Roger; Onesto, Jean-Paul; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Esmenjaud, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    Resistant rootstocks offer an alternative to pesticides for the control of soil pests. In Prunus spp., resistance loci to root-knot nematodes (RKN) have been mapped and a transformation method is needed to validate candidate genes. Our efforts have focused on the generation of transformed hairy-roots and composite plants appropriate for nematode infection assays. An efficient and reliable method using the A4R strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the transformation of Prunus roots with an Egfp reporter gene is given. The rooting efficiency, depending on the genotypes, was maximal for the interspecific hybrid 253 (Myrobalan plum × almond-peach), susceptible to RKN, that was retained for subsequent studies. From the agro-inoculated cuttings, 72% produced roots, mainly at the basal section of the stem. Transformed roots were screened by microscope detection of Egfp fluorescence and molecular analyses of the integration of the transgene. The absence of residual agrobacteria in the plants was checked by the non-amplification of the chromosomal gene chvH. Egfp was expressed visually in 76% of the rooted plants. Isolated hairy roots in Petri dishes and composite plants (transformed roots and non-transformed aerial part) in soil containers were inoculated with the RKN Meloidogyne incognita. In both cases, root transformation did not affect the ability of the nematodes to develop in the root tissues. Our results showed that isolated hairy-roots can be used to validate candidate genes and the conditions in which composite plants offer a complementary system for studying the function of root genes in physiological conditions of whole plants are discussed.

  12. Heterologous Expression of Panax ginseng PgTIP1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance of Soybean Cotyledon Hairy Roots, Composite, and Whole Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing An

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panax ginseng TIP gene PgTIP1 was previously demonstrated to have high water channel activity by its heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in yeast; it also plays a significant role in growth of PgTIP1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants under favorable conditions and has enhanced tolerance toward salt and drought treatment. In this work, we first investigated the physiological effects of heterologous PgTIP1 expression in soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes toward enhanced salt tolerance. The PgTIP1-transgenic soybean plants mediated by the pollen tube pathway, represented by the lines N and J11, were analyzed at the physiological and molecular levels for enhanced salt tolerance. The results showed that in terms of root-specific heterologous expression, the PgTIP1-transformed soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants displayed superior salt tolerance compared to the empty vector-transformed ones according to the mitigatory effects of hairy root growth reduction, drop in leaf RWC, and rise in REL under salt stress. Additionally, declines in K+ content, increases in Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratios in the hairy roots, stems, or leaves were effectively alleviated by PgTIP1-transformation, particularly the stems and leaves of composite soybean plants. At the whole plant level, PgTIP1-trasgenic soybean lines were found to possess stronger root vigor, reduced root and leaf cell membrane damage, increased SOD, POD, CAT, and APX activities, steadily increased leaf Tr, RWC, and Pn values, and smaller declines in chlorophyll and carotenoid content when exposed to salt stress compared to wild type. Moreover, the distribution patterns of Na+, K+, and Cl- in the roots, stems, and leaves of salt-stressed transgenic plants were readjusted, in that the absorbed Na+ and Cl- were mainly restricted to the roots to reduce their transport to the shoots, and the transport of root-absorbed K+ to the

  13. Synchronous Detection of Hairy Cell Leukemia and HIV-Negative Kaposi’s Sarcoma of the Lymph Node: A Diagnostic Challenge and a Rare Coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seniz Ongoren Aydin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hairy cell leukemia (HCL is an uncommon chronic lymphoproliferative disorder and accounts for around 2% of all forms of leukemias. The association of HCL with other neoplasms, mainly non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, is well known. However, the simultaneous diagnosis of HCL and Kaposi’s sarcoma is rare, with only few cases of such an association having been reported. We describe a 42-year-old male patient with a well characterized HCL and in whom HIV-negative Kaposi’s sarcoma of the lymph node was detected.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Salicylic Acid Treatment in Rehmannia glutinosa Hairy Roots Using RNA-seq Technique for Identification of Genes Involved in Acteoside Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqing Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rehmannia glutinosa is a common bulk medicinal material that has been widely used in China due to its active ingredients. Acteoside, one of the ingredients, has antioxidant, antinephritic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective effects, is usually selected as a quality-control component for R. glutinosa herb in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. The acteoside biosynthesis pathway in R. glutinosa has not yet been clearly established. Herein, we describe the establishment of a genetic transformation system for R. glutinosa mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. We screened the optimal elicitors that markedly increased acteoside accumulation in R. glutinosa hairy roots. We found that acteoside accumulation dramatically increased with the addition of salicylic acid (SA; the optimal SA dose was 25 μmol/L for hairy roots. RNA-seq was applied to analyze the transcriptomic changes in hairy roots treated with SA for 24 h in comparison with an untreated control. A total of 3,716, 4,018, and 2,715 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs were identified in 0 h-vs.-12 h, 0 h-vs.-24 h, and 12 h-vs.-24 h libraries, respectively. KEGG pathway-based analysis revealed that 127 DETs were enriched in “phenylpropanoid biosynthesis.” Of 219 putative unigenes involved in acteoside biosynthesis, 54 were found to be up-regulated at at least one of the time points after SA treatment. Selected candidate genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR in hairy roots with SA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA, AgNO3 (Ag+, and putrescine (Put treatment. All genes investigated were up-regulated by SA treatment, and most candidate genes were weakly increased by MeJA to some degree. Furthermore, transcription abundance of eight candidate genes in tuberous roots of the high-acteoside-content (HA cultivar QH were higher than those of the low-acteoside-content (LA cultivar Wen 85-5. These results will pave the way for understanding the molecular

  15. The insulator protein Suppressor of Hairy wing is required for proper ring canal development during oogenesis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Jui; Plata, Maria P; Ernest, Ben; Asgarifar, Saghi; Labrador, Mariano

    2015-07-01

    Chromatin insulators orchestrate gene transcription during embryo development and cell differentiation by stabilizing interactions between distant genomic sites. Mutations in genes encoding insulator proteins are generally lethal, making in vivo functional analyses of insulator proteins difficult. In Drosophila, however, mutations in the gene encoding the Suppressor of Hairy wing insulator protein [Su(Hw)] are viable and female sterile, providing an opportunity to study insulator function during oocyte development. Whereas previous reports suggest that the function of Su(Hw) in oogenesis is independent of its insulator activity, many aspects of the role of Su(Hw) in Drosophila oogenesis remain unexplored. Here we show that mutations in su(Hw) result in smaller ring canal lumens and smaller outer ring diameters, which likely obstruct molecular and vesicle passage from nurse cells to the oocyte. Fluorescence microscopy reveals that lack of Su(Hw) leads to excess accumulation of Kelch (Kel) and Filament-actin (F-actin) proteins in the ring canal structures of developing egg chambers. Furthermore, we found that misexpression of the Src oncogene at 64B (Src64B) may cause ring canal development defects as microarray analysis and real-time RT-PCR revealed there is a three fold decrease in Src64B expression in su(Hw) mutant ovaries. Restoration of Src64B expression in su(Hw) mutant female germ cells rescued the ring phenotype but did not restore fertility. We conclude that loss of su(Hw) affects expression of many oogenesis related genes and down-regulates Src64B, resulting in ring canal defects potentially contributing to obstruction of molecular flow and an eventual failure of egg chamber organization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relato de caso de leucemia de células pilosas Case report of hairy cell leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy Cardoso de Brito Junior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A leucemia de células pilosas (LCP é um tipo raro de linfoma não Hodgkin de células B. O quadro clínico inclui esplenomegalia, pancitopenia e linfocitose. Estudos de carcinogênese da doença revelam sua associação a agentes químicos agrícolas. O objetivo deste estudo foi o relato de um caso de paciente com LCP, masculino, tratorista, com pancitopenia, lesões de pele, sem esplenomegalia e com marcadores positivos para linfócitos B (CD19, CD20, CD22, CD79b, CD23, Lambda, imunoglobulina M [IgM], CD25 e CD103. Embora a LCP seja uma doença rara, a demora em seu diagnóstico pode levar a sérias complicações e à morte do paciente antes do diagnóstico.Hairy cell leukemia (HCL is a rare type of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The clinical symptoms include splenomegaly, pancytopenia, and lymphocytosis. Studies on its carcinogenesis reveal association with exposure to agricultural chemical agents. The objective of this study was to report the case of a male patient, tractor operator, diagnosed with HCL, pancytopenia, cutaneous lesions, without splenomegaly and positive markers for B-cell lymphocytes (CD19, CD20, CD22, CD79b, CD23, Lambda, immunoglobulin M [IgM], CD25 and CD103. Although HCL is a rare disease, late diagnosis may ultimately lead to severe complications and patient's death.

  17. Expression of a Recombinant Anti-HIV and Anti-Tumor Protein, MAP30, in Nicotiana tobacum Hairy Roots: A pH-Stable and Thermophilic Antimicrobial Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Ali; Niazi, Ali; Afsharifar, Alireza; Taghavi, Seyed Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to conventional antibiotics, which microorganisms can readily evade, it is nearly impossible for a microbial strain that is sensitive to antimicrobial proteins to convert to a resistant strain. Therefore, antimicrobial proteins and peptides that are promising alternative candidates for the control of bacterial infections are under investigation. The MAP30 protein of Momordica charantia is a valuable type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) with anti-HIV and anti-tumor activities. Whereas the antimicrobial activity of some type I RIPs has been confirmed, less attention has been paid to the antimicrobial activity of MAP30 produced in a stable, easily handled, and extremely cost-effective protein-expression system. rMAP30-KDEL was expressed in Nicotiana tobacum hairy roots, and its effect on different microorganisms was investigated. Analysis of the extracted total proteins of transgenic hairy roots showed that rMAP30-KDEL was expressed effectively and that this protein exhibited significant antibacterial activity in a dose-dependent manner. rMAP30-KDEL also possessed thermal and pH stability. Bioinformatic analysis of MAP30 and other RIPs regarding their conserved motifs, amino-acid contents, charge, aliphatic index, GRAVY value, and secondary structures demonstrated that these factors accounted for their thermophilicity. Therefore, RIPs such as MAP30 and its derived peptides might have promising applications as food preservatives, and their analysis might provide useful insights into designing clinically applicable antibiotic agents. PMID:27459300

  18. Expression of a Recombinant Anti-HIV and Anti-Tumor Protein, MAP30, in Nicotiana tobacum Hairy Roots: A pH-Stable and Thermophilic Antimicrobial Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moghadam

    Full Text Available In contrast to conventional antibiotics, which microorganisms can readily evade, it is nearly impossible for a microbial strain that is sensitive to antimicrobial proteins to convert to a resistant strain. Therefore, antimicrobial proteins and peptides that are promising alternative candidates for the control of bacterial infections are under investigation. The MAP30 protein of Momordica charantia is a valuable type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP with anti-HIV and anti-tumor activities. Whereas the antimicrobial activity of some type I RIPs has been confirmed, less attention has been paid to the antimicrobial activity of MAP30 produced in a stable, easily handled, and extremely cost-effective protein-expression system. rMAP30-KDEL was expressed in Nicotiana tobacum hairy roots, and its effect on different microorganisms was investigated. Analysis of the extracted total proteins of transgenic hairy roots showed that rMAP30-KDEL was expressed effectively and that this protein exhibited significant antibacterial activity in a dose-dependent manner. rMAP30-KDEL also possessed thermal and pH stability. Bioinformatic analysis of MAP30 and other RIPs regarding their conserved motifs, amino-acid contents, charge, aliphatic index, GRAVY value, and secondary structures demonstrated that these factors accounted for their thermophilicity. Therefore, RIPs such as MAP30 and its derived peptides might have promising applications as food preservatives, and their analysis might provide useful insights into designing clinically applicable antibiotic agents.

  19. The c4h, tat, hppr and hppd genes prompted engineering of rosmarinic acid biosynthetic pathway in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xiao

    Full Text Available Rational engineering to produce biologically active plant compounds has been greatly impeded by our poor understanding of the regulatory and metabolic pathways underlying the biosynthesis of these compounds. Here we capitalized on our previously described gene-to-metabolite network in order to engineer rosmarinic acid (RA biosynthesis pathway for the production of beneficial RA and lithospermic acid B (LAB in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures. Results showed their production was greatly elevated by (1 overexpression of single gene, including cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (c4h, tyrosine aminotransferase (tat, and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate reductase (hppr, (2 overexpression of both tat and hppr, and (3 suppression of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (hppd. Co-expression of tat/hppr produced the most abundant RA (906 mg/liter and LAB (992 mg/liter, which were 4.3 and 3.2-fold more than in their wild-type (wt counterparts respectively. And the value of RA concentration was also higher than that reported before, that produced by means of nutrient medium optimization or elicitor treatment. It is the first report of boosting RA and LAB biosynthesis through genetic manipulation, providing an effective approach for their large-scale commercial production by using hairy root culture systems as bioreactors.

  20. Effect of Particle Size and Ligand on the Tribological Properties of Amino Functionalized Hairy Silica Nanoparticles as an Additive to Polyalphaolefin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, T.; Song, B.; Zhang, F.; Yang, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Hairy nanoparticles, which graft organic chains on nanoparticles, have led to a wide variety of advanced materials and have been applied in many fields over the past two decades. In this paper, effects of nanoparticle size and organic chain on the tribological properties of amino functionalized hairy silica nanoparticles (HSN s ) were investigated. Silica nanoparticles with different sizes and amino group organic chains were synthesized and dispersed into polyalphaolefin (PAO) via a modified process. The synthesized HSN s were characterized by variety of methods. The tribology properties of those HSN s were investigated using a four-ball tetrabromo. The coefficient of friction and wear scar diameter were measured and analyzed. It was found that the HSN s could form a stable homogeneous solution with PAO. The tribological performance of the PAO 100 was enhanced dramatically by adding the HSN s . The data suggested that HSN s with larger size, longer organic chains, and more amino groups gave better anti wear and friction reduction properties than other nanoparticles

  1. Influence of molecular weight on the phase behavior and structure formation of branched side-chain hairy-rod polyfluorene in bulk phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaapila, M; Stepanyan, R; Torkkeli, M; Lyons, B P; Ikonen, T P; Almásy, L; Foreman, J P; Serimaa, R; Güntner, R; Scherf, U; Monkman, A P

    2005-04-01

    We report on an experimental study of the self-organization and phase behavior of hairy-rod pi -conjugated branched side-chain polyfluorene, poly[9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-fluorene-2,7-diyl]-i.e., poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)fluorene] (PF2/6) -as a function of molecular weight (M(n)) . The results have been compared to those of phenomenological theory. Samples for which M(n) =3-147 kg/mol were used. First, the stiffness of PF2/6 , the assumption of the theory, has been probed by small-angle neutron scattering in solution. Thermogravimetry has been used to show that PF2/6 is thermally stable over the conditions studied. Second, the existence of nematic and hexagonal phases has been phenomenologically identified for lower and higher M(n) (LMW, M(n) M(*)(n) ) regimes, respectively, based on free-energy argument of nematic and hexagonal hairy rods and found to correspond to the experimental x-ray diffraction (XRD) results for PF2/6 . By using the lattice parameters of PF2/6 as an experimental input, the nematic-hexagonal transition has been predicted in the vicinity of glassification temperature (T(g)) of PF2/6 . Then, by taking the orientation parts of the free energies into account the nematic-hexagonal transition has been calculated as a function of temperature and M(n) and a phase diagram has been formed. Below T(g) of 80 degrees C only (frozen) nematic phase is observed for M(n) M(*)(n) . The nematic-hexagonal transition upon heating is observed for the HMW regime depending weakly on M(n) , being at 140-165 degrees C for M(n) > M(*)(n). Third, the phase behavior and structure formation as a function of M(n) have been probed using powder and fiber XRD and differential scanning calorimetry and reasonable semiquantitative agreement with theory has been found for M(n) >or=3 kg/mol. Fourth, structural characteristics are widely discussed. The nematic phase of LMW materials has been observed to be denser than high-temperature nematic phase of HMW compounds. The hexagonal

  2. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique for determining multi-element composition of transformed hairy root cultures of Boerhaavia diffusa L. An important medicinal herb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopamudra Sahu; Chand, P.K.; Ray, D.K.; Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutically important inorganic elements in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated genetically transformed hairy root cultures (HRCs) of a pharmaceutically significant herb Boerhaavia diffusa were quantified using proton induced X-ray emission technique. This was compared with that of roots from the naturally grown donor plant. Two macro-elements (Ca and K) and eight different trace elements namely V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu Zn, and Ni were detected and their content was determined. In HRCs of a transformed rhizoclone, calcium and potassium had values which were significantly higher than that of in vivo roots. The concentrations of several trace elements, which are known to have a positive implication in human healthcare, were found to be either comparable (Fe) to that in the natural root samples or higher (Mn, Zn, Cr, Cu, Co) in the transformed rhizoclone. The genetically transformed HRCs can thus serve as a fast-proliferating renewable resource of medicinally useful minerals targeting specific diseases. (author)

  3. Use of cccupancy models to evaluate expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglecia, Monica N.; Collazo, Jaime A.; McKerrow, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships are used extensively to guide conservation planning, particularly when data are scarce. Purported relationships describe the initial state of knowledge, but are rarely tested. We assessed support in the data for suitability rankings of vegetation types based on expert knowledge for three terrestrial avian species in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States. Experts used published studies, natural history, survey data, and field experience to rank vegetation types as optimal, suitable, and marginal. We used single-season occupancy models, coupled with land cover and Breeding Bird Survey data, to examine the hypothesis that patterns of occupancy conformed to species-habitat suitability rankings purported by experts. Purported habitat suitability was validated for two of three species. As predicted for the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens) and Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), occupancy was strongly influenced by vegetation types classified as “optimal habitat” by the species suitability rankings for nuthatches and wood-pewees. Contrary to predictions, Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) models that included vegetation types as covariates received similar support by the data as models without vegetation types. For all three species, occupancy was also related to sampling latitude. Our results suggest that covariates representing other habitat requirements might be necessary to model occurrence of generalist species like the woodpecker. The modeling approach described herein provides a means to test expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships, and hence, help guide conservation planning.

  4. Use of Occupancy Models to Evaluate Expert Knowledge-based Species-Habitat Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica N. Iglecia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships are used extensively to guide conservation planning, particularly when data are scarce. Purported relationships describe the initial state of knowledge, but are rarely tested. We assessed support in the data for suitability rankings of vegetation types based on expert knowledge for three terrestrial avian species in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States. Experts used published studies, natural history, survey data, and field experience to rank vegetation types as optimal, suitable, and marginal. We used single-season occupancy models, coupled with land cover and Breeding Bird Survey data, to examine the hypothesis that patterns of occupancy conformed to species-habitat suitability rankings purported by experts. Purported habitat suitability was validated for two of three species. As predicted for the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens and Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla, occupancy was strongly influenced by vegetation types classified as "optimal habitat" by the species suitability rankings for nuthatches and wood-pewees. Contrary to predictions, Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus models that included vegetation types as covariates received similar support by the data as models without vegetation types. For all three species, occupancy was also related to sampling latitude. Our results suggest that covariates representing other habitat requirements might be necessary to model occurrence of generalist species like the woodpecker. The modeling approach described herein provides a means to test expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships, and hence, help guide conservation planning.

  5. Computational fluid dynamics modeling in yarn engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patanaik, A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available pattern in the nozzles plays a significant role in the reduction of hairiness. CFD has been effectively utilized in yarn engineering to understand the actual mechanism of reducing yarn hairiness. The influence of different nozzle parameters...

  6. Historia natural del piche llorón Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae Natural history of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUSTÍN M ABBA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan nuevos aportes sobre la historia natural del piche llorón Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae. Los estudios de campo fueron llevados a cabo en 100 ha de un establecimiento ganadero de la localidad de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Durante dos años (2006-2008 se realizó un muestreo estacional de armadillos por captura y recaptura. Se obtuvieron datos de hábitos alimentarios, uso del espacio y del tiempo, comportamiento, termorregulación, datos poblacionales y morfológicos. Se realizaron 237 capturas de un total de 136 individuos. En la dieta el ítem principal registrado fue insectos coleópteros, seguido por material vegetal y pequeños mamíferos; se observó una diferencia estacional en los hábitos alimentarios dada por una marcada caída de la ocurrencia de coleópteros durante la primavera. Durante las estaciones frías concentran su actividad al mediodía y primeras horas de la tarde y durante las estaciones cálidas el horario medio de actividad se da durante la tarde-noche. Seleccionan los suelos calcáreos arenosos y los pastizales de baja altura y alta cobertura de vegetación. El área de acción media registrada fue de 2670 m². Son individuos asociales, con comportamiento diferente entre las estaciones y seleccionan los montes de tala para refugiarse. La temperatura rectal mostró correlaciones positivas con la temperatura ambiente y el peso. La proporción de sexos fue cercana a uno y no se observó dimorfismo sexual. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan con lo observado para la especie en otras áreas distantes y con diferentes condiciones ambientales. Este trabajo representa un aporte en varios aspectos poco estudiados de una población aislada y bajo importantes presiones de uso y modificación de hábitat que la pueden llevar a la extinción en un mediano plazo.This contribution presents new data about the natural history of the screaming hairy

  7. Biomimetic synthesis of raspberry-like hybrid polymer-silica core-shell nanoparticles by templating colloidal particles with hairy polyamine shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Mengwei; Yang, Tingting; Yuan, Jianjun; Fujii, Syuji; Kakigi, Yuichi; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Cheng, Shiyuan

    2010-07-01

    The nanoparticles composed of polystyrene core and poly[2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDEA) hairy shell were used as colloidal templates for in situ silica mineralization, allowing the well-controlled synthesis of hybrid silica core-shell nanoparticles with raspberry-like morphology and hollow silica nanoparticles by subsequent calcination. Silica deposition was performed by simply stirring a mixture of the polymeric core-shell particles in isopropanol, tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and water at 25 degrees C for 2.5h. No experimental evidence was found for nontemplated silica formation, which indicated that silica deposition occurred exclusively in the PDEA shell and formed PDEA-silica hybrid shell. The resulting hybrid silica core-shell particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetry, aqueous electrophoresis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. TEM studies indicated that the hybrid particles have well-defined core-shell structure with raspberry morphology after silica deposition. We found that the surface nanostructure of hybrid nanoparticles and the composition distribution of PDEA-silica hybrid shell could be well controlled by adjusting the silicification conditions. These new hybrid core-shell nanoparticles and hollow silica nanoparticles would have potential applications for high-performance coatings, encapsulation and delivery of active organic molecules. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cool-weather activity of the forensically important hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on carrion in Upstate South Carolina, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, Jonathan A; Nelder, Mark P

    2010-02-25

    The hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has expanded its range in the United States since its introduction into Texas (ca. 1980) and has been collected in 15 states. We investigated the bionomics of immature and adult C. rufifacies collected from carcasses of a raccoon Procyon lotor (Linnaeus) and white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman in Upstate South Carolina during November 2007, and used these insects to estimate the minimum period of insect activity. Puparia of C. rufifacies were collected from deer carrion; 28% were parasitized by Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). The mean daily ambient temperature during this study was 11.4+/-1.02 degrees C, representing the lowest recorded mean temperature for adult activity of C. rufifacies; adults of C. rufifacies were observed flying among the carcasses at 9.0 degrees C. Although C. rufifacies is considered a warm-weather blow fly, researchers should be aware of its activity at suboptimal conditions, behavior that might aid its expansion into more northern areas. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deacetylation biocatalysis and elicitation by immobilized Penicillium canescens in Astragalus membranaceus hairy root cultures: towards the enhanced and sustainable production of astragaloside IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Qing-Yan; Jiao, Jiao; Luo, Meng; Wang, Wei; Yao, Li-Ping; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2017-03-01

    A novel biotechnology approach by combining deacetylation biocatalysis with elicitation of immobilized Penicillium canescens (IPC) in Astragalus membranaceus hairy root cultures (AMHRCs) was proposed for the elevated production of astragaloside IV (AG IV). The highest AG IV accumulation was achieved in 36-day-old AMHRCs co-cultured with IPC for 60 h, which resulted in the enhanced production of AG IV by 14.59-fold in comparison with that in control (0.193 ± 0.007 mg/g DW). Meanwhile, AG IV precursors were almost transformed to AG IV by IPC deacetylation. Moreover, expression of genes involved in AG IV biosynthetic pathway was significantly up-regulated in response to IPC elicitation. Also, FTIR and SEM showed that cell wall lignification was enhanced following IPC treatment and root surface was likely to be IPC deacetylation site. Overall, dual roles of IPC (biocatalyst and elicitor) offered an effective and sustainable way for the mass production of AG IV in AMHRCs. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers in hairy cell leukaemia: a SEER population analysis and the 30-year experience at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Justin M; Kishtagari, Ashwin; Hsu, Meier; Lacouture, Mario E; Postow, Michael A; Park, Jae H; Stein, Eytan M; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Devlin, Sean M; Tallman, Martin S

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) incidence rates after a diagnosis of hairy cell leukaemia (HCL). We assessed 267 HCL patients treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data for melanoma and NMSC incidence rates after HCL. Incidence data from MSKCC patients demonstrated a 10-year combined melanoma and NMSC skin cancer rate of 11.3%, melanoma 4.4% and NMSC 6.9%. Molecular analysis of skin cancers from MSKCC patients revealed activating RAS mutations in 3/9 patients, including one patient with melanoma. Of 4,750 SEER patients with HCL, 55 (1.2%) had a subsequent diagnosis of melanoma. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) did not show that melanoma was more common in HCL patients versus the general population (SIR 1.3, 95% CI 0.78–2.03). Analysis of SEER HCL patients diagnosed before and after 1990 (approximately before and after purine analogue therapy was introduced) showed no evidence of an increased incidence after 1990. A better understanding of any potential association between HCL and skin cancer is highly relevant given ongoing trials using BRAF inhibitors, such as vemurafenib, for relapsed HCL, as RAS-mutant skin cancers could be paradoxically activated in these patients. PMID:26115047

  11. Nearly complete mitogenome of hairy sawfly, Corynis lateralis (Brullé, 1832) (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae): rearrangements in the IQM and ARNS1EF gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Özgül; Korkmaz, E Mahir

    2017-10-01

    The Cimbicidae is a small family of the primitive and relatively less diverse suborder Symphyta (Hymenoptera). Here, nearly complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of hairy sawfly, Corynis lateralis (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae) was sequenced using next generation sequencing and comparatively analysed with the mitogenome of Trichiosoma anthracinum. The sequenced length of C. lateralis mitogenome was 14,899 bp with an A+T content of 80.60%. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons and all are terminated with TAR or T- stop codon. All tRNA genes preferred usual anticodons. Compared with the inferred insect ancestral mitogenome, two tRNA rearrangements were observed in the IQM and ARNS1EF gene clusters, representing a new event not previously reported in Symphyta. An illicit priming of replication and/or intra/inter-mitochondrial recombination and TDRL seem to be responsible mechanisms for the rearrangement events in these gene clusters. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the position of Corynis within Cimbicidae and recovered a relationship of Tenthredinoidea + (Cephoidea + Orussoidea) in Symphyta.

  12. Enhanced Production of Two Bioactive Isoflavone Aglycones in Astragalus membranaceus Hairy Root Cultures by Combining Deglycosylation and Elicitation of Immobilized Edible Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jiao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Niu, Li-Li; Wang, Xi-Qing; Guo, Na; Zang, Yu-Ping; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2017-10-18

    A cocultivation system of Astragalus membranaceus hairy root cultures (AMHRCs) and immobilized food-grade fungi was established for the enhanced production of calycosin (CA) and formononetin (FO). The highest accumulations of CA (730.88 ± 63.72 μg/g DW) and FO (1119.42 ± 95.85 μg/g DW) were achieved in 34 day-old AMHRCs cocultured with immobilized A. niger (IAN) for 54 h, which were 7.72- and 18.78-fold higher than CA and FO in nontreated control, respectively. IAN deglycosylation could promote the formation of CA and FO by conversion of their glycoside precursors. IAN elicitation could intensify the generation of endogenous signal molecules involved in plant defense response, which contributed to the significantly up-regulated expression of genes in CA and FO biosynthetic pathway. Overall, the coupled culture of IAN and AMHRCs offered a promising and effective in vitro approach to enhance the production of two health-promoting isoflavone aglycones for possible nutraceutical and pharmaceutical uses.

  13. Nonlinear evolution dynamics of holographic superconductor model with scalar self-interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Zi, Tieguang; Zhang, Hongbao

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the holographic superconductor model that is described by the Einstein-Maxwell theory with the self-interaction term λ |Ψ |4 of complex scalar field in asymptotic anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. Below critical temperature Tc, the planar Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole is unstable due to the near-horizon scalar condensation instability. We study the full nonlinear development of this instability by numerically solving the gravitational dynamics in the asymptotic AdS spacetime, and observe a dynamical process from the perturbed Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole to a hairy black hole when the initial black hole temperature T evolution of superconducting condensate operator, event and apparent horizon areas of the final hairy black hole.

  14. Prescribed fire effects on wintering, bark-foraging birds in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa L. Pope; William M. Block; Paul Beier

    2009-01-01

    We examined effects of prescribed fire on 3 wintering, bark-foraging birds, hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus), pygmy nuthatches (Sitta pygmaea), and white-breasted nuthatches (S. carolinensis), in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of northern Arizona, USA. During winters of 2004-2006, we compared bird density, foraging behavior, and bark beetle activity...

  15. Leucoplasia pilosa oral: aspectos histopatológicos da fase subclínica Oral hairy leukoplakia: histopathologic features of the subclinical stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pedra DIAS

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A leucoplasia pilosa oral (LPO é uma das manifestações orais mais comuns na AIDS, com valor diagnóstico e prognóstico. A LPO está relacionada ao Epstein-Barr vírus (EBV, com características clínicas e histopatológicas definidas. Já existem relatos de uma fase subclínica da LPO, porém sem caracterização histopatológica. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo descrever os aspectos histopatológicos desta fase, bem como realizar uma análise comparativa entre a LPO subclínica e clínica, com a finalidade de verificar a suficiência diagnóstica dos critérios histopatológicos. Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo de 11 casos, obtidos a partir de cinco biópsias realizadas em pacientes com lesão e da borda de seis línguas sem lesão macroscopicamente detectável, provenientes de necropsias. Foram utilizados os seguintes métodos: histopatologia, imuno-histoquímica e hibridização in situ. Os aspectos histopatológicos que caracterizaram a fase subclínica da LPO foram: ausência de paraceratose e papilomatose, acantose leve, presença de células claras e alterações nucleares (inclusão tipo Cowdry A, núcleo em "vidro fosco" e núcleo "em colar". Houve identificação do EBV através da hibridização in situ e da imuno-histoquímica nas alterações nucleares observadas na histopatologia. Concluiu-se, com fundamentos na identificação do EBV nas alterações nucleares, que a LPO em sua fase subclínica, da mesma forma que na lesão clínica, apresenta características histopatológicas específicas e suficientes para um diagnóstico definitivo, independentemente da identificação do EBV.Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL is one of the most common oral manifestations of AIDS, with diagnostic and prognostic value. OHL is associated to the Epstein-Barr virus and presents clinical and histological defined characteristics. There have already been reports about a subclinical stage of OHL, although they lacked histopathologic

  16. Antibacterial, Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Antiproliferative Properties of Essential Oils from Hairy and Normal Roots of Leonurus sibiricus L. and Their Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Sitarek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils obtained from the NR (normal roots and HR (hairy roots of the medicinal plant Leonurus sibiricus root were used in this study. The essential oil compositions were detected by GC-MS. Eighty-five components were identified in total. Seventy components were identified for NR essential oil. The major constituents in NR essential oil were β-selinene (9.9%, selina-4,7-diene (9.7%, (E-β-caryophyllene (7.3%,myli-4(15-ene (6.4%, and guaia-1(10,11-diene (5.9%. Sixty-seven components were identified in HR essential oil, the main constituents being (E-β-caryophyllene (22.6%, and germacrene D (19.8%. The essential oils were tested for cytotoxic effect, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. Both essential oils showed activity against grade IV glioma cell lines (IC50 = 400 μg/mL, antimicrobial (MIC and MFC values of 2500 to 125 μg/mL, and anti-inflammatory (decreased level of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in LPS-stimulated cells.The essential oils exhibited moderate antioxidant activity in ABTS (EC50 = 98 and 88 μg/mL assay. This is the first study to examine composition of the essential oils and their antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities. The results indicate that essential oils form L. sibiricus root may be used in future as an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents with potential application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Implementación de un protocolo para la producción de raíces pilosas (hairy roots de uña de gato (Uncaria tomentosa mediante transformación con Agrobacterium rhizogenes Implementation of a protocol for the production of hairy roots of cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa by Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Garro Monge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Los beneficios para la salud registrados a partir del uso de metabolitos secundarios de la planta llamada uña de gato (Uncaria tomentosa han generado una fuerte demanda comercial, así como la extracción intensiva de esta especie en los países en los cuales se distribuye, con el consecuente deterioro de este recurso genético en su hábitat natural. Es por eso que resulta necesario implementar protocolos de cultivo de células y tejidos de esta especie, con el fin de lograr la síntesis de los compuestos en forma controlada. La corteza de las raíces es uno de los tejidos en los que se concentra la producción de estos compuestos, razón por la cual la producción de raíces de cabellera (hairy roots resulta ser una técnica alternativa para la producción a escala de los metabolitos de interés. En este proyecto se implementó un protocolo de agroinfección de microestacas de U. tomentosa utilizando cepas silvestres de Agrobacterium rizhogenes (AR1500 y A4RS, así como el mantenimiento en medio líquido de las raíces pilosas obtenidas. En colaboración con el Laboratorio de Biología Molecular del programa PIPRA (UC Davis, se determinó la eficacia del protocolo de agroinfección, así como el uso de otras herramientas moleculares para la detección de expresión génica, las cuales mostraron resultados satisfactorios en los ensayos de agroinfección, bajo las metodologías establecidas en el proyecto.The beneficial health proper ties registered of secondary metabolites produced by the plant cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa had generated a strong market demand and intensive extraction of this species in the countries where distributed, with the deterioration of this genetic resource in its natural habitat. Because of this, is necessary to implement protocols for cell and tissue culture of this species in order to achieve the synthesis of compounds in a controlled manner.The root bark is one of the tissues where the production of these

  18. Audit of compliance with the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) revised guidelines for the diagnosis and assessment of treatment response of hairy cell leukemia in University Hospital Galway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Kennedy, K; Crowe, C; Craven, B; Walsh, J; Prendergast, C; Krawczyk, J

    2017-05-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is an uncommon B cell lymphoproliferative disorder. The object of the present audit was to assess whether the investigation and management of HCL in University College Hospital Galway (UCHG) complies with the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) guidelines. Following a review of the records in our Haematology Department, 18 cases of HCL were identified between January 2006 and October 2014. Blood film examination had been performed in all cases. Flow cytometry of liquid material had been undertaken in 89 % (n = 16) of cases, of which only 31 % (n = 5) included all four hairy cell panel markers (CD11c, CD25, CD103, CD123). Although all initial trephine biopsies included CD20, none analyzed DBA44. Only 65 % (n = 11) of treated patients had a post-treatment bone marrow biopsy preformed. This audit highlights areas of improvement in the diagnosis and management of HCL in UCHG, which do not currently adhere to the BCSH recommendations.

  19. Quantifying the multi-scale response of avifauna to prescribed fire experiments in the southwest United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Brett G; Noon, Barry R; Flather, Curtis H; Jentsch, Stephanie; Block, William M

    2009-04-01

    Landscape-scale disturbance events, including ecological restoration and fuel reduction activities, can modify habitat and affect relationships between species and their environment. To reduce the risk of uncharacteristic stand-replacing fires in the southwestern United States, land managers are implementing restoration and fuels treatments (e.g., mechanical thinning, prescribed fire) in progressively larger stands of dry, lower elevation ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest. We used a Before-After/Control-Impact experimental design to quantify the multi-scale response of avifauna to large (approximately 250-400 ha) prescribed fire treatments on four sites in Arizona and New Mexico dominated by ponderosa pine. Using distance sampling and an information-theoretic approach, we estimated changes in density for 14 bird species detected before (May-June 2002-2003) and after (May-June 2004-2005) prescribed fire treatments. We observed few site-level differences in pre- and posttreatment density, and no species responded strongly to treatment on all four sites. Point-level spatial models of individual species response to treatment, habitat variables, and fire severity revealed ecological relationships that were more easily interpreted. At this scale, pretreatment forest structure and patch characteristics were important predictors of posttreatment differences in bird species density. Five species (Pygmy Nuthatch [Sitta pygmaea], Western Bluebird [Sialia mexicana], Steller's Jay [Cyanocitta stelleri], American Robin [Turdus migratorius], and Hairy Woodpecker [Picoides villosus]) exhibited a strong treatment response, and two of these species (American Robin and Hairy Woodpecker) could be associated with meaningful fire severity response functions. The avifaunal response patterns that we observed were not always consistent with those reported by more common studies of wildland fire events. Our results suggest that, in the short-term, the distribution and abundance of

  20. Habitat-mediated variation in the importance of ecosystem engineers for secondary cavity nesters in a nest web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Hugo; Martin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Through physical state changes in biotic or abiotic materials, ecosystem engineers modulate resource availability to other organisms and are major drivers of evolutionary and ecological dynamics. Understanding whether and how ecosystem engineers are interchangeable for resource users in different habitats is a largely neglected topic in ecosystem engineering research that can improve our understanding of the structure of communities. We addressed this issue in a cavity-nest web (1999-2011). In aspen groves, the presence of mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides) and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolour) nests was positively related to the density of cavities supplied by northern flickers (Colaptes auratus), which provided the most abundant cavities (1.61 cavities/ha). Flickers in aspen groves provided numerous nesting cavities to bluebirds (66%) and swallows (46%), despite previous research showing that flicker cavities are avoided by swallows. In continuous mixed forests, however, the presence of nesting swallows was mainly related to cavity density of red-naped sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus nuchalis), which provided the most abundant cavities (0.52 cavities/ha), and to cavity density of hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus), which provided few (0.14 cavities/ha) but high-quality cavities. Overall, sapsuckers and hairy woodpeckers provided 86% of nesting cavities to swallows in continuous forests. In contrast, the presence of nesting bluebirds in continuous forests was associated with the density of cavities supplied by all the ecosystem engineers. These results suggest that (i) habitat type may mediate the associations between ecosystem engineers and resource users, and (ii) different ecosystem engineers may be interchangeable for resource users depending on the quantity and quality of resources that each engineer supplies in each habitat type. We, therefore, urge the incorporation of the variation in the quantity and quality of resources provided by ecosystem engineers

  1. Haptic Decorating on the Surface of Virtual Clay Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel haptic decorating method on the surface of virtual clay model is proposed. The relationship between brush deformation and endured force is researched for the first time by applying the spring-mass model to construct the 3D brush model. Then, the collision detection between virtual hairy brush and virtual clay model is researched based on collision algorithm of weighted average distance. When the hairy brush initially collides with 3D exterior, the tactility is simulated and the interactive virtual painting on the 3D exterior is carried out practically. The 3D brush stroke is formed by superimposing 3D brush footprints along the painting direction and controlling the stress of the brush. The ink quantity in the brush footprint is determined according to the proposed positive correlation between the exerted pressure on brush and outflow ink quantity of the brush. A painting storage method is also presented for storing and displaying 3D stroke painting results. The proposed method has been successfully applied in the 3D virtual painting system based on real-time force feedback technology. With this system, the 3D brush strokes with 3D half-dry and ink diffusion results can be painted with a Phantom Desktop haptic device, which effectively enhance reality to users.

  2. Modeling the Effects of Land Use on the Quality of Water, Air, Noise, and Habitat for a Five-County Region in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia H. Dale

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A computer simulation model, the Regional Simulator (RSim, was constructed to project how land-use changes affect the quality of water, air, noise, and habitat of species of special concern. RSim was designed to simulate these environmental impacts for five counties in Georgia that surround and include Fort Benning. The model combines existing data and modeling approaches to simulate the effects of land-cover changes on: nutrient export by hydrological unit; peak 8-h average ozone concentrations; noise caused by small arms and blasts; and habitat changes for the rare Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis and gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus. The model also includes submodules for urban growth, new urbanization influenced by existing roads, nonurban land cover transitions, and a new military training area under development at Fort Benning. The model was run under scenarios of business as usual (BAU and greatly increased urban growth for the region. The projections show that the effects of high urban growth will likely differ from those of BAU for noise and nitrogen and phosphorus loadings to surface water, but not for peak airborne ozone concentrations, at least in the absence of associated increases in industry and transportation use or technology changes. In both scenarios, no effects of urban growth are anticipated for existing populations of the federally endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker. In contrast, habitat for gopher tortoise in the five-county region is projected to decline by 5 and 40% in the BAU and high urban growth scenarios, respectively. RSim is designed to assess the relative environmental impacts of planned activities both inside and outside military installations and to address concerns related to encroachment and transboundary influences.

  3. Controle químico de biótipos de buva (Conyza canadensis e Conyza bonariensis resistentes ao glyphosate Chemical Control of glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza Canadensis and hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Satomi Yamauti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos foram conduzidos na Estação Experimental de Citricultura de Bebedouro, SP para avaliar a resposta de biótipos de buva resistentes aos herbicidas glyphosate, bromacil + diuron, diuron e paraquat isolados e em mistura, e o efeito de uma aplicação seqüencial com glyphosate. O delineamento foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e sete tratamentos.. Os herbicidas foram aplicados com pulverizador costal, à pressão constante (mantido por CO2 comprimido, munido com barra com três bicos do tipo TT110015 com um consumo de calda equivalente a 150 L ha-1. O controle foi avaliado visualmente, através de escala percentual de notas. Para o controle geral das plantas daninhas os melhores resultados foram obtidos com diuron isolado e com glyphosate em mistura com bromacil + diuron, enquanto para o controle da buva não houve diferença entre os tratamentos. Depois da aplicação seqüencial, o melhor tratamento para o controle de buva foi com diuron e bromacil+diuron.Studies were conducted at Estação Experimental de Citricultura de Bebedouro, SP to evaluate the response of glyphosate-resistant horseweed and hairy fleabane biotypes to herbicides glyphosate, bromacil + diuron, diuron e paraquat isolated and in mixture and effect of a sequential application of glyphosate. The experimental design was of complete randomized blocks with four replication and seven treatments. The herbicides were applied with costal sprayer, constant pressure with three nozzles TT110015, the equivalent spray volume was 150 L ha-1. The control was visually evaluated, trough percentile note scale. The best results were obtained to general control of weed with diuron isolated and glyphosate in mixture with bromacil + diuron while to glyphosate-resistant horseweed and hairy fleabane there was no difference between the treatments. After sequential application to Conyza sp control, the best treatment was obtained associated with diuron and bromacil+diuron.

  4. Melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers in hairy cell leukaemia: a Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results population analysis and the 30-year experience at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Justin M; Kishtagari, Ashwin; Hsu, Meier; Lacouture, Mario E; Postow, Michael A; Park, Jae H; Stein, Eytan M; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Devlin, Sean M; Tallman, Martin S

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) incidence rates after a diagnosis of hairy cell leukaemia (HCL). We assessed 267 HCL patients treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data for melanoma and NMSC incidence rates after HCL. Incidence data from MSKCC patients demonstrated a 10-year combined melanoma and NMSC skin cancer rate of 11·3%, melanoma 4·4% and NMSC 6·9%. Molecular analysis of skin cancers from MSKCC patients revealed activating RAS mutations in 3/9 patients, including one patient with melanoma. Of 4750 SEER patients with HCL, 55 (1·2%) had a subsequent diagnosis of melanoma. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) did not show that melanoma was more common in HCL patients versus the general population (SIR 1·3, 95% CI 0·78-2·03). Analysis of SEER HCL patients diagnosed before and after 1990 (approximately before and after purine analogue therapy was introduced) showed no evidence of an increased incidence after 1990. A better understanding of any potential association between HCL and skin cancer is highly relevant given ongoing trials using BRAF inhibitors, such as vemurafenib, for relapsed HCL, as RAS-mutant skin cancers could be paradoxically activated in these patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prevalence of oral hairy leukoplakia in 120 pediatric patients infected with HIV-1 Prevalência da leucoplasia pilosa oral em 120 pacientes pediátricos infectados pelo HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pedra Dias

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL is an EBV (Epstein-Barr virus opportunistic infection found in HIV-infected patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion that has an important prognostic value in AIDS. Differently from what takes place with HIV adult patients, OHL has been described in the literature as having a very small prevalence in pediatric patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of OHL in HIV pediatric patients using cytopathology. The sample consisted of 120 patients who were submitted to oral examination and had material scraped from both sides of their tongues. The diagnostic criterion was based on the identification of nuclear alterations. Clinical OHL was identified in two (1.67% patients. The cytopathology revealed twenty (16.7% cases of subclinical OHL. Our results show that in pediatric patients the prevalence of OHL may be larger than that described in the literature.A leucoplasia pilosa oral (OHL é uma infecção oportunista causada pelo Vírus Epstein-Barr (EBV encontrada em pacientes infectados pelo HIV. É uma lesão assintomática que tem um importante valor prognóstico na AIDS. Diferentemente de pacientes adultos, a OHL tem sido descrita na literatura como tendo uma prevalência muito pequena em pacientes pediátricos. Logo, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência da OHL em pacientes pediátricos positivos para o HIV através do uso da citopatologia. A amostra consistiu-se de 120 pacientes, que foram submetidos a exame oral e coleta de material de ambos os lados da língua. O critério diagnóstico foi baseado na identificação de alterações nucleares. A OHL clínica foi identificada em dois (1,67% pacientes. A citopatologia revelou vinte casos (16,7% de OHL subclínica. Nossos resultados mostram que a prevalência de OHL em pacientes pediátricos infectados pelo HIV deve ser maior que a relatada na literatura.

  6. Dynamical Formation of Kerr Black Holes with Synchronized Hair: An Analytic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Radu, Eugen

    2017-12-29

    East and Pretorius have successfully evolved, using fully nonlinear numerical simulations, the superradiant instability of the Kerr black hole (BH) triggered by a massive, complex vector field. Evolutions terminate in stationary states of a vector field condensate synchronized with a rotating BH horizon. We show that these end points are fundamental states of Kerr BHs with synchronized Proca hair. Motivated by the "experimental data" from these simulations, we suggest a universal (i.e., field-spin independent), analytic model for the subset of BHs with synchronized hair that possess a quasi-Kerr horizon, applicable in the weak hair regime. Comparing this model with fully nonlinear numerical solutions of BHs with a synchronized scalar or Proca hair, we show that the model is accurate for hairy BHs that may emerge dynamically from superradiance, whose domain we identify.

  7. Dynamical Formation of Kerr Black Holes with Synchronized Hair: An Analytic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Radu, Eugen

    2017-12-01

    East and Pretorius have successfully evolved, using fully nonlinear numerical simulations, the superradiant instability of the Kerr black hole (BH) triggered by a massive, complex vector field. Evolutions terminate in stationary states of a vector field condensate synchronized with a rotating BH horizon. We show that these end points are fundamental states of Kerr BHs with synchronized Proca hair. Motivated by the "experimental data" from these simulations, we suggest a universal (i.e., field-spin independent), analytic model for the subset of BHs with synchronized hair that possess a quasi-Kerr horizon, applicable in the weak hair regime. Comparing this model with fully nonlinear numerical solutions of BHs with a synchronized scalar or Proca hair, we show that the model is accurate for hairy BHs that may emerge dynamically from superradiance, whose domain we identify.

  8. Candidíase oral e leucoplasia pilosa como marcadores de progressão da infecção pelo HIV em pacientes brasileiros Oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia as progression markers of HIV infection in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dieb Miziara

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Candidíase oral (CO e leucoplasia pilosa (LP são importantes indicadores da progressão da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV para o quadro de AIDS, principalmente em locais onde exames específicos são inacessíveis. OBJETO: Relacionar CO e LP ao número de células CD4+ e à carga viral (CV em pacientes brasileiros HIV-positivos, confirmando-as como marcadores clínicos confiáveis de progressão da doença. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte longitudinal. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Avaliamos prospectivamente 124 pacientes HIV-positivos, isentos de terapia antiretroviral. Todos foram submetidos a exame ORL, dosagem de células CD4+ e CV, sendo divididos em dois grupos: P e A, de acordo com a presença ou ausência de CO e LP. Depois de seis meses, os pacientes do grupo A foram subdivididos nos subgrupos P6 (presença de lesões e A6. Dosamos novamente CD4+ e carga viral. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: No grupo P (43 pacientes, 28 CO e 15 LP a contagem de células CD4+ foi menor e a carga viral maior em relação ao grupo A (pOral candidiasis (OC and hairy leukoplakia (HL are important markers of HIV (Human Imunodeficiency syndrome infection progression for AIDS, mainly in locals where specific tests are inacessible. AIM: to intertwine OC and HL to CD4+ counting and to viral charge (VC on HIV positive brazilian patients, confirming them as trustworthy clinical markers of the disease progression. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: we have prospectively evaluated 124 HIV+ patients not in use of antiretroviral therapy. All of them have undertaken otorrhinolaringologic examination and CD4+ and VC counting, being divided in two groups: P and A, accordingly to presence or absence of OC and HL. After six months, patients belonging to the A group were re-divided on groups P6 (presence of lesions and A6 (absence of lesions. Again, CD4+ and VC were counted. The results were statistically

  9. Epstein-Barr virus in oral hairy leukoplakia scrapes: identification by PCR Vírus Epstein-Barr em esfregaço de leucoplasia pilosa oral: identificação por PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lucianelli Komatsu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL is a lesion associated with a compromised immune system, and its diagnosis is determined by the demonstration of the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV in lesional tissue. The purpose of this article was to develop a simple technique to help the diagnosis of OHL, using PCR as an alternative technique to evidence EBV in scrapings. DNA samples were obtained by scraping the lateral border of the tongue of 38 adult patients: 29 HIV-positive patients (4 with clinical evidence of OHL; 4 with history of OHL, but without lesion at the moment the samples were collected; and 21 without clinical evidence of OHL, and 9 healthy volunteers for the control group. DNA was extracted from scrapes and amplified by PCR using specific primers for EBV. Of the 29 cases of HIV-positive patients, 22 (75.86% were positive for EBV: 2 patients with clinical evidence of OHL, 4 patients with history of OHL, but without lesion at the moment the samples were collected, and 16 patients without clinical evidence of OHL. In the control group, samples of 5 (55.56% healthy volunteers presented amplification for EBV. We concluded that the use of PCR in oral scrapes suggests a high sensitivity but low specificity for the diagnosis of OHL.A leucoplasia pilosa (LP é uma lesão associada ao comprometimento do sistema imune e seu diagnóstico é determinado pela demonstração da presença do vírus Epstein-Barr (EBV no tecido lesionado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver uma metodologia simples para auxiliar no diagnóstico da LP, utilizando-se a técnica da PCR como uma alternativa para evidenciar o EBV em esfregaços da lesão. Amostras de DNA foram obtidas por meio de raspado de borda lateral de língua, de 38 pacientes adultos, sendo estes: 29 pacientes HIV positivos (4 com evidência clínica de leucoplasia pilosa, 4 que haviam apresentado LP previamente, mas não no momento da coleta, e 21 sem evidência clínica de leucoplasia pilosa e 9

  10. Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Spädtke, P

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of technical machines became a standard technique since computer became powerful enough to handle the amount of data relevant to the specific system. Simulation of an existing physical device requires the knowledge of all relevant quantities. Electric fields given by the surrounding boundary as well as magnetic fields caused by coils or permanent magnets have to be known. Internal sources for both fields are sometimes taken into account, such as space charge forces or the internal magnetic field of a moving bunch of charged particles. Used solver routines are briefly described and some bench-marking is shown to estimate necessary computing times for different problems. Different types of charged particle sources will be shown together with a suitable model to describe the physical model. Electron guns are covered as well as different ion sources (volume ion sources, laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron resonance ion sources, and H$^-$-sources) together with some remarks on beam transport.

  11. Modeling the effects of environmental disturbance on wildlife communities: Avian responses to prescribed fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R.E.; Royle, J. Andrew; Saab, V.A.; Lehmkuhl, J.F.; Block, W.M.; Sauer, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Prescribed fire is a management tool used to reduce fuel loads on public lands in forested areas in the western United States. Identifying the impacts of prescribed fire on bird communities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests is necessary for providing land management agencies with information regarding the effects of fuel reduction on sensitive, threatened, and migratory bird species. Recent developments in occupancy modeling have established a framework for quantifying the impacts of management practices on wildlife community dynamics. We describe a Bayesian hierarchical model of multi-species occupancy accounting for detection probability, and we demonstrate the model's usefulness for identifying effects of habitat disturbances on wildlife communities. Advantages to using the model include the ability to estimate the effects of environmental impacts on rare or elusive species, the intuitive nature of the modeling, the incorporation of detection probability, the estimation of parameter uncertainty, the flexibility of the model to suit a variety of experimental designs, and the composite estimate of the response that applies to the collection of observed species as opposed to merely a small subset of common species. Our modeling of the impacts of prescribed fire on avian communities in a ponderosa pine forest in Washington indicate that prescribed fire treatments result in increased occupancy rates for several bark-insectivore, cavity-nesting species including a management species of interest, Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus). Three aerial insectivore species, and the ground insectivore, American Robin (Turdus migratorius), also responded positively to prescribed fire, whereas three foliage insectivores and two seed specialists, Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) and the Pine Siskin (Carduelis pinus), declined following treatments. Land management agencies interested in determining the effects of habitat manipulations on wildlife

  12. Modeling the effects of environmental disturbance on wildlife communities: avian responses to prescribed fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E; Royle, J Andrew; Saab, Victoria A; Lehmkuhl, John F; Block, William M; Sauer, John R

    2009-07-01

    Prescribed fire is a management tool used to reduce fuel loads on public lands in forested areas in the western United States. Identifying the impacts of prescribed fire on bird communities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests is necessary for providing land management agencies with information regarding the effects of fuel reduction on sensitive, threatened, and migratory bird species. Recent developments in occupancy modeling have established a framework for quantifying the impacts of management practices on wildlife community dynamics. We describe a Bayesian hierarchical model of multi-species occupancy accounting for detection probability, and we demonstrate the model's usefulness for identifying effects of habitat disturbances on wildlife communities. Advantages to using the model include the ability to estimate the effects of environmental impacts on rare or elusive species, the intuitive nature of the modeling, the incorporation of detection probability, the estimation of parameter uncertainty, the flexibility of the model to suit a variety of experimental designs, and the composite estimate of the response that applies to the collection of observed species as opposed to merely a small subset of common species. Our modeling of the impacts of prescribed fire on avian communities in a ponderosa pine forest in Washington indicate that prescribed fire treatments result in increased occupancy rates for several bark-insectivore, cavity-nesting species including a management species of interest, Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus). Three aerial insectivore species, and the ground insectivore, American Robin (Turdus migratorius), also responded positively to prescribed fire, whereas three foliage insectivores and two seed specialists, Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) and the Pine Siskin (Carduelis pinus), declined following treatments. Land management agencies interested in determining the effects of habitat manipulations on wildlife

  13. Predicting impacts of future human population growth and development on occupancy rates of forest-dependent birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle L.; Donovan, Therese; Schwenk, W. Scott; Theobald, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Forest loss and fragmentation are among the largest threats to forest-dwelling wildlife species today, and projected increases in human population growth are expected to increase these threats in the next century. We combined spatially-explicit growth models with wildlife distribution models to predict the effects of human development on 5 forest-dependent bird species in Vermont, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, USA. We used single-species occupancy models to derive the probability of occupancy for each species across the study area in the years 2000 and 2050. Over half a million new housing units were predicted to be added to the landscape. The maximum change in housing density was nearly 30 houses per hectare; however, 30% of the towns in the study area were projected to add less than 1 housing unit per hectare. In the face of predicted human growth, the overall occupancy of each species decreased by as much as 38% (ranging from 19% to 38% declines in the worst-case scenario) in the year 2050. These declines were greater outside of protected areas than within protected lands. Ninety-seven percent of towns experienced some decline in species occupancy within their borders, highlighting the value of spatially-explicit models. The mean decrease in occupancy probability within towns ranged from 3% for hairy woodpecker to 8% for ovenbird and hermit thrush. Reductions in occupancy probability occurred on the perimeters of cities and towns where exurban development is predicted to increase in the study area. This spatial approach to wildlife planning provides data to evaluate trade-offs between development scenarios and forest-dependent wildlife species.

  14. Biomimetic model systems of rigid hair beds: Part I - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Kaitlyn; Jammalamadaka, Mani S. S.; Hosoi, Anette

    2017-11-01

    Crustaceans - such as lobsters, crabs, and stomapods - have hairy appendages that they use to recognize and track odorants in the surrounding fluid. An array of rigid hairs impedes flow at different rates depending on the spacing between hairs and the Reynolds number, Re. At larger Reynolds numbers (Re >1), fluid travels through the hairs rather than around them, a phenomenon called leakiness. Crustaceans flick their appendages at different speeds in order to manipulate the leakiness between the hairs, allowing the hairs to either detect odors in a sample of fluid or collect a new sample. A single hair can be represented as a slender body attached at one end to a wall. Using both slender body theory and numerical methods, we observe that there is a region of flow around the hair that speeds up relative to the unobstructed flow. As the Reynolds number increases, this fast flow region moves closer to the hair. Using this model, we predict that an array of hairs can be engineered to have a desired leakiness profile.

  15. Biomimetic model systems of rigid hair beds: Part II - Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammalamadaka, Mani S. S.; Hood, Kaitlyn; Hosoi, Anette

    2017-11-01

    Crustaceans - such as lobsters, crabs and stomapods - have hairy appendages that they use to recognize and track odorants in the surrounding fluid. An array of rigid hairs impedes flow at different rates depending on the spacing between hairs and the Reynolds number, Re. At larger Reynolds number (Re>1), fluid travels through the hairs rather than around them, a phenomenon called leakiness. Crustaceans flick their appendages at different speeds in order to manipulate the leakiness between the hairs, allowing the hairs to either detect the odors in a sample of fluid or collect a new sample. Theoretical and numerical studies predict that there is a fast flow region near the hairs that moves closer to the hairs as Re increases. Here, we test this theory experimentally. We 3D printed rigid hairs with an aspect ratio of 30:1 in rectangular arrays with different hair packing fractions. We custom built an experimental setup which establishes poiseuille flow at intermediate Re, Re <=200. We track the flow dynamics through the hair beds using tracer particles and Particle Imaging Velocimetry. We will then compare the modelling predictions with the experimental outcomes.

  16. Tratamiento de leucoplasia vellosa con resina de podófilo al 25 %.: Revisión y presentación de un caso clínico. Treatment of hairy leukoplakia with podophylum resin 25 %.: Review and report of a clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Tamí - Maury

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La leucoplasia vellosa (LV es un marcador bucal de infección por VIH. La LV es una lesión asintomática que se presenta principalmente en los bordes laterales de la lengua. Por motivos estéticos, particularmente cuando las lesiones son muy extensas, algunos pacientes solicitan tratamiento. La resina de podofilina (RP es un agente quimioterapéutico tópico ampliamente utilizado por los dermatólogos para tratar infecciones por virus de papiloma humano (VPH. Se presenta el caso clínico de un varón VIH+ de 32 años de edad y homosexual, que fue tratado por presentar LV bilateral en lengua. Se aplicó RP al 25 % en las lesiones. Luego de 2 semanas de tratamient , se apreció una involución significativa de la LV. El paciente reportó efectos secundarios mínimos que incluyeron sensación de ardor y dolor. Ningún efecto colateral sistémico fue reportado. Estos hallazgos preliminares sugieren que la RP al 25 % puede ser un tratamiento relativamente seguro y rentable para la LV en pacientes seropositivos .Hairy leukoplakia (HL is an oral marker of HIV infection. VL is an asymptomatic lesion that appears mainly in the lateral borders of the tongue. For aesthetic reasons, particularly when the lesions are very extense, some patients request treatment. The podophylum resin (PR is a topical chemotherapeutic agent widely used by dermatologists to treat infections caused by human papilloma virus (HPV. The clinical case of a HIV + homosexual male aged 32 that was treated for presenting bilateral HL in the tongue, is reported. PR was applied to 25 % of the lesions. After 2 weeks of treatment, a significant involution of HL was observed. The patient showed minimum side effects that included heartburn sensation and pain. These preliminary findings suggest that PR 25 % may be a relatively safe and income-producing treatment for HL in seropositive patients.

  17. Charged black holes in a generalized scalar–tensor gravity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Brihaye

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study 4-dimensional charged and static black holes in a generalized scalar–tensor gravity model, in which a shift symmetry for the scalar field exists. For vanishing scalar field the solution corresponds to the Reissner–Nordström (RN solution, while solutions of the full scalar-gravity model have to be constructed numerically. We demonstrate that these black holes support Galilean scalar hair up to a maximal value of the scalar–tensor coupling that depends on the value of the charge and can be up to roughly twice as large as that for uncharged solutions. The Hawking temperature TH of the hairy black holes at maximal scalar–tensor coupling decreases continuously with the increase of the charge and reaches TH=0 for the highest possible charge that these solutions can carry. However, in this limit, the scalar–tensor coupling needs to vanish. The limiting solution hence corresponds to the extremal RN solution, which does not support regular Galilean scalar hair due to its AdS2×S2 near-horizon geometry.

  18. Un nuevo mamífero introducido en la Tierra del Fuego: el "peludo" Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae en Isla Grande A new introduced mammal in Tierra del Fuego: the "large hairy armadillo" Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae in the Isla Grande island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIÁN POLJAK

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El 66 % de la mastofauna de la Tierra del Fuego está compuesta por especies introducidas deliberadamente por cuestiones de índole económica, estética y caza deportiva. Entre ellas, el armadillo Chaetophractus villosus conocido vulgarmente como "peludo", que habita desde el Chaco de Bolivia y Paraguay hasta el sur de la provincia de Santa Cruz en Argentina, ha sido introducida en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego hace unos 20 años. Las cuevas y hoyos son las evidencias indirectas más conspicuas de la actividad de esta especie y son utilizados en este trabajo para determinar la distribución y estimar la abundancia relativa de la población de armadillos en el sector argentino de la Isla Grande. Se clasificó a las cuevas en "cortas" para refugio temporario y/o forrajeo y "largas", de uso como madriguera o semipermanente. Chaetophractus villosus es una especie establecida en la isla donde ocupa un área de unos 484 km² y su distribución se encuentra asociada a la red de tuberías soterradas para extracción y transporte de hidrocarburos, debido a las modificaciones físicas que esta actividad causa en el suelo. Aunque la población es aún pequeña, se considera que dada la distribución alcanzada por C. villosus a partir de la introducción de pocos individuos y teniendo en cuenta las condiciones climáticas de la región, es posible que no sea el clima un factor determinante en la distribución de esta especie sino las barreras geográficas como el Estrecho de Magallanes al sur y el Río de La Plata hacia el esteSixty-six percent of the mammal fauna of Tierra del Fuego consists of introduced species with economical or sport hunting importance. The large hairy armadillo, Chaetophractus villosus, is distributed from the Chaco of Bolivia and Paraguay to the South of Santa Cruz province in Argentina and was introduced to Isla Grande about 20 years ago. Since the holes and subterranean excavations are the most conspicuous indications of

  19. Hairy black holes in the ghost-free bigravity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Mikhail S.

    2012-06-01

    We study black holes in the recently proposed ghost-free theory with two gravitons, one of which is massive and another is massless. These black holes possess a regular event horizon which is common for both metrics and has the same values of the surface gravity and Hawking temperature with respect to each metric. The ratio of the event horizon radii measured by the two metrics is a free parameter that labels the solutions. We present a numerical evidence for their existence and find that they comprise several classes. Black holes within each class approach the same AdS-type asymptotic at infinity but differ from each other in the event horizon vicinity where the short-range massive modes reside. In addition, there are solutions showing a curvature singularity at a finite proper distance from the horizon. For some special solutions the graviton mass may become effectively imaginary, causing oscillations around the flat metric at infinity. The only asymptotically flat black hole we find—the Schwarzschild solution obtained by identifying the two metrics—seems to be exceptional, since changing even slightly its horizon boundary conditions completely changes the asymptotic behavior at infinity. We also construct globally regular solutions describing “lumps of pure gravity” which can be viewed as black hole remnants in the limit where the event horizon shrinks. Finally, adding a matter source we obtain globally regular and asymptotically flat solutions exhibiting the Vainstein mechanism of recovery of General Relativity in a finite region.

  20. Sesquiterpene lactones in a hairy root culture of Cichorium intybus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarz, Janusz; Stojakowska, Anna; Kisiel, Wanda

    2002-01-01

    A transformed root culture of Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae) was found to produce sesquiterpene lactones of guaiane and germacrane type. Lactucopicrin, 8-desoxylactucin and three sesquiterpene lactone glycosides: crepidiaside B, sonchuside A and ixerisoside D were isolated from the roots. The yield of 8-desoxylactucin reached 0.03 g l(-1) at the early stationary phase of the culture.

  1. Induction and establishment of adventitious and hairy root cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Key words: Agrobacterium rhizogenes, auxins, carbon source, MS medium, root culture, Plumbago zeylanica. INTRODUCTION ..... Biotechnol. 5: 187-191. Sivanesan I (2007). Shoot regeneration and somaclonal variation from leaf callus cultures of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. Asian J. Plant Sci. 6: 83-86.

  2. Leukemia - B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia and Hairy Cell Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  3. A Hairy Situation: Laser Hair Removal after Oral Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Bridget E; Moye, Molly S; Bayon, Rodrigo; Sperry, Steven M; Wanat, Karolyn A

    2018-03-01

    To present a case series of 4 patients who underwent postoperative hair removal using the long-pulsed Alexandrite or Nd:YAG laser following intraoral cutaneous flap reconstruction. Patients underwent epilation in dermatology clinic with long-pulsed Alexandrite or Nd:YAG lasers, spaced 8 weeks apart, until hair removal was achieved. All patients achieved improvement in hair removal regardless of initial flap donor site with significant improvement in quality of life and minimal side effects. The long-pulsed Alexandrite and Nd:YAG represent safe and effective treatment options to improve patient quality of life following intraoral flap repair following excision of malignancy.

  4. Influence of Agrobacterium rhizogenes on induction of hairy roots for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different environmental factors like temperature, pH, cultivation media and carbon source on growth and artemisinin production were studied in shake flask cultures. Detailed batch growth and production kinetics with sugar consumption profile were also established. Maximum volumetric productivity of 390 μg ...

  5. Postnatal growth and development of the hairy-footed gerbil,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-12-14

    Dec 14, 1989 ... observed at the same time intervals as growth. The physical development of the pelage, limbs, eyes, ears, teeth and reproductive organs was noted. Behavioural observations were made with regard to feeding, locomotion, audible vocalization, grooming, exploration and sexual behaviour. Depth perception ...

  6. Self-Suspended Suspensions of Covalently Grafted Hairy Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2015-03-17

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Dispersions of small particles in liquids have been studied continuously for almost two centuries for their ability to simultaneously advance understanding of physical properties of fluids and their widespread use in applications. In both settings, the suspending (liquid) and suspended (solid) phases are normally distinct and uncoupled on long length and time scales. In this study, we report on the synthesis and physical properties of a novel family of covalently grafted nanoparticles that exist as self-suspended suspensions with high particle loadings. In such suspensions, we find that the grafted polymer chains exhibit unusual multiscale structural transitions and enhanced conformational stability on subnanometer and nanometer length scales. On mesoscopic length scales, the suspensions display exceptional homogeneity and colloidal stability. We attribute this feature to steric repulsions between grafted chains and the space-filling constraint on the tethered chains in the single-component self-suspended materials, which inhibits phase segregation. On macroscopic length scales, the suspensions exist as neat fluids that exhibit soft glassy rheology and, counterintuitively, enhanced elasticity with increasing temperature. This feature is discussed in terms of increased interpenetration of the grafted chains and jamming of the nanoparticles. (Chemical Presented).

  7. A hairy fall: syncope resulting from topical application of minoxidil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrey, S W; VanGriethuysen, J; Edwards, C M B

    2015-09-07

    We describe the case of a young man who developed syncope after using a high strength formulation of topical minoxidil as a hair growth restorer. Other potential cardiovascular and endocrine causes were excluded, and his symptoms resolved on discontinuation of the product. While syncope is a recognised side effect of using this powerful systemic antihypertensive agent, few cases are documented in the literature, which we illustrate in our discussion. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Using an agent-based model to examine forest management outcomes in a fire-prone landscape in Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Spies

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire-prone landscapes present many challenges for both managers and policy makers in developing adaptive behaviors and institutions. We used a coupled human and natural systems framework and an agent-based landscape model to examine how alternative management scenarios affect fire and ecosystem services metrics in a fire-prone multiownership landscape in the eastern Cascades of Oregon. Our model incorporated existing models of vegetation succession and fire spread and information from original empirical studies of landowner decision making. Our findings indicate that alternative management strategies can have variable effects on landscape outcomes over 50 years for fire, socioeconomic, and ecosystem services metrics. For example, scenarios with federal restoration treatments had slightly less high-severity fire than a scenario without treatment; exposure of homes in the wildland-urban interface to fire was also slightly less with restoration treatments compared to no management. Treatments appeared to be more effective at reducing high-severity fire in years with more fire than in years with less fire. Under the current management scenario, timber production could be maintained for at least 50 years on federal lands. Under an accelerated restoration scenario, timber production fell because of a shortage of areas meeting current stand structure treatment targets. Trade-offs between restoration outcomes (e.g., open forests with large fire-resistant trees and habitat for species that require dense older forests were evident. For example, the proportional area of nesting habitat for northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis was somewhat less after 50 years under the restoration scenarios than under no management. However, the amount of resilient older forest structure and habitat for white-headed woodpecker (Leuconotopicus albolarvatus was higher after 50 years under active management. More carbon was stored on this landscape without management than

  9. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Vukovich; John C. Kilgo

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior...

  10. Woodpecker use and fall rates of snags created by killing ponderosa pine infected with dwarf mistletoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine G. Parks; David A. Conklin; Larry Bednar; Helen. Maffei

    1999-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) killed as part of a forest management project to reduce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium sp.) in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico, were evaluated for wildlife value. One hundred and two dwarf mistletoe-infected trees were killed by basal burning, basal girdling, or by a...

  11. 75 FR 41886 - Recovery Plan for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... ecosystems is a primary goal of our threatened and endangered species program. To help guide the recovery... focuses on learning more about the species' status and ecology, including documenting known locations and.... Analyze viability of any existing populations (numbers, breeding success, population genetics, and ecology...

  12. Scientific Method & Evolutionary Theory Elucidated by the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Large, introductory, nonmajors biology classes present challenges when trying to encourage class discussion to help reinforce important concepts. Lively in-class discussion involving hundreds of students is more successful when a relevant story told with passion is used to introduce a topic. In my courses, each semester begins with thorough…

  13. An Exploration of the Effects of Genetic Drift on the Endangered Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    catkin and conelet production must coincide to successfully reproduce pinecones (Boyer, 1990). Longleaf pine begins producing pinecones from 20 to...30 years of age (Michigan Tech University, 2003). The pinecone may contain 15 to 50 seeds (Boyer, 1990). After reaching maturity, the pinecone ... pinecones will not develop until the end of the third growing season (Lawson, 1990). Although some abnormal cases exist, shortleaf pine does not bear

  14. Apparent foraging success reflects habitat quality in an irruptive species, the Black-backed Woodpecker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher T. Rota; Mark A. Rumble; Chad P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2015-01-01

    Dramatic fluctuations in food resources are a key feature of many habitats, and many species have evolved a movement strategy to exploit food resources that are unpredictable in space and time. The availability of food resources may be a particularly strong determinant of habitat quality for irruptive bird species. We studied the apparent foraging success of Black-...

  15. Model(ing) Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was the first and most celebrated of a wave of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) built in the 1990s designed to advance liberalism through international criminal law. Model(ing) Justice examines the case law of the ICTY...

  16. Models and role models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of

  17. Additions to the Ethiopian bird atlas: 126 new records from 14 atlas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brown (Meyer's) Parrot Poicephalus meyeri. Seen or heard daily in open woodland and riverine forest ... Grey Woodpecker (Grey-headed Woodpecker) Dendropicos (goertae) spodocephalus. Ash & Atkins (2009) treats African Grey Woodpecker D. goertae and Grey-headed. Woodpecker D. spodocephalus as conspecific.

  18. Cognitive modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Zandbelt, Bram

    2017-01-01

    Introductory presentation on cognitive modeling for the course ‘Cognitive control’ of the MSc program Cognitive Neuroscience at Radboud University. It addresses basic questions, such as 'What is a model?', 'Why use models?', and 'How to use models?'

  19. Modelling the models

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    By analysing the production of mesons in the forward region of LHC proton-proton collisions, the LHCf collaboration has provided key information needed to calibrate extremely high-energy cosmic ray models.   Average transverse momentum (pT) as a function of rapidity loss ∆y. Black dots represent LHCf data and the red diamonds represent SPS experiment UA7 results. The predictions of hadronic interaction models are shown by open boxes (sibyll 2.1), open circles (qgsjet II-03) and open triangles (epos 1.99). Among these models, epos 1.99 shows the best overall agreement with the LHCf data. LHCf is dedicated to the measurement of neutral particles emitted at extremely small angles in the very forward region of LHC collisions. Two imaging calorimeters – Arm1 and Arm2 – take data 140 m either side of the ATLAS interaction point. “The physics goal of this type of analysis is to provide data for calibrating the hadron interaction models – the well-known &...

  20. Modelling Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the practicalities of building, testing, deploying and maintaining models. It gives specific advice for each phase of the modelling cycle. To do this, a modelling framework is introduced which covers: problem and model definition; model conceptualization; model data...... requirements; model construction; model solution; model verification; model validation and finally model deployment and maintenance. Within the adopted methodology, each step is discussedthrough the consideration of key issues and questions relevant to the modelling activity. Practical advice, based on many...... years of experience is providing in directing the reader in their activities.Traps and pitfalls are discussed and strategies also given to improve model development towards “fit-for-purpose” models. The emphasis in this chapter is the adoption and exercise of a modelling methodology that has proven very...

  1. STRUCTURAL MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Ya. Danelyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article states the general principles of structural modeling in aspect of the theory of systems and gives the interrelation with other types of modeling to adjust them to the main directions of modeling. Mathematical methods of structural modeling, in particular method of expert evaluations are considered.

  2. (HEV) Model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moatez Billah HARIDA

    The use of the simulator “Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Model Balances Fidelity and. Speed (HEVMBFS)” and the global control strategy make it possible to achieve encouraging results. Key words: Series parallel hybrid vehicle - nonlinear model - linear model - Diesel engine - Engine modelling -. HEV simulator - Predictive ...

  3. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Piccolo, Chiara; Heitzig, Martina

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic...... procedure is introduced for the analysis and solution of property models. Models that capture and represent the temperature dependent behaviour of physical properties are introduced, as well as equation of state models (EOS) such as the SRK EOS. Modelling of liquid phase activity coefficients are also...

  4. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, CC

    2012-01-01

    Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko

  5. Black woodpecker Dryocopus martius (L., 1758 distribution, abundance, habitatuse and breeding performance in a recentlycolonized region in SW Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olano, M., Aierbe, T., Beñaran, H., Hurtado, R., Ugarte, Urruzola, A., Vázquez, J., Ansorregi, F., Galdos, A. ... [et al.

    2015-01-01

    localidades potenciales utilizando inventarios forestales, y cada localidad fue visitada durante el periodo enero-marzo. Las localidades ocupadas se consideraron “dominios vitales reproductivos” cuando se pudo comprobar el emparejamiento o la nidificación, o cuando se registró presencia de individuos en un mínimo de tres visitas consecutivas. Se vigiló el desarrollo de la reproducción en nidos activos durante mayo y junio. Se detectaron y cartografiaron 21 "dominios vitales reproductivos", distribuidos fundamentalmente a lo largo de las franjas oriental y meridional del área de estudio. Las determinantes ambientales relacionadas positivamente con la presencia de "dominios vitales reproductivos" fueron elevada cobertura arbolada, estructura madura, superficies de haya Fagus sylvatica, bosque mixto caducifolio y pino laricio Pinus nigra, y parcelas forestales poco fragmentadas. Las plantaciones de pino de Monterrey P. radiata y las alturas bajas del arbolado se seleccionaron negativamente. Las parcelas de alimentación preferidas incluyeron proporciones de roble americano Quercus rubra y plantaciones de pino laricio. Se detectaron trece nidos activos. Todos los nidos salvo dos fueron excavados en hayas. El éxito de cría fue elevado (92% pero la tasa de vuelo (1.8 estuvo por debajo de los promedios descritos en Europa, lo que podría indicar limitaciones intrínsecas en esta población periférica.

  6. Shortleaf pine-bluestem restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers in the Ouachita Mountains: Implications for other taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. Thill; D. Craig Rudolph; Nancy E. Koerth

    2004-01-01

    The more xeric south- and west-facing slopes of the Ouachita Mountains of west-central Arkansas once supported fire-maintained shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) forests with a well-developed herbaceous understory. Fire suppression following the original harvest of these forests resulted in forests with increasingly abundant woody vegetation in the...

  7. Managing Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Stands for the Restoration of Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    nutrients are often limiting in forest systems and constituted the fertilizer amendment treatment. In gap plots, we tested for effects of gap position on... constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the Department of Defense. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF...Graminoid Perennial 2 Smilax rotundifolia Shrub/vine Perennial 2 LowBA Callicarpa americana Shrub Perennial 2 Clearcut Quercus marilandica Tree

  8. Response to cadmium of Daucus carota hairy roots dual cultures with glomus intraradices or Gigaspora margarita

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoušková, Martina; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2005), s. 217-224 ISSN 0940-6360 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/02/0293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza * heavy metal * monoxenic culture Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.753, year: 2005

  9. In vitro production of thiophenes using hairy root cultures of Tagetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Thiophene accumulation in relation to morphology in roots of. Tagetes patula effets of auxin and transformation by Agrobacterium. Planta 179: 43-50. Downum KR, Towers GHN (1983). Analysis of thiophenes in the. Tageteae (Asteraceae) by HPLC. J. Nat. Prod. 46: 98-103. Gareau BJ, Du Puis EM (2009).

  10. Mistisisme dalam Perspektif Filsafat Analitik: Antara Wittgenstein dan Mehdi Ha'iri Yazdi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hidayatullah S.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Language is a principal instrument for philosopher and as a medium for analysis and reflection. Wittgenstein said, that the order analytical philosophy is to clean away the epistemology from the "good" terms but unclear in it interpretation. Every thing that can be thinks must be able spoken. The limits of my language mean the limits of my world. From this perspective mysticism and mystics experience is nin-sense, because nothing factual reference. From this case, the goal of this study is to find out the epistemology in mysticism and mystic experience. In the study we include the knowledge by presence (ilm al-hudhuri Ha 'iri as an approach. Ha 'iri said that there is a other knowledge which that can be explanations in limits of language and picture theory. This is knowledge by peresence, which by Wittgenstein aware as some thing which having difference language games from knowledge by correspondece.

  11. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced cotton hairy root culture as an alternative tool for cotton functional genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although well-accepted as the ultimate method for cotton functional genomics, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated cotton transformation is not widely used for functional analyses of cotton genes and their promoters since regeneration of cotton in tissue culture is lengthy and labor intensive. In cer...

  12. Oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia correlate with HIV infection in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiødt, M; Bakilana, P B; Hiza, J F

    1990-01-01

    We report a detailed study on oral lesions and their association with the WHO revised provisional case definition of AIDS as well as serologic signs of HIV infection among 186 patients in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. The patient material consisted of 39 hospitalized suspected AIDS patients, 44 medical...... nonsuspected patients, 53 dental outpatients, and 50 patients with sexually transmitted diseases. The male:female ratio was 2.1:1 on average. Oral examination was done without knowledge of the HIV status of the patients. Among 39 suspected AIDS patients 97% had WHO AIDS criteria and 90% were seropositive...... for HIV. Among the 147 patients not suspected of having AIDS 18 (12%) had AIDS criteria and 15% had serologic evidence of HIV infection. The presence of WHO AIDS criteria correlated significantly with the presence of HIV antibodies, but not with HIV antigen. Oral lesions were found in 54% of those...

  13. Brassica rapa hairy root extracts promote skin depigmentation by modulating melanin production and distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sena, Luigi Michele; Zappelli, Claudia; Apone, Fabio; Barbulova, Ani; Tito, Annalisa; Leone, Antonella; Oliviero, Teresa; Ferracane, Rosalia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Colucci, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Background: Skin whitening products, used for ages by Asian people for cultural and esthetic purposes, are very popular nowadays in Western countries as well, where the need to inhibit skin spots after sun exposure has become not only a cosmetic but also a health-related issue. Thus, the

  14. Inheritance of Hairiness of Stem and Petiole in a Selection from Local (Nigeria Germoplasm of Sesame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funmi, FM.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Character differences were studied in inter specific crosses involving Sesamum indicum L. and Ceratotheca sesamoides Endl. Results show that inheritance of many hairs on stem and petiole was controlled by two independently assorting genes with both dominant alleles S- and P- producing many hairs in stem and petiole respectively. Only the genotypes sspp homozygous for both recessive alleles were plants with few hairs. The implications of these findings in the species evolution are discussed.

  15. Patched mutations and hairy skin patches: a new sign in Gorlin syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Louise C.; Ajayi-Obe, Ekundayo; Bernhard, Birgitta; Maas, Saskia M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the occurrence of discrete patches of unusually long pigmented hair on the skin of three patients with Gorlin syndrome from two unrelated families with confirmed heterozygous mutations in the Patched (PTCH) gene. The PTCH protein is a negative regulator of Hedgehog signaling, and the

  16. 75 FR 14391 - Diseases Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents (Hairy Cell Leukemia and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... insufficient evidence'' category. For Update 2008, the Committee revisited the entire body of evidence relating... be used to work claims received in FY2010. New hiring will begin in 2011. Of the total VBA benefits... rate and survivor mortality applied, we anticipate 20,961 eligible spouses at the end of 2010. We...

  17. On the motion of hairy black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julié, Félix-Louis

    2018-01-01

    Starting from the static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions in massless Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton (EMD) theories, we build a "skeleton" action, that is, we phenomenologically replace black holes by an appropriate effective point particle action, which is well suited to the formal treatment of the many-body problem in EMD theories. We find that, depending crucially on the value of their scalar cosmological environment, black holes can undergo steep "scalarization" transitions, inducing large deviations to the general relativistic two-body dynamics, as shown, for example, when computing the first post-Keplerian Lagrangian of EMD theories.

  18. Hairy Mary: Natal Government Railways 2-8-2 (Tanic Tender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 4 (1986) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia correlate with HIV infection in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiødt, M; Bakilana, P B; Hiza, J F

    1990-01-01

    We report a detailed study on oral lesions and their association with the WHO revised provisional case definition of AIDS as well as serologic signs of HIV infection among 186 patients in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. The patient material consisted of 39 hospitalized suspected AIDS patients, 44 medical...... nonsuspected patients, 53 dental outpatients, and 50 patients with sexually transmitted diseases. The male:female ratio was 2.1:1 on average. Oral examination was done without knowledge of the HIV status of the patients. Among 39 suspected AIDS patients 97% had WHO AIDS criteria and 90% were seropositive...

  20. Germination response of prairie dropseed and hairy goldaster to stratification and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora R. Roemmich; Jack L. Butler; Gary E. Larson; E. Brent Turnipseed

    2012-01-01

    The unique vegetation assemblage of the Black Hills in conjunction with the frequent occurrence of natural and anthropogenic disturbances emphasizes the need to use locally adapted native species in a wide variety of restoration efforts. However, a general lack of information regarding germination and propagation requirements for most native plant species has...

  1. Galactic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchler, J.R.; Gottesman, S.T.; Hunter, J.H. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on galactic models are presented. Individual topics addressed include: observations relating to galactic mass distributions; the structure of the Galaxy; mass distribution in spiral galaxies; rotation curves of spiral galaxies in clusters; grand design, multiple arm, and flocculent spiral galaxies; observations of barred spirals; ringed galaxies; elliptical galaxies; the modal approach to models of galaxies; self-consistent models of spiral galaxies; dynamical models of spiral galaxies; N-body models. Also discussed are: two-component models of galaxies; simulations of cloudy, gaseous galactic disks; numerical experiments on the stability of hot stellar systems; instabilities of slowly rotating galaxies; spiral structure as a recurrent instability; model gas flows in selected barred spiral galaxies; bar shapes and orbital stochasticity; three-dimensional models; polar ring galaxies; dynamical models of polar rings

  2. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  3. Hydrological models are mediating models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, L. V.; Karssenberg, D.

    2013-08-01

    Despite the increasing role of models in hydrological research and decision-making processes, only few accounts of the nature and function of models exist in hydrology. Earlier considerations have traditionally been conducted while making a clear distinction between physically-based and conceptual models. A new philosophical account, primarily based on the fields of physics and economics, transcends classes of models and scientific disciplines by considering models as "mediators" between theory and observations. The core of this approach lies in identifying models as (1) being only partially dependent on theory and observations, (2) integrating non-deductive elements in their construction, and (3) carrying the role of instruments of scientific enquiry about both theory and the world. The applicability of this approach to hydrology is evaluated in the present article. Three widely used hydrological models, each showing a different degree of apparent physicality, are confronted to the main characteristics of the "mediating models" concept. We argue that irrespective of their kind, hydrological models depend on both theory and observations, rather than merely on one of these two domains. Their construction is additionally involving a large number of miscellaneous, external ingredients, such as past experiences, model objectives, knowledge and preferences of the modeller, as well as hardware and software resources. We show that hydrological models convey the role of instruments in scientific practice by mediating between theory and the world. It results from these considerations that the traditional distinction between physically-based and conceptual models is necessarily too simplistic and refers at best to the stage at which theory and observations are steering model construction. The large variety of ingredients involved in model construction would deserve closer attention, for being rarely explicitly presented in peer-reviewed literature. We believe that devoting

  4. ICRF modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.K.

    1985-12-01

    This lecture provides a survey of the methods used to model fast magnetosonic wave coupling, propagation, and absorption in tokamaks. The validity and limitations of three distinct types of modelling codes, which will be contrasted, include discrete models which utilize ray tracing techniques, approximate continuous field models based on a parabolic approximation of the wave equation, and full field models derived using finite difference techniques. Inclusion of mode conversion effects in these models and modification of the minority distribution function will also be discussed. The lecture will conclude with a presentation of time-dependent global transport simulations of ICRF-heated tokamak discharges obtained in conjunction with the ICRF modelling codes. 52 refs., 15 figs

  5. Modelling in Business Model design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonse, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    It appears that business model design might not always produce a design or model as the expected result. However when designers are involved, a visual model or artefact is produced. To assist strategic managers in thinking about how they can act, the designers challenge is to combine strategy and

  6. Ventilation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis and model report (AMR) for the Ventilation Model is to analyze the effects of pre-closure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts and provide heat removal data to support EBS design. It will also provide input data (initial conditions, and time varying boundary conditions) for the EBS post-closure performance assessment and the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Process Model. The objective of the analysis is to develop, describe, and apply calculation methods and models that can be used to predict thermal conditions within emplacement drifts under forced ventilation during the pre-closure period. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Provide a general description of effects and heat transfer process of emplacement drift ventilation. (2) Develop a modeling approach to simulate the impacts of pre-closure ventilation on the thermal conditions in emplacement drifts. (3) Identify and document inputs to be used for modeling emplacement ventilation. (4) Perform calculations of temperatures and heat removal in the emplacement drift. (5) Address general considerations of the effect of water/moisture removal by ventilation on the repository thermal conditions. The numerical modeling in this document will be limited to heat-only modeling and calculations. Only a preliminary assessment of the heat/moisture ventilation effects and modeling method will be performed in this revision. Modeling of moisture effects on heat removal and emplacement drift temperature may be performed in the future

  7. Turbulence modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is an introduction course in modelling turbulent thermohydraulics, aimed at computational fluid dynamics users. No specific knowledge other than the Navier Stokes equations is required beforehand. Chapter I (which those who are not beginners can skip) provides basic ideas on turbulence physics and is taken up in a textbook prepared by the teaching team of the ENPC (Benque, Viollet). Chapter II describes turbulent viscosity type modelling and the 2k-ε two equations model. It provides details of the channel flow case and the boundary conditions. Chapter III describes the 'standard' (R ij -ε) Reynolds tensions transport model and introduces more recent models called 'feasible'. A second paper deals with heat transfer and the effects of gravity, and returns to the Reynolds stress transport model. (author)

  8. Mathematical modelling

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a thorough introduction to the challenge of applying mathematics in real-world scenarios. Modelling tasks rarely involve well-defined categories, and they often require multidisciplinary input from mathematics, physics, computer sciences, or engineering. In keeping with this spirit of modelling, the book includes a wealth of cross-references between the chapters and frequently points to the real-world context. The book combines classical approaches to modelling with novel areas such as soft computing methods, inverse problems, and model uncertainty. Attention is also paid to the interaction between models, data and the use of mathematical software. The reader will find a broad selection of theoretical tools for practicing industrial mathematics, including the analysis of continuum models, probabilistic and discrete phenomena, and asymptotic and sensitivity analysis.

  9. Modelling Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan

    sharing many of the characteristics of a virtual enterprise. This extended enterprise will have the following characteristics: The extended enterprise is focused on satisfying the current customer requirement so that it has a limited life expectancy, but should be capable of being recreated to deal....... One or more units from beyond the network may complement the extended enterprise. The common reference model for this extended enterprise will utilise GERAM (Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology) to provide an architectural framework for the modelling carried out within......This report provides an overview of the existing models of global manufacturing, describes the required modelling views and associated methods and identifies tools, which can provide support for this modelling activity.The model adopted for global manufacturing is that of an extended enterprise...

  10. Mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten

    2004-01-01

    modelling, however, can be seen as a practice of teaching that place the relation between real life and mathematics into the centre of teaching and learning mathematics, and this is relevant at all levels. Modelling activities may motivate the learning process and help the learner to establish cognitive......Developing competences for setting up, analysing and criticising mathematical models are normally seen as relevant only from and above upper secondary level. The general belief among teachers is that modelling activities presuppose conceptual understanding of the mathematics involved. Mathematical...... roots for the construction of important mathematical concepts. In addition competences for setting up, analysing and criticising modelling processes and the possible use of models is a formative aim in this own right for mathematics teaching in general education. The paper presents a theoretical...

  11. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics. We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...... be characterized by their occurrence times and the participating books and borrowers. When we characterize events as information objects we focus on concepts like information structures. When viewed as change agents events are phenomena that trigger change. For example, when borrow event occurs books are moved...

  12. Model : making

    OpenAIRE

    Bottle, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The Model : making exhibition was curated by Brian Kennedy in collaboration with Allies & Morrison in September 2013. For the London Design Festival, the Model : making exhibition looked at the increased use of new technologies by both craft-makers and architectural model makers. In both practices traditional ways of making by hand are increasingly being combined with the latest technologies of digital imaging, laser cutting, CNC machining and 3D printing. This exhibition focussed on ...

  13. Spherical models

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, Magnus J

    2012-01-01

    Well-illustrated, practical approach to creating star-faced spherical forms that can serve as basic structures for geodesic domes. Complete instructions for making models from circular bands of paper with just a ruler and compass. Discusses tessellation, or tiling, and how to make spherical models of the semiregular solids and concludes with a discussion of the relationship of polyhedra to geodesic domes and directions for building models of domes. "". . . very pleasant reading."" - Science. 1979 edition.

  14. Modeling Documents with Event Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhui Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently deep learning has made great breakthroughs in visual and speech processing, mainly because it draws lessons from the hierarchical mode that brain deals with images and speech. In the field of NLP, a topic model is one of the important ways for modeling documents. Topic models are built on a generative model that clearly does not match the way humans write. In this paper, we propose Event Model, which is unsupervised and based on the language processing mechanism of neurolinguistics, to model documents. In Event Model, documents are descriptions of concrete or abstract events seen, heard, or sensed by people and words are objects in the events. Event Model has two stages: word learning and dimensionality reduction. Word learning is to learn semantics of words based on deep learning. Dimensionality reduction is the process that representing a document as a low dimensional vector by a linear mode that is completely different from topic models. Event Model achieves state-of-the-art results on document retrieval tasks.

  15. Didactical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Tomas; Hansen, Rune

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce Didactical Modelling as a research methodology in mathematics education. We compare the methodology with other approaches and argue that Didactical Modelling has its own specificity. We discuss the methodological “why” and explain why we find it useful...... to construct this approach in mathematics education research....

  16. Virtual modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, J.; Kiss, S.; Cano, P.; Nijholt, Antinus; Zwiers, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    We concentrate our efforts on building virtual modelling environments where the content creator uses controls (widgets) as an interactive adjustment modality for the properties of the edited objects. Besides the advantage of being an on-line modelling approach (visualised just like any other on-line

  17. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  18. Education models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Sybilla; Sloep, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Educational models describes a case study on a complex learning object. Possibilities are investigated for using this learning object, which is based on a particular educational model, outside of its original context. Furthermore, this study provides advice that might lead to an increase in

  19. Modeling Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Phil Seok; Oh, Sung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Modeling in science has been studied by education researchers for decades and is now being applied broadly in school. It is among the scientific practices featured in the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS") (Achieve Inc. 2013). This article describes modeling activities in an extracurricular science club in a high…

  20. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  1. VENTILATION MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Chipman

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their postclosure analyses

  2. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    , these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult......There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most...

  3. OSPREY Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2013-01-01

    The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of off-gas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data is obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data and parameters were input into the adsorption model to develop models specific for krypton adsorption. The same can be done for iodine, xenon, and tritium. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Customers will be given access to

  4. Modeling Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMEEKIN, Thomas A; Ross, Thomas

    1996-12-01

    The concept of predictive microbiology has developed rapidly through the initial phases of experimental design and model development and the subsequent phase of model validation. A fully validated model represents a general rule which may be brought to bear on particular cases. For some microorganism/food combinations, sufficient confidence now exists to indicate substantial benefits to the food industry from use of predictive models. Several types of devices are available to monitor and record environmental conditions (particularly temperature). These "environmental histories" can be interpreted, using predictive models, in terms of microbial proliferation. The current challenge is to provide systems for the collection and interpretation of environmental information which combine ease of use, reliability, and security, providing the industrial user with the ability to make informed and precise decisions regarding the quality and safety of foods. Many specific applications for predictive modeling can be developed from a basis of understanding the inherent qualities of a fully validated model. These include increased precision and confidence in predictions based on accumulation of quantitative data, objective and rapid assessment of the effect of environmental conditions on microbial proliferation, and flexibility in monitoring the relative contribution of component parts of processing, distribution, and storage systems for assurance of shelf life and safety.

  5. A Model for Math Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tony; Erfan, Sasan

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an open-ended research subject where no definite answers exist for any problem. Math modeling enables thinking outside the box to connect different fields of studies together including statistics, algebra, calculus, matrices, programming and scientific writing. As an integral part of society, it is the foundation for many…

  6. Modeling complexes of modeled proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A

    2017-03-01

    Structural characterization of proteins is essential for understanding life processes at the molecular level. However, only a fraction of known proteins have experimentally determined structures. This fraction is even smaller for protein-protein complexes. Thus, structural modeling of protein-protein interactions (docking) primarily has to rely on modeled structures of the individual proteins, which typically are less accurate than the experimentally determined ones. Such "double" modeling is the Grand Challenge of structural reconstruction of the interactome. Yet it remains so far largely untested in a systematic way. We present a comprehensive validation of template-based and free docking on a set of 165 complexes, where each protein model has six levels of structural accuracy, from 1 to 6 Å C α RMSD. Many template-based docking predictions fall into acceptable quality category, according to the CAPRI criteria, even for highly inaccurate proteins (5-6 Å RMSD), although the number of such models (and, consequently, the docking success rate) drops significantly for models with RMSD > 4 Å. The results show that the existing docking methodologies can be successfully applied to protein models with a broad range of structural accuracy, and the template-based docking is much less sensitive to inaccuracies of protein models than the free docking. Proteins 2017; 85:470-478. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. RNICE Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Stritch, Justin Michael

    2018-01-01

    contributes knowledge about a social phenomenon and advances knowledge in the public administration and management literatures. The RNICE model provides a vehicle for researchers who seek to evaluate or demonstrate the value of a replication study systematically. We illustrate the practical application...... research. Recently, scholars have issued calls for more replication, but academic reflections on when replication adds substantive value to public administration and management research are needed. This concise article presents a conceptual model, RNICE, for assessing when and how a replication study...... of the model using two previously published replication studies as examples....

  8. Correct Models

    OpenAIRE

    Blacher, René

    2010-01-01

    Ce rapport complete les deux rapports précédents et apporte une explication plus simple aux résultats précédents : à savoir la preuve que les suites obtenues sont aléatoires.; In previous reports, we have show how to transform a text $y_n$ in a random sequence by using functions of Fibonacci $T_q$. Now, in this report, we obtain a clearer result by proving that $T_q(y_n)$ has the IID model as correct model. But, it is necessary to define correctly a correct model. Then, we study also this pro...

  9. Paleoclimate Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Computer simulations of past climate. Variables provided as model output are described by parameter keyword. In some cases the parameter keywords are a subset of all...

  10. Anchor Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regardt, Olle; Rönnbäck, Lars; Bergholtz, Maria; Johannesson, Paul; Wohed, Petia

    Maintaining and evolving data warehouses is a complex, error prone, and time consuming activity. The main reason for this state of affairs is that the environment of a data warehouse is in constant change, while the warehouse itself needs to provide a stable and consistent interface to information spanning extended periods of time. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique for data warehousing, called anchor modeling, that offers non-destructive extensibility mechanisms, thereby enabling robust and flexible management of changes in source systems. A key benefit of anchor modeling is that changes in a data warehouse environment only require extensions, not modifications, to the data warehouse. This ensures that existing data warehouse applications will remain unaffected by the evolution of the data warehouse, i.e. existing views and functions will not have to be modified as a result of changes in the warehouse model.

  11. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  12. Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's modeling community is working to gain insights into certain parts of a physical, biological, economic, or social system by conducting environmental assessments for Agency decision making to complex environmental issues.

  13. Quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper invites experimenters to consider the wide variety of tests suggested by the new aspects of quark models since the discovery of charm and beauty, and nonrelativistic models. Colors and flavours are counted and combined into hadrons. The current quark zoo is summarized. Models and theoretical background are studied under: qualitative QCD: strings and bags, potential models, relativistic effects, electromagnetic transitions, gluon emissions, and single quark transition descriptions. Hadrons containing quarks known before 1974 (i.e. that can be made of ''light'' quarks u, d, and s) are treated in Section III, while those containing charmed quarks and beauty (b) quarks are discussed in Section IV. Unfolding the properties of the sixth quark from information on its hadrons is seen as a future application of the methods used in this study

  14. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges, Wilfrid

    1993-01-01

    An up-to-date and integrated introduction to model theory, designed to be used for graduate courses (for students who are familiar with first-order logic), and as a reference for more experienced logicians and mathematicians.

  15. Numerical models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Manoj, N.T.

    developed most of the above models. This is a good approximation to simulate horizontal distribution of active and passive variables. The future challenge lies in developing capability to simulate the distribution in the vertical....

  16. Composite models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    If quarks and leptons are composite, it should be possible eventually to calculate their mass spectrum and understand the reasons for the observed family replications, questions which lie beyond the standard model. Alas, all experimental evidence to date points towards quark and lepton elemenarity with the typical momentum scale Λsub(comp), beyond which effects of inner structure may be seen, probably being greater than ITeV. One supersymmetric preon model explained provides a new dynamical alternative for obtaining light fermions which is that these states are quasi Goldstone fermions. This, and similar models are discussed. Although quasi Goldstone fermions provide an answer to the 0sup(th)-order question of composite models the questions of how masses and families are generated remain unanswered. (U.K.)

  17. Ventilation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaret, Eimund

    Calculation procedures, used in the design of ventilating systems, which are especially suited for displacement ventilation in addition to linking it to mixing ventilation, are addressed. The two zone flow model is considered and the steady state and transient solutions are addressed. Different methods of supplying air are discussed, and different types of air flow are considered: piston flow, plane flow and radial flow. An evaluation model for ventilation systems is presented.

  18. Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    effects, unicausal reduction, and case specificity. Based on the developments in set theoretical thinking in social sciences and employing methods like Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA), and set visualization techniques, in this position paper, we propose...... and demonstrate a new approach to maturity models in the domain of Information Systems. This position paper describes the set-theoretical approach to maturity models, presents current results and outlines future research work....

  19. Accelerated life models modeling and statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bagdonavicius, Vilijandas

    2001-01-01

    Failure Time DistributionsIntroductionParametric Classes of Failure Time DistributionsAccelerated Life ModelsIntroductionGeneralized Sedyakin's ModelAccelerated Failure Time ModelProportional Hazards ModelGeneralized Proportional Hazards ModelsGeneralized Additive and Additive-Multiplicative Hazards ModelsChanging Shape and Scale ModelsGeneralizationsModels Including Switch-Up and Cycling EffectsHeredity HypothesisSummaryAccelerated Degradation ModelsIntroductionDegradation ModelsModeling the Influence of Explanatory Varia

  20. Model uncertainty: Probabilities for models?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Like any other type of uncertainty, model uncertainty should be treated in terms of probabilities. The question is how to do this. The most commonly-used approach has a drawback related to the interpretation of the probabilities assigned to the models. If we step back and look at the big picture, asking what the appropriate focus of the model uncertainty question should be in the context of risk and decision analysis, we see that a different probabilistic approach makes more sense, although it raise some implementation questions. Current work that is underway to address these questions looks very promising

  1. Mechanistic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, S.B.

    1990-09-01

    Several models and theories are reviewed that incorporate the idea of radiation-induced lesions (repairable and/or irreparable) that can be related to molecular lesions in the DNA molecule. Usually the DNA double-strand or chromatin break is suggested as the critical lesion. In the models, the shoulder on the low-LET survival curve is hypothesized as being due to one (or more) of the following three mechanisms: (1) ``interaction`` of lesions produced by statistically independent particle tracks; (2) nonlinear (i.e., linear-quadratic) increase in the yield of initial lesions, and (3) saturation of repair processes at high dose. Comparisons are made between the various approaches. Several significant advances in model development are discussed; in particular, a description of the matrix formulation of the Markov versions of the RMR and LPL models is given. The more advanced theories have incorporated statistical fluctuations in various aspects of the energy-loss and lesion-formation process. An important direction is the inclusion of physical and chemical processes into the formulations by incorporating relevant track structure theory (Monte Carlo track simulations) and chemical reactions of radiation-induced radicals. At the biological end, identification of repair genes and how they operate as well as a better understanding of how DNA misjoinings lead to lethal chromosome aberrations are needed for appropriate inclusion into the theories. More effort is necessary to model the complex end point of radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  2. Mechanistic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, S.B.

    1990-09-01

    Several models and theories are reviewed that incorporate the idea of radiation-induced lesions (repairable and/or irreparable) that can be related to molecular lesions in the DNA molecule. Usually the DNA double-strand or chromatin break is suggested as the critical lesion. In the models, the shoulder on the low-LET survival curve is hypothesized as being due to one (or more) of the following three mechanisms: (1) interaction'' of lesions produced by statistically independent particle tracks; (2) nonlinear (i.e., linear-quadratic) increase in the yield of initial lesions, and (3) saturation of repair processes at high dose. Comparisons are made between the various approaches. Several significant advances in model development are discussed; in particular, a description of the matrix formulation of the Markov versions of the RMR and LPL models is given. The more advanced theories have incorporated statistical fluctuations in various aspects of the energy-loss and lesion-formation process. An important direction is the inclusion of physical and chemical processes into the formulations by incorporating relevant track structure theory (Monte Carlo track simulations) and chemical reactions of radiation-induced radicals. At the biological end, identification of repair genes and how they operate as well as a better understanding of how DNA misjoinings lead to lethal chromosome aberrations are needed for appropriate inclusion into the theories. More effort is necessary to model the complex end point of radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  3. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  4. Mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Eck, Christof; Knabner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models are the decisive tool to explain and predict phenomena in the natural and engineering sciences. With this book readers will learn to derive mathematical models which help to understand real world phenomena. At the same time a wealth of important examples for the abstract concepts treated in the curriculum of mathematics degrees are given. An essential feature of this book is that mathematical structures are used as an ordering principle and not the fields of application. Methods from linear algebra, analysis and the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations are thoroughly introduced and applied in the modeling process. Examples of applications in the fields electrical networks, chemical reaction dynamics, population dynamics, fluid dynamics, elasticity theory and crystal growth are treated comprehensively.

  5. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  6. Molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to be tailored to decrease the harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modeling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported by the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  7. Supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding the observed properties of Type I supernovae as a consequence of the thermonuclear detonation of white dwarf stars and the ensuing decay of the 56 Ni produced therein is reviewed. Within the context of this model for Type I explosions and the 1978 model for Type II explosions, the expected nucleosynthesis and gamma-line spectra from both kinds of supernovae are presented. Finally, a qualitatively new approach to the problem of massive star death and Type II supernovae based upon a combination of rotation and thermonuclear burning is discussed

  8. Cadastral Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2005-01-01

    to the modeling of an industrial sector, as it aims at rendering the basic concepts that relate to the domain of real estate and the pertinent human activities. The palpable objects are pieces of land and buildings, documents, data stores and archives, as well as persons in their diverse roles as owners, holders...... to land. The paper advances the position that cadastral modeling has to include not only the physical objects, agents, and information sets of the domain, but also the objectives or requirements of cadastral systems....

  9. (SSE) model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple analytic polynomials have been proposed for estimating solar radiation in the traditional Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi. There is a strong agreement between the polynomials and the SSE model with R2 values of 0.988, 0.989 and 0.989 and root mean square errors of 0.061, 0.057 and 0.062 ...

  10. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory...

  11. Markov model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pattern of the watershed LULC, leading to an accretive linear growth of agricultural and settlement areas. The annual rate of ... thereby advocates for better agricultural practices with additional energy subsidy to arrest further forest loss and LULC ...... automaton model and GIS: Long-term urban growth pre- diction for San ...

  12. Cheating models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob

    The article discusses the use of algorithmic models for so-called High Frequency Trading (HFT) in finance. HFT is controversial yet widespread in modern financial markets. It is a form of automated trading technology which critics among other things claim can lead to market manipulation. Drawing ...

  13. Entrepreneurship Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger Lakes Regional Education Center for Economic Development, Mount Morris, NY.

    This guide describes seven model programs that were developed by the Finger Lakes Regional Center for Economic Development (New York) to meet the training needs of female and minority entrepreneurs to help their businesses survive and grow and to assist disabled and dislocated workers and youth in beginning small businesses. The first three models…

  14. The Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    About the reconstruction of Palle Nielsen's (f. 1942) work The Model from 1968: a gigantic playground for children in the museum, where they can freely romp about, climb in ropes, crawl on wooden structures, work with tools, jump in foam rubber, paint with finger paints and dress up in costumes....

  15. Model Checking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 7. Model Checking - Automated Verification of Computational Systems. Madhavan Mukund. General Article Volume 14 Issue 7 July 2009 pp 667-681. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Successful modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Cinna

    Tichelaar and Ruff [1989] propose to “estimate model variance in complicated geophysical problems,” including the determination of focal depth in earthquakes, by means of unconventional statistical methods such as bootstrapping. They are successful insofar as they are able to duplicate the results from more conventional procedures.

  17. Molecular Modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 5. Molecular Modeling: A Powerful Tool for Drug Design and Molecular Docking. Rama Rao Nadendla. General Article Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 51-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Turbulence Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens

    2011-01-01

    term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...

  19. Model-reduced inverse modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    Although faster computers have been developed in recent years, they tend to be used to solve even more detailed problems. In many cases this will yield enormous models that can not be solved within acceptable time constraints. Therefore, there is a need for alternative methods that simulate such

  20. Building Models and Building Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Skauge, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    I rapportens indledende kapitel beskrives de primære begreber vedrørende bygningsmodeller og nogle fundamentale forhold vedrørende computerbaseret modulering bliver opstillet. Desuden bliver forskellen mellem tegneprogrammer og bygnings­model­lerings­programmer beskrevet. Vigtige aspekter om comp...