WorldWideScience

Sample records for models gulf shores

  1. Reconstructing Holocene shore displacement and Stone Age palaeogeography from a foredune sequence on Ruhnu Island, Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muru, Merle; Rosentau, Alar; Preusser, Frank; Plado, Jüri; Sibul, Ivo; Jõeleht, Argo; Bjursäter, Stefan; Aunap, Raivo; Kriiska, Aivar

    2018-02-01

    Holocene shore displacement and the palaeogeography of Late Mesolithic and Late Neolithic settlements on Ruhnu Island, Gulf of Riga, were reconstructed using foredune sequence luminescence dating, sedimentological data supported by ground-penetrating radar analysis, and GIS-based landscape modelling. The foredune ridges consist of very well to well sorted fine- to medium-grained aeolian sand and are underlain by seaward dipping foreshore sediments. The studied sequence of 38 ridges was formed between 6.91 ± 0.58 ka and 2.54 ± 0.19 ka ago, and represents a period of falling relative sea level. Foredune plain progradation, with average rates of 0.3-0.6 m per year, was controlled by isostatic land uplift, which caused a continuous withdrawal of shorelines to lower elevations. The dated foredune succession was used to reconstruct the coastal palaeogeography of the island. Palaeogeographical reconstructions show that during two phases of Late Mesolithic habitation, at ca. 7.2 cal. ka BP and 6.2 cal. ka BP, seal hunters settled the coastal zone of Ruhnu Island. Based on tool material and pottery type they could have originated from Saaremaa Island, which according to palaeoreconstruction of the Gulf of Riga, was located approximately 70 km northwest of Ruhnu Island during the Late Mesolithic. Later signs of human occupation, radiocarbon dated to ca. 4.7 cal. ka BP, were from the centre of the island, hundreds of metres away from the shore at about 8 m above its contemporary sea level. This Late Neolithic habitation shows a clearly different pattern than earlier coastal settlement, and suggests a shift in subsistence strategy towards agriculture and animal husbandry.

  2. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Oahu South Shore

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 2-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the south shore of the island of Oahu at approximately 200-m resolution....

  3. A mathematical model of the shore level displacement in Fennoscandia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasse, T.

    1996-12-01

    The shore level displacement in Fennoscandia (Scandinavia and Finland) is mainly due to two cooperative vertical movements, the glacio-isostatic uplift and the eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has recently been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake tilting phenomenon. This new information has made it possible to start an iteration process for detailed estimations of the uplift and the rise using empirical data of the shore level displacement. Arctan-functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the glacio-isostatic uplift. The model indicates that there are two mechanisms involved in the glacio-isostatic uplift, one slow that can be linked to viscous flow, and one fast that might be explained by compression followed by decompression. The future development regarding the glacio-isostatic uplift, the eustasy and the shore level displacement is predicted in Fennoscandia using the results from the modeling. The predictions are based on the assumption that the crustal and eustatic developments will follow the trends that exist today. 124 refs, 98 figs

  4. Near Shore Wave Modeling and applications to wave energy estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, G.; Galanis, G.; Hayes, D.; Nikolaidis, A.; Kalogeri, C.; Adam, A.; Kallos, G.; Georgiou, G.

    2012-04-01

    The estimation of the wave energy potential at the European coastline is receiving increased attention the last years as a result of the adaptation of novel policies in the energy market, the concernsfor global warming and the nuclear energy security problems. Within this framework, numerical wave modeling systems keep a primary role in the accurate description of wave climate and microclimate that is a prerequisite for any wave energy assessment study. In the present work two of the most popular wave models are used for the estimation of the wave parameters at the coastline of Cyprus: The latest parallel version of the wave model WAM (ECMWF version), which employs new parameterization of shallow water effects, and the SWAN model, classically used for near shore wave simulations. The results obtained from the wave models near shores are studied by an energy estimation point of view: The wave parameters that mainly affect the energy temporal and spatial distribution, that is the significant wave height and the mean wave period, are statistically analyzed,focusing onpossible different aspects captured by the two models. Moreover, the wave spectrum distribution prevailing in different areas are discussed contributing, in this way, to the wave energy assessmentin the area. This work is a part of two European projects focusing on the estimation of the wave energy distribution around Europe: The MARINA platform (http://www.marina-platform.info/ index.aspx) and the Ewave (http://www.oceanography.ucy.ac.cy/ewave/) projects.

  5. Dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs in surface sediments near the shore of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwoma, Solomon; Lalah, Joseph O; Virani, Munir; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Henkelmann, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria is considered to be contaminated with toxic chemicals emanating from anthropogenic activities, especially near large industrial towns such as Kisumu. This has recently caused concerns about its water quality and impact on aquatic organisms and human beings. This study was justified by the need to generate baseline concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in surface sediment from selected sites in the lake and determine the influence of activities on their concentrations and potential risks to fish-eating birds living near the lake. Surface sediments (<30cm) from three different fish landing beaches, located 200m from the shore of Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria near Kisumu city, Homa Bay and Mbita (control) towns, were analysed. The total mean concentrations (in pgg(-1)drywt) were found to range from 17.4-812 (Σdl-PCBs), 36.6-813 (ΣPCDDs) and 1.45-46.4 (ΣPCDFs). The calculated Toxic Equivalents (TEQWHO(2005)) ranged from 0.001-0.43 (Σdl-PCBs) and 0.09-31 (ΣPCDD/Fs). The fish landing beaches at Kisumu city were found to be contaminated with respect to dl-PCBs and dioxins, followed by Homa Bay and Mbita. The relatively high levels of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF) influenced the TEQ and the ΣPCDFs/ΣPCDDs ratios indicated chemical processes as partial sources of the dioxins. The levels of contaminants obtained in this study showed potential exposure to aquatic organisms and fish eating birds through food chain transfer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Between tide and wave marks: a unifying model of physical zonation on littoral shores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. Bird

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tides on littoral marine habitats are so ubiquitous that shorelines are commonly described as ‘intertidal’, whereas waves are considered a secondary factor that simply modifies the intertidal habitat. However mean significant wave height exceeds tidal range at many locations worldwide. Here we construct a simple sinusoidal model of coastal water level based on both tidal range and wave height. From the patterns of emergence and submergence predicted by the model, we derive four vertical shoreline benchmarks which bracket up to three novel, spatially distinct, and physically defined zones. The (1 emergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven emergence in air; the (2 wave zone is characterized by constant (not periodic wave wash; and the (3 submergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven submergence. The decoupling of tidally driven emergence and submergence made possible by wave action is a critical prediction of the model. On wave-dominated shores (wave height ≫ tidal range, all three zones are predicted to exist separately, but on tide-dominated shores (tidal range ≫ wave height the wave zone is absent and the emergent and submergent tidal zones overlap substantially, forming the traditional “intertidal zone”. We conclude by incorporating time and space in the model to illustrate variability in the physical conditions and zonation on littoral shores. The wave:tide physical zonation model is a unifying framework that can facilitate our understanding of physical conditions on littoral shores whether tropical or temperate, marine or lentic.

  7. Evaluation of 10 cross-shore sediment transport morphological models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoonees, JS

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available different purpose another model may be better. Data are generally lacking for accretionary events and for erosion cases where the significant wave heights exceed 2.5 m. Aspects presently usually not included in these models are also listed. Without direct...

  8. Modelling the Pultrusion Process of Off Shore Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet

    to the quasi-static mechanical model in which the finite element method is employed. In the mechanical model, the composite part is assumed to advance along the pulling direction meanwhile tracking the corresponding temperature and degree of cure profiles. Modelling the pultrusion process containing both uni....... The compaction, viscous and frictional forces have been predicted for a pultruded composite rod. The viscous drag is found to be the main contribution in terms of the frictional force to the overall pulling force, while the contribution due to material compaction at the inlet is found to be negligible. Process...

  9. Modelling the pultrusion process of off shore wind turbine blades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet

    This thesis is devoted to the numerical modelling of the pultrusion process for industrial products such as wind turbine blades and structural profiles. The main focus is on the thermo-chemical and mechanical analyses of the process in which the process induced tresses and shape distortions together

  10. Observations of inner shelf cross-shore surface material transport adjacent to a coastal inlet in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Mathias K.; MacMahan, Jamie; Reniers, Ad; Özgökmen, Tamay M.; Woodall, Kate; Haus, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the Surfzone and Coastal Oil Pathways Experiment obtained Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) Eulerian and GPS-drifter based Lagrangian "surface" (ADCP velocities, but both differ significantly from depth-averaged subsurface pathlines. Near-surface currents are linearly correlated with wind velocities (r =0.76 in the alongshore and r =0.85 in the cross-shore) at the 95% confidence level, and are 4-7 times larger than theoretical estimates of wind and wave-driven surface flow in an un-stratified water column. Differences in near-surface flow are attributed to the presence of a buoyant river plume forced by winds from passing extratropical storms. Plume boundary fronts induce a horizontal velocity gradient where drifters deployed outside of the plume in oceanic water routinely converge, slow, and are re-directed. When the plume flows west parallel to the beach, the seaward plume boundary front acts as a coastal barrier that prevents 100% of oceanic drifters from beaching within 27 km of the inlet. As a result, small-scale, wind-driven river plumes in the northern Gulf of Mexico act as coastal barriers that prevent offshore surface pollution from washing ashore west of river inlets.

  11. Modeling near-shore subsea permafrost degradation in the Laptev Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneier, F.; Langer, M.; Overduin, P. P.

    2012-12-01

    Most subsea permafrost in the Arctic Ocean shelf regions is relict terrestrial permafrost that was inundated by sea water by rising sea levels after the last glacial period. Permafrost usually degrades offshore under the influence of sea-bottom temperatures, salt infiltration and a wide range of near-shore coastal processes. Subsea permafrost instability has important potential implications due to the release of methane to the atmosphere and by increasing coastal erosion rates. Our objectives are to employ meso-scale numerical calculations (from meter to kilometer, 1000s of years) in connection with borehole data from the Laptev Sea to model the transition of permafrost from onshore to offshore conditions. The goal is to identify key processes driving permafrost degradation in the near-shore zone of the shelf. The heat transfer equation is solved numerically taking into account freeze-thaw processes in a three-phase heat capacity / conductivity model. Sediment composition and initial temperature profiles are derived from field and laboratory analysis of the borehole data. Our approach neglects some processes such as solute diffusion, but includes the effect of pore water salinity on phase state and thermal properties. Measured temperature profiles are compared to the modeled subsea soil temperature evolution over the course of the 2500 year transgression of the farthest offshore borehole in the transect. The degradation of the ice-bearing permafrost table or thaw depth is of special interest due to its direct relation to sediment stability and as the most readily discernible feature in the field observations. Temperature profiles generally agree well with model calculations reproducing the almost isothermal permafrost profiles currently observed, but show more variation potentially partially caused by drilling disturbances. The thaw depth is mainly driven by salt contamination and infiltration into deeper pore water with time. Complicating near-shore processes

  12. Deriving Rich Coastal Morphology and Shore Zone Classification from LIDAR Terrain Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, Wiebe|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823643; Reshitnyk, Luba Y.; Starzomski, Brian M.; Reynolds, John D.; Darimont, Chris T.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.

    2017-01-01

    Comprehensive mapping of shore-zone morphology supports evaluation of shore habitat, monitoring of environmental hazards, and characterization of the transfer of nutrients between marine and terrestrial environments. This article shows how rich shore-zone morphological metrics can be derived from

  13. Different approaches to model the nearshore circulation in the south shore of O'ahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos Azevedo Correia de Souza, Joao; Powell, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The dynamical interaction between currents, bathymetry, waves, and estuarine outflow has significant impacts on the surf zone. We investigate the impacts of two strategies to include the effect of surface gravity waves on an ocean circulation model of the south shore of O'ahu, Hawaii. This area provides an ideal laboratory for the development of nearshore circulation modeling systems for reef-protected coastlines. We use two numerical models for circulation and waves: Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) model, respectively. The circulation model is nested within larger-scale models that capture the tidal, regional, and wind-forced circulation of the Hawaiian archipelago. Two strategies are explored for circulation modeling: forcing by the output of the wave model and online, two-way coupling of the circulation and wave models. In addition, the circulation model alone provides the reference for the circulation without the effect of the waves. These strategies are applied to two experiments: (1) typical trade-wind conditions that are frequent during summer months, and (2) the arrival of a large winter swell that wraps around the island. The results show the importance of considering the effect of the waves on the circulation and, particularly, the circulation-wave coupled processes. Both approaches show a similar nearshore circulation pattern, with the presence of an offshore current in the middle beaches of Waikiki. Although the pattern of the offshore circulation remains the same, the coupled waves and circulation produce larger significant wave heights ( ≈ 10 %) and the formation of strong alongshore and cross-shore currents ( ≈ 1 m s-1).

  14. A mathematical model of past, present and future shore level displacement in Fennoscandia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paasse, T. [Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    Shore level displacement in Fennoscandia is mainly due to two interactive vertical movements, glacio-isostatic uplift and eustatic sea level rise. A recent investigation of the lake-tilting phenomenon has made it possible to discern the course of glacio-isostatic. As a consequence an iteration process to estimate glacio-isostatic uplift and eustatic rise using empirical data of the shore level displacement has been started. The model indicates that there are two mechanisms involved in glacio-isostatic uplift, one slow and the other fast. The main uplift, still in progress, acts slowly. Arctan functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing slow glacio-isostatic uplift. The time of maximal uplift rate is isochronous, meaning that slow uplift occurred simultaneously in all Fennoscandia in an interactive movement. For slow uplift there is a relationship between the rate of decline and the crustal thickness. In areas with greater crustal thickness the rate of decline of the glacio-isostatic recovery is lower than in areas with thinner crust. The fast mechanism gave rise to a crustal subsidence which started about 12 500 BP. After about 10 300 BP, in the early Holocene, the subsidence was restored by a fast uplift. Normal distribution functions have been used for calculating the fast mechanism. The mantle material exhibits plastic behaviour. When the mantle encounters short-lived stresses the material behaves like an elastic solid but in response to long-term stresses it will flow. The slow mechanism can be linked to viscous flow and as a response to long-term stresses. The fast mechanism is probably the response to a short-lived stress. This stress could have been caused by renewed ice loading, due to a self-triggered redistribution of the ice load during deglaciation. Future development regarding glacio-isostatic uplift, eustasy and shore level displacement is predicted in Fennoscandia using the results from the modelling. Predictions are based on the

  15. An empirical model of glacio-isostatic movements and shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasse, T.

    2001-08-01

    Shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia is mainly due to two co-operative vertical movements, glacio-isostatic uplift and global eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake-tilting phenomenon. This information made it possible to start an iteration process that has given mathematical expression for factors involved both within the isostatic movements and the eustatic rise. There are two components involved in glacio-isostatic uplift. The main uplift, still in progress, acts slowly and is thus called the slow component. Arctan functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the slow component. There are two main factors involved in the function used for calculation; A s (m), the download factor and B s (y -1 ), which is an inertia factor. A strong linear correlation between the inertia factor Bs and lithosphere thickness has been found in the model. There was also a fast component involved in the crustal changes at the end of Late Weichselian and early Holocene. This component gave rise to fast subsidence followed by fast uplift during the final part of the deglaciation. Crustal subsidence is assumed to be due to reloading of the crust in the central parts of Fennoscandia during the Younger Dryas stadial. Normal distribution functions are used for calculating this component. Glacio-isostatic uplift and thus a regressive shore-level displacement was extremely rapid around 10,300 years BP. This fast regression was contemporaneous and occurred in a similar way at the West Coasts of Norway and Sweden as well as in the Baltic. The 'drainage' of the Baltic Ice Lake has been interpreted in the model as due to this fast regression. The slow component is most probably due to viscous flow in the asthenosphere and the fast component is assumed to be due to its elasticity

  16. An empirical model of glacio-isostatic movements and shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paasse, T. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-08-01

    Shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia is mainly due to two co-operative vertical movements, glacio-isostatic uplift and global eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake-tilting phenomenon. This information made it possible to start an iteration process that has given mathematical expression for factors involved both within the isostatic movements and the eustatic rise. There are two components involved in glacio-isostatic uplift. The main uplift, still in progress, acts slowly and is thus called the slow component. Arctan functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the slow component. There are two main factors involved in the function used for calculation; A{sub s} (m), the download factor and B{sub s} (y{sup -1} ), which is an inertia factor. A strong linear correlation between the inertia factor Bs and lithosphere thickness has been found in the model. There was also a fast component involved in the crustal changes at the end of Late Weichselian and early Holocene. This component gave rise to fast subsidence followed by fast uplift during the final part of the deglaciation. Crustal subsidence is assumed to be due to reloading of the crust in the central parts of Fennoscandia during the Younger Dryas stadial. Normal distribution functions are used for calculating this component. Glacio-isostatic uplift and thus a regressive shore-level displacement was extremely rapid around 10,300 years BP. This fast regression was contemporaneous and occurred in a similar way at the West Coasts of Norway and Sweden as well as in the Baltic. The 'drainage' of the Baltic Ice Lake has been interpreted in the model as due to this fast regression. The slow component is most probably due to viscous flow in the asthenosphere and the fast component is assumed to be due to its elasticity.

  17. A GIS-model for predicting the impact of climate change on shore erosion in hydroelectric reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, L.A.; Zimmer, T.A.M.; St Laurent, M.

    2008-01-01

    Shoreline erosion affects inland lakes and hydroelectric reservoirs in several ways. This poster described a vector-based geographic information system (GIS) model designed to predict changes in shore zone geometry, top-of-bluff recession, and eroded sediment volumes. The model was designed for use in Manitoba Hydro's reservoirs in northern Manitoba, and simulated near-shore downcutting and bank recession caused by wind-generated waves. Parameters for the model included deep water wave energy, and water level fluctuations. Effective wave energy was seen as a function of the water level fluctuation range, wave conditions, and near-shore slope. The model was validated by field monitoring studies that included repeated shore zone transect surveys and sediment coring studies. Results of the study showed that the model provides a systematic method of predicting potential changes in erosion associated with climatic change. The volume and mass of eroded sediment predicted for the different modelling scenarios will be used as input data for future sedimentation models. tabs., figs

  18. Understanding Gulf War Illness: An Integrative Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    high-order diffusion imaging in a rat model of Gulf War Illness. §These authors contributed equally to the work. Brain Behavior and Immunity. pii...astrocyte specific transcriptome responses to neurotoxicity. §These authors contributed equally to the work. Submitted for Internal CDC-NIOSH...Antagonist: Evaluation of Beneficial Effects for Gulf War Illness 4) GW160116 (Nathanson) Genomics approach to find gender specific mechanisms of GWI

  19. Current challenges using models to forecast seawater intrusion: lessons from the Eastern Shore of Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Pope, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of the aquifer system of the Eastern Shore of Virginia, USA was calibrated to reproduce historical water levels and forecast the potential for saltwater intrusion. Future scenarios were simulated with two pumping schemes to predict potential areas of saltwater intrusion. Simulations suggest that only a few wells would be threatened with detectable salinity increases before 2050. The objective was to examine whether salinity increases can be accurately forecast for individual wells with such a model, and to address what the challenges are in making such model forecasts given current (2009) simulation capabilities. The analysis suggests that even with current computer capabilities, accurate simulations of concentrations within a regional-scale (many km) transition zone are computationally prohibitive. The relative paucity of data that is typical for such regions relative to what is needed for accurate transport simulations suggests that even with an infinitely powerful computer, accurate forecasting for a single well would still be elusive. Useful approaches may include local-grid refinement near wells and geophysical surveys, but it is important to keep expectations for simulated forecasts at wells in line with chloride concentration and other data that can be obtained at that local scale.

  20. Economic Modeling of Residual Generation for the Lingayen Gulf Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas McGlone

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Philippines is one of four countries involved in the Southeast Asian core project of LOICZ (Land Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone which has among its general goals the determination of how changes in human activities affect the fluxes of materials between land, sea, and atmosphere through the coastal zone. The economic component of the Philippine project addresses the question: “How does a change in economic activity affect coastal waters?” Of particular concern is the introduction of anthropogenically-derived residuals (N, P, C, SS into coastal waters. A regional input-output (IO model for Region 1 of the Philippines has been developed to estimate how projected changes in economic activity may affect residual flows into Lingayen Gulf. A residual coefficient matrix, derived from information obtained with a rapid assessment model (RA of residual generation in the Lingayen Gulf watershed, has been incorporated into the IO model. Such a model allows for analysis of various economic scenarios for the region, with projections of residual generation as the output. The resulting changes in residual flows may then serve as inputs to biogeochemical models of Lingayen Gulf. From this process, the impact of various economic scenarios on the water quality of Lingayen Gulf may be ascertained.This paper discusses and compares the RA and IO models of residual generation for the Lingayen Gulf watershed and provides examples of the scenario analysis process.

  1. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - II. Model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Yu, Yunke

    2010-01-01

    In the second part of this two-part article on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, we estimate the number of committed assets in water depth less than 1000 ft that are expected to be marginal over a 60-year time horizon. We compute the expected quantity and value of the production and gross revenue streams of the gulf's committed asset inventory circa. January 2007 using a probabilistic model framework. Cumulative hydrocarbon production from the producing inventory is estimated to be 1056 MMbbl oil and 13.3 Tcf gas. Marginal production from the committed asset inventory is expected to contribute 4.1% of total oil production and 5.4% of gas production. A meta-evaluation procedure is adapted to present the results of sensitivity analysis. Model results are discussed along with a description of the model framework and limitations of the analysis. (author)

  2. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - II. Model results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Yu, Yunke [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    In the second part of this two-part article on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, we estimate the number of committed assets in water depth less than 1000 ft that are expected to be marginal over a 60-year time horizon. We compute the expected quantity and value of the production and gross revenue streams of the gulf's committed asset inventory circa. January 2007 using a probabilistic model framework. Cumulative hydrocarbon production from the producing inventory is estimated to be 1056 MMbbl oil and 13.3 Tcf gas. Marginal production from the committed asset inventory is expected to contribute 4.1% of total oil production and 5.4% of gas production. A meta-evaluation procedure is adapted to present the results of sensitivity analysis. Model results are discussed along with a description of the model framework and limitations of the analysis. (author)

  3. Shared Mental Models of Challenging Maritime Situations: Comparisons of Ship and Shore Personnel in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Imset

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Shared mental models, measured as similar perceptions and understandings of the components of a work task or an operative environment, is a key characteristic for high performing teams. Identifying and addressing differences in mental models may help enhance teamwork, and can serve as a frame for the improvement of human-centered information and communication systems. This paper has been written as part of the SESAME Straits project, a testbed within the e-Navigation framework. It examines similarities and differences in mental models between Deck Officers working aboard ships and Vessel Traffic Service Officers working ashore. Data was compared the participants´ perception of 12 challenging traffic situations in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore. A total of 189 respondents participated by means of an electronic survey. Findings show that Deck and Vessel Traffic Officers do have a large degree of shared mental models, but that there also are significant differences. In particular, there are large ship-shore differences in perceptions of the impact on local ship traffic on safety and efficiency. The second and third situation of large difference was delayed or reduced availability of port services, and challenging weather conditions. Implications are that future development of ship-shore collaborative systems should specifically explore and address the issue of local ship traffic, and to find ways to integrate information about availability and timing of port services and of difficult weather situations.

  4. Model outputs - Developing end-to-end models of the Gulf of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the northern Gulf of California, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  5. Modeling of air currents in the Gulf Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Foster, C.S.; Foster, K.T.; Baskett, R.L.; Nasstrom, J.S.; Schalk, W.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability modeled the wind flow in the Gulf Region in order to make projections of the Kuwait oil fires pollution dispersion. Extensive meteorological models incorporating explicit terrain influences to the flow fields were routinely employed through a six month international assessment support effort organized by the World Meteorological Organization and US scientific research agencies. Results show generally close agreement with visible imagery of the smoke plumes as detected by meteorological satellites. However, there are some examples of significant disagreement or failure of the meteorological models. These failures are most likely directly linked to missing or unavailable weather observations

  6. Postglacial uplift of the eastern Gulf of Finland-Lake Ladoga region: models and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amantov, Aleksey; Fjeldskaar, Willy; Amantova, Marina

    2015-04-01

    The eastern Gulf of Finland - Lake Ladoga region - is at the peripheral part of the Fennoscandian post-glacial uplift. We compared different modeling results for this region with observations, including our revision of geomorphological traces of paleo shorelevel. As in many parts of the general Baltic-White Sea bedrock lowland at the margin of the Fennoscandian Shield, the bedrock landscape was modified by glaciers, but it was also the major controlling factor for the history of glacial grows and decays. First-order landforms of this segment are: Lake Ladoga-Lake Ilmen lowland, Lembolovo High of the Karelic Isthmus and Neva-Gulf of Finland lowland. The range of the bedrock topography is close to 350 m. The landforms reflect different glacial behavior during stadials, with fast movement and strong erosion in northern Ladoga, but passive motion and accumulation around Lembolovo High. The differences influenced the ice sheet and deglaciation history. The shore level displacements in this area are slightly different than westwards in the Baltic area; the shoreline tilts are usually lower in southern-central part of the eastern Gulf of Finland-lake Ladoga region. For example, the shoreline tilts at 11 600 BP in the Baltic Ice Lake in the south-east range from 0.55 to 0.31 m/km. The slope of the Ancylus shoreline varies from 0.12 to 0.18 m/km, increasing to almost the double in the north-western area. Similarly, the Littorina shore level is tilted only 0.08 m/km, rising to 0.14 m/km in the north-west. We have used this data in our high resolution modeling involving glacial isostasy, hydro isostasy, sediment isostasy, and gravity field changes. The mopdeling is based on Earth rheology model with a low-viscosity asthenosphere of thickness less than 150 km and viscosity less than 7.0x10**19 Pa s above a mantle of viscosity 10**21 Pa s, and an effective elastic lithosphere thickness of 30-40 km (flexural rigidity 10**24 Nm). The specific uplift features in the area are

  7. Policy Subsystem Portfolio Management: A Neural Network Model of the Gulf of Mexico Program

    OpenAIRE

    Larkin, George Richard

    1999-01-01

    This study provides insights into the behavior of an environmental policy subsystem. The study uses neural network theory to model the Gulf of Mexico Program's allocation of implementation funds. The Gulf of Mexico Program is a prototype effort to institutionalize a policy subsystem. A project implementation fund is at the core of the Gulf of Mexico Program. The United States Environmental Protection Agency provides the implementation fund and the Mexico Program Office (GMPO) administers it. ...

  8. Inter-Comparison of Hydrodynamic Models of Gulf of Khambhat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J SatheeshKumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The complex seabed contours and geometry of basin lead to a unique tidal pattern along India's Gulf of Khambhat (GoK. Estimation of tidal levels and associated currents in this basin is challenging due to the amplification of tides and intense current magnitudes. In this study, the finite difference based numerical model, Delft3D-FLOW has been set up. Spatially varying bottom roughness parameters have been used to estimate the tidal levels and currents for the entire basin and the results are compared with an earlier work of Sathish Kumar and Balaji (2014 and 2015 based on an alternative finite element based numerical model, Telemac2D. An inter-comparison of model results shows good agreement with each other and with the field measurements. The tidal levels are observed to vary from 2m to more than 10m in the narrowing portion of the gulf while the maximum current velocity is seen as 3m/s.

  9. A model integrating longshore and cross-shore processes for predicting long-term shoreline response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick; Limber, Patrick W.; Erikson, Li; Cole, Blake

    2017-01-01

    We present a shoreline change model for coastal hazard assessment and management planning. The model, CoSMoS-COAST (Coastal One-line Assimilated Simulation Tool), is a transect-based, one-line model that predicts short-term and long-term shoreline response to climate change in the 21st century. The proposed model represents a novel, modular synthesis of process-based models of coastline evolution due to longshore and cross-shore transport by waves and sea-level rise. Additionally, the model uses an extended Kalman filter for data assimilation of historical shoreline positions to improve estimates of model parameters and thereby improve confidence in long-term predictions. We apply CoSMoS-COAST to simulate sandy shoreline evolution along 500 km of coastline in Southern California, which hosts complex mixtures of beach settings variably backed by dunes, bluffs, cliffs, estuaries, river mouths, and urban infrastructure, providing applicability of the model to virtually any coastal setting. Aided by data assimilation, the model is able to reproduce the observed signal of seasonal shoreline change for the hindcast period of 1995-2010, showing excellent agreement between modeled and observed beach states. The skill of the model during the hindcast period improves confidence in the model's predictive capability when applied to the forecast period (2010-2100) driven by GCM-projected wave and sea-level conditions. Predictions of shoreline change with limited human intervention indicate that 31% to 67% of Southern California beaches may become completely eroded by 2100 under sea-level rise scenarios of 0.93 to 2.0 m.

  10. A model integrating longshore and cross-shore processes for predicting long-term shoreline response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Limber, Patrick; Erikson, Li; Cole, Blake

    2017-04-01

    We present a shoreline change model for coastal hazard assessment and management planning. The model, CoSMoS-COAST (Coastal One-line Assimilated Simulation Tool), is a transect-based, one-line model that predicts short-term and long-term shoreline response to climate change in the 21st century. The proposed model represents a novel, modular synthesis of process-based models of coastline evolution due to longshore and cross-shore transport by waves and sea level rise. Additionally, the model uses an extended Kalman filter for data assimilation of historical shoreline positions to improve estimates of model parameters and thereby improve confidence in long-term predictions. We apply CoSMoS-COAST to simulate sandy shoreline evolution along 500 km of coastline in Southern California, which hosts complex mixtures of beach settings variably backed by dunes, bluffs, cliffs, estuaries, river mouths, and urban infrastructure, providing applicability of the model to virtually any coastal setting. Aided by data assimilation, the model is able to reproduce the observed signal of seasonal shoreline change for the hindcast period of 1995-2010, showing excellent agreement between modeled and observed beach states. The skill of the model during the hindcast period improves confidence in the model's predictive capability when applied to the forecast period (2010-2100) driven by GCM-projected wave and sea level conditions. Predictions of shoreline change with limited human intervention indicate that 31% to 67% of Southern California beaches may become completely eroded by 2100 under sea level rise scenarios of 0.93 to 2.0 m.

  11. Numerical modelling of tides and tidal currents in the Gulf of Kutch

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A

    An application of a two-dimensional tidal model to study the tidal regime in the Gulf of Kutch is made. This is with a view to synthesise various information on tides and currents that are available in the Gulf. A comparison of surface elevations...

  12. Modeling the transport and inactivation of E. coli and enterococci in the near-shore region of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Phanikumar, M.S.; Molloy, S.L.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.; Schwab, D.J.; Rose, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the transport and fate of fecal pollution at Great Lakes beaches and the health risks associated with swimming, the near-shore waters of Lake Michigan and two tributaries discharging into it were examined for bacterial indicators of human fecal pollution. The enterococcus human fecal pollution marker, which targets a putative virulence factorthe enterococcal surface protein (esp) in Enterococcus faecium, was detected in 2/28 samples (7%) in the tributaries draining into Lake Michigan and in 6/30 samples (20%) in Lake Michigan beaches. This was indicative of human fecal pollution being transported in the tributaries and occurrence at Lake Michigan beaches. To understand the relative importance of different processes influencing pollution transport and inactivation, a finite-element model of surf-zone hydrodynamics (coupled with models for temperature, E. coli and enterococci) was used. Enterococci appear to survive longer than E. coli, which was described using an overall first-order inactivation coefficient in the range 0.5−2.0 per day. Our analysis suggests that the majority of fecal indicator bacteria variation can be explained based on loadings from the tributaries. Sunlight is a major contributor to inactivation in the surf-zone and the formulation based on sunlight, temperature and sedimentation is preferred over the first-order inactivation formulation.

  13. Modeling erosion and accretion along the Illinois Lake Michigan shore using integrated airborne, waterborne and ground-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakanyamale, K. E.; Brown, S.; Larson, T. H.; Theuerkauf, E.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Phillips, A.; Anderson, A.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment distribution at the Illinois Lake Michigan shoreline is constantly changing in response to increased human activities and complex natural coastal processes associated with wave action, short and long term fluctuations in lake level, and the influence of coastal ice. Understanding changes to volume, distribution and thickness of sand along the shore through time, is essential for modeling shoreline changes and predicting changes due to extreme weather events and lake-level fluctuation. The use of helicopter transient electromagnetic (HTEM) method and integration with ground-based and waterborne geophysical and geologic methods provides high resolution spatial rich data required for modeling the extent of erosion and accretion at this dynamic coastal system. Analysis and interpretation of HTEM, ground and waterborne geophysical and geological data identify spatial distribution and thickness of beach and lake-bottom sand. The results provide information on existence of littoral sand deposits and identify coastal hazards such as lakebed down-cutting that occurs in sand-starved areas.

  14. Generalized equilibrium modeling: the methodology of the SRI-Gulf energy model. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazalet, E.G.

    1977-05-01

    The report provides documentation of the generalized equilibrium modeling methodology underlying the SRI-Gulf Energy Model and focuses entirely on the philosophical, mathematical, and computational aspects of the methodology. The model is a highly detailed regional and dynamic model of the supply and demand for energy in the US. The introduction emphasized the need to focus modeling efforts on decisions and the coordinated decomposition of complex decision problems using iterative methods. The conceptual framework is followed by a description of the structure of the current SRI-Gulf model and a detailed development of the process relations that comprise the model. The network iteration algorithm used to compute a solution to the model is described and the overall methodology is compared with other modeling methodologies. 26 references.

  15. Shore-based Path Planning for Marine Vehicles Using a Model of Ocean Currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop path planning methods that incorporate an approximate model of ocean currents in path planning for a range of autonomous marine vehicles such as surface...

  16. Cruise tourism shore excursions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    João Lopes, Maria; Dredge, Dianne

    2018-01-01

    Very complex yet highly integrated business logics characterise cruise tourism with shore excursions frequently identified as a key source of value. This paper presents a case study of cruise tourism and shore excursion planning in Copenhagen, Denmark. The aim of this paper is to investigate the ...

  17. Northern Gulf 1 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coast Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  18. Northern Gulf 1 Arc-second MHW Coast Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  19. Parameter sensitivity and identifiability for a biogeochemical model of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local sensitivity analyses and identifiable parameter subsets were used to describe numerical constraints of a hypoxia model for bottom waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The sensitivity of state variables differed considerably with parameter changes, although most variables ...

  20. A phase resolving cross-shore sediment transport model for beach profile evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakha, Karim A.; Deigaard, Rolf; Brøker, Ida

    1997-01-01

    -wave sediment concentrations are calculated. The net sediment transport rates are calculated, and the equation for conservation of sediment is solved to predict the beach profile evolution, The results of the present paper showed that the undertow contribution to the sediment transport rates is not dominating...... in all parts of the surf zone, even for eroding beaches, suggesting that other contributions should not be neglected. The present model also showed that for the same offshore wave energy the time series of the oscillatory motion is important and that the effect of wave groups cannot be disregarded. (C...

  1. Epigenetic Mediation of Endocrine and Immune Response in an Animal Model of Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    epidemiological and animal experimental data that indicate the risk of developing complex diseases is influenced by persistent epigenetic adaptations...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0550 TITLE: Epigenetic Mediation of Endocrine and Immune Response in an Animal Model of Gulf War Illness...Sept 2015-29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Epigenetic Mediation of Endocrine and Immune Response in an Animal Model of Gulf War

  2. Design off-shore wind climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Joergensen, H.E. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Specific recommendations of off-shore turbulence intensities, applicable for design purposes, are lacking in the present IEC-code. The present off-shore wind climate analysis presents the distribution of the turbulence standard deviation around the mean turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the mean wind speed. Measured distributions, based on a huge amount of measuring data from two shallow water off-shore sites, are parameterized by fitting to a three parameter Weibull distribution. Combining a simple heuristic load model with the parameterized probability density functions of the turbulence standard deviations, an empirical off-shore design turbulence intensity is evaluated that in average yields the same fatigue damage as the distributed turbulence intensity. The proposed off-shore design turbulence intensity is, within the IEC code framework, applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue load determination. (au)

  3. Off to new shores: Modeling the potential distribution and future range expansion of larger foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, A. E.; Rödder, D.; Lötters, S.; Langer, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of larger foraminifera is strongly controlled by environmental variables, especially temperature. Most of today's taxa of larger foraminifera are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions (between 30° N and 30° S) and their minimum temperature limits are governed by the 14 to 20° C isotherms. However, during times of extensive global warming (e.g. the Eocene and Miocene), larger foraminifera have been found as far North as 50° N (North America and Central Europe) as well as towards 40° S in New Zealand. It has been stated that larger foraminifera are more tolerant of rising sea surface temperatures than reef-building corals. As such they may play a more prominent role as future reef framework and carbonate producers in a steadily warming ocean. During the last century, sea surface temperatures have been rising significantly due to higher CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This trend is expected to continue and climate change scenarios for 2100 suggest a further increase by 1 to 6° C (IPCC Synthesis Report, 2007). We applied Species Distribution Models (SDMs) on several taxa of larger foraminifera in order to evaluate their potential distribution under current climate conditions and to predict range expansions within the next 40 years. The studied taxa include Archaias angulatus, which is regionally distributed within the Caribbean region, Calcarina spp., which occurs in the Indo-Pacific area and the true circumglobal taxon Amphistegina spp. Under present climate, Amphistegina spp. shows the widest distribution range due to its greater temperature tolerance. Both Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. display potential distributions that cover currently uninhabitet regions, suggesting that weak dispersal abilities are major reasons for their limited distributions. Under future climate, Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. show an increase in habitat suitability within their native occurrence ranges, suggesting that their tolerance for

  4. Gulf of California species and catch spatial distributions and historical time series - Developing end-to-end models of the Gulf of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the northern Gulf of California, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  5. Statistical Models for Sediment/Detritus and Dissolved Absorption Coefficients in Coastal Waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Rebecca E; Gould, Jr., Richard W; Ko, Dong S

    2008-01-01

    ... (CDOM) absorption coefficients from physical hydrographic and atmospheric properties. The models were developed for northern Gulf of Mexico shelf waters using multi-year satellite and physical data...

  6. Modelling and assessment of the impact of radiocesium and radiostrontium contamination in the Thermaikos Gulf, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleftheriou, G., E-mail: gelefthe@central.ntua.gr [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens (Greece); Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (Greece); Monte, L., E-mail: monte.luigi@fastwebnet.it [ENEA, Roma (Italy); Brittain, J.E. [Natural History Museum, University of Oslo (Norway); Tsabaris, C. [Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (Greece)

    2015-11-15

    A radiological model for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr dispersion in the marine environment of the Thermaikos Gulf, Greece, and the river catchments draining into the Gulf, is presented. The model, developed and implemented within the MOIRA-PLUS decision support system, integrates appropriate site-specific information. The model's performance has been tested using the available empirical {sup 137}Cs activity concentration data in abiotic and biotic components of the gulf since the Chernobyl accident. Further, this paper describes the results of a modelling exercise performed within the IAEA's EMRAS II international modelling programme to estimate the environmental sensitivity of this characteristic Mediterranean coastal marine environment following radioactive contamination. The radiation doses to humans after a single hypothetical instantaneous deposition of 1000 Bq m{sup −2}, assuming that all of their food intake from the marine pathway comes from the local environment, were calculated. The obtained results are consistent with estimates from other models for different coastal marine environments in the frame of the above-mentioned EMRAS exercise. - Highlights: • The Decision Support System (DSS) MOIRA-PLUS was customised to Thermaikos Gulf. • Model results were compared with empirical data to adjust parameter values. • The environmental sensitivity of the Gulf to {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs pollution was assessed. • Radiation doses from marine and fresh water pathways were compared. • The dose from fresh water pathways is notably higher than that from marine pathways.

  7. Modelling and assessment of the impact of radiocesium and radiostrontium contamination in the Thermaikos Gulf, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleftheriou, G.; Monte, L.; Brittain, J.E.; Tsabaris, C.

    2015-01-01

    A radiological model for 137 Cs and 90 Sr dispersion in the marine environment of the Thermaikos Gulf, Greece, and the river catchments draining into the Gulf, is presented. The model, developed and implemented within the MOIRA-PLUS decision support system, integrates appropriate site-specific information. The model's performance has been tested using the available empirical 137 Cs activity concentration data in abiotic and biotic components of the gulf since the Chernobyl accident. Further, this paper describes the results of a modelling exercise performed within the IAEA's EMRAS II international modelling programme to estimate the environmental sensitivity of this characteristic Mediterranean coastal marine environment following radioactive contamination. The radiation doses to humans after a single hypothetical instantaneous deposition of 1000 Bq m −2 , assuming that all of their food intake from the marine pathway comes from the local environment, were calculated. The obtained results are consistent with estimates from other models for different coastal marine environments in the frame of the above-mentioned EMRAS exercise. - Highlights: • The Decision Support System (DSS) MOIRA-PLUS was customised to Thermaikos Gulf. • Model results were compared with empirical data to adjust parameter values. • The environmental sensitivity of the Gulf to 90 Sr and 137 Cs pollution was assessed. • Radiation doses from marine and fresh water pathways were compared. • The dose from fresh water pathways is notably higher than that from marine pathways

  8. Shore and bar cross-shore migration, rotation, and breathing processes at an embayed beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossier, B.; Bryan, K. R.; Daly, C. J.; Winter, C.

    2017-10-01

    A principal component analysis (PCA) is used to decompose data on the coupled morphodynamics of the shoreline and nearshore sandbar of a typical single-barred embayed beach (Tairua Beach, New Zealand). Dynamic patterns are classified into simultaneous modes, where the bar and shoreline move at the same time, and nonsimultaneous modes, where the shore moves independently from the bar, and vice versa. Two simultaneous modes accounting for 65% of the variance of the shoreline and barline dominate the system. One mode describes inverse shoreline and sandbar cross-shore migrations (alongshore averaged), occurring with simultaneous rotations in the same direction. The other mode accounts for migration in the same direction accompanied by variations of the barline curvature (similar to "breathing modes" previously described in embayed beach shoreline modeling studies). Two nonsimultaneous modes of lesser importance account separately for independent shoreline and barline rotations (10 to 15% of the variance explained). A PCA applied to the shore and sandbar behaviors modeled by four standard equilibrium models simulating shore and sandbar cross-shore migrations and rotations show that these are interrelated because of a correlation between wave energy and direction. Shore and bar rotations are coupled partially because the shape of the bay induces a correlation of their respective drivers, the wave angle of incidence and the alongshore gradient of wave energy. However, this correlation depends on the wave energy. This, in combination with different shore and sandbar response times (quantified using the models), also explains the independent rotations reflected by the nonsimultaneous modes.

  9. Modelling the temporal and spatial distribution of ecological variables in Beibu Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H.; Huang, L.; Yang, S.; Shi, D.; Pan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Beibu Gulf is an important semi-enclosed gulf located in northern South China Sea. It is rich in natural resources and its coastal rim is undergoing a rapid economic growth in recent years. Study on the spatial and temporal distribution of ecological variables by the influence of physical and biological processes in Beibu Gulf can provide the theoretical basis for the utilization of resources and environmental protection. Based on the MEC three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model was applied to simulate the distribution of ecological variables in Beibu Gulf. The result shows that the ecosystem in Beibu Gulf is significantly influenced by dynamic conditions. In autumn and winter, great amount of nutrient-rich water from western Guangdong coastal area passes through Qiongzhou Strait and flows into Beibu Gulf, with about 108.3×103 t of inorganic nitrogen and 3.7×103 t of phosphate annually, leading to phytoplankton bloom. In summer, most of the nutrients come from rivers so high concentrations of nutrients and chlorophyll-a appear on estuaries. The annual net nutrient inputs from South China Sea into Beibu Gulf are 66.6×103 t for inorganic nitrogen and 4.6×103 t for phosphate. Phytoplankton plays an important role in nutrients' refreshment: a) Absorption by the process of photosynthesis is the biggest nutrient sink. b) Cellular release from dead phytoplankton is the biggest source in inorganic budget, making up for 33.4% of nitrogen consumed by photosynthesis while the process of respiration is the biggest source in phosphate budget, making up for 32.4% of phosphorus consumed by photosynthesis. c) Mineralization from detritus is also a considerable supplement of inorganic nutrients. Overall, biological process has more influence than physical process on the nutrient cycle budget in Beibu Gulf. The comparison of the result with remote sensing and in-situ data indicates that the model is able to simulate the

  10. Gulf Cooperation Council: Arabia's model of integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaibi, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    This study is an analysis of the foundations and emergence in 1981 of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which consists of six traditional Arab Gulf states (the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, and Kuwait). It finds the GCC to be a unique case among twentieth-century integrative schemes. The study also identifies and analyzes relevant local, regional, and international forces. Among the local forces are traditional religio-political systems, economic dependence on a depletable resource, and the presence of a large number of foreign residents. On the regional level, this study takes into consideration such issues as the Arab League, Arab Nationalism, and the Islamic revolutionary movement in Iran. On the international level, the influence of the superpowers and the major industrialized nations on the emergence and future of the GCC Community are analyzed. Throughout the past decade there has been a growing scholarly interest in the Gulf region. In preparation for this study, the author relied heavily on the literature generated by this new research, as well as on documents and official publications, mostly in Arabic. A survey was conducted among a limited number of GCC graduate students during the summer of 1983. In addition, interviews with selected members of the GCC Secretariat-General and various member-state officials were conducted during a research trip in the region in the spring of 1984.

  11. Eco-Shore 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zhilnikova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article refers to the history of the International Architectural Festival “Eco-Shore” – a unique international project on ecological, architectural, town-planning and design comprehension and development of the waterside space of oceans, seas, rivers and lakes. It also reviews the results of the Festival “Eco-Shore 2016” held in Baku.

  12. PCB modeling in the Gulf of Lions using a 3D coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Tixier, Céline; Tronczynski, Jacek; Garreau, Pierre; Verney, Romaric; Carlotti, Francois; Espinasse, Boris; Queguiner, Bernard; Baklouti, Melika

    2013-04-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chlorinated organic compounds, which were widely used in many industrial materials. These compounds are persistent, bioaccumulable and toxic for living organisms. The riverine and atmospheric fluxes are the major routes of entry for these chemicals into marine ecosystems, where they are now embedded in natural biogeochemical cycles (Lohmann et al. 2007). Because of bioaccumulation and biomagnification processes in food webs, even nowadays, these compounds may attain dangerous concentration levels especially in the top predators including marine mammals. The contamination of marine biota by PCBs in Mediterranean has also become a matter of concern as the concentrations in some species are at levels putting them at risk for significant biological effects. This may pose potential human health risks in commercial edible species (Carpenter 2006). Planktonic populations play a key role in the trophic food webs in marine ecosystems by the mobilisation and transfer of energy and organic matter towards higher trophic levels. This work aims at a better understanding of the role of plankton in the transfer of PCBs to higher trophic levels in the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean) by coupling of biogeochemical, ecological and hydrodynamical processes. Modeling is a powerful tool for coupling processes of different disciplines and scales. The recent development of 3D hydrodynamic, hydrosedimentary and biogeochemical models in the Mediterranean (André et al, 2005,2009, Ulses et al, 2008, Dufois et al, 2008, Auger et al, 2011), enables feasibility testing of coupling these models with transfer processes of chemical contaminants. The lack of detailed observations in the sea and the significant uncertainty on contaminants inputs prevent from a proper validation of such modeling tests. However, these tools are very useful to assess the influence of fast processes on the transfer of contaminants to bioaccumulative species. Sensitivity analysis

  13. Modeling the Seasonal and Interannual Variability of the Northern Gulf of California Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Schwartzlose (1979), Masas de agua del Golfo de California , Cienc. Mar., 6, 43–63. Argote, M. L., A. Amador, M. F. Lavı’n, and J. R. Hunter (1995...Modeling the seasonal and interannual variability of the northern Gulf of California salinity Luis Zamudio,1 E. Joseph Metzger,2 and Patrick Hogan2...salinity in the northern Gulf of California (NGOC). Previous studies illustrate that the NGOC is characterized by an annual evaporation of ∼0.9 m/yr

  14. Modelling tide-driven currents and residual eddies in the Gulf of Kachchh and their seasonal variability: A marine environmental planning perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.; Desa, E.

    -monsoon transition. Irregular topography of the western gulf slows down the tidal wave propagation and induces a phase shift. Tidal residual currents computed from the model results exhibit the presence of three eddies in the western gulf. The tide...

  15. Thermohaline structure of an inverse estuary - The Gulf of Kachchh: Measurements and model simulations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Ramanamurty, M.V.; Saran, A.K.; Joseph, A.; Sudheesh, K.; Patgaonkar, R.S.; Jayakumar, S.

    K thermohaline structure and its variability, based on field measurements and model simulations. Though GoK is considered as a well-mixed system, the study reveals that only the central Gulf is well mixed. Vertical gradients in temperature and salinity fields...

  16. Modelling of PCB trophic transfer in the Gulf of Lions; 3D coupled model application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Thouvenin, Benedicte; Tronczynsky, Jacek; Carlotti, Francois; Garreau, Pierre; Tixier, Celine; Baklouti, Melika

    2017-04-01

    This work aims at assessing the role of plankton in the transfer of PCBs to higher trophic levels in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea) using a 3D modelling approach, which is coupling biogeochemical and hydrodynamical processes and taking into account the physical-chemical properties of PCBs. Transport of various PCB species were simulated during one year: total dissolved, freely dissolved, particulate, biosorbed on plankton, assimilated by zooplankton. PCB budgets and fluxes into the Gulf of Lions between various species were governed by different processes, such as: adsorption/desorption, bacteria and plankton mortality, zooplankton excretion, grazing, mineralization, volatilization and biodegradation. CB153 (2,2',4,4',5,5' hexachlorobiphényle) congener have been considered in the model, since it presents a large amount of PCB among the other congeners in the environment of the Gulf of Lions. At first, the simulated PCBs distributions within particulate matter and plankton were compared with available in-situ measurements (COSTAS and Merlumed field campaigns) performed in the Gulf of Lions. Two size classes of plankton X (60μ m

  17. Study of Sediment Transportation in the Gulf of Kachchh, using 3D Hydro-dynamic Model Simulation and Satellite Data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.

    friction boundary, discharge from river boundary and Gulf-open ocean (open) boundary are defined and used. Programs constituting the COSMOS model were executed along with initial input cards to simulate the model using an Alpher mini-computer system...

  18. Thermohaline structure of an inverse estuary--The Gulf of Kachchh: measurements and model simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vethamony, P; Babu, M T; Ramanamurty, M V; Saran, A K; Joseph, Antony; Sudheesh, K; Padgaonkar, Rupali S; Jayakumar, S

    2007-06-01

    The Gulf of Kachchh (GoK) is situated in the northeastern Arabian Sea. The presence of several industries along its coastal belt makes GoK a highly sensitive coastal ecosystem. In the present study, an attempt is made for the first time to study GoK thermohaline structure and its variability, based on field measurements and model simulations. Though GoK is considered as a well-mixed system, the study reveals that only the central Gulf is well mixed. Vertical gradients in temperature and salinity fields are noticed in the eastern Gulf, where a cold and high saline tongue is observed in the subsurface layers. Salinity indicates the characteristic feature of an inverse estuary with low values (37.20 psu) near the mouth and high values (>40.0 psu) near the head of the Gulf. The model simulated temperature and salinity fields exhibit semidiurnal oscillations similar to that of field observations. Model results show cold, high saline waters advecting from the east during ebb forming a transition zone, which oscillates with tides. A high salinity tongue is seen in the bottom layer, indicating a westward flowing bottom current. The transient zone acts as an dynamic barrier, and plays a vital role in the pollutant transport.

  19. Improved Hypoxia Modeling for Nutrient Control Decisions in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Pickering, Ken; Tzortziou, Maria; Maninio, Antonio; Policelli, Fritz; Stehr, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Modeling Framework is a suite of coupled models linking the deposition and transport of sediment and nutrients to subsequent bio-geo chemical processes and the resulting effect on concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the coastal waters of Louisiana and Texas. Here, we examine the potential benefits of using multiple NASA remote sensing data products within this Modeling Framework for increasing the accuracy of the models and their utility for nutrient control decisions in the Gulf of Mexico. Our approach is divided into three components: evaluation and improvement of (a) the precipitation input data (b) atmospheric constituent concentrations in EPA's air quality/deposition model and (c) the calculation of algal biomass, organic carbon and suspended solids within the water quality/eutrophication models of the framework.

  20. Modeling lost production from destroyed platforms in the 2004-2005 Gulf of Mexico hurricane seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Yu, Yunke; Jablonowski, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes Ivan, Katrina, and Rita passed through the Gulf of Mexico during 2004 and 2005 and resulted in the largest number of destroyed and damaged offshore oil and gas structures in the history of Gulf operations. In the final official government assessment, a total of 126 platforms were destroyed and over 183 structures were identified as having extensive damage. Production associated with wells and structures that are not redeveloped are classified as lost. The purpose of this paper is to derive functional relations that describe the likely contribution the collection of destroyed assets would have made to future production in the Gulf of Mexico. We estimate that the total remaining reserves from the set of destroyed structures range in value between 1.3 and 4.5 billion depending on the assumptions employed. We summarize the impact of the storms on the Gulf of Mexico oil and gas infrastructure and discuss the main issues involved in redevelopment decision making. A meta-model analytic framework is applied to perform sensitivity analysis and to explore the interactions of assumptions on model output. A discussion of the limitations of the analysis is presented. (author)

  1. Modeling lost production from destroyed platforms in the 2004-2005 Gulf of Mexico hurricane seasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Yu, Yunke [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Energy Coast and Environment Building, Nicholson Extension Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Jablonowski, Christopher J. [Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0300, Austin, TX 78712-0228 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Hurricanes Ivan, Katrina, and Rita passed through the Gulf of Mexico during 2004 and 2005 and resulted in the largest number of destroyed and damaged offshore oil and gas structures in the history of Gulf operations. In the final official government assessment, a total of 126 platforms were destroyed and over 183 structures were identified as having extensive damage. Production associated with wells and structures that are not redeveloped are classified as lost. The purpose of this paper is to derive functional relations that describe the likely contribution the collection of destroyed assets would have made to future production in the Gulf of Mexico. We estimate that the total remaining reserves from the set of destroyed structures range in value between 1.3 and 4.5 billion depending on the assumptions employed. We summarize the impact of the storms on the Gulf of Mexico oil and gas infrastructure and discuss the main issues involved in redevelopment decision making. A meta-model analytic framework is applied to perform sensitivity analysis and to explore the interactions of assumptions on model output. A discussion of the limitations of the analysis is presented. (author)

  2. Reducing Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Lessons from Simple and Complex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justic, D.; Fertitta, D. A.; Wang, L.

    2016-02-01

    Gulf hypoxia has received considerable scientific and policy attention because of its large size (up to 22,000 square km), potential ecological and economic effects, and the need to understand the implications of various nutrient management strategies in the large Mississippi River watershed. Over the past 20 years, a number of different models have been developed to simulate the severity and areal extent of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and to predict the consequences of management actions. The models range from simple statistical models to complex three-dimensional fully coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical models. The size and the complexity of these models have been steadily increasing due to developments in computer technology and computational techniques, and also in response to new scientific paradigms that have emerged over time forcing modelers to broaden the scope of their original models. We presentan overview of hypoxia models developed for the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone and discuss the lessons learned, and some fundamental differences between simple and complex models in evaluating the effectiveness of nutrient management strategies for reducing hypoxia.

  3. Modeling of PCB trophic transfer in the Gulf of Lions; 3D coupled model application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, E; Thouvenin, B; Tronczyński, J; Carlotti, F; Garreau, P; Tixier, C; Baklouti, M

    2018-03-01

    3D coupled modeling approach is used for the PCB dispersion assessment in the Gulf of Lion and its transfer to zooplankton via biogeochemical processes. PCB budgets and fluxes between the different species of PCB: dissolved, particulate, biosorbed on plankton, assimilated by zooplankton, which are governed by different processes: adsorption/desorption, bacteria and plankton mortality, zooplankton excretion, grazing, mineralization, volatilization have been estimated. Model outputs were compared with the available in situ data. It was found that the Rhone River outflows play an important role in the organism contamination in the coastal zone, whereas the atmospheric depositions are rather more important in the offshore zones. The transfer of the available contaminant to bacteria and phytoplankton species is mainly related to the biomass present in the water column. Absorption fluxes (grazing) to zooplankton are rather higher than the passive sorption fluxes, which are themselves also linked to the sorption coefficient. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - I. Historical statistics and model framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Experts may disagree on when world oil production will peak, but there is general agreement that marginal fields will contribute a greater percentage of world supply in the future. As fields mature and operations transition into the later stages of their production cycle, decreasing revenue streams, higher operating costs, and fewer upside opportunities lead to declining profitability. Eventually, all properties are abandoned when cost exceeds the revenue of production. In this two-part paper on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, the number of marginal structures in the gulf and their expected contribution to future production is forecast using established economic models. In Part 1, a historical perspective on producing assets is provided and the inventory of committed assets is modeled and categorized. We operationalize the definition of marginal production based on a structure's economic limit. The model framework to identify marginal assets in the Gulf of Mexico is discussed and a step-by-step description of the methodology is provided. In Part 2, the results of the model are described. (author)

  5. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - I. Historical statistics and model framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J. [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Experts may disagree on when world oil production will peak, but there is general agreement that marginal fields will contribute a greater percentage of world supply in the future. As fields mature and operations transition into the later stages of their production cycle, decreasing revenue streams, higher operating costs, and fewer upside opportunities lead to declining profitability. Eventually, all properties are abandoned when cost exceeds the revenue of production. In this two-part paper on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, the number of marginal structures in the gulf and their expected contribution to future production is forecast using established economic models. In Part 1, a historical perspective on producing assets is provided and the inventory of committed assets is modeled and categorized. We operationalize the definition of marginal production based on a structure's economic limit. The model framework to identify marginal assets in the Gulf of Mexico is discussed and a step-by-step description of the methodology is provided. In Part 2, the results of the model are described. (author)

  6. Modeling and investigation of Gulf El-Zayt wind farm for stability studying during extreme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Noureldeen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of extreme gust wind as a case of wind speed variation on a wind farm interconnected electrical grid. The impact of extreme gust wind speed variation on active and reactive power of the wind farms is studied for variable speed wind farm equipped with Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs. A simulation model of the under implementation 120 MW wind farm at Gulf El-Zayt region, Red Sea, Egypt, is simulated as a case study. A detailed model of extreme gust wind speed variation is implemented and simulated, using MATLAB/Simulink toolbox, based on International Electrotechnical Commission IEC 61400-1 and climate characteristic of Gulf El-Zayt site. The simulation results show the influence of different extreme gust wind speed variations on the fluctuation of active power and reactive power at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC of the studied wind farm.

  7. Meso- and Micro-scale flow modelling in the Gulf of Suez, Arab Republic of Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Frank, Helmut Paul

    2003-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 10-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez are presented. The primary purpose has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity producing wind-turbine installations......; a secondary purpose has been to evaluate the applicability of current wind resource estimation and siting tools – in particular the European Wind Atlas methodology – to this region where the meso-scale effects are pronounced and the climatic conditions (e.g. atmospheric stability) somewhat extreme. The wind...... data are analyzed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The Karlsruhe Atmospheric Meso-scale Model (KAMM) has been used to model the wind flow as well as to establish the magnitude and spatial variation of the wind resource in the Gulf of Suez – based on the NCEP/NCAR global...

  8. Near-Shore Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruol, Piero; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Martinelli, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this note is to analyse the possible application of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as a combined tool to protect the coast and harvest energy. Physical model tests are used to evaluate wave transmission past a near-shore floating WEC of the wave activated body type, named DEXA. Efficiency...

  9. A model study of the Copper River plume and its effect on the northern Gulf of Alaska (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, H.; Wang, Y.; Chai, F.; Chao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Using a three-level nested Regional Ocean Modeling System coupled with the Carbon, Silicate, Nitrogen Ecosystem model, this study illustrated the seasonal evolution of the Copper River (CR) plume and how it influences the along- and across-shore transport in the northern Gulf of Alaska (NGoA). A passive tracer was introduced in the model to delineate the growth and decay of the plume and to diagnose the spread of the CR discharge in the shelf, into Prince William Sound (PWS) and offshore. Furthermore, a model experiment with doubled discharge was conducted to investigate potential impacts of accelerated glacier melt in future climate scenarios. The 2010 and 2011 simulation revealed that the upstream (eastward) transport in the NGoA is almost nil. About 60% of the passive tracer released in the CR discharge is transported southwestward on the shelf, while another one third goes into PWS with close to 60% of which exiting PWS to the shelf from Montague Strait. The rest few percent is transported across the shelf break and exported to the GoA basin. The downstream transport and the transport into PWS are regulated by the downwelling favorable wind, while the offshore transport is related to the accumulation of plume water in the shelf, frontal instability and the Alaskan Stream. The CR plume appears to decay much faster than its formation. It takes weeks for the buoyancy to accumulate so that a bulge forms outside of the CR estuary. If the wind remains calm as in the summer of 2010, the bulge continues growing to trigger frontal instability. These frontal features can interact with the Alaskan Stream to send intense transport pulses across the shelf break. Alternatively as in 2011, a downwelling favorable wind event in early August (near the peak discharge) accelerates the southwestward coastal current and produces an enormous downstream transport event. Both processes result in fast drains of the buoyancy and the plume content, thereby rapid disintegration of the

  10. Near shore waves, long-shore currents and sediment transport along micro-tidal beaches, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Philip, C.S.; SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Johnson, G.

    breaker parameters are estimated at two micro-tidal beaches along central west coast of India. Model results are validated with measured values. From the breaker parameters, long-shore current and long-shore sediment transport rates (LSTR) are computed...

  11. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydsten, Lars

    1999-12-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One of the deeper basins

  12. Lagrangian velocity statistics of directed launch strategies in a Gulf of Mexico model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toner

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial dependence of Lagrangian displacement and velocity statistics is studied in the context of a data assimilating numerical model of the Gulf Mexico. In the active eddy region of the Western Gulf, a combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian measures are used to locate strongly hyperbolic regions of the flow. The statistics of the velocity field sampled by sets of drifters launched specifically in these hyperbolic regions are compared to those produced by randomly chosen launch sites. The results show that particle trajectories initialized in hyperbolic regions preferentially sample a broader range of Eulerian velocities than do members of ensembles of randomly launched drifters. The velocity density functions produced by the directed launches compare well with Eulerian velocity pdfs. Implications for the development of launch strategies to improve Eulerian velocity field reconstruction from drifter data are discussed.

  13. A model study of the Copper River plume and its effects on the northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Xue, Huijie; Chai, Fei; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John

    2014-01-01

    A three-level nested Regional Ocean Modeling System was used to examine the seasonal evolution of the Copper River (CR) plume and how it influences the along- and across-shore transport in the northern Gulf of Alaska (NGoA). A passive tracer was introduced in the model to delineate the growth and decay of the plume and to diagnose the spread of the CR discharge in the shelf, into Prince William Sound (PWS) and offshore. Furthermore, a model experiment with doubled discharge was conducted to investigate potential impacts of accelerated glacier melt in future climate scenarios. The 2010 and 2011 simulation revealed that the upstream (eastward) transport in the NGoA is negligible. About 60 % of the passive tracer released in the CR discharge is transported southwestward on the shelf, while another one third goes into PWS with close to 60 % of which exiting PWS to the shelf from Montague Strait. The rest few percent is transported across the shelf break and exported to the GoA basin. The downstream transport and the transport into PWS are strongly regulated by the downwelling-favorable wind, while the offshore transport is related to the accumulation of plume water in the shelf, frontal instability, and the Alaskan Stream. It takes weeks in spring for the buoyancy to accumulate so that a bulge forms outside of the CR estuary. The absence of strong storms as in the summer of 2010 allows the bulge continue growing to trigger frontal instability. These frontal features can interact with the Alaskan Stream to induce transport pulses across the shelf break. Alternatively as in 2011, a downwelling-favorable wind event in early August (near the peak discharge) accelerates the southwestward coastal current and produces an intense downstream transport event. Both processes result in fast drains of the buoyancy and the plume content, thereby rapid disintegration of the plume in the shelf. The plume in the doubled discharge case can be two to three times in size, which affects

  14. Analysis of Circulation Patterns in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, Simulated with a High-Resolution Hydrodynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea is a long, estuary-like sea area that is a direct continuation of the Baltic Proper. Short-term surface circulation in the gulf is mainly wind driven. The stability of currents varies from season to season. The relatively large freshwater input from the eastern end and the more saline deep water flow from the main basin at the western end maintain horizontal density gradients. We studied circulation patterns in the gulf with a high-resolution 3D hydrodynamic model setup. The configuration was based on the NEMO model and had 0.25 NM horizontal resolution and vertical resolution of 1 m. Our multi-year simulation revealed high year to year variability in the circulation. The persistency of currents in the Gulf of Finland is known to be low, with high variability in time and space. This was clearly demonstrated by our results. Processes affecting circulation patterns were analysed. These included upwelling-related alongshore currents. Several strong upwelling related coastal currents were present in the results on both northern and southern coast of the Gulf. The effect of wind forcing on the circulation in the gulf was also considered. We analysed wind forcing and found that annual differences contributed to the modelled circulation patterns.

  15. Integration of numerical modeling and observations for the Gulf of Naples monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iermano, I.; Uttieri, M.; Zambianchi, E.; Buonocore, B.; Cianelli, D.; Falco, P.; Zambardino, G.

    2012-04-01

    Lethal effects of mineral oils on fragile marine and coastal ecosystems are now well known. Risks and damages caused by a maritime accident can be reduced with the help of better forecasts and efficient monitoring systems. The MED project TOSCA (Tracking Oil Spills and Coastal Awareness Network), which gathers 13 partners from 4 Mediterranean countries, has been designed to help create a better response system to maritime accidents. Through the construction of an observational network, based on state of the art technology (HF radars and drifters), TOSCA provides real-time observations and forecasts of the Mediterranean coastal marine environmental conditions. The system is installed and assessed in five test sites on the coastal areas of oil spill outlets (Eastern Mediterranean) and on high traffic areas (Western Mediterranean). The Gulf of Naples, a small semi-closed basin opening to the Tyrrhenian Sea is one of the five test-sites. It is of particular interest from both the environmental point of view, due to peculiar ecosystem properties in the area, and because it sustains important touristic and commercial activities. Currently the Gulf of Naples monitoring network is represented by five automatic weather stations distributed along the coasts of the Gulf, one weather radar, two tide gauges, one waverider buoy, and moored physical, chemical and bio-optical instrumentation. In addition, a CODAR-SeaSonde HF coastal radar system composed of three antennas is located in Portici, Massa Lubrense and Castellammare. The system provides hourly data of surface currents over the entire Gulf with a 1km spatial resolution. A numerical modeling implementation based on Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is actually integrated in the Gulf of Naples monitoring network. ROMS is a 3-D, free-surface, hydrostatic, primitive equation, finite difference ocean model. In our configuration, the model has high horizontal resolution (250m), and 30 sigma levels in the vertical. Thanks

  16. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Central Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  17. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Western Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  18. Tectonoestratigraphic and Thermal Models of the Tiburon and Wagner Basins, northern Gulf of California Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J.; Ramirez Zerpa, N. A.; Negrete-Aranda, R.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Gulf of California Rift System consist sofa series faults that accommodate both normal and strike-slip motion. The faults formed a series of half-greens filled with more than 7 km of siliciclastic suc­cessions. Here, we present tectonostratigraphic and heat flow models for the Tiburón basin, in the southern part of the system, and the Wag­ner basin in the north. The models are constrained by two-dimensional seis­mic lines and by two deep boreholes drilled by PEMEX­-PEP. Analysis of the seismic lines and models' results show that: (i) subsidence of the basins is controlled by high-angle normal faults and by flow of the lower crust, (ii) basins share a common history, and (iii) there are significant differences in the way brittle strain was partitioned in the basins, a feature frequently observed in rift basins. On one hand, the bounding faults of the Tiburón basin have a nested geometry and became active following a west-to-east sequence of activation. The Tiburon half-graben was formed by two pulses of fault activity. One took place during the protogulf extensional phase in the Miocene and the other during the opening of Gulf of California in the Pleistocene. On the other hand, the Wagner basin is the result of two fault generations. During the late-to middle Miocene, the west-dipping Cerro Prieto and San Felipe faults formed a domino array. Then, during the Pleistocene the Consag and Wagner faults dissected the hanging-wall of the Cerro Prieto fault forming the modern Wagner basin. Thermal modeling of the deep borehole temperatures suggests that the heat flow in these basins in the order of 110 mW/m2 which is in agreement with superficial heat flow measurements in the northern Gulf of California Rift System.

  19. ShoreZone Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a point file showing GPS trackline data collected during a ShoreZone aerial imaging survey. This flight trackline is recorded at 1-second intervals...

  20. Opening of the Aden Gulf Ridge Derived from GPS Constraints and Plate Tectonic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S.; Alothman, A.; Al-Aydrus, A.; Khalil, H.; Ahmed, A.; Khanbari, K.; Bos, M. S.; Nicolon, P.; Heydel, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Aden Gulf Ridge forms, together with the Red Sea and the Ethiopian Rift, the only emerged RRR-type (Ridge/Ridge/Ridge) triple junction in the globe: the Afar Triple Junction. The Aden Gulf Ridge defines the boundary between two major tectonic blocks: Arabia and Somalia, being Nubia the third unit in the triple junction (bordering Arabia along the Red Sea and Somalia along the Ethiopian Rift). Although the extensional behaviour of these structures are well known, the present-day magnitudes of their opening rates are still under evaluation, in particular for the opening rate between the Arabia and Somalia plates. This work uses GPS observations acquired in campaign and continuous mode in order to better constrain the opening rates of the three plate boundaries. For the Nubia-Arabia and Nubia-Somalia boundary plates, we use solely the velocity predictions given by our computed angular velocity models using the available continuous stations in Nubia, Somalia and Arabia. The available data set is augmented here with several stations in Saudi Arabia, which allow us to better constrain the angular velocity for the stable part of the Arabia plate. We estimate the angular velocity model with respect to ITRF2008 (the latest realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System) using the value of 2.5 years (although most of the stations have already a significantly longer time-series) as threshold data span for the processed time-series. Temporal correlations are used to properly estimate the uncertainty of the time-series and derived angular velocity model. In addition, to study the near-field in the Aden Gulf, data acquired in denser campaign networks in Yemen and Oman are used to also directly compute the extension rate in the Red Sea. We show that most of the Arabian Peninsula is stable (within the uncertainties) but the southwest part (Yemen) is influenced by the proximity with the Afar Triple Junction.

  1. CMS: Simulated Physical-Biogeochemical Data, SABGOM Model, Gulf of Mexico, 2005-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains monthly mean ocean surface physical and biogeochemical data for the Gulf of Mexico simulated by the South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico...

  2. Installation process of suction anchors in Gulf of Guinea clay : Centrifuge modelling

    OpenAIRE

    THOREL, Luc; GARNIER, Jacques; RAULT, Gérard; DENDANI, Hédi; COLLIAT, JL

    2010-01-01

    The preparation process of a deepwater Gulf of Guinea clay for modelling of 24 m long suction anchors at a scale of 1/100 in the LCPC centrifuge, the clay characteristics and the installation phase (self-weight and suction) are presented. Two types of caissons have been tested in each tub : one with stiffeners and the other without stiffener. The embedment ratio is close to the suction caisson's slenderness of 3. An analysis of the forces of suction and soil friction shows, as expected, hi...

  3. Tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Gulf of Cadiz: fault model and recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Matias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Cadiz, as part of the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary, is recognized as a potential source of big earthquakes and tsunamis that may affect the bordering countries, as occurred on 1 November 1755. Preparing for the future, Portugal is establishing a national tsunami warning system in which the threat caused by any large-magnitude earthquake in the area is estimated from a comprehensive database of scenarios. In this paper we summarize the knowledge about the active tectonics in the Gulf of Cadiz and integrate the available seismological information in order to propose the generation model of destructive tsunamis to be applied in tsunami warnings. The fault model derived is then used to estimate the recurrence of large earthquakes using the fault slip rates obtained by Cunha et al. (2012 from thin-sheet neotectonic modelling. Finally we evaluate the consistency of seismicity rates derived from historical and instrumental catalogues with the convergence rates between Eurasia and Nubia given by plate kinematic models.

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of The Dalles Project: Effects of Spill Flow Distribution Between the Washington Shore and the Tailrace Spillwall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Portland District (CENWP) has ongoing work to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids (smolt) migrating past The Dalles Dam. As part of that effort, a spillwall was constructed to improve juvenile egress through the tailrace downstream of the stilling basin. The spillwall was designed to improve smolt survival by decreasing smolt retention time in the spillway tailrace and the exposure to predators on the spillway shelf. The spillwall guides spillway flows, and hence smolt, more quickly into the thalweg. In this study, an existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was modified and used to characterize tailrace hydraulics between the new spillwall and the Washington shore for six different total river flows. The effect of spillway flow distribution was simulated for three spill patterns at the lowest total river flow. The commercial CFD solver, STAR-CD version 4.1, was used to solve the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations together with the k-epsilon turbulence model. Free surface motion was simulated using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique. The model results were used in two ways. First, results graphics were provided to CENWP and regional fisheries agency representatives for use and comparison to the same flow conditions at a reduced-scale physical model. The CFD results were very similar in flow pattern to that produced by the reduced-scale physical model but these graphics provided a quantitative view of velocity distribution. During the physical model work, an additional spill pattern was tested. Subsequently, that spill pattern was also simulated in the numerical model. The CFD streamlines showed that the hydraulic conditions were likely to be beneficial to fish egress at the higher total river flows (120 kcfs and greater, uniform flow distribution). At the lowest flow case, 90 kcfs, it was necessary to use a non-uniform distribution. Of the three distributions tested, splitting the flow evenly between

  5. 46 CFR 169.686 - Shore power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shore power. 169.686 Section 169.686 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.686 Shore power. If a shore power connection is provided it must meet the following requirements: (a) A shore power connection box or receptacle and a cable connecting this box or receptacle to...

  6. Application of Thermal Modelling for Geochemical Characterization of Gadvan Formation, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Vaezian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the this research, the hydrocarbon generation potential of the Gadvan Formation as a probable source rock was investigated in the central part of the Persian Gulf at the borders of Iran. Type and maturity level of kerogen were investigated in six wells using the results of Rock-Eval pyrolysis and compared with results yielded by the modelling software program known as Pars Basin Modeler (PBM. The cross-plot of hydrogen index (HI versus maximum temperature suggests that the Gadvan Formation reached early to mid-maturity stages in the studied area, which means that it could act as a gas prone source rock. Furthermore, the burial and thermal history of the Gadvan Formation was determined in one well. Two methods, Easy %Ro and time-temperature index (TTI were used for the reconstruction of thermal modelling and studying the thermal maturity level in all of the drilled wells reaching the Gadvan Formation. The results of the TTI and Easy %Ro methods were in good agreement and both of confirmed the results of Rock Eval analysis. An integrated approach using different techniques showed that the Gadvan Formation can be classified as a poor gas bearing source rock in the studied area, while its maturity increases towards the southern parts of the Persian Gulf.

  7. 3D Gravity Modeling of Complex Salt Features in the Southern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Nava-Flores

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a three-dimensional (3D gravity modeling and inversion approach and its application to complex geological settings characterized by several allochthonous salt bodies embedded in terrigenous sediments. Synthetic gravity data were computed for 3D forward modeling of salt bodies interpreted from Prestack Depth Migration (PSDM seismic images. Density contrasts for the salt bodies surrounded by sedimentary units are derived from density-compaction curves for the northern Gulf of Mexico’s oil exploration surveys. By integrating results from different shape- and depth-source estimation algorithms, we built an initial model for the gravity anomaly inversion. We then applied a numerically optimized 3D simulated annealing gravity inversion method. The inverted 3D density model successfully retrieves the synthetic salt body ensemble. Results highlight the significance of integrating high-resolution potential field data for salt and subsalt imaging in oil exploration.

  8. Ocean modelling and Early-Warning System for the Gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Rego, Joao; Yan, Kun; Sisomphon, Piyamarn; Thanathanphon, Watin; Twigt, Daniel; Irazoqui Apecechea, Maialen

    2017-04-01

    Storm surges associated with severe tropical cyclones are among the most hazardous and damaging natural disasters to coastal areas. The Gulf of Thailand (GoT) has been periodically affected by typhoon induced storm surges in the past (e.g. storm Harriet in 1962, storm Gay in 1989 and storm Linda in 1997). Due to increased touristic / economic development and increased population density in the coastal zone, the combined effect and risk of high water level and increased rainfall / river discharge has dramatically increased and are expected to increase in future due to climate change effects. This presentation describes the development and implementation of the first real-time operational storm surge, wave and wave setup forecasting system in the GoT, a joint applied research initiative by Deltares in The Netherlands and the Hydro and Agro Informatics Institute (HAII) in Thailand. The modelling part includes a new hydrodynamic model to simulate tides and storm surges and two wave models (regional and local). The hydrodynamic model is based on Delft3D Flexible Mesh, capable of simulating water levels and detailed flows. The regional and the recently-developed local wave model are based on the SWAN model, a third-generation wave model. The operational platform is based on Delft-FEWS software, which coordinates all the data inputs, the modelling tasks and the automatic forecast exports including overland inundation in the upper Gulf of Thailand. The main objective of the Gulf of Thailand EWS is to provide daily accurate storm surge, wave and wave setup estimates automatically with various data exports possibilities to support this task. It adds a coastal component to HAII's existing practice of providing daily reports on fluvial flood forecasts, used for decision-support in issuing flood warnings for inland water systems in Thailand. Every day, three-day coastal forecasts are now produced based on the latest regional meteorological predictions. Examples are given to

  9. Modeling of the Foca-Uzunada magnetic anomaly and thermal structure in the gulf of Izmir, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Attila; Bilim, Funda; Cifci, Gunay; Okay, Seda

    2018-05-01

    The Gulf of Izmir (GoI) is one of the largest gulfs in the Aegean Sea, Turkey. There is a large magnetic anomaly extending in the NE-SW direction between Foca and Uzunada (Uzun Island) in the gulf. Previously, Curie Point Depth (CPD), geothermal gradient, heat-flow and radiogenic heat production maps of the onshore part of the Aegean region were constructed from the aeromagnetic data. In this study, the same maps except radiogenic heat production map are presented for the offshore part and the largest magnetic anomaly in the northern part of the gulf is focused, particularly. As a result, the thermal structure of GoI is clearly defined and according to the results of this study, CPD values were found from 7 km in the NE of Foca to 10 km through the south of the gulf. The geothermal gradient values vary between 50 and 80 °C/km. Maximum heat flow values around the anomaly are calculated as 200 and 215 mW/m2 according to the thermal conductivity coefficients of 2.5 W m-1 K-1 and 2.7 W m-1 K-1, respectively. Although the anomaly is located in the Izmir Gulf; CPD, geothermic gradient, heat flow anomalies are shifted through the north of Foca and Aliaga towns in the Candarli Bay. This prominent anomaly in the Gulf of Izmir is associated with the magmatics that were encountered at 969 m in the Foca-1 well although it was drilled about 2 km away from the outermost closed contour of the magnetic anomaly. The anomaly is also modeled three dimensionally (3D) in this study. In the model map, the top of the causative body is completely located in the outer part of the gulf, and is very shallow at about 0.5 km while its bottom is inclined through the west of Cigli and Menemen. From this viewpoint, it is possible to suggest that the causative body is inclined through the Foca Peninsula. However, its closed contours are in the NE direction, through the Candarli Bay. Top depth of the causative body is also calculated from the basement horizon on the seismic sections crossing this

  10. Forecasting hypoxia in the Chesapeake Bay and Gulf of Mexico: model accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to ecosystem change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Mary Anne; Scavia, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Increasing use of ecological models for management and policy requires robust evaluation of model precision, accuracy, and sensitivity to ecosystem change. We conducted such an evaluation of hypoxia models for the northern Gulf of Mexico and Chesapeake Bay using hindcasts of historical data, comparing several approaches to model calibration. For both systems we find that model sensitivity and precision can be optimized and model accuracy maintained within reasonable bounds by calibrating the model to relatively short, recent 3 year datasets. Model accuracy was higher for Chesapeake Bay than for the Gulf of Mexico, potentially indicating the greater importance of unmodeled processes in the latter system. Retrospective analyses demonstrate both directional and variable changes in sensitivity of hypoxia to nutrient loads.

  11. Forecasting hypoxia in the Chesapeake Bay and Gulf of Mexico: model accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to ecosystem change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Mary Anne; Scavia, Donald, E-mail: mevans@umich.edu, E-mail: scavia@umich.edu [School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Increasing use of ecological models for management and policy requires robust evaluation of model precision, accuracy, and sensitivity to ecosystem change. We conducted such an evaluation of hypoxia models for the northern Gulf of Mexico and Chesapeake Bay using hindcasts of historical data, comparing several approaches to model calibration. For both systems we find that model sensitivity and precision can be optimized and model accuracy maintained within reasonable bounds by calibrating the model to relatively short, recent 3 year datasets. Model accuracy was higher for Chesapeake Bay than for the Gulf of Mexico, potentially indicating the greater importance of unmodeled processes in the latter system. Retrospective analyses demonstrate both directional and variable changes in sensitivity of hypoxia to nutrient loads.

  12. Modeling regulatory policies associated with offshore structure removal requirements in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J. [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Energy Coast and Environment Building, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Federal regulations require that a lease in the Outer Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico be cleared of all structures within one year after production on the lease ceases, but in recent years, the Minerals Management Service has begun to encourage operators to remove idle (non-producing) structures on producing leases that are no longer ''economically viable''. At the end of 2003, there were 2175 producing structures, 898 idle (non-producing) structures, and 440 auxiliary (never-producing) structures on 1356 active leases; and 329 idle structures and 65 auxiliary structures on 273 inactive leases. The purpose of this paper is to model the impact of alternative regulatory policies on the removal trends of structures and the inventory of idle iron, and to provide first-order estimates of the cost of each regulatory option. A description of the modeling framework and implementation results is presented. (author)

  13. High-resolution numerical modelling of the barotropic tides in the Gulf of Gabes, eastern Mediterranean Sea (Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Achref; Béjaoui, Béchir; Chevalier, Cristèle; Elhmaidi, Dalila; Devenon, Jean-Luc; Aleya, Lotfi

    2017-05-01

    A high-resolution 2D barotropic tidal model was developed for the Gulf of Gabes and used to characterise hydrodynamic processes and tidal dynamics. The model is based on the Regional Ocean Modelling System. It is forced at the open boundaries by the semidiurnal M2 and S2 astronomical components while meteorological forcing has been neglected. The model results show good agreement with observations confirming that it reproduces the gulf's main tidal characteristics reasonably well. In fact, the simulated semidiurnal tidal components M2 and S2 generate important sea level variations and coastal currents. Tidal propagation is directed to the gulf's western sector while tidal resonance occurs in its inner sector where the M2 and S2 amplitudes are about 50 and 36 cm, respectively. Phase maxima (170°-185°) are located inside Boughrara Lagoon for both the simulated M2 and S2 tides. The strongest currents are found in shallow coastal regions and at the lagoon's western inlet. During spring tides, currents are around 10-20 cm s-1 in the gulf center and up to 50 cm s-1 inside the lagoon.

  14. Gulf War agent exposure causes impairment of long-term memory formation and neuropathological changes in a mouse model of Gulf War Illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuchra Zakirova

    Full Text Available Gulf War Illness (GWI is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component such as memory deficits, neurological, and musculoskeletal problems. There are ample data that demonstrate that exposure to Gulf War (GW agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB and pesticides such as permethrin (PER, were key contributors to the etiology of GWI post deployment to the Persian GW. In the current study, we examined the consequences of acute (10 days exposure to PB and PER in C57BL6 mice. Learning and memory tests were performed at 18 days and at 5 months post-exposure. We investigated the relationship between the cognitive phenotype and neuropathological changes at short and long-term time points post-exposure. No cognitive deficits were observed at the short-term time point, and only minor neuropathological changes were detected. However, cognitive deficits emerged at the later time point and were associated with increased astrogliosis and reduction of synaptophysin staining in the hippocampi and cerebral cortices of exposed mice, 5 months post exposure. In summary, our findings in this mouse model of GW agent exposure are consistent with some GWI symptom manifestations, including delayed onset of symptoms and CNS disturbances observed in GWI veterans.

  15. ShoreZone Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is a polyline file of mapped ShoreZone units which correspond with data records found in the Unit, Xshr, BioUnit, and BioBand tables of this...

  16. Variability in the saline water exchange between the Baltic and the Gulf of Gdansk by the sigma-coordinate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jankowski

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional baroclinic sigma-coordinate model was applied to study the circulation and thermohaline variabilityin the coastal zone in the south-eastern Baltic Sea. The model is based on the Princeton Ocean Model code of Blumberg & Mellor(1987, known as POM, and has the horizontal resolution of ~5 km and 24 sigma-levels in the vertical. The hydrodynamic conditions and variability of water and salt exchange between the Gulf of Gdansk and the Baltic Proper, and the renewal of water masses in the Gulf of Gdansk due to atmospheric forcing are analyzed. The numerical simulations were performed with real atmospheric forcings as well as with homogeneous (spatially uniform wind fields over the whole Baltic Sea. The numerical simulations showed that the atmospheric forcing (winds can play a significant role in shaping the renewal of bottom saline waters in the Gulf of Gdansk. Two regions of inflow/outflow of saline waters responsible for the salinity regime were located. The overall water exchange between the Gulf and the Baltic Proper as well as the exchange of saline bottom waters appear to be strongly dependent on wind conditions. The net flux of water of salinity >9 PSU is of the order of 48000-100000 m3 s-1. SE, E, S and NE winds were foundto exert the greatest influence on salinity conditions in the Gulf of Gdansk. Estimates of saline (salinity >9 PSU water residencetime based on the model simulation yielded values from 46 days for SE winds to 153 days for NW winds.

  17. The Application of Remotely Sensed Data and Models to Benefit Conservation and Restoration Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Thom, Ron; Woodruff, Dana; Judd, Chaeli; Ellis, Jean; Swann, Roberta; Johnson, Hoyt, III

    2010-01-01

    New data, tools, and capabilities for decision making are significant needs in the northern Gulf of Mexico and other coastal areas. The goal of this project is to support NASA s Earth Science Mission Directorate and its Applied Science Program and the Gulf of Mexico Alliance by producing and providing NASA data and products that will benefit decision making by coastal resource managers and other end users in the Gulf region. Data and research products are being developed to assist coastal resource managers adapt and plan for changing conditions by evaluating how climate changes and urban expansion will impact land cover/land use (LCLU), hydrodynamics, water properties, and shallow water habitats; to identify priority areas for conservation and restoration; and to distribute datasets to end-users and facilitating user interaction with models. The proposed host sites for data products are NOAA s National Coastal Data Development Center Regional Ecosystem Data Management, and Mississippi-Alabama Habitat Database. Tools will be available on the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative website with links to data portals to enable end users to employ models and datasets to develop and evaluate LCLU and climate scenarios of particular interest. These data will benefit the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program in ongoing efforts to protect and restore the Fish River watershed and around Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The usefulness of data products and tools will be demonstrated at an end-user workshop.

  18. The Application of Remotely Sensed Data and Models to Benefit Conservation and Restoration Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Thom, R.; Woodruff, D.; Judd, C.; Ellis, J. T.; Swann, R.; Johnson, H., III

    2010-12-01

    New data, tools, and capabilities for decision making are significant needs in the northern Gulf of Mexico and other coastal areas. The goal of this project is to support NASA’s Earth Science Mission Directorate and its Applied Science Program and the Gulf of Mexico Alliance by producing and providing NASA data and products that will benefit decision making by coastal resource managers and other end users in the Gulf region. Data and research products are being developed to assist coastal resource managers adapt and plan for changing conditions by evaluating how climate changes and urban expansion will impact land cover/land use (LCLU), hydrodynamics, water properties, and shallow water habitats; to identify priority areas for conservation and restoration; and to distribute datasets to end-users and facilitating user interaction with models. The proposed host sites for data products are NOAA’s National Coastal Data Development Center Regional Ecosystem Data Management, and Mississippi-Alabama Habitat Database. Tools will be available on the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative website with links to data portals to enable end users to employ models and datasets to develop and evaluate LCLU and climate scenarios of particular interest. These data will benefit the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program in ongoing efforts to protect and restore the Fish River watershed and around Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The usefulness of data products and tools will be demonstrated at an end-user workshop.

  19. Corticosterone primes the neuroinflammatory response to DFP in mice: potential animal model of Gulf War Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, James P; Kelly, Kimberly A; Locker, Alicia R; Miller, Diane B; Lasley, Steve M

    2015-06-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multi-symptom disorder with features characteristic of persistent sickness behavior. Among conditions encountered in the Gulf War (GW) theater were physiological stressors (e.g., heat/cold/physical activity/sleep deprivation), prophylactic treatment with the reversible AChE inhibitor, pyridostigmine bromide (PB), the insect repellent, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), and potentially the nerve agent, sarin. Prior exposure to the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid, corticosterone (CORT), at levels associated with high physiological stress, can paradoxically prime the CNS to produce a robust proinflammatory response to neurotoxicants and systemic inflammation; such neuroinflammatory effects can be associated with sickness behavior. Here, we examined whether CORT primed the CNS to mount neuroinflammatory responses to GW exposures as a potential model of GWI. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with chronic (14 days) PB/ DEET, subchronic (7-14 days) CORT, and acute exposure (day 15) to diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), a sarin surrogate and irreversible AChE inhibitor. DFP alone caused marked brain-wide neuroinflammation assessed by qPCR of tumor necrosis factor-α, IL6, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, IL-1β, leukemia inhibitory factor, and oncostatin M. Pre-treatment with high physiological levels of CORT greatly augmented (up to 300-fold) the neuroinflammatory responses to DFP. Anti-inflammatory pre-treatment with minocycline suppressed many proinflammatory responses to CORT+DFP. Our findings are suggestive of a possible critical, yet unrecognized interaction between the stressor/environment of the GW theater and agent exposure(s) unique to this war. Such exposures may in fact prime the CNS to amplify future neuroinflammatory responses to pathogens, injury, or toxicity. Such occurrences could potentially result in the prolonged episodes of sickness behavior observed in GWI. Gulf War (GW) veterans were exposed to stressors, prophylactic

  20. Assessing the Performance of a Northern Gulf of Mexico Tidal Model Using Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Medeiros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tidal harmonic analysis simulations along with simulations spanning four specific historical time periods in 2003 and 2004 were conducted to test the performance of a northern Gulf of Mexico tidal model. A recently developed method for detecting inundated areas based on integrated remotely sensed data (i.e., Radarsat-1, aerial imagery, LiDAR, Landsat 7 ETM+ was applied to assess the performance of the tidal model. The analysis demonstrates the applicability of the method and its agreement with traditional performance assessment techniques such as harmonic resynthesis and water level time series analysis. Based on the flooded/non-flooded coastal areas estimated by the integrated remotely sensed data, the model is able to adequately reproduce the extent of inundation within four sample areas from the coast along the Florida panhandle, correctly identifying areas as wet or dry over 85% of the time. Comparisons of the tidal model inundation to synoptic (point-in-time inundation areas generated from the remotely sensed data generally agree with the results of the traditional performance assessment techniques. Moreover, this approach is able to illustrate the spatial distribution of model inundation accuracy allowing for targeted refinement of model parameters.

  1. 46 CFR 129.390 - Shore power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shore power. 129.390 Section 129.390 Shipping COAST... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.390 Shore power. Each vessel that has an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts and has provisions for receiving shore power must meet the requirements of...

  2. 46 CFR 183.390 - Shore power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shore power. 183.390 Section 183.390 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts, which is provided with a means to connect to shore power...

  3. Application of a linked stress release model in Corinth Gulf and Central Ionian Islands (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangira, Ourania; Vasiliadis, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria

    2017-06-01

    Spatio-temporal stress changes and interactions between adjacent fault segments consist of the most important component in seismic hazard assessment, as they can alter the occurrence probability of strong earthquake onto these segments. The investigation of the interactions between adjacent areas by means of the linked stress release model is attempted for moderate earthquakes ( M ≥ 5.2) in the Corinth Gulf and the Central Ionian Islands (Greece). The study areas were divided in two subareas, based on seismotectonic criteria. The seismicity of each subarea is investigated by means of a stochastic point process and its behavior is determined by the conditional intensity function, which usually gets an exponential form. A conditional intensity function of Weibull form is used for identifying the most appropriate among the models (simple, independent and linked stress release model) for the interpretation of the earthquake generation process. The appropriateness of the models was decided after evaluation via the Akaike information criterion. Despite the fact that the curves of the conditional intensity functions exhibit similar behavior, the use of the exponential-type conditional intensity function seems to fit better the data.

  4. Gaussian mixture model classification of odontocetes in the Southern California Bight and the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Marie A; Soldevilla, Melissa S; Burtenshaw, Jessica C; Henderson, E Elizabeth; Hildebrand, John A

    2007-03-01

    A method for the automatic classification of free-ranging delphinid vocalizations is presented. The vocalizations of short-beaked and long-beaked common (Delphinus delphis and Delphinus capensis), Pacific white-sided (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), and bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) dolphins were recorded in a pelagic environment of the Southern California Bight and the Gulf of California over a period of 4 years. Cepstral feature vectors are extracted from call data which contain simultaneous overlapping whistles, burst-pulses, and clicks from a single species. These features are grouped into multisecond segments. A portion of the data is used to train Gaussian mixture models of varying orders for each species. The remaining call data are used to test the performance of the models. Species are predicted based upon probabilistic measures of model similarity with test segment groups having durations between 1 and 25 s. For this data set, 256 mixture Gaussian mixture models and segments of at least 10 s of call data resulted in the best classification results. The classifier predicts the species of groups with 67%-75% accuracy depending upon the partitioning of the training and test data.

  5. A modeling study of seawater intrusion in Alabama Gulf Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin; Snodsmith, J. Blake; Zheng, Chunmiao; Wu, Jianfeng

    2009-03-01

    A numerical model of variable-density groundwater flow and miscible salt transport is developed to investigate the extent of seawater intrusion in the Gulf coast aquifers of Alabama, USA. The SEAWAT code is used to solve the density-dependent groundwater flow and solute transport governing equations. The numerical model is calibrated against the observed hydraulic heads measured in 1996 by adjusting the zonation and values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge rate. Using the calibrated model and assuming all the hydrogeologic conditions remain the same as those in 1996, a predictive 40-year simulation run indicates that further seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifers can occur in the study area. Moreover, the predicted intrusion may be more significant in the deeper aquifer than the shallower ones. As the population continues to grow and the demand for groundwater pumping intensifies beyond the 1996 level, it can be expected that the actual extent of seawater intrusion in the future would be more severe than the model prediction. Better strategies for groundwater development and management will be necessary to protect the freshwater aquifers from contamination by seawater intrusion.

  6. Analysis of Groundwater Anomalies Estimated by GRACE and GLDAS Satellite-based Hydrological Model in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfata, A.; Ambinakudige, S.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal regions face a higher risk of flooding. A rise in sea-level increases flooding chances in low-lying areas. A major concern is the effect of sea-level rise on the depth of the fresh water/salt water interface in the aquifers of the coastal regions. A sea-level change rise impacts the hydrological system of the aquifers. Salt water intrusion into fresh water aquifers increase water table levels. Flooding prone areas in the coast are at a higher risk of salt water intrusion. The Gulf coast is one of the most vulnerable flood areas due to its natural weather patterns. There is not yet a local assessment of the relation between groundwater level and sea-level rising. This study investigates the projected sea-level rise models and the anomalous groundwater level during January 2002 to December 2016. We used the NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) satellite data in the analysis. We accounted the leakage error and the measurement error in GRACE data. GLDAS data was used to calculate the groundwater storage from the total water storage estimated using GRACE data (ΔGW=ΔTWS (soil moisture, surface water, groundwater, and canopy water) - ΔGLDAS (soil moisture, surface water, and canopy water)). The preliminary results indicate that the total water storage is increasing in parts of the Gulf of Mexico. GRACE data show high soil wetness and groundwater levels in Mississippi, Alabama and Texas coasts. Because sea-level rise increases the probability of flooding in the Gulf coast and affects the groundwater, we will analyze probable interactions between sea-level rise and groundwater in the study area. To understand regional sea-level rise patterns, we will investigate GRACE Ocean data along the Gulf coasts. We will quantify ocean total water storage, its salinity, and its relationship with the groundwater level variations in the Gulf coast.

  7. Lagrangian predictability of high-resolution regional models: the special case of the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Chu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lagrangian prediction skill (model ability to reproduce Lagrangian drifter trajectories of the nowcast/forecast system developed for the Gulf of Mexico at the University of Colorado at Boulder is examined through comparison with real drifter observations. Model prediction error (MPE, singular values (SVs and irreversible-skill time (IT are used as quantitative measures of the examination. Divergent (poloidal and nondivergent (toroidal components of the circulation attractor at 50m depth are analyzed and compared with the Lagrangian drifter buoy data using the empirical orthogonal function (EOF decomposition and the measures, respectively. Irregular (probably, chaotic dynamics of the circulation attractor reproduced by the nowcast/forecast system is analyzed through Lyapunov dimension, global entropies, toroidal and poloidal kinetic energies. The results allow assuming exponential growth of prediction error on the attractor. On the other hand, the q-th moment of MPE grows by the power law with exponent of 3q/4. The probability density function (PDF of MPE has a symmetrical but non-Gaussian shape for both the short and long prediction times and for spatial scales ranging from 20km to 300km. The phenomenological model of MPE based on a diffusion-like equation is developed. The PDF of IT is non-symmetric with a long tail stretched towards large ITs. The power decay of the tail was faster than 2 for long prediction times.

  8. A predictive numerical model for potential mapping of the gas hydrate stability zone in the Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, R.; Somoza, L.

    2009-04-01

    This comunication presents a computational model for mapping the regional 3D distribution in which seafloor gas hydrates would be stable, that is carried out in a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment. The construction of the model is comprised of three primary steps, namely (1) the construction of surfaces for the various variables based on available 3D data (seafloor temperature, geothermal gradient and depth-pressure); (2) the calculation of the gas function equilibrium functions for the various hydrocarbon compositions reported from hydrate and sediment samples; and (3) the calculation of the thickness of the hydrate stability zone. The solution is based on a transcendental function, which is solved iteratively in a GIS environment. The model has been applied in the northernmost continental slope of the Gulf of Cadiz, an area where an abundant supply for hydrate formation, such as extensive hydrocarbon seeps, diapirs and fault structures, is combined with deep undercurrents and a complex seafloor morphology. In the Gulf of Cadiz, model depicts the distribution of the base of the gas hydrate stability zone for both biogenic and thermogenic gas compositions, and explains the geometry and distribution of geological structures derived from gas venting in the Tasyo Field (Gulf of Cadiz) and the generation of BSR levels on the upper continental slope.

  9. Tidal regime in Gulf of Kutch, west coast of India, by 2D model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Gouveia, A.D.; Vethamony, P.

    of topographically generated eddies. An analysis of momentum balance shows that the dynamics of tidal propagation in the Gulf is characterized by a balance between the pressure gradient and friction near the coast, whereas in the central region, local acceleration...

  10. Topobathymetric Model of the Northern Gulf of Mexico, 1888 to 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Accurate, high-resolution elevation information is vital to understanding the highly dynamic Northern Gulf Coast, with Louisiana being the location of North...

  11. An Idealized Modeling Study of the Gulf-Stream and Kuroshio Extension Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeau, F. W.; Newman, D.

    2004-05-01

    A shallow-water model is used to study the dynamics of the mid-latitude wind-driven ocean circulation. A bifurcation analysis of the steady-state equilibrium solutions is presented. The analysis is in terms of several control parameters: some that control the wind-stress pattern and others that controls the dissipation parameterization. Of the parameters that control the wind-stress, one controls the tilt of the zero-curl line, another controls the relative intensity of the vorticity input in the subtropical and sub-polar gyres and a third controls the overall intensity of the wind-stress. We identify parameter ranges for which multiple equilibria with elongated and contracted western boundary current extensions exist. We also present time-dependent solutions with low frequency variability associated with transitions between the elongated and contracted modes of circulation. The modeled variability is conjectured to correspond to similar elongation-contraction patterns of variability observed in the Kuroshio and Gulf-Stream extension systems from satellite observations.

  12. Investigating the Marine Protected Areas most at risk of current-driven pollution in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, using a Lagrangian transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeche-Ellmann, Nicole C; Soomere, Tarmo

    2013-02-15

    The possibility of current-driven propagation of contaminants released along a major fairway polluting the Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, is examined using a 3D circulation model, a Lagrangian transport model and statistics. Not surprisingly, the number of hits to the MPA decreases almost linearly with its distance from the fairway. In addition, the potential pollution released during a ship accident with the pollutants carried by currents may affect MPAs at very large distances. Typically, a fairway section approximately 125 km long (covering about 1/3 of the approximate 400-km-long gulf) may serve as a source of pollution for each MPA. The largest MPA (in the Eastern Gulf of Finland) may receive pollution from an approximately 210-km-long section (covering about 1/2 of the entire length of the gulf). This information may be useful in assisting maritime management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Generalized additive models used to predict species abundance in the Gulf of Mexico: an ecosystem modeling tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Drexler

    Full Text Available Spatially explicit ecosystem models of all types require an initial allocation of biomass, often in areas where fisheries independent abundance estimates do not exist. A generalized additive modelling (GAM approach is used to describe the abundance of 40 species groups (i.e. functional groups across the Gulf of Mexico (GoM using a large fisheries independent data set (SEAMAP and climate scale oceanographic conditions. Predictor variables included in the model are chlorophyll a, sediment type, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and depth. Despite the presence of a large number of zeros in the data, a single GAM using a negative binomial distribution was suitable to make predictions of abundance for multiple functional groups. We present an example case study using pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duroarum and compare the results to known distributions. The model successfully predicts the known areas of high abundance in the GoM, including those areas where no data was inputted into the model fitting. Overall, the model reliably captures areas of high and low abundance for the large majority of functional groups observed in SEAMAP. The result of this method allows for the objective setting of spatial distributions for numerous functional groups across a modeling domain, even where abundance data may not exist.

  14. A regression modeling approach for studying carbonate system variability in the northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Wiley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Winsor, Peter; Statscewich, Hank; Whitledge, Terry E.

    2013-01-01

    northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) shelf experiences carbonate system variability on seasonal and annual time scales, but little information exists to resolve higher frequency variability in this region. To resolve this variability using platforms-of-opportunity, we present multiple linear regression (MLR) models constructed from hydrographic data collected along the Northeast Pacific Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) Seward Line. The empirical algorithms predict dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) using observations of nitrate (NO3-), temperature, salinity and pressure from the surface to 500 m, with R2s > 0.97 and RMSE values of 11 µmol kg-1 for DIC and 9 µmol kg-1 for TA. We applied these relationships to high-resolution NO3- data sets collected during a novel 20 h glider flight and a GLOBEC mesoscale SeaSoar survey. Results from the glider flight demonstrated time/space along-isopycnal variability of aragonite saturations (Ωarag) associated with a dicothermal layer (a cold near-surface layer found in high latitude oceans) that rivaled changes seen vertically through the thermocline. The SeaSoar survey captured the uplift to aragonite saturation horizon (depth where Ωarag = 1) shoaled to a previously unseen depth in the northern GOA. This work is similar to recent studies aimed at predicting the carbonate system in continental margin settings, albeit demonstrates that a NO3--based approach can be applied to high-latitude data collected from platforms capable of high-frequency measurements.

  15. A model-based examination of multivariate physical modes in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, A. J.; Ladd, C.; Cheng, W.; Curchitser, E. N.; Hedstrom, K.

    2016-10-01

    We use multivariate output from a hydrodynamic model of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) to explore the covariance among its physical state and air/sea fluxes. We attempt to summarize this coupled variability using a limited set of patterns, and examine their correlation to three large-scale climate indices relevant to the Northeast Pacific. This analysis is focused on perturbations from monthly climatology of the following attributes of the GOA: sea surface temperature, sea surface height, mixed layer depth, sea surface salinity, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, shortwave irradiance, net long wave irradiance, currents at 40 m depth, and wind stress. We identified two multivariate modes, both substantially correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Multivariate El Nino (MEI) indices on interannual timescales, which together account for 30% of the total normalized variance of the perturbation time series. These two modes indicate the following covarying events during periods of positive PDO/MEI: (1) anomalously warm, wet and windy conditions (typically in winter), with elevated coastal SSH, followed 2-5 months later by (2) reduced cloud cover, with emerging shelf-break eddies. Similar modes are found when the analysis is performed separately on the eastern and western GOA; in general, modal amplitudes appear stronger in the western GOA.

  16. Ship to Shore Connector Amphibious Craft (SSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-303 Ship to Shore Connector Amphibious Craft (SSC) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...28, 2015 Program Information Program Name Ship to Shore Connector Amphibious Craft (SSC) DoD Component Navy Responsible Office References SAR...5 Mission and Description Ship to Shore Connector (SSC) is the Landing Craft , Air Cushion (LCAC) replacement. It is an Air Cushion Vehicle with the

  17. Development of predictive models for determining enterococci levels at Gulf Coast beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zaihong; Deng, Zhiqiang; Rusch, Kelly A

    2012-02-01

    The US EPA BEACH Act requires beach managers to issue swimming advisories when water quality standards are exceeded. While a number of methods/models have been proposed to meet the BEACH Act requirement, no systematic comparisons of different methods against the same data series are available in terms of relative performance of existing methods. This study presents and compares three models for nowcasting and forecasting enterococci levels at Gulf Coast beaches in Louisiana, USA. One was developed using the artificial neural network (ANN) in MATLAB Toolbox and the other two were based on the US EPA Virtual Beach (VB) Program. A total of 944 sets of environmental and bacteriological data were utilized. The data were collected and analyzed weekly during the swimming season (May-October) at six sites of the Holly Beach by Louisiana Beach Monitoring Program in the six year period of May 2005-October 2010. The ANN model includes 15 readily available environmental variables such as salinity, water temperature, wind speed and direction, tide level and type, weather type, and various combinations of antecedent rainfalls. The ANN model was trained, validated, and tested using 308, 103, and 103 data sets (collected in 2007, 2008, and 2009) with an average linear correlation coefficient (LCC) of 0.857 and a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.336. The two VB models, including a linear transformation-based model and a nonlinear transformation-based model, were constructed using the same data sets. The linear VB model with 6 input variables achieved an LCC of 0.230 and an RMSE of 1.302 while the nonlinear VB model with 5 input variables produced an LCC of 0.337 and an RMSE of 1.205. In order to assess the predictive performance of the ANN and VB models, hindcasting was conducted using a total of 430 sets of independent environmental and bacteriological data collected at six Holly Beach sites in 2005, 2006, and 2010. The hindcasting results show that the ANN model is capable of

  18. Routing helicopters for crew exchanges on off-shore locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, G.; Tijssen, G.A.

    This paper deals with a vehicle routing problem with split demands, namely the problem of determining a flight schedule for helicopters to off-shore platform locations for exchanging crew people employed on these platforms. The problem is formulated as an LP model and solved by means of a

  19. Experimental investigation on shore hardness of barrel-finished ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barrel finishing (BF) process is widely used to improve the surface finish and dimensional features of metallic and non-metallic parts using different types of media. As a matter of fact the change in shore hardness (SH) features of fused deposition modelling (FDM)-based master pattern is one of the important considerations ...

  20. Persistence and Evolutions of the Rentier State Model in Gulf Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozyavuz, Anais; Schmid, Dorothee

    2015-04-01

    A general economic model of understanding Middle Eastern states was elaborated by political scientists around the 1980's, based on the concept of rent. Rent derived from the exploitations and sales of natural resources (mainly crude-oil and gas reserves for the Middle-East area) became a new factor of wealth around which the economic model as much as the governance of energy-rich countries was reorganized. The particular case of GCC's countries as rentier state has been at the cornerstone of this concept since they own the most important share of energy resources in the world. Despite bringing high revenues to resource-abundant countries, rent clearly has a bad reputation, implying a system of 'allocative state' vs. 'productive state'. After four decades of the concept's circulation, the historicity of the rentier state theory clearly requires discussion. This paper will first deal with the emergence of the concept of rent in Gulf countries, and will study in which extend GCC member states have undertaken reforms and changes for depending less on oil-wealth and for reaching a more diversified economy. Despite their efforts and achievements - both endogenous as exogenous factors - are still inhibiting the development processes in each country. The improvements of the economy and the governance in those 6 countries have been - and will be - important not only for the concerned countries but also for the development and especially the stability of the Middle-East area. This last concern is definitely the main issue of last months for the area, being in the chaos since the emergence of a new regional player, the terrorist group Daesh. (author)

  1. Ensemble modeling informs hypoxia management in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavia, Donald; Bertani, Isabella; Obenour, Daniel R; Turner, R Eugene; Forrest, David R; Katin, Alexey

    2017-08-15

    A large region of low-dissolved-oxygen bottom waters (hypoxia) forms nearly every summer in the northern Gulf of Mexico because of nutrient inputs from the Mississippi River Basin and water column stratification. Policymakers developed goals to reduce the area of hypoxic extent because of its ecological, economic, and commercial fisheries impacts. However, the goals remain elusive after 30 y of research and monitoring and 15 y of goal-setting and assessment because there has been little change in river nitrogen concentrations. An intergovernmental Task Force recently extended to 2035 the deadline for achieving the goal of a 5,000-km 2 5-y average hypoxic zone and set an interim load target of a 20% reduction of the spring nitrogen loading from the Mississippi River by 2025 as part of their adaptive management process. The Task Force has asked modelers to reassess the loading reduction required to achieve the 2035 goal and to determine the effect of the 20% interim load reduction. Here, we address both questions using a probabilistic ensemble of four substantially different hypoxia models. Our results indicate that, under typical weather conditions, a 59% reduction in Mississippi River nitrogen load is required to reduce hypoxic area to 5,000 km 2 The interim goal of a 20% load reduction is expected to produce an 18% reduction in hypoxic area over the long term. However, due to substantial interannual variability, a 25% load reduction is required before there is 95% certainty of observing any hypoxic area reduction between consecutive 5-y assessment periods.

  2. Modeling GIA at the Gulf of Mexico and environs: a Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, L.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E. Y.; Adhikari, S.

    2017-12-01

    The massive amount of new data that constrain global mass changes that are derived from space missions, such as JASON, ENVISat, ICEsat, GRACE time series coupled to GNSS determined vertical land motion (VLM), have revolutionized our understanding of near real-time changes in water storage, sea-level rise (SLR) and ice mass balance on decadal time scales. In order to better interpret these data sets, however, background secular signals need to be removed if a mass conserving reconstruction of ongoing changes in surface mass can be accurately determined with appropriate error statistics. Among the major contaminants of measurements is the signal due to the growth and collapse of the great ice sheets during the last glacial cycle, a phenomenon known as Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Linear trends in VLM, gravity and tide-gauge measurements of local sea-level may be removed by using GIA models. The major caveat for GIA models is that no reliable error statistic comes with the correction. Consequently, the community struggles to establish a consensus about GIA model predictions. A formal calculation of the uncertainty in the prediction is logically an absolute corner stone for quantifying the degree of knowledge we have about this phenomenon. GIA uncertainty should be incorporated and propagated into the uncertainty estimates for any scientific results that employ geodetic measurements that also contain the GIA signature. We propose a new method based on model ensembles and Bayesian framework to provide statistical characterization of the present-day GIA signal. Through more than 30,000 forward models, our approach explores the range of possible solutions by varying jointly the Earth properties, such as the mantle rheology and structure, and the ice loading history. Our inversion is constrained by 459 GNSS stations (with trends accurate to less than 0.5 mm/yr) that cover non-tectonic North America, Europe and Antarctica, as well as 11451 paleo sea level records

  3. 46 CFR 120.390 - Shore power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shore power. 120.390 Section 120.390 Shipping COAST... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at more...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF MACROZOOBENTHIC DISTRIBUTION IN THE MANFREDONIA GULF (EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Scirocco, Tommaso; Specchiulli, Antonietta; Cilenti, Lucrezia; D'Adamo, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Soft bottom macrozoobenthic distribution, as well as its composition, biomass and diversity were studied at 9 stations in the Gulf of Manfredonia. Polychaeta were numerically the dominant component (71%), followed by Crustacea (21%) and Bivalvia (2%). The highest biodiversity was observed at the stations in near-shore of the study area.

  5. Gulf of Mexico oil disaster: some legal issues

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, C.; Lefcovitch, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify and briefly examine the legal issues that arose out of the BP oil spill (also known as Deepwater Horizon oil spill) in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 which resulted in loss of life and adversely affected the shore of Florida, United States on America through environmental damage and cost in livelihood to firms and families.

  6. Lessons learned using water quality models to develop numeric nutrient criteria for a Gulf coast estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensacola Bay is a shallow, mesotrophic estuary located in the north-central coast of the Gulf of Mexico, US. In November 2012, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) proposed numeric total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) water quality cr...

  7. Factors controlling the evolution of the Perdido Fold Belt, northwestern Gulf of Mexico, determined from numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradmann, Sofie; Beaumont, Christopher; Albertz, Markus

    2009-04-01

    The Perdido Fold Belt (PFB) is a prominent salt-cored deep water structure in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. It is characterized by symmetric, kink-banded folds of a ˜4.5 km thick prekinematic layer and its vicinity to the extensive Sigsbee Salt Canopy. We use 2-D finite element numerical models to study the evolution of the PFB as a gravity-driven fold belt both in a local context and in the context of the larger-scale passive margin, influenced by adjacent allochthonous salt structures. We show that parameters such as overburden strength, salt geometry, or salt viscosity determine timing, extent, and location of the modeled fold belt. Simplified models of the Gulf of Mexico show that toe-of-slope folding is a viable mechanism to develop diapirs in the deep salt basin and to delay folding of the distal overburden. In this scenario, the PFB likely represents the terminal folding of a much larger, diachronously formed fold belt system.

  8. A Hybrid Decision-Making Model for Selecting Container Seaport in the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Sayareh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ports have always played a vital role in international transportation. Port selection decision is a process that requires consideration of many important and relevant criteria. The selection of the influential decision-making criteria is also a significant and vital issue which demands cautious thoughts. The main objective of this paper is to weigh the most dominant decision-making criteria by Technique for Order Preference to Similarity by Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and select an optimised container seaport in the Persian Gulf by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP according to decisive port selection factors. This paper presents an extensive review of port selection decision-making attributes in different past studies. Finally, by using TOPSIS and AHP, the findings of this research suggest that the working time, stevedoring rate, safety, port entrance, sufficient draft, capacity of port facilities, operating cost, number of berths, ship chandelling, and international policies are critical factors for selecting container seaport in the Persian Gulf.

  9. Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea Data and Model Base Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    apparently taking place in the shallower water depths. Although Mexico has deep water reserves, PEMEX is developing the fields under shallow water first...Campeche is presently being explored by 9 rigs, so we can expect about that number of supply boats to b’. operating there at all times. PEMEX is...the northern Gulf of Mexico, and PEMEX is reportedly using 2 in the vicinity of the Bay of Campeche and the periphery of the Yucatan Atoll. With this

  10. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative: A Funding Model for Science, Engineering, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill, a massive ecological event, resulted in the tragic loss of 11 lives, and an environmental release of more than 130 million gallons of crude oil. Approximately 1.8 million gallons of dispersants were used in remediation efforts. An immediate response by BP was to establish a ten-year research program, with funding of 500 million. The funding was to determine the impact and long-term ecological and public health effects of oil spills and to develop improved preparation in the event of future oil or gas release into the environment. This Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI), established by BP, provided independent leadership for both the program and administration of the 500 million funding, and the Research Board provides oversight, assisted by excellent staff. The Research Board of the GoMRI comprises twenty scientists, many of whom have prior scientific research administrative expertise. The Research Board, in accordance with its charge, develops research programs and carries out their evaluation and oversight, employing the peer review and operational principles of the National Science Foundation and the National Academies of Science. With these guiding principles, the Research Board established procedures for conflict of interest oversight and requesting and evaluating research programs. It has also focused on communicating the research findings accurately and responsibly. The GoMRI Research Board operates with transparency and ensures availability of all scientific results and data. GoMRI, currently midway through its 10-year mandate, has funded more than 3,000 scientists, representing 278 institutions in 42 states and 17 countries, who have produced more than 1,000 peer-reviewed publications to date. The Research Board is exploring mechanisms by which the GoMRI science findings can be communicated to the broader community and the public and to continue availability of data when the program has ended. A major contribution

  11. Multiscale habitat suitability index models for priority landbirds in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Tirpak; D. Todd Jones-Farrand; Frank R., III Thompson; Daniel J. Twedt; William B., III Uihlein

    2009-01-01

    Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models were developed to assess habitat quality for 40 priority bird species in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions. The models incorporated both site and landscape environmental variables from one of six nationally consistent datasets. Potential habitat was first defined from unique...

  12. Modeling the cost of shut-in production and the value of information in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.

    2006-01-01

    Weather delay is a common risk in offshore energy production, and in the Gulf of Mexico, the occurrence of tropical storms and hurricanes regularly force operators to shut-down production, cease drilling and construction activities, and evacuate personnel. In physical terms, shutting-in a well will usually not cause a loss of the hydrocarbon resource, but in financial terms, the impact of deferred production can have a significant economic effect. Improved ocean observation systems in the Gulf of Mexico are expected to enhance the reliability and accuracy of hurricane forecasting, lowering the probabilities of false positives, and positively impacting the economic and human life consequences. Improved information reduces risk, and to the extent that operators are risk averse, enhanced information increases welfare. The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodological framework to estimate the cost of shut-in production due to extreme weather, and to provide a first-order lower-bound estimate of the market value of improved weather forecasting. Shut-in production is modeled using various recovery scenarios and valued in terms of the cash flow analysis over the life of the asset. A description of the valuation model and the nature of production recovery is outlined and illustrated through stylized examples. (author)

  13. Modeling the cost of shut-in production and the value of information in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G. [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Energy Coast and Environment Building, Nicholson Extension Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Weather delay is a common risk in offshore energy production, and in the Gulf of Mexico, the occurrence of tropical storms and hurricanes regularly force operators to shut-down production, cease drilling and construction activities, and evacuate personnel. In physical terms, shutting-in a well will usually not cause a loss of the hydrocarbon resource, but in financial terms, the impact of deferred production can have a significant economic effect. Improved ocean observation systems in the Gulf of Mexico are expected to enhance the reliability and accuracy of hurricane forecasting, lowering the probabilities of false positives, and positively impacting the economic and human life consequences. Improved information reduces risk, and to the extent that operators are risk averse, enhanced information increases welfare. The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodological framework to estimate the cost of shut-in production due to extreme weather, and to provide a first-order lower-bound estimate of the market value of improved weather forecasting. Shut-in production is modeled using various recovery scenarios and valued in terms of the cash flow analysis over the life of the asset. A description of the valuation model and the nature of production recovery is outlined and illustrated through stylized examples. (author)

  14. CNMI Shore-based Creel Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) staff conducted shore-based creel surveys which have 2 major...

  15. Boat And Shore Oracle Data Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oracle Tables To Provide Boat and Shore Data which contains the object of this system is to provide an inventory of vessels that answer two fundamental questions:...

  16. American Samoa Shore-based Creel Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DMWR staff has also conducted shore-based creel surveys which also have 2 major sub-surveys; one to estimate participation (fishing effort), and one to provide...

  17. Application of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model for guidance of response efforts related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northern Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Alabama and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Thompson, David M.; Raabe, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have provided a model-based assessment of transport and deposition of residual Deepwater Horizon oil along the shoreline within the northern Gulf of Mexico in the form of mixtures of sand and weathered oil, known as surface residual balls (SRBs). The results of this USGS research, in combination with results from other components of the overall study, will inform operational decisionmaking. The results will provide guidance for response activities and data collection needs during future oil spills. In May 2012 the U.S. Coast Guard, acting as the Deepwater Horizon Federal on-scene coordinator, chartered an operational science advisory team to provide a science-based review of data collected and to conduct additional directed studies and sampling. The goal was to characterize typical shoreline profiles and morphology in the northern Gulf of Mexico to identify likely sources of residual oil and to evaluate mechanisms whereby reoiling phenomena may be occurring (for example, burial and exhumation and alongshore transport). A steering committee cochaired by British Petroleum Corporation (BP) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is overseeing the project and includes State on-scene coordinators from four States (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi), trustees of the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), and representatives from the U.S. Coast Guard. This report presents the results of hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and developed techniques for analyzing potential SRB movement and burial and exhumation along the coastline of Alabama and Florida. Results from these modeling efforts are being used to explain the complexity of reoiling in the nearshore environment and to broaden consideration of the different scenarios and difficulties that are being faced in identifying and removing residual oil. For instance, modeling results suggest that larger SRBs are not, under the most commonly

  18. Population parameters and dynamic pool models of commercial fishes in the Beibu Gulf, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuehui; Qiu, Yongsong; Du, Feiyan; Lin, Zhaojin; Sun, Dianrong; Huang, Shuolin

    2012-01-01

    Length-frequency data of eight commercial fish species in the Beibu Gulf (Golf of Tonkin), northern South China Sea, were collected during 2006-2007. Length-weight relationships and growth and mortality parameters were analyzed using FiSAT II software. Five species had isometric growth, two species had negative allometric growth, and one species had positive allometric growth. Overall, the exploitation rates of the eight species were lower in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999: for four species ( Saurida tumbil, Saurida undosquamis, Argyrosomus macrocephalus, and Nemipterus virgatus) it was lower in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999, for two species ( Parargyrops edita and Trichiurus haumela) it remained the same, and for the other two species ( Trachurus japonicus and Decapterus maruadsi) it was higher in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999. The exploitation rates might have declined because of the decline in fishing intensity caused by high crude oil prices. The optimum exploitation rate, estimated using Beverton-Holt dynamic pool models, indicated that although fishes in the Beibu Gulf could sustain high exploitation rates, the under-size fishes at first capture resulted in low yields. To increase the yield per recruitment, it is more effective to increase the size at first capture than to control fishing effort.

  19. Storm-driven delivery of sediment to the continental slope: Numerical modeling for the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C. K.; Kniskern, T. A.; Arango, H.

    2016-02-01

    The supply of sediment from the continental shelf to deeper waters is of critical importance for building continental margin repositories of sediment, and may also factor into episodic events on the continental slope such as turbidity currents and slope failures. While numerical sediment transport models have been developed for coastal and continental shelf areas, they have not often been used to infer sediment delivery to deeper waters. A three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic - suspended sediment transport model for the northern Gulf of Mexico has been developed and run to evaluate the types of conditions that are associated with delivery of suspended sediment to the continental slope. Accounting for sediment delivery by riverine plumes and for sediment resuspension by energetic waves and currents, the sediment transport calculations were implemented within the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The model domain represents the northern Gulf of Mexico shelf and slope including the Mississippi birdfoot delta and the Mississippi and DeSoto Canyons. To investigate the role of storms in driving down-slope sediment fluxes, model runs that encompassed fall, 2007 through late summer, 2008 the summer and fall of 2008 were analyzed. This time period included several winter storms, and the passage of two hurricanes (Ike and Gustav) over the study area. Preliminary results indicated that sediment delivery to the continental slope was triggered by the passage of these storm events, and focused at certain locations, such as submarine canyons. Additionally, a climatological analysis indicates that storm track influences both the wind-driven currents and wave energy on the shelf, and as such plays an important role in determining which storms trigger delivery of suspended continental shelf sediment to the adjacent slope.

  20. Deep Structure and Evolution of the Northeastern Gulf of Aden Margin From Wide-Angle Seismic and Thermomechanical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watremez, L.; Leroy, S.; Rouzo, S.; D'Acremont, E.; Burov, E. B.

    2009-12-01

    The Encens survey wide-angle and gravity data (Leroy et al., Feb. March 2006) allow us to determine the deep structure of the northeastern Gulf of Aden non-volcanic passive margin. The Gulf of Aden is a young oceanic basin. Its accretion began at least 17.6 Ma ago. Its current geometry shows 1st and 2nd order segmentation. Our study focus on the second order Ashawq-Salalah segment. We studied six wide-angle seismic (WAS) and gravity profiles (three along and three across the margin). Modeling of the WAS and gravity data gives insights on the first and second orders structures : (1) Continental thinning is abrupt (15-20 km thinning along 50-100 km distance). It is accommodated by four tilted blocks. (2) The OCT is narrow (15 km wide). Its geometry is determined by the velocity models: oceanic-type upper-crust (4.5 km/s) and continental-type lower-crust (> 6.5 km/s). (3) The thickness of the oceanic crust decreases from West (10 km) to East (5.5 km). This pattern is probably linked to a variation of magma supply along the paleo-slow-spreading ridge axis. (4) A 5 km thick intermediate velocity body (7.6 to 7.8 km/s) is present at the crust-mantle interface below the margin. It is interpreted as post-rift underplated, or partly intruded, mafic material. This interpretation is consistent with the presence of a volcano evidenced by heat flow measurement and multichannel seismic reflection (Encens surveys). The studied segment is mainly characterized by abrupt continental thinning and narrow OCT. Moreover, this non-volcanic passive margin is affected by post-rift volcanism evidenced by the mafic body. We then suggest that the evolution of non-volcanic passive margins may be influenced by post-rift thermal anomalies. We will compare these above results with thermomechanical models in order to constrain the margin evolution and factors leading to the Gulf of Aden formation. Modeling is processed using Para(o)voz/Flamar code. This allows us to experiment the influence of

  1. Climatic change on the Gulf of Fonseca (Central America) using two-step statistical downscaling of CMIP5 model outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribalaygua, Jaime; Gaitán, Emma; Pórtoles, Javier; Monjo, Robert

    2018-05-01

    A two-step statistical downscaling method has been reviewed and adapted to simulate twenty-first-century climate projections for the Gulf of Fonseca (Central America, Pacific Coast) using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models. The downscaling methodology is adjusted after looking for good predictor fields for this area (where the geostrophic approximation fails and the real wind fields are the most applicable). The method's performance for daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature is analysed and revealed suitable results for all variables. For instance, the method is able to simulate the characteristic cycle of the wet season for this area, which includes a mid-summer drought between two peaks. Future projections show a gradual temperature increase throughout the twenty-first century and a change in the features of the wet season (the first peak and mid-summer rainfall being reduced relative to the second peak, earlier onset of the wet season and a broader second peak).

  2. The Role of Protein Radicals in Chronic Neuroimmune Dysfunction and Neuropathology in Response to a Multiple-Hit Model of Gulf War Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    War Illness Mouse Model, Chlorpyrifos, LPS, NF-KB p50, microglia , chronic neuroinflammation , serum markers, neuropathology 16. SECURITY...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Chronic peripheral inflammation and neuroinflammation have been linked to Gulf...sample analysis is ongoing, preliminary results suggest that the hippocampus in NF-κB p50-/- mice is more vulnerable to chronic neuroinflammation at

  3. First record of Petrolisthes virgatus Paul'son, 1875 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura, Porcellanidae from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ebrahimnezhad

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent marine expeditions to the Abu-Musa Island (in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman yielded a first record of the porcelain crab Petrolisthes virgatus Paul'son, 1875, that had not been recorded from these water bodies. In both localities, specimens have been collected from rock crevices in the rocky-cobble shores of the low intertidal zone. Records of this species extend its range in the northwestern part of the Indian Ocean.

  4. Anxiety, neuroinflammation, cholinergic and GABAergic abnormalities are early markers of Gulf War illness in a mouse model of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Isabel; Aytan, Nurgul; Mellott, Tiffany; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Lehar, Margaret; Crabtree, Leah; Leite-Morris, Kimberly; Jenkins, Bruce G; Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof; Dedeoglu, Alpaslan

    2018-02-15

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic disease that affects the 1991 Gulf War (GW) veterans for which treatment is lacking. It has been hypothesized that drugs used to protect military personnel from chemical attacks and insects during the war: pyridostigmine bromide (PB),N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), and permethrin (PER) together with stress may have contributed collectively and synergistically to generate GWI. There is a need to find markers of pathology to be used in pre-clinical trials. For this purpose we employed a previously validated mouse model of GWI evoked by daily exposure to PB (1.3 mg/kg), DEET (40 mg/kg), PER (0.13 mg/kg), and 5 min of restraint stress for 28 days to analyze behavior, brain pathology and neurochemical outcomes three months later. GWI-model mice were characterized by increased anxiety, decreased hippocampal levels of N-acetyl aspartate, GABA, the GABA-producing enzyme GAD-67 and microglial activation. We also observed that GWI model was sexually dimorphic on some measures: males had increased while females had decreased protein levels of the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase, in the septum and hippocampus and decreased levels of the receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, TrkB140, in the hippocampus. Increased hippocampal levels of nerve growth factor were detected in males only. Together the data show behavioral and neuropathological abnormalities detected at 3 months post-exposure and that some of them are sexually dimorphic. Future preclinical studies for GWI may take advantage of this short latency model and should include both males and females as their response to treatment may differ. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Modelling the cohesive sediment transport in the marine environment: the case of Thermaikos Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Krestenitis

    2007-01-01

    vertical stratification of the water-column is taken into consideration by appropriate damping of the vertical diffusion term. Variations in cohesive sediment properties during the abidance in the aquatic environment include coagulation and flock break-up processes, quantification of the effects of ambient density to the density of the cohesive aggregate and the associated alterations to the falling speed of the particle. In the vicinity of the seabed, particles may deposit and gradually consolidate with time, the particles remain settled onto the bed, re-enter the flow at a later temporal point or may enter the water column for the first time, originating from the erosion of the bed. The occurrence of each of the aforementioned near-bed processes is defined according to the prevailing benthic shear stress conditions. The mathematical model has been applied to the Thermaikos Gulf, an area of high environmental and socioeconomic importance but also a region of significant pollutant forcing from various anthropogenic activities taking place in the adjoining land. Various kinds of outputs can be extracted, such as trajectories of the overall movement of specific particles and related alterations of their characteristics with time, snapshots of the domain with respect to suspended or deposited matter and natural concentrations of sediments at every required temporal and spatial point. Indicative results from yearly and monthly simulations, using input baroclinic circulation data from the North Aegean Sea model and river discharges are presented and discussed, including outputs from a Typical One-Year Simulation (TOYS, the simulation of the period from 3 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 (S1A2 and the January 2003 experiment (J03. The description of the processes that have been incorporated in the parameterization covers the most significant factors controlling transport and mixing of fine grained sediments in the marine environment, thus validating the accuracy and completeness

  6. Traces on the 'Ubaidian Shore: Mid-Holocene Eustasis, Marine Transgression, and Urbanization in the Mesopotamian Delta (Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournelle, J. R.; Smith, J. R.; Hritz, C.; Nsf Hrrpaa 1045974

    2011-12-01

    Development and flourit of pre-urban and urban complex societies of southern Mesopotamia (Iraq) during the mid-Holocene took place in the context of Tigris-Euphrates and Karun-Karkheh deltaic progradation on one hand, and marine transgression at the head of the Gulf on the other. Understanding these processes has profound implications for assessing likely resource bioavailability, resource extraction and transport options, population distribution and density, and labour requirements for intensification/ extensification of extraction and production activities during this critical formative period. Multiple attempts have been made to reconstruct the Gulf "shoreline" at various pre-historic and historical periods. Because no systematic coring operations have been undertaken in the region, these attempts have been hampered by the paucity of direct geologic evidence. Conflicting hypotheses based on models of deltaic subsidence, tectonic uplift, and and/or eustatic change were barely testable against scant available cores and archaeologically-derived proxies from a few sites on the western "shore," such as H3, Eridu, Ur, Uruk, and Tell al Oueli. Recently published coring operations in the Iranian Karun-Karkheh delta add considerably to the available corpus of archaeological and geomorphologic data useful for reconstructing the timeline and extent of these processes, especially on the eastern "shore," but these are also bounded in spatial and temporal extent. Multi-scale, multi-sensor processing of remote sensing data and imagery make possible a fuller interpretation of geomorphologic and artifactual evidence bearing on overall shoreline reconstruction from approximately 6,000-3,000 BCE. This paper reports the results of combining interpreted LANDSAT, ASTER, SPOT, CORONA, Digital Globe, and other imagery with multiple derived Digital Elevation Models, thus providing stochastic boundaries for re-interpreting geological and archaeological point data, as well as new pilot

  7. 2015 Gulf Guardian Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program Partnership developed the Gulf Guardian awards as a way to recognize and honor the businesses, community groups, individuals, and agencies that are taking positive steps to keep the Gulf healthy, beautiful and productive.

  8. Object Location and Object Recognition Memory Impairments, Motivation Deficits and Depression in a Model of Gulf War Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi eHattiangady

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Memory and mood deficits are the enduring brain-related symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI. Both animal model and epidemiological investigations have indicated that these impairments in a majority of GW veterans are linked to exposures to chemicals such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB, an anti nerve gas drug, permethrin (PM, an insecticide and DEET (a mosquito repellant encountered during the Persian Gulf War-1. Our previous study in a rat model has shown that combined exposures to low doses of GWI-related (GWIR chemicals PB, PM and DEET with or without 5-minutes of restraint stress (a mild stress paradigm causes hippocampus-dependent spatial memory dysfunction in a water maze test and increased depressive-like behavior in a forced swim test. In this study, using a larger cohort of rats exposed to GWIR-chemicals and stress, we investigated whether the memory deficiency identified earlier in a water maze test is reproducible with an alternative and stress free hippocampus-dependent memory test such as the object location test. We also ascertained the possible co-existence of hippocampus-independent memory dysfunction using a novel object recognition test, and alterations in mood function with additional tests for motivation and depression. Our results provide new evidence that exposure to low doses of GWIR-chemicals and stress for four weeks causes deficits in hippocampus-dependent object location memory and perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition memory. An open field test performed prior to other behavioral analyses revealed that memory impairments were not associated with increased anxiety or deficits in general motor ability. However, behavioral tests for mood function such as a voluntary physical exercise paradigm and a novelty suppressed feeding test showed decreased motivation and depression. Thus, exposure to GWIR-chemicals and stress causes both hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent memory impairments as well as

  9. Enabling transformational change: the Ontario shores experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Glenna; Walton, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This case study outlines key considerations for healthcare organizations experiencing significant transformational change, based on the experience of Ontario Shores Centre for Mental Health Sciences (Ontario Shores), formerly Whitby Mental Health Centre. Significant systemic change requires specific and intentional efforts from the leaders tasked with carrying out transformational activities. This article presents the perspectives of leaders involved in the transformation of Ontario Shores as it moved from a government-based agency to a stand-alone specialty psychiatric hospital in 2006. During this time, several conventional strategies were employed to manage the transition, but various critical approaches also emerged that assisted the organization to effect significant change and achieve marked improvements over key evaluation metrics. These critical strategies included maximizing the distinct and collective roles of governance and leadership; balancing strategy and action through a culture of accountability; leveraging strategic communication opportunities; and shifting the organizational mindset.

  10. Modelling the variation in larval dispersal of marbled rock crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus in the Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    T Pires, R.; Pan, M.; Peliz, A.; Santos, A. M. P. A.; Boutov, D.; Dos Santos, A.

    2016-02-01

    Pachygrapsus marmoratus is a common coastal crab occurring in rocky shores of the northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. Information on the planktonic larval phase for this species is still incomplete. However, for the first six zoeal stages a long larval duration of around 30 days was observed. Larvae are released in the intertidal area and exported to the shelf in order to complete their development. In situ data obtained during an oceanographic survey along the southern Portuguese coast in August 2010 consisting on CTD casts and plankton hauls were analyzed. The first five zoeal stages and megalopae were captured and results showed a progressively wider distribution towards offshore through the larval development with megalopae being found close to the coast. A modelling approach was employed to explain the mechanisms used by megalopae (last larval phase) to return to adult habitats. Their vertical distribution, oceanic circulation of the area and the points of larval release were integrated in the model to understand the influence of vertical migrations on the dispersal range of Pachygrapsus larvae.

  11. Predicting the Performance of Chain Saw Machines Based on Shore Scleroscope Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumac, Deniz

    2014-03-01

    Shore hardness has been used to estimate several physical and mechanical properties of rocks over the last few decades. However, the number of researches correlating Shore hardness with rock cutting performance is quite limited. Also, rather limited researches have been carried out on predicting the performance of chain saw machines. This study differs from the previous investigations in the way that Shore hardness values (SH1, SH2, and deformation coefficient) are used to determine the field performance of chain saw machines. The measured Shore hardness values are correlated with the physical and mechanical properties of natural stone samples, cutting parameters (normal force, cutting force, and specific energy) obtained from linear cutting tests in unrelieved cutting mode, and areal net cutting rate of chain saw machines. Two empirical models developed previously are improved for the prediction of the areal net cutting rate of chain saw machines. The first model is based on a revised chain saw penetration index, which uses SH1, machine weight, and useful arm cutting depth as predictors. The second model is based on the power consumed for only cutting the stone, arm thickness, and specific energy as a function of the deformation coefficient. While cutting force has a strong relationship with Shore hardness values, the normal force has a weak or moderate correlation. Uniaxial compressive strength, Cerchar abrasivity index, and density can also be predicted by Shore hardness values.

  12. High Resolution Modeling of the Water Cycle to Refine GRACE Signal Analysis in the Gulf of Alaska Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, J.; Hill, D. F.; Arendt, A. A.; Luthcke, S. B.; Liston, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive study of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) drainage basin was carried out to improve understanding of the coastal freshwater discharge (FWD) and surface mass balance (SMB) of glaciers. Coastal FWD and SMB for all glacier surfaces were modeled using a suite of physically based, spatially distributed weather, energy-balance snow/ice melt, soil water balance, and runoff routing models at a high resolution (1 km horizontal grid; daily time step). A 35 year hind cast was performed, providing complete records of precipitation, runoff, snow water equivalent (SWE) depth, evapotranspiration, coastal FWD and glacier SMB. Meteorological forcing was provided by the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) datasets. A fourth dataset was created by bias-correcting the NARR data to recently-developed monthly weather grids based on PRISM climatologies (NARR-BC). Each weather dataset and model combination was individually calibrated using PRISM climatologies, streamflow, and glacier mass balance measurements from four locations in the study domain. Simulated mean annual FWD into the GOA ranged from 600 km3 yr-1 using NARR to 850 km3 yr-1 from NARR-BC. The CFSR-forced simulations with optimized model parameters produced a simulated regional water storage that compared favorably to data from the NASA/DLR Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) high resolution mascon solutions (Figure). Glacier runoff, taken as the sum of rainfall, snow and ice melt occurring on glacier surfaces, ranged from 260 km3 yr-1 from MERRA to 400 km3 yr-1 from NARR-BC, approximately one half of the signal from both glaciers and surrounding terrain. The large contribution from non-glacier surfaces to the seasonal water balance is likely not being fully removed from GRACE solutions aimed at isolating the glacier signal alone. We will discuss methods to use our simulations

  13. Variability of shore and shoreline evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, Marcel J.F.; Aarninkhof, Stefan G.J.; Hamm, Luc; Hanson, Hans; Larson, Magnus; Wijnberg, Kathelijne Mariken; Nicholls, Robert J.; Capobianco, Michele; Capobianco, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Shore and shoreline evolution both due to natural and human-induced causes or factors can be variable over a wide range of different temporal and/or spatial scales. Our capability to understand and especially predict this variability is still limited. This can lead to misinterpretation of coastal

  14. Data collection for cooperative water resources modeling in the Lower Rio Grande Basin, Fort Quitman to the Gulf of Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard David; Pallachula, Kiran (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Villalobos, Joshua (Texas A& M University); Piccinni, Giovanni (Texas A& M University); Brainard, James Robert; Gerik, Thomas (Texas A& M University); Morrison, Wendy (Texas A& M University); Serrat-Capdevila, Aleix (University of Arizona); Valdes, Juan (University of Arizona); Sheng, Zhuping (Texas A& M University); Lovato, Rene (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Guitron, Alberto (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Ennis, Martha Lee; Aparicio, Javier (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Newman, Gretchen Carr (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Michelsen, Ari M. (Texas A& M University)

    2004-10-01

    Water resource scarcity around the world is driving the need for the development of simulation models that can assist in water resources management. Transboundary water resources are receiving special attention because of the potential for conflict over scarce shared water resources. The Rio Grande/Rio Bravo along the U.S./Mexican border is an example of a scarce, transboundary water resource over which conflict has already begun. The data collection and modeling effort described in this report aims at developing methods for international collaboration, data collection, data integration and modeling for simulating geographically large and diverse international watersheds, with a special focus on the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo. This report describes the basin, and the data collected. This data collection effort was spatially aggregated across five reaches consisting of Fort Quitman to Presidio, the Rio Conchos, Presidio to Amistad Dam, Amistad Dam to Falcon Dam, and Falcon Dam to the Gulf of Mexico. This report represents a nine-month effort made in FY04, during which time the model was not completed.

  15. Tsunami-Induced Nearshore Hydrodynamic Modeling using a 3D VOF Method: A Gulf of Mexico Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kian, R.; Horrillo, J. J.; Fang, N. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term morphology changes can be interrupted by extreme events such as hurricanes and tsunamis. In particular, the impact of tsunamis on coastal erosion and accretion patterns is presently not well understood. In order to understand the sediment movement during coastal tsunami impact a numerical sediment transport model is added to a 3D VOF model. This model allows for spatially varying bottom sediment characteristics and entails functions for entrainment, bedload, and suspended load transport. As a case study, a Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coastal study site is selected to investigate the effect of a landslide-tsunami on the coastal morphology. The GOM is recognized as a vast and productive body of water with great ecologic and economic value. The morphodynamic response of the nearshore environment to the tsunami hydrodynamic forcing is influenced by many factors including bathymetry, topography, tsunami wave and current magnitude, and the characteristics of the local bottom substrate. The 3D model addition can account for all these factors. Finally, necessary strategies for reduction of the potential tsunami impact and management of the morphological changes are discussed.

  16. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  17. Gravitational collapse and Neogene sediment transfer across the western margin of the Gulf of Mexico: Insights from numerical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alzaga-Ruiz, H.; Granjeon, D.; Lopez, M.; Séranne, M.; Roure, F.

    2009-01-01

    The western margin of the Gulf of Mexico (Veracruz State, Mexico) displays an extensive Neogene gravitational system, whereby the Neogene siliciclastic sediments are detached from underlying Mesozoic carbonates along decollement surface in Oligocene underpressured clays. Rapidly subsiding

  18. Refining the model of barrier island formation along a paraglacial coast in the Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Christopher J.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Carruthers, Emily A.; Stone, Byron D.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Gontz, Allen M.

    2012-01-01

    Details of the internal architecture and local geochronology of Plum Island, the longest barrier in the Gulf of Maine, have refined our understanding of barrier island formation in paraglacial settings. Ground-penetrating radar and shallow-seismic profiles coupled with sediment cores and radiocarbon dates provide an 8000-year evolutionary history of this barrier system in response to changes in sediment sources and supply rates as well as variability in the rate of sea-level change. The barrier sequence overlies tills of Wisconsinan and Illinoian glaciations as well as late Pleistocene glaciomarine clay deposited during the post-glacial sea-level highstand at approximately 17 ka. Holocene sediment began accumulating at the site of Plum Island at 7–8 ka, in the form of coarse fluvial channel-lag deposits related to the 50-m wide erosional channel of the Parker River that carved into underlying glaciomarine deposits during a lower stand of sea level. Plum Island had first developed in its modern location by ca. 3.6 ka through onshore migration and vertical accretion of reworked regressive and lowstand deposits. The prevalence of southerly, seaward-dipping layers indicates that greater than 60% of the barrier lithosome developed in its modern location through southerly spit progradation, consistent with a dominantly longshore transport system driven by northeast storms. Thinner sequences of northerly, landward-dipping clinoforms represent the northern recurve of the prograding spit. A 5–6-m-thick inlet-fill sequence was identified overlying the lower stand fluvial deposit; its stratigraphy captures events of channel migration, ebb-delta breaching, onshore bar migration, channel shoaling and inlet infilling associated with the migration and eventual closure of the inlet. This inlet had a maximum cross-sectional area of 2800 m2 and was active around 3.5–3.6 ka. Discovery of this inlet suggests that the tidal prism was once larger than at present. Bay infilling

  19. The Role of Protein Radicals in Chronic Neuroimmune Dysfunction and Neuropathology in Response to a Multiple-Hit Model of Gulf War Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Model, Chlorpyrifos, LPS, NF-KB p50, microglia , chronic neuroinflammation , serum markers, neuropathology 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Chronic peripheral inflammation and neuroinflammation have been linked to Gulf War Illness (GWI...ongoing, preliminary results suggest that the hippocampus in NF-κB p50-/- mice is more vulnerable to chronic neuroinflammation at one week after pro

  20. Migratory corridors of adult female Kemp’s ridley turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Pena, Jaime; Gamez, Daniel Gomez; Gonzales Diaz Miron, Raul de Jesus; Burchfield, Patrick M.; Martinez, Hector J.; Ortiz, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    For many marine species, locations of migratory pathways are not well defined. We used satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM) to define the migratory corridor used by Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico. The turtles were tagged after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA from 1997 to 2014 (PAIS; n = 80); Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico from 2010 to 2011 (RN; n = 14); Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico from 2012 to 2013 (VC; n = 13); and Gulf Shores, Alabama, USA during 2012 (GS; n = 1). The migratory corridor lies in nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters in the USA and Mexico with mean water depth of 26 m and a mean distance of 20 km from the nearest mainland coast. Migration from the nesting beach is a short phenomenon that occurs from late-May through August, with a peak in June. There was spatial similarity of post-nesting migratory pathways for different turtles over a 16 year period. Thus, our results indicate that these nearshore Gulf waters represent a critical migratory habitat for this species. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the migratory pathways used by this and other species to return from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Therefore, our results highlight the need for tracking reproductive individuals from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Continued tracking of adult females from PAIS, RN, and VC nesting beaches will allow further study of environmental and bathymetric components of migratory habitat and threats occurring within our defined corridor. Furthermore, the existence of this migratory corridor in nearshore waters of both the USA and Mexico demonstrates that international cooperation is necessary to protect essential migratory habitat for this imperiled species.

  1. Diagenesis, compaction, and fluid chemistry modeling of a sandstone near a pressure seal: Lower Tuscaloosa Formation, Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedman, S.D.; Brantley, S.L.; Shiraki, R.; Poulson, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Petrographic, isotopic, and fluid-inclusion evidence from normally and overpressured sandstones of the lower Tuscaloosa Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in the Gulf Coast documents quartz-overgrowth precipitation at 90??C or less, calcite cement precipitation at approximately 100?? and 135??C, and prismatic quartz cement precipitation at about 125??C. Textural evidence suggests that carbonate cement dissolution occurred before the second phases of calcite and quartz precipitation, and was followed by precipitation of grain-rimming chlorite and pore-filling kaolinite. Geochemical calculations demonstrate that present-day lower Tuscaloosa Formation water from 5500 m depth could either dissolve or precipitate calcite cements in model simulations of upward water flow. Calcite dissolution or precipitation depends on PCO2 variability with depth (i.e., whether there is one or two-phase flow) or on the rate of generation of CO2 with depth. Calculations suggest that 105-106 rock volumes of water are required to flow through the section to precipitate 1-10% calcite cement. Compaction analysis suggests that late-stage compaction occurred in normally pressured sandstones after dissolution of carbonate cements, but was hindered in overpressured sandstones despite the presence of high porosity. These results document the inhibition of compaction by overpressured fluids and constrain the timing of pressure seal formation. Modeling results demonstrate that the proposed paragenesis used to constrain timing of pressure seal formation is feasible, and that most of the cement diagenesis occurred before the pressure seal became effective as a permeability barrier.

  2. Seasonal variability and detection range modeling of baleen whale calls in the Gulf of Alaska, 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Kathleen M; Mellinger, David K; Moore, Sue E; Fox, Christopher G

    2007-12-01

    Five species of large whales, including the blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (B. physalus), sei (B. borealis), humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), and North Pacific right (Eubalaena japonica), were the target of commercial harvests in the Gulf of Alaska (GoA) during the 19th through mid-20th Centuries. Since this time, there have been a few summer time visual surveys for these species, but no overview of year-round use of these waters by endangered whales primarily because standard visual survey data are difficult and costly. From October 1999-May 2002, moored hydrophones were deployed in six locations in the GoA to record whale calls. Reception of calls from fin, humpback, and blue whales and an unknown source, called Watkins' whale, showed seasonal and geographic variation. Calls were detected more often during the winter than during the summer, suggesting that animals inhabit the GoA year-round. To estimate the distance at which species-diagnostic calls could be heard, parabolic equation propagation loss models for frequencies characteristic of each of each call type were run. Maximum detection ranges in the subarctic North Pacific ranged from 45 to 250 km among three species (fin, humpback, blue), although modeled detection ranges varied greatly with input parameters and choice of ambient noise level.

  3. Multiple regression models of δ13C and δ15N for fish populations in the eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radabaugh, Kara R.; Peebles, Ernst B.

    2014-08-01

    Multiple regression models were created to explain spatial and temporal variation in the δ13C and δ15N values of fish populations on the West Florida Shelf (eastern Gulf of Mexico, USA). Extensive trawl surveys from three time periods were used to acquire muscle samples from seven groundfish species. Isotopic variation (δ13Cvar and δ15Nvar) was calculated as the deviation from the isotopic mean of each fish species. Static spatial data and dynamic water quality parameters were used to create models predicting δ13Cvar and δ15Nvar in three fish species that were caught in the summers of 2009 and 2010. Additional data sets were then used to determine the accuracy of the models for predicting isotopic variation (1) in a different time period (fall 2010) and (2) among four entirely different fish species that were collected during summer 2009. The δ15Nvar model was relatively stable and could be applied to different time periods and species with similar accuracy (mean absolute errors 0.31-0.33‰). The δ13Cvar model had a lower predictive capability and mean absolute errors ranged from 0.42 to 0.48‰. δ15N trends are likely linked to gradients in nitrogen fixation and Mississippi River influence on the West Florida Shelf, while δ13C trends may be linked to changes in algal species, photosynthetic fractionation, and abundance of benthic vs. planktonic basal resources. These models of isotopic variability may be useful for future stable isotope investigations of trophic level, basal resource use, and animal migration on the West Florida Shelf.

  4. Sediment transport modelling in the Gulf of Lion with the perspective of studying the fate of radionuclides originated by the Rhone River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufois, Francois

    2008-01-01

    Among the various contaminants introduced in the environment, artificial radionuclides appear particularly important to consider because of their chemical toxicity and / or of their radio-toxicity. Some radionuclides present a high affinity with particles so that the study of the sediment dynamics is a useful preliminary to the study of their dispersion on the open sea. This thesis is focused on the fate of sediments in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean sea) and in particular on the impact of the Rhone River, which is the main source of particulate matter in the Gulf of Lion. In order to study the sediment transport mechanisms on various space and time scales, this thesis is based on mathematical modelling. The hydro-sedimentary model set up in the Gulf of Lion, which takes into account the gathered effect of waves and currents, was supported by recent hydro-sedimentary data analyses. CARMA (winter 2006/2007) and SCOPE (winter 2007/2008) experiments were used to better understand the physical processes which control the sediment transport on the Rhone pro-delta and to validate the model. The period of the centennial Rhone River flood of December 2003 was also simulated in order to determine the impact of such extreme events on the fate of sediments. Both observations and simulations of the studied periods highlight the high capacity of erosion and transport induced by south-eastern storms on the pro-delta

  5. Edible macrofungi of Edremit Gulf (Balıkesir) in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... Gulf of Edremit is an important center of trade, coupled with its sandy beaches, shores and towns that are surrounded by green olive trees (Ayvalık, Edremit, Burhaniye and Havran). It is also one of the largest districts of Balıkesir Province. Macrofungi are ideal food for people because they have a fairly.

  6. Stratigraphy of two conjugate margins (Gulf of Lion and West Sardinia): modeling of vertical movements and sediment budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Estelle; Gorini, Christian; Aslanian, Daniel; Rabineau, Marina; Blanpied, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup; Robin, Cécile; Granjeon, Didier; Taillepierre, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The post-rift (~20-0 Ma) vertical movements of the Provence Basin (West Mediterranean) are quantified on its both conjugate (the Gulf of Lion and the West Sardinia) margins. This work is based on the stratigraphic study of sedimentary markers using a large 3D grid of seismic data, correlations with existing drillings and refraction data. The post-rift subsidence is measured by the direct use of sedimentary geometries analysed in 3D [Gorini et al., 2015; Rabineau et al., 2014] and validated by numerical stratigraphic modelling. Three domains were found: on the platform (1) and slope (2), the subsidence takes the form of a seaward tilting with different amplitudes, whereas the deep basin (3) subsides purely vertically [Leroux et al., 2015a]. These domains correspond to the deeper crustal domains respectively highlighted by wide angle seismic data. The continental crust (1) and the thinned continental crust (2) are tilted, whereas the intermediate crust, identified as lower continental exhumed crust [Moulin et al., 2015, Afhilado et al., 2015] (3) sagged. The post-break-up subsidence re-uses the initial hinge lines of the rifting phase. This striking correlation between surface geologic processes and deep earth dynamic processes emphasizes that the sedimentary record and sedimentary markers is a window into deep geodynamic processes and dynamic topography. Pliocene-Pleistocene seismic markers enabled high resolution quantification of sediment budgets over the past 6 Myr [Leroux et al., in press]. Sediment budget history is here completed on the Miocene interval. Thus, the controlling factors (climate, tectonics and eustasy) are discussed. Afilhado, A., Moulin, M., Aslanian, D., Schnürle, P., Klingelhoefer, F., Nouzé, H., Rabineau, M., Leroux, E. & Beslier, M.-O. (2015). Deep crustal structure across a young 1 passive margin from wide-angle and reflection seismic data (The SARDINIA Experiment) - II. Sardinia's margin. Bull. Soc. géol. France, 186, ILP Spec. issue, 4

  7. Conceptual Model for the Geothermal System of the Wagner Basin, Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Neumann, F.; Negrete-Aranda, R.; Contreras, J.; Batista-Cruz, R. Y.; Kretzschmar, T.; Avilés-Esquivel, T. A.; Reyes Ortega, V.; Flores-Luna, C. F.; Gomez-Trevino, E.; Martin, A.; Constable, S.

    2017-12-01

    Cerro Prieto in northwestern Mexico is one of the biggest geothermal plants in the world. Cerro Prieto sits in the Gulf of California rift system, which consists of a series of spreading centers and transform faults. The aim of this study is to evaluate the geothermal potential of the nearby offshore Wagner basin. To this end, we acquired and analyzed a set of different methods, such as reflection seismics, heat flow, magnetotelluric and controlled source electromagnetics, hydrogeochemistry and echosounder. Seismic reflection data show that the Wagner basin is a semi-graben, A profile crossing it shows numerous closely spaced faults, particularly in its eastern part. We found very high heat flow values, in excess of 1000 mW/m2, and large variability on the eastern flank of the Wagner basin, whereas there are more consistent and much lower values across the central and western parts. The high and variable heat flow values are suggestive of advective heat transfer We collected cores and interstitial water samples. The hydrogeochemistry analyses show that in the cores recovered from high heat flow areas, the relations bromide/choride and bromide/sulfide are clearly different from sea water. In contrast, those relations were close to sea water in areas with low heat flow. Similarly, the isotope relations such as 2H/18O show a similar pattern, further indicating the groundwater origin of the interstitial water found in high heat flow zones. In the magnetoteluric measurements we found the presence of a deep conductor that is located approximately under the basin center, extends from the base of the crust to depths of about 40 km, and dips toward the NE. This conductor is probably related to the heat source of the geothermal system. Active source electromagnetics show the presence of shallow conductors that correlate with the faults visible in the seismic sections. There are two distinct conductors, one in the eastern flank and another in the western flank of the basin

  8. Altered gut microbiome in a mouse model of Gulf War Illness causes neuroinflammation and intestinal injury via leaky gut and TLR4 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Alhasson

    Full Text Available Many of the symptoms of Gulf War Illness (GWI that include neurological abnormalities, neuroinflammation, chronic fatigue and gastrointestinal disturbances have been traced to Gulf War chemical exposure. Though the association and subsequent evidences are strong, the mechanisms that connect exposure to intestinal and neurological abnormalities remain unclear. Using an established rodent model of Gulf War Illness, we show that chemical exposure caused significant dysbiosis in the gut that included increased abundance of phylum Firmicutes and Tenericutes, and decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes. Several gram negative bacterial genera were enriched in the GWI-model that included Allobaculum sp. Altered microbiome caused significant decrease in tight junction protein Occludin with a concomitant increase in Claudin-2, a signature of a leaky gut. Resultant leaching of gut caused portal endotoxemia that led to upregulation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4 activation in the small intestine and the brain. TLR4 knock out mice and mice that had gut decontamination showed significant decrease in tyrosine nitration and inflammatory mediators IL1β and MCP-1 in both the small intestine and frontal cortex. These events signified that gut dysbiosis with simultaneous leaky gut and systemic endotoxemia-induced TLR4 activation contributes to GW chemical-induced neuroinflammation and gastrointestinal disturbances.

  9. Coastal groundwater discharge for the U.S. East and Gulf Coasts calculated with three-dimensional groundwater flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befus, K. M.; Kroeger, K. D.; Smith, C. G.; Swarzenski, P. W.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh groundwater discharge to coastal environments contribute to the physical and chemical conditions of coastal waters. At regional scales, groundwater fluxes remain poorly constrained, representing uncertainty in both water and chemical budgets that have implications for downstream ecosystem health and for how human activities alter coastal hydrologic processes. Coastal groundwater discharges remain widely unconstrained due to the interconnectedness of highly heterogeneous hydrogeologic frameworks and hydrologic conditions. We use regional-scale, three-dimensional groundwater flow models with the best available hydrostratigraphic framework data to calculate the magnitude of groundwater discharging from coastal aquifers to coastal waterbodies along the eastern U.S. In addition, we constrain the inland areas that contribute to coastal groundwater discharges using particle tracking. We find that 27 km3/yr of groundwater enters coastal waters of the eastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico and was over 175,000 km2. The contributing areas to coastal groundwater discharge extended kilometers inland and often were supplied by recharge occurring tens of kilometers inland. These results suggest that coastal groundwater discharges rely on larger contributing areas and potentially transport more dissolved constituents than previously calculated, which are important factors for constraining the role of groundwater in coastal chemical budgets and its impacts on coastal ecosystems.

  10. Improvements of Storm Surge Modelling in the Gulf of Venice with Satellite Data: The ESA Due Esurge-Venice Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasio, F.; Bajo, M.; Vignudelli, S.; Papa, A.; della Valle, A.; Umgiesser, G.; Donlon, C.; Zecchetto, S.

    2016-08-01

    Among the most detrimental natural phenomena, storm surges heavily endanger the environment, the economy and the everyday life of sea-side countries and coastal zones. Considering that 120.000.000 people live in the Mediterranean area, with additional 200.000.000 presences in Summer for tourism purposes, the correct prediction of storm surges is crucial to avoid fatalities and economic losses. Earth Observation (EO) can play an important role in operational storm surge forecasting, yet it is not widely diffused in the storm surge community. In 2011 the European Space Agency (ESA), through its Data User Element (DUE) programme, financed two projects aimed at encouraging the uptake of EO data in this sector: eSurge and eSurge-Venice (eSV). The former was intended to address the issues of a wider users' community, while the latter was focused on a restricted geographical area: the northern Adriatic Sea and the Gulf of Venice. Among the objectives of the two projects there were a number of storm surge hindcast experiments using satellite data, to demonstrate the improvements on the surge forecast brought by EO. We report here the results of the hindcast experiments of the eSV project. They were aimed to test the sensitivity of a storm surge model to a forcing wind field modified with scatterometer data in order to reduce the bias between simulated and observed winds. Hindcast experiments were also performed to test the response of the storm surge model to the assimilation, with a dual 4D-Var system, of satellite altimetry observations as model errors of the initial state of the sea surface level. Remarkable improvements on the storm surge forecast have been obtained for what concerns the modified model wind forcing. Encouraging results have been obtained also in the assimilation experiments.

  11. Study the Seasonal Variability of Plankton and Forage Fish in the Gulf of Khambhat Using Npzfd Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.; Kumar, S.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical modelling of marine ecology exploits several assumptions and it is indeed quite challenging to include marine ecological phenomena into a mathematical framework with too many unknown parameters. The governing ordinary differential equations represent the interaction of the biological and chemical processes in a marine environment. The key concern in the development of a numerical models are parameterizations based on output, viz., mathematical modelling of ecological system mainly depends on parameters and its variations. Almost, all constituents of each trophic level of marine food web are depended on phytoplankton, which are mostly influenced by initial slope of P-I curve and nutrient stock in the study domain. Whereas, the earlier plankton dynamic models rarely include a compartment of small fish and as an agent in zooplankton mortality, which is most important for the modelling of higher trophic level of marine species. A compartment of forage fish in the modelling of plankton dynamics has been given more realistic mortality rates of plankton, viz., they feed upon phytoplankton and zooplankton. The inclusion of an additional compartment increases complexity of earlier plankton dynamics model as it introduces additional unknown parameters, which has been specified for performing the numerical simulations.As a case study we applied our analysis to explain the aquatic ecology of Gulf of Khambhat (19o 48' N - 22o20' N, 65o E - 72o40' E), west coast of India, which has rich bio-diversity and a high productive area in the form of plankton and forage fish. It has elevated turbidity and varying geography location, viz., one of the regions among world's ocean with high biological productivity.The model presented in this study is able to bring out the essential features of the observed data; that includes the bimodal oscillations in the observed data, monthly mean chlorophyll-a in the SeaWiFs/MODIS Aqua data and in-situ data of plankton. The additional

  12. High-resolution modeling of coastal freshwater discharge and glacier mass balance in the Gulf of Alaska watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, J. P.; Hill, D. F.; Arendt, A.; Liston, G. E.

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive study of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) drainage basin was carried out to improve understanding of the coastal freshwater discharge (FWD) and glacier volume loss (GVL). Hydrologic processes during the period 1980-2014 were modeled using a suite of physically based, spatially distributed weather, energy-balance snow/ice melt, soil water balance, and runoff routing models at a high-resolution (1 km horizontal grid; daily time step). Meteorological forcing was provided by the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data sets. Streamflow and glacier mass balance modeled using MERRA and CFSR compared well with observations in four watersheds used for calibration in the study domain. However, only CFSR produced regional seasonal and long-term trends in water balance that compared favorably with independent Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and airborne altimetry data. Mean annual runoff using CFSR was 760 km3 yr-1, 8% of which was derived from the long-term removal of stored water from glaciers (glacier volume loss). The annual runoff from CFSR was partitioned into 63% snowmelt, 17% glacier ice melt, and 20% rainfall. Glacier runoff, taken as the sum of rainfall, snow, and ice melt occurring each season on glacier surfaces, was 38% of the total seasonal runoff, with the remaining runoff sourced from nonglacier surfaces. Our simulations suggests that existing GRACE solutions, previously reported to represent glacier mass balance alone, are actually measuring the full water budget of land and ice surfaces.

  13. Predominant nonlinear atmospheric response to meridional shift of the Gulf Stream path from the WRF atmospheric model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, H.; Kwon, Y. O.; Joyce, T. M.

    2016-02-01

    A remarkably strong nonlinear behavior of the atmospheric circulation response to North Atlantic SST anomalies (SSTA) is revealed from a set of large-ensemble, high-resolution, and hemispheric-scale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations. The model is forced with the SSTA associated with meridional shift of the Gulf Stream (GS) path, constructed from a lag regression of the winter SST on a GS Index from observation. Analysis of the systematic set of experiments with SSTAs of varied amplitudes and switched signs representing various GS-shift scenarios provides unique insights into mechanism for emergence and evolution of transient and equilibrium response of atmospheric circulation to extratropical SSTA. Results show that, independent of sign of the SSTA, the equilibrium response is characterized by an anomalous trough over the North Atlantic Ocean and the Western Europe concurrent with enhanced storm track, increased rainfall, and reduced blocking days. To the north of the anomalous low, an anomalous ridge emerges over the Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian Seas accompanied by weakened storm track, reduced rainfall and increased blocking days. This nonlinear component of the total response dominates the weak and oppositely signed linear response that is directly forced by the SSTA, yielding an anomalous ridge (trough) downstream of the warm (cold) SSTA. The amplitude of the linear response is proportional to that of the SSTA, but this is masked by the overwhelmingly strong nonlinear behavior showing no clear correspondence to the SSTA amplitude. The nonlinear pattern emerges 3-4 weeks after the model initialization in November and reaches its first peak amplitude in December/January. It appears that altered baroclinic wave activity due to the GS SSTA in November lead to low-frequency height responses in December/January through transient eddy vorticity flux convergence.

  14. Physical processes in the Gulf of Kachchh: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.

    of the Gulf, off Bedi in the central Gulf and off Navlakhi in the eastern Gulf during pre-monsoon show that flood-currents are stronger than ebb- currents6. Strong flood currents result in piling up of sediments in the mud flats at the head of the Gulf.... Although previous studies have shown that bulk of the suspended sediment near the head of the Gulf is delivered by numerous tidal creeks present within the tidal mud flats7 model studies show that the tidal currents should lead to net piling...

  15. Gulf of Tonkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Erich

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson on the Gulf of Tonkin incident during the Vietnam War and the resulting Tonkin Gulf Resolution. Recommends using the resolution as a way of studying the war making powers of the U.S. presidency. Includes excerpts from the Tonkin Gulf Resolution as student readings. (CFR)

  16. Willingness to pay for reduced visual disamenities from off-shore wind farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Dubgaard, Alex

    , the costs per kWh produced increase as the distance is augmented. In this paper, peoples’ willingness to pay for a reduction in the visual disamenity of off-shore wind farms is elicited using the economic valuation method Choice Experiments. The economic valuation scenario comprises the locations of 3600 MW......Expansion of the off-shore wind power capacity plays a significant role in the wind power strategy in many EU countries. However, off-shore wind farms are associated with visual disamenities. The disamenities can be reduced by locating the wind farms at larger distances from the coast. But...... of future off-shore wind farms at; 12 km, 18 km and 50 km from the shore, relative to an 8 km baseline. Using a fixed effect logit model, the average willingness to pay, as an additional annual amount for electricity, are estimated to be 46, 96 and 122 euros/household/year for locating wind farms at 12, 18...

  17. Observations and operational model simulations reveal the impact of Hurricane Matthew (2016) on the Gulf Stream and coastal sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tal; Atkinson, Larry P.; Tuleya, Robert

    2017-12-01

    In October 7-9, 2016, Hurricane Matthew moved along the southeastern coast of the U.S., causing major flooding and significant damage, even to locations farther north well away from the storm's winds. Various observations, such as tide gauge data, cable measurements of the Florida Current (FC) transport, satellite altimeter data and high-frequency radar data, were analyzed to evaluate the impact of the storm. The data show a dramatic decline in the FC flow and increased coastal sea level along the U.S. coast. Weakening of the Gulf Stream (GS) downstream from the storm's area contributed to high coastal sea levels farther north. Analyses of simulations of an operational hurricane-ocean coupled model reveal the disruption that the hurricane caused to the GS flow, including a decline in transport of ∼20 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1). In comparison, the observed FC reached a maximum transport of ∼40 Sv before the storm on September 10 and a minimum of ∼20 Sv after the storm on October 12. The hurricane impacts both the geostrophic part of the GS and the wind-driven currents, generating inertial oscillations with velocities of up to ±1 m s-1. Analysis of the observed FC transport since 1982 indicated that the magnitude of the current weakening in October 2016 was quite rare (outside 3 standard deviations from the mean). Such a large FC weakening in the past occurred more often in October and November, but is extremely rare in June-August. Similar impacts on the FC from past tropical storms and hurricanes suggest that storms may contribute to seasonal and interannual variations in the FC. The results also demonstrated the extended range of coastal impacts that remote storms can cause through their influence on ocean currents.

  18. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Florida and East Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  19. A modeling study of coastal inundation induced by storm surge, sea-level rise, and subsidence in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Kraucunas, Ian P.; Rice, Jennie S.; Preston, Benjamin; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2013-12-10

    The northern coasts of the Gulf of Mexico are highly vulnerable to the direct threats of climate change, such as hurricane-induced storm surge, and such risks can be potentially exacerbated by land subsidence and global sea level rise. This paper presents an application of a coastal storm surge model to study the coastal inundation process induced by tide and storm surge, and its response to the effects of land subsidence and sea level rise in the northern Gulf coast. An unstructured-grid Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model was used to simulate tides and hurricane-induced storm surges in the Gulf of Mexico. Simulated distributions of co-amplitude and co-phase of semi-diurnal and diurnal tides are in good agreement with previous modeling studies. The storm surges induced by four historical hurricanes (Rita, Katrina, Ivan and Dolly) were simulated and compared to observed water levels at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration tide stations. Effects of coastal subsidence and future global sea level rise on coastal inundation in the Louisiana coast were evaluated using a parameter “change of inundation depth” through sensitivity simulations that were based on a projected future subsidence scenario and 1-m global sea level rise by the end of the century. Model results suggested that hurricane-induced storm surge height and coastal inundation could be exacerbated by future global sea level rise and subsidence, and that responses of storm surge and coastal inundation to the effects of sea level rise and subsidence are highly nonlinear and vary on temporal and spatial scales.

  20. Recent Advances in Modeling Phosphorus and Nitrogen Delivery to the Gulf of Mexico and Implications for Managing Nutrients n the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.; Schwarz, G. E.; Boyer, E. W.; Nolan, J. V.; Brakebill, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Although the increased availability of reactive nutrients in past decades has benefited society via food and energy production, the corresponding rise in nutrient loadings to aquatic ecosystems is of particular concern, especially in many estuaries globally where increased nutrient loads have contributed to eutrophic conditions. In the United States, elevated riverine nutrients have contributed to stressed trophic conditions in a majority of estuaries, including the shallow coastal waters of the Louisiana shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico, where both nitrogen and phosphorus loadings are recognized as contributing to seasonal hypoxic conditions. Advances in geospatial modeling of nitrogen and phosphorus sources and transport in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River Basins (MARB), as reported in a recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study, provide important information to support improved assessments and management of nutrient loadings to the northern Gulf of Mexico. We summarize the findings of this study and discuss the implications for managing nutrient sources in the MARB. The study reveals important differences in the sources and aquatic transport of nitrogen and phosphorus that affect delivery to the Gulf. Although agricultural sources contribute a majority of the delivered nutrients to the Gulf, corn and soybean cultivation is the largest contributor of nitrogen whereas phosphorus originates primarily from animal manure on pasture and rangelands. Atmospheric deposition is the second leading source of nitrogen, with urban sources contributing relatively small quantities of both nutrients. Furthermore, we find that both nitrogen and phosphorus delivery to the Gulf is controlled by hydrological and biogeochemical processes (e.g., water travel time, denitrification, storage) that scale with stream size, although phosphorus also displays large local- and regional-scale differences in delivery caused by reservoir trapping. The importance of these processes

  1. On-Shore Pipeline Emergency Repair Center; Centro de Reparos Emergenciais de Dutos Terrestres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Byron Goncalves de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    After the accidents happened on years 2000 and 2001, in TRANSPETRO's operated pipelines, appeared a common conscientiousness about the necessity for the creation of a basic infrastructure for emergency and contingency pipeline repair that centralize equipment, procedures and technologies applied to pipeline maintenance. Then, it was planned the creation of the On-Shore Pipeline Emergency Center (CRE-DUT), following the model of the Off-Shore Pipelines Repair Group from PETROBRAS/EP, (Exploration and Production) and other similar centers of pipeline transport companies worldwide (Canada, Colombia, Mexico, Argentina). The CRE-DUT has the Mission of offering contingency; emergency and specials on-shore pipelines repair services, with safety, quality and at the less possible time, seeking for the leadership on applying new technologies and the excellency in repair activities. (author)

  2. Vertical and horizontal resolution dependency in the model representation of tracer dispersion along the continental slope in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, Annalisa; Choi, Jun; Kurian, Jaison; Chang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    A set of nine regional ocean model simulations at various horizontal (from 1 to 9 km) and vertical (from 25 to 150 layers) resolutions with different vertical mixing parameterizations is carried out to examine the transport and mixing of a passive tracer released near the ocean bottom over the continental slope in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The release location is in proximity to the Deepwater Horizon oil well that ruptured in April 2010. Horizontal and diapycnal diffusivities are calculated and their dependence on the model set-up and on the representation of mesoscale and submesoscale circulations is discussed. Horizontal and vertical resolutions play a comparable role in determining the modeled horizontal diffusivities. Vertical resolution is key to a proper representation of passive tracer propagation and - in the case of the Gulf of Mexico - contributes to both confining the tracer along the continental slope and limiting its vertical spreading. The choice of the tracer advection scheme is also important, with positive definiteness in the tracer concentration being achieved at the price of spurious mixing across density surfaces. In all cases, however, the diapycnal mixing coefficient derived from the model simulations overestimates the observed value, indicating an area where model improvement is needed.

  3. Modeling of seismic amplitude to discriminate the effects of lithology and fluids in AVO anomalies in deep water of the Gulf of Mexico Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdan, T.; Ramirez Ortega, C.; Gonzalez Ibarra, A.

    2007-05-01

    Recently the interest in deep water hydrocarbon exploration of the Gulf of Mexico Basin has increased. Hydrocarbon detection with AVO method in deep water presents greater ambiguity than at shallow depth. For this reason it is necessary to establish an strategy that reduces the risk of perforation associated with the interpretation of AVO anomalies. For the case of sandstone and shale, their petrophysical properties vary widely in the Gulf of Mexico Basin. For example, sandstones located at depths greater than 2-3 km can loose porosity due to cementation and hence this affect rock properties as impedance and Poisson coefficient, producing changes in seismic amplitudes. Reservoir sandstones can produce positive, negative o null reflections in the seismic sections. Throughout the Tertiary basins in the Gulf of México there are areas where acoustic impedance values of shales and gas sandstones are approximately equal. This means that those zones with hydrocarbon can appear as dim spot and are difficult to detect with conventional 3D seismic data. Hydrocarbon saturation affected the velocity of soft rocks at shallow depths, where sandstones is not cemented, but at greater depth when cementation increases susceptibility of rocks to fluid diminishes. For that reason it is important before AVO to make the elastic modeling to study the influence of different factors like mineralogy (obtained from analysis of well core and well logs), pore pressure, attenuation, illumination, anisotropy, etc. The studied elastic models show that it is often difficult to isolate the lithologic and fluid contribution to seismic response. To discriminate lithology from hydrocarbon it is necessary to make anelastic modeling (including attenuation), based on the fact that sands with gas produce attenuation anomaly whereas mineralogical changes do not. A detailed study of attenuation will allow to evaluate if the volume of gas in reservoir is commercial or not.

  4. Modelling nitrogen and phosphorus limitation on phytoplankton growth in Narva Bay, south-eastern Gulf of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadi Lessin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The relative roles of nitrogen and phosphorus in the limitationof phytoplankton growth in Narva Bay, south-eastern Gulf of Finland,were studied by combining the results of numerical modellingand nutrient enrichment experiments. Modelled biomass-based intracellularnutrient concentrations (nutrient functions were used to estimatethe limiting nutrient in Narva Bay. Nutrient functions - NF∈ [0; 1] for nitrogen and PF ∈ [0; 1] for phosphorus - definethe dependence of the phytoplankton growth rate on nutrients:NF = PF = 1 corresponds to non-limitation of phytoplankton growthby nutrients, whereas NF = 0 or PF = 0 to zero growth. Thebiotests indicated the response of phytoplankton growth to anincrease in nutrient concentration in the surrounding water.Three locations were selected for detailed analyses of temporalvariations in the nutrient functions: the offshore station N12,station N8 at the mouth of the River Narva, and coastal station38. The biotests were performed at the same stations.NF and PF reached values of 0.9 prior to the spring bloom.With the onset of the spring bloom, NF decreased rapidly and remained below0.1 in the open part of Narva Bay for the rest of that period.In the coastal zone, NF was in excess of 0.1, with a localmaximum in the river mouth area. PF decreased to 0.3-0.4 inthe open bay after the spring bloom. In the coastal zone PFremained above 0.4, with a certain increase from the midsummerminimum towards the end of summer. The numerical modelling resultsclearly show that nitrogen limits phytoplankton growth in NarvaBay. Phosphorus limitation may occur only for a limited periodand over a limited area at the Narva River mouth and other coastallocations. In general, the biotests backed up the modelling results,the main exception being in the open bay during summer. The modeldoes not account for nitrogen fixation, however. Since N-fixingcyanobacteria were prevalent in the offshore area, the additionof phosphorus led to enhanced

  5. Prediction of sea water intrusion for mining activity in close precincts of sea shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Awanindra Pratap; Gupta, Prem Kumar; Khandelwal, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    The mining lease area of Surka [District Bhavnagar, Gujarat (India)] is located within 6-12 km horizontal distance of sea shore of Gulf of Cambay. Whenever, there will be onset of lignite extraction, there will be always a threat of sea water intrusion into the mining lease area due to its close proximity to seashore. This article describes the prediction of sea water intrusion into the lease area of whole mining block using Ghyben-Herzberg relation between fresh and saline water, Remote Sensing, Ground Truth verification, Electrical Resistivity Survey and groundwater table monitored during the year 2004. As per the Ghyben-Herzberg relation, results show that there will not be sea water intrusion. If there is excess pumping of water then also the basement rock below the lignite seam will put hindrance to any possible upconing of saline water interface.

  6. Influence of Subtropical Jetstream on Arabian Gulf Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, S.; Pauluis, O.; Ravindran, A. M.; TP, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Arabian Gulf and surrounding regions are predominantly arid. However, this region hosts a large population due to the intense economic activity that is centered on the exploration of natural resources in and around the Arabian Gulf. Thus, few precipitation events that occur during boreal winter are important for society and ecology of this region. The mechanisms of winter precipitation over the Gulf are not well understood, partly due to a lack of long term meteorological observation. Here we explore the dynamics of Arabian Gulf winter precipitation events using available observations and a high resolution atmospheric model simulation. Our analyses show that the northern Gulf receives about six times more precipitation than the southern Gulf. Often, the southern Gulf precipitation forms as a result of downstream development of northern Gulf disturbance. The southward movement of northern Gulf disturbances is influenced by the location of subtropical jet. The probability of a northern Gulf precipitating weather system to move south is higher when the subtropical jet is located equatorward of 30°N. The equatorward position of jet favors the penetration of mid-latitude weather systems over the Arabian Peninsula, which in turn pushes the Arabian anticyclone eastward and triggers moisture transport from the Arabian Sea that is essential for southern Gulf precipitation events.

  7. Two depositional models for Pliocene coastal plain fluvial systems, Goliad Formation, south Texas Gulf Coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, H.D.; Galloway, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Goliad Formation consists of four depositional systems-the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems in the southwest and the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems in the northeast. Five facies are recognized in the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems: (1) primary channel-fill facies, (2) chaotic flood channel-fill facies, (3) complex splay facies, (4) flood plain facies, and (5) playa facies. A model for Realitos-Mathis depositional environments shows arid-climate braided stream complexes with extremely coarse sediment load, highly variable discharge, and marked channel instability. Broad, shallow, straight to slightly sinuous primary channels were flanked by wide flood channels. Flood channels passed laterally into broad, low-relief flood plains. Small playas occupied topographic lows near large channel axes. Three facies are recognized in the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems: (1) channel-fill facies, (2) crevasse splay facies, and (3) flood plain facies. A model for Cuero-Eagle Lake depositional environments shows coarse-grained meander belts in a semi-arid climate. Slightly to moderately sinuous meandering streams were flanked by low, poorly developed natural levees. Crevasse splays were common, but tended to be broad and ill-defined. Extensive, low-relief flood plains occupied interaxial areas. The model proposed for the Realitos and Mathis fluvial systems may aid in recognition of analogous ancient depositional systems. In addition, since facies characteristics exercise broad controls on Goliad uranium mineralization, the proposed depositional models aid in defining target zones for Goliad uranium exploration

  8. Dynamical Evaluation of Ocean Models Using the Gulf Stream as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ECMWF over 2004-2006, (c) a 1978-2002 climatology derived using an ECMWF 40-year reanalysis (ERA-40) (Kallberg et al. 2004) and (d) a 2003-2008 clima ...these experiments starts from an initial state forced by ECMWF clima - tology for the surface momentum and heat. However, starting points for the two...winds. This correction is applied to a new model spin up using the ERA-40 clima - tology to generate a new initial condition for an interannual forced

  9. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of gastropod assemblages in rocky shores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    Full Text Available Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1 describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2 identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3 identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org. A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2% appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs. In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska. No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05. Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages.

  10. Inter-nesting movements and habitat-use of adult female Kemp's ridley turtles in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J Shaver

    Full Text Available Species vulnerability is increased when individuals congregate in restricted areas for breeding; yet, breeding habitats are not well defined for many marine species. Identification and quantification of these breeding habitats are essential to effective conservation. Satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM were used to define inter-nesting habitat of endangered Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii in the Gulf of Mexico. Turtles were outfitted with satellite transmitters after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA, from 1998 through 2013 (n = 60; Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, during 2010 and 2011 (n = 11; and Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico, during 2012 and 2013 (n = 11. These sites span the range of nearly all nesting by this species. Inter-nesting habitat lies in a narrow band of nearshore western Gulf of Mexico waters in the USA and Mexico, with mean water depth of 14 to 19 m within a mean distance to shore of 6 to 11 km as estimated by 50% kernel density estimate, α-Hull, and minimum convex polygon methodologies. Turtles tracked during the inter-nesting period moved, on average, 17.5 km/day and a mean total distance of 398 km. Mean home ranges occupied were 725 to 2948 km2. Our results indicate that these nearshore western Gulf waters represent critical inter-nesting habitat for this species, where threats such as shrimp trawling and oil and gas platforms also occur. Up to half of all adult female Kemp's ridleys occupy this habitat for weeks to months during each nesting season. Because inter-nesting habitat for this species is concentrated in nearshore waters of the western Gulf of Mexico in both Mexico and the USA, international collaboration is needed to protect this essential habitat and the turtles occurring within it.

  11. Studying methane migration mechanisms at Walker Ridge, Gulf of Mexico, via 3D methane hydrate reservoir modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nole, Michael [University of Texas at Austin; Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin; Mohanty, Kishore [University of Texas at Austin; Cook, Ann [Ohio State University; Hillman, Jess [Ohio State University

    2015-12-15

    We have developed a 3D methane hydrate reservoir simulator to model marine methane hydrate systems. Our simulator couples highly nonlinear heat and mass transport equations and includes heterogeneous sedimentation, in-situ microbial methanogenesis, the influence of pore size contrast on solubility gradients, and the impact of salt exclusion from the hydrate phase on dissolved methane equilibrium in pore water. Using environmental parameters from Walker Ridge in the Gulf of Mexico, we first simulate hydrate formation in and around a thin, dipping, planar sand stratum surrounded by clay lithology as it is buried to 295mbsf. We find that with sufficient methane being supplied by organic methanogenesis in the clays, a 200x pore size contrast between clays and sands allows for a strong enough concentration gradient to significantly drop the concentration of methane hydrate in clays immediately surrounding a thin sand layer, a phenomenon that is observed in well log data. Building upon previous work, our simulations account for the increase in sand-clay solubility contrast with depth from about 1.6% near the top of the sediment column to 8.6% at depth, which leads to a progressive strengthening of the diffusive flux of methane with time. By including an exponentially decaying organic methanogenesis input to the clay lithology with depth, we see a decrease in the aqueous methane supplied to the clays surrounding the sand layer with time, which works to further enhance the contrast in hydrate saturation between the sand and surrounding clays. Significant diffusive methane transport is observed in a clay interval of about 11m above the sand layer and about 4m below it, which matches well log observations. The clay-sand pore size contrast alone is not enough to completely eliminate hydrate (as observed in logs), because the diffusive flux of aqueous methane due to a contrast in pore size occurs slower than the rate at which methane is supplied via organic methanogenesis

  12. Visual analysis of uncertainties in ocean forecasts for planning and operation of off-shore structures

    KAUST Repository

    Hollt, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    We present a novel integrated visualization system that enables interactive visual analysis of ensemble simulations used in ocean forecasting, i.e, simulations of sea surface elevation. Our system enables the interactive planning of both the placement and operation of off-shore structures. We illustrate this using a real-world simulation of the Gulf of Mexico. Off-shore structures, such as those used for oil exploration, are vulnerable to hazards caused by strong loop currents. The oil and gas industry therefore relies on accurate ocean forecasting systems for planning their operations. Nowadays, these forecasts are based on multiple spatio-temporal simulations resulting in multidimensional, multivariate and multivalued data, so-called ensemble data. Changes in sea surface elevation are a good indicator for the movement of loop current eddies, and our visualization approach enables their interactive exploration and analysis. We enable analysis of the spatial domain, for planning the placement of structures, as well as detailed exploration of the temporal evolution at any chosen position, for the prediction of critical ocean states that require the shutdown of rig operations. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Migration, foraging, and residency patterns for Northern Gulf loggerheads: implications of local threats and international movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M Hart

    Full Text Available Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM loggerheads (Caretta caretta make up one of the smallest subpopulations of this threatened species and have declining nest numbers. We used satellite telemetry and a switching state-space model to identify distinct foraging areas used by 59 NGoM loggerheads tagged during 2010-2013. We tagged turtles after nesting at three sites, 1 in Alabama (Gulf Shores; n = 37 and 2 in Florida (St. Joseph Peninsula; n = 20 and Eglin Air Force Base; n = 2. Peak migration time was 22 July to 9 August during which >40% of turtles were in migration mode; the mean post-nesting migration period was 23.0 d (±13.8 d SD. After displacement from nesting beaches, 44 turtles traveled to foraging sites where they remained resident throughout tracking durations. Selected foraging locations were variable distances from tagging sites, and in 5 geographic regions; no turtles selected foraging sites outside the Gulf of Mexico (GoM. Foraging sites delineated using 50% kernel density estimation were located a mean distance of 47.6 km from land and in water with mean depth of -32.5 m; other foraging sites, delineated using minimum convex polygons, were located a mean distance of 43.0 km from land and in water with a mean depth of -24.9 m. Foraging sites overlapped with known trawling activities, oil and gas extraction activities, and the footprint of surface oiling during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill (n = 10. Our results highlight the year-round use of habitats in the GoM by loggerheads that nest in the NGoM. Our findings indicate that protection of females in this subpopulation requires both international collaborations and management of threats that spatially overlap with distinct foraging habitats.

  14. Shore and off-shore monitoring of Rana Pratap Sagar lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P.C.; Roy, Alpana; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) is a man made fresh water reservoir on the river Chambal and is located about 65 km away from Kota city in the state of Rajasthan. It is a balancing reservoir between Gandhi Sagar, upstream and Jawahar Sagar, downstream. On the eastern bank of RPS there exist Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) Site, comprising of four operating pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) of 220 MWe each. The low level radioactive effluents from RAPS, are released in controlled manner to RPS. On release the effluents undergo dispersion in the aquatic environment of RPS and may reach man through, various pathways. Being fresh water reservoir, considerable emphasis is laid on the aquatic monitoring aspects relating to RPS and downstream reservoirs. This paper presents the monitored levels of radioactivity prevailing in the aquatic samples collected from near shore and off shore locations of RPS. (author)

  15. 2015 Gulf Guardian Award Winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program Partnership developed the Gulf Guardian awards as a way to recognize and honor the businesses, community groups, individuals, and agencies that are taking positive steps to keep the Gulf healthy, beautiful and productive.

  16. 2017 Gulf Guardian Award Winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program Partnership developed the Gulf Guardian awards as a way to recognize and honor the businesses, community groups, individuals, and agencies that are taking positive steps to keep the Gulf healthy, beautiful and productive.

  17. Source characterization and tsunami modeling of submarine landslides along the Yucatán Shelf/Campeche Escarpment, southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, Jason D.; Geist, Eric L.; Paull, Charles K.; Caress, David W; Gwiazda, Roberto; Urrutia Fucugauchi, Jaime; Rebolledo Vieyra, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Submarine landslides occurring along the margins of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) represent a low-likelihood, but potentially damaging source of tsunamis. New multibeam bathymetry coverage reveals that mass wasting is pervasive along the Yucatán Shelf edge with several large composite landslides possibly removing as much as 70 km3 of the Cenozoic sedimentary section in a single event. Using GIS-based analysis, the dimensions of six landslides from the central and northern sections of the Yucatán Shelf/Campeche Escarpment were determined and used as input for preliminary tsunami generation and propagation models. Tsunami modeling is performed to compare the propagation characteristics and distribution of maximum amplitudes throughout the GOM among the different landslide scenarios. Various factors such as landslide geometry, location along the Yucatán Shelf/Campeche Escarpment, and refraction during propagation result in significant variations in the affected part of the Mexican and US Gulf Coasts. In all cases, however, tsunami amplitudes are greatest along the northern Yucatán Peninsula.

  18. Visual disamenities from off-shore wind farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Dubgaard, Alex; Tranberg, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Expansion of the off-shore wind power plays a significant role in the energy policies of many EU countries. However, off-shore wind farms create visual disamenities. These disamenities can be reduced by locating wind farms at larger distances from the coast – and accepting higher costs per k...... the shore, to minimise the external cost. The results also denote that preference preferences structures between the three samples are significantly different and possibly explained by different experience with off-shore wind farms . Finally the results illustrate that the marginal benefits off......Wh produced. Base on the choices among alternative wind farm outlays, the preferences for reducing visual disamenities of off-shore wind farms were elicited using the Choice Experiment Method. The results show a clear picture; the respondents in three independent samples are willing to pay for mowing future...

  19. A coupled physical-biological model of the Northern Gulf of Mexico shelf: model description, validation and analysis of phytoplankton variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fennel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Texas-Louisiana shelf in the Northern Gulf of Mexico receives large inputs of nutrients and freshwater from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River system. The nutrients stimulate high rates of primary production in the river plume, which contributes to the development of a large and recurring hypoxic area in summer, but the mechanistic links between hypoxia and river discharge of freshwater and nutrients are complex as the accumulation and vertical export of organic matter, the establishment and maintenance of vertical stratification, and the microbial degradation of organic matter are controlled by a non-linear interplay of factors. Unraveling these interactions will have to rely on a combination of observations and models. Here we present results from a realistic, 3-dimensional, physical-biological model with focus on a quantification of nutrient-stimulated phytoplankton growth, its variability and the fate of this organic matter. We demonstrate that the model realistically reproduces many features of observed nitrate and phytoplankton dynamics including observed property distributions and rates. We then contrast the environmental factors and phytoplankton source and sink terms characteristic of three model subregions that represent an ecological gradient from eutrophic to oligotrophic conditions. We analyze specifically the reasons behind the counterintuitive observation that primary production in the light-limited plume region near the Mississippi River delta is positively correlated with river nutrient input, and find that, while primary production and phytoplankton biomass are positively correlated with nutrient load, phytoplankton growth rate is not. This suggests that accumulation of biomass in this region is not primarily controlled bottom up by nutrient-stimulation, but top down by systematic differences in the loss processes.

  20. Estimating surface pCO2 in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Which remote sensing model to use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangling; Hu, Chuanmin; Cai, Wei-Jun; Yang, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Various approaches and models have been proposed to remotely estimate surface pCO2 in the ocean, with variable performance as they were designed for different environments. Among these, a recently developed mechanistic semi-analytical approach (MeSAA) has shown its advantage for its explicit inclusion of physical and biological forcing in the model, yet its general applicability is unknown. Here, with extensive in situ measurements of surface pCO2, the MeSAA, originally developed for the summertime East China Sea, was tested in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) where river plumes dominate water's biogeochemical properties during summer. Specifically, the MeSAA-predicted surface pCO2 was estimated by combining the dominating effects of thermodynamics, river-ocean mixing and biological activities on surface pCO2. Firstly, effects of thermodynamics and river-ocean mixing (pCO2@Hmixing) were estimated with a two-endmember mixing model, assuming conservative mixing. Secondly, pCO2 variations caused by biological activities (ΔpCO2@bio) was determined through an empirical relationship between sea surface temperature (SST)-normalized pCO2 and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) 8-day composite chlorophyll concentration (CHL). The MeSAA-modeled pCO2 (sum of pCO2@Hmixing and ΔpCO2@bio) was compared with the field-measured pCO2. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was 22.94 μatm (5.91%), with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.25, mean bias (MB) of - 0.23 μatm and mean ratio (MR) of 1.001, for pCO2 ranging between 316 and 452 μatm. To improve the model performance, a locally tuned MeSAA was developed through the use of a locally tuned ΔpCO2@bio term. A multi-variate empirical regression model was also developed using the same dataset. Both the locally tuned MeSAA and the regression models showed improved performance comparing to the original MeSAA, with R2 of 0.78 and 0.84, RMSE of 12.36 μatm (3.14%) and 10.66 μatm (2.68%), MB of 0.00 μatm and - 0

  1. Database Design for the Evaluation of On-shore and Off-Shore Storm Characteristics over East Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Amy A.; Wilson, Jennifer G.; Brown, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from multiple sources is needed to investigate lightning characteristics over differing terrain (on-shore vs. off-shore) by comparing natural cloud-to-ground lightning behavior differences depending on the characteristics of attachment mediums. The KSC Lightning Research Database (KLRD) was created to reduce manual data entry time and aid research by combining information from various data sources into a single record for each unique lightning event of interest. The KLRD uses automatic data handling functions to import data from a lightning detection network and identify and record lighting events of interest. Additional automatic functions import data from the NASA Buoy 41009 (located approximately 20 miles off the coast) and the KSC Electric Field Mill network, then match these electric field mill values to the corresponding lightning events. The KLRD calculates distances between each lightning event and the various electric field mills, aids in identifying the location type for each stroke (i.e., on-shore vs. off-shore, etc.), provides statistics on the number of strokes per flash, and produces customizable reports for quick retrieval and logical display of data. Data from February 2014 to date covers 48 unique storm dates with 2295 flashes containing 5700 strokes, of which 2612 are off-shore and 1003 are on-shore. The number of strokes per flash ranges from 1 to 22. The ratio of single to subsequent stroke flashes is 1.29 for off-shore strokes and 2.19 for on-shore strokes.

  2. The Gulf War and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1994-01-01

    The Gulf War inflicted dramatic environmental damage upon the fragile desert and shore environments of Kuwait and northeastern Saudi Arabia. Coastal and marine environments experienced oil spills of more than 8 million barrels, which killed wildlife and damaged the fishing industry. In inland Kuwait, hundreds of oil lakes are scattered across the desert surface: these lakes emit noxious gases, drown insects and birds, and may seep to pollute groundwater. Exploding and burning oil wells released soot particles, oil droplets, and noxious chemicals into the atmosphere, spreading air pollution, acid rain, and respiratory problems. Military diggings, constructions, and vehicles have destroyed much of the desert pavement, resulting in increased dust storms and large, moving dunes

  3. Optical Models for Remote Sensing of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter Absorption and Salinity in New England, Middle Atlantic and Gulf Coast Estuaries USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl J. Keith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean color algorithms have been successfully developed to estimate chlorophyll a and total suspended solids concentrations in coastal and estuarine waters but few have been created to estimate light absorption due to colored dissolved inorganic matter (CDOM and salinity from the spectral signatures of these waters. In this study, we used remotely sensed reflectances in the red and blue-green portions of the visible spectrum retrieved from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS and the International Space Station (ISS Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO images to create a model to estimate CDOM absorption. CDOM absorption results were then used to develop an algorithm to predict the surface salinities of coastal bays and estuaries in New England, Middle Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico regions. Algorithm-derived CDOM absorptions and salinities were successfully validated using laboratory measured absorption values over magnitudes of ~0.1 to 7.0 m−1 and field collected CTD data from oligohaline to polyhaline (S less than 5 to 18–30 environments in Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island; the Neuse River Estuary (North Carolina; Pensacola Bay (Florida; Choctawhatchee Bay (Florida; St. Andrews Bay (Florida; St. Joseph Bay (Florida; and inner continental shelf waters of the Gulf of Mexico.

  4. Which Fault Orientations Occur during Oblique Rifting? Combining Analog and Numerical 3d Models with Observations from the Gulf of Aden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, J.; Brune, S.

    2013-12-01

    Oblique rift systems like the Gulf of Aden are intrinsically three-dimensional. In order to understand the evolution of these systems, one has to decode the fundamental mechanical similarities of oblique rifts. One way to accomplish this, is to strip away the complexity that is generated by inherited fault structures. In doing so, we assume a laterally homogeneous segment of Earth's lithosphere and ask how many different fault populations are generated during oblique extension inbetween initial deformation and final break-up. We combine results of an analog and a numerical model that feature a 3D segment of a layered lithosphere. In both cases, rift evolution is recorded quantitatively in terms of crustal fault geometries. For the numerical model, we adopt a novel post-processing method that allows to infer small-scale crustal fault orientation from the surface stress tensor. Both models involve an angle of 40 degrees between the rift normal and the extensional direction which allows comparison to the Gulf of Aden rift system. The resulting spatio-temporal fault pattern of our models shows three normal fault orientations: rift-parallel, extension-orthogonal, and intermediate, i.e. with a direction inbetween the two previous orientations. The rift evolution involves three distinct phases: (i) During the initial rift phase, wide-spread faulting with intermediate orientation occurs. (ii) Advanced lithospheric necking enables rift-parallel normal faulting at the rift flanks, while strike-slip faulting in the central part of the rift system indicates strain partitioning. (iii) During continental break-up, displacement-orthogonal as well as intermediate faults occur. We compare our results to the structural evolution of the Eastern Gulf of Aden. External parts of the rift exhibit intermediate and displacement-orthogonal faults while rift-parallel faults are present at the rift borders. The ocean-continent transition mainly features intermediate and displacement

  5. 3-D architecture modeling using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control: Example from the Mars {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, M.A.; Tiller, G.M.; Mahaffie, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Economic considerations of the deep-water turbidite play, in the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere, require large reservoir volumes to be drained by relatively few, very expensive wells. Deep-water development projects to date have been planned on the basis of high-quality 3-D seismic data and sparse well control. The link between 3-D seismic, well control, and the 3-D geological and reservoir architecture model are demonstrated here for Pliocene turbidite sands of the {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. This information was used to better understand potential reservoir compartments for development well planning.

  6. Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) for shore approach applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Neil [MGI do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) has become a commonly used construction method for pipeline shore approaches. HDD can mitigate environmental impact, provide greater burial depths and minimize construction schedules. The risks that are associated with HDD river crossings, which are generally well recognized, also apply to HDD shore approaches where they are combined with specific risks occurring from working in the marine environment. The shore approach projects of The Bronx and Hunts Point provide good practical examples of the benefits of this technology in spite of the various challenges encountered. (author)

  7. Modeling connectivity of walleye pollock in the Gulf of Alaska: Are there any linkages to the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Carolina; Hinckley, Sarah; Horne, John; Mazur, Michael; Hermann, Albert; Curchister, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the connectivity of walleye pollock in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) and linkages to the Bering Sea (BS) and Aleutian Island (AL) regions. We used a spatially-explicit Individual-based model (IBM) coupled to 6 years of a hydrodynamic model that simulates the early life history of walleye pollock in the GOA (eggs to age-0 juveniles). The processes modeled included growth, movement, mortality, feeding and the bioenergetics component for larvae and juveniles. Simulations were set to release particles on the 1st of the month (February to May) in fourteen historical spawning areas in the GOA up to the 1st of September each year. Model results reproduced the link between the Shelikof Strait spawning area and the Shumagin nursery region for March and April spawners, besides other Potential Nursery Areas (PNAs) found in the GOA. A prominent finding of this study was the appearance of the BS as important PNAs for several GOA spawning grounds, which is supported by a consistent flow into the BS through Unimak Pass. The simulations showed the highest density of simulated surviving pollock in the western Bering Sea (WBS) region with the lowest coefficients of variation of the whole domain. Three spawning sectors were defined, which aggregate multiple spawning areas in the eastern (EGOA), central (CGOA) and western Gulf of Alaska (WGOA). A connectivity matrix showed strong retention within the CGOA (25.9%) and EGOA (23.8%), but not in the WGOA (7.2%). Within the GOA, the highest connectivity is observed from EGOA to CGOA (57.8%) followed by the connection from CGOA to WGOA (24.3%). Overall, one of the most prominent connections was from WGOA to WBS (62.8%), followed by a connection from CGOA to WBS (29.2%). In addition, scenarios of shifting spawning locations and nursery sectors of GOA, BS and AL are explored and implications for walleye pollock stock structure hypotheses are discussed.

  8. Controls on the distribution of cosmogenic 10Be across shore platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Martin D.; Rood, Dylan H.; Ellis, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying rates of erosion on cliffed coasts across a range of timescales is vital for understanding the drivers and processes of coastal change and for assessing risks posed by future cliff retreat. Historical records cover at best the last 150 years; cosmogenic isotopes, such as 10Be could allow us to look further into the past to assess coastal change on millennial timescales. Cosmogenic isotopes accumulate in situ near the Earth surface and have been used extensively to quantify erosion rates, burial dates and surface exposure ages in terrestrial landscapes over the last 3 decades. More recently, applications in rocky coast settings have quantified the timing of mass wasting events, determined long-term averaged rates of cliff retreat and revealed the exposure history of shore platforms. In this contribution, we develop and explore a numerical model for the accumulation of 10Be on eroding shore platforms. In a series of numerical experiments, we investigated the influence of topographic and water shielding, dynamic platform erosion processes, the presence and variation in beach cover, and heterogeneous distribution of erosion on the distribution of 10Be across shore platforms. Results demonstrate that, taking into account relative sea level change and tides, the concentration of 10Be is sensitive to rates of cliff retreat. Factors such as topographic shielding and beach cover act to reduce 10Be concentrations on the platform and may result in overestimation of cliff retreat rates if not accounted for. The shape of the distribution of 10Be across a shore platform can potentially reveal whether cliff retreat rates are declining or accelerating through time. Measurement of 10Be in shore platforms has great potential to allow us to quantify long-term rates of cliff retreat and platform erosion.

  9. Postglacial development of the eastern Gulf of Finland: from Pleistocene glacial lake basins to Holocene lagoon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchuk, Daria; Sergeev, Alexander; Kotilainen, Aarno; Hyttinen, Outi; Grigoriev, Andrey; Gerasimov, Dmitry; Anisimov, Mikhail; Gusentsova, Tatiana; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Amantov, Aleksey; Budanov, Leonid

    2016-04-01

    Despite significant amount of data, there are still lots of debatable questions and unsolved problems concerning postglacial geological history of the Eastern Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. Among these problems are: 1) locations of the end moraine and glacio-fluvial deposits; 2) time and genesis of the large accretion forms (spits, bars, dunes); 3) basinwide correlations of trangression/regression culminations with the other parts of the Baltic Sea basin; 4) study of salinity, timing, frequency and intensity of Holocene saline water inflows and their links of sedimentation processes associated with climate change. Aiming to receive new data about regional postglacial development, the GIS analyses of bottom relief and available geological and geophysical data was undertaken, the maps of preQuaternary relief, moraine and Late Pleistocene surfaces, glacial moraine and Holocene sediments thicknesses were compiled. High-resolution sediment proxy study of several cores, taken from eastern Gulf of Finland bottom, allows to study grain-size distribution and geochemical features of glacial lake and Holocene sediments, to reveal sedimentation rates and paleoenvironment features of postglacial basins. Interdisciplinary geoarcheological approaches offer new opportunities for studying the region's geological history and paleogeography. Based on proxy marine geological and coastal geoarcheological studies (e.g. off-shore acoustic survey, side-scan profiling and sediment sampling, on-shore ground-penetrating radar (GPR SIR 2000), leveling, drilling, grain-size analyses and radiocarbon dating and archeological research) detailed paleogeographical reconstruction for three micro-regions - Sestroretsky and Lahta Lowlands, Narva-Luga Klint Bay and Southern Ladoga - were compiled. As a result, new high resolution models of Holocene geological development of the Eastern Gulf of Finland were received. Model calibration and verification used results from proxy geoarcheological research

  10. Economic valuation of the visual externalities of off-shore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladenburg, J.; Dubgaard, A.; Martensen, L.; Tranberg, J.

    2005-07-01

    The study is based on a mail survey including 700 households in a national sample, and 350 households in two sub samples in the Horns Rev and Nysted areas. In the choice experiment, four alternative off-shore wind farm distances from the coast were used namely: 8, 12, 18 and 50 km. Based on the respondents' choices between alternative locations of off-shore wind farms their willingness to pay (WTP) for increasing the distance was elicited using three different sub samples for each of the three locations. These sub samples were constructed using the full sample (B-model), a sample containing respondents who were certain in their choice (C-model) and finally a sample containing respondents, who according to a defined set of questions were considered consistent and rational in their choice (R-model). (au)

  11. Wind-direction analysis in coastal mountainous sites: An experimental study within the Gulf of Corinth, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xydis, G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Focus was given to the forced airflow around mountains and the effect on wind profile. ► WAsP model correlated measured and predicted wind directions in 4 coastal areas. ► The difference between simulated and measured values was always less than 8.35%. ► The clear forefront, distance from the mast and the shore influences the wind rose. - Abstract: The wind potential around several coastal areas within the Gulf of Corinth has been studied and an experimental analysis implemented accentuates the level of significance that local winds have in wind farm development and planning. The purpose of this study was to examine wind direction of coastal areas based on field measurements and correlate the results with ruggedness and distance. Four coastal mountainous areas, situated within the Gulf of Corinth, were examined and simulated results were compared to measurements aiming in explaining substantially the wind direction profile. Understanding wind flow interdependent not only from local wind, but also in the wider area of large mountains masses is of great importance for estimating wind resource in rough coastal terrain. In the present paper wind resource analysis results impose new views on the relation among masts’ horizontal distance, difference of ruggedness index, and wind direction in coastal sites.

  12. How and when did a strong thinning occur in the Gulf of Aden? A discussion from field, geophysical data and analogue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahsen, N.; Autin, J.; Leroy, S. D.; D'Acremont, E.; Beslier, M.; Husson, L.; Al-Toubi, K. I.

    2009-12-01

    In the complex evolution of modern scenario of continental rifting, questions about transitions between stages of extension (distributed vs. localized extension, mantle exhumation …) may arise. How and why extension localizes is still a matter of debate. Thus, the parameters controlling the triggering of localized extension must be discussed. Here, we study the effect of local stresses arising from thickness variations in the crust. Here, we use the Gulf of Aden as a natural laboratory to better constrain the evolution of the modes of extension. The Gulf of Aden, at the boundary between Arabian and Somalian plates, offers many advantages, among which its obliquity: the Gulf (075°E) trends obliquely to the plate displacement (025°E). Thus, many fault populations were initiated with different strike through time. Those different fault populations were due to different processes and different stress regimes. From field data in southern Sultanate of Oman and Yemen (Socotra Island), we show that a complex space and time distribution of fault initiation occurred. A counter-clockwise rotation of extension (from 020°E to 160°E, becoming orthogonal to the rift) might have happened during rifting. We suggest that this may be due to local stresses arising from crust thickness variations. However, the question is whether or not those local stresses strongly influenced the rift localization. On seismic profiles, constrained by bathymetric, gravity data and seismic refraction, shallow and deep structure were imaged. Several faults are observed, some of them clearly accommodating much of the far-field early and late extension. A detailed mapping, in map view, of those faults shows that many of them strike at a significant angle from the perpendicular to the divergence. Thus, one can wonder that those faults may be due to local stresses oblique to the rift trend. Finally, we present an analogue model of oblique rifting that allows observing the fault evolution through time

  13. Photosynthesis in a sub-Antarctic shore-zone lichen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, V.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Photosynthetic responses to moisture, light, temperature, salinity and inorganic nitrogen fertilization are reported for a shore-zone lichen Turgidiusculum complicatulum (formerly Mastodia tesselata), a possible recent introduction to sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Optimum moisture contents for net

  14. Bare Beach Logistics Over-the-Shore: An Outdated Concept?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pehrson, Christopher J

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of bare beach logistics over-the-shore (LOTS) operations. It examines the utility of the bare beach and asks if this method of LOTS is still viable for today's military...

  15. Water Resources Policies and Authorities: Federal Participation in Shore Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    This Engineer Regulation (ER) provides policies and guidelines for determining the extent of Federal participation in potential Federal projects for protection from shore erosion, hurricanes, and abnormal tidal and lake flooding...

  16. Shore protection structures along Kerala coast-low cost alteratives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Jasanto, P.K.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Several studies over the last two decades on low cost shore protection measures are reviewed to have an integrated profile with a point on application to the sheltered coasts of Kerala. It is emphasised that these alternative are generally...

  17. Design of a gravity corer for near shore sediment sampling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.T.; Sonawane, A.V.; Nayak, B.U.

    For the purpose of geotechnical investigation a gravity corer has been designed and fabricated to obtain undisturbed sediment core samples from near shore waters. The corer was successfully operated at 75 stations up to water depth 30 m. Simplicity...

  18. Modelling nearshore hydrodynamics and circulation under the impact of high waves at the coast of Varkiza in Saronic-Athens Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas A. Belibassakis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A plethora of physical parameters, such as hydro-, litho- and morpho-dynamic characteristics, are essential for understanding the response of coastal systems to intense sea states in terms of sediment transport and shoreline evolution. Nowadays, numerical models are extensively applied to meet the above needs and support coastal planning and management. In the present work, a 2DH dynamic modelling system is used for simulating the hydrodynamic and meteorological/oceanographic characteristics of the Saronic Gulf, in order to examine circulation patterns and predict sediment transport phenomena under high wave conditions at the coast of Varkiza, a sandy beach in the southern Attica, Greece. Time series of wind and wave data were used as input at the open boundaries of the model domain while the model was calibrated and validated through (linear and directional statistical measures with respect to in situ wave measurements, since there was lack of hydrodynamic data at the site of interest. The simulation period of the model was between January 3 and February 19, 2013, with consecutive high waves in-between. The good agreement of the numerical results from the wave and hydrodynamic model with in situ measurements confirmed the suitability of the model for the support of sediment transport rates at Varkiza coastal segment. Model results reveal that there is a counter-clockwise water circulation during high waves that contribute to the erosion of the examined beach, which is also confirmed by independent field measurements.

  19. Hydrocarbon distributions in sediments of the open area of the Arabian Gulf following the 1991 Gulf War oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Lihaibi, S.S.; Ghazi, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Surface sediments collected from the open area of the Arabian Gulf were analysed for total petroleum hydrocarbons and specific aliphatic hydrocarbon components in order to provide information on the extent of oil contamination and the degree of weathering of the spilled oil following the Gulf War. The surface distribution of the petroleum hydrocarbons showed an increasing trend towards the north-east, and among the individual transects there was a pronounced increasing trend towards the north-west direction. Despite off-shore oil-related activities as well as a potential impact from the 1991 oil spill, the concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the study area were relatively low. This finding may be attributed to the effectiveness of weathering processes. (author)

  20. Tidal Energy System for On-Shore Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, Allan J

    2012-06-26

    Addressing the urgent need to develop LCOE competitive renewable energy solutions for US energy security and to replace fossil-fuel generation with the associated benefits to environment impacts including a reduction in CO2 emissions, this Project focused on the advantages of using hydraulic energy transfer (HET) in large-scale Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) systems for harvesting off-shore tidal energy in US waters. A recent DOE resource assessment, identifies water power resources have a potential to meet 15% of the US electric supply by 2030, with MHK technologies being a major component. The work covered a TRL-4 laboratory proof-in-concept demonstration plus modeling of a 15MW full scale system based on an approach patented by NASA-JPL, in which submerged high-ratio gearboxes and electrical generators in conventional MHK turbine systems are replaced by a submerged hydraulic radial pump coupled to on-shore hydraulic motors driving a generator. The advantages are; first, the mean-time-between-failure (MTBF), or maintenance, can be extended from approximately 1 to 5 years and second, the range of tidal flow speeds which can be efficiently harvested can be extended beyond that of a conventional submerged generator. The approach uses scalable, commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components, facilitating scale-up and commercialization. All the objectives of the Project have been successfully met (1) A TRL4 system was designed, constructed and tested. It simulates a tidal energy turbine, with a 2-m diameter blade in up to a 2.9 m/sec flow. The system consists of a drive motor assembly providing appropriate torque and RPM, attached to a radial piston pump. The pump circulates pressurized, environmentally-friendly, HEES hydraulic fluid in a closed loop to an axial piston motor which drives an electrical generator, with a resistive load. The performance of the components, subsystems and system were evaluated during simulated tidal cycles. The pump is contained in a tank for

  1. Inter-nesting movements and habitat-use of adult female Kemp’s ridley turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Bucklin, David N.; Iverson, Autumn; Rubio, Cynthia; Backof, Thomas F.; Burchfield, Patrick M.; Gonzales Diaz Miron, Raul de Jesus; Dutton, Peter H.; Frey, Amy; Peña, Jaime; Gamez, Daniel Gomez; Martinez, Hector J.; Ortiz, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Species vulnerability is increased when individuals congregate in restricted areas for breeding; yet, breeding habitats are not well defined for many marine species. Identification and quantification of these breeding habitats are essential to effective conservation. Satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM) were used to define inter-nesting habitat of endangered Kemp’s ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico. Turtles were outfitted with satellite transmitters after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA, from 1998 through 2013 (n = 60); Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, during 2010 and 2011 (n = 11); and Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico, during 2012 and 2013 (n = 11). These sites span the range of nearly all nesting by this species. Inter-nesting habitat lies in a narrow band of nearshore western Gulf of Mexico waters in the USA and Mexico, with mean water depth of 14 to 19 m within a mean distance to shore of 6 to 11 km as estimated by 50% kernel density estimate, α-Hull, and minimum convex polygon methodologies. Turtles tracked during the inter-nesting period moved, on average, 17.5 km/day and a mean total distance of 398 km. Mean home ranges occupied were 725 to 2948 km2. Our results indicate that these nearshore western Gulf waters represent critical inter-nesting habitat for this species, where threats such as shrimp trawling and oil and gas platforms also occur. Up to half of all adult female Kemp’s ridleys occupy this habitat for weeks to months during each nesting season. Because inter-nesting habitat for this species is concentrated in nearshore waters of the western Gulf of Mexico in both Mexico and the USA, international collaboration is needed to protect this essential habitat and the turtles occurring within it.

  2. Selective Toxicity of Persian Gulf Sea Cucumber (Holothuria parva) and Sponge (Haliclona oculata) Methanolic Extracts on Liver Mitochondria Isolated from an Animal Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydi, Enayatollah; Motallebi, Abbasali; Dastbaz, Maryam; Dehghan, Sahar; Salimi, Ahmad; Nazemi, Melika; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2015-12-01

    Natural products isolated from marine environments are well known for their pharmacodynamic potential in diverse disease treatments, such as for cancer or inflammatory conditions. Sea cucumbers are marine animals of the phylum Echinoderm and the class Holothuroidea, with leathery skin and gelatinous bodies. Sponges are important components of Persian Gulf animal communities, and the marine sponges of the genus Haliclona have been known to display broad-spectrum biological activity. Many studies have shown that sea cucumbers and sponges contain antioxidants and anti-cancer compounds. This study was designed to determine the selective toxicity of Persian Gulf sea cucumber (Holothuria parva) and sponge (Haliclona oculata) methanolic extracts on liver mitochondria isolated from an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma, as part of a national project that hopes to identify novel potential anticancer candidates among Iranian Persian Gulf flora and fauna. To induce hepatocarcinogenesis, rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) injections (200 mg/kg i.p. by a single dose), and then the cancer was promoted with 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) (0.02 w/w) for two weeks. Histopathological evaluations were performed, and levels of liver injury markers and a specific liver cancer marker (alpha-fetoprotein), were determined for confirmation of hepatocellular carcinoma induction. Finally, mitochondria were isolated from cancerous and non-cancerous hepatocytes. Our results showed that H. parva methanolic extracts (250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL) and H. oculata methanolic extracts (200, 400, and 800 µg/mL) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial swelling, and cytochrome c release in the mitochondria obtained from cancerous hepatocytes, but not in mitochondria obtained from non-cancerous liver hepatocytes. These extracts also induced caspase-3 activation, which is known as a final mediator of apoptosis, in the hepatocytes

  3. Review of Bothnian Sea shore-level displacement data and use of a GIS tool to estimate isostatic uplift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorela, A.; Penttinen, T.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.

    2009-02-01

    12000 at Olkiluoto that is only 0.5 m more than that predicted previously. Both the shore-level displacement method and the derivative-based method propose that there is a local maximum of A s northeast of the Gulf of Bothnia. The northern part of the As distribution's maximum is farther east than in the previous results, and the Bs distribution is wider. The remaining slow uplift at Olkiluoto is 91.5-95.5 m according to the derivative method and 83.8 m according to the shore-level displacement method. The modelling uncertainties include those due to crustal properties and the eustasy model. The fast uplift parameters were only partly revised by means of re-calibration and correction of the Ancylus Lake's level. It would be useful to recalculate the parameters also at other old sites in Fennoscandia using the IntCal04 method and revised versions of the models presented in 2005. Especially the time of the fast component's maximum rate (Tf) could be determined more precisely. The fast uplift is closely related to the period when crustal movements were probable. This period and the solidity of the bedrock were not investigated. It is probable that the blocks bounded by the tectonic lines are moving in different ways. The movements could not be determined in this regional analysis but they seem to be similar on average. (orig.)

  4. Discrete Event Simulation for the Analysis of Artillery Fired Projectiles from Shore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ARTILLERY FIRED PROJECTILES FROM SHORE by James...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 07-06-2015 to 06-16-2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF...operations in the littorals. Expeditionary Fire Support Model–Maritime (EFSM) is a discrete event model that simulates current capabilities of Marine Corps

  5. Comparison of modeling methods to predict the spatial distribution of deep-sea coral and sponge in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooper, Christopher N.; Zimmermann, Mark; Prescott, Megan M.

    2017-08-01

    Deep-sea coral and sponge ecosystems are widespread throughout most of Alaska's marine waters, and are associated with many different species of fishes and invertebrates. These ecosystems are vulnerable to the effects of commercial fishing activities and climate change. We compared four commonly used species distribution models (general linear models, generalized additive models, boosted regression trees and random forest models) and an ensemble model to predict the presence or absence and abundance of six groups of benthic invertebrate taxa in the Gulf of Alaska. All four model types performed adequately on training data for predicting presence and absence, with regression forest models having the best overall performance measured by the area under the receiver-operating-curve (AUC). The models also performed well on the test data for presence and absence with average AUCs ranging from 0.66 to 0.82. For the test data, ensemble models performed the best. For abundance data, there was an obvious demarcation in performance between the two regression-based methods (general linear models and generalized additive models), and the tree-based models. The boosted regression tree and random forest models out-performed the other models by a wide margin on both the training and testing data. However, there was a significant drop-off in performance for all models of invertebrate abundance ( 50%) when moving from the training data to the testing data. Ensemble model performance was between the tree-based and regression-based methods. The maps of predictions from the models for both presence and abundance agreed very well across model types, with an increase in variability in predictions for the abundance data. We conclude that where data conforms well to the modeled distribution (such as the presence-absence data and binomial distribution in this study), the four types of models will provide similar results, although the regression-type models may be more consistent with

  6. Gulf Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Landings - This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by the larger vessels that fish near and offshore for...

  7. Gulf operations still recovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that reports of damage caused by Hurricane Andrew were leveling off last week at the U.S. Minerals Management Service as Gulf of Mexico operators pressed ahead with repairs. The hurricane struck South Florida Aug. 4, churned west into the gulf, then swung north and hit the South Louisiana coast Aug. 5. By the close of business Sept. 8 MMS had received damage reports covering 83 pipeline segments and 193 platforms and satellite installations. MMS last week estimated about 500 MMcfd of gas production had been restored in the gulf and 100,000-150,000 b/d of oil. Production still lost as a result of Andrew was estimated at 2-2.5 bcfd of gas and 90,000-120 b/d of oil. MMS estimates Gulf of Mexico wells before the storm were producing about 12.5-13 bcfd of gas and 750,000 b/d of oil

  8. Monitoring of beach enteromorpha variation with near shore video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yali; Yu, Xinsheng; Yan, Zhijin; Yi, Weidong

    2014-07-01

    Beach is an important coastal protective barrier and tourism resources. Beach environment monitoring can help beach managers to make feasible decisions. Digital image of video monitoring technology can provide high resolution information of temporal and spatial variation of near shore in real time. The application of Video monitoring technology has been implemented in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach. The clustering method based on Gaussian mixture model is applied to extract beach enteromorpha changs for the digital images. Analysis results show that, the period of enteromorpha in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach was mainly from the early July to the mid-August in 2011, and the decline of enteromorpha is mainly associated with the rising temperature in the mid-August. Storm has significant impact on the beach enteromorpha. Tourists' activity space on the beach will decrease due to the enteromorpha covering on the beach, which affects beach tourism activities. Therefore, it's necessary to make preventive measures to avoid enteromorpha piling up on the beach, which is of great importance to the bathing beach environment and tourism development.

  9. Gulf Petro Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathi Boukadi

    2011-02-05

    In this report, technologies for petroleum production and exploration enhancement in deepwater and mature fields are developed through basic and applied research by: (1) Designing new fluids to efficiently drill deepwater wells that can not be cost-effectively drilled with current technologies. The new fluids will be heavy liquid foams that have low-density at shallow dept to avoid formation breakdown and high density at drilling depth to control formation pressure. The goal of this project is to provide industry with formulations of new fluids for reducing casing programs and thus well construction cost in deepwater development. (2) Studying the effects of flue gas/CO{sub 2} huff n puff on incremental oil recovery in Louisiana oilfields bearing light oil. An artificial neural network (ANN) model will be developed and used to map recovery efficiencies for candidate reservoirs in Louisiana. (3) Arriving at a quantitative understanding for the three-dimensional controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) geophysical response of typical Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon reservoirs. We will seek to make available tools for the qualitative, rapid interpretation of marine CSEM signatures, and tools for efficient, three-dimensional subsurface conductivity modeling.

  10. Effects of sarin on temperature and activity of rats as a model for gulf war syndrome neuroregulatory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Carole A; Dokladny, Karol; Ménache, Margaret G; Barr, Edward B; Kozak, Wieslaw; Kozak, Anna; Wachulec, Maceij; Rudolph, Karin; Kluger, Matthew J; Henderson, Rogene F

    2002-10-15

    Coexposure to subclinical levels of nerve gas and to heat stress may have induced some of the clinical symptoms of the Gulf War Syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that single or repeated subclinical exposure to sarin, particularly under conditions of heat stress, would impair regulation of body temperature and locomotor activity. Male F344 rats were housed at 25 degrees C or under mild heat stress at 32 degrees C and were exposed 1 h/day for 1, 5, or 10 days to 0, 0.2, or 0.4 mg/m(3) of sarin in a nose-only exposure system. Body temperature and activity were monitored continuously by telemetry during exposure and 1 month postexposure. Exposed rats showed no clinical symptoms of toxicity such as tremors, despite evidence of reduced red blood cell cholinesterase activity. Heat stress consistently elevated body temperature in unexposed animals, particularly during the dark period when animals are most active. Inhalation of sarin gas at the two subclinical levels did not affect body temperature acutely in a biologically meaningful manner after the first exposure nor after 5 or 10 repeated exposures, either at thermoneutral ambient temperature or during chronic heat stress. There were no consistent effects of sarin or housing temperature on activity. The data suggest that subclinical levels of sarin have minimal effects on temperature regulation and locomotor activity under these observation conditions.

  11. Numerical Modeling of the Effects of Nutrient-rich Coastal-water Input on the Phytoplankton in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, A.; Rivas, D.

    2015-12-01

    Phytoplankton bloom dynamics depends on the interactions of favorable physical, chemical, and biotic conditions, particularly on the available nutrients that enhance phytoplankton growth, like nitrogen. Costal and estuarine environments are heavily influenced by exogenous sources of nitrogen; the anthropogenic inputs include urban and rural wastewater coming from agricultural activities (i.e., fertilizers and animal waste). In response, new production is often enhanced, leading eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms, including harmful taxa. These events have become more frequent, and with it the interest to evaluate their effects on marine ecosystems and the impact on human health. In the Gulf of California the harmful algal blooms (HABs) had affected aquaculture, fisheries, and even tourism, thereby it is important to generate information about biological and physical factors that can influence their appearance. A numerical model is a tool that may bring key information about the origin and distribution of phytoplankton blooms. Herein the analysis is based on a three-dimensional, hydrodynamical numerical model, coupled to a Nitrogen-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) model. Several numerical simulations using different forcing and scenarios are carried out in order to evaluate the processes that influence the phytoplankton growth. These numerical results are compared to available observations. Thus, the main environmental factors triggering the generation of HABs can be identified.

  12. Using Coupled Models to Study the Effects of River Discharge on Biogeochemical Cycling and Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penta, Bradley; Ko, D.; Gould, Richard W.; Arnone, Robert A.; Greene, R.; Lehrter, J.; Hagy, James; Schaeffer, B.; Murrell, M.; Kurtz, J.; hide

    2009-01-01

    We describe emerging capabilities to understand physical processes and biogeoehemical cycles in coastal waters through the use of satellites, numerical models, and ship observations. Emerging capabilities provide significantly improved ability to model ecological systems and the impact of environmental management actions on them. The complex interaction of physical and biogeoehemical processes responsible for hypoxic events requires an integrated approach to research, monitoring, and modeling in order to fully define the processes leading to hypoxia. Our efforts characterizes the carbon cycle associated with river plumes and the export of organic matter and nutrients form coastal Louisiana wetlands and embayments in a spatially and temporally intensive manner previously not possible. Riverine nutrients clearly affect ecosystems in the northern Gulf of Mexico as evidenced in the occurrence of regional hypoxia events. Less known and largely unqualified is the export of organic matter and nutrients from the large areas of disappearing coastal wetlands and large embayments adjacent to the Louisiana Continental Shelf. This project provides new methods to track the river plume along the shelf and to estimate the rate of export of suspended inorganic and organic paniculate matter and dissolved organic matter form coastal habitats of south Louisiana.

  13. Larval trematodes Paronatrema mantae and Copiatestes sp. parasitize Gulf of California krill (Nyctiphanes simplex, Nematoscelis difficilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ávila, José Raúl; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; del Carmen Gómez del Prado-Rosas, María; Robinson, Carlos J

    2015-09-17

    During 4 quantitative-systematic oceanographic cruises at 99 sampling stations in the Gulf of California (January and July 2007, August 2012, and June 2013), we found 2 trematode species (non-encysted mesocercaria stage) parasitizing the hemocoel of 2 krill species at near-shore locations. Copiatestes sp. parasitized Nematoscelis difficilis in January 2007, and Paronatrema mantae parasitized Nyctiphanes simplex in July 2007. Both trematode species had an intensity of 1 parasite per host. This is the first endoparasite known for N. difficilis, the first record of P. mantae infecting zooplankton, and the first confirmed trematode parasitizing krill species in the Gulf of California. We provide quantitative evidence that these 2 trematode species infect krill with considerably low station prevalence (0.03-0.16%) and low population abundances (Gulf of California.

  14. First oceanographic atlas of the Gulf of Mexico. National Award of Oceanographic Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal L., F.; Vidal L., V.M.; Hernandez O., A.

    1991-01-01

    First oceanographic atlas of the Gulf of Mexico National award of oceanographic research. As a result of the research activities applied by Federal Electricity Commission related with oceanographic studies for nuclear stations siting and licensing in coastal areas, doctors Victor Manuel and Francisco Vidal Lorandi and Master in Sciences Abel Hernandez Ochoa got the oceanographic research National award, instituted recently by Mexican Government, by research work published in Oceanographic Atlas of the Gulf of Mexico, Volume II. Atlas presents synthetized oceanographic information about mexican gulf circulation, as well as residence time and water masses distribution. Atlas includes information related with siting and licensing of nuclear stations on shore and has also application, among others, in petroleum, fishery, maritime transportation, and tourism sectors

  15. Devonian lacustrine shore zone architecture imaged with ground penetrating radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, Steven D.; Moreau, Julien; Archer, Stuart

    . The shore zone sandstones overlie playa facies which contain abundant desiccation horizons, reflecting the most arid phase in the climatically controlled lacustrine cycle. As climatic conditions ameliorated the rejuvenation of fluvial systems resulted in the transport of sand out into the basin. Initial......Lake margin sedimentary systems have been the subject of only limited study. The orbitally controlled cyclic lacustrine successions of the Middle Old Red Sandstone of Northern Scotland contain repeated developments of shore zone sandstones and thus provides an ideal location for the study...... of these units. The cycles are on average 15 m thick and comprise deep lake, perennial lake, playa and shore zone facies (2 to 3.5 m in thickness). High resolution sedimentary logging and the construction of photo-panels were combined with high resolution GPR profiling (250 MHz). To ensure close ties between...

  16. Technologies for waste heat recovery in off-shore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik; Kandepu, Rambabu

    2013-01-01

    In off-shore oil and gas platforms the selection of the gas turbine to support the electrical and mechanical demand on site is often a compromise between reliability, efficiency, compactness, low weight and fuel flexibility. Therefore, recovering the waste heat in off-shore platforms presents both...... technological and economic challenges that need to be overcome. However, onshore established technologies such as the steam Rankine cycle, the air bottoming cycle and the organic Rankine cycle can be tailored to recover the exhaust heat off-shore. In the present paper, benefits and challenges of these three...... pressure level steam Rankine cycle employing the once-through heat recovery steam generator without bypass stack. We compare the three technologies considering the combined cycle thermal efficiency, the weight, the net present value, the profitability index and payback time. Both incomes related to CO2...

  17. Environmental hazards for pipelines in coastal regions/shore approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinsi, B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Often oil/gas and other hydrocarbons discovered and produced offshore are transported to onshore facilities via submarine pipelines. The route of such pipelines traverses through coastal/shore approach regions. For a rational/economic design, safe installation and subsequent operation it is of utmost importance to review, evaluate and finalize various environmental hazard such as winds, waves, currents, seabed topography, seabed and sub-bottom soils, seabed erosion and soil accretion. This paper addresses the above described environmental hazards, their assessment and techniques to prepare design parameters which must be used for stability analysis, installation methods, long term operation and maintenance for the shore approaches. Additionally, various proven pipeline installation and stabilization techniques for the shore approach region are detailed. As case histories, three approaches installed in the Dutch North Sea are described

  18. Delivery of marine larvae to shore requires multiple sequential transport mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Maya C; Branch, George M; Fisher, Jennifer L; Hoffmann, Vera; Ellis, Allan G; Largier, John L

    2015-05-01

    Most sedentary marine animals disperse from their place of origin during their initial life stages as larvae. The delivery of planktonic larvae back to coastal adult habitats after weeks or months of offshore development is commonly thought to be stochastic, resulting in large recruitment fluctuations and making predictive understanding of population dynamics difficult. Time series of invertebrate settlement on intertidal shores have been used to infer how various oceanographic processes deliver planktonic larvae ashore. However, the possibility that successful settlement may involve a series of different transport mechanisms, which are sequentially utilized by late-stage larvae, has received little attention. To address this, we monitored both the delivery of mussel and barnacle larvae to inner-shelf moorings positioned 200-1400 m from the shore, and larval settlement in the intertidal adult habitat, at two contrasting sites: a headland forming an upwelling center and a downstream bay. Model selection was employed to determine the most likely scenario(s) of larval onshore transport from four a priori transport mechanisms individually and in combination: (1) upwelling or relaxation/downwelling, (2) tidal motions, (3) diurnal sea breezes, and (4) surface waves. Mussel larvae were delivered to the inner shelf during upwelling in the bay, but during downwelling at the headland, and were further transported to the shore by surface waves at both locales. In contrast, the delivery of barnacle larvae to the inner shelf occurred during relaxation/downwelling events at both sites, and intertidal settlement coincided with spring tides, suggesting a role for internal tides in their onshore transport. Thus, sequential mechanisms appear to be utilized by larvae to get to the shore, involving interactions of regional-scale upwelling/downwelling processes and local-scale tidal and surface-wave processes, which differ among taxa and among sites with different topography. A

  19. Project management of the build of the shore test facility for the prototype of PWR II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    The PWR II is a new design of nuclear steam raising plant for the Royal Navy's submarines. It features improved engineering for safety, increased power, increased shock resistance, reduced noise transmission to sea and reduced manning requirement. It is to be tested in a new prototype testing facility, the Shore Test Facility, which is a section of submarine hull containing a prototype of the nuclear steam raising plant and its support system. It is installed at the Vulcan Naval Reactor Test establishment at Dounreay in Scotland. The function of the establishment is to test new designs of core and reactor plant, validate the mathematical models used in their design, develop improved methods of operation and maintenance of the plant and test new items of equipment. The Shore Test Facility was built in large sections at Barrow-in-Furness and transported to Scotland. The project management for the construction of the Shore Test Facility is explained. It involves personnel from the Royal Navy, and a large number of people working for the contractors involved in the buildings, transportation, operation and maintenance of the Facility. (U.K.)

  20. Bioenergetic model estimates of interannual and spatial patterns in consumption demand and growth potential of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J.H.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Cross, A.D.; Farley, E.V.; Murphy, J.M.; Helle, J.H.; Walker, R.V.; Myers, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    A bioenergetic model of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) was used to estimate daily prey consumption and growth potential of four ocean habitats in the Gulf of Alaska during 2001 and 2002. Growth potential was not significantly higher in 2002 than in 2001 at an alpha level of 0.05 (P=0.073). Average differences in growth potential across habitats were minimal (slope habitat=0.844 g d-1, shelf habitat=0.806 g d-1, offshore habitat=0.820 g d-1, and nearshore habitat=0.703 g d-1) and not significantly different (P=0.630). Consumption demand differed significantly between hatchery and wild stocks (P=0.035) when examined within year due to the interaction between hatchery verses wild origin and year. However, the overall effect of origin across years was not significant (P=0.705) due to similar total amounts of prey consumed by all juvenile pink salmon in both study years. We anticipated that years in which ocean survival was high would have had high growth potential, but this relationship did not prove to be true. Therefore, modeled growth potential may not be useful as a tool for forecasting survival of Prince William Sound hatchery pink salmon stocks. Significant differences in consumption demand and a two-fold difference in nearshore abundance during 2001 of hatchery and wild pink salmon confirmed the existence of strong and variable interannual competition and the importance of the nearshore region as being a potential competitive bottleneck.

  1. Downscaling, 2-way Nesting, and Data Assimilative Modeling in Coastal and Shelf Waters of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, J.; Levin, J.; Lopez, A.; Arango, H.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal ocean models that downscale output from basin and global scale models are widely used to study regional circulation at enhanced resolution and locally important ecosystem, biogeochemical, and geomorphologic processes. When operated as now-cast or forecast systems, these models offer predictions that assist decision-making for numerous maritime applications. We describe such a system for shelf waters of the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) and Gulf of Maine (GoM) where the MARACOOS and NERACOOS associations of U.S. IOOS operate coastal ocean observing systems that deliver a dense observation set using CODAR HF-radar, autonomous underwater glider vehicles (AUGV), telemetering moorings, and drifting buoys. Other U.S. national and global observing systems deliver further sustained observations from moorings, ships, profiling floats, and a constellation of satellites. Our MAB and GoM re-analysis and forecast system uses the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS; myroms.org) with 4-dimensional Variational (4D-Var) data assimilation to adjust initial conditions, boundary conditions, and surface forcing in each analysis cycle. Data routinely assimilated include CODAR velocities, altimeter satellite sea surface height (with coastal corrections), satellite temperature, in situ CTD data from AUGV and ships (NMFS Ecosystem Monitoring voyages), and all in situ data reported via the WMO GTS network. A climatological data assimilative analysis of hydrographic and long-term mean velocity observations specifies the regional Mean Dynamic Topography that augments altimeter sea level anomaly data and is also used to adjust boundary condition biases that would otherwise be introduced in the process of downscaling from global models. System performance is described with respect to the impact of satellite, CODAR and in situ observations on analysis skill. Results from a 2-way nested modeling system that adds enhanced resolution over the NSF OOI Pioneer Array in the central MAB are also

  2. Integrating the effects of salinity on the physiology of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in the northern Gulf of Mexico through a Dynamic Energy Budget model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaud, Romain; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Casas, Sandra M.; Bacher, C.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2017-01-01

    We present a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model for the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, which enables the inclusion of salinity as a third environmental variable, on top of the standard foodr and temperature variables. Salinity changes have various effects on the physiology of oysters, potentially altering filtration and respiration rates, and ultimately impacting growth, reproduction and mortality. We tested different hypotheses as to how to include these effects in a DEB model for C. virginica. Specifically, we tested two potential mechanisms to explain changes in oyster shell growth (cm), tissue dry weight (g) and gonad dry weight (g) when salinity moves away from the ideal range: 1) a negative effect on filtration rate and 2) an additional somatic maintenance cost. Comparative simulations of shell growth, dry tissue biomass and dry gonad weight in two monitored sites in coastal Louisiana experiencing salinity from 0 to 28 were statistically analyzed to determine the best hypothesis. Model parameters were estimated through the covariation method, using literature data and a set of specifically designed ecophysiological experiments. The model was validated through independent field studies in estuaries along the northern Gulf of Mexico. Our results suggest that salinity impacts C. virginica’s energy budget predominantly through effects on filtration rate. With an overwhelming number of environmental factors impacting organisms, and increasing exposure to novel and extreme conditions, the mechanistic nature of the DEB model with its ability to incorporate more than the standard food and temperature variables provides a powerful tool to verify hypotheses and predict individual organism performance across a range of conditions.

  3. Storm surge and wave simulations in the Gulf of Mexico using a consistent drag relation for atmospheric and storm surge models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vatvani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To simulate winds and water levels, numerical weather prediction (NWP and storm surge models generally use the traditional bulk relation for wind stress, which is characterized by a wind drag coefficient. A still commonly used drag coefficient in those models, some of them were developed in the past, is based on a relation, according to which the magnitude of the coefficient is either constant or increases monotonically with increasing surface wind speed (Bender, 2007; Kim et al., 2008; Kohno and Higaki, 2006. The NWP and surge models are often tuned independently from each other in order to obtain good results. Observations have indicated that the magnitude of the drag coefficient levels off at a wind speed of about 30 m s−1, and then decreases with further increase of the wind speed. Above a wind speed of approximately 30 m s−1, the stress above the air-sea interface starts to saturate. To represent the reducing and levelling off of the drag coefficient, the original Charnock drag formulation has been extended with a correction term.

    In line with the above, the Delft3D storm surge model is tested using both Charnock's and improved Makin's wind drag parameterization to evaluate the improvements on the storm surge model results, with and without inclusion of the wave effects. The effect of waves on storm surge is included by simultaneously simulating waves with the SWAN model on identical model grids in a coupled mode. However, the results presented here will focus on the storm surge results that include the wave effects.

    The runs were carried out in the Gulf of Mexico for Katrina and Ivan hurricane events. The storm surge model was initially forced with H*wind data (Powell et al., 2010 to test the effect of the Makin's wind drag parameterization on the storm surge model separately. The computed wind, water levels and waves are subsequently compared with observation data. Based on the good

  4. Seasonally and spatially referenced estimates of recreational shore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A roving creel survey of the recreational shore fishery along the 16.4-km coastline in the Goukamma Marine Protected Area on the south coast of South Africa was conducted from 2009 to 2011. Some 838 patrols were stratified equally among months, areas and years, but intentionally biased towards weekends. Angler ...

  5. An analysis of the recreational shore fishery in the Goukamma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten years (1993–2002) of shore fishing catch and effort data collected during routine patrols in the Goukamma Marine Protected Area in theWestern Cape Province were analysed. Of a total of 35 species recorded, the most common were backtail, Diplodus sargus capensis (39%), and galjoen, Dichistius capensis (25%).

  6. Near-shore distribution of Heaviside's ( Cephalorhynchus heavisidii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heaviside's dolphins were found in shallower, cooler water than dusky dolphins and were more likely to be seen during brighter phases of the moon (when nocturnal light conditions may influence the vertical migration patterns of prey) and in areas of high hake abundance. Near-shore fishing activity was higher in the ...

  7. Littoral Encounters : The Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobecki, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    1. III * Later Medieval: Excluding Chaucer -- Brown et al., 10.1093 ... ... between the Saracens and the londisse men allied to the protagonist (' Littoral Encounters: the Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn', Al-Mas a ... www.ywes.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/man0092 2.Murray, Alan V.

  8. A Critique of "Strangers from a Different Shore."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Elaine H.

    1990-01-01

    "Strangers from a Different Shore" makes significant use of Asian-American literature, especially autobiography, but consistently misses the women's viewpoints of themselves and their experiences. Cites interesting and pertinent material might have been included. Calls for a feminist treatment of this subject. (DM)

  9. Shore Morphology and Sediment Characteristics South of Pangani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shore morphology and nearshore sediments between the Pangani and Kipumbwi rivers in coastal Tanzania were investigated. The information was gathered using field observations, sediment sampling of the area, and interviews with Pangani residents. The distribution of sediments on the sea bottom is mainly controlled ...

  10. Changes in recreational shore anglers' attitudes towards, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate and complement existing recreational fisheries research, through the analysis of demographic and psychographic angler attributes collected from two independent, shore-based snapshot monitoring surveys conducted on the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) coastline of South Africa, ...

  11. Cross-shore currents in the surf zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Vinther, Niels

    2008-01-01

      While the dynamics and kinematics of various types of mean cross-shore current flows in the surf zone (undertow and rip currents) are fairly well understood, the causes for transitions occurring between these two types of mean circulation patterns remain obscure. On longshore barred beaches...

  12. Floating terminal as an alternative to shore terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terenzio, M. [CoeClerici Logistics S.p.A. (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    Transfer vessels, floating terminals, catamaran type or Floating Transfer Stations (FTSs) are some of the latest alternative solutions to standard floating cranes. The CoeClerici 'Bulkwayuu' and 'Boca Grande' floating terminals are described and their advantages over shore-based structures are itemised. The text is accompanied by 17 overhead/slides. 1 fig.

  13. Selected fishery and population parameters of eight shore-angling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The large inter annual variations in mean CPUE and size for all species indicated that a minimum assessment period of four years is required to obtain reliable estimates. Keywords: catch per unit effort; fisheries management; marine protected area; natural mortality; shore-angling fishery. African Journal of Marine Science ...

  14. Biological impacts of oil pollution: rocky shores. V. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Most people with access to the sea have at one time enjoyed looking into rockpools and searching for crabs under boulders. Rocky shores have a great deal of fascination for people and they are the closest that many of them will get to the mysteries below the low tide mark. They are found, in some form, on most of the world's coasts and their ecology has been the subject of many books, reports and scientific papers. Rocky shores encompass a variety of intertidal habitats and have a range of vulnerabilities to oil. While some areas are quickly and easily cleaned by natural forces others can trap oil in sensitive sub-habitats which may then be damaged and take many years to recover. Furthermore, rocky shores have an importance in the wider context of marine ecosystems and some provide important local fisheries resources, tourism and amenities. This report describes the factors that make some rocky shores more sensitive to oil spills than others and considers the most appropriate methods of clean-up. Case histories are used to illustrate the effects of spills and spill clean-up, as well as typical recovery rates. (UK)

  15. ENSO-Modulation of Plankton Production in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: A High-Resolution Ocean-Biogeochemical Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, F. A.; Lee, S. K.; Liu, Y.; Hernandez, F., Jr.; Lamkin, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) plays a role in modulating phytoplankton biomass and the reproductive success of marine species in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). However, characterizations of ENSO-related ecosystem responses such as plankton production have not been fully addressed for the region. Here we examine ENSO impacts on biogeochemical processes within coastal and open ocean domains in the GoM, using a three dimensional high-resolution ocean-biogeochemical model, forced with historical surface fluxes and river run-off for 1979 - 2014. Enhanced precipitation across southern US during El Nino winter increases freshwater discharge and nutrient load into the GoM mainly via the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River. Those anomalies lead to reduced salinity and greater concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and plankton production in the northern shelf especially during winter. In addition, the frequency of northerly wind anomalies that cool the upper ocean increases during El Nino. The negative surface heat flux anomalies further decrease vertical thermal stratification and thus increase phytoplankton production during early spring in the northern deep GoM.

  16. Beyond the Gulf Metropolises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    The extended studies on urbanisation in the Gulf region that came up in the early 2000s concentrated on the main centres with their worldwide-admired mega-projects and branding strategies. Only rather recently did a more general interest arise in the second-tier range of Gulf cities, which also s...... of the urban landscape. Finally, it will point to the shift from overall structural planning to individual master plans, and discuss the marketing of the new Salalah versus the selective conservation of the old....

  17. Gulf of Mexico development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenz, D.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has seen significant deepwater growth. An overview of the GOM deepwater leaseholds by Shell and developments by competing companies is presented. Deepwater GOM developments, total production from the shelf and from deepwater wells, new offshore pipeline capacity and ownership, and processing plant capacity are also discussed. Significant deepwater growth in the Gulf is anticipated. Despite significant economic and technological challenges, the area is judged to be the prime exploration and production opportunity in the lower 48 states of the USA. tabs., figs

  18. Beyond the Gulf Metropolises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    The extended studies on urbanisation in the Gulf region that came up in the early 2000s concentrated on the main centres with their worldwide-admired mega-projects and branding strategies. Only rather recently did a more general interest arise in the second-tier range of Gulf cities, which also......, which started in the late 1990s. After a short review of the city‘s development until the 1980s, this paper will also present its current urban and economic evolution. Then it will turn to the globalisation of Salalah in the context of national post-oil strategies, and study the physical fragmentation...

  19. Estimating near-shore wind resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Peña, Alfredo

    An evaluation and sensitivity study using the WRF mesoscale model to estimate the wind in a coastal area is performed using a unique data set consisting of scanning, profiling and floating lidars. The ability of the WRF model to represent the wind speed was evaluated by running the model for a four...... RMSE and correlation coefficient. Using a finer grid spacing of 1 and 0.5 km did not give better results and sensitivity to the input of different SST and land cover data in the RUNE area was small. The difference in mean wind speed between all simulations over a region 80 km around the RUNE area were...... month period in twelve different set-ups. The atmospheric boundary layer was parametrized using the first-order YSU scheme and the 1.5-order MYJ scheme. Simulations with two sources of land use data, two sources of reanalysis data, two sources of sea-surface temperatures and three different horizontal...

  20. NASA'S SERVIR Gulf of Mexico Project: The Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative (GoMRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Irwin, Daniel; Presson, Joan; Estes, Maury; Estes, Sue; Judd, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative (GoMRC) is a NASA-funded project that has as its goal to develop an integrated, working, prototype IT infrastructure for Earth science data, knowledge and models for the five Gulf U.S. states and Mexico, and to demonstrate its ability to help decision-makers better understand critical Gulf-scale issues. Within this preview, the mission of this project is to provide cross cutting solution network and rapid prototyping capability for the Gulf of Mexico region, in order to demonstrate substantial, collaborative, multi-agency research and transitional capabilities using unique NASA data sets and models to address regional problems. SERVIR Mesoamerica is seen as an excellent existing framework that can be used to integrate observational and GIs data bases, provide a sensor web interface, visualization and interactive analysis tools, archival functions, data dissemination and product generation within a Rapid Prototyping concept to assist decision-makers in better understanding Gulf-scale environmental issues.

  1. Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force---Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Science Assessment and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shelby; Dausman, Alyssa M.; Lavoie, Dawn L.

    2012-01-01

    watersheds are managed to help support healthy and sustainable Gulf of Mexico ecosystems.Offshore environments are healthy and well managedEach working group was charged with defining their specific goal, describing the current conditions related to that goal (for example, the status of coastal habitats in the Gulf of Mexico), providing highlevel activities needed to further define and achieve the goal, with associated outcome-based performance indicators, and identifying the scientific gaps in understanding to accomplish the goal and implement the recommended activities. The overall scientific assessment reveals that the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem continues to suffer from extensive degradation, and action is necessary to develop a healthy, resilient, and sustainable Gulf of Mexico ecosystem. The six groups also were tasked with outlining the necessary monitoring, modeling, and research needs to aid in achieving the goals. Recognizing that (1) the scientific needs (monitoring, modeling, and research) overlap among many of the goals, and (2) an overarching scientific framework could be developed to implement the necessary science in support of the Strategy, a seventh group was created with several members from each of the original six working groups. This seventh group compiled all of the cross-cutting monitoring, modeling, and research needs previously identified by the individual groups. These scientific requirements are found in Chapter 5 of this document. The seventh group also has developed a Science Plan, outlined in Chapter 6. The Science Plan provides the basic science infrastructure to support the overall Gulf restoration program and Strategy. The Science Plan allows for the development of an iterative and flexible approach to adaptive management and decision-making related to restoration projects based on sound science that includes monitoring, modeling, and research. Taken in its entirety, this document helps to articulate the current state of the system and the

  2. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2002-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of rockfluid interactions, (2) petrophysical and engineering characterization, (3) data integration, (4) 3-D geologic modeling, (5) 3-D reservoir simulation and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 2. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions is near completion. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and

  3. New Constraints on the Timing, Magnitude and Style of Deformation in the Southern Gulf of California: Oblique Rifting Since ~14-12 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Sutherland, F. H.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Lizarralde, D.; Driscoll, N. W.

    2008-12-01

    California starting at 14-12 Ma. This view of extensional history is in contrast to an earlier two-staged model of Gulf formation where orthogonal E-W extension dominated between 12-6 Ma, with 300 km of additional plate motion accommodated along the strike-slip Tosco-Abreojos fault, off the west coast of Baja California. The second stage of extension in this model abruptly occurs at 6 Ma, where the system quickly evolves into the dextral, oblique rift that defines the modern Gulf province. The additional evidence for early oblique rifting in the Gulf, suggests significant amounts (~200 km) of on-shore extension occurred prior to 6 Ma east of the Guaymas and Delfin basins of the central and northern Gulf province within the states of Sonora and Sinaloa. The observed distribution of extension within the Alarcon corridor is of similar magnitude across both conjugate margins implying symmetrical rifting within a pure shear environment, which is in contrast to simple shear extension (i.e., detachment faulting) observed within some segments of the northern Gulf of California.

  4. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of the macrotidal environment on the source to sink pathways of suspended flux in the Gulf of Kachchh, India: Evidence from the Ocean Colour Monitor (IRS-P4)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Jayakumar, S.; Malik, M.A.; Pradhan, Y.; Rajawat, A.S.; Nayak, S.R.; Bandekar, G.; Almeida, C.; Talaulikar, M.; Ramanamurty, M.V.; Subramanian, B.R.

    coastal zone management strategies for this neo-industrial hub. Furthermore, studies such as the present one are needed for regional monitoring of short- and long-term, synchronous spatial and temporal changes in suspended matter, to aid in the maintenance... into different regions of the Gulf. A higher TSM along the northern shore of the outer Gulf is supplied mostly by the flood tidal streams, which suck in the sediments of the non-local source (i.e. the Indus) into the Gulf. A higher influx into this area appears...

  6. Dichotomous factor analysis of symptoms reported by UK and US veterans of the 1991 Gulf War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hull Lisa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factor analysis is one of the most used statistical techniques to analyze the inter-relationships among symptoms reported by Gulf War veterans. The objective of this study was to apply factor analyses to binary symptom data from the UK study of Gulf War illness and the US Air Force study of Gulf War veterans, and to compare the symptom domains derived from the distinct samples. Methods UK veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (n = 3,454, individuals deployed to Bosnia on U.N. peacekeeping operations (n = 1,979 and Gulf War-era servicemen (n = 2,577 who were not deployed to the Gulf were surveyed in 1997–1998, and US 1991 Gulf War veterans from four Air Force units (n = 1,163 were surveyed in 1995 to collect health characteristics including symptoms. Each sample was randomly split in half for exploratory and confirmatory dichotomous factor analyses with promax oblique rotation. Results Four correlated factors were identified in each of the samples. Three factors (Respiratory, Mood-Cognition, Peripheral Nervous overlapped considerably across the UK cohorts. The Gastrointestinal/Urogenital factor in the UK Gulf cohort was noticeably different from the Gastrointestinal factor identified from the Bosnia and Era cohorts. Symptoms from Gulf War UK and U.S cohorts yielded similar Gastrointestinal, Respiratory and Mood-Cognition factors, despite differences in symptom inventories between the two surveys. A Musculoskeletal factor was only elicited from the US Gulf sample. Conclusion Findings of this report are consistent with those from other factor analysis studies that identified similar symptom dimensions between Gulf and non-Gulf War veterans, except that the Gastrointestinal factor in Gulf veterans included other symptom types. Correlations among factors raise the question as to whether there is a general illness, even if not unique to Gulf veterans, representing the common pathway underlying the identified factors. Hierarchical factor

  7. The intOA Experiment: A Study of Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Under Moderate to Strong Offshore Winds and Opposing Swell Conditions in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Torres, F. J.; García-Nava, H.; Durazo, R.; Osuna, P.; Díaz Méndez, G. M.; Graber, H. C.

    2011-03-01

    The Gulf of Tehuantepec air-sea interaction experiment ( intOA) took place from February to April 2005, under the Programme for the Study of the Gulf of Tehuantepec (PEGoT, Spanish acronym for Programa para el Estudio del Golfo de Tehuantepec). PEGoT is underway aiming for better knowledge of the effect of strong and persistent offshore winds on coastal waters and their natural resources, as well as performing advanced numerical modelling of the wave and surface current fields. One of the goals of the intOA experiment is to improve our knowledge on air-sea interaction processes with particular emphasis on the effect of surface waves on the momentum flux for the characteristic and unique conditions that occur when strong Tehuano winds blow offshore against the Pacific Ocean long period swell. For the field campaign, an air-sea interaction spar (ASIS) buoy was deployed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec to measure surface waves and the momentum flux between the ocean and the atmosphere. High frequency radar systems (phase array type) were in operation from two coastal sites and three acoustic Doppler current profilers were deployed near-shore. Synthetic aperture radar images were also acquired as part of the remote sensing component of the experiment. The present paper provides the main results on the wave and wind fields, addressing the direct calculation of the momentum flux and the drag coefficient, and gives an overview of the intOA experiment. Although the effect of swell has been described in recent studies, this is the first time for the very specific conditions encountered, such as swell persistently opposing offshore winds and locally generated waves, to show a clear evidence of the influence on the wind stress of the significant steepness of swell waves.

  8. Conceptualization of a fresh groundwater lens influenced by climate change: A modeling study of an arid-region island in the Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodzadeh, Davood; Ketabchi, Hamed; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Simmons, Craig T.

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the fresh groundwater lens (FGL) behavior and potential threat of climatic-induced seawater intrusion (SWI) are significant for the future water resources management of many small islands. In this paper, the FGL of Kish Island, an arid-region case in the Persian Gulf, Iran, is modeled using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulations. These simulations are based on the application of SUTRA, a density-dependent groundwater numerical model. Also, the numerical model parameters are calibrated using PEST, an automated parameter estimation code. Firstly a detailed conceptualization of the FGL model is completed to understand the sensitivity of the FGL to some particular aspects of the model prior to analysis of climate change simulations. For these investigations, the FGL system is defined based on Kish Island system to accomplish the integrated comparison of features of a conceptual model that are representative of real-world systems. This is the first study which adopts such an approach. The comparison of cross-sectional simulations suggests that the two-layer properties of the Kish Island aquifer have a significant influence on the FGL while the impacts of lateral-boundary irregularities are negligible. The impacts of sea-level rise (SLR), associated land-surface inundation (LSI), and variations in recharge rate on the FGL salinization of Kish Island are investigated numerically. Variations of SLR value (1-4 m) and net recharge rate (17-24 mm/year) are considered to cover a possible range of climatic scenarios in this arid-region island. The 2D and 3D simulation results demonstrate that LSI caused by SLR and recharge rate variation impacts are more important factors in the FGL in comparison to estimated SLR impacts without LSI. It is also shown that climate change impacts on the FGL are long-term to reach a new FGL equilibrium in the case of Kish Island's aquifer system. The comparative analysis of 2D and 3D results shows that three

  9. Setting the frame for up-scaled off-shore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Chaviaropoulos, T.; Jamieson, P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbines with a rated power of 5-6 MW are now being designed and installed at off-shore sites. Within the EU supported UpWind research project costs model are being developed for up-scaling of wind turbines up to 20MW. These wind turbines are expected to have a rotor diameter of 250m and a hub...... pr MWh (levelised production costs). The main design parameters are selected as the rotor diameter, the hub height, the tip speed and the wind turbines separation (in wind farms)....

  10. Functioning of the planktonic ecosystem on the Gulf of Lions shelf (NW Mediterranean during spring and its impact on the carbon deposition: a field data and 3-D modelling combined approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Auger

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical modelling is developed to address main mechanisms that drive the particulate organic carbon (POC deposition in the Gulf of Lions (NW-Mediterranean. Low-salinity water (LSW, salinity <37.5 lenses detached from the Rhone River plume under specific wind conditions tend to favour the biological productivity and provide a good opportunity for validating a planktonic ecosystem modelling. A specific calibration dedicated to river plume ecosystems is then proposed and validated using in situ measurements within such LSW lens (BIOPRHOFI cruise – May 2006 and on the Gulf of Lions. During spring 2006, the POC deposition is maximal on the prodelta area and within the coastal area in the Gulf of Lions. Organic detritus mostly contribute to the total POC deposition (82–92% whereas the contribution of living organisms (microphytoplankton appears lower than 17%. Exploring both influences of terrestrial inputs from the Rhone River and planktonic ecosystems on the POC deposition on the shelf, we estimated that the contribution of terrestrial POM inputs to the total POC deposition is lower than 17% at the shelf scale during the study period, with maxima during peak discharges of the Rhone River. The main deposition area of terrestrial POC is found in the vicinity of the river mouth in agreement with sediment data. On the other hand, a remarkable influence of marine biological processes on the POC deposition is highlighted further on the shelf (from 60 to 80 m depth. A tight feedback between zooplankton and POM contents in the water column is proposed to explain the control of POC deposition by zooplankton: terrestrial POM inputs would favour the development of living organisms through photosynthesis and grazing processes increasing the retention of organic matter within the food web. By favouring the development of large-sized zooplankton, LSW lenses may have paradoxically a negative impact on the carbon deposition on the

  11. Changing climate in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluch-Cota, Salvador E.; Parés-Sierra, Alejandro; Magaña-Rueda, Víctor O.; Arreguín-Sánchez, Francisco; Bazzino, Gastón; Herrera-Cervantes, Hugo; Lluch-Belda, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    We conducted a four year interdisciplinary collaborative project focused in the Gulf of California, the most important fishing region for Mexico. We reviewed published reports, collected and analyzed physical, chemical and ecological data sets, and developed models for the physical (atmosphere and ocean) and ecological components of this large marine ecosystem, to examine prevalent scientific questions regarding climate variability and change in the region, covering three time scales (ENSO, decadal-to-interdecadal, and long-term trend). We were able to describe how the Gulf of California influences the northward propagation of coastal trapped Kelvin waves associated with El Niño (ENSO) events, and how this signal, together with changes in the atmospheric forcing, results in a ENSO signature inside the Gulf. For the decadal-to-multidecadal scales, we found coherent trends among series, and with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The long-term temperature signal for the Gulf of California shows a warming that occurred in the mid 20th century, approximately a decade before that in the California Current. This signal is coherent with fluctuations in the industrial fisheries catch records (sardine and shrimps). For the recent decades we found no significant sustained long-term trend in any of the time series of physical and ecological variables that we considered. Instead, variability seems to be fully dominated by the interaction of PDO and ENSO. We stress the urgent need for more modeling efforts and the establishment of interdisciplinary (physical and biological) observation platforms for the marine environment in the Gulf of California.

  12. Invertebrate faunal zonation on rocky shores around Mombasa, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruwa, R K

    1984-01-01

    The zonation of 36 species of rocky shore invertebrates at Mkomani and Nyali cliffs, Mombasa, Kenya, is described. Studies of their positioning on the cliffs compared to those of other parts of the Western Indian Ocean showed that the species which abundantly appeared in the littoral fringe were Littorina kraussi, L. scabra, Nodolittorino natalensis, Nerita plicata and N. undata; in the upper eulittoral zone were Isognomon dentifier, Acmaea profunda, Crassostrea cucullata, Nerita textilis, Ac...

  13. Reseeding of mussels on denuded rocky shores: preliminary studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method is developed to establish clumps of mussels Perna perna in denuded areas on high-energy rocky shores on the south-east coast of South Africa. A total of 20 small (20–30 mm total length) mussels is placed under a 30 cm half-section of perforated PVC drainage pipe bolted to the rock surface. The pipe is left in ...

  14. Gender Stereotyping and the Jersey Shore: A Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline S. Anderson; Sharmila Pixy Ferris

    2016-01-01

    Reality television is a highly popular genre, with a growing body of scholarly research. Unlike scripted programming, which offers fictional storylines, reality television relies heavily on cast member’s reactions to carefully crafted situations. This study examined the relationship between reality television and gender role stereotyping in a seminal reality television show, MTV’s Jersey Shore. Content analysis was used to conduct an in-depth examination of the first season of ...

  15. Persistent Lagrangian transport patterns in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, M. K.; Beron-Vera, F. J.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Sheinbaum, J.; Juoanno, J.; Duran, R.

    2017-01-01

    Persistent Lagrangian transport patterns at the ocean surface are revealed from Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) computed from daily climatological surface current velocities in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico (NWGoM). The velocities are produced by a submesoscale permitting regional ocean model of the Gulf of Mexico. The significance of the climatological LCSs (cLCSs) is supported with ensemble-mean drifter density evolutions from simulated and historical satellite-tracked drifter traje...

  16. Marine Debris Composition on Remote Alaskan National Park Shores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pister, B.; Kunisch, E.; Polasek, L.; Bering, J.; Kim, S.; Neitlich, P.; Nicolato, K.

    2016-02-01

    Marine debris is a pervasive problem along coastlines around the world. The National Park Service manages approximately 3500 miles of shoreline in Alaska's national park units combined. Most of these shores are remote, difficult and expensive to access. In 2011 the Tohoku earthquake hit Japan and generated a devastating tsunami that washed an estimated 150 million tons of debris out to sea. Much of the debris washed ashore in Alaska. The tsunami brought new attention to the long standing problem of marine debris. In 2015 the National Park Service mounted a two pronged effort to remove as much debris as possible from the shores of five park units in Alaska, and initiate education programs about the issue. Almost 11,000 kg of debris were removed from the shores of: Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, Kenai Fjords National Park, Katmai National Park, Bering Land Bridge National Preserve and Cape Krusenstern National Monument. Approximately 58% of the debris was plastic. Although much of the debris resembled items expected as a result of the tsunami, a great percentage of the debris was clearly from other sources, such as fishing and shipping. Preliminary analysis suggests that debris composition varied significantly between parks, possibly from locally-derived sources. This can influence how the National Park Service creates educational outreach programs that focus on marine debris prevention exercises.

  17. Gender Stereotyping and the Jersey Shore: A Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline S. Anderson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reality television is a highly popular genre, with a growing body of scholarly research. Unlike scripted programming, which offers fictional storylines, reality television relies heavily on cast member’s reactions to carefully crafted situations. This study examined the relationship between reality television and gender role stereotyping in a seminal reality television show, MTV’s Jersey Shore. Content analysis was used to conduct an in-depth examination of the first season of Jersey Shore, investigating three gendered issues: physical appearance, social roles and behavioral traits. Findings demonstrated the carefully manufactured relationship between gender role stereotyping and reality television programming in Jersey Shore, and illustrate the development of the female reality show character as related to sexualized behavior and social/emotional gender stereotypes. The depiction of female reality show characters seems to have increased its level of sensationalism, while continuing to be clichéd and conventional, while depiction of male characters is beginning to push the boundaries of being typecast in regards to their physical appearance and role in performing domestic tasks. Additionally, physical alterations on screen were many, warranting further investigation of this behavior.

  18. Background noise levels and correlation with ship traffic in the Gulf of Catania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa; Caruso, Francesco; Chierici, Francesco; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Grammauta, Roasario; Larosa, Giuseppina; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Riccobene, Giorgio; Sciacca, Virginia; Simeone, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Marinaro, Giuditta

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades the growing interest in the evaluation of the underwater acoustic noise for studies in the fields of geology, biology and high-energy physics is driving the scientific community to collaborate towards a multidisciplinary approach to the topic. In June 2012 in the framework of the European project EMSO, a multidisciplinary underwater observatory, named NEMO-SN1, was installed 25 km off-shore the port of Catania, at a depth of 2100 m and operated until May 2013 by INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia). NEMO-SN1 hosted aboard geophysical, oceanographic and acoustic sensors: among these a seismic hydrophone model SMID DT-405D(V). In this work, conducted within the activity of the SMO project, the results on the evaluation of the underwater acoustic pollution in the Gulf of Catania through SMID DT-405D(V) recordings are presented. The seismic hydrophone provided a data set of about 11 months of continuous (24/7) recordings. Underwater sounds have been continuously digitized at a sampling frequency of 2 kHz and the acquired data have been stored in 10min long files for off-line analysis. To describe one-year background noise levels, the mean integrated acoustic noise was measured every second (sampling frequency 2000, NFFT 2048) in the 1/3 octave bands with centre frequency 63 Hz and for each 10 minutes-long file the 5th, the 50th and the 98th percentiles were calculated. Measured noise was correlated with the shipping traffic in the area, thanks to the data provided by an AIS receiver installed at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud. An acoustic noise increment was measured in coincidence with the passing of crafts in the area and it was possible to identify the characteristic spectrum of each ship. A simple model for the estimation of the acoustic noise induced by the ships passing through the area was developed. The model was applied by using AIS data acquired during the operation

  19. Spatio-temporal modelling of wind speed variations and extremes in the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Igor; Mao, Wengang

    2018-02-01

    The wind speed variability in the North Atlantic has been successfully modelled using a spatio-temporal transformed Gaussian field. However, this type of model does not correctly describe the extreme wind speeds attributed to tropical storms and hurricanes. In this study, the transformed Gaussian model is further developed to include the occurrence of severe storms. In this new model, random components are added to the transformed Gaussian field to model rare events with extreme wind speeds. The resulting random field is locally stationary and homogeneous. The localized dependence structure is described by time- and space-dependent parameters. The parameters have a natural physical interpretation. To exemplify its application, the model is fitted to the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data set. The model is applied to compute long-term wind speed distributions and return values, e.g., 100- or 1000-year extreme wind speeds, and to simulate random wind speed time series at a fixed location or spatio-temporal wind fields around that location.

  20. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling that utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling, testing of the geologic-engineering model, and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of seismic attributes, (2) petrophysical characterization, (3) data integration, (4) the building of the geologic-engineering model, (5) the testing of the geologic-engineering model and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 3. Progress on the project is as follows: geoscientific reservoir characterization is completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been completed. Observations regarding the diagenetic

  1. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2001-09-14

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been reservoir description and characterization. This effort has included four tasks: (1) geoscientific reservoir characterization, (2) the study of rock-fluid interactions, (3) petrophysical and engineering characterization and (4) data integration. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 1. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been initiated. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been

  2. Development and application of a remote sensing-based salinity prediction model for a large estuarine lake in the US Gulf of Mexico coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fugui; Xu, Y. Jun

    2008-10-01

    SummarySalinity in estuaries is highly variable due to river discharge, tidal motion, and winds. Information on the spatial and temporal changes in salinity can provide important ecological indications, but accurate monitoring of the space-time variability for a large estuary is often costly and time-consuming. This study applied remote sensing techniques to develop a salinity prediction model for Lake Pontchartrain, a large estuarine lake located in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, USA. "Ground truth" salinity was measured along two transects across the lake and near the shoreline. Water-leaving reflectance from the measurement locations was extracted from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images pre-processed through "banding" noise reduction and radiometrical correction approaches. Ordinary least square and ridge regression methods were performed to identify model parameters and to determine relationships between salinity and reflectance. Salinity in the lake on eight dates was predicted with the developed model. Difference in salinity level and patterns, and impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on salinity were assessed with ANOVA and Fuzzy Similarity methods. The results showed that the model achieved a high power in prediction of the lake salinity ( R2 = 0.89 and RMSE of validation = 0.27). Reflectance from TM bands 1, 2, and 4 was positively correlated to salinity levels and explained 1.9%, 20.3%, and 10.2% variance in salinity levels. Reflectance from bands 3 and 5 was negatively correlated to salinity and explained 34.1% and 31.2% variance. Under normal circumstances without the impacts of hurricanes, the lake salinity presented two patterns with average salinity level of 5.5 ppt. After Katrina's landfall, the average was significantly increased by 1.1 ppt and the spatial patterns were altered. The pattern on 30 August 2005 was the most dissimilar one as compared to the two normal patterns, and then followed by the patterns on 9 and 25 October, and 7 September

  3. Improved estimates of nearshore wave conditions in the Gulf of Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkqvist, Jan-Victor; Tuomi, Laura; Fortelius, Carl; Pettersson, Heidi; Tikka, Kimmo; Kahma, Kimmo K.

    2017-07-01

    The heterogeneous coastline of the Gulf of Finland can result in widely varying wave conditions in a small geographical area. It is therefore challenging to obtain comprehensive information about the wave spectrum, which is needed to accurately quantify, e.g. the wave-bottom interactions. In this study, we implemented the wave model WAM to the coastal waters off Helsinki using a high-resolution 0.1 nmi grid and found that the model mostly predicts the wave field well. However, WAM overestimated the wave energy for south-westerly winds blowing over the peninsula sheltering the study area. This spurious behaviour was not caused by inaccuracies in the wind forcing, the boundary wave field or the available bathymetric grids. We present two methods for improving the prediction of the near-shore wave field. The first approach, which is also used to describe the structure of the wave field, is based on e.g. wave growth relations and models the fetch-limited and the longer waves separately. The second method determines a so-called effective wind forcing for the wave model by comparing the observed and modelled non-dimensional wave spectra. Both methods were validated using wave buoy observations and were found to clearly improve the predictions for the significant wave height and wave spectrum at the study site for south-westerly winds. Because some prior information on the wave conditions is required to implement the methods, they are best suited for expanding the usability of any limited measurement dataset available for a study. The method based on the effective wind forcing can also be implemented for operational forecasting or be used to gather statistics from hindcasts.

  4. Hurricane slams gulf operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that reports of damage by Hurricane Andrew escalated last week as operators stepped up inspections of oil and gas installations in the Gulf of Mexico. By midweek, companies operating in the gulf and South Louisiana were beginning to agree that earlier assessments of damage only scratched the surface. Damage reports included scores of lost, toppled, or crippled platforms, pipeline ruptures, and oil slicks. By midweek the U.S. coast Guard had received reports of 79 oil spills. Even platforms capable of resuming production in some instances were begin curtailed because of damaged pipelines. Offshore service companies the another 2-4 weeks could be needed to fully assess Andrew's wrath. Lack of personnel and equipment was slowing damage assessment and repair

  5. Gulf operators resuming production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Gulf of Mexico operators last week were gradually restoring production at installations struck by Hurricane Andrew. The Minerals Management Service continued receiving reports of more damage. By the end of the day Sept. 8, MMS had received reports of damage to 83 pipeline segments and 193 platforms and satellite installations. Damage reports listed 112 installations with structural damage, 13 platforms toppled and five leaning, and 30 satellite platforms toppled and 33 leaning. But despite the extent of damage the storm inflicted on oil and gas installations in the gulf, it pales in comparison to the misery and suffering the storm caused in Florida and Louisiana, an oil company official said

  6. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-02-28

    The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule. The principal objectives of the project are to develop through basin analysis and modeling the concept that petroleum systems acting in a basin can be identified through basin modeling and to demonstrate that the information and analysis resulting from characterizing and modeling of these petroleum systems in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin can be used in providing a more reliable and advanced approach for targeting stratigraphic traps and specific reservoir facies within a geologic system and in providing a refined assessment of undiscovered and underdeveloped reservoirs and associated oil and gas resources.

  7. Alternative response technology program for the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Michael J.; Rowe, Hunter G.

    2011-01-01

    The innovative approach utilized by the Alternative Response Technology (ART) Program for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon response in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010 was presented in this paper. The ART program is authorized by the Unified Area Command. This paper focuses on the spill response technologies that were implemented offshore, near shore and on-shore, and covers technologies related to booming, skimming, separation, sand cleaning, surveillance and detection. A process was designed and implemented for capturing ideas real time, which leveraged the public's ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit. About 120,000 individual ideas were submitted by the public globally from more than 100 countries. About 40,000 of these ideas were related to addressing the spill response. There are about 100 new technologies related to spill response that were formally evaluated and/or field tested, and approximately 25 of those tested were successfully implemented across the spill response area.

  8. Alternative response technology program for the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Michael J.; Rowe, Hunter G. [BP - Gulf Coast Restoration (United States)], email: michael.cortez@bp.com

    2011-07-01

    The innovative approach utilized by the Alternative Response Technology (ART) Program for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon response in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010 was presented in this paper. The ART program is authorized by the Unified Area Command. This paper focuses on the spill response technologies that were implemented offshore, near shore and on-shore, and covers technologies related to booming, skimming, separation, sand cleaning, surveillance and detection. A process was designed and implemented for capturing ideas real time, which leveraged the public's ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit. About 120,000 individual ideas were submitted by the public globally from more than 100 countries. About 40,000 of these ideas were related to addressing the spill response. There are about 100 new technologies related to spill response that were formally evaluated and/or field tested, and approximately 25 of those tested were successfully implemented across the spill response area.

  9. Sediment distribution study in the Gulf of Kachchh, India, from 3D hydrodynamic model simulation and satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Zhao, C.; Osawa, T.; Sugimori, Y.

    on the hydrostatic and Boussinesq approximations and uses a vertical double sigma coordinate with a step-like grid. In addition to the momentum and continuity equations, the model solves two-transport equations for salinity and temperature and an equation of state...

  10. Matrix Model for Methamphetamine Dependence Among Iranian Female Methadone Patients: The First Report From the Most Populated Persian Gulf Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Massah

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: The results indicated that the Matrix Model is effective for treating MA dependence. However, the long length of the treatment, lack of cost-effectiveness, and intensive staff training are significant problems associated with providing MA treatment. Further studies are suggested to evaluate the role of brief interventions in reducing these problems in methadone treatment services.

  11. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-12-31

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  12. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2007-06-30

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Mesozoic (Bossier) petroleum system characterization and modeling and refined resource assessment. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  13. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modelling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  14. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-07-31

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications are in the process of being acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  15. All-Cause Mortality Among US Veterans of the Persian Gulf War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Han K.; Bullman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We determined cause-specific mortality prevalence and risks of Gulf War deployed and nondeployed veterans to determine if deployed veterans were at greater risk than nondeployed veterans for death overall or because of certain diseases or conditions up to 13 years after conflict subsided. Methods: Follow-up began when the veteran left the Gulf War theater or May 1, 1991, and ended on the date of death or December 31, 2004. We studied 621   901 veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War and 746   247 veterans who served but were not deployed during the Gulf War. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate rate ratios adjusted for age at entry to follow-up, length of follow-up, race, sex, branch of service, and military unit. We compared the mortality of (1) Gulf War veterans with non–Gulf War veterans and (2) Gulf War army veterans potentially exposed to nerve agents at Khamisiyah in March 1991 with those not exposed. We compared standardized mortality ratios of deployed and nondeployed Gulf War veterans with the US population. Results: Male Gulf War veterans had a lower risk of mortality than male non–Gulf War veterans (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-0.99), and female Gulf War veterans had a higher risk of mortality than female non–Gulf War veterans (aRR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.28). Khamisiyah-exposed Gulf War army veterans had >3 times the risk of mortality from cirrhosis of the liver than nonexposed army Gulf War veterans (aRR = 3.73; 95% CI, 1.64-8.48). Compared with the US population, female Gulf War veterans had a 60% higher risk of suicide and male Gulf War veterans had a lower risk of suicide (standardized mortality ratio = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.88). Conclusion: The vital status and mortality risk of Gulf War and non–Gulf War veterans should continue to be investigated. PMID:28123229

  16. Novel Therapeutic Approaches for the Treatment of Depression and Cognitive Deficits in a Rodent Model of Gulf War Veterans Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    rationale for these studies is as follows: Calcium is a major second messenger and plays a vital role in cellular signaling, in developing neuronal...Indeed, it has been recently shown that the RyR antagonist dantrolene significantly improves cognition in a murine model of Alzheimer’s disease [52...Similarly, pharmacological blockade of the intracellular Ca2+ release using both the IP3R and RyR antagonist has been demonstrated to produce anti

  17. Multi-Species Models of Time-Varying Catchability in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Thorson, James Turner

    2009-01-01

    The catchability coefficient is used in most marine stock assessment models, and is usually assumed to be stationary and density-independent. However, recent research has shown that these assumptions are violated in most fisheries. Violation of these assumptions will cause underestimation of stock declines or recoveries, leading to inappropriate management policies. This project assesses the soundness of stationarity and density independence assumptions using multi-species data for seven s...

  18. Some Observational and Modeling Studies of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Mississippi Gulf Coast for Air Pollution Dispersion Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu Yerramilli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal atmospheric conditions widely vary from those over inland due to the land-sea interface, temperature contrast and the consequent development of local circulations. In this study a field meteorological experiment was conducted to measure vertical structure of boundary layer during the period 25-29 June, 2007 at three locations Seabee base, Harrison and Wiggins sites in the Mississippi coast. A GPS Sonde along with slow ascent helium balloon and automated weather stations equipped with slow and fast response sensors were used in the experiment. GPS sonde were launched at three specific times (0700 LT, 1300 LT and 1800 LT during the experiment days. The observations indicate shallow boundary layer near the coast which gradually develops inland. The weather research and forecasting (WRF meso-scale atmospheric model and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (HYSPLIT are used to simulate the lower atmospheric flow and dispersion in a range of 100 km from the coast for 28-30 June, 2007. The simulated meteorological parameters were compared with the experimental observations. The meso-scale model results show significant temporal and spatial variations in the meteorological fields as a result of development of sea breeze flow, its coupling with the large scale flow field and the ensuing alteration in the mixing depth across the coast. Simulated ground-level concentrations of SO2 from four elevated point sources located along the coast indicate diurnal variation and impact of the local sea-land breeze on the direction of the plume. Model concentration levels were highest during the stable morning condition and during the sea-breeze time in the afternoon. The highest concentrations were found up to 40 km inland during sea breeze time. The study illustrates the application of field meteorological observations for the validation of WRF which is coupled to HYSPLIT for dispersion assessment in the coastal region.

  19. Modelling the effect of climate change on nutrient loading, temperature regime and algal biomass in the Gulf of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inkala, A. [Environmental Impact Assessment Center of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Bilaletdin, Ae.; Podsetchine, V. [Regional Environmental Agency of Haeme, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Climate changes and the potential related warming can change runoff, nutrient transport, mean wind velocities and water temperatures. These changes will further effect algal growth in a way that can be modelled. The changes to the nutrient load, temperature regime and algal biomass were simulated by three separate models. The simulations were made for the years 2020, 2050 and 2090. The simulated temperature variations and nutrient loading dynamics were used by algal model to predict changes of the algal biomass under the three different climate scenarios. According to the different scenarios, the maximum temperature of the surface water increased by 0.3-6.2 deg C, but in the deeper waters (> 40 m) by less than 0.1 deg C. The major part of the nutrient loads is anthropologic and this part did not change in the scenarios. Thus the changes in the algal biomass were also relatively small. However, the timing and quantity of spring bloom did change noticeably, at most in 2090, two weeks earlier and 20 % higher than nowadays. (orig.)

  20. Systematic Analysis of Rocky Shore Morphology along 700km of Coastline Using LiDAR-derived DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H.; Dickson, M. E.; Masselink, G.

    2016-12-01

    Rock shore platforms occur along much of the world's coast and have a long history of study; however, uncertainty remains concerning the relative importance of various formative controls in different settings (e.g. wave erosion, weathering, tidal range, rock resistance, inheritance). Ambiguity is often attributed to intrinsic natural variability and the lack of preserved evidence on eroding rocky shores, but it could also be argued that previous studies are limited in scale, focusing on a small number of local sites, which restricts the potential for insights from broad, regional analyses. Here we describe a method, using LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs), for analysing shore platform morphology over an unprecedentedly wide area in which there are large variations in environmental conditions. The new method semi-automatically extracts shore platform profiles and systematically conducts morphometric analysis. We apply the method to 700 km of coast in the SW UK that is exposed to (i) highly energetic swell waves to local wind waves, (ii) macro to mega tidal ranges, and (iii) highly resistant igneous rocks to moderately hard sedimentary rocks. Computer programs are developed to estimate mean sea level, mean spring tidal range, wave height, and rock strength along the coastline. Filtering routines automatically select and remove profiles that are unsuitable for analysis. The large data-set of remaining profiles supports broad and systematic investigation of possible controls on platform morphology. Results, as expected, show wide scatter, because many formative controls are in play, but several trends exist that are generally consistent with relationships that have been inferred from local site studies. This paper will describe correlation analysis on platform morphology in relation to environmental conditions and also present a multi-variable empirical model derived from multi linear regression analysis. Interesting matches exist between platform gradients

  1. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-02-25

    The University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company, has undertaken an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary goal of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. Geoscientific reservoir property, geophysical seismic attribute, petrophysical property, and engineering property characterization has shown that reef (thrombolite) and shoal reservoir lithofacies developed on the flanks of high-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Vocation Field example) and on the crest and flanks of low-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Appleton Field example). The reef thrombolite lithofacies have higher reservoir quality than the shoal lithofacies due to overall higher permeabilities and greater interconnectivity. Thrombolite dolostone flow units, which are dominated by dolomite intercrystalline and vuggy pores, are characterized by a pore system comprised of a higher percentage of large-sized pores and larger pore throats. Rock-fluid interactions (diagenesis) studies have shown that although the primary control on

  2. Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Judd, Chaeli [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gulbransen, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Michael G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodruff, Dana L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzy, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hardin, Danny [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Estes, Maury [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative (GoMRC), a year-long project funded by NASA. The GoMRC project was organized around end user outreach activities, a science applications team, and a team for information technology (IT) development. Key outcomes are summarized below for each of these areas. End User Outreach; Successfully engaged federal and state end users in project planning and feedback; With end user input, defined needs and system functional requirements; Conducted demonstration to End User Advisory Committee on July 9, 2007 and presented at Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) meeting of Habitat Identification committee; Conducted significant engagement of other end user groups, such as the National Estuary Programs (NEP), in the Fall of 2007; Established partnership with SERVIR and Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System (HABSOS) programs and initiated plan to extend HABs monitoring and prediction capabilities to the southern Gulf; Established a science and technology working group with Mexican institutions centered in the State of Veracruz. Key team members include the Federal Commission for the Protection Against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS), the Ecological Institute (INECOL) a unit of the National Council for science and technology (CONACYT), the Veracruz Aquarium (NOAA’s first international Coastal Ecology Learning Center) and the State of Veracruz. The Mexican Navy (critical to coastal studies in the Southern Gulf) and other national and regional entities have also been engaged; and Training on use of SERVIR portal planned for Fall 2007 in Veracruz, Mexico Science Applications; Worked with regional scientists to produce conceptual models of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) ecosystems; Built a logical framework and tool for ontological modeling of SAV and HABs; Created online guidance for SAV restoration planning; Created model runs which link potential future land use trends, runoff and SAV viability; Analyzed SAV

  3. Curcumin Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    and stress. It is envisaged that improved cognitive, memory and mood function in GWI-rats with nCUR administration will occur via improvements in...biodegradable polymer nanosystems (nCUR) for alleviating cognitive, memory and mood impairments in a rat model of gulf war illness (GWI). Specific...Aim 1 studies involve quantification of the efficacy of oral administration of different doses of nCUR for improving neurogenesis and suppressing

  4. NASA Gulf of Mexico Initiative Hypoxia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    The Applied Science & Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center (SSC) manages NASA's Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI). Addressing short-term crises and long-term issues, GOMI participants seek to understand the environment using remote sensing, in-situ observations, laboratory analyses, field observations and computational models. New capabilities are transferred to end-users to help them make informed decisions. Some GOMI activities of interest to the hypoxia research community are highlighted.

  5. Optical model for the water characterization of the highly turbid water of the Winam Gulf (Victoria Lake)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, F.; Cavalli, R. M.; Palombo, A.; Pignatti, S.

    2007-10-01

    The study, proposed within the framework of the cooperation with Kenyan Authorities, has been carried out on the Kenyan part of the Lake Victoria. This lake is one of the largest freshwater bodies of the world where, over the last few years, environmental challenges and human impact have perturbed the ecological balance. Pollution and sediments loads from the tributaries rivers and antrophic sources caused a worrying increase of the turbidity level of the lake water. Secchi transparency index has declined from 5 meters in the 1930s to less than one meter in the 1990s. With the aim of providing an inexpensive way to gather information linked to the water clarity and quality, a method for remotely sensed data interpretation, devoted to produce chl (chlorophyll), CDOM (coloured dissolved organic matter) and TSS (total suspended solids) maps, has been assessed. At this purpose a bio-optical model, based on radiative transfer theory in water bodies, has been refined. The method has been applied on an image acquired on January 2004 by ENVISAT/MERIS sensor just a week after an in situ campaign took place. During the in situ campaign a data set for model refinement and products validation has been collected. This data comprise surface radiometric quantity and samples for laboratory analyses. The comparison between the obtained maps and the data provided by the laboratory analysis showed a good correspondence, demonstrating the potentiality of remote observation in supporting the management of the water resources.

  6. Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind-Energy Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M. L.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible impacts of wind development to birds along the lower Gulf Coast, including both proposed near-shore and offshore developments. The report summarizes wind resources in Texas, discusses timing and magnitude of bird migration as it relates to wind development, reviews research that has been conducted throughout the world on near- and offshore developments, and provides recommendations for research that will help guide wind development that minimizes negative impacts to birds and other wildlife resources.

  7. The Arab Gulf Cooperation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    AD-A202 042,,, ’q AIR WAR CoLLEGE * RESEARCH REPORT THE ARAB GULF COOPEwATION COUNCIL COLONEL MOHAMMAD) F. ALBISUI ROYAL SAUDI AIR FORCE 1988...THE ARAB GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL by Mohammad F. Albishi Colonel, Royal Saudi Air Force A RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY in FULFILLMENT OF THE...4 Qatar........................................ 5 Saudi Arabia................................. 6 United Arab Emirates

  8. Hurricane shuts down gulf activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that producers in the Gulf of Mexico and plant operators in South Louisiana last week were checking for damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew. In its wake Andrew left evacuated rigs and platforms in the gulf and shuttered plants across a wide swath of the Gulf Coast. Operations were beginning to return to normal late last week. Not all gulf operators, especially in the central gulf, expected to return to offshore facilities. And even producers able to book helicopters did not expect to be able to fully assess damage to all offshore installations before the weekend. MMS officials in Washington estimated that 37,500 offshore workers were evacuated from 700 oil and gas installations on the gulf's Outer Continental Shelf. Gulf oil and gas wells account for about 800,000 b/d of oil and one fourth of total U.S. gas production. MMS was awaiting an assessment of hurricane damage before estimating how soon and how much gulf oil and gas production would be restored

  9. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman

    2005-05-10

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  10. Investigation of heavy metal pollutants at various depths in the Gulf of Izmit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergül, Halim Aytekin; Varol, Tolga; Ay, Ümit

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Monitoring seasonal variations in heavy metal pollution. • Heavy metal levels according to depth in seawater from the Gulf of Izmit. • Industrial activity and biological life co-exist in Izmit Bay. -- Abstract: In this study, we report results concerning the accumulation of heavy metals in seawater from Izmit Bay. The bay was divided into the three parts: the eastern, the central and the western basins. The goal of this study was to determine levels of heavy metals at various depths in the bay between April 2008 and May 2010. Liquid–liquid extractions were performed on seawater samples. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to measure levels of six metals: lead, cadmium, chromium, iron, manganese and zinc. We applied our results to evaluate the status of pollution in the Gulf of Izmit. Significant seasonal differences in metal concentrations and higher concentrations of many metals in water near the shore are evidence for uncontrolled release of pollutants in the water

  11. Decomposing Borel functions using the Shore-Slaman join theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kihara, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Jayne and Rogers proved that every function from an analytic space into a separable metric space is decomposable into countably many continuous functions with closed domains if and only if the preimage of each $F_\\sigma$ set under it is again $F_\\sigma$. Many researchers conjectured that the Jayne-Rogers theorem can be generalized to all finite levels of Borel functions. In this paper, by using the Shore-Slaman join theorem on the Turing degrees, we show the following variant of the Jayne-Rog...

  12. Engineering and environmental remediation scenarios due to leakage from the Gulf War oil spill using 3-D numerical contaminant modellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Al-Weshah, Radwan A.

    2017-11-01

    The transport groundwater modelling has been undertaken to assess potential remediation scenarios and provide an optimal remediation options for consideration. The purpose of the study was to allow 50 years of predictive remediation simulation time. The results depict the likely total petroleum hydrocarbon migration pattern in the area under the worst-case scenario. The remediation scenario simulations indicate that do nothing approach will likely not achieve the target water quality within 50 years. Similarly, complete source removal approach will also likely not achieve the target water quality within 50 years. Partial source removal could be expected to remove a significant portion of the contaminant mass, but would increase the rate of contaminant recharge in the short to medium term. The pump-treat-reinject simulation indicates that the option appears feasible and could achieve a reduction in the area of the 0.01 mg/L TPH contour area for both Raudhatain and Umm Al-Aish by 35 and 30%, respectively, within 50 years. The rate of improvement and the completion date would depend on a range of factors such as bore field arrangements, pumping rates, reinjection water quality and additional volumes being introduced and require further optimisation and field pilot trials.

  13. Influence of the Gulf Stream on the troposphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minobe, Shoshiro; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira; Komori, Nobumasa; Xie, Shang-Ping; Small, Richard Justin

    2008-03-13

    The Gulf Stream transports large amounts of heat from the tropics to middle and high latitudes, and thereby affects weather phenomena such as cyclogenesis and low cloud formation. But its climatic influence, on monthly and longer timescales, remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how the warm current affects the free atmosphere above the marine atmospheric boundary layer. Here we consider the Gulf Stream's influence on the troposphere, using a combination of operational weather analyses, satellite observations and an atmospheric general circulation model. Our results reveal that the Gulf Stream affects the entire troposphere. In the marine boundary layer, atmospheric pressure adjustments to sharp sea surface temperature gradients lead to surface wind convergence, which anchors a narrow band of precipitation along the Gulf Stream. In this rain band, upward motion and cloud formation extend into the upper troposphere, as corroborated by the frequent occurrence of very low cloud-top temperatures. These mechanisms provide a pathway by which the Gulf Stream can affect the atmosphere locally, and possibly also in remote regions by forcing planetary waves. The identification of this pathway may have implications for our understanding of the processes involved in climate change, because the Gulf Stream is the upper limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, which has varied in strength in the past and is predicted to weaken in response to human-induced global warming in the future.

  14. Shore Protection for a Placer Deposit Rich Beach of the Southwest Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sheela Nair

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The placer deposits dominated Neendakara-Kayamkulam sector along the Kerala coast on the southwest coast of India may be characterized as a dynamic, unstable beach based on shoreline oscillations observed over the past years. Both long-term and short-term shoreline variations can be easily linked directly to a number of factors – both natural and anthropogenic. Of these, activities such as large scale mining for heavy minerals; dredging and construction of hard structures such as breakwaters and groins; have contributed significantly to the changes in shoreline. The coastal hydrodynamics of the area is highly complex because of the variation in shoreline orientation and near shore slope. The present work is an attempt to understand the coastal processes and to identify the factors responsible for the shoreline oscillations by conducting numerical model studies. The studies on the shoreline changes are also carried out as a part of this study in order to identify the critical areas of the shore that need immediate protection. The study shows that the northern part of the study area (barring the 2km stretch lying to the immediate south of the Kayamkulam inlet has been eroding significantly which requires immediate protection. The proposed shoreline protection measure is to provide detached offshore submerged breakwaters.

  15. Space-time monitoring of coastal pollution in the Gulf of Gaeta, Italy, using δ15N values of Ulva lactuca, landscape hydromorphology, and Bayesian Kriging modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Loreto; Calizza, Edoardo; Careddu, Giulio; Rossi, David; Orlandi, Lucia; Jona-Lasinio, Giovanna; Aguzzi, Laura; Costantini, Maria Letizia

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the space-time dynamics of N pollution in a Mediterranean gulf (Gulf of Gaeta) by means of δ 15 N variation in seaweed fronds (Ulva lactuca) previously collected from an unpolluted habitat. We used a comprehensive deployment grid that enabled the generation of isotopic seascapes (isoseascapes) describing the topography of N pollution in coastal waters and identifying N input hotspots and their pathways of dispersion at sea. The δ 15 N values of U. lactuca increased during 48h of exposure to the gulf waters, indicating anthropogenic N inputs from wastewater-derived sources. Comparison of the isoseascapes between two years differing in terms of rainfall identified coastal and offshore areas that were vulnerable to freshwater-transported nutrients, consistent with terrestrial hydromorphology and sea surface-water circulation. Isoseacapes were robust enough to reduce deployment effort, representing a powerful tool for monitoring and management strategies and useful for Environmental Protection Agencies, the main target audience of applied ecological research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-05-26

    The principal research effort for Phase 1 (Concept Development) of the project has been data compilation; determination of the tectonic, depositional, burial, and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin; basin modeling (geohistory, thermal maturation, hydrocarbon expulsion); petroleum system identification; comparative basin evaluation; and resource assessment. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, and regional cross sections have been prepared. Structure, isopach and formation lithology maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs include Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies; shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies; and carbonate shoal, shelf and reef facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary. Hydrocarbon

  17. Evaluation of stress in the shore approach of submarine pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Vecchio, Cesar J.M.; Morikawa, Sergio R.K.; Moraes Neto, Accacio; Perrut, Valber A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Llerena, Roberth W.A. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Submarine pipelines that approach the shore in open sea sand beaches are affected by the constant variations in beach profile. Stresses due to the changes in pipe support conditions may be cause for concern in ageing pipelines if the shore approach profile varies considerably. This paper describes the evaluation of stresses in two pipelines installed in such a region. Initially stresses were measured by the hole-drilling strain gage method, in five sections at 120 deg intervals. Sections that are just above the sea level and completely immersed in the upper tide have been selected. Stresses were then monitored in the same sections for one year with Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) extensometers. After one year, stresses were again measured by hole-drilling in selected positions. It was demonstrated that optical extensometers are a viable alternative to monitor slowly varying stresses over long periods of time in aggressive environments. It was also shown that stresses in the two pipelines are within acceptable limits. (author)

  18. A simple and inexpensive method for muddy shore profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman; Hossain, M. Shahadat; Sharifuzzaman, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    There are several well-established methods for obtaining beach profiles, and more accurate and precise high-tech methods are emerging. Traditional low-cost methods requiring minimal user skill or training are still popular among professionals, scientists, and coastal zone management practitioners. Simple methods are being developed with a primary focus on sand and gravel beaches. This paper describes a simple, low-cost, manual field method for measuring profiles of beaches, which is particularly suitable for muddy shores. The equipment is a type of flexible U-tube manometer that uses liquid columns in vertical tubes to measure differences in elevation; the supporting frame is constructed from wooden poles with base disks, which hold measuring scales and a PVC tube. The structure was trialed on a mudflat characterized by a 20-40-cm-thick surface layer of silt and clay, located at the Kutubdia Island, Bangladesh. The study results are discussed with notes on the method's applicability, advantages and limitations, and several optional modifications for different scenarios for routine profiling of muddy shores. The equipment can be used by one person or two people, and the accuracy of the method is comparable to those in other methods. The equipment can also be used on sandy or gravel beaches.

  19. On the shores of Titan's farthest sea a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Titan is practically a planet in its own right, with a diameter similar to that of Mercury, methane rainstorms, organic soot and ethane seas. All of the most detailed knowledge on the moon's geology, volcanology, meteorology, marine sciences and chemistry are gathered together here to paint a factually accurate hypothetical future of early human colonization on this strange world. The views from Titan’s Mayda Outpost are spectacular, but all is not well at the moon's remote science base. On the shore of a methane sea beneath glowering skies, atmospherics researcher Abigail Marco finds herself in the middle of murder, piracy and colleagues who seem to be seeing sea monsters and dead people from the past. On the Shores of Titan’s Farthest Sea provides thrills, excitement and mystery – couched in the latest science – on one of the Solar System’s most bizarre worlds, Saturn’s huge moon Titan. "This riveting story, set against a plausibly well integrated interplanetary space, carries us along with its ...

  20. Shore zone in protection of water quality in agricultural landscape-the Mściwojów Reservoir, southwestern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Jolanta; Kaczmarek, Halina; Markowska, Joanna; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Kempa, Olgierd; Gałęza, Marta; Kucharczak-Moryl, Ewa; Moryl, Andrzej

    2016-08-01

    Shore zones are transition areas (ecotones) between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Their function in the environment is crucial because they serve as buffer zones that capture pollutants and slow down erosion of reservoir and watercourse banks provided that they are managed properly. Research on a shore zone was conducted at the Mściwojów retention reservoir with an innovative water self-purification system. After several years of its operation, an increased phosphate concentration in the main part of the reservoir was reported. The mapping of the terrain's surface and modeling of hydrological processes in the direct catchment area of the said reservoir were done using the digital elevation model (DEM). The DEM was created from LiDAR data obtained in 2012 by airborne laser scanning. Analyses of the surface runoff led to identification of surface runoff transport pathways, along which the eroded material from cultivated fields is discharged directly to the reservoir. Surface runoff transport pathways gather the eroded material from a maximum area of 45,000 m(2) in the western part of the direct catchment and 40,000 m(2) in the eastern part of it. Due to the reservoir management negligence, the riparian zone designed for the Mściwojów Reservoir no longer exists. The percentage of the natural shore that undergoes erosion processes is over 54. The said processes and fluctuations of the water level in the reservoir, as well as degradation of the shore zone caused by human activity, bring about limited plant development in the littoral zone, which in turn lowers the reservoir's resistance to degradation.

  1. Factors Influencing Student Satisfaction in Universities in the Gulf Region: Does Gender of Students Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parahoo, Sanjai K.; Harvey, Heather L.; Tamim, Rana M.

    2013-01-01

    While various research studies have focused on antecedents and consequences of student satisfaction, few studies have done so in the Gulf region. The objective of the present study was therefore to design and empirically examine a model of student satisfaction in a private university in the Gulf region that operates in a high-technology-enabled…

  2. Simulation of the Effects of Bathymetry and Land-Sea Contrasts on Hurricane Development Using a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubukcu, N.; Pfeffer, R. L.; Dietrich, D. E.

    2000-02-01

    A version of the Naval Research Laboratory Limited Area Dynamical Weather Prediction Model is coupled with the DieCAST ocean circulation model, which is particularly well suited for the specification of realistic bathymetry. The resulting coupled model, with 11 levels in the atmosphere and 20 in the ocean, is used to study the sensitivity of hurricane formation, intensification, and weakening in the Gulf of Mexico and the Carribean region to the presence of land-sea contrasts and bathymetry in this region. Numerical simulations with the fully coupled model, Gulf of Mexico, and Carribean geography and bathymetry are compared with simulations with coupling and no geometry or bathymetry and also with simulations using the uncoupled atmospheric model.The primary finding is that land-sea contrast and bathymetry reduce the intensification of the tropical disturbance, even when the hurricane is far from shore. The effect of drier air coming off the land masses surrounding the Gulf, which can penetrate to the storm center in a day, is to reduce the moisture supply and thereby decrease the rate of intensification of the storm. This is true in both the coupled and uncoupled model integrations. In the coupled model simulations, inertia currents and vertical mixing and upwelling on the continental shelf cause more intense and more widespread sea surface cooling in the presence of land-sea contrasts and bathymetry than in its absence, further reducing the rate of intensification.

  3. Water resources of the Lake Erie shore region in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, John William; Van Tuyl, Donald W.; White, Walter F.

    1952-01-01

    An abundant supply of water is available to the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. Lake i£rie furnishes an almost inexhaustible supply of water of satisfactory chemical quality. Small quantities of water are available from small streams in the area and from the ground. A satisfactory water supply is one of the factors that affect the economic growth of a region. Cities and towns must have adequate amounts of pure water for human consumption. Industries must have suitable water ih sufficient quantities for all purposes. In order to assure. success and economy, the development of water resources should be based on adequate knowledge of the quantity and quality of the water. As a nation, we can not afford to run the risk of dissipating our resources, especially in times of national emergency, by building projects that are not founded on sound engineering and adequate water-resources information. The purpose of this report is to summarize and interpret all available water-resources information for the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. The report will be useful for initial guidance in the location or expansion of water facilities for defense and nondefense industries and the municipalities upon which they are dependent. It will also be useful in evaluating the adequacy of the Geological Survey's part of the basic research necessary to plan the orderly development of the water resources of the Lake Erie Shore region. Most of the data contained inthis report have been obtained'by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters, the Pennsylvania Department of Internal Affairs, and the Pennsylvania State Planning Board, Department of Commerce. The Pennsylv~nia Department of Health furnished information on water pollution. The report was prepared in the Water Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey b:y John W. Mangan (Surface Water). Donald W. VanTuyl (Ground Water). and Walter F. White, Jr. (Quality of

  4. Dynamic performance of a combined gas turbine and air bottoming cycle plant for off-shore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, Alberto; Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    and a combined gas turbine coupled with an air bottoming cycle plant. The case study is the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform, located in the North Sea, Norway. The normal electricity demand is 19 MW, currently covered by two gas turbines generating each 50% of the power demand, while the third turbine...... is on stand-by. During oil export operations the power demand increases up to 25 MW. The model of the new power plant proposed in this work is developed in the Modelica language using basic components acquired from ThermoPower, a library for power plant modelling. The dynamic model of the gas turbine...

  5. Decolonizing through integration: Australia's off-shore island territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Wettenhall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia’s three small off-shore island territories – Norfolk Island in the Pacific Ocean and Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling Islands Group in the Indian Ocean – can be seen as monuments to 19th century British-style colonization, though their early paths to development took very different courses. Their transition to the status of external territories of the Australian Commonwealth in the 20th century – early in the case of Norfolk and later in the cases of Christmas and Cocos – put them on a common path in which serious tensions emerged between local populations which sought autonomous governance and the Commonwealth government which wanted to impose governmental systems similar to those applying to mainstream Australians. This article explores the issues involved, and seeks to relate the governmental history of the three island territories to the exploration of island jurisdictions developed in island studies research.

  6. Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycles for Off-Shore Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Larsen, Ulrik; Nguyen, Tuong-Van

    2013-01-01

    , a steam bottoming cycle is not a convenient solution. On the contrary, organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) present the benefits of high simplicity and compactness. Furthermore, the working fluid can be selected considering the temperature profile at which the heat is supplied; hence the heat transfer process...... and the thermal efficiency of the cycle can be maximized. This paper is aimed at finding the most optimal ORC tailored for off-shore applications using an optimization procedure based on the genetic algorithm. Numerous working fluids are screened through, considering mainly thermal efficiency, but also other......, cyclohexane at 55.5 bar is the preferable working fluid with a combined thermal efficiency of 44.3%. The supercritical CO2 cycle with a maximum pressure of 192.9 bar is found to be the best alternative if an extremely low hazard is required....

  7. Crossing and Passing: Discursive Borders in Off Shoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Elmoudden

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As a term in popular discourse, globalisation marks a celebrated openness of global spaces. Critics of globalisation argue that a global economy creates borders that are more discursive than territorial. A current challenge to globalisation scholars is reaching an understanding of how the many configurations of context, space, time and place created by globalisation result in new ways of organizing space and identity. Based on rich ethnographic data from an off shore call centre in Morocco and informed by interdisciplinary research on space, this paper bridges the links between territorial and discursive borders in the global social network of off shoring. Metaphorical spaces come about when dynamic configurations of contexts at territorial borders relate or are made to relate. Call centre agents use metaphorical spaces to fix the meaning of space. In this article, I identify two different metaphorical spaces: crossing and passing that help agents organize and negotiate their spaces and subsequently their identities and power relations. I suggest that agents negotiate place through space. This crossing takes place as they imbricate the Moroccan context of “L’hrig” within the continuum of the call centre. I also suggest that agents negotiate space through place. This passing occurs via the imbrication of metaphorical space of polyvalence. Crossing and passing inscribe not only a literal meaning of “movement” and “disembodiment”, but also the nuanced meaning of “movement and staying” and “disembodiment and re-embodiment” in a place where conjunctions of space, time, place and context collide. The creation of metaphorical spaces of crossing and passing suggests modification of our understanding of diaspora: attaining the diasporic space can no longer depend on physical borders alone; it must also rely on discursive borders.

  8. The surface expression of Inertial Oscillations in the south shore of Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Trujillo, A. C.; Flament, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    HF radars are used to analyze the surface expression of Near Inertial Oscillations (NIO) on the south shore of Oahu, Hawaii over a two year period. The spatial coverage and high resolution of HF radars allows us to focus on the spatial structure of the NIOs in relation to the wind forcing and background circulation. Preliminary results show larger NIOs amplitudes in spring months when sporadic southwest wind events are found. These NIOs mostly display a red frequency shift, often associated with anticylonic background vorticity. The characteristics of the observed NIOs will be compared to simulations of the classic slab layer model. We will also present the energy exchange between these NIOs and the background flow.

  9. 29 CFR Appendix D to Subpart P of... - Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 1926, Subpt. P, App. D Appendix D to Subpart P of Part 1926—Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches (a... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches D Appendix D to Subpart P of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  10. 33 CFR 169.102 - Who is the shore-based authority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is the shore-based authority... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY SHIP REPORTING SYSTEMS Establishment of Two Mandatory Ship Reporting Systems for the Protection of Northern Right Whales § 169.102 Who is the shore-based authority? The U.S...

  11. 77 FR 74548 - North Shore Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-PPL Susquehanna, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... provided common carrier rail service on the Line. In any event, North Shore will not become an authorized... (North Shore), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to acquire a rail operating easement over approximately 7 miles of rail line (the Line) in Luzerne County, Pa...

  12. Coral bleaching: one disturbance too many for near-shore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. A.; Dolman, A. M.

    2010-09-01

    The dynamic nature of coral communities can make it difficult to judge whether a reef system is resilient to the current disturbance regime. To address this question of resilience for near-shore coral communities of the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) a data set consisting of 350 annual observations of benthic community change was compiled from existing monitoring data. These data spanned the period 1985-2007 and were derived from coral reefs within 20 km of the coast. During years without major disturbance events, cover increase of the Acroporidae was much faster than it was for other coral families; a median of 11% per annum compared to medians of less than 4% for other coral families. Conversely, Acroporidae were more severely affected by cyclones and bleaching events than most other families. A simulation model parameterised with these observations indicated that while recovery rates of hard corals were sufficient to compensate for impacts associated with cyclones and crown-of-thorns starfish, the advent of mass bleaching has lead to a significant change in the composition of the community and a rapid decline in hard coral cover. Furthermore, if bleaching events continue to occur with the same frequency and severity as in the recent past, the model predicts that the cover of Acroporidae will continue to decline. Although significant cover of live coral remains on near-shore reefs, and recovery is observed during inter-disturbance periods, it appears that this system will not be resilient to the recent disturbance regime over the long term. Conservation strategies for coral reefs should focus on both mitigating local factors that act synergistically to increase the susceptibility of Acroporidae to climate change while promoting initiatives that maximise the recovery potential from inevitable disturbances.

  13. Population Structure, Abundance and Movement of Whale Sharks in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P; Jaidah, Mohammed Y; Bach, Steffen; Lee, Katie; Jabado, Rima W; Rohner, Christoph A; March, Abi; Caprodossi, Simone; Henderson, Aaron C; Mair, James M; Ormond, Rupert; Pierce, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Data on the occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman were collected by dedicated boat surveys and via a public-sightings scheme during the period from 2011 to 2014. A total of 422 individual whale sharks were photo-identified from the Arabian Gulf and the northern Gulf of Oman during that period. The majority of sharks (81%, n = 341) were encountered at the Al Shaheen area of Qatar, 90 km off the coast, with the Musandam region of Oman a secondary area of interest. At Al Shaheen, there were significantly more male sharks (n = 171) than females (n = 78; X2 = 17.52, P sharks was 6.90 m ± 1.24 (median = 7 m; n = 296). Males (7.25 m ± 1.34; median = 8 m, n = 171) were larger than females (6.44 m ±1.09; median = 7 m, n = 78; Mann-Whitney U test, p sharks assessed for maturity 63% were mature (n = 81), with 50% attaining maturity by 7.29 m and 100% by 9.00 m. Two female sharks of >9 m individuals were visually assessed as pregnant. Connectivity among sharks sighted in Qatari, Omani and UAE waters was confirmed by individual spot pattern matches. A total of 13 identified sharks were re-sighted at locations other than that at which they were first sighted, including movements into and out of the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to model an estimated combined population for the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman of 2837 sharks ± 1243.91 S.E. (95% C.I. 1720-6295). The Al Shaheen aggregation is thus the first site described as being dominated by mature males while the free-swimming pregnant females are the first reported from the Indian Ocean.

  14. Effects of shore-level displacement on the ecology of Baltic Sea bays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Joakim P.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents the up to date understanding of changes in ecological structure of small Baltic Sea bays following shore-level displacement and isolation of bays from the sea. It was produced as a part of the biosphere research programme, which has a strong emphasis on the characterization of properties and processes affecting the fate of potentially released radionuclides from the suggested repository of nuclear waste in the bedrock of the Forsmark area. The report has a focus on ecology and gives a description of input data, methodology and results on changes in flora and fauna communities, as well as some abiotic factors, with topographic isolation of bays from the sea. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the Forsmark site and to give information essential for demonstrating site specific understanding of processes and properties linked to a sea-to lake succession. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors; shore-level displacement and climate variations. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn influence the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. In this work focus has been to report changes in the structure and biomass of flora and fauna communities, which affect primary production, and influence the processes of decomposition of organic matter and sedimentation. A section of the study also deals with the biological processes of primary production, auto trophic carbon uptake and influence of allochtonous energy. The study is part of a description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle, which is one of the main objectives of the biosphere modelling at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The biomass of macro fauna was found to decrease with increasing isolation of bays

  15. Effects of shore-level displacement on the ecology of Baltic Sea bays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Joakim P. [AquaBiota Water Rsearch, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    This report presents the up to date understanding of changes in ecological structure of small Baltic Sea bays following shore-level displacement and isolation of bays from the sea. It was produced as a part of the biosphere research programme, which has a strong emphasis on the characterization of properties and processes affecting the fate of potentially released radionuclides from the suggested repository of nuclear waste in the bedrock of the Forsmark area. The report has a focus on ecology and gives a description of input data, methodology and results on changes in flora and fauna communities, as well as some abiotic factors, with topographic isolation of bays from the sea. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the Forsmark site and to give information essential for demonstrating site specific understanding of processes and properties linked to a sea-to lake succession. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors; shore-level displacement and climate variations. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn influence the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. In this work focus has been to report changes in the structure and biomass of flora and fauna communities, which affect primary production, and influence the processes of decomposition of organic matter and sedimentation. A section of the study also deals with the biological processes of primary production, auto trophic carbon uptake and influence of allochtonous energy. The study is part of a description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle, which is one of the main objectives of the biosphere modelling at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The biomass of macro fauna was found to decrease with increasing isolation of bays

  16. Organchlorine content and shell thickness in brown booby (Sula leucogaster) eggs in the Gulf of California and the southern Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-López, Mónica E; Luévano-Esparza, Jaime

    2009-07-01

    We determined egg concentrations of organochlorines and thickness of eggshells from brown boobies at eight colonies ranging from the northern Gulf of California to southern Mexico. The only common residue was that of DDE, which was found in almost all eggs. DDE content apparently reflected pre-1990 DDT use in nearby agricultural areas and, at one site, intensive mosquito control for high-end tourism development. There were no inter-colony differences in eggshell thickness, and variation in this variable likely reflected individual bird characteristics and/or individual feeding source. This variable was not a good proxy to DDE exposure of brown boobies, under current DDE levels in the brown booby trophic chain. In the northern Gulf of California, eggshell thickness has recovered to pre-DDT conditions. Our data indicate that the Gulf of California and southwestern coast of Mexico have a healthy near-shore marine environment, as far as organochlorines are concerned.

  17. RESULTS FROM THE (1) DATA COLLECTION WORKSHOP, (2) MODELING WORKSHOP AND (3) DRILLING AND CORING METHODS WORKSHOP AS PART OF THE JOINT INDUSTRY PARTICIPATION (JIP) PROJECT TO CHARACTERIZE NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen A. Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2002-09-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. As part of the project, three workshops were held. The first was a data collection workshop, held in Houston during March 14-15, 2002. The purpose of this workshop was to find out what data exist on gas hydrates and to begin making that data available to the JIP. The second and third workshop, on Geoscience and Reservoir Modeling, and Drilling and Coring Methods, respectively, were held simultaneously in Houston during May 9-10, 2002. The Modeling Workshop was conducted to find out what data the various engineers, scientists and geoscientists want the JIP to collect in both the field and the laboratory. The Drilling and Coring workshop was to begin making plans on how we can collect the data required by the project's principal investigators.

  18. Design and optimization of air bottoming cycles for waste heat recovery in off-shore platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Theory of power maximization used to design an air bottoming cycle. • Theory of power maximization extended by a multi-objective optimization method. • Three objective functions considered: net power output, recuperator volume and net present value. • Comparison between the theory of power maximization and the multi-objective optimization method. • Case study: a methodology applied to recover exhaust heat on off-shore platforms. - Abstract: This paper aims at comparing two methodologies to design an air bottoming cycle recovering the waste heat from the power generation system on the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform. Firstly, the design is determined using the theory of the power maximization. Subsequently, the multi-objective optimization approach is employed to maximize the economic revenue, the compactness and the power production of the air bottoming cycle. The system compactness is assessed by introducing a detailed model of the shell and tube recuperator and including geometric quantities in the set of optimization variables. Findings indicate that using the power production, the volume of the recuperator and the net present value as objective functions the optimal pressure ratio (2.52) and the exhaust gas temperature (178.8 °C) differ from the values (2.80 and 145.5 °C) calculated using the theory of the power maximization. The highest net present value (2.8 M$) is found for a volume of the recuperator of 128 m 3 . Thus, it can be concluded that the multi-objective optimization approach enables extending the theory of power maximization bridging the gap between a mere optimization of the thermodynamic cycle and the practical feasibility of a power generation system

  19. A Journey across Multidirectional Connections: Linda Grant’s The Cast Iron Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pellicer-Ortín

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the numerous groups that have negotiated their fragmented identities through various literary practices in the last few decades, the Jewish collective has come to symbolize the epitome of diaspora and homelessness. In particular, British-Jewish writers have recently started to reconstruct their fragmented memories through writing. This is an extremely interesting phenomenon in the case of those Jewish women who are fiercely struggling to find some sense of personhood as Jewish, British, female, immigrant subjects. Linda Grant’s novel The Cast Iron Shore will be analyzed so as to unveil the narrative mechanisms through which many of the identity tensions experienced by contemporary Jewish women are exhibited. The different stages in the main character’s journey will be examined by drawing on theories on the construction of Jewish identity and femininity, and by applying the model of multidirectional memory fostered by various contemporary thinkers such as Michael Rothberg, Stef Craps, Max Silverman, and Bryan Cheyette. The main claim to be demonstrated is that this narration links the (histories of oppression and racism endured both by the Jewish and the Black communities in order to make the protagonist encounter the Other, develop her mature political self, and liberate her mind from rigid religious, patriarchal, and racial stereotypes. The Cast Iron Shore becomes, then, a successful attempt to demonstrate that the (histories of displacement endured by divergent communities during the twentieth century are connected, and it is the establishment of these connections that can help contemporary Jewish subjects to claim new notions of their personhood in the public sphere.

  20. Historical shoreline changes along the US Gulf of Mexico: A summary of recent shoreline comparisons and analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R.A.; Miller, T.; Moore, L.

    2005-01-01

    The US Geological Survey is systematically analyzing historical shoreline changes along open-ocean sandy shores of the United States. This National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project is developing standard repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that internally consistent updates can periodically be made to record coastal erosion and land loss along US shores. Recently, shoreline change maps and a report were published for states bordering the Gulf of Mexico. Long-term and short-term average rates of change were calculated by comparing three historical shorelines (1800s, 1930s, 1970s) with an operational mean high water shoreline derived from lidar (light detection and ranging) surveys (post-1998). The rates of change, statistical uncertainties, original shorelines, and complementary geographic information system layers, such as areas of beach nourishment, are available on an Internet Map Server (IMS). For the Gulf of Mexico region, rates of erosion are generally highest in Louisiana along barrier island and headland shores associated with the Mississippi delta. Erosion also is rapid along some barrier islands and headlands in Texas, whereas barrier islands in Mississippi are migrating laterally. Highest rates of erosion in Florida are generally localized around tidal inlets. The most stable Gulf beaches generally are along the west coast of Florida, where low wave energy and frequent beach nourishment minimize erosion. Some long beach segments in Texas have accreted as a result of net longshore drift convergence and around tidal inlets that have been stabilized by long jetties. Individuals and some communities have attempted to mitigate the effects of erosion by emplacement of coastal structures, but those efforts largely have been abandoned in favor of periodic beach nourishment.

  1. Modelling of migration and fate of selected persistent organic pollutants in the Gulf of Gdansk and the Vistula catchment (Poland): selected results from the EU ELOISE EuroCat project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowska, Barbara; Pacyna, Jozef; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2005-02-01

    The ELOISE EU EuroCat project integrated natural and social sciences to link the impacts affecting the coastal sea to the human activities developed along the catchments. In EuroCat project river catchments' changes and their impact on the inflow area were analysed. The information was linked with environmental models. The part of the EU ELOISE EuroCat project focusing on the Vistula River catchment and the Baltic Sea costal zone was named VisCat. Within the framework of the EU ELOISE EuroCat - VisCat project, CoZMo-POP (Coastal Zone Model for Persistent Organic Pollutants), a non-steady-state multicompartmental mass balance model of long-term chemical fate in the coastal environment or the drainage basin of a large lake environment was used. The model is parameterised and tested herein to simulate the long-term fate and distribution of selected HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexanes) and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in the Gulf of Gdansk and the Vistula River drainage basin environment. The model can also be used in the future to predict future concentrations in relation to various emission scenarios and in management of economic development and regulations of substance-emission to this environment. However, this would require more extensive efforts in the future on model parameterisation and validation in order to increase the confidence in current model outputs.

  2. Seasonal Sea Level Cycle Change: Understanding the Possible Climate Feedbacks Over the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf Stream Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricko, M.; Ray, R. D.; Beckley, B. D.

    2016-12-01

    Recent change in the seasonal sea level cycle has been observed in satellite radar altimetry record, especially over regions such as the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf Stream region. Gridded satellite data is in a good agreement with ground tide gauge data that also confirm increased annual amplitude of sea level during most recent years. Data analysis is based on a set of tide gauges, satellite measurements and models. A consistent positive trend in the seasonal sea level cycle during recent years over different regions has been well confirmed (e.g., Wahl et al. 2014, Etcheverry et al. 2015). Over a longer timescale, historical tide gauge data give a neutral or slightly positive trend in the seasonal cycle of sea level along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. This observed signal of increased seasonal sea level cycle in tide gauges over the coastal areas is extended with satellite observations to open ocean regions. It is most evident during last several years (2007-2015) over most of the Gulf of Mexico, especially over north-eastern and central parts of the Gulf of Mexico, and over the Gulf Stream region, showing mean annual amplitude larger than 15 cm. One part of this increase appears to be due to change in mean sea level pressure. However, main causes of seasonal sea level cycle change on interannual to climate scale have not yet been understood. To determine possible climate feedbacks responsible for observed change in the seasonal sea level cycle, its relationship with parameters such as sea surface temperature, wind curl, circulation, mesoscale eddies, etc., is investigated. Model-based results (e.g., NASA's GMAO model) give similar trend and feedbacks, but with a consistent bias and underestimation of annual amplitude increase. Understanding climate mechanisms responsible for observed seasonal sea level cycle change would offer better prediction of sea level variability on interannual to interdecadal time scales.

  3. Citizenship and migration in Arab Gulf monarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sater, J.

    2014-01-01

    In many industrialized countries, the issue of migration has traditionally raised the question of whether migrant groups fully enjoy citizenship rights. Political debates about models of migration emphasize either the values of cultural diversity or the value of integration into 'host' societies......, whereas fear and security concerns are often embedded in more populist debates. In the Arab Gulf region, as in many other regions, such as East Asia, this debate has taken distinctively different shapes, partially because the concept of citizenship remains a contested notion not just with regard...

  4. Scientific issues in the Gulf Stream locale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, P.; Daum, M.L.; Raman, S.; Leach, M.

    1994-01-01

    Of the five primary CART sites, the Gulf Stream locale, a western boundary current location, uniquely experiences positive sensible and latent heat fluxes that span wide ranges and are likely the largest on earth. Scientific issues relating to this area are grouped under two objectives: (1) Relate observed instantaneous radiative properties of the atmosphere to the then-present atmospheric temperature and composition and surface radiative properties, both as a function of position, and develop parameterizations for these relationships. (2) Develop parameterizations to describe atmospheric composition and surface properties governing atmospheric radiation in terms of relevant prognostic variables, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation and related models

  5. Simulation of Groundwater-Level and Salinity Changes in the Eastern Shore, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Pope, Jason P.; Nelms, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater-level and salinity changes have been simulated with a groundwater model developed and calibrated for the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The Eastern Shore is the southern part of the Delmarva Peninsula that is occupied by Accomack and Northampton Counties in Virginia. Groundwater is the sole source of freshwater to the Eastern Shore, and demands for water have been increasing from domestic, industrial, agricultural, and public-supply sectors of the economy. Thus, it is important that the groundwater supply be protected from overextraction and seawater intrusion. The best way for water managers to use all of the information available is usually to compile this information into a numerical model that can simulate the response of the system to current and future stresses. A detailed description of the geology, hydrogeology, and historical groundwater extractions was compiled and entered into the numerical model. The hydrogeologic framework is composed of a surficial aquifer under unconfined conditions, a set of three aquifers and associated overlying confining units under confined conditions (the upper, middle, and lower Yorktown-Eastover Formation), and an underlying confining unit (the St. Marys Formation). An estimate of the location and depths of two major paleochannels was also included in the framework of the model. Total withdrawals from industrial, commercial, public-supply, and some agricultural wells were compiled from the period 1900 through 2003. Reported pumpage from these sources increased dramatically during the 1960s and 70s, up to currently about 4 million gallons per day. Domestic withdrawals were estimated on the basis of population census districts and were assigned spatially to the model on the assumption that domestic users are located close to roads. A numerical model was created using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) code SEAWAT to simulate both water levels and concentrations of chloride (representing salinity). The model was

  6. Lower Cretaceous Source Rock and its Implication for the Gulf of Guinea Petroleum System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, B.R.; Griffith, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Current petroleum system models for the Gulf of Guinea propose Tertiary-age deltaic organic material as the principal source for the hydrocarbons found there. Although previous workers recognized numerous difficulties and inconsistencies, no alternative model has been resented to adequately explain the complete petroleum system. We propose that the principal source rock for the Gulf of Guinea system occurs in upper lower Cretaceous-age shales at the rift-drift transition. Tertiary loading and the consequent maturation of this lower Cretaceous source rock can explain the controls on tap formation, reservoir distribution and hydrocarbon types found in the Gulf of Guinea

  7. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quattrocchi, G.; Pierini, S.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS) and GS extension (GSE) is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with

  8. Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm (OWF on the Common Shore Crab Carcinus maenas: Tagging Pilot Experiments in the Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm (Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Langhamer

    Full Text Available Worldwide growth of offshore renewable energy production will provide marine organisms with new hard substrate for colonization in terms of artificial reefs. The artificial reef effect is important when planning offshore installations since it can create habitat enhancement. Wind power is the most advanced technology within offshore renewable energy sources and there is an urgent need to study its impacts on the marine environment. To test the hypothesis that offshore wind power increases the abundance of reef species relative to a reference area, we conduct an experiment on the model species common shore crab (Carcinus maenas.Overall, 3962 crabs were captured, observed, marked and released in 2011 and 1995 crabs in 2012. Additionally, carapace size, sex distribution, color morphs and body condition was recorded from captured crabs. We observed very low recapture rates at all sites during both years which made evaluating differences in population sizes very difficult. However, we were able to estimate population densities from the capture record for all three sites. There was no obvious artificial reef effect in the Lillgrund wind farm, but a spill-over effect to nearby habitats cannot be excluded. We could not find any effect of the wind farm on either, morphs, sex distribution or condition of the common shore crab. Our study found no evidence that Lillgrund wind farm has a negative effect on populations of the common shore crab. This study provides the first quantitative and experimental data on the common shore crab in relation to offshore wind farms.

  9. The Role of Bed Roughness in Wave Transformation Across Sloping Rock Shore Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poate, Tim; Masselink, Gerd; Austin, Martin J.; Dickson, Mark; McCall, Robert

    2018-01-01

    We present for the first time observations and model simulations of wave transformation across sloping (Type A) rock shore platforms. Pressure measurements of the water surface elevation using up to 15 sensors across five rock platforms with contrasting roughness, gradient, and wave climate represent the most extensive collected, both in terms of the range of environmental conditions, and the temporal and spatial resolution. Platforms are shown to dissipate both incident and infragravity wave energy as skewness and asymmetry develop and, in line with previous studies, surf zone wave heights are saturated and strongly tidally modulated. Overall, the observed properties of the waves and formulations derived from sandy beaches do not highlight any systematic interplatform variation, in spite of significant differences in platform roughness, suggesting that friction can be neglected when studying short wave transformation. Optimization of a numerical wave transformation model shows that the wave breaker criterion falls between the range of values reported for flat sandy beaches and those of steep coral fore reefs. However, the optimized drag coefficient shows significant scatter for the roughest sites and an alternative empirical drag model, based on the platform roughness, does not improve model performance. Thus, model results indicate that the parameterization of frictional drag using the bottom roughness length-scale may be inappropriate for the roughest platforms. Based on these results, we examine the balance of wave breaking to frictional dissipation for rock platforms and find that friction is only significant for very rough, flat platforms during small wave conditions outside the surf zone.

  10. The Protective Properties of Common Reed Plantations on Shores of the Lower Volga Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solodovnikov Denis Anatolyevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The abrasion processing of shores is a pressing problem of large water basins of the Lower Volga region and other Russian regions. About 3 km2 of shoreland is annually lost in the zone of the Volgograd water basin as a result of this process. The existing methods of shores protection are connected with the creation of concrete structures having a high level of erosion resistance. They are extremely expensive and in most cases they are not affordable for rural municipalities suffering from abrasion. The authors offer cheap and environmentally friendly way of protecting the shores of large water basins from abrasion. The method is based on the plantation of a common reed strip on a water basin’s shallow. The biological characteristics of common reed as the main component of shore protection structures are described. The terms and milestones of the work in the conditions of the Volgograd water basin are developed. The main result of applying our methodology is the complete cessation of abrasion processing of the shore at the corresponding piece of land. The authors overview the positive qualities of reed plantations, their biocenotic, barrier and waterproof role in on-shore ecosystems. The application of the described method will allow saving for the national economy dozens of hectares of valuable shore lands annually, in particular, irrigated cropland, settlement lands, infrastructure. In addition to the direct benefits associated with the conservation of land resources, the intensity of adverse processes associated with erosion of shores (water basin muddying, deterioration of sanitary qualities of water will decrease. Due to the wide geographic spread of common reed described in the present work, the technology of shores stabilization can be applied at almost all lowland water basins of Russia.

  11. Anisotropic models to account for large borehole washouts to estimate gas hydrate saturations in the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II Alaminos 21 B well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.; Lewis, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Through the use of 3-D seismic amplitude mapping, several gashydrate prospects were identified in the Alaminos Canyon (AC) area of the Gulf of Mexico. Two locations were drilled as part of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (JIP Leg II) in May of 2009 and a comprehensive set of logging-while-drilling (LWD) logs were acquired at each well site. LWD logs indicated that resistivity in the range of ~2 ohm-m and P-wave velocity in the range of ~1.9 km/s were measured in the target sand interval between 515 and 645 feet below sea floor. These values were slightly elevated relative to those measured in the sediment above and below the target sand. However, the initial well log analysis was inconclusive regarding the presence of gashydrate in the logged sand interval, mainly because largewashouts caused by drilling in the target interval degraded confidence in the well log measurements. To assess gashydratesaturations in the sedimentary section drilled in the Alaminos Canyon 21B (AC21-B) well, a method of compensating for the effect of washouts on the resistivity and acoustic velocities was developed. The proposed method models the washed-out portion of the borehole as a vertical layer filled with sea water (drilling fluid) and the apparent anisotropic resistivity and velocities caused by a vertical layer are used to correct the measured log values. By incorporating the conventional marine seismic data into the well log analysis, the average gashydratesaturation in the target sand section in the AC21-Bwell can be constrained to the range of 8–28%, with 20% being our best estimate.

  12. A GIS Approach for Reconstructing the Litorina Sea Lagoon in Tolkuse-Rannametsa Area, Eastern Gulf of Riga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Hando-Laur; Rosentau, Alar; Jõeleht, Argo; Hang, Tiit; Kohv, Marko

    2015-04-01

    The eastern coast of the Gulf of Riga in the NE Baltic Sea is characterized by slow post-glacial isostatic uplift (about 1mm/yr) and slowly undulating low topography. Therefore even small increases in sea-level can easily lead to the flooding of considerable areas. The complex deglaciation history of the Baltic Sea area left, at times, south western Estonia submerged, while at other times, it emerged as terrestrial land. Different transgressive and regressive development stages of the Baltic Sea did not only shape the landscape, but also influenced the locations of the Stone Age settlements which were closely bound to the coastal areas which also include estuaries and lagoonal systems. The coastal region of the Gulf of Riga is abundant in Meso- and Neolithic settlement sites. The present study combines LiDAR, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and geological data to reconstruct development of the Litorina Sea lagoon in Tolkuse-Rannametsa area and to create prognostic palaeogeographic maps in order to search for Meso- and Neolithic coastal settlement sites. Over 47 km of GPR profiling was done; sediments were described and dated in 37 cores two riverbank outcrops. Diatoms were analysed in the master core. A semi-automatic method for the removal of modern anthropogenic features from LiDAR derived digital elevation model (DEM) was developed, tested and used. In modelling process the impact of sedimentary processes subsequent to the time being modelled was taken into account by employing a backstripping methodology. The differential glacio-isostatic uplift within the study area was taken into account by using interpolated water-level surfaces. Palaeogeographic reconstructions shed new light into region's post-glacial coastal evolution and enabled us to suggest the possible locations of the Stone Age settlements with some of the proposed areas buried under up to 3 m thick peat layer. The results of the current study provide new chronological and shore displacement data

  13. Structure Changes of Macrobenthic Community on Rocky Shores After the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Hwan Jung; Heung-Sik Park; Kon-Tak Yoon; Hyung-Gon Lee; Chae-Woo Ma

    2013-01-01

    In Korea, more than 300 oil spill accidents occur every year. Despite the frequency, only a small pool of data is available on the initial effect of oil spill on macrobenthic fauna inhabiting rocky shores. The aim of this study was to analyze the variation of macrobenthic fauna composition and community structure on rocky shores, and understand the impact of oil on rocky shore organisms after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. Field surveys were carried out in five regions dose to the wreck site in ...

  14. Gulf and Dilmun Type seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    From around 2100 BC a glyptic tradition emerges in the Arabian Gulf, which is dependant on the well-established schools of the Indus Valley seal cutters. These circular hybrids of classic Harappan seals rapidly became popular amongst the merchants of Dilmun, centered on Bahrain Island. At first...... these Gulf Type‘ seals drew heavily on Indus Valley iconography and Indus script was occasionally employed in a pidgin-like manner. While the earliest circular seals incorporate features from Mesopotamian glyptic only to a lesser extent, this becomes a more important source of inspiration for later Dilmun...... Type seals....

  15. A Technology Analysis to Support Acquisition of UAVs for Gulf Coalition Forces Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Houthi militias (red agents ) are adept in rugged terrain and travel faster, which requires the GCF to respond quickly. The total simulation run time is...Uniform Automata, an agent -based simulation software platform, for the computational experiments. It models the operational area, system entities for the...aerial vehicle, border security, simulation, Agent -Based Modeling, Gulf Coalition Forces, Decisive Storm, Gulf Corporation Council, analytic hierarchy

  16. Bear Meadow Paleoseismic Investigations, West Shore Lake Oroville, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoirup, D. F., Jr.; Kozaci, O.; Zachariasen, J. A.; Bloszies, C.; Hitchcock, C. S.; Koehler, R. D.; Lindvall, S. C.; McDonald, E.; Feigelson, L.; Abramson-Ward, H.; Hartleb, R.; Huebner, M.

    2017-12-01

    The ML5.7 1975 Oroville earthquake occurred seven years after construction of Oroville Dam, the tallest earth-fill embankment dam in the United States. The Oroville earthquake and aftershocks resulted in recognition of Quaternary activity along the Cleveland Hill fault (CHF), Swain Ravine fault zone (SRF), located west of the Foothills fault system, where the seismic hazard is relatively low based on moderate earthquake activity and small (oriented zone of topographic lineaments were identified in the LiDAR along the West Shore of Lake Oroville (WSLO) north of Oroville Dam. The lineaments are coincident with the northern projection of the CHF and are expressed as scarps, benches, depressions, saddles, and scarps along the steep slopes of WSLO. In order to assess the origin of the lineaments, and determine whether or not the prominent lineament is related to recent fault activity that could pose a co-seismic surface rupture potential at Oroville Dam, our study integrated geomorphic mapping, field reconnaissance, and four trenches across the lineament at the Bear Meadow site. Detailed mapping documented a roughly north-south oriented bedrock fabric throughout the region associated with a series of parallel lineaments. Field reconnaissance and the trench exposures revealed a robust correlation between strength of the Jurassic meta-volcanic bedrock and localized erosion and slope failures. These surface processes exploit weaker zones within the bedrock (bedrock shear zones and slope-parallel foliation planes), resulting in differential erosion and stepped topography. The stepped topography is accentuated by side-hill benches formed by colluvium that infills areas between resistant bedrock zones. The result is a youthful zone of topographic lineaments. Furthermore, a clay-rich saprolitic unit ( 175 ka) consisting of in-place weather bedrock clasts was mapped in trench T3 that crosses the lineament in Bear Meadow. No faulting or deformation was observed in the saprolite

  17. Experiencing the changing climate on the shores of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, K.; Maibach, E.

    2011-12-01

    The Great Lakes of the United States - the largest freshwater system in the world - have been termed "the canary in the coal mine" of environmental change. To assess if and how residents of Alger County, Michigan are experiencing changes in climate on the shores of Lake Superior, during the summer of 2010 we conducted a representative household mail survey in collaboration with a national lakeshore and watershed partnership. A total of 765 adult residents (18 years or older) responded to the survey; a 57% survey completion rate. We content analyzed respondents' open-ended characterizations of how they have personally experienced global warming, and compared the results with land surface and storm data for the same geographic region to see whether public perceptions of local changes match trends in National Climatic Data Center data. Just over a quarter of residents (27%) indicated that they had personally experienced global warming. Those who had were most likely to say that they had experienced global warming locally (as opposed to in other locations of the country or globally), and most frequently cited changes in seasons, weather, lake levels, and animals or plant species. However, some local public perceptions appeared to conflict with weather records. For example, residents were more likely to say that they had been experiencing less snow in the winters, while NCDC data suggests the reverse is true. As climate changes differentially in regions across the United States, the public will in turn experience its physical impacts in distinct ways that are unique to each landscape. This may be counter-intuitive to a public that increasingly experiences the world, and issues such as climate change, through sources of information such as national news media that operate at much larger geographic scales. Understanding where these forms of cognitive dissonance may arise may assist researchers, educators, and communicators in furthering discourses with the public about

  18. Numerical Models for Obliquely Incident Waves in Surf and Swash Zones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karjadi, Entin

    1997-01-01

    Time-dependent numerical models are developed to predict the temporal and cross-shore variations of the free surface elevation and the cross-shore and alongshore fluid velocities in the swash and surf...

  19. Devonian lacustrine shore zone architecture: giving perspective to cliff exposures with ground penetrating radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, Steven D.; Moreau, Julien; Archer, Stuart

    Lake margin sedimentary systems have been the subject of only limited study. The orbitally controlled cyclic lacustrine successions of the Middle Old Red Sandstone of Northern Scotland contains repeated developments of shore zone sandstones and thus provides an ideal location for the study...... of these units. The cycles are on average 16-m-thick and comprise deep lake, perennial lake and playa facies. The shore zone facies reaches 2 to 3.5 m in thickness and is found within the playa facies. On the exposures, the shore zone facies seems to be aggrading with most of the layers apparently subhorizontal....... However, this depositional environment ought to be relatively dynamic with sand body migration and erosions. In addition, along the coastal cliffs, the exposures are mainly on the same strike direction. To better understand the peculiar shore zone system, we carried out very high resolution sedimentary...

  20. Blended Shore Education: Civic Engagement and Competencies in 21st-Century Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohschen, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the implication of Blended Shore Education to doctoral program design and delivery as it synthesizes adult education principles of Freire and Stanage with findings of Strohschen's international action research on design and delivery practices.

  1. Economic valuation of the visual externalities of off-shore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Dubgaard, Alex; Martinsen, Louise

    studies of the environmental impact of off-shore wind farms. The programme is coordinated by the Environmental Group with representatives from Elsam Engineering, Energy E2, the Danish Forest and Nature Agency, and the Danish Energy Authority. The present study was initiated in August 2003, and this report......The primary focus of the study presented in this report is visual externalities of off-shore wind farms and the Danish population’s willingness to pay for having these ex-ternalities reduced. The investigation is part of the Danish monitoring programme for off-shore wind farms, comprising several...... concludes the project. An overview of the findings will also be published in a joint publication, comprising all projects under the Danish monitoring programme for off-shore wind farms. Fur-ther research within this area is taking place in connection with a Ph.D. programme at KVL....

  2. Intertidal biodiversity and health status of Bandstand shore (Bandra), Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S N; Chakraborty, S K; Jaiswara, A K; Deshmukhe, G

    2010-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the biodiversity status of the intertidal region of rocky shore of Bandstand (Bandra), Mumbai. Among 42 species recorded, Euchelus asper was maximum in density during December (123/m2). However, maximum biomass was recorded for Nerita oryzarum in November (146.94 g/m2). ANOVA revealed no variation in the occurrence of organisms according to transects, but the variation was recorded according to months and quadrates. Shannon and Simpson's diversity index, Margalef's richness index and Pielou's evenness index indicated different level of ecological state of the shore in different months. Dendrogram from Bray-Curtis similarity matrix and non metric Multi-Diamentional Scaling (MDS) revealed maximum closeness of occurrence between N. oryzarum and Planaxis sulcatus. Shepard diagram and abundance/biomass comparison (ABC) curve method revealed light to moderately polluted status of the shore. However, in spite of such condition, this shore is still rich in intertidal biodiversity that should be conserved.

  3. Analysis of fish movements between Great Lakes coastal wetlands and near shore habitat via otolith microchemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands are unique habitats with physical connections with near shore environments. This facilitates the exchange of energy between habitats in a principle known as habitat coupling. Coupling can be facilitated by movements of consumers; however, wetland us...

  4. Geographical positioning using laser optical instrument for near-shore underwater archaeological explorations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    of measuring angles and distances using laser optical instrument from the shore to obtain accurate underwater positions. The prescribed method can be applied effectively for all shallow water archaeological surveys. Under calm sea condition this method can...

  5. Taphonomy and palaeoecology of the gastropod fauna from a Late Cretaceous rocky shore, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Mehlin; Surlyk, Finn

    2011-01-01

    of drill holes assigned to the ichnospecies Oichnus simplex suggests the former presence of muricid gastropods which have not been found as body fossils. A single drill hole is referred to Oichnus paraboloides and was probably made by a naticid gastropod. The infaunal mode of life of naticids makes......A gastropod fauna comprising 17 species, each represented by a limited number of specimens, is described from a Late Cretaceous, late early Campanian rocky shore at Ivö Klack, southern Sweden. The gastropod fauna is associated with the most diverse ancient rocky shore fauna ever found. However......, the low gastropod species diversity compared to the faunas of modern rocky shores is ascribed to taphonomic factors, notably dissolution of the aragonitic shells, but the predominance of epifaunal herbivores is indicative of a guild structure similar to that found on modern rocky shores. The presence...

  6. The presence and near-shore transport of human fecal pollution in Lake Michigan beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S.L.; Liu, L.B.; Phanikumar, M.S.; Jenkins, T.M.; Wong, M.V.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a source of water for municipal, agricultural and industrial use, and support significant recreation, commercial and sport fishing industries. Every year millions of people visit the 500 plus recreational beaches in the Great Lakes. An increasing public health risk has been suggested with increased evidence of fecal contamination at the shoreline. To investigate the transport and fate of fecal pollution at Great Lakes beaches and the health risk associated with swimming at these beaches, the near-shore waters of Mt Baldy Beach, Lake Michigan and Trail Creek, a tributary discharging into the lake were examined for fecal pollution indicators. A model of surf zone hydrodynamics coupled with a transport model with first-order inactivation of pollutant was used to understand the relative importance of different processes operating in the surf zone (e.g. physical versus biological processes). The Enterococcus human fecal pollution marker, which targets a putative virulence factor, the enterococcal surface protein (esp) in Enterococcus faecium, was detected in 2/28 samples (7%) from the tributaries draining into Lake Michigan and in 6/30 samples (20%) from Lake Michigan beaches. Preliminary analysis suggests that the majority of fecal indicator bactateria variation and water quality changes at the beaches can be explained by inputs from the influential stream and hydrometeorological conditions. Using modeling methods to predict impaired water quality may help reduce potential health threats to recreational visitors.

  7. STENCIL - Strategies and Tools for Environment-friendly Shore Nourishments as Climate Change Impact Low-Regret Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmels, Stefan; Cofalla, Catrina; Deutschmann, Björn; Ganal, Caroline; Gijsman, Rik; Hass, H. Christian; Hollert, Henner; Mielck, Finn; Schlurmann, Thorsten; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Shiravani, Gholamreza; Staudt, Franziska; Strusinska, Agnieszka; Visscher, Jan; Wiltshire, Karen; Wolbring, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    Shore nourishments are regarded as an almost routine coastal protection measure and have been carried out worldwide for several decades. Recent studies generally conclude that "soft" coastal protection measures are an effective option for a sustainable coastal management. However, more research on economic sustainability, species-specific habitat demands and availability of sand deposits is required. Nowadays, the recent paradigm shifts to concepts like the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) and the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM). For the German Wadden Sea these management objectives are an important issue of the "Wattenmeerstrategie 2100" (MELLUR-SH, 2015), a political strategy report that demands an adaption against the global change and the expected sea-level rise up to the year 2100. Hence, also new concepts and tools for the implementation of more sustainable, effective and environment-friendly shore nourishments are needed. The research project STENCIL joins the expertise of coastal engineers, geologists, biologists and toxicologists in order to make a first step towards the long-term goal of establishing an ICZM and EAM for shore nourishments in the German Wadden Sea. The project focuses on providing improved tools, models and methods for the prediction of coastal hydro- and morphodynamics. Furthermore, the impact of dredging and dumping activities on benthic habitats and their natural regeneration potentials will be evaluated. Since these impacts are still widely uninvestigated, monitoring of dredging areas and the surrounding sites using hydroacoustic devices, aerial photos and sediment samples for grain-size and benthos analysis remains of high importance. In order to develop standardized operative observation methods, analysis and decision-supporting tools, an implementation of field measurements, laboratory experiments as well as conceptual and numerical models is planned. These combined approaches will result in valuable data sets for

  8. Recycling at Naval Shore Installations: One Means of Curbing the ’Garbage Glut’

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    disposable diaper ban was dropped from Georgia’s recycling law. 7 Despite their success, NUMKAPTs in all parts of the country shouldn’t celebrate too...AD-.A276 759 1993 Executive Research Project S63 Recycling at Naval Shore Installations: One Means of Curbing the "Garbage Glut" Commander Robert L... Recycling at Naval Shore Installations: One Means of Curbing the "Garbage Glut" --- Provides techniques and strategies to aid Federal recycling program

  9. Alcohol content in the 'Hyper-Reality' MTV show 'Geordie Shore'

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Eden; Britton, John; Cranwell, Jo

    2018-01-01

    Aim: To quantify the occurrence of alcohol content, including alcohol branding, in the popular primetime television UK Reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. \\ud \\ud Methods: A 1-min interval coding content analysis of alcohol content in the entire DVD Series 11 of 'Geordie Shore' (10 episodes). Occurrence of alcohol use, implied use, other alcohol reference/paraphernalia or branding was recorded. \\ud \\ud Results: All categories of alcohol were present in all episodes. 'Any alcohol' conte...

  10. Academics in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The job market on North American campuses may be heading for the deep freeze, but hundreds of positions are opening up in the Persian Gulf as American universities scramble to set down roots in those petrodollar-rich states. The combination of money and opportunity on offer may seem hard to resist. But academics who trade the rich intellectual…

  11. Retrotransposition creates sloping shores: a graded influence of hypomethylated CpG islands on flanking CpG sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Fiorella C; Rosser, James M; Newkirk, Simon J; Yin, Jun; Jiang, Xiaoling; Xing, Zhuo; Whitmore, Leanne; Bashir, Sanum; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ye, Ping; Yu, Y Eugene; An, Wenfeng

    2015-08-01

    Long interspersed elements (LINEs), through both self-mobilization and trans-mobilization of short interspersed elements and processed pseudogenes, have made an indelible impact on the structure and function of the human genome. One consequence is the creation of new CpG islands (CGIs). In fact, more than half of all CGIs in the genome are associated with repetitive DNA, three-quarters of which are derived from retrotransposons. However, little is known about the epigenetic impact of newly inserted CGIs. We utilized a transgenic LINE-1 mouse model and tracked DNA methylation dynamics of individual germline insertions during mouse development. The retrotransposed GFP marker sequence, a strong CGI, is hypomethylated in male germ cells but hypermethylated in somatic tissues, regardless of genomic location. The GFP marker is similarly methylated when delivered into the genome via the Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon, suggesting that the observed methylation pattern may be independent of the mode of insertion. Comparative analyses between insertion- and non-insertion-containing alleles further reveal a graded influence of the retrotransposed CGI on flanking CpG sites, a phenomenon that we described as "sloping shores." Computational analyses of human and mouse methylomic data at single-base resolution confirm that sloping shores are universal for hypomethylated CGIs in sperm and somatic tissues. Additionally, the slope of a hypomethylated CGI can be affected by closely positioned CGI neighbors. Finally, by tracing sloping shore dynamics through embryonic and germ cell reprogramming, we found evidence of bookmarking, a mechanism that likely determines which CGIs will be eventually hyper- or hypomethylated. © 2015 Grandi et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Blood Biomarkers of Chronic Inflammation in Gulf War Illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard J Johnson

    Full Text Available More than twenty years following the end of the 1990-1991 Gulf War it is estimated that approximately 300,000 veterans of this conflict suffer from an unexplained chronic, multi-system disorder known as Gulf War Illness (GWI. The etiology of GWI may be exposure to chemical toxins, but it remains only partially defined, and its case definition is based only on symptoms. Objective criteria for the diagnosis of GWI are urgently needed for diagnosis and therapeutic research.This study was designed to determine if blood biomarkers could provide objective criteria to assist diagnosis of GWI.A surveillance study of 85 Gulf War Veteran volunteers identified from the Department of Veterans Affairs Minnesota Gulf War registry was performed. All subjects were deployed to the Gulf War. Fifty seven subjects had GWI defined by CDC criteria, and 28 did not have symptomatic criteria for a diagnosis of GWI. Statistical analyses were performed on peripheral blood counts and assays of 61 plasma proteins using the Mann-Whitney rank sum test to compare biomarker distributions and stepwise logistic regression to formulate a diagnostic model.Lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts were higher in GWI subjects. Six serum proteins associated with inflammation were significantly different in GWI subjects. A diagnostic model of three biomarkers-lymphocytes, monocytes, and C reactive protein-had a predicted probability of 90% (CI 76-90% for diagnosing GWI when the probability of having GWI was above 70%.The results of the current study indicate that inflammation is a component of the pathobiology of GWI. Analysis of the data resulted in a model utilizing three readily measurable biomarkers that appears to significantly augment the symptom-based case definition of GWI. These new observations are highly relevant to the diagnosis of GWI, and to therapeutic trials.

  13. 78 FR 14225 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    .... 120417412-2412-01] RIN 0648-XC510 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery; 2013 Accountability Measure for Gulf of Mexico Commercial Gray Triggerfish... measure (AM) for commercial gray triggerfish in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) reef fish fishery for the 2013...

  14. 75 FR 70365 - Agency Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY...).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA..., will help VA to assess the health of Gulf War veterans who were exposed to a variety of environmental...

  15. 75 FR 54445 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans) Activity: Comment Request... assist in VA's efforts to address the health concerns and problems of Gulf War Veterans. DATES: Written... of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA Form 10-0488, and Consent Form for Release of Medical Records...

  16. 77 FR 56168 - Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Individual Fishing Quota Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    .... 090206140-91081-03] RIN 0648-XC227 Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Individual... red snapper and grouper/tilefish components of the reef fish fishery in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf), the... INFORMATION: The reef fish fishery of the Gulf of Mexico is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for Reef...

  17. Prospects and Techniques for Eddy-Resolving Acoustic Tomography in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruthers, J. W.; Nechaev, D.; Roman, D. A.; Sidorovskaia, N. A.; Ioup, G. E.; Ioup, J.; Yaremchuk, M.

    2007-05-01

    For several decades monitoring and modeling the dynamics and physical structure of the Gulf of Mexico have been major efforts undertaken by oceanographers of the United States and other American countries. There are very interesting physical oceanographic features in the Gulf, not the least of which are the Gulf Loop Current and the eddies it spawns. Satellite sensing of IR and altimeter imagery has been a major input to modeling those features. Such efforts are very important to the economy and well being of much of the United States and Mexico, including fisheries, mineral economies, hurricane strengths and paths in the summer, and severe snow storms in the eastern US in the winter. A major shortcoming of the present monitoring of the Gulf is the lack of subsurface input to the dynamic models of the Gulf. Acoustic tomography is a viable means of providing that missing input. Several universities have come together to investigate the prospects for establishing a Gulf Eddy Monitoring System (GEMS) for the deep eastern half of the Gulf using acoustic tomography. The group has conducted several acoustics experiments and propagation studies to determine the feasibility of long-range propagation in the eastern Gulf and the mitigation of adverse effects on marine mammal populations in that region under the Office of Naval Research project entitled the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC). The group has also convened an invited session for the 9th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (WMSCI 2005) Orlando, FL, July 2005. This paper discusses prospects for establishing the GEMS tomographic system, its technical characteristics, and its contributions to advancing the knowledge of the dynamics of the Gulf. This presentation will concentrate on the characteristics of a single-slice tomographic system, called GEMS Phase I, across the approaches to the DeSoto Canyon in the northeastern Gulf and its prospect for monitoring the movements of

  18. Patterns of Spatial Variation of Assemblages Associated with Intertidal Rocky Shores: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Miloslavich, Patricia; Palomo, Gabriela; Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Pohle, Gerhard; Trott, Tom; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Herrera, César; Hernández, Alejandra; Sardi, Adriana; Bueno, Andrea; Castillo, Julio; Klein, Eduardo; Guerra-Castro, Edlin; Gobin, Judith; Gómez, Diana Isabel; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Mead, Angela; Bigatti, Gregorio; Knowlton, Ann; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    Assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores were examined for large scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends of species richness and taxonomic distinctiveness. Seventy-two sites distributed around the globe were evaluated following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). There were no clear patterns of standardized estimators of species richness along latitudinal gradients or among Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs); however, a strong latitudinal gradient in taxonomic composition (i.e., proportion of different taxonomic groups in a given sample) was observed. Environmental variables related to natural influences were strongly related to the distribution patterns of the assemblages on the LME scale, particularly photoperiod, sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall. In contrast, no environmental variables directly associated with human influences (with the exception of the inorganic pollution index) were related to assemblage patterns among LMEs. Correlations of the natural assemblages with either latitudinal gradients or environmental variables were equally strong suggesting that neither neutral models nor models based solely on environmental variables sufficiently explain spatial variation of these assemblages at a global scale. Despite the data shortcomings in this study (e.g., unbalanced sample distribution), we show the importance of generating biological global databases for the use in large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages to stimulate continued sampling and analyses. PMID:21179546

  19. Patterns of spatial variation of assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores: a global perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cruz-Motta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores were examined for large scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends of species richness and taxonomic distinctiveness. Seventy-two sites distributed around the globe were evaluated following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org. There were no clear patterns of standardized estimators of species richness along latitudinal gradients or among Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs; however, a strong latitudinal gradient in taxonomic composition (i.e., proportion of different taxonomic groups in a given sample was observed. Environmental variables related to natural influences were strongly related to the distribution patterns of the assemblages on the LME scale, particularly photoperiod, sea surface temperature (SST and rainfall. In contrast, no environmental variables directly associated with human influences (with the exception of the inorganic pollution index were related to assemblage patterns among LMEs. Correlations of the natural assemblages with either latitudinal gradients or environmental variables were equally strong suggesting that neither neutral models nor models based solely on environmental variables sufficiently explain spatial variation of these assemblages at a global scale. Despite the data shortcomings in this study (e.g., unbalanced sample distribution, we show the importance of generating biological global databases for the use in large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages to stimulate continued sampling and analyses.

  20. Meteorology and oceanography of the Northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabeno, P. J.; Bond, N. A.; Hermann, A. J.; Kachel, N. B.; Mordy, C. W.; Overland, J. E.

    2004-05-01

    The Gulf of Alaska shelf is dominated by the Alaska Coastal current (ACC), which is forced by along-shore winds and large freshwater runoff. Strong cyclonic winds dominate from fall through spring, and substantial runoff occurs from late spring through fall with annual distributed freshwater discharge greater than that of the Mississippi River. We examine the ACC from Icy Bay to Unimak Pass, a distance of over 1500 km. Over this distance, the ACC is a nearly continuous feature with a marked freshwater core. The annual mean transport, as measured from current meters, is approximately 1.0×10 6 m 3 s -1 along the Kenai Peninsula, with transport decreasing as the ACC travels westward. Even though the coastal GOA is a predominately downwelling system, it supports a productive ecosystem. Macro nutrients from the basin are provided to the coastal system through a number of processes including topographic steering, eddies, upwelling in response to horizontal shear in the barrier jets, and during winter the on-shelf flux in the surface Ekman layer. Micronutrients (e.g., iron) are supplied from mechanisms such as resuspension of shelf sediments and river discharge. While strong seasonal cycles and interannual variability are dominant scales in atmospheric forcing and the oceanic response, there is also forcing on ENSO and decadal time scales.

  1. Environmental Impact on the Northern Persian Gulf: A Mine Drift and Chemical Spill Study Centered on Iraq’s Oil Terminals using Navy’s Ocean-Atmospheric Physical and Chemical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    shallow nature, the Persian Gulf appears to be influenced by winds and surface thermohaline fluxes. The persistent southward wind stress, at least in the...persistent thermal front across the Persian Gulf about the latitude of Qatar appears related to the thermohaline exchange through the Hormuz Strait and...the same methods to ingest COAMPS into HPAC, it was discovered that it was impossible to do from the Naval Postgraduate School. ASA was very

  2. A conceptual model for hydrocarbon accumulation and seepage processes inside Chapopote asphalt volcanism site, Southern Gulf of Mexico: from high resolution seismic point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, F.; Spiess, V.; Fekete, N.; Keil, H.; Bohrmann, G.

    2007-05-01

    As part of the German R/V Meteor M67/2 expedition in 2006 to the southern Gulf of Mexico, a set of 2D high resolution seismic profiles was acquired across the Chapopote knoll to study sea floor asphalt occurrences and their origin. Based on regional seismic stratigraphy studies, correlated to DSDP sites, a higher reflective coarse grained sediment unit of Late Miocene age is identified as a potential shallow gas reservoir, overlain by a low permeability fine grained Pliocene and Pleistocene cover. As a result of salt diapirism, local uplift has caused reduced accumulation rates above the diaper since the late Pliocene, while the rates had been uniform throughout the area before. This has further improved the seal properties, since more fine grained material deposited in elevated locations. Nevertheless, on the crest of Chapopote, sediments above the coarse sediment unit are only around 150-75 m thick. Since oil and gas production can well be expected at depth in Jurassic and Tertiary source rocks, the presence of high amplitude reflector packages within the reservoir unit is interpreted as a result of the presence of hydrocarbons. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that some reflectors are cross-cutting and/or reveal a drop in instantaneous frequency. But, the thin seal above the reservoir unit, located directly underneath a widespread occurrence of asphalts at the sea floor, probably facilitates the leakage of hydrocarbons trapped inside the reservoir through a ~ 750 m wide acoustically chaotic zone partly aided by faulting. Since the top of Chapopote shows a high structural complexity, more seepage sites may exist beyond where seafloor asphalts have been found so far. Evolution and structure of the migration and reservoir system, which may be deep rooted, will be discussed both with respect to shallow gas and asphalt occurrences.

  3. Shore hardness and tensile bond strength of long-term soft denture lining materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Jun; Yang, Hong-So; Chun, Min-Geoung; Park, Yeong-Joon

    2014-11-01

    Reduced softness and separation from the denture base are the most significant problems of long-term soft lining materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the durometer Shore A hardness and tensile bond strength of long-term soft denture lining materials and to investigate the correlation between these 2 properties. A group of 7 soft lining materials, 6 silicone based (Dentusil, GC Reline Soft, GC Reline Ultrasoft, Mucopren Soft, Mucosoft, Sofreliner Tough) and 1 acrylic resin based (Durabase), were evaluated for durometer Shore A hardness and tensile bond strength to heat-polymerized denture base resin (Lucitone 199). A specially designed split mold and loading assembly with a swivel connector were used for the durometer Shore A hardness test and tensile bond strength test to improve accuracy and facilitate measurement. Three specimens of each product were stored in a 37°C water bath, and durometer Shore A hardness tests were carried out after 24 hours and 28 days. A tensile bond strength test was carried out for 10 specimens of each product, which were stored in a 37°C water bath for 24 hours before the test. Repeated-measures ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis and Duncan multiple range tests, and the Spearman correlation were used for statistical analyses. The repeated-measures ANOVA found significant durometer Shore A hardness differences for the materials (Phardness (21.30 ±0.29 for 24 hours, 34.73 ±0.47 for 28 days), and GC Reline Soft showed the highest mean durometer Shore A hardness (50.13 ±0.48 for 24 hours, 57.20 ±0.28 for 28 days). The Kruskal-Wallis test found a significant difference in the mean tensile bond strength values (Phardness showed a statistically insignificant moderate positive correlation (r=0.571, P=.180 for Shore A hardness 24 hours versus tensile bond strength; r=0.607, P=.148 for Shore A hardness 28 days versus tensile bond strength). Within the limitations of this study, significant differences were found in durometer Shore A

  4. Coral reef connectivity within the Western Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Monreal, David; Marin-Hernandez, Mark; Salas-Perez, Jose de Jesus; Salas-de-Leon, David Alberto; Monreal-Gomez, Maria Adela; Perez-España, Horacio

    2018-03-01

    The yearlong monthly mean satellite data of the geostrophic velocities, the sea surface temperature and the chlorophyll-a values were used to elucidate any possible pathway among the different coral reef systems of the Western Gulf of Mexico (WGM). The geostrophic current velocities suggested different pathways connecting the coral reef areas. The typical coastal alongshore pathway constricted to the continental shelf, and two open ocean pathway, the first connecting the Campeche Reef System (CRS) with the Veracruz (VRS) and Tuxpan-Lobos Reef Systems (TLRS), and the second pathway connecting the Tuxpan-Lobos Reef System with the Flower Garden Reef System (FGRS). According to the pathways there should be more larvae transport from the southern Gulf of Mexico reef systems toward the FGRS than the other way. The connection from the southern Gulf of Mexico toward the FGRS took place during January, May, July, August and September (2015), while the connection from the FGRS toward the southern Gulf of Mexico reef system took place during January and February (2015), this was also suggested via model outputs. The density radio (R) was used as a first approximation to elucidate the influence of the freshwater continental discharges within the continental shelf. All coral reef areas were located where the Chlorophyll-a monthly mean values had values bellow 1 mg m- 2 with a density radio between 0 and 1, i.e. under the influence of continental discharges.

  5. Multiscale Geoarchaeological Approaches from the Laurentine Shore, Castelporziano, Lazio, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicket, A. R.; Rendell, H. M.; Claridge, A.; Rose, P.; Brown, F. S. J.

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between the meso-scale record of human activity during the Roman period and the larger-scale coastal development of the Tiber Delta (ca. 20 ka) is investigated using the archaeological and sedimentary record from a large aquaculture pond and its wider meso- to macro-scale geomorphological setting. The position of the pond is adjacent to the Roman period shoreline, known as the Laurentine Shore on the southern, distal flank of the Tiber delta, Lazio Italy, within what is now the Castelporziano Estate. The pond is thought to have been constructed in the wet dune slack behind the active coastal foredune. Magnetometer survey and excavation of the archaeological structures around this pond have shown them to be substantial features ca. 80m in length with high-status Imperial Roman architecture and with evidence for water management. Sedimentological analysis of sediment cores from within the ponds are supplemented with diatom analysis to assess the period of pre-construction, use and abandonment of this aquaculture pond. Diatom analysis suggests a relatively short period of use and it is argued that abandonment of the aquaculture structures may be linked to both alkali groundwater conditions and the dynamism of the coastal zone preventing effective management. Optical luminescence dating of the archaeological sediments and the post-abandonment dunes that bury part of the site suggest that the aquaculture pond was abandoned ca. 100 years prior to final abandonment of the Roman settlement. This case-study also highlights the implications for meso-scale investigations of human/environment relationships utilising relatively low-sensitivity sedimentary records without high-resolution proxy records. D-GPS survey in conjunction with a high-quality DEM has permitted important archaeological remains to be understood relative to sea level; a key variable for examining the formation and development of the dune ridge record. These surveys have also permitted the

  6. The determinants of Islamic banks’ liquidity in Malaysia and the Gulf Corporation Council

    OpenAIRE

    Tunku Mahmood Fawzy, Tunku Suleiman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The study explores the determinants of Islamic banks’ liquidity in Malaysia and the Gulf Corporation Council countries. Design/methodology/approach – The study takes the context of Islamic banks in Malaysia and the Gulf Corporation Council between 2009 and 2014 except the Sultanate of Oman. The Sultanate of Oman was excluded from the sample size because its first Islamic bank only began operations in 2012. The study used a fixed effect least square model. The two dependent variab...

  7. Brain Immune Interactions as the Basis of Gulf War Illness: Gulf War Illness Consortium (GWIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    priming of glial responses that cause a chronic activation loop of stronger and longer proinflammatory signaling effects between the immune system and the...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0072 TITLE: Brain Immune Interactions as the Basis of Gulf War Illness: Gulf War Illness Consortium (GWIC) PRINCIPAL...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Brain Immune Interactions as the Basis of Gulf War Illness: Gulf War Illness Consortium (GWIC) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  8. 76 FR 64248 - Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery; Closure of the 2011 Gulf of Mexico Commercial Sector for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ...NMFS closes the commercial sector for greater amberjack in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). These actions are necessary to reduce overfishing of the Gulf greater amberjack resource.

  9. Probiotic (VSL 3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Gulf War (GW) veterans report gastroenteritis during deployment and it is a risk factor for development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) after...intestinal symptoms (fatigue, joint pain, insomnia, general stiffness and headache) associated with IBS. All of these symptoms are part of the Gulf War...SUBJECT TERMS Irritable bowel syndrome, probiotic, Gulf War Illness, diarrhea 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION 18. 19a. NAME OF

  10. Cross-shore profile and coastline changes of a sandy beach in Pieria, Greece, based on measurements and numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. PROSPATHOPOULOS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the changes of cross-shore profile and the coastline of a sandy beach in Pieria, Greece, are studied by using topographic profiles, sediment analysis and a numerical simulation model. The work is motivated by the considerable erosion problems caused to an extended portion of the coast north of the studied area due to the construction of a craft shelter, and its scope is two-fold: to help in understanding the dynamics of the beach based on results of the field work and to proceed a step further, studying the responses of this beach by numerical simulation, utilizing the topographic and sediment field data and measured wave data. The study of the cross-shore profiles, as well as the sediment analysis of the samples obtained along the profiles, revealed the morphological features of the coast under study and provided information concerning the dynamic zones in each profile. The sediment grain size reduces from south to north, following the direction of the longshore currents generated in the area. The results of the numerical simulation concerning the coastline evolution are found to be in agreement with the qualitative estimations and visual observations of existing coastal changes to the broader area.

  11. Investigation of scour adjacent to submerged geotextiles used for shore protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, Alicia M.; Herrington, Thomas O.; Smith, Ernest R.

    2018-01-03

    This study presents the results of an experimental investigation of morphology change in the vicinity of submerged geotextiles placed within the surf zone. The study was motivated by the emerging use of submerged geotextile tubes for shore protection, shoreline stabilization, and surf amenity enhancement and the need to understand the mechanisms responsible for scour in the vicinity of these structures to preserve their structural integrity and reduce their structural failure. A movable bed physical model experiment was conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center’s Large-scale Sediment Transport Facility (LSTF) to develop empirical formulations to predict the mean scour depth adjacent to geotextiles under oblique wave-breaking conditions as a function of the maximum Keulegan-Carpenter, Shields, and Reynolds numbers. The observed scour in the vicinity of the geotextiles was also compared to a previous study of scour in the vicinity of submerged cylinders. Formulations developed by Cataño-Lopera and García (2006) relating the Keulegan-Carpenter, Shields, and Reynolds numbers to the scour depth were used to predict the scour observed during the LSTF experiment. Results show that the formulations of Cataño-Lopera and García (2006) over-predict the observed scour when calculated using the maximum Keulegan-Carpenter, Shields, and Reynolds numbers. New, modified expressions of Cataño-Lopera and García (2006) were developed for use in oblique random wave fields.

  12. Geophysical Data Collected off the South Shore of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, J.F.; Danforth, W.W.; Foster, D.S.; Sherwood, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Science Center conducted a nearshore geophysical survey offshore of the southern coast of Martha's Vineyard, in the vicinity of the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory in 2007. This mapping program was part of a larger research effort supporting the Office of Naval Research Ripples Directed-Research Initiative studies at Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory designed to improve our understanding of coastal sediment-transport processes. The survey was conducted aboard the Megan T. Miller August 9-13, 2007. The study area covers 35 square kilometers from about 0.2 kilometers to 5 kilometers offshore of the south shore of Martha's Vineyard, and ranges in depth from ~6 to 24 meters. The geophysical mapping utilized the following suite of high-resolution instrumentation to map the surficial sediment distribution, bathymetry, and sub-surface geology: a dual-frequency 100/500 kilohertz sidescan-sonar system, 234 kilohertz interferometric sonar, and 500 hertz -12 kilohertz chirp subbottom profiler. These geophysical data will be used to provide initial conditions for wave and circulation modeling within the study area.

  13. Bioconstruction, bioerosion and disturbance on tropical coasts: coral reefs and rocky limestone shores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Tom; Viles, Heather

    2002-11-01

    The ecology of tropical carbonate coasts, including coral reefs and rocky limestone shores, is susceptible to disturbance that may have linked effects on geomorphology. Biogeomorphology, which considers the interrelations between biological and geomorphological processes, is particularly well-suited toward the understanding of such carbonate systems. Field observations and experimentation on tropical and temperate coasts by both biologists and geomorphologists, and the development of ecological theory, have come to stress the importance not of stable, successional littoral communities but rather of nonequilibrial, multistate systems. These ideas now need to be incorporated into improved models of coastal dynamics. Case studies from the Central Pacific, the Caribbean and the western Indian Ocean illustrate the interactions between external environmental variability and internal biological processes. These studies show how changing the balance between bioconstructional and bioerosional processes can interrupt a system's development and, in some cases, shift carbonate-based systems between healthy and degradational states. A better understanding of the spatial and temporal complexities present in carbonate coastal and shallow marine environments is an important precursor to effective coastal zone management on these prevalent tropical shorelines.

  14. Physical Oceanography of the Gulf of Aden

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al Saafani, M.A.

    maps of Seriy and Khimitsa [1963] indicated two eddies in the Gulf of Aden during the winter monsoon, one cyclonic in the gulf, east of 50 ◦ E, and the other anticyclonic to the east of the gulf off Ras Fartak. Mohammed and Kolli [1992] used... the hydrographic data from three cruises to de- scribe the circulation in the northern Gulf of Aden. During January, one cyclonic eddy developed between 46 ◦ E and 50 ◦ E. West of the cyclonic eddy, the flow was towards Bab el Mandab. During May, the flow...

  15. Slightly weathered Exxon Valdez oil persists in Gulf of Alaska beach sediments after 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Jeffrey W; Irvine, Gail V; Mann, Daniel H; Maselko, Jacek M; Pella, Jerome J; Lindeberg, Mandy R; Payne, James R; Driskell, William B; Rice, Stanley D

    2007-02-15

    Oil stranded by the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted in subsurface sediments of exposed shores for 16 years. With annualized loss rates declining from approximately 68% yr(-1) prior to 1992 to approximately 4% yr(-1) after 2001, weathering processes are retarded in both sediments and residual emulsified oil ("oil mousse"), and retention of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is prolonged. The n-alkanes, typically very readily oxidized by microbes, instead remain abundant in many stranded emulsified oil samplesfrom the Gulf of Alaska. They are less abundant in Prince William Sound samples, where stranded oil was less viscous. Our results indicate that, at some locations, remaining subsurface oil may persist for decades with little change.

  16. Investigation of heavy metal pollutants at various depths in the Gulf of Izmit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergül, Halim Aytekin; Varol, Tolga; Ay, Ümit

    2013-08-15

    In this study, we report results concerning the accumulation of heavy metals in seawater from Izmit Bay. The bay was divided into the three parts: the eastern, the central and the western basins. The goal of this study was to determine levels of heavy metals at various depths in the bay between April 2008 and May 2010. Liquid-liquid extractions were performed on seawater samples. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to measure levels of six metals: lead, cadmium, chromium, iron, manganese and zinc. We applied our results to evaluate the status of pollution in the Gulf of Izmit. Significant seasonal differences in metal concentrations and higher concentrations of many metals in water near the shore are evidence for uncontrolled release of pollutants in the water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The outer Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henery, D. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij BV, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with the offshore activity in the Gulf of Mexico. Up to the end of 1995 there have been close to 300 exploratory wells drilled in water depths beyond 450 metres, and over 50 development wells. In addition approximately 1.500 leases have been awarded in the deep water. Themes discussed are deep water discoveries, average well rates, and key learnings points

  18. 3D architecture modeling of reservoir compartments in a Shingled Turbidite Reservoir using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control, example from Mars {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, M.A.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Tiller, G.M. [Shell Exploration and Production Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Economics of most deep-water development projects require large reservoir volumes to be drained with relatively few wells. The presence of reservoir compartments must therefore be detected and planned for in a pre-development stage. We have used 3-D seismic data to constrain large-scale, deterministic reservoir bodies in a 3-D architecture model of Pliocene-turbidite sands of the {open_quotes}E{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. Reservoir compartmentalization is influenced by stratigraphic shingling, which in turn is caused by low accommodation space predentin the upper portion of a ponded seismic sequence within a salt withdrawal mini-basin. The accumulation is limited by updip onlap onto a condensed section marl, and by lateral truncation by a large scale submarine erosion surface. Compartments were suggested by RFT pressure variations and by geochemical analysis of RFT fluid samples. A geological interpretation derived from high-resolution 3-D seismic and three wells was linked to 3-D architecture models through seismic inversion, resulting in a reservoir all available data. Distinguishing subtle stratigraphical shingles from faults was accomplished by detailed, loop-level mapping, and was important to characterize the different types of reservoir compartments. Seismic inversion was used to detune the seismic amplitude, adjust sandbody thickness, and update the rock properties. Recent development wells confirm the architectural style identified. This modeling project illustrates how high-quality seismic data and architecture models can be combined in a pre-development phase of a prospect, in order to optimize well placement.

  19. 3D architecture modeling of reservoir compartments in a Shingled Turbidite Reservoir using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control, example from Mars [open quotes]Pink[close quotes] reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, M.A.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Tiller, G.M. (Shell Exploration and Production Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Economics of most deep-water development projects require large reservoir volumes to be drained with relatively few wells. The presence of reservoir compartments must therefore be detected and planned for in a pre-development stage. We have used 3-D seismic data to constrain large-scale, deterministic reservoir bodies in a 3-D architecture model of Pliocene-turbidite sands of the [open quotes]E[close quotes] or [open quotes]Pink[close quotes] reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. Reservoir compartmentalization is influenced by stratigraphic shingling, which in turn is caused by low accommodation space predentin the upper portion of a ponded seismic sequence within a salt withdrawal mini-basin. The accumulation is limited by updip onlap onto a condensed section marl, and by lateral truncation by a large scale submarine erosion surface. Compartments were suggested by RFT pressure variations and by geochemical analysis of RFT fluid samples. A geological interpretation derived from high-resolution 3-D seismic and three wells was linked to 3-D architecture models through seismic inversion, resulting in a reservoir all available data. Distinguishing subtle stratigraphical shingles from faults was accomplished by detailed, loop-level mapping, and was important to characterize the different types of reservoir compartments. Seismic inversion was used to detune the seismic amplitude, adjust sandbody thickness, and update the rock properties. Recent development wells confirm the architectural style identified. This modeling project illustrates how high-quality seismic data and architecture models can be combined in a pre-development phase of a prospect, in order to optimize well placement.

  20. Three-dimensional connectivity during summer in the northern Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Montaño-Cortés

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Connectivity studies in the Gulf of California are an important tool for improving the use and management of the gulf’s natural resources. The goal of this work was to study the three-dimensional connectivity in the northern Gulf of California during two representative months of summer when most local marine species spawn. Passive particles were advected for eight weeks in a three-dimensional current field generated by a three-dimensional baroclinic numerical model. The results indicate that the locations of greatest particle retention were the Upper Gulf and the Seasonal Eddy. The Seasonal Eddy corresponded to the area of largest particle catchment because the continental coastal current carries most particles released in the Midriff Archipelago region; subsequently these particles were entrained in the seasonal cyclonic eddy, causing most of them to remain within it. We conclude that the continental coastal current and the Seasonal Eddy control the connectivity patterns in the northern Gulf of California.

  1. Severe impacts of brown tides caused by Sargassum spp. on near-shore Caribbean seagrass communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I; Hernández Arana, Héctor A; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rosa E; Espinoza-Avalos, Julio; Canizales-Flores, Hazel M; González-Godoy, Carlos E; Barba-Santos, M Guadalupe; Vega-Zepeda, Alejandro; Collado-Vides, Ligia

    2017-09-15

    From mid-2014 until the end of 2015, the Mexican Caribbean coast experienced a massive influx of drifting Sargassum spp. that accumulated on the shores, resulting in build-up of decaying beach-cast material and near-shore murky brown waters (Sargassum-brown-tides, Sbt). The effects of Sbt on four near-shore waters included reduction in light, oxygen (hypoxia or anoxia) and pH. The monthly influx of nitrogen, and phosphorus by drifting Sargassum spp. was estimated at 6150 and 61kgkm -1 respectively, resulting in eutrophication. Near-shore seagrass meadows dominated by Thalassia testudinum were replaced by a community dominated by calcareous rhizophytic algae and drifting algae and/or epiphytes, resulting in 61.6-99.5% loss of below-ground biomass. Near-shore corals suffered total or partial mortality. Recovery of affected seagrass meadows may take years or even decades, or changes could be permanent if massive influxes of Sargassum spp. recur. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Dissolved organic matter export in glacial and non-glacial streams along the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, E. W.; Scott, D.; Jeffery, A.; Schreiber, S.; Heavner, M.; Edwards, R.; D'Amore, D. V.; Fellman, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Gulf of Alaska drainage basin contains more than 75,000 km2 of glaciers, many of which are rapidly thinning and receding. We are using a paired watershed approach to evaluate how changes in glacier ecosystems will impact the export dissolved organic matter (DOM) into the Gulf of Alaska. Our primary study watersheds, Lemon Creek and Montana Creek, are similar in size, bedrock lithology and elevation range and extend from near sea level to the margin or interior of the Juneau Icefield. Lemon Creek has a glacial coverage of ~60%, while Montana Creek is free of glacier ice. Our goal is to evaluate seasonal differences in the quantity, chemical character and reactivity of DOM being exported from these watersheds to downstream near-shore marine ecosystems. In addition, we are monitoring a variety of physical parameters that influence instream DOM metabolism in both watersheds. Our initial results from the 2009 runoff season indicate that concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are substantially higher in the non-glacial watershed. However, fluorescence analyses indicate that DOM from the glacier watershed has a higher protein and lower humic material content compared to DOM from the non-glacial watershed. After the spring snowmelt season, physical parameters between the two watersheds diverged, with higher streamflow and turbidity as well as colder water temperatures in the glacial watershed. Although our previous yield calculations show significantly higher DOC fluxes from the forested watershed, our results here suggest that glacier watersheds may be an important source of labile carbon to the near shore marine ecosystem. The contrast in the physical habitat between the two rivers (e.g glacier stream = cold, low light penetration, unstable substrate) supports the hypothesis that that in-stream DOM processing is limited within glacier dominated rivers, therefore delivering a higher percentage of labile DOM downstream.

  3. Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

  4. Study on temperature field airborne remote sensing survey along shore nuclear power station in different tide status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Chunli; Li Mingsong

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Power Station needs to let large quantity of cooling water to the near sea area when it is running. Whether the cooling water has effect to surrounding environment and the running of Nuclear Power Station needs further research. Temperature Drainage Mathematic Model and Physical Analogue Model need to acquire the distribution characteristic of near Station sea surface temperature field in different seasons and different tide status. Airborne Remote Sending Technique has a advantage in gaining high resolution sea surface temperature in different tide status, and any other manual method with discrete point survey can not reach it. After a successful implementation of airborne remote sensing survey to gain the near-shore temperature drainage information in Qinshan Nuclear Power Station, it provides the reference methods and ideas for temperature drainage remote sensing survey of Nuclear Power Station. (authors)

  5. Structure of macroalgal communities on tropical rocky shores inside and outside a marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Adriana Brizon; Carvalho, Fabrício Lopes; Soares, Marcelo de Oliveira; Horta, Paulo Antunes; de Castro Nunes, José Marcos

    2017-09-01

    The structure of marine macroalgal communities and morpho-functional groups were investigated in a poorly characterized region on the Tropical Southwestern Atlantic coast, Brazil. The survey was conducted at six rocky shores located on the mainland and on coastal islands distributed inside a marine protected area (MPA) and outside the MPA (near a densely populated area). We hypothesized that tropical rocky shores inside the MPA and islands have higher species richness, diversity, and evenness of marine macroalgae. Results confirmed that species richness, diversity and evenness were significantly higher inside the MPA than in rocky shores outside the MPA. Only species richness was higher on islands than on the mainland. The results suggest that human impacts could lead to a competitive advantage and dominance in the articulated calcareous morphotype, resulting in community differences and lower benthic biodiversity in tropical ecosystems near urbanized sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Near-shore and off-shore habitat use by endangered juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2006 data summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Wilkens, Alexander X.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris , listed as endangered in 1988 under the Endangered Species Act, have shown infrequent recruitment into adult populations in Upper Klamath Lake (NRC 2004). In an effort to understand the causes behind and provide management solutions to apparent recruitment failure, a number of studies have been conducted including several on larval and juvenile sucker habitat use. Near-shore areas in Upper Klamath Lake with emergent vegetation, especially those near the mouth of the Williamson River, were identified as important habitat for larval suckers (Cooperman and Markle 2000; Reiser et al. 2001). Terwilliger et al. (2004) characterized primary age-0 sucker habitat as near-shore areas in the southern portion of Upper Klamath Lake with gravel and cobble substrates. Reiser et al. (2001) provided some evidence that juvenile suckers use habitats with emergent vegetation, but nothing concerning the extent or timing of use.

  7. Monosodium Luminol for Improving Brain Function in Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    exhibited greater latencies to eat food than naïve control rats (Fig. 3), which implied that they have mood dysfunction or motivational deficit. In contrast...luminol-GVT (MSL-GVT, an antioxidant drug from Bach Pharma) in a rat model of Gulf war illness (GWI) would alleviate mood and memory dysfunction...Specific Aim 2 studies are focused on examining whether long-term administration of an apt dose of MSL-GVT would alleviate mood and memory dysfunction

  8. The Technical and Business Analysis of Using Shore Power Connection in The Port of Hamburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Hotnauli Samosir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In port, when the ship is berthing the loading, unloading, and hospitality activity is using auxiliary engine. The combustion of marine fuels is a major contributor to air pollution, the air pollution is released 400 km around the port area. The impacts of the pollution are respiratory, health, and the environment around ports. Study indicates 60.000 of cardiopulmonary mortalities caused by ship air emission. Ship emission represents 3% of global CO2, 15% of global NOx, and 6% of global SOx emission. Because of that Hamburg Port is released the shore power facilities in July 2015 with idea of smart port and use the renewable energy such as wind turbine and solar panel compliance with IEC-ISO-IEEE 8005-1. In this bachelor thesis, the cost and also the condition between shore power and auxiliary engine will be analyzed and compared to find the most economical between shore power facilities and ship’s auxiliary engine. Shore power facilities in Hamburg are provided by SIEMENS with SIHARBOR and use a robot arm by Stemman Technik as the cable management system. The goal of this thesis is developed calculation tool to see the cost comparison and also the emission. And from the calculation tool the shore power is reducing the emission by 100% because of using the renewable energy and become economical than using auxiliary engine, it can save up to €1000. The other benefits  are ship owner can save maintenance of their auxiliary engine and also saved the file. It shows that the shore power is a proven technology to reduce the emission and saved berth cost.

  9. Understanding nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and implications for management and restoration: the Eastern Shore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.

    2015-03-12

    The Eastern Shore includes only a small part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but contributes disproportionately large loads of the excess nitrogen and phosphorus that have contributed to ecological and economic degradation of the bay in recent decades. Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States and a vital ecological and economic resource. The bay and its tributaries have been degraded in recent decades by excessive nitrogen and phosphorus in the water column, however, which cause harmful algal blooms and decreased water clarity, submerged aquatic vegetation, and dissolved oxygen. The disproportionately large nitrogen and phosphorus yields from the Eastern Shore to Chesapeake Bay are attributable to human land-use practices as well as natural hydrogeologic and soil conditions. Applications of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds to the Eastern Shore from human activities are intensive. More than 90 percent of nitrogen and phosphorus reaching the land in the Eastern Shore is applied as part of inorganic fertilizers or manure, or (for nitrogen) fixed directly from the atmosphere in cropland. Also, hydrogeologic and soil conditions promote the movement of these compounds from application areas on the landscape to groundwater and (or) surface waters, and the proximity of much of the Eastern Shore to tidal waters limits opportunities for natural removal of these compounds in the landscape. The Eastern Shore only includes 7 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but receives nearly twice as much nitrogen and phosphorus applications (per area) as the remainder of the watershed and yields greater nitrogen and phosphorus, on average, to the bay. Nitrogen and phosphorus commonly occur in streams at concentrations that may adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and have increased in recent decades.

  10. Seed Predation by the Shore Crab Carcinus maenas: A Positive Feedback Preventing Eelgrass Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest to restore the ecosystem services that eelgrass provides, after their continuous worldwide decline. Most attempts to restore eelgrass using seeds are challenged by very high seed losses and the reasons for these losses are not all clear. We assess the impact of predation on seed loss and eelgrass establishment, and explore methods to decrease seed loss during restoration in the Swedish northwest coast. In a laboratory study we identified three previously undescribed seed predators, the shore crab Carcinus maenas, the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus and the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, of which shore crabs consumed 2–7 times more seeds than the other two species. The importance of shore crabs as seed predators was supported in field cage experiments where one enclosed crab caused 73% loss of seeds over a 1-week period on average (~ 21 seeds per day). Seedling establishment was significantly higher (14%) in cages that excluded predators over an 8-month period than in uncaged plots and cages that allowed predators but prevented seed-transport (0.5%), suggesting that seed predation constitutes a major source of seed loss in the study area. Burying the seeds 2 cm below the sediment surface prevented seed predation in the laboratory and decreased predation in the field, constituting a way to decrease seed loss during restoration. Shore crabs may act as a key feedback mechanism that prevent the return of eelgrass both by direct consumption of eelgrass seeds and as a predator of algal mesograzers, allowing algal mats to overgrow eelgrass beds. This shore crab feedback mechanism could become self-generating by promoting the growth of its own nursery habitat (algal mats) and by decreasing the nursery habitat (seagrass meadow) of its dominant predator (cod). This double feedback-loop is supported by a strong increase of shore crab abundance in the last decades and may partly explain the regime shift in vegetation observed

  11. Fishery potential of the Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.; Ramaiah, Neelam; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    Fishery potential of the interior Gulf of Kachchh and adjacent creek regions was reported for the first time as baseline data for future ecological assessment. The experimental trawling and gill netting indicated that the inner Gulf (av. 7.8 kg...

  12. Plutonium in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.; Salter, P.F.

    The geochemistry of fallout plutonium in the sediments of the Gulf of Mexico was studied. A series of sediment cores was collected in a traverse from the deep Gulf of Mexico to the Mississippi Delta. The cores were sliced into 1 cm intervals and analyzed for plutonium. Explanations for the variations in concentration are presented

  13. A Short Reference Grammar of Gulf Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qafisheh, Hamdi A.

    This work seeks to fill important gaps existing in the study of Peninsular Arabic, especially that of the United Arab Emirates. It presents an explicit outline of the structure of Gulf Arabic, based on the dialect of Abu Dhabi. It is intended for students and teachers of Gulf Arabic, for linguists and dialectologists, and for other individuals who…

  14. Sandwaves of the Gulf of Khambhat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Gujar, A.R.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    In the Gulf of Khambhat (Gujarat, India) the best formed sandwaves are seen in the west close to the Eastern Sand Bank. With increasing clay content and clay cover of the sea bed, the sandwaves become poorly formed. In the southern part of the Gulf...

  15. Dosimetry results for AECL personnel involved in maintenance activities at off-shore CANDU stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaloo, R.

    1997-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is intermittently involved in maintenance work on domestic and off-shore CANDU nuclear power plants. Maintenance activities, such as fuel-channel replacement (FCR), small-scale spacer location and relocation (SLARETTE) and primary-side steam-generator tube cleaning, require work in high-radiation fields. This may lead to appreciable radiation doses. AECL staff experience has been that these radiation doses accrue mostly from external gamma fields, with a minor internal dose component from the uptake of tritiated waste vapour. There are no significant uptakes of other radionuclides. AECL practice for SLARETTE and FCR work at off-shore CANDU stations has been to equip AECL personnel with 1 set of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and 1 direct-reading personal alarming dosimeter (PAD). These TLDs are read at the Chalk River Laboratories of AECL. In addition, off-shore site radiation protection personnel issue AECL personnel with a TLD. This TLD is subsequently read at the off-shore site. Consequently, there are often three independent measurements of dose from external fields for AECL personnel. Internal dose assessments rely on off-shore radiation protection personnel. All off-shore CANDU stations use urine bioassay methods for tritiated water uptakes. Most off-shore CANDU sites also have lung or whole-body gamma spectrometry capabilities or both, which, if necessary, can be used to assess doses from uptakes of gamma-emitting airborne contaminants (e.g., from 60 Co, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, etc.). This paper discusses some internal and external dosimetry data for AECL personnel involved in recent FCR and SLARETTE work at off-shore CANDU stations. The data show that the whole-body dose contribution from uptake of tritiated heavy water is small. The data also show that three independent external dosimetry systems give dose results that are in relatively close agreement. Such information is invaluable in promoting confidence in the various

  16. Surveying Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species along the shores of the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. UKABI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species inhabiting intertidal and shallow subtidal areas along the Israeli Mediterranean shores were surveyed (i.e. presence/absence on a seasonal basis from 2007-2009. We recorded the presence of three speciesC. prolifera, C. mexicana, and C. scalpelliformis. These species were noticeable in autumn and inconspicuous during winter, thus, revealing seasonality and population dynamics. There were no indications of well-known invasive species such as Caulerpa racemosa var.cylindracea and Caulerpa taxifolia. This study is the first of a kind that assesses the geographical distribution and seasonality of the genus Caulerpa along the Israeli shores.

  17. Comment on "Simulation of Surface Ozone Pollution in the Central Gulf Coast Region Using WRF/Chem Model: Sensitivity to PBL and Land Surface Physics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recently published meteorology and air quality modeling study has several serious deficiencies deserving comment. The study uses the weather research and forecasting/chemistry (WRF/Chem) model to compare and evaluate boundary layer and land surface modeling options. The most se...

  18. The role of cross-shore tidal dynamics in controlling intertidal sediment exchange in mangroves in Cù Lao Dung, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Karin R.; Nardin, William; Mullarney, Julia C.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    Mangroves are halophytic plants common in tropical and sub-tropical environments. Their roots and pneumatophores strongly affect intertidal hydrodynamics and related sediment transport. Here, we investigate the role tree and root structures may play in altering tidal currents and the effect of these currents on the development of intertidal landscapes in mangrove-dominated environments. We use a one-dimensional Delft3D model, forced using typical intertidal slopes and vegetation characteristics from two sites with contrasting slope on Cù Lao Dung within the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, to examine the vegetation controls on tidal currents and suspended sediment transport as the tides propagate into the forest. Model results show that vegetation characteristics at the seaward fringe determine the shape of the cross-shore bottom profile, with sparse vegetation leading to profiles that are close to linear, whereas with dense vegetation resulting in a convex intertidal topography. Examples showing different profile developments are provided from a variety of published studies, ranging from linear profiles in sandier sites, and distinctive convex profiles in muddier sites. As expected, profile differences in the model are caused by increased dissipation due to enhanced drag caused by vegetation; however, the reduction of flow shoreward in sparsely vegetated or non-vegetated cases was similar, indicating that shallowing of the profile and slope effects play a dominant role in dissipation. Here, tidal velocities are measured in the field using transects of Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers, and confirm that cross-shore tidal currents diminish quickly as they move over the fringe of the forest; they then stay fairly consistent within the outer few 100 m of the forest, indicating that the fringing environment is likely a region of deposition. An understanding of how vegetation controls the development of topography is critical to predicting the resilience of these sensitive

  19. Wave-current interaction near the Gulf Stream during the surface wave dynamics experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David W.; Liu, Antony K.; Peng, Chih Y.; Meindl, Eric A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a case study on the wave-current interaction near the local curvature of a Gulf Stream meander. The wave data were obtained from in situ measurements by a pitch-roll discus buoy during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) conducted off Wallops Island, Virginia, from October 1990 to March 1991. Owing to the advection of the Gulf Stream by the semidiurnal tide, the discus buoy was alternately located outside and inside the Gulf Stream. The directional wave measurements from the buoy show the changes in wave direction, wave energy, and directional spreading when waves encountered the current in the Gulf Stream meanders. A wave refraction model, using the ray-tracing method with an estimated Gulf Stream velocity field and meandering condition, was used to simulate wave refraction patterns and to estimate wave parameters at relative locations corresponding to buoy measurements. The numerical simulation shows that a focusing zone of wave rays was formed near the boundary and behind the crest of a simulated Gulf Stream meander. The focusing of wave rays causes changes in wave direction, increases in wave energy, and decreases in wave directional spreading, which are in good agreement with the results from the buoy measurements.

  20. 76 FR 65321 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review of VA's approach to and programs addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The second Gulf... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION...

  1. 2007 USGS/NPS/NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL): Northern Gulf of Mexico Barrier Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the northern Gulf of Mexico barrier islands and Naval Live Oaks was produced from...

  2. Use of a Florida Gulf Coast Barrier Island by Spring Trans-Gulf Migrants and the Projected Effects of Sea Level Rise on Habitat Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Lori A; Gutierrez Ramirez, Mariamar; Kneidel, Alan H; Heckscher, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Barrier islands on the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico are an internationally important coastal resource. Each spring hundreds of thousands of Nearctic-Neotropical songbirds crossing the Gulf of Mexico during spring migration use these islands because they provide the first landfall for individuals following a trans-Gulf migratory route. The effects of climate change, particularly sea level rise, may negatively impact habitat availability for migrants on barrier islands. Our objectives were (1) to confirm the use of St. George Island, Florida by trans-Gulf migrants and (2) to determine whether forested stopover habitat will be available for migrants on St. George Island following sea level rise. We used avian transect data, geographic information systems, remote sensing, and simulation modelling to investigate the potential effects of three different sea level rise scenarios (0.28 m, 0.82 m, and 2 m) on habitat availability for trans-Gulf migrants. We found considerable use of the island by spring trans-Gulf migrants. Migrants were most abundant in areas with low elevation, high canopy height, and high coverage of forests and scrub/shrub. A substantial percentage of forest (44%) will be lost by 2100 assuming moderate sea level rise (0.82 m). Thus, as sea level rise progresses, less forests will be available for migrants during stopover. Many migratory bird species' populations are declining, and degradation of barrier island stopover habitat may further increase the cost of migration for many individuals. To preserve this coastal resource, conservation and wise management of migratory stopover areas, especially near ecological barriers like the Gulf of Mexico, will be essential as sea levels rise.

  3. Mass-mortality of guillemots (Uria aalge) in the Gulf of Alaska in 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; van Pelt, Thomas I.

    1997-01-01

    During the first six months of 1993, about 3500 dead and moribund guillemots (Uria aalge) were observed throughout the northern Gulf of Alaska coast (ca 1800 km range). Mortality peaked during March. Highest numbers were observed in western Prince William Sound and along the south coast of the Kenai Peninsula. Large flocks of live guillemots gathered in nearshore waters, in contrast to most winters when guillemots reside offshore. Most guillemots recovered were extremely emaciated (ca 60% of normal weight) and sub-adult (80%). Based on carcass deposition and persistence experiments, we calculate that about 10 900 birds eventually came ashore on beaches that were surveyed. Even if most birds killed made it to shore, only a fraction of beaches in the Gulf of Alaska were surveyed and we estimate that a minimum total of 120 000 guillemots died. Results of other investigations on potential causes of mortality (biotoxins, pathogens, parasites, metals, etc.) were either negative or inconclusive, and necropsies lead us to believe that starvation was the proximate cause of death. Reduced food availability could have been related to anomalous sea conditions found during the prolonged 1990–1995 El Niño-Southern Oscillation event.

  4. Visual Basic Growth-and-Yield Models With A Merchandising Optimizer For Planted Slash and Loblolly Pine in the West Gulf Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.L. Busby; S.J. Chang; P.R. Pasala; J.C.G. Goelz

    2004-01-01

    We developed two growth-and-yield models for thinned and unthinned plantations of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var elliottii) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.). The models, VB Merch-Slash and VB Merch-Lob, can be used to forecast product volumes and stand values for stands partitioned into 1-inch diameter-at...

  5. Estimation of carrying capacity of the Gulf of Kachchh, west coast of India in relation to petroleum hydrocarbon through oil spill modeling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Reddy, G.S.; Sudheesh, K.; Desa, E.; Zingde, M.D.

    devised to estimate CC using a coupled 2D hydrodynamic - oil spill model. The model was run to assess the dissolution of the oil for various meteorological and oceanographic conditions and oil characteristics. In the case of operational discharge from a...

  6. 78 FR 76758 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    .... 130212129-3474-02] RIN 0648-XC967 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Closure of the 2014 Gulf of Mexico Recreational Season for Red Snapper... INFORMATION: The Gulf reef fish fishery, which includes red snapper, is managed under the Fishery Management...

  7. 78 FR 56217 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) and South Atlantic, is intended to... marine protected areas, marine sanctuaries, or special management zones, without additional authorization... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and Southern...

  8. 75 FR 54965 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans) Activity: Comment Request... needed to assist in VA's efforts to address the health concerns and problems of Gulf War Veterans. DATES... use of other forms of information technology. Titles: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War...

  9. 78 FR 14983 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... of Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council Spanish Mackerel and Cobia Stock Assessment Review Workshop. SUMMARY: Independent peer review of Gulf of Mexico Spanish Mackerel and Cobia stocks will be...

  10. 29 CFR 1919.50 - Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... material handling devices covered by § 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine... Shore-Based Equipment § 1919.50 Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by § 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine terminals...

  11. Hydrology, shore morphology and species traits affect seed dispersal, germination and community assembly in shoreline plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Casper H. A.; Sarneel, Judith M.; van Paassen, Jose; Rip, Winnie J.; Bakker, Elisabeth S.

    1. Seed dispersal and germination are two primary processes influencing plant community assembly. On freshwater shores, water levels regulate both processes. However, it is still unclear how water levels, shore morphology and species traits interactively affect seed dispersal and germination, and

  12. Hydrology, shore morphology and species traits affect seed dispersal, germination and community assembly in shoreline plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, C.H.A.; Sarneel, J.M.; van Paassen, José; Rip, W.J.; Bakker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary 1.Seed dispersal and germination are two primary processes influencing plant community assembly. On freshwater shores, water levels regulate both processes. However, it is still unclear how water levels, shore morphology and species traits interactively affect seed dispersal and germination,

  13. The role of suspension events in cross-shore and longshore suspended sediment transport in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Suspension of sand in the surf zone is intermittent. Especially striking in a time series of concentration are periods of intense suspension, suspension events, when the water column suspended sediment concentration is an order of magnitude greater than the mean concentration. The prevalence, timing, and contribution of suspension events to cross-shore and longshore suspended sediment transport are explored using field data collected in the inner half of the surf zone during a large storm at Duck, NC. Suspension events are defined as periods when the concentration is above a threshold. Events tended to occur during onshore flow under the wave crest, resulting in an onshore contribution to the suspended sediment transport. Even though large events occurred less than 10 percent of the total time, at some locations onshore transport associated with suspension events was greater than mean-current driven offshore-directed transport during non-event periods, causing the net suspended sediment transport to be onshore. Events and fluctuations in longshore velocity were not correlated. However, events did increase the longshore suspended sediment transport by approximately the amount they increase the mean concentration, which can be up to 35%. Because of the lack of correlation, the longshore suspended sediment transport can be modeled without considering the details of the intensity and time of events as the vertical integration of the product of the time-averaged longshore velocity and an event-augmented time-averaged concentration. However, to accurately model cross-shore suspended sediment transport, the timing and intensity of suspension events must be reproduced.

  14. Near-shore wind power - protected seascapes, environmentalists' attitudes, and the technocratic planning perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2010-01-01

    In contested wind farm developments, the dominant issue concerns scenic impact and the landscape at the proposed site. The number of large wind power schemes that have failed is growing. The case analysed here is a near-shore wind farm in the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea, in 2001 the largest wind

  15. Long-term trends in the competitive shore fishery along the KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four years (1977–2000) of competitive shore angling catch and effort data from the KwaZulu-Natal Coastal Anglers Union for the province of KwaZulu-Natal were analysed. Of a minimum of 117 species recorded, the most commonly caught species were dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) (26%), milk shark ...

  16. On-site gamma dose rates at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, northwest Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reistad, O.; Dowdall, M.; Standring, W. J. F.; Selnaes, O. G.; Hustveit, S.; Steinhusen, F.; Sorlie, A.

    The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RAW) storage facility at Andreeva Bay shore technical base (STB) is one of the largest and most hazardous nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia. Originally commissioned in the 1960s the facility now stores large amounts of SNF and RAW associated

  17. 33 CFR 203.49 - Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Projects. (a) Authority. The Chief of Engineers is authorized to rehabilitate any Federally authorized hurricane or shore protection structure damaged or destroyed by wind, wave, or water action of an... (exclusive of dredge mobilization and demobilization costs) exceeds $1 million and is greater than two...

  18. 75 FR 34367 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast... zone on the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Ocean View Beach Park, Norfolk, VA in support of the... movement on the Chesapeake Bay [[Page 34368

  19. 75 FR 26155 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast... temporary safety zone on the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Ocean View Beach Park, Norfolk, VA in support... traffic movement on the Chesapeake Bay to protect mariners from the hazards associated with fireworks...

  20. 76 FR 38300 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast... zone on the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Ocean View Beach Park, Norfolk, VA in support of the... intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Chesapeake Bay to protect mariners from the hazards...

  1. 76 FR 27967 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast... temporary safety zone on the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Ocean View Beach Park, Norfolk, VA in support... action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Chesapeake Bay to protect mariners from the...

  2. 76 FR 303 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 195 [Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0229] RIN 2137-AE66 Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...

  3. High resolution 3D seismic survey off-shore the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeghs, P.; Vandeweijer, V.P.; Meekes, J.A.C.; Paap, B.F.; Kleine, M.P.E. de

    2014-01-01

    TNO has carried out a high resolution 3D seismic survey off-shore Rotterdam. The new deployment concept that was tested with this survey results in high-quality 3D images of the shallow subsurface at relatively low cost, particularly in comparison with conventional 3D seismic data acquisition.

  4. Effect of flat insoles with different shore A values on posture stability in diabetic neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geffen, J.A.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Hof, A.L.; Halbertsma, J.P.K.; Postema, K.

    The objective of the study was to determine whether insoles with a low Shore A value (15 degrees) as prescribed for patients with a diabetic neuropathy have a negative effect on posture stability because these insoles may reduce somatosensory input under the feet. It was conducted in the Center for

  5. Using Case Studies to Teach About Global Issues, The Sahel: The "Shore" of Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan J.

    1974-01-01

    Sahel is the Arabic word for "shore" and is applied to the Southern belt of the Sahara Desert now undergoing a severe drought. This article describes the lifestyle of a Tuareg herder as he and his family fight for survival. Discussion questions and possible solution to the problems are provided in the case study. (Author/DE)

  6. Sediment Budget on the Indiana Shore at Burns Harbor, Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    armored or artificial . On the Michigan shore, bluffs have been less armored than in Illinois, but jetties at St. Joseph, New Buffalo and Michigan...the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Illinois Shoreline Erosion Interim IV Study, Illinois State Geological Survey, Lakes, Streams, and Wetlands Unit

  7. Data report of the first cruise of the Marion Off-shore Ecological Study (MOES-1)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncombe-Rae, CM

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The first cruise of the Marion Off-shore Ecological Study (MOES-I), during April and May 1987, was a multi-disciplinary effort aimed at gaining a further understanding of the relationships between productivity and the environment in the vicinity...

  8. 76 FR 13445 - North Shore Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ...-COG to provide common carrier rail service to multiple shippers on this extended line of railroad.\\1... reminded that once the operator obtains Board authorization to provide common carrier rail service over a... Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority North Shore Railroad Company (NSRR), a...

  9. ShoreZone mapping for Haida Gwaii : relevance for spill planning in northern British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.R. [Coastal and Ocean Resources Inc., Sidney, BC (Canada); Sloan, N.; Bartier, P. [Parks Canada, Queen Charlotte City, BC (Canada); Morris, M. [Archipelago Marine Research Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); Ogborne, C. [British Columbia Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The ShoreZone Mapping System was recently used to map approximately 5,000 km of shoreline on Haida Gwaii, known as the Queen Charlotte Islands. The region is renowned for fishing and coastal tourism. The area is presently at a relatively low risk from accidental oil spills, with sources including an offshore tanker route between Alaska and Puget Sound, and cruise ship route between Vancouver and Alaska. However, the risk could increase greatly in the future given proposed resource development plans for offshore drilling in Queen Charlotte Sound and Hecate Strait. Oil spills typically end up on coastlines where impacts can be severe and cleanup is difficult. Having adequate coastal resource information represents an important tool for decision-making and planning to mitigate risk. The ShoreZone Mapping System uses video imagery mapping and breaks the shoreline into alongshore units, which is the basic mapping element, and across-shore components, which are not mapped but are included in a separate relational database. The following elements make the ShoreZone coastal habitat mapping data unique: the primary data includes both biological and physical mapping attributes; wave exposure is systematically mapped; imagery and mapping data are web-posted; and the mapping system is extensive. The distribution of resources also provides important insight for oil spill response scenarios for Haida Gwaii. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  10. Few fish but many fishers: a case study of shore-based recreational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a roving creel survey over 12 months, 3 765 shore-anglers were checked for catch and fishing effort information and a further 603 shoreanglers were interviewed using a detailed questionnaire. Fishing effort was higher on weekends (119 anglers per count) than during the week (37 anglers per count). The total ...

  11. Benthic life on the tropical sandy shore: Miramar beach a case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    of shore-dwelling bivalve molluscs. The foot of intertidal and subtidal clams such as Mactra violacea and Meretrix spp. is relatively large and powerful. It can pull the shell below the sand surface very quickly symbolising the burrowing life style. Other...

  12. Remote assessment of net shore drift along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.; Sugimori, Y.

    in the southern part of the study area. Finally, it is concluded that long term shore drift direction, which can be determined comfortably by remote sensing, is season dependent and plays significant role in deciding areas of coastal erosion and accretion...

  13. 76 FR 21637 - Safety Zone; Ford Estate Wedding Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Grosse Pointe Shores, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ford Estate Wedding Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Grosse Pointe Shores, MI AGENCY: Coast... portion of Lake St. Clair River during the Ford Estate Wedding Fireworks. DATES: This rule is effective.... Background and Purpose On June 4, 2011, a private party is holding a land based wedding that will include...

  14. Regional marine climate scenarios in the NE Atlantic sector close to the Spanish shores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damià Gomis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of the changes expected during the 21st century in key marine parameters (sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, sea level and waves in the sector of the NE Atlantic Ocean close to the Spanish shores. Under the A1B scenario, open-sea surface temperatures would increase by 1°C to 1.5°C by 2050 as a consequence of global ocean warming. Near the continental margin, however, the global temperature rise would be counteracted by an enhancement of the seasonal upwelling. Sea surface salinity is likely to decrease in the future, mainly due to the advection of high-latitude fresher waters from ice melting. Mean sea level rise has been quantified as 15-20 cm by 2050, but two contributions not accounted for by our models must be added: the mass redistribution derived from changes in the large-scale circulation (which in the NE Atlantic may be as large as 15 cm in 2050 or 35 cm by 2100 and the increase in the ocean mass content due to the melting of continental ice (for which estimates are still uncertain. The meteorological tide shows very small changes, and therefore extreme sea levels would be higher in the 21st century, but mostly due to the increase in mean sea level, not to an increase in the storminess. The wave projections point towards slightly smaller significant wave heights, but the changes projected are of the same order as the natural variability.

  15. The effects of a competitor on the foraging behaviour of the shore crab Carcinus maenas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela J Chakravarti

    Full Text Available Optimal Diet Theory suggests that individuals make foraging decisions that maximise net energy intake. Many studies provide qualitative support for this, but factors such as digestive constraints, learning, predation-risk and competition can influence foraging behaviour and lead to departures from quantitative predictions. We examined the effects of intraspecific competition within a classic model of optimal diet--the common shore crab, Carcinus maenas, feeding on the mussel, Mytilus edulis. Unexpectedly, we found that breaking time (Tb, eating time (Te, and handling time (Th all decreased significantly in the presence of a conspecific. Reduced handling time in the presence of a competitor resulted in an increased rate of energy intake, raising the question of why crabs do not always feed in such a way. We suggest that the costs of decreased shell breaking time may be increased risk of claw damage and that crabs may be trading-off the potential loss of food to a competitor with the potential to damage their claw whilst breaking the shell more rapidly. It is well documented that prey-size selection by crabs is influenced by both the risk of claw damage and competition. However, our results are the first to demonstrate similar effects on prey handling times. We suggest that crabs maximise their long-term rate of energy intake at a scale far greater than individual foraging events and that in order to minimise claw damage, they typically break shells at a rate below their maximum. In the presence of a competitor, crabs appear to become more risk-prone and handle their food more rapidly, minimising the risk of kleptoparasitism.

  16. Assessment of Off-shore Wind Energy Resource in China using QuikSCAT Satellite data and SAR Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiuzhi, Zhang; Yanbo, Shen; Jingwei, Xu

    2010-01-01

    From August 2008 to August 2009, the project ‘Off-Shore Wind Energy Resource Assessment and Feasibility Study of Off-Shore Wind Farm Development in China’ was carried out by China Meteorological Administration (CMA), which was funded by the EU-China Energy and Environment Programme (EEP). As one ...... part of the project, off-shore wind energy resource in China was assessed with QuikSCAT Satellite data and SAR Satellite Images. In this paper, the results from these two ways were introduced.......From August 2008 to August 2009, the project ‘Off-Shore Wind Energy Resource Assessment and Feasibility Study of Off-Shore Wind Farm Development in China’ was carried out by China Meteorological Administration (CMA), which was funded by the EU-China Energy and Environment Programme (EEP). As one...

  17. Gulf Canada's Russian joint venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motyka, D.

    1992-01-01

    After three years of evaluating prospects and negotiating with government and industry representatives, Gulf Canada established its first joint venture in the Russian Federation with Komineft, a production association from the Komi autonomous republic. Komineft has a 50% share of the venture, and the rest is shared equally between Gulf and British Gas. The operating area is at the Vozey and Upper Vozey fields in the Timan-Pechora Basin, some 1,500 km northeast of Moscow just inside the Arctic Circle. An attractive feature of the Upper Vozey project is low development costs of ca $2/bbl. In the Vozey field, the venture will set up an enhanced oil recovery demonstration project to test techniques perfected in Alberta. About 60 Canadians are involved on the project, and headquarters are in Usinsk, ca 100 km south of the oil fields. In the first half of 1992, oil production in the first phase of the venture averaged around 10,000 bbl/d and continues to increase

  18. Temporal and spatial morphological variations along a cross-shore intertidal profile, Jiangsu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zheng; Jin, Chuang; Zhang, Changkuan; Zhou, Zeng; Zhang, Qian; Li, Huan

    2017-07-01

    Fifteen monthly field surveys were conducted from September 2012 to November 2013 at ten representative stations along a cross-shore profile, covering the entire tidal flat. Results indicate that tidal currents significantly affect bed level variations over bare flats, while subsurface processes (e.g., soil subsidence and expansion) are likely to play an important role in changing the bed level of the upper intertidal flat where salt marshes are present. The cross-shore profile shows a clear double-convex shape, and different geomorphic zones display distinctive variation. Above the mean high water level (MHWL), the bed level is generally stable. The region around the MHWL, where the upper convex point is present, is a location of high sedimentation due to the weaker hydrodynamic conditions and the settling and scour lag effects, it keeps growing with the increase of inundation frequency. A concave point occurs in the middle part of the intertidal flat, showing considerable erosion. Near the mean low water level (MLWL), the lower convex point is elevated due to the long-shore tidal current and associated sediment transport (the flood dominated transport during summer exceeds the ebb dominated transport during winter, hence the net effect favors sedimentation). Further seawards, the area below the MLWL is strongly eroded. The cross-shore profile follows a ;stable-accretional-erosional-accretional-erosional; sequence. Overall, the measurements indicate that the interplay among vegetation, hydrodynamics and sediment transport is critical in shaping the cross-shore morphology of the intertidal flats along the Jiangsu coast of China.

  19. Gulf of Mexico production still recovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the extent of damage caused by Hurricane Andrew to Gulf of Mexico oil and gas installations continues coming into focus. A preliminary tally by Minerals Management Service offers a reasonably complete summary of gulf production and pipeline systems damage detectable at the surface. MMS requires Outer Continental Shelf operators to inspect for underwater damage all platforms, pipelines, risers, and other structures within an 85 mile corridor along the path of Andrew's eye as it churned through the gulf. OCS operators have until Oct. 16 to submit plans for the Level II surveys

  20. Leviathan moving to expand Gulf gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Leviathan Gas Pipeline Co., Houston, has advanced plans for a large deepwater pipeline gathering system in the Gulf of Mexico. Under an agreement between Deep-Tech International Inc. and Transco Energy Co., Leviathan will pay $65 million for Transco interests in several gulf gas gathering pipelines and related facilities. Leviathan is a Deep Tech subsidiary. Gulf pipeline assets Leviathan acquired from Transco include Louisiana Offshore Pipeline Systems (LOPS), Green Canyon Pipeline Co., and companies owning at 40% interest in High Island Offshore System (HIOS) and a 33 1/1% interest in United Texas Offshore System (UTOS)

  1. US Gulf operators take the long view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatern, Rick von

    1999-01-01

    Oil projects in the Gulf of Mexico have suffered from the crash in oil prices in the mid-1980s, however as these projects tend to be long-term and therefore less sensitive to current oil prices, many are continuing to be funded. It is now believed by deepwater exploration operators that the Gulf of Mexico may be one of the world's most promising sources of new reserves. This article analyses the likely future exploration of deepwater reserves by major companies such as Shell, noted for its capital intensive and technologically innovative activity in the Gulf, as well as the newer, smaller independent operators. (UK)

  2. Oil-material fractionation in Gulf deep water horizontal intrusion layer: Field data analysis with chemodynamic fate model for Macondo 252 oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A T; Thibodeaux, L J; Parsons, A R; Overton, E; Valsaraj, K T; Nandakumar, K

    2016-04-15

    Among the discoveries of the Deepwater Horizon blowout was the so-called "sub-surface plume"; herein termed the "oil-trapping layer". Hydrocarbons were found positioned at ~1100-1300m with thickness ~100-150m and moving horizontally to the SW in a vertically stratified layer at the junction of the cold abyssal water and the permanent thermocline. This study focuses on its formation process and fate of the hydrocarbons within. The originality of this work to the field is two-fold, first it provides a conceptual framework which places layer origin in the context of a horizontal "intrusion" from the near-field, vertical, blow-out plume and second, it offers a theoretical model for the hydrocarbon chemicals within the horizontal layer as it moves far-afield. The model quantifies the oil-material fractionation process for the soluble and fine particle. The classical Box model, retrofitted with an internal gradient, the "G-Box", allows an approach that includes turbulent eddy diffusion coupled with droplet rise velocity and reactive decay to produce a simple, explicit, transparent, algebraic model with few parameters for the fate of the individual fractions. Computations show the soluble and smallest liquid droplets moving very slowly vertically through the layer appearing within the trapping layer at low concentration with high persistence. The larger droplets move-through this trapping zone quickly, attain high concentrations, and eventually form the sea surface slick. It impacts the field of oil spill engineering science by providing the conceptual idea and the algorithms for projecting the quantities and fractions of oil-material in a deep water, horizontal marine current being dispersed and moving far afield. In the field of oil spill modeling this work extends the current generation near-field plume source models to the far-field. The theory portrays the layer as an efficient oil-material trap. The model-forecasted concentration profiles for alkanes and aromatics

  3. Gulf of Mexico soundscapes as indicators of ecological stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorovskaia, N.; Li, K.; Tiemann, C.; Ackleh, A. S.; Tang, T.; Risbourg, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    Soundscapes in the Northern Gulf of Mexico are complex and represent a combination of anthropogenic noise (oil exploration and production, shipping, rig construction, etc.), bio-soundscapes (sound of marine mammals and fish), and geo-soundscapes (weather events, submarine landslides, distant earthquakes, natural gas seeps). We will discuss how Passive Acoustic Monitoring in the deep Gulf has been utilized during the past decade to study the soundscape variability on daily, monthly, and yearly timescales and what environmental information can be extracted from this variability. Isolation of bio-soundscapes, identification of their sources, and abundance estimates based on acoustic cues are used to track the recovery of marine mammal species after major ecological disasters, such as the recent 2010 oil spill. Association of acoustic activity of marine species with anthropogenic noise levels and other environmental variables can provide base data that can be used to build ecological models of habitat preferences for different marine species. Understanding how the variability of anthropogenic soundscapes correlates with marine species distributions is critically important for regional conservation and mitigation strategies. Such studies can also assist in forecasting the long-term ecosystem health status and ecosystem response to disturbances of different spatial and temporal extent, including slow variations associated with climate change. [This research was made possible in part by a grant from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative, and in part by funding provided by ONR and The Joint Industry Programme.

  4. Drifter Observations of the Gulf of Maine Coastal Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, J P; McGillicuddy, D J; Pettigrew, N R; Churchill, J H; Incze, L S

    2009-04-15

    Two-hundred and twenty seven satellite-tracked drifters were deployed in the Gulf of Maine (GoM) from 1988 to 2007, primarily during spring and summer. The archive of tracks includes over 100,000 kilometers logged thus far. Statistics such as transit times, mean velocities, response to wind events, and preferred pathways are compiled for various areas of the coastal GoM. We compare Lagrangian flow with Eulerian estimates from near-by moorings and evaluate drifter trajectories using Ekman theory and 3-D ocean circulation models. Results indicate that the Gulf of Maine Coastal Current is a strong and persistent feature centered on the 94 ± 23 meter isobath, but that particles: a) deviate from the seasonal-mean core fairly regularly, and are often re-entrained; b) follow a slower (9 cm/s), less-constrained path in the western portion off the coast of Maine relative to the eastern (16 cm/s) section; and c) can be affected by wind events and small scale baroclinic structures. Residence times calculated for each ½ degree grid cell throughout the GoM depict some regions (Eastern Maine and Western Nova Scotia) as being relatively steady, flow-through systems, while others (Penobscot, Great South Channel) have more variable, branching pathways. Travel times for drifters that are retained within the coastal current along the entire western side of the Gulf of Maine are typically less than two months (55 days).

  5. Evaluation of trophic state and plankton abundance from the environmental parameters of Visakhapatnam Harbour and near-shore waters, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripathy, S.C.; KusumaKumari, B.A.V.L.; Sarma, V.V.; Murty, T.V.R.

    The present work describes the nutrient indices of the Visakhapatnam harbour and near-shore waters. The inner channels of Visakhapatnam harbour are considered to be eutrophic while near-shore waters (coastal and inshore waters) associated...

  6. Estimating hydrologic budgets for six Persian Gulf watersheds, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Majid; Ghafouri, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, MahmoudReza; Goodarzi, Masoud; Mokarian, Zeinab

    2017-10-01

    Estimation of the major components of the hydrologic budget is important for determining the impacts on the water supply and quality of either planned or proposed land management projects, vegetative changes, groundwater withdrawals, and reservoir management practices and plans. As acquisition of field data is costly and time consuming, models have been created to test various land use practices and their concomitant effects on the hydrologic budget of watersheds. To simulate such management scenarios realistically, a model should be able to simulate the individual components of the hydrologic budget. The main objective of this study is to perform the SWAT2012 model for estimation of hydrological budget in six subbasin of Persian Gulf watershed; Golgol, Baghan, Marghab Shekastian, Tangebirim and Daragah, which are located in south and south west of Iran during 1991-2009. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, hydrological data, soil map, land use map and digital elevation model (DEM) are obtained and prepared for each catchment to run the model. SWAT-CUP with SUFI2 program was used for simulation, uncertainty and validation with 95 Percent Prediction Uncertainty. Coefficient of determination ( R 2) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) were used for evaluation of the model simulation results. Comparison of measured and predicted values demonstrated that each component of the model gave reasonable output and that the interaction among components was realistic. The study has produced a technique with reliable capability for annual and monthly water budget components in Persian Gulf watershed.

  7. Novel Therapeutic Approaches for the Treatment of Depression and Cognitive Deficits in a Rodent Model of Gulf War Veterans’ Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0478 TITLE: Novel Therapeutic Approaches for the Treatment of Depression and Cognitive Deficits in a Rodent Model of...Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in...designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of

  8. Scour around monopile foundations for off-shore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Martinelli, Luca

    2006-01-01

    The present paper aims to describe the scour hole process around large piles through laboratory tests under waves, unidirectional and tidal currents in time. The process for unidirectional and tidal currents has been compared. The tests have been carried out in a wave flume equipped with a two wa...... recirculation pump at the Hydraulic Laboratory at Aalborg University. The mobile bed around the model was leveled with an automatic laser profiler and the results are graphically displayed as maximum scour depths and eroded volumes....

  9. The Effect of Wave Grouping on On-Shore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    1979-01-01

    generated solely in accordance with an energy spectrum obtained from field data can be used. To investigate the importance of the succession of waves to the impact on coastal structures, run-up/down on permeable and impermeable slopes and stability of dolos armour were investigated in model tests by using......-up/down and to the stability of dolos armour is shown. A proposal to establish a set of universal graphs for the stability of dolos blocks (or any other “interlocking” blocks) is made....

  10. Stochastic simulation of off-shore oil terminal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, E.G.; Oberle, J.

    1991-01-01

    To cope with the problem of uncertainty and conditionality in the planning, design, and operation of offshore oil transshipment terminal systems, a conditional stochastic simulation approach is presented. Examples are shown, using SLAM II, a computer simulation language based on GERT, a conditional stochastic network analysis methodology in which use of resources such as time and money are expressed by the moment generating function of the statistics of the resource requirements. Similarly each activity has an associated conditional probability of being performed and/or of requiring some of the resources. The terminal system is realistically represented by modelling the statistics of arrivals, loading and unloading times, uncertainties in costs and availabilities, etc

  11. Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most ecologically and economically valuable marine ecosystems in the world and is affected by a variety of natural and anthropogenic...

  12. Seasonal Composite Chlorophyll Concentrations - Gulf of Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This personal geodatabase contains raster images of chlorophyll concentrations in the Gulf of Maine. These raster images are seasonal composites, and were calculated...

  13. 2013 Gulf of Mexico SPCE angler survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey provides economic data related to marine recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico. The data collected include preference and opinion information...

  14. Southeast Gulf of Mexico Sperm Whale Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large vessel surveys were conducted during the summers of 2012 and 2014 in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico north of the Dry Tortugas. Data were collected on the...

  15. Gulf of Mexico Nutrient, carbon, CTD data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gulf of Mexico cruise, nearshore and CTD data collected by the USEPA during 2002 - 2008. This dataset is associated with the following publications: Pauer , J., T....

  16. Persian Gulf War Chronology and Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    An index to newspaper articles from New York Times, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal and miscellaneous other sources about the Persian Gulf War. Covers the time period August 1990 through March 1991.

  17. Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific Fishery Management Council adopted the Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program (Rockfish Program) on June 14, 2010, to replace the expiring Pilot...

  18. Gulf Coast climate change adaptation pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Climate change-related issues place substantial operating and financial burdens on public transit agencies, particularly in coastal settings. Gulf of Mexico coastal transit agencies and their constituents are especially vulnerable to natural hazards ...

  19. A Markov model for planning and permitting offshore wind energy: A case study of radio-tracked terns in the Gulf of Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, Alexana; Smetzer, Jennifer R; Welch, Linda; Baker, Erin

    2017-05-15

    Quantifying and managing the potential adverse wildlife impacts of offshore wind energy is critical for developing offshore wind energy in a sustainable and timely manner, but poses a significant challenge, particularly for small marine birds that are difficult to monitor. We developed a discrete-time Markov model of seabird movement around a colony site parameterized by automated radio telemetry data from common terns (Sterna hirundo) and Arctic terns (S. paradisaea), and derived impact functions that estimate the probability of collision fatality as a function of the distance and bearing of wind turbines from a colony. Our purpose was to develop and demonstrate a new, flexible tool that can be used for specific management and wind-energy planning applications when adequate data are available, rather than inform wind-energy development at this site. We demonstrate how the tool can be used 1) in marine spatial planning exercises to quantitatively identify setback distances under development scenarios given a risk threshold, 2) to examine the ecological and technical trade-offs of development alternatives to facilitate negotiation between objectives, and 3) in the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process to estimate collision fatality under alternative scenarios. We discuss model limitations and data needs, and highlight opportunities for future model extension and development. We present a highly flexible tool for wind energy planning that can be easily extended to other central place foragers and data sources, and can be updated and improved as new monitoring data arises. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of 3-dimensional Hydro-dynamical Model Simulation in the Gulf of Kutch, India and Its Comparison with Satellite Data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Osawa, T.; Zhao, C.; Kunte, P.D.; Ae, L.S.; Hara, M.; Moriyama, T.

    stream_size 29769 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name La_mer_41_94.pdf.txt stream_source_info La_mer_41_94.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Analysis of 3...): ?Modele mathematique Da la propagation Da la maree en stuaire et des transports sableux associes. Application aux estuaries Da la Loire et Da la Seine? (in French), Ph.D thesis, Univ. De Nretagne Occidentale, Brest, France, pp.257. Platt T., S...

  1. Detangling Spaghetti: Tracking Deep Ocean Currents in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Mary Carla; Bower, Amy S.; Furey, Heather H.

    2017-01-01

    Creation of physical models can help students learn science by enabling them to be more involved in the scientific process of discovery and to use multiple senses during investigations. This activity achieves these goals by having students model ocean currents in the Gulf of Mexico. In general, oceans play a key role in influencing weather…

  2. Predicted Effects of Climate Change on Northern Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia (Book Chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe the application of a coastal ocean ecosystem model to assess the effect of a future climate scenario of plus (+) 3 °C air temperature and + 10% river discharge on hypoxia (O2 < 63 mmol m−3) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We applied the model to the Louisiana shelf as...

  3. Predicted Effects of Climate Change on Northern Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe the application of a coastal ocean ecosystem model to assess the effect of a future climate scenario of plus (+) 3 °C air temperature and + 10% river discharge on hypoxia (O2 < 63 mmol m−3) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We applied the model to the Louisiana shelf as...

  4. A finite element simulation of tidal circulation in the Gulf of Kutch, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A; Luick, J

    A finite element (fe) model using the software package ADCTRC was developed to simulate the tides and currents in the Gulf of Kutch, located on the northwest coast of India. The surface elevations from the model were analysed for the amplitudes...

  5. Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): Impact of extreme storms and floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulses, C.; Estournel, C.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Palanques, A.

    2008-01-01

    In situ observations were combined with 3D modeling to gain understanding of and to quantify the suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea). The outputs of a hydrodynamic–sediment transport coupled model were compared to near-bottom current and suspended sediment

  6. Hydro- and morphodynamic tsunami simulations for the Ambrakian Gulf (Greece) and comparison with geoscientific field traces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röbke, B. R.; Schüttrumpf, H.; Vött, A.

    2018-04-01

    In order to derive local tsunami risks for a particular coast, hydro- and morphodynamic numerical models that are calibrated and compared with sedimentary field data of past tsunami impacts have proven very effective. While this approach has widely been used with regard to recent tsunami events, comparable investigations into pre-/historical tsunami impacts hardly exist, which is the objective of this study focusing on the Ambrakian Gulf in northwestern Greece. The Ambrakian Gulf is located in the most active seismotectonic and by this most tsunamigenic area of the Mediterranean. Accordingly, palaeotsunami field studies have revealed repeated tsunami impacts on the gulf during the past 8000 yr. The current study analyses 151 vibracores of the Ambrakian Gulf coast in order to evaluate tsunami signals in the sedimentary record. Based on a hydro- and morphodynamic numerical model of the study area, various tsunami waves are simulated with the aim of finding scenarios that compare favourably with tsunami deposits detected in the field. Both, field data and simulation results suggest a decreasing tsunami influence from the western to the eastern Ambrakian Gulf. Various scenarios are needed to explain tsunami deposits in different parts of the gulf. Whereas shorter period tsunami waves (T = 30 min) from the south and west compare favourably with field data in the western gulf, longer period waves (T = 80 min) from a western direction show the best agreement with tsunami sediments detected in southwestern Aktio Headland and in the more central parts of the Ambrakian Gulf including Lake Voulkaria. Tsunamis from the southwest generally do not accord with field traces. Besides the spatial sediment distribution, the numerical model accurately reflects the sedimentary composition of the detected event deposits and reproduces a number of essential features typical of tsunamites, which were also observed in the field. Such include fining- and thinning-landward and the marine

  7. Simulated Impacts of Juvenile Mortality on Gulf of Mexico Sturgeon Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Tate

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We used an age-structured computer model to assess the impact of changes in juvenile mortality on the Gulf of Mexico sturgeon population in the Suwannee River, Florida. We simulated population trends under four levels of annual juvenile mortality (20, 25, 30, and 35%. As the rate of mortality increased, population size decreased, and rates of population growth shifted from positive to negative. Our models indicated that juvenile survival is important to the success of gulf sturgeon populations, and mortality estimates are needed to predict population viability. We suggest that life history studies in estuaries should be conducted, and bycatch rates for commercial fisheries should be quantified to aid in the management and conservation of gulf sturgeon.

  8. Shore erosion as a sediment source to the tidal Potomac River, Maryland and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew J.

    1987-01-01

    The shoreline of the tidal Potomac River attained its present form as a result of the Holocene episode of sea-level rise; the drowned margins of the system are modified by wave activity in the shore zone and by slope processes on banks steepened by basal-wave erosion. Shore erosion leaves residual sand and gravel in shallow water and transports silt and clay offshore to form a measurable component of the suspended-sediment load of the tidal Potomac River. Erosion rates were measured by comparing digitized historical shoreline maps and modern maps, and by comparing stereopairs of aerial photographs taken at different points in time, with the aid of an interactive computer-graphics system and a digitizing stereoplotter. Cartographic comparisons encompassed 90 percent of the study reach and spanned periods of 38 to 109 years, with most measurements spanning at least 84 years. Photogrammetric comparisons encompassed 49 percent of the study reach and spanned 16 to 40 years. Field monitoring of erosion rates and processes at two sites, Swan Point Neck, Maryland, and Mason Neck, Virginia, spanned periods of 10 to 18 months. Estimated average recession rates of shoreline in the estuary, based on cartographic and photogrammetric measurements, were 0.42 to 0.52 meter per annum (Virginia shore) and 0.31 to 0.41 meter per annum (Maryland shore). Average recession rates of shoreline in the tidal river and transition zone were close to 0.15 meter per annum. Estimated average volume-erosion rates along the estuary were 1.20 to 1.87 cubic meters per meter of shoreline per annum (Virginia shore) and 0.56 to 0.73 cubic meter per meter of shoreline per annum (Maryland shore); estimated average volume-erosion rates along the shores of the tidal river and transition zone were 0.55 to 0.74 cubic meter per meter of shoreline per annum. Estimated total sediment contributed to the tidal Potomac River by shore erosion was 0.375 x 10 6 to 0.565 x 10 6 metric tons per annum; of this, the

  9. Elders recall an earlier tsunami on Indian Ocean shores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakar, Din Mohammad; Naeem, Ghazala; Usman, Abdullah; Hasan, Haider; Lohdi, Hira; Srinivasalu, Seshachalam; Andrade, Vanessa; Rajendran, C.P.; Naderi Beni, Abdolmajid; Hamzeh, Mohammad Ali; Hoffmann, Goesta; Al Balushi, Noora; Gale, Nora; Kodijat, Ardito; Fritz, Hermann M.; Atwater, Brian F.

    2014-01-01

    Ten years on, the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 still looms large in efforts to reduce coastal risk. The disaster has spurred worldwide advances in tsunami detection and warning, tsunami-risk assessment, and tsunami awareness [Satake, 2014]. Nearly a lifetime has passed since the northwestern Indian Ocean last produced a devastating tsunami. Documentation of this tsunami, in November 1945, was hindered by international instability in the wake of the Second World War and, in British India, by the approach of independence and partition. The parent earthquake, of magnitude 8.1, was widely recorded, and the tsunami registered on tide gauges, but intelligence reports and newspaper articles say little about inundation limits while permitting a broad range of catalogued death tolls. What has been established about the 1945 tsunami falls short of what's needed today for ground-truthing inundation models, estimating risk to enlarged populations, and anchoring awareness campaigns in local facts. Recent efforts to reduce coastal risk around the Arabian Sea include a project in which eyewitnesses to the 1945 tsunami were found and interviewed (Fig. 1), and related archives were gathered. Results are being made available through UNESCO's Indian Ocean Tsunami Information Center in hopes of increasing scientific understanding and public awareness of the region's tsunami hazards.

  10. Rayleigh and Love Wave Phase Velocities in the Northern Gulf Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.; Yao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The last major tectonic event in the northern Gulf Coast of the United States is Mesozoic continental rifting that formed the Gulf of Mexico. This area also experienced igneous activity and local uplifts during Cretaceous. To investigate lithosphere evolution associated with the rifting and igneous activity, we construct Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocity models at the periods of 6 s to 125 s in the northern Gulf Coast from Louisiana to Alabama including the eastern Ouachita and southern Appalachian orogeny. The phase velocities are derived from ambient noise and earthquake data recorded at the 120 USArray Transportable Array stations. At periods below 20 s, phase velocity maps are characterized by significant low velocities in the Interior Salt Basin and Gulf Coast Basin, reflecting the effects of thick sediments. The northern Louisiana and southern Arkansas are imaged as a low velocity anomaly in Rayleigh wave models but a high velocity anomaly of Love wave at the periods of 14 s to 30 s, indicating strong lower crust extension to the Ouachita front. High velocity is present in the Mississippi Valley Graben from period 20 s to 35 s, probably reflecting a thin crust or high-velocity lower crust. At longer periods, low velocities are along the Mississippi River to the Gulf Coast Basin, and high velocity anomaly mainly locates in the Black Warrior Basin between the Ouachita Belt and Appalachian Orogeny. The magnitude of anomalies in Love wave images is much smaller than that in Rayleigh wave models, which is probably due to radial anisotropy in the upper mantle. A 3-D anisotropic shear velocity model will be developed from the phase velocities and will provide more details for the crust and upper mantle structure beneath the northern Gulf of Mexico continental margin.

  11. Impact of Gulf Stream SST biases on the global atmospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert W.; Woollings, Tim J.; Hoskins, Brian J.; Williams, Keith D.; O'Reilly, Christopher H.; Masato, Giacomo

    2018-02-01

    The UK Met Office Unified Model in the Global Coupled 2 (GC2) configuration has a warm bias of up to almost 7 K in the Gulf Stream SSTs in the winter season, which is associated with surface heat flux biases and potentially related to biases in the atmospheric circulation. The role of this SST bias is examined with a focus on the tropospheric response by performing three sensitivity experiments. The SST biases are imposed on the atmosphere-only configuration of the model over a small and medium section of the Gulf Stream, and also the wider North Atlantic. Here we show that the dynamical response to this anomalous Gulf Stream heating (and associated shifting and changing SST gradients) is to enhance vertical motion in the transient eddies over the Gulf Stream, rather than balance the heating with a linear dynamical meridional wind or meridional eddy heat transport. Together with the imposed Gulf Stream heating bias, the response affects the troposphere not only locally but also in remote regions of the Northern Hemisphere via a planetary Rossby wave response. The sensitivity experiments partially reproduce some of the differences in the coupled configuration of the model relative to the atmosphere-only configuration and to the ERA-Interim reanalysis. These biases may have implications for the ability of the model to respond correctly to variability or changes in the Gulf Stream. Better global prediction therefore requires particular focus on reducing any large western boundary current SST biases in these regions of high ocean-atmosphere interaction.

  12. Major reproductive health characteristics in male Gulf War Veterans. The Danish Gulf War Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøy, T; Andersson, A M; Suadicani, Poul Vilhelm

    2001-01-01

    The male reproductive system could have been affected by various hazardous agents and exposures during and in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War scenario. We tested the hypothesis that, compared to controls, male Danish Gulf War Veterans would have adverse sex hormone levels, decreased fertility...

  13. GuLF Study: The Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and resulting oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico differed from previous spill in that the leak ... 644-4853) or visit https://gulfstudy.nih.gov/en/index.html . The study protocol, questionnaires, and a ...

  14. Beach nourishment alternative assessment to constrain cross-shore and longshore sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, Servet; Work, Paul; Uzlu, Ergun; Kankal, Murat; Yuksek, Omer

    2016-01-01

    A combined field and laboratory investigation was conducted to assess five options for creation of a recreational beach on a steep, armored shoreline on the eastern Black Sea coast. All designs incorporated a beach nourishment project placed between two existing, shore-normal, rubble-mound groins. Alternatives included the placement of a nearshore berm, longshore extensions added to the existing groins, and shore-parallel breakwaters. Several alternatives are reviewed for quantifying the performance of each design, including assessment of the change in shoreline position and project volume retained between the groins. Dimensionless benefits and benefit-cost ratios are quantified, and recommendations made on how to select the best outcome from a benefit-to-cost standpoint when options including hard structures are incorporated into a beach nourishment project design.

  15. International Standardization in the Design of "Shore to Ship" - Power Supply Systems of Ships in Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnapowicz, Dariusz; German-Galkin, Sergiej

    2018-03-01

    The decisive source of air pollution emissions in ports is the berthed ships. This is primarily caused by the work of ship's autonomous generator sets. One way of reducing the air pollution emissions in ports is the supply of ships from electricity inland system. The main problem connected with the power connection of ships to the inland network is caused by different values of levels and frequencies of voltages in these networks (in various countries) in relation to different values of levels and frequencies of voltages present in the ship's network. It is also important that the source power can range from a few hundred kW up to several MW. In order to realize a universal „Shore to Ship" system that allows the connection of ships to the electricity inland network, the international standardization is necessary. This article presents the current recommendations, standards and regulations for the design of „Shore to Ship" systems.

  16. Downwearing rates on shore platforms and rocky coast evolution- bioerosion contribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Delminda; Gabriel, Selma; Ramos Pereira, Ana; Neves, Mário; Trindade, Jorge; Gamito, Sofia; Santos, Rui; Mafalda Tavares, Ana; Berecibar, Estibaliz; Luísa Martins, Ana

    2010-05-01

    Carbonate rocks are extremely vulnerable to biochemical weathering and, consequently carbonate shores are morphologically complex. Living organisms on hard substrates develop specialized strategies to construct its domicile, to dislodge and to compete by space and food with other species. Those strategies include mechanical and chemical processes, among them, substrate boring, etching, cementation and dissolution (e.g.,Trudgill, 1988; Andrews and Williams, 2000; Bromley and Heinberg, 2006). Shore platforms represent available areas to be biocolonized and, the role of biochemical processes have been emphasizes as important mechanisms on platform genesis (e.g., Stephenson and Kirk, 2000). The current work aims to quantify the role of biological activity in carbonate rocky coast evolution at the centre Algarve (south Portugal). In this area, cliffs expose Miocene carbonate rocks composed by calcarenites and carbonate siltstones. Two coastal sectors with different exposure to waves were monitored: (i) Galé, a well exposed sector to dominant waves from SW and, (ii) Olhos de Água in a sheltered position exposing softer rocks than in Galé. Shore platforms survey and cross-shore topography profiles were done by using a Differential Global Position System (DGPS). Macroalgae and macrozoobenthos colonizing shore platform in both sites (Galé and Olhos de Água) were sampled and identified and, density and species richness was quantified. Three stations in Galé and two more in Olhos de Água where chosen to downwearing measurements. Each station was divided in two half portions: (i) control area, (ii) area to be monitored. In the later one, rock was maintained bared by monthly adding H2O2 to kill organisms. Downwearing rates on bare rock were measured by using a Transverse Microerosion Meter (TMEM) along sixteen months. The control area was measured at the begin of the experience and after sixteen months during which was naturally biocolonized. In addition, density of

  17. SYNCHRONIZATION OF NATIONAL GRID NETWORK WITH THE ELECTRICITY SHIPS NETWORK IN THE "SHORE TO SHIP" SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz TARNAPOWICZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Shore to ship’ system – ships’ power supply from the local electrical substations – is one of the effective ways to limit the negative impact of the ships lying in ports on the environment. Energy infrastructure of the port installation necessary to provide ships with power supply has to be designed so that different types of ships can use it. The important issue concerning ‘shore to ship’ system is the quality of power supply. This can be achieved via sustaining continuity of power supply while switching from the ships’ electrical network over to the national grid. In this article the author presents the way of synchronizing the national grid with the ships’ electrical network during ship’s lying in port. Such synchronization would allow for uninterruptible work of the ship’s electrical devices.

  18. Intertidal ecology of the sea shore near Tarapur Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balani, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    Surveys were carried out between March 1969 and August 1970 to study the fauna and flora in the littoral zone of the sea shore near the Tarapur Atomic Power Station. The beach adjacent to the Station is rocky with a number of tidal pools inhabited by a variety of organisms whereas the beach to the south is mostly sandy and barren except for a small rocky stretch. The tidal range is 6 m and over a mile of beach is exposed during low tide. The near shore currents are very strong and have a clear northsouth oscillation with the changing tides. Less Atherina sp. fry were available near the Power Station in March 1970 than during the previous year. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed, including the effect of heated discharges on biota. The need is also emphasized to monitor the biota (Plankton, Nekton and Benthos) systematically for content of fission products released by the Power Station. (auth.)

  19. Investigations of Wind Shear Distribution on the Baltic Shore of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukovs, V.; Zacepins, A.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Komashilovs, V.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a review of wind parameter measurement complexes and investigation methods used for potential wind energy evaluation. Based on results of long-term investigations of wind shear distribution regularities are shown up to 160 m height on the Baltic Sea shore. Distribution of potential wind energy in Latvia is shown as a map and table of average and average cubic wind speed values. Database of wind parameter measurements is available at a public website.

  20. The extant shore platform stromatolite (SPS facies association: a glimpse into the Archean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Smith

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Shore platform stromatolites (SPS were first noted at Cape Morgan on the south-east African seaboard. Since then they have been found growing discontinuously in rocky peritidal zones along the entire southern African seaboard. They have also been found on the southwest Australian coast, at Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland, and more recently at Harris on the Scottish Hebridean Atlantic coast. In this paper SPS occurrence and SPS potential as analogues for Precambrian fossil stromatolites, as well as potential stromatolite occurrences in shore platform regions on Mars, are assessed. Sub-horizontal surfaces promote stromatolite development, while tufa develops on cliffs and steep rocky surfaces. Tufa and stromatolites are end members of a spectrum dictated by coastal topography. Extant SPS occur on well indurated shore platforms in high wave energy settings, often around or near headlands. They can be associated with boulder beaches, boulder ridges, storm swash terraces, coastal dunes, and peat bogs. In contrast to other extant stromatolites, SPS are produced primarily by mineral precipitation, although minor trapping and binding stromatolites do occur. From a geological perspective, SPS develop in mildly transgressive siliciclastic settings in various climatic and tidal regimes. We suggest that SPS could be preserved in the geological record as micritic lenses on palaeo-shore platform surfaces. SPS share many features with Precambrian stromatolites and are a valid modern analogue despite the widely different atmospheric and oceanic conditions of the Archean. We suggest that terraces associated with former oceanic or lacustrine flooding surfaces on Mars are potential targets in the search for palaeo-SPS on Mars.