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Sample records for models gulf menhaden

  1. Overview of Mark-recovery Studies on Adult and Juvenile Atlantic Menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, and Gulf Menhaden, B. patronus

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrenholz, Dean W.; Dudley, Donnie L.; Levi, Eldon J.

    1991-01-01

    Extensive mark-recapture studies using internal ferromagnetic tags have been conducted on Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, and Gulf menhaden, B. patronus. From 1966 through 1969, 1,066,357 adult Atlantic menhaden were tagged; subsequently, from 1970 through 1987, 428,272 juveniles of this species were tagged. Similarly, from 1969 through 1971, 75,673 adult Gulf menhaden were tagged; concurrently from 1970 through 1985, 236,936 juveniles were tagged and released. This report provides...

  2. Results of abundance surveys of juvenile Atlantic and gulf Menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus and B. patronus

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrenholz, Dean W.; Guthrie, James F.; Krouse, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    The estuarine populations of juvenile Atlantic and gulf menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus and B. patronus) were sampled during two-boat, surface-trawl, abundance surveys extensively conducted in the 1970s. Juvenile Atlantic menhaden were sampled in 39 estuarine streams along the U.S. Atlantic coast from northern Florida into Massachusetts. Juvenile gulf menhaden were sampled in 29 estuarine streams along the Gulf of Mexico from southeast Texas into western Florida. A stratified, two-stage, clu...

  3. Stable Isotope Signatures Suggest Different Feeding Strategies for Atlantic and Gulf Menhaden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Perez, N.; Smith, S. L.; Gonsalves, L. C.; Lamb, M.

    2016-02-01

    Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) is a keystone forage species that ranges on the Atlantic Coast from Nova Scotia to Florida. A related species, the Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) is found in the northern Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Texas. They each serve as prey for important recreational and commercial fish, such as blue fish, tuna and striped bass. Menhaden are filter feeders whose diets consist mostly of phytoplankton and zooplankton, and menhaden act as direct links between primary producers and larger valuable predators. In this study, we investigated and compared the isotopic signatures of water column nitrate (δ15N), bulk plankton and juvenile menhaden (δ 15N and δ 13C) collected from 5 sites in both the Choptank River, MD, and Apalachicola Bay, FL. We determined that menhaden inhabiting the temperate zone versus the sub-tropical region exhibited statistically different isotopic signatures, suggesting different feeding strategies. Choptank River menhaden were enriched 4‰ in δ 15N over Apalachicola Bay menhaden. Choptank River menhaden are mostly likely obtaining their diet from a higher trophic level (copepods, primary consumers) than Apalachicola Bay fish, who may consume more phytoplankton. The Choptank River menhaden also may be consuming more allochthonous material, and those from the Gulf area eat a more authochthonous diet. In addition, Atlantic menhaden collected from fresh water creeks versus those collected closer to the bay differed in their δ 13C compositions, depending on site collection, with creek fish being more depleted in the heavier carbon isotope. The δ 15N values of water column nitrate were similar at Choptank and Apalachicola sites.

  4. Ultrasound detection in the Gulf menhaden requires gas-filled bullae and an intact lateral line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Maria; Montie, Eric W.; Mann, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    recess are involved in ultrasound detection in Gulf menhaden. Removal of a small portion of the lateral line overlying the lateral recess membrane eliminates the ability of Gulf menhaden to detect ultrasound. We further show that the gas-filled bullae vibrates in response to ultrasound, that the gas......-filled bullae are necessary for detecting ultrasound, and that the bullae connections to the lateral line via the lateral recess membrane play an important role in ultrasound detection. These results add a new dimension to the role of the lateral line and bullae as part of the ultrasonic detection system...

  5. Anomalously High Recruitment of the 2010 Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) Year Class: Evidence of Indirect Effects from the Deepwater Horizon Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Jeffrey W; Geiger, Harold J; Haney, J Christopher; Voss, Christine M; Vozzo, Maria L; Guillory, Vincent; Peterson, Charles H

    2017-07-01

    Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) exhibited unprecedented juvenile recruitment in 2010 during the year of the Deepwater Horizon well blowout, exceeding the prior 39-year mean by more than four standard deviations near the Mississippi River. Abundance of that cohort remained exceptionally high for two subsequent years as recruits moved into older age classes. Such changes in this dominant forage fish population can be most parsimoniously explained as consequences of release from predation. Contact with crude oil induced high mortality of piscivorous seabirds, bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), waders, and other fish-eating marsh birds, all of which are substantial consumers of Gulf menhaden. Diversions of fresh water from the Mississippi River to protect coastal marshes from oiling depressed salinities, impairing access to juvenile Gulf menhaden by aquatic predators that avoid low-salinity estuarine waters. These releases from predation led to an increase of Gulf menhaden biomass in 2011 to 2.4 million t, or more than twice the average biomass of 1.1 million t for the decade prior to 2010. Biomass increases of this magnitude in a major forage fish species suggest additional trophically linked effects at the population-, trophic-level and ecosystem scales, reflecting an heretofore little appreciated indirect effect that may be associated with major oil spills in highly productive marine waters.

  6. Population Biology and Life History of the North American Menhadens, Brevoortia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrenholz, Dean W.

    1991-01-01

    Four recognized species of menhaden, Brevoortia spp., occur in North American marine waters: Atlantic menhaden, B. tyrannus; Gulf menhaden, B. patronus; yellowfin menhaden. B. smithi; and finescale menhaden, B. gunteri. Three of the menhaden species are known to form two hybrid types. Members of the genus range from coastal waters of Veracruz, Mex., to Nova Scotia, Can. Atlantic and Gulf menhaden are extremely abundant within their respective ranges and support extensive purse-seine reduction...

  7. Atlantic menhaden adult tagging study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  8. Atlantic menhaden processing plant test tagging data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  9. Evaluation of the brine disposal from the West Hackberry site: The regional impact on menhaden resources: Final report: Volume 1, Chapters 1-8, Addenda 1-2. [Brevoortia patronus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condrey, R.E.; Turner, R.E.; Rouse, L.J. Jr.; Shaw, R.F.; Wiseman, W.J. Jr.

    1982-11-15

    A complete assessment of the impact of brine discharge from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve project on the menhaden fishery of the Gulf of Mexico requires an understanding of the distribution of menhaden eggs and larvae over the Louisiana shelf as well as a knowledge of the mechanisms that transport the larvae into the estuaries. This study identifies sources of menhaden eggs and larvae and determines the processes controlling larval transport and distribution across the shelf and into the estuaries. (ACR)

  10. Impaired Corneal Sensation and Nerve Loss in a Type 2 Rat Model of Chronic Diabetes Is Reversible With Combination Therapy of Menhaden Oil, α-Lipoic Acid, and Enalapril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric P; Coppey, Lawrence J; Shevalye, Hanna; Obrosov, Alexander; Kardon, Randy H; Yorek, Mark A

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of monotherapy versus combination of menhaden oil, α-lipoic acid, and enalapril on corneal sensation and morphometry and other neuropathy-related endpoints in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 12 weeks) were fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks followed by 30 mg/kg streptozotocin. After 16 weeks of hyperglycemia, 12-week treatments consisting of menhaden oil, α-lipoic acid, enalapril, or their combination were initiated. Before and after treatments, we performed analyses of multiple neural and vascular endpoints including corneal sensitivity, corneal nerve density, vascular reactivity of epineurial arterioles, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, intraepidermal nerve fiber density, and thermal nociception. Before treatment, all the neural and vascular endpoints in diabetic rats were impaired. Treating diabetic rats with monotherapy was effective in improving neural and vascular deficits with menhaden oil being most efficacious. However, the combination therapy provided the greatest benefit and improved/reversed all nerve and vascular deficits. The effect of combination therapy on corneal relative sensitivity and structure (in mm/mm), primary endpoints for this study, for control, diabetic, and diabetic treated rats was 4.2 ± 1.4 and 7.5 ± 0.5, 12.1 ± 1.3* and 3.8 ± 0.2*, and 6.6 ± 2.3 and 7.3 ± 0.5, respectively (*P < 0.05 compared with control rats; P < 0.05 compared with diabetic rats). These studies suggest that a combination therapeutic approach may be most effective for treating vascular and neural complications of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Understanding Gulf War Illness: An Integrative Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    high-order diffusion imaging in a rat model of Gulf War Illness. §These authors contributed equally to the work. Brain Behavior and Immunity. pii...astrocyte specific transcriptome responses to neurotoxicity. §These authors contributed equally to the work. Submitted for Internal CDC-NIOSH...Antagonist: Evaluation of Beneficial Effects for Gulf War Illness 4) GW160116 (Nathanson) Genomics approach to find gender specific mechanisms of GWI

  12. Economic Modeling of Residual Generation for the Lingayen Gulf Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas McGlone

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Philippines is one of four countries involved in the Southeast Asian core project of LOICZ (Land Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone which has among its general goals the determination of how changes in human activities affect the fluxes of materials between land, sea, and atmosphere through the coastal zone. The economic component of the Philippine project addresses the question: “How does a change in economic activity affect coastal waters?” Of particular concern is the introduction of anthropogenically-derived residuals (N, P, C, SS into coastal waters. A regional input-output (IO model for Region 1 of the Philippines has been developed to estimate how projected changes in economic activity may affect residual flows into Lingayen Gulf. A residual coefficient matrix, derived from information obtained with a rapid assessment model (RA of residual generation in the Lingayen Gulf watershed, has been incorporated into the IO model. Such a model allows for analysis of various economic scenarios for the region, with projections of residual generation as the output. The resulting changes in residual flows may then serve as inputs to biogeochemical models of Lingayen Gulf. From this process, the impact of various economic scenarios on the water quality of Lingayen Gulf may be ascertained.This paper discusses and compares the RA and IO models of residual generation for the Lingayen Gulf watershed and provides examples of the scenario analysis process.

  13. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - II. Model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Yu, Yunke

    2010-01-01

    In the second part of this two-part article on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, we estimate the number of committed assets in water depth less than 1000 ft that are expected to be marginal over a 60-year time horizon. We compute the expected quantity and value of the production and gross revenue streams of the gulf's committed asset inventory circa. January 2007 using a probabilistic model framework. Cumulative hydrocarbon production from the producing inventory is estimated to be 1056 MMbbl oil and 13.3 Tcf gas. Marginal production from the committed asset inventory is expected to contribute 4.1% of total oil production and 5.4% of gas production. A meta-evaluation procedure is adapted to present the results of sensitivity analysis. Model results are discussed along with a description of the model framework and limitations of the analysis. (author)

  14. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - II. Model results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Yu, Yunke [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    In the second part of this two-part article on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, we estimate the number of committed assets in water depth less than 1000 ft that are expected to be marginal over a 60-year time horizon. We compute the expected quantity and value of the production and gross revenue streams of the gulf's committed asset inventory circa. January 2007 using a probabilistic model framework. Cumulative hydrocarbon production from the producing inventory is estimated to be 1056 MMbbl oil and 13.3 Tcf gas. Marginal production from the committed asset inventory is expected to contribute 4.1% of total oil production and 5.4% of gas production. A meta-evaluation procedure is adapted to present the results of sensitivity analysis. Model results are discussed along with a description of the model framework and limitations of the analysis. (author)

  15. Model outputs - Developing end-to-end models of the Gulf of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the northern Gulf of California, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  16. Modeling of air currents in the Gulf Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Foster, C.S.; Foster, K.T.; Baskett, R.L.; Nasstrom, J.S.; Schalk, W.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability modeled the wind flow in the Gulf Region in order to make projections of the Kuwait oil fires pollution dispersion. Extensive meteorological models incorporating explicit terrain influences to the flow fields were routinely employed through a six month international assessment support effort organized by the World Meteorological Organization and US scientific research agencies. Results show generally close agreement with visible imagery of the smoke plumes as detected by meteorological satellites. However, there are some examples of significant disagreement or failure of the meteorological models. These failures are most likely directly linked to missing or unavailable weather observations

  17. The Ancillary Harvest of Atlantic Menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, Roe on the North Carolina Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Joseph W.; Ahrenholz, Dean W.

    2000-01-01

    Gravid Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, are available along the central coast of North Carolina during the fall and are harvested by the purse-seine fleet from the port of Beaufort. Virtually all of the catch, sexually immature fish included, is reduces to fish meal, fish oil, and fish solubles; however, minor quantities of roe from ripening female menhaden are extracted for local consupmtion. Routine and selective port sampling information was used to characterize the seasonal and bio...

  18. Sieving functional morphology of the gill raker feeding apparatus of atlantic menhaden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Kevin D; Ahrenholz, Dean W; Smith, Joseph W; Manning, Maureen; Ryan, Julia

    2006-12-01

    Menhaden occupy an important position in estuarine food webs, thus the rate processes associated with their feeding are critical to the ecosystem management of fishery and ecological resources. Atlantic menhaden feed on a wide range of plankton, the size and food quality of which change ontogenetically. We analyzed the functional morphology of the menhaden feeding apparatus in a size series of menhaden representative of juveniles and the adult migratory stock. The physical dimensions of gill arches and rakers increased isometrically with fish length; however, branchiospinule spacing, the dimension that forms the sieve apertures of the branchial basket, scaled allometrically with fish length. Juvenile menhaden from North Carolina have branchiospinule spacings that averaged 12 microm, with three arch subsections of average spacing < 10 microm. Spacings did not increase with juvenile growth until the first allometric inflection point at approximately 100 mm fork length (FL). Spacing data for juveniles from other locations suggests spacing increases with latitude. Spacings increase with fish length in adults until a second inflection at 200 mm FL, after which spacing averages 37 microm. These data suggest menhaden juveniles filter smaller plankton with higher filtration efficiency than previously considered and that regional recruitment may affect adult distribution through foraging preferences. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Policy Subsystem Portfolio Management: A Neural Network Model of the Gulf of Mexico Program

    OpenAIRE

    Larkin, George Richard

    1999-01-01

    This study provides insights into the behavior of an environmental policy subsystem. The study uses neural network theory to model the Gulf of Mexico Program's allocation of implementation funds. The Gulf of Mexico Program is a prototype effort to institutionalize a policy subsystem. A project implementation fund is at the core of the Gulf of Mexico Program. The United States Environmental Protection Agency provides the implementation fund and the Mexico Program Office (GMPO) administers it. ...

  20. Inter-Comparison of Hydrodynamic Models of Gulf of Khambhat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J SatheeshKumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The complex seabed contours and geometry of basin lead to a unique tidal pattern along India's Gulf of Khambhat (GoK. Estimation of tidal levels and associated currents in this basin is challenging due to the amplification of tides and intense current magnitudes. In this study, the finite difference based numerical model, Delft3D-FLOW has been set up. Spatially varying bottom roughness parameters have been used to estimate the tidal levels and currents for the entire basin and the results are compared with an earlier work of Sathish Kumar and Balaji (2014 and 2015 based on an alternative finite element based numerical model, Telemac2D. An inter-comparison of model results shows good agreement with each other and with the field measurements. The tidal levels are observed to vary from 2m to more than 10m in the narrowing portion of the gulf while the maximum current velocity is seen as 3m/s.

  1. 76 FR 52638 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Assessment Process is a stock assessment report which describes the fisheries, evaluates the status of the stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future population conditions, and recommends research... yellowtail snapper. SUMMARY: The technical stock assessments of the Gulf of Mexico stock of menhaden and the...

  2. Numerical modelling of tides and tidal currents in the Gulf of Kutch

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A

    An application of a two-dimensional tidal model to study the tidal regime in the Gulf of Kutch is made. This is with a view to synthesise various information on tides and currents that are available in the Gulf. A comparison of surface elevations...

  3. Generalized equilibrium modeling: the methodology of the SRI-Gulf energy model. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazalet, E.G.

    1977-05-01

    The report provides documentation of the generalized equilibrium modeling methodology underlying the SRI-Gulf Energy Model and focuses entirely on the philosophical, mathematical, and computational aspects of the methodology. The model is a highly detailed regional and dynamic model of the supply and demand for energy in the US. The introduction emphasized the need to focus modeling efforts on decisions and the coordinated decomposition of complex decision problems using iterative methods. The conceptual framework is followed by a description of the structure of the current SRI-Gulf model and a detailed development of the process relations that comprise the model. The network iteration algorithm used to compute a solution to the model is described and the overall methodology is compared with other modeling methodologies. 26 references.

  4. Northern Gulf 1 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coast Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  5. Northern Gulf 1 Arc-second MHW Coast Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  6. Parameter sensitivity and identifiability for a biogeochemical model of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local sensitivity analyses and identifiable parameter subsets were used to describe numerical constraints of a hypoxia model for bottom waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The sensitivity of state variables differed considerably with parameter changes, although most variables ...

  7. Gas bubble disease mortality of Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, at a coastal nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcello, R.A. Jr.; Fairbanks, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    A substantial mortality of Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, occurred in the discharge channel and discharge plume area of the Boston Edison Company's Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 during the period April 8 through April 24, 1973. Gas bubble disease was implicated as the cause of their death. Measurements of dissolved gas concentration of the station's intake and discharge water during this fish mortality are presented. Observations on the behavior and results of the pathological examination of menhaden afflicted with gas embolism are discussed

  8. Epigenetic Mediation of Endocrine and Immune Response in an Animal Model of Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    epidemiological and animal experimental data that indicate the risk of developing complex diseases is influenced by persistent epigenetic adaptations...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0550 TITLE: Epigenetic Mediation of Endocrine and Immune Response in an Animal Model of Gulf War Illness...Sept 2015-29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Epigenetic Mediation of Endocrine and Immune Response in an Animal Model of Gulf War

  9. Gulf of California species and catch spatial distributions and historical time series - Developing end-to-end models of the Gulf of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the northern Gulf of California, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  10. Statistical Models for Sediment/Detritus and Dissolved Absorption Coefficients in Coastal Waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Rebecca E; Gould, Jr., Richard W; Ko, Dong S

    2008-01-01

    ... (CDOM) absorption coefficients from physical hydrographic and atmospheric properties. The models were developed for northern Gulf of Mexico shelf waters using multi-year satellite and physical data...

  11. Modelling and assessment of the impact of radiocesium and radiostrontium contamination in the Thermaikos Gulf, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleftheriou, G., E-mail: gelefthe@central.ntua.gr [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens (Greece); Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (Greece); Monte, L., E-mail: monte.luigi@fastwebnet.it [ENEA, Roma (Italy); Brittain, J.E. [Natural History Museum, University of Oslo (Norway); Tsabaris, C. [Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (Greece)

    2015-11-15

    A radiological model for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr dispersion in the marine environment of the Thermaikos Gulf, Greece, and the river catchments draining into the Gulf, is presented. The model, developed and implemented within the MOIRA-PLUS decision support system, integrates appropriate site-specific information. The model's performance has been tested using the available empirical {sup 137}Cs activity concentration data in abiotic and biotic components of the gulf since the Chernobyl accident. Further, this paper describes the results of a modelling exercise performed within the IAEA's EMRAS II international modelling programme to estimate the environmental sensitivity of this characteristic Mediterranean coastal marine environment following radioactive contamination. The radiation doses to humans after a single hypothetical instantaneous deposition of 1000 Bq m{sup −2}, assuming that all of their food intake from the marine pathway comes from the local environment, were calculated. The obtained results are consistent with estimates from other models for different coastal marine environments in the frame of the above-mentioned EMRAS exercise. - Highlights: • The Decision Support System (DSS) MOIRA-PLUS was customised to Thermaikos Gulf. • Model results were compared with empirical data to adjust parameter values. • The environmental sensitivity of the Gulf to {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs pollution was assessed. • Radiation doses from marine and fresh water pathways were compared. • The dose from fresh water pathways is notably higher than that from marine pathways.

  12. Modelling and assessment of the impact of radiocesium and radiostrontium contamination in the Thermaikos Gulf, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleftheriou, G.; Monte, L.; Brittain, J.E.; Tsabaris, C.

    2015-01-01

    A radiological model for 137 Cs and 90 Sr dispersion in the marine environment of the Thermaikos Gulf, Greece, and the river catchments draining into the Gulf, is presented. The model, developed and implemented within the MOIRA-PLUS decision support system, integrates appropriate site-specific information. The model's performance has been tested using the available empirical 137 Cs activity concentration data in abiotic and biotic components of the gulf since the Chernobyl accident. Further, this paper describes the results of a modelling exercise performed within the IAEA's EMRAS II international modelling programme to estimate the environmental sensitivity of this characteristic Mediterranean coastal marine environment following radioactive contamination. The radiation doses to humans after a single hypothetical instantaneous deposition of 1000 Bq m −2 , assuming that all of their food intake from the marine pathway comes from the local environment, were calculated. The obtained results are consistent with estimates from other models for different coastal marine environments in the frame of the above-mentioned EMRAS exercise. - Highlights: • The Decision Support System (DSS) MOIRA-PLUS was customised to Thermaikos Gulf. • Model results were compared with empirical data to adjust parameter values. • The environmental sensitivity of the Gulf to 90 Sr and 137 Cs pollution was assessed. • Radiation doses from marine and fresh water pathways were compared. • The dose from fresh water pathways is notably higher than that from marine pathways

  13. Early vs. late intervention of high fat/low dose streptozotocin treated C57Bl/6J mice with enalapril, α-lipoic acid, menhaden oil or their combination: Effect on diabetic neuropathy related endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorek, Matthew S; Obrosov, Alexander; Shevalye, Hanna; Coppey, Lawrence J; Kardon, Randy H; Yorek, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that enalapril, α-lipoic acid and menhaden (fish) oil has potential as a treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. In this study we sought to determine the efficacy of these treatments individually or in combination on multiple neuropathic endpoints in a high fat fed low dose streptozotocin treated mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes, following early or late intervention. Four or twelve weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia, diabetic mice were treated with enalapril, α-lipoic acid, menhaden oil or their combination for 12 weeks. Afterwards, endpoints including glucose tolerance, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal nociception, and intraepidermal and cornea nerve fiber density was determined. Glucose clearance was impaired in diabetic mice and significantly improved only with combination treatment and early intervention. Diabetes caused steatosis, slowing of motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal hypoalgesia and reduction in intraepidermal and cornea nerve fiber density. Treating diabetic mice with enalapril, α-lipoic acid or menhaden oil partially protected diabetic mice from these deficits, whereas the combination of these three treatments was more efficacious following early or late intervention. These studies suggest that a combination therapy may be more effective for treating neural complications of type 2 diabetes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Modelling the temporal and spatial distribution of ecological variables in Beibu Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H.; Huang, L.; Yang, S.; Shi, D.; Pan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Beibu Gulf is an important semi-enclosed gulf located in northern South China Sea. It is rich in natural resources and its coastal rim is undergoing a rapid economic growth in recent years. Study on the spatial and temporal distribution of ecological variables by the influence of physical and biological processes in Beibu Gulf can provide the theoretical basis for the utilization of resources and environmental protection. Based on the MEC three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model was applied to simulate the distribution of ecological variables in Beibu Gulf. The result shows that the ecosystem in Beibu Gulf is significantly influenced by dynamic conditions. In autumn and winter, great amount of nutrient-rich water from western Guangdong coastal area passes through Qiongzhou Strait and flows into Beibu Gulf, with about 108.3×103 t of inorganic nitrogen and 3.7×103 t of phosphate annually, leading to phytoplankton bloom. In summer, most of the nutrients come from rivers so high concentrations of nutrients and chlorophyll-a appear on estuaries. The annual net nutrient inputs from South China Sea into Beibu Gulf are 66.6×103 t for inorganic nitrogen and 4.6×103 t for phosphate. Phytoplankton plays an important role in nutrients' refreshment: a) Absorption by the process of photosynthesis is the biggest nutrient sink. b) Cellular release from dead phytoplankton is the biggest source in inorganic budget, making up for 33.4% of nitrogen consumed by photosynthesis while the process of respiration is the biggest source in phosphate budget, making up for 32.4% of phosphorus consumed by photosynthesis. c) Mineralization from detritus is also a considerable supplement of inorganic nutrients. Overall, biological process has more influence than physical process on the nutrient cycle budget in Beibu Gulf. The comparison of the result with remote sensing and in-situ data indicates that the model is able to simulate the

  15. Gulf Cooperation Council: Arabia's model of integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaibi, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    This study is an analysis of the foundations and emergence in 1981 of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which consists of six traditional Arab Gulf states (the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, and Kuwait). It finds the GCC to be a unique case among twentieth-century integrative schemes. The study also identifies and analyzes relevant local, regional, and international forces. Among the local forces are traditional religio-political systems, economic dependence on a depletable resource, and the presence of a large number of foreign residents. On the regional level, this study takes into consideration such issues as the Arab League, Arab Nationalism, and the Islamic revolutionary movement in Iran. On the international level, the influence of the superpowers and the major industrialized nations on the emergence and future of the GCC Community are analyzed. Throughout the past decade there has been a growing scholarly interest in the Gulf region. In preparation for this study, the author relied heavily on the literature generated by this new research, as well as on documents and official publications, mostly in Arabic. A survey was conducted among a limited number of GCC graduate students during the summer of 1983. In addition, interviews with selected members of the GCC Secretariat-General and various member-state officials were conducted during a research trip in the region in the spring of 1984.

  16. PCB modeling in the Gulf of Lions using a 3D coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Tixier, Céline; Tronczynski, Jacek; Garreau, Pierre; Verney, Romaric; Carlotti, Francois; Espinasse, Boris; Queguiner, Bernard; Baklouti, Melika

    2013-04-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chlorinated organic compounds, which were widely used in many industrial materials. These compounds are persistent, bioaccumulable and toxic for living organisms. The riverine and atmospheric fluxes are the major routes of entry for these chemicals into marine ecosystems, where they are now embedded in natural biogeochemical cycles (Lohmann et al. 2007). Because of bioaccumulation and biomagnification processes in food webs, even nowadays, these compounds may attain dangerous concentration levels especially in the top predators including marine mammals. The contamination of marine biota by PCBs in Mediterranean has also become a matter of concern as the concentrations in some species are at levels putting them at risk for significant biological effects. This may pose potential human health risks in commercial edible species (Carpenter 2006). Planktonic populations play a key role in the trophic food webs in marine ecosystems by the mobilisation and transfer of energy and organic matter towards higher trophic levels. This work aims at a better understanding of the role of plankton in the transfer of PCBs to higher trophic levels in the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean) by coupling of biogeochemical, ecological and hydrodynamical processes. Modeling is a powerful tool for coupling processes of different disciplines and scales. The recent development of 3D hydrodynamic, hydrosedimentary and biogeochemical models in the Mediterranean (André et al, 2005,2009, Ulses et al, 2008, Dufois et al, 2008, Auger et al, 2011), enables feasibility testing of coupling these models with transfer processes of chemical contaminants. The lack of detailed observations in the sea and the significant uncertainty on contaminants inputs prevent from a proper validation of such modeling tests. However, these tools are very useful to assess the influence of fast processes on the transfer of contaminants to bioaccumulative species. Sensitivity analysis

  17. Modeling the Seasonal and Interannual Variability of the Northern Gulf of California Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Schwartzlose (1979), Masas de agua del Golfo de California , Cienc. Mar., 6, 43–63. Argote, M. L., A. Amador, M. F. Lavı’n, and J. R. Hunter (1995...Modeling the seasonal and interannual variability of the northern Gulf of California salinity Luis Zamudio,1 E. Joseph Metzger,2 and Patrick Hogan2...salinity in the northern Gulf of California (NGOC). Previous studies illustrate that the NGOC is characterized by an annual evaporation of ∼0.9 m/yr

  18. Modelling tide-driven currents and residual eddies in the Gulf of Kachchh and their seasonal variability: A marine environmental planning perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.; Desa, E.

    -monsoon transition. Irregular topography of the western gulf slows down the tidal wave propagation and induces a phase shift. Tidal residual currents computed from the model results exhibit the presence of three eddies in the western gulf. The tide...

  19. Thermohaline structure of an inverse estuary - The Gulf of Kachchh: Measurements and model simulations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Ramanamurty, M.V.; Saran, A.K.; Joseph, A.; Sudheesh, K.; Patgaonkar, R.S.; Jayakumar, S.

    K thermohaline structure and its variability, based on field measurements and model simulations. Though GoK is considered as a well-mixed system, the study reveals that only the central Gulf is well mixed. Vertical gradients in temperature and salinity fields...

  20. Modelling of PCB trophic transfer in the Gulf of Lions; 3D coupled model application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Thouvenin, Benedicte; Tronczynsky, Jacek; Carlotti, Francois; Garreau, Pierre; Tixier, Celine; Baklouti, Melika

    2017-04-01

    This work aims at assessing the role of plankton in the transfer of PCBs to higher trophic levels in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea) using a 3D modelling approach, which is coupling biogeochemical and hydrodynamical processes and taking into account the physical-chemical properties of PCBs. Transport of various PCB species were simulated during one year: total dissolved, freely dissolved, particulate, biosorbed on plankton, assimilated by zooplankton. PCB budgets and fluxes into the Gulf of Lions between various species were governed by different processes, such as: adsorption/desorption, bacteria and plankton mortality, zooplankton excretion, grazing, mineralization, volatilization and biodegradation. CB153 (2,2',4,4',5,5' hexachlorobiphényle) congener have been considered in the model, since it presents a large amount of PCB among the other congeners in the environment of the Gulf of Lions. At first, the simulated PCBs distributions within particulate matter and plankton were compared with available in-situ measurements (COSTAS and Merlumed field campaigns) performed in the Gulf of Lions. Two size classes of plankton X (60μ m

  1. Study of Sediment Transportation in the Gulf of Kachchh, using 3D Hydro-dynamic Model Simulation and Satellite Data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.

    friction boundary, discharge from river boundary and Gulf-open ocean (open) boundary are defined and used. Programs constituting the COSMOS model were executed along with initial input cards to simulate the model using an Alpher mini-computer system...

  2. Thermohaline structure of an inverse estuary--The Gulf of Kachchh: measurements and model simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vethamony, P; Babu, M T; Ramanamurty, M V; Saran, A K; Joseph, Antony; Sudheesh, K; Padgaonkar, Rupali S; Jayakumar, S

    2007-06-01

    The Gulf of Kachchh (GoK) is situated in the northeastern Arabian Sea. The presence of several industries along its coastal belt makes GoK a highly sensitive coastal ecosystem. In the present study, an attempt is made for the first time to study GoK thermohaline structure and its variability, based on field measurements and model simulations. Though GoK is considered as a well-mixed system, the study reveals that only the central Gulf is well mixed. Vertical gradients in temperature and salinity fields are noticed in the eastern Gulf, where a cold and high saline tongue is observed in the subsurface layers. Salinity indicates the characteristic feature of an inverse estuary with low values (37.20 psu) near the mouth and high values (>40.0 psu) near the head of the Gulf. The model simulated temperature and salinity fields exhibit semidiurnal oscillations similar to that of field observations. Model results show cold, high saline waters advecting from the east during ebb forming a transition zone, which oscillates with tides. A high salinity tongue is seen in the bottom layer, indicating a westward flowing bottom current. The transient zone acts as an dynamic barrier, and plays a vital role in the pollutant transport.

  3. Improved Hypoxia Modeling for Nutrient Control Decisions in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Pickering, Ken; Tzortziou, Maria; Maninio, Antonio; Policelli, Fritz; Stehr, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Modeling Framework is a suite of coupled models linking the deposition and transport of sediment and nutrients to subsequent bio-geo chemical processes and the resulting effect on concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the coastal waters of Louisiana and Texas. Here, we examine the potential benefits of using multiple NASA remote sensing data products within this Modeling Framework for increasing the accuracy of the models and their utility for nutrient control decisions in the Gulf of Mexico. Our approach is divided into three components: evaluation and improvement of (a) the precipitation input data (b) atmospheric constituent concentrations in EPA's air quality/deposition model and (c) the calculation of algal biomass, organic carbon and suspended solids within the water quality/eutrophication models of the framework.

  4. 29 CFR 1917.73 - Terminal facilities handling menhaden and similar species of fish (see also § 1917.2, definition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terminal facilities handling menhaden and similar species of fish (see also § 1917.2, definition of hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917... facilities handling menhaden and similar species of fish (see also § 1917.2, definition of hazardous cargo...

  5. Modeling lost production from destroyed platforms in the 2004-2005 Gulf of Mexico hurricane seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Yu, Yunke; Jablonowski, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes Ivan, Katrina, and Rita passed through the Gulf of Mexico during 2004 and 2005 and resulted in the largest number of destroyed and damaged offshore oil and gas structures in the history of Gulf operations. In the final official government assessment, a total of 126 platforms were destroyed and over 183 structures were identified as having extensive damage. Production associated with wells and structures that are not redeveloped are classified as lost. The purpose of this paper is to derive functional relations that describe the likely contribution the collection of destroyed assets would have made to future production in the Gulf of Mexico. We estimate that the total remaining reserves from the set of destroyed structures range in value between 1.3 and 4.5 billion depending on the assumptions employed. We summarize the impact of the storms on the Gulf of Mexico oil and gas infrastructure and discuss the main issues involved in redevelopment decision making. A meta-model analytic framework is applied to perform sensitivity analysis and to explore the interactions of assumptions on model output. A discussion of the limitations of the analysis is presented. (author)

  6. Modeling lost production from destroyed platforms in the 2004-2005 Gulf of Mexico hurricane seasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Yu, Yunke [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Energy Coast and Environment Building, Nicholson Extension Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Jablonowski, Christopher J. [Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0300, Austin, TX 78712-0228 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Hurricanes Ivan, Katrina, and Rita passed through the Gulf of Mexico during 2004 and 2005 and resulted in the largest number of destroyed and damaged offshore oil and gas structures in the history of Gulf operations. In the final official government assessment, a total of 126 platforms were destroyed and over 183 structures were identified as having extensive damage. Production associated with wells and structures that are not redeveloped are classified as lost. The purpose of this paper is to derive functional relations that describe the likely contribution the collection of destroyed assets would have made to future production in the Gulf of Mexico. We estimate that the total remaining reserves from the set of destroyed structures range in value between 1.3 and 4.5 billion depending on the assumptions employed. We summarize the impact of the storms on the Gulf of Mexico oil and gas infrastructure and discuss the main issues involved in redevelopment decision making. A meta-model analytic framework is applied to perform sensitivity analysis and to explore the interactions of assumptions on model output. A discussion of the limitations of the analysis is presented. (author)

  7. Reducing Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Lessons from Simple and Complex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justic, D.; Fertitta, D. A.; Wang, L.

    2016-02-01

    Gulf hypoxia has received considerable scientific and policy attention because of its large size (up to 22,000 square km), potential ecological and economic effects, and the need to understand the implications of various nutrient management strategies in the large Mississippi River watershed. Over the past 20 years, a number of different models have been developed to simulate the severity and areal extent of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and to predict the consequences of management actions. The models range from simple statistical models to complex three-dimensional fully coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical models. The size and the complexity of these models have been steadily increasing due to developments in computer technology and computational techniques, and also in response to new scientific paradigms that have emerged over time forcing modelers to broaden the scope of their original models. We presentan overview of hypoxia models developed for the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone and discuss the lessons learned, and some fundamental differences between simple and complex models in evaluating the effectiveness of nutrient management strategies for reducing hypoxia.

  8. Modeling of PCB trophic transfer in the Gulf of Lions; 3D coupled model application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, E; Thouvenin, B; Tronczyński, J; Carlotti, F; Garreau, P; Tixier, C; Baklouti, M

    2018-03-01

    3D coupled modeling approach is used for the PCB dispersion assessment in the Gulf of Lion and its transfer to zooplankton via biogeochemical processes. PCB budgets and fluxes between the different species of PCB: dissolved, particulate, biosorbed on plankton, assimilated by zooplankton, which are governed by different processes: adsorption/desorption, bacteria and plankton mortality, zooplankton excretion, grazing, mineralization, volatilization have been estimated. Model outputs were compared with the available in situ data. It was found that the Rhone River outflows play an important role in the organism contamination in the coastal zone, whereas the atmospheric depositions are rather more important in the offshore zones. The transfer of the available contaminant to bacteria and phytoplankton species is mainly related to the biomass present in the water column. Absorption fluxes (grazing) to zooplankton are rather higher than the passive sorption fluxes, which are themselves also linked to the sorption coefficient. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - I. Historical statistics and model framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Experts may disagree on when world oil production will peak, but there is general agreement that marginal fields will contribute a greater percentage of world supply in the future. As fields mature and operations transition into the later stages of their production cycle, decreasing revenue streams, higher operating costs, and fewer upside opportunities lead to declining profitability. Eventually, all properties are abandoned when cost exceeds the revenue of production. In this two-part paper on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, the number of marginal structures in the gulf and their expected contribution to future production is forecast using established economic models. In Part 1, a historical perspective on producing assets is provided and the inventory of committed assets is modeled and categorized. We operationalize the definition of marginal production based on a structure's economic limit. The model framework to identify marginal assets in the Gulf of Mexico is discussed and a step-by-step description of the methodology is provided. In Part 2, the results of the model are described. (author)

  10. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - I. Historical statistics and model framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J. [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Experts may disagree on when world oil production will peak, but there is general agreement that marginal fields will contribute a greater percentage of world supply in the future. As fields mature and operations transition into the later stages of their production cycle, decreasing revenue streams, higher operating costs, and fewer upside opportunities lead to declining profitability. Eventually, all properties are abandoned when cost exceeds the revenue of production. In this two-part paper on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, the number of marginal structures in the gulf and their expected contribution to future production is forecast using established economic models. In Part 1, a historical perspective on producing assets is provided and the inventory of committed assets is modeled and categorized. We operationalize the definition of marginal production based on a structure's economic limit. The model framework to identify marginal assets in the Gulf of Mexico is discussed and a step-by-step description of the methodology is provided. In Part 2, the results of the model are described. (author)

  11. Modeling and investigation of Gulf El-Zayt wind farm for stability studying during extreme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Noureldeen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of extreme gust wind as a case of wind speed variation on a wind farm interconnected electrical grid. The impact of extreme gust wind speed variation on active and reactive power of the wind farms is studied for variable speed wind farm equipped with Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs. A simulation model of the under implementation 120 MW wind farm at Gulf El-Zayt region, Red Sea, Egypt, is simulated as a case study. A detailed model of extreme gust wind speed variation is implemented and simulated, using MATLAB/Simulink toolbox, based on International Electrotechnical Commission IEC 61400-1 and climate characteristic of Gulf El-Zayt site. The simulation results show the influence of different extreme gust wind speed variations on the fluctuation of active power and reactive power at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC of the studied wind farm.

  12. Meso- and Micro-scale flow modelling in the Gulf of Suez, Arab Republic of Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Frank, Helmut Paul

    2003-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 10-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez are presented. The primary purpose has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity producing wind-turbine installations......; a secondary purpose has been to evaluate the applicability of current wind resource estimation and siting tools – in particular the European Wind Atlas methodology – to this region where the meso-scale effects are pronounced and the climatic conditions (e.g. atmospheric stability) somewhat extreme. The wind...... data are analyzed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The Karlsruhe Atmospheric Meso-scale Model (KAMM) has been used to model the wind flow as well as to establish the magnitude and spatial variation of the wind resource in the Gulf of Suez – based on the NCEP/NCAR global...

  13. Lagrangian velocity statistics of directed launch strategies in a Gulf of Mexico model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toner

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial dependence of Lagrangian displacement and velocity statistics is studied in the context of a data assimilating numerical model of the Gulf Mexico. In the active eddy region of the Western Gulf, a combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian measures are used to locate strongly hyperbolic regions of the flow. The statistics of the velocity field sampled by sets of drifters launched specifically in these hyperbolic regions are compared to those produced by randomly chosen launch sites. The results show that particle trajectories initialized in hyperbolic regions preferentially sample a broader range of Eulerian velocities than do members of ensembles of randomly launched drifters. The velocity density functions produced by the directed launches compare well with Eulerian velocity pdfs. Implications for the development of launch strategies to improve Eulerian velocity field reconstruction from drifter data are discussed.

  14. Analysis of Circulation Patterns in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, Simulated with a High-Resolution Hydrodynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea is a long, estuary-like sea area that is a direct continuation of the Baltic Proper. Short-term surface circulation in the gulf is mainly wind driven. The stability of currents varies from season to season. The relatively large freshwater input from the eastern end and the more saline deep water flow from the main basin at the western end maintain horizontal density gradients. We studied circulation patterns in the gulf with a high-resolution 3D hydrodynamic model setup. The configuration was based on the NEMO model and had 0.25 NM horizontal resolution and vertical resolution of 1 m. Our multi-year simulation revealed high year to year variability in the circulation. The persistency of currents in the Gulf of Finland is known to be low, with high variability in time and space. This was clearly demonstrated by our results. Processes affecting circulation patterns were analysed. These included upwelling-related alongshore currents. Several strong upwelling related coastal currents were present in the results on both northern and southern coast of the Gulf. The effect of wind forcing on the circulation in the gulf was also considered. We analysed wind forcing and found that annual differences contributed to the modelled circulation patterns.

  15. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic): Atlantic Menhaden

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    saltatrix), striped bass (Morone and survival was poor at 6 ’C in saxatilis), bluefin tuna ( Thunnus freshwater (Lewis 1966). The effect thynnus ), and...Morone saxatilis), and bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus ). The Atlantic menhaden is associated with estuarine and nearshore systems d--g- ll phases of its life

  16. Integration of numerical modeling and observations for the Gulf of Naples monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iermano, I.; Uttieri, M.; Zambianchi, E.; Buonocore, B.; Cianelli, D.; Falco, P.; Zambardino, G.

    2012-04-01

    Lethal effects of mineral oils on fragile marine and coastal ecosystems are now well known. Risks and damages caused by a maritime accident can be reduced with the help of better forecasts and efficient monitoring systems. The MED project TOSCA (Tracking Oil Spills and Coastal Awareness Network), which gathers 13 partners from 4 Mediterranean countries, has been designed to help create a better response system to maritime accidents. Through the construction of an observational network, based on state of the art technology (HF radars and drifters), TOSCA provides real-time observations and forecasts of the Mediterranean coastal marine environmental conditions. The system is installed and assessed in five test sites on the coastal areas of oil spill outlets (Eastern Mediterranean) and on high traffic areas (Western Mediterranean). The Gulf of Naples, a small semi-closed basin opening to the Tyrrhenian Sea is one of the five test-sites. It is of particular interest from both the environmental point of view, due to peculiar ecosystem properties in the area, and because it sustains important touristic and commercial activities. Currently the Gulf of Naples monitoring network is represented by five automatic weather stations distributed along the coasts of the Gulf, one weather radar, two tide gauges, one waverider buoy, and moored physical, chemical and bio-optical instrumentation. In addition, a CODAR-SeaSonde HF coastal radar system composed of three antennas is located in Portici, Massa Lubrense and Castellammare. The system provides hourly data of surface currents over the entire Gulf with a 1km spatial resolution. A numerical modeling implementation based on Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is actually integrated in the Gulf of Naples monitoring network. ROMS is a 3-D, free-surface, hydrostatic, primitive equation, finite difference ocean model. In our configuration, the model has high horizontal resolution (250m), and 30 sigma levels in the vertical. Thanks

  17. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Central Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  18. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Western Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  19. Tectonoestratigraphic and Thermal Models of the Tiburon and Wagner Basins, northern Gulf of California Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J.; Ramirez Zerpa, N. A.; Negrete-Aranda, R.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Gulf of California Rift System consist sofa series faults that accommodate both normal and strike-slip motion. The faults formed a series of half-greens filled with more than 7 km of siliciclastic suc­cessions. Here, we present tectonostratigraphic and heat flow models for the Tiburón basin, in the southern part of the system, and the Wag­ner basin in the north. The models are constrained by two-dimensional seis­mic lines and by two deep boreholes drilled by PEMEX­-PEP. Analysis of the seismic lines and models' results show that: (i) subsidence of the basins is controlled by high-angle normal faults and by flow of the lower crust, (ii) basins share a common history, and (iii) there are significant differences in the way brittle strain was partitioned in the basins, a feature frequently observed in rift basins. On one hand, the bounding faults of the Tiburón basin have a nested geometry and became active following a west-to-east sequence of activation. The Tiburon half-graben was formed by two pulses of fault activity. One took place during the protogulf extensional phase in the Miocene and the other during the opening of Gulf of California in the Pleistocene. On the other hand, the Wagner basin is the result of two fault generations. During the late-to middle Miocene, the west-dipping Cerro Prieto and San Felipe faults formed a domino array. Then, during the Pleistocene the Consag and Wagner faults dissected the hanging-wall of the Cerro Prieto fault forming the modern Wagner basin. Thermal modeling of the deep borehole temperatures suggests that the heat flow in these basins in the order of 110 mW/m2 which is in agreement with superficial heat flow measurements in the northern Gulf of California Rift System.

  20. Opening of the Aden Gulf Ridge Derived from GPS Constraints and Plate Tectonic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S.; Alothman, A.; Al-Aydrus, A.; Khalil, H.; Ahmed, A.; Khanbari, K.; Bos, M. S.; Nicolon, P.; Heydel, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Aden Gulf Ridge forms, together with the Red Sea and the Ethiopian Rift, the only emerged RRR-type (Ridge/Ridge/Ridge) triple junction in the globe: the Afar Triple Junction. The Aden Gulf Ridge defines the boundary between two major tectonic blocks: Arabia and Somalia, being Nubia the third unit in the triple junction (bordering Arabia along the Red Sea and Somalia along the Ethiopian Rift). Although the extensional behaviour of these structures are well known, the present-day magnitudes of their opening rates are still under evaluation, in particular for the opening rate between the Arabia and Somalia plates. This work uses GPS observations acquired in campaign and continuous mode in order to better constrain the opening rates of the three plate boundaries. For the Nubia-Arabia and Nubia-Somalia boundary plates, we use solely the velocity predictions given by our computed angular velocity models using the available continuous stations in Nubia, Somalia and Arabia. The available data set is augmented here with several stations in Saudi Arabia, which allow us to better constrain the angular velocity for the stable part of the Arabia plate. We estimate the angular velocity model with respect to ITRF2008 (the latest realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System) using the value of 2.5 years (although most of the stations have already a significantly longer time-series) as threshold data span for the processed time-series. Temporal correlations are used to properly estimate the uncertainty of the time-series and derived angular velocity model. In addition, to study the near-field in the Aden Gulf, data acquired in denser campaign networks in Yemen and Oman are used to also directly compute the extension rate in the Red Sea. We show that most of the Arabian Peninsula is stable (within the uncertainties) but the southwest part (Yemen) is influenced by the proximity with the Afar Triple Junction.

  1. CMS: Simulated Physical-Biogeochemical Data, SABGOM Model, Gulf of Mexico, 2005-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains monthly mean ocean surface physical and biogeochemical data for the Gulf of Mexico simulated by the South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico...

  2. Installation process of suction anchors in Gulf of Guinea clay : Centrifuge modelling

    OpenAIRE

    THOREL, Luc; GARNIER, Jacques; RAULT, Gérard; DENDANI, Hédi; COLLIAT, JL

    2010-01-01

    The preparation process of a deepwater Gulf of Guinea clay for modelling of 24 m long suction anchors at a scale of 1/100 in the LCPC centrifuge, the clay characteristics and the installation phase (self-weight and suction) are presented. Two types of caissons have been tested in each tub : one with stiffeners and the other without stiffener. The embedment ratio is close to the suction caisson's slenderness of 3. An analysis of the forces of suction and soil friction shows, as expected, hi...

  3. Tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Gulf of Cadiz: fault model and recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Matias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Cadiz, as part of the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary, is recognized as a potential source of big earthquakes and tsunamis that may affect the bordering countries, as occurred on 1 November 1755. Preparing for the future, Portugal is establishing a national tsunami warning system in which the threat caused by any large-magnitude earthquake in the area is estimated from a comprehensive database of scenarios. In this paper we summarize the knowledge about the active tectonics in the Gulf of Cadiz and integrate the available seismological information in order to propose the generation model of destructive tsunamis to be applied in tsunami warnings. The fault model derived is then used to estimate the recurrence of large earthquakes using the fault slip rates obtained by Cunha et al. (2012 from thin-sheet neotectonic modelling. Finally we evaluate the consistency of seismicity rates derived from historical and instrumental catalogues with the convergence rates between Eurasia and Nubia given by plate kinematic models.

  4. Application of Thermal Modelling for Geochemical Characterization of Gadvan Formation, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Vaezian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the this research, the hydrocarbon generation potential of the Gadvan Formation as a probable source rock was investigated in the central part of the Persian Gulf at the borders of Iran. Type and maturity level of kerogen were investigated in six wells using the results of Rock-Eval pyrolysis and compared with results yielded by the modelling software program known as Pars Basin Modeler (PBM. The cross-plot of hydrogen index (HI versus maximum temperature suggests that the Gadvan Formation reached early to mid-maturity stages in the studied area, which means that it could act as a gas prone source rock. Furthermore, the burial and thermal history of the Gadvan Formation was determined in one well. Two methods, Easy %Ro and time-temperature index (TTI were used for the reconstruction of thermal modelling and studying the thermal maturity level in all of the drilled wells reaching the Gadvan Formation. The results of the TTI and Easy %Ro methods were in good agreement and both of confirmed the results of Rock Eval analysis. An integrated approach using different techniques showed that the Gadvan Formation can be classified as a poor gas bearing source rock in the studied area, while its maturity increases towards the southern parts of the Persian Gulf.

  5. Comparison of soybean oils, gum, and defatted soy flour extract in stabilizing menhaden oil during heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X; Xu, Z; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Losso, J N; King, J M; Godber, J S

    2008-01-01

    Capabilities of crude soy oil, degummed oil, gum, and defatted soy flour extract in preventing the oxidation of menhaden oil and its omega-3 fatty acids, DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), during heating were evaluated. The menhaden oil mixed with defatted soy flour extract demonstrated the greatest stability by producing the lowest TBA reactive oxidation products and retaining the highest concentrations of DHA and EPA after heating at 150 degrees C for 30 min. A range of 62.8% to 71.5% of DHA and 67.7% to 75.9% of EPA remained in the fish oil with defatted soy flour extract, while only 29.9% of DHA and 37.2% of EPA were retained in the fish oil with no addition. Stabilizing capability from highest to lowest was defatted flour extract > gum > degummed oil = crude oil. The defatted flour extract had the highest level of total phenolic content (11.3 microg catechin equivalent/g), while crude oil, degummed oil, and gum contained 7.1, 6.1, and 6.0 microg catechin equivalent/g, respectively. The level of isoflavones in the defatted soy flour extract was 55 mg/g, which was over 100 times higher than in the crude oil or gum. Although isoflavones were not detected in the degummed oil, it contained the highest level of tocopherols (414 mug/g), whereas the lowest level (215 microg/g) was found in the defatted flour extract. The order of free radical scavenging capability measured from high to low was the defatted soy flour extract, crude oil, degummed oil, and gum.

  6. 3D Gravity Modeling of Complex Salt Features in the Southern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Nava-Flores

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a three-dimensional (3D gravity modeling and inversion approach and its application to complex geological settings characterized by several allochthonous salt bodies embedded in terrigenous sediments. Synthetic gravity data were computed for 3D forward modeling of salt bodies interpreted from Prestack Depth Migration (PSDM seismic images. Density contrasts for the salt bodies surrounded by sedimentary units are derived from density-compaction curves for the northern Gulf of Mexico’s oil exploration surveys. By integrating results from different shape- and depth-source estimation algorithms, we built an initial model for the gravity anomaly inversion. We then applied a numerically optimized 3D simulated annealing gravity inversion method. The inverted 3D density model successfully retrieves the synthetic salt body ensemble. Results highlight the significance of integrating high-resolution potential field data for salt and subsalt imaging in oil exploration.

  7. Ocean modelling and Early-Warning System for the Gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Rego, Joao; Yan, Kun; Sisomphon, Piyamarn; Thanathanphon, Watin; Twigt, Daniel; Irazoqui Apecechea, Maialen

    2017-04-01

    Storm surges associated with severe tropical cyclones are among the most hazardous and damaging natural disasters to coastal areas. The Gulf of Thailand (GoT) has been periodically affected by typhoon induced storm surges in the past (e.g. storm Harriet in 1962, storm Gay in 1989 and storm Linda in 1997). Due to increased touristic / economic development and increased population density in the coastal zone, the combined effect and risk of high water level and increased rainfall / river discharge has dramatically increased and are expected to increase in future due to climate change effects. This presentation describes the development and implementation of the first real-time operational storm surge, wave and wave setup forecasting system in the GoT, a joint applied research initiative by Deltares in The Netherlands and the Hydro and Agro Informatics Institute (HAII) in Thailand. The modelling part includes a new hydrodynamic model to simulate tides and storm surges and two wave models (regional and local). The hydrodynamic model is based on Delft3D Flexible Mesh, capable of simulating water levels and detailed flows. The regional and the recently-developed local wave model are based on the SWAN model, a third-generation wave model. The operational platform is based on Delft-FEWS software, which coordinates all the data inputs, the modelling tasks and the automatic forecast exports including overland inundation in the upper Gulf of Thailand. The main objective of the Gulf of Thailand EWS is to provide daily accurate storm surge, wave and wave setup estimates automatically with various data exports possibilities to support this task. It adds a coastal component to HAII's existing practice of providing daily reports on fluvial flood forecasts, used for decision-support in issuing flood warnings for inland water systems in Thailand. Every day, three-day coastal forecasts are now produced based on the latest regional meteorological predictions. Examples are given to

  8. Modeling of the Foca-Uzunada magnetic anomaly and thermal structure in the gulf of Izmir, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Attila; Bilim, Funda; Cifci, Gunay; Okay, Seda

    2018-05-01

    The Gulf of Izmir (GoI) is one of the largest gulfs in the Aegean Sea, Turkey. There is a large magnetic anomaly extending in the NE-SW direction between Foca and Uzunada (Uzun Island) in the gulf. Previously, Curie Point Depth (CPD), geothermal gradient, heat-flow and radiogenic heat production maps of the onshore part of the Aegean region were constructed from the aeromagnetic data. In this study, the same maps except radiogenic heat production map are presented for the offshore part and the largest magnetic anomaly in the northern part of the gulf is focused, particularly. As a result, the thermal structure of GoI is clearly defined and according to the results of this study, CPD values were found from 7 km in the NE of Foca to 10 km through the south of the gulf. The geothermal gradient values vary between 50 and 80 °C/km. Maximum heat flow values around the anomaly are calculated as 200 and 215 mW/m2 according to the thermal conductivity coefficients of 2.5 W m-1 K-1 and 2.7 W m-1 K-1, respectively. Although the anomaly is located in the Izmir Gulf; CPD, geothermic gradient, heat flow anomalies are shifted through the north of Foca and Aliaga towns in the Candarli Bay. This prominent anomaly in the Gulf of Izmir is associated with the magmatics that were encountered at 969 m in the Foca-1 well although it was drilled about 2 km away from the outermost closed contour of the magnetic anomaly. The anomaly is also modeled three dimensionally (3D) in this study. In the model map, the top of the causative body is completely located in the outer part of the gulf, and is very shallow at about 0.5 km while its bottom is inclined through the west of Cigli and Menemen. From this viewpoint, it is possible to suggest that the causative body is inclined through the Foca Peninsula. However, its closed contours are in the NE direction, through the Candarli Bay. Top depth of the causative body is also calculated from the basement horizon on the seismic sections crossing this

  9. The effect of dietary menhaden, olive, and coconut oil fed with three levels of vitamin E on plasma and liver lipids and plasma fatty acid composition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ali I.; Hussein, Ahmed S.; Bhathena, Sam J.; Hafez, Y S.

    2002-07-01

    The effect of dietary fats with varying degrees of unsaturation in the presence of different concentrations of vitamin E on tissue lipid levels was studied in rats. Rats were fed either menhaden oil, olive oil or coconut oil at 15% levels with either 0.1, 0.3 or 0.6 mg/g of vitamin E as alpha-tocopherol for four weeks. Rat serum and liver were analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipids. In addition, fatty acid composition of serum lipids was also analyzed. Serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol were significantly lower in rats fed menhaden oil than in those fed olive or coconut oil, while the HDL-cholesterol was significantly higher in serum of rats fed menhaden and olive oil than in those fed coconut oil. Levels of vitamin E in the diet had only a significant effect on serum cholesterol and liver phospholipids. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant positive relationship between serum triacylglycerol and total cholesterol, and a negative correlation between triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol, and between total and HDL-cholesterol.In the liver, total cholesterol was significantly higher in rats fed coconut oil than in rats fed menhaden oil. Total liver phospholipids were lower in rats fed either coconut oil or olive oil compared to those fed menhaden oil, especially with higher levels of vitamin E intake. Higher levels of vitamin E in the diet appear to increase triacylglycerol and phospholipids in livers of rats fed menhaden oil. In the liver a significant negative correlation was observed between phospholipids and cholesterol. The type and degree of unsaturation (polyunsaturated fatty acids in menhaden oil, monounsaturated fatty acids in olive oil and saturated fatty acids in coconut oil) significantly affected plasma and tissue lipids.

  10. Forecasting hypoxia in the Chesapeake Bay and Gulf of Mexico: model accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to ecosystem change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Mary Anne; Scavia, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Increasing use of ecological models for management and policy requires robust evaluation of model precision, accuracy, and sensitivity to ecosystem change. We conducted such an evaluation of hypoxia models for the northern Gulf of Mexico and Chesapeake Bay using hindcasts of historical data, comparing several approaches to model calibration. For both systems we find that model sensitivity and precision can be optimized and model accuracy maintained within reasonable bounds by calibrating the model to relatively short, recent 3 year datasets. Model accuracy was higher for Chesapeake Bay than for the Gulf of Mexico, potentially indicating the greater importance of unmodeled processes in the latter system. Retrospective analyses demonstrate both directional and variable changes in sensitivity of hypoxia to nutrient loads.

  11. Forecasting hypoxia in the Chesapeake Bay and Gulf of Mexico: model accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to ecosystem change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Mary Anne; Scavia, Donald, E-mail: mevans@umich.edu, E-mail: scavia@umich.edu [School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Increasing use of ecological models for management and policy requires robust evaluation of model precision, accuracy, and sensitivity to ecosystem change. We conducted such an evaluation of hypoxia models for the northern Gulf of Mexico and Chesapeake Bay using hindcasts of historical data, comparing several approaches to model calibration. For both systems we find that model sensitivity and precision can be optimized and model accuracy maintained within reasonable bounds by calibrating the model to relatively short, recent 3 year datasets. Model accuracy was higher for Chesapeake Bay than for the Gulf of Mexico, potentially indicating the greater importance of unmodeled processes in the latter system. Retrospective analyses demonstrate both directional and variable changes in sensitivity of hypoxia to nutrient loads.

  12. Modeling regulatory policies associated with offshore structure removal requirements in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J. [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Energy Coast and Environment Building, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Federal regulations require that a lease in the Outer Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico be cleared of all structures within one year after production on the lease ceases, but in recent years, the Minerals Management Service has begun to encourage operators to remove idle (non-producing) structures on producing leases that are no longer ''economically viable''. At the end of 2003, there were 2175 producing structures, 898 idle (non-producing) structures, and 440 auxiliary (never-producing) structures on 1356 active leases; and 329 idle structures and 65 auxiliary structures on 273 inactive leases. The purpose of this paper is to model the impact of alternative regulatory policies on the removal trends of structures and the inventory of idle iron, and to provide first-order estimates of the cost of each regulatory option. A description of the modeling framework and implementation results is presented. (author)

  13. High-resolution numerical modelling of the barotropic tides in the Gulf of Gabes, eastern Mediterranean Sea (Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Achref; Béjaoui, Béchir; Chevalier, Cristèle; Elhmaidi, Dalila; Devenon, Jean-Luc; Aleya, Lotfi

    2017-05-01

    A high-resolution 2D barotropic tidal model was developed for the Gulf of Gabes and used to characterise hydrodynamic processes and tidal dynamics. The model is based on the Regional Ocean Modelling System. It is forced at the open boundaries by the semidiurnal M2 and S2 astronomical components while meteorological forcing has been neglected. The model results show good agreement with observations confirming that it reproduces the gulf's main tidal characteristics reasonably well. In fact, the simulated semidiurnal tidal components M2 and S2 generate important sea level variations and coastal currents. Tidal propagation is directed to the gulf's western sector while tidal resonance occurs in its inner sector where the M2 and S2 amplitudes are about 50 and 36 cm, respectively. Phase maxima (170°-185°) are located inside Boughrara Lagoon for both the simulated M2 and S2 tides. The strongest currents are found in shallow coastal regions and at the lagoon's western inlet. During spring tides, currents are around 10-20 cm s-1 in the gulf center and up to 50 cm s-1 inside the lagoon.

  14. Gulf War agent exposure causes impairment of long-term memory formation and neuropathological changes in a mouse model of Gulf War Illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuchra Zakirova

    Full Text Available Gulf War Illness (GWI is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component such as memory deficits, neurological, and musculoskeletal problems. There are ample data that demonstrate that exposure to Gulf War (GW agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB and pesticides such as permethrin (PER, were key contributors to the etiology of GWI post deployment to the Persian GW. In the current study, we examined the consequences of acute (10 days exposure to PB and PER in C57BL6 mice. Learning and memory tests were performed at 18 days and at 5 months post-exposure. We investigated the relationship between the cognitive phenotype and neuropathological changes at short and long-term time points post-exposure. No cognitive deficits were observed at the short-term time point, and only minor neuropathological changes were detected. However, cognitive deficits emerged at the later time point and were associated with increased astrogliosis and reduction of synaptophysin staining in the hippocampi and cerebral cortices of exposed mice, 5 months post exposure. In summary, our findings in this mouse model of GW agent exposure are consistent with some GWI symptom manifestations, including delayed onset of symptoms and CNS disturbances observed in GWI veterans.

  15. Variability in the saline water exchange between the Baltic and the Gulf of Gdansk by the sigma-coordinate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jankowski

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional baroclinic sigma-coordinate model was applied to study the circulation and thermohaline variabilityin the coastal zone in the south-eastern Baltic Sea. The model is based on the Princeton Ocean Model code of Blumberg & Mellor(1987, known as POM, and has the horizontal resolution of ~5 km and 24 sigma-levels in the vertical. The hydrodynamic conditions and variability of water and salt exchange between the Gulf of Gdansk and the Baltic Proper, and the renewal of water masses in the Gulf of Gdansk due to atmospheric forcing are analyzed. The numerical simulations were performed with real atmospheric forcings as well as with homogeneous (spatially uniform wind fields over the whole Baltic Sea. The numerical simulations showed that the atmospheric forcing (winds can play a significant role in shaping the renewal of bottom saline waters in the Gulf of Gdansk. Two regions of inflow/outflow of saline waters responsible for the salinity regime were located. The overall water exchange between the Gulf and the Baltic Proper as well as the exchange of saline bottom waters appear to be strongly dependent on wind conditions. The net flux of water of salinity >9 PSU is of the order of 48000-100000 m3 s-1. SE, E, S and NE winds were foundto exert the greatest influence on salinity conditions in the Gulf of Gdansk. Estimates of saline (salinity >9 PSU water residencetime based on the model simulation yielded values from 46 days for SE winds to 153 days for NW winds.

  16. The Application of Remotely Sensed Data and Models to Benefit Conservation and Restoration Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Thom, Ron; Woodruff, Dana; Judd, Chaeli; Ellis, Jean; Swann, Roberta; Johnson, Hoyt, III

    2010-01-01

    New data, tools, and capabilities for decision making are significant needs in the northern Gulf of Mexico and other coastal areas. The goal of this project is to support NASA s Earth Science Mission Directorate and its Applied Science Program and the Gulf of Mexico Alliance by producing and providing NASA data and products that will benefit decision making by coastal resource managers and other end users in the Gulf region. Data and research products are being developed to assist coastal resource managers adapt and plan for changing conditions by evaluating how climate changes and urban expansion will impact land cover/land use (LCLU), hydrodynamics, water properties, and shallow water habitats; to identify priority areas for conservation and restoration; and to distribute datasets to end-users and facilitating user interaction with models. The proposed host sites for data products are NOAA s National Coastal Data Development Center Regional Ecosystem Data Management, and Mississippi-Alabama Habitat Database. Tools will be available on the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative website with links to data portals to enable end users to employ models and datasets to develop and evaluate LCLU and climate scenarios of particular interest. These data will benefit the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program in ongoing efforts to protect and restore the Fish River watershed and around Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The usefulness of data products and tools will be demonstrated at an end-user workshop.

  17. The Application of Remotely Sensed Data and Models to Benefit Conservation and Restoration Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Thom, R.; Woodruff, D.; Judd, C.; Ellis, J. T.; Swann, R.; Johnson, H., III

    2010-12-01

    New data, tools, and capabilities for decision making are significant needs in the northern Gulf of Mexico and other coastal areas. The goal of this project is to support NASA’s Earth Science Mission Directorate and its Applied Science Program and the Gulf of Mexico Alliance by producing and providing NASA data and products that will benefit decision making by coastal resource managers and other end users in the Gulf region. Data and research products are being developed to assist coastal resource managers adapt and plan for changing conditions by evaluating how climate changes and urban expansion will impact land cover/land use (LCLU), hydrodynamics, water properties, and shallow water habitats; to identify priority areas for conservation and restoration; and to distribute datasets to end-users and facilitating user interaction with models. The proposed host sites for data products are NOAA’s National Coastal Data Development Center Regional Ecosystem Data Management, and Mississippi-Alabama Habitat Database. Tools will be available on the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative website with links to data portals to enable end users to employ models and datasets to develop and evaluate LCLU and climate scenarios of particular interest. These data will benefit the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program in ongoing efforts to protect and restore the Fish River watershed and around Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The usefulness of data products and tools will be demonstrated at an end-user workshop.

  18. Corticosterone primes the neuroinflammatory response to DFP in mice: potential animal model of Gulf War Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, James P; Kelly, Kimberly A; Locker, Alicia R; Miller, Diane B; Lasley, Steve M

    2015-06-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multi-symptom disorder with features characteristic of persistent sickness behavior. Among conditions encountered in the Gulf War (GW) theater were physiological stressors (e.g., heat/cold/physical activity/sleep deprivation), prophylactic treatment with the reversible AChE inhibitor, pyridostigmine bromide (PB), the insect repellent, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), and potentially the nerve agent, sarin. Prior exposure to the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid, corticosterone (CORT), at levels associated with high physiological stress, can paradoxically prime the CNS to produce a robust proinflammatory response to neurotoxicants and systemic inflammation; such neuroinflammatory effects can be associated with sickness behavior. Here, we examined whether CORT primed the CNS to mount neuroinflammatory responses to GW exposures as a potential model of GWI. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with chronic (14 days) PB/ DEET, subchronic (7-14 days) CORT, and acute exposure (day 15) to diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), a sarin surrogate and irreversible AChE inhibitor. DFP alone caused marked brain-wide neuroinflammation assessed by qPCR of tumor necrosis factor-α, IL6, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, IL-1β, leukemia inhibitory factor, and oncostatin M. Pre-treatment with high physiological levels of CORT greatly augmented (up to 300-fold) the neuroinflammatory responses to DFP. Anti-inflammatory pre-treatment with minocycline suppressed many proinflammatory responses to CORT+DFP. Our findings are suggestive of a possible critical, yet unrecognized interaction between the stressor/environment of the GW theater and agent exposure(s) unique to this war. Such exposures may in fact prime the CNS to amplify future neuroinflammatory responses to pathogens, injury, or toxicity. Such occurrences could potentially result in the prolonged episodes of sickness behavior observed in GWI. Gulf War (GW) veterans were exposed to stressors, prophylactic

  19. Assessing the Performance of a Northern Gulf of Mexico Tidal Model Using Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Medeiros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tidal harmonic analysis simulations along with simulations spanning four specific historical time periods in 2003 and 2004 were conducted to test the performance of a northern Gulf of Mexico tidal model. A recently developed method for detecting inundated areas based on integrated remotely sensed data (i.e., Radarsat-1, aerial imagery, LiDAR, Landsat 7 ETM+ was applied to assess the performance of the tidal model. The analysis demonstrates the applicability of the method and its agreement with traditional performance assessment techniques such as harmonic resynthesis and water level time series analysis. Based on the flooded/non-flooded coastal areas estimated by the integrated remotely sensed data, the model is able to adequately reproduce the extent of inundation within four sample areas from the coast along the Florida panhandle, correctly identifying areas as wet or dry over 85% of the time. Comparisons of the tidal model inundation to synoptic (point-in-time inundation areas generated from the remotely sensed data generally agree with the results of the traditional performance assessment techniques. Moreover, this approach is able to illustrate the spatial distribution of model inundation accuracy allowing for targeted refinement of model parameters.

  20. Application of a linked stress release model in Corinth Gulf and Central Ionian Islands (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangira, Ourania; Vasiliadis, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria

    2017-06-01

    Spatio-temporal stress changes and interactions between adjacent fault segments consist of the most important component in seismic hazard assessment, as they can alter the occurrence probability of strong earthquake onto these segments. The investigation of the interactions between adjacent areas by means of the linked stress release model is attempted for moderate earthquakes ( M ≥ 5.2) in the Corinth Gulf and the Central Ionian Islands (Greece). The study areas were divided in two subareas, based on seismotectonic criteria. The seismicity of each subarea is investigated by means of a stochastic point process and its behavior is determined by the conditional intensity function, which usually gets an exponential form. A conditional intensity function of Weibull form is used for identifying the most appropriate among the models (simple, independent and linked stress release model) for the interpretation of the earthquake generation process. The appropriateness of the models was decided after evaluation via the Akaike information criterion. Despite the fact that the curves of the conditional intensity functions exhibit similar behavior, the use of the exponential-type conditional intensity function seems to fit better the data.

  1. Gaussian mixture model classification of odontocetes in the Southern California Bight and the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Marie A; Soldevilla, Melissa S; Burtenshaw, Jessica C; Henderson, E Elizabeth; Hildebrand, John A

    2007-03-01

    A method for the automatic classification of free-ranging delphinid vocalizations is presented. The vocalizations of short-beaked and long-beaked common (Delphinus delphis and Delphinus capensis), Pacific white-sided (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), and bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) dolphins were recorded in a pelagic environment of the Southern California Bight and the Gulf of California over a period of 4 years. Cepstral feature vectors are extracted from call data which contain simultaneous overlapping whistles, burst-pulses, and clicks from a single species. These features are grouped into multisecond segments. A portion of the data is used to train Gaussian mixture models of varying orders for each species. The remaining call data are used to test the performance of the models. Species are predicted based upon probabilistic measures of model similarity with test segment groups having durations between 1 and 25 s. For this data set, 256 mixture Gaussian mixture models and segments of at least 10 s of call data resulted in the best classification results. The classifier predicts the species of groups with 67%-75% accuracy depending upon the partitioning of the training and test data.

  2. A modeling study of seawater intrusion in Alabama Gulf Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin; Snodsmith, J. Blake; Zheng, Chunmiao; Wu, Jianfeng

    2009-03-01

    A numerical model of variable-density groundwater flow and miscible salt transport is developed to investigate the extent of seawater intrusion in the Gulf coast aquifers of Alabama, USA. The SEAWAT code is used to solve the density-dependent groundwater flow and solute transport governing equations. The numerical model is calibrated against the observed hydraulic heads measured in 1996 by adjusting the zonation and values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge rate. Using the calibrated model and assuming all the hydrogeologic conditions remain the same as those in 1996, a predictive 40-year simulation run indicates that further seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifers can occur in the study area. Moreover, the predicted intrusion may be more significant in the deeper aquifer than the shallower ones. As the population continues to grow and the demand for groundwater pumping intensifies beyond the 1996 level, it can be expected that the actual extent of seawater intrusion in the future would be more severe than the model prediction. Better strategies for groundwater development and management will be necessary to protect the freshwater aquifers from contamination by seawater intrusion.

  3. Analysis of Groundwater Anomalies Estimated by GRACE and GLDAS Satellite-based Hydrological Model in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfata, A.; Ambinakudige, S.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal regions face a higher risk of flooding. A rise in sea-level increases flooding chances in low-lying areas. A major concern is the effect of sea-level rise on the depth of the fresh water/salt water interface in the aquifers of the coastal regions. A sea-level change rise impacts the hydrological system of the aquifers. Salt water intrusion into fresh water aquifers increase water table levels. Flooding prone areas in the coast are at a higher risk of salt water intrusion. The Gulf coast is one of the most vulnerable flood areas due to its natural weather patterns. There is not yet a local assessment of the relation between groundwater level and sea-level rising. This study investigates the projected sea-level rise models and the anomalous groundwater level during January 2002 to December 2016. We used the NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) satellite data in the analysis. We accounted the leakage error and the measurement error in GRACE data. GLDAS data was used to calculate the groundwater storage from the total water storage estimated using GRACE data (ΔGW=ΔTWS (soil moisture, surface water, groundwater, and canopy water) - ΔGLDAS (soil moisture, surface water, and canopy water)). The preliminary results indicate that the total water storage is increasing in parts of the Gulf of Mexico. GRACE data show high soil wetness and groundwater levels in Mississippi, Alabama and Texas coasts. Because sea-level rise increases the probability of flooding in the Gulf coast and affects the groundwater, we will analyze probable interactions between sea-level rise and groundwater in the study area. To understand regional sea-level rise patterns, we will investigate GRACE Ocean data along the Gulf coasts. We will quantify ocean total water storage, its salinity, and its relationship with the groundwater level variations in the Gulf coast.

  4. Postglacial uplift of the eastern Gulf of Finland-Lake Ladoga region: models and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amantov, Aleksey; Fjeldskaar, Willy; Amantova, Marina

    2015-04-01

    The eastern Gulf of Finland - Lake Ladoga region - is at the peripheral part of the Fennoscandian post-glacial uplift. We compared different modeling results for this region with observations, including our revision of geomorphological traces of paleo shorelevel. As in many parts of the general Baltic-White Sea bedrock lowland at the margin of the Fennoscandian Shield, the bedrock landscape was modified by glaciers, but it was also the major controlling factor for the history of glacial grows and decays. First-order landforms of this segment are: Lake Ladoga-Lake Ilmen lowland, Lembolovo High of the Karelic Isthmus and Neva-Gulf of Finland lowland. The range of the bedrock topography is close to 350 m. The landforms reflect different glacial behavior during stadials, with fast movement and strong erosion in northern Ladoga, but passive motion and accumulation around Lembolovo High. The differences influenced the ice sheet and deglaciation history. The shore level displacements in this area are slightly different than westwards in the Baltic area; the shoreline tilts are usually lower in southern-central part of the eastern Gulf of Finland-lake Ladoga region. For example, the shoreline tilts at 11 600 BP in the Baltic Ice Lake in the south-east range from 0.55 to 0.31 m/km. The slope of the Ancylus shoreline varies from 0.12 to 0.18 m/km, increasing to almost the double in the north-western area. Similarly, the Littorina shore level is tilted only 0.08 m/km, rising to 0.14 m/km in the north-west. We have used this data in our high resolution modeling involving glacial isostasy, hydro isostasy, sediment isostasy, and gravity field changes. The mopdeling is based on Earth rheology model with a low-viscosity asthenosphere of thickness less than 150 km and viscosity less than 7.0x10**19 Pa s above a mantle of viscosity 10**21 Pa s, and an effective elastic lithosphere thickness of 30-40 km (flexural rigidity 10**24 Nm). The specific uplift features in the area are

  5. Lagrangian predictability of high-resolution regional models: the special case of the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Chu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lagrangian prediction skill (model ability to reproduce Lagrangian drifter trajectories of the nowcast/forecast system developed for the Gulf of Mexico at the University of Colorado at Boulder is examined through comparison with real drifter observations. Model prediction error (MPE, singular values (SVs and irreversible-skill time (IT are used as quantitative measures of the examination. Divergent (poloidal and nondivergent (toroidal components of the circulation attractor at 50m depth are analyzed and compared with the Lagrangian drifter buoy data using the empirical orthogonal function (EOF decomposition and the measures, respectively. Irregular (probably, chaotic dynamics of the circulation attractor reproduced by the nowcast/forecast system is analyzed through Lyapunov dimension, global entropies, toroidal and poloidal kinetic energies. The results allow assuming exponential growth of prediction error on the attractor. On the other hand, the q-th moment of MPE grows by the power law with exponent of 3q/4. The probability density function (PDF of MPE has a symmetrical but non-Gaussian shape for both the short and long prediction times and for spatial scales ranging from 20km to 300km. The phenomenological model of MPE based on a diffusion-like equation is developed. The PDF of IT is non-symmetric with a long tail stretched towards large ITs. The power decay of the tail was faster than 2 for long prediction times.

  6. A predictive numerical model for potential mapping of the gas hydrate stability zone in the Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, R.; Somoza, L.

    2009-04-01

    This comunication presents a computational model for mapping the regional 3D distribution in which seafloor gas hydrates would be stable, that is carried out in a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment. The construction of the model is comprised of three primary steps, namely (1) the construction of surfaces for the various variables based on available 3D data (seafloor temperature, geothermal gradient and depth-pressure); (2) the calculation of the gas function equilibrium functions for the various hydrocarbon compositions reported from hydrate and sediment samples; and (3) the calculation of the thickness of the hydrate stability zone. The solution is based on a transcendental function, which is solved iteratively in a GIS environment. The model has been applied in the northernmost continental slope of the Gulf of Cadiz, an area where an abundant supply for hydrate formation, such as extensive hydrocarbon seeps, diapirs and fault structures, is combined with deep undercurrents and a complex seafloor morphology. In the Gulf of Cadiz, model depicts the distribution of the base of the gas hydrate stability zone for both biogenic and thermogenic gas compositions, and explains the geometry and distribution of geological structures derived from gas venting in the Tasyo Field (Gulf of Cadiz) and the generation of BSR levels on the upper continental slope.

  7. Tidal regime in Gulf of Kutch, west coast of India, by 2D model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Gouveia, A.D.; Vethamony, P.

    of topographically generated eddies. An analysis of momentum balance shows that the dynamics of tidal propagation in the Gulf is characterized by a balance between the pressure gradient and friction near the coast, whereas in the central region, local acceleration...

  8. Topobathymetric Model of the Northern Gulf of Mexico, 1888 to 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Accurate, high-resolution elevation information is vital to understanding the highly dynamic Northern Gulf Coast, with Louisiana being the location of North...

  9. An Idealized Modeling Study of the Gulf-Stream and Kuroshio Extension Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeau, F. W.; Newman, D.

    2004-05-01

    A shallow-water model is used to study the dynamics of the mid-latitude wind-driven ocean circulation. A bifurcation analysis of the steady-state equilibrium solutions is presented. The analysis is in terms of several control parameters: some that control the wind-stress pattern and others that controls the dissipation parameterization. Of the parameters that control the wind-stress, one controls the tilt of the zero-curl line, another controls the relative intensity of the vorticity input in the subtropical and sub-polar gyres and a third controls the overall intensity of the wind-stress. We identify parameter ranges for which multiple equilibria with elongated and contracted western boundary current extensions exist. We also present time-dependent solutions with low frequency variability associated with transitions between the elongated and contracted modes of circulation. The modeled variability is conjectured to correspond to similar elongation-contraction patterns of variability observed in the Kuroshio and Gulf-Stream extension systems from satellite observations.

  10. Investigating the Marine Protected Areas most at risk of current-driven pollution in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, using a Lagrangian transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeche-Ellmann, Nicole C; Soomere, Tarmo

    2013-02-15

    The possibility of current-driven propagation of contaminants released along a major fairway polluting the Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, is examined using a 3D circulation model, a Lagrangian transport model and statistics. Not surprisingly, the number of hits to the MPA decreases almost linearly with its distance from the fairway. In addition, the potential pollution released during a ship accident with the pollutants carried by currents may affect MPAs at very large distances. Typically, a fairway section approximately 125 km long (covering about 1/3 of the approximate 400-km-long gulf) may serve as a source of pollution for each MPA. The largest MPA (in the Eastern Gulf of Finland) may receive pollution from an approximately 210-km-long section (covering about 1/2 of the entire length of the gulf). This information may be useful in assisting maritime management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Generalized additive models used to predict species abundance in the Gulf of Mexico: an ecosystem modeling tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Drexler

    Full Text Available Spatially explicit ecosystem models of all types require an initial allocation of biomass, often in areas where fisheries independent abundance estimates do not exist. A generalized additive modelling (GAM approach is used to describe the abundance of 40 species groups (i.e. functional groups across the Gulf of Mexico (GoM using a large fisheries independent data set (SEAMAP and climate scale oceanographic conditions. Predictor variables included in the model are chlorophyll a, sediment type, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and depth. Despite the presence of a large number of zeros in the data, a single GAM using a negative binomial distribution was suitable to make predictions of abundance for multiple functional groups. We present an example case study using pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duroarum and compare the results to known distributions. The model successfully predicts the known areas of high abundance in the GoM, including those areas where no data was inputted into the model fitting. Overall, the model reliably captures areas of high and low abundance for the large majority of functional groups observed in SEAMAP. The result of this method allows for the objective setting of spatial distributions for numerous functional groups across a modeling domain, even where abundance data may not exist.

  12. A regression modeling approach for studying carbonate system variability in the northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Wiley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Winsor, Peter; Statscewich, Hank; Whitledge, Terry E.

    2013-01-01

    northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) shelf experiences carbonate system variability on seasonal and annual time scales, but little information exists to resolve higher frequency variability in this region. To resolve this variability using platforms-of-opportunity, we present multiple linear regression (MLR) models constructed from hydrographic data collected along the Northeast Pacific Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) Seward Line. The empirical algorithms predict dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) using observations of nitrate (NO3-), temperature, salinity and pressure from the surface to 500 m, with R2s > 0.97 and RMSE values of 11 µmol kg-1 for DIC and 9 µmol kg-1 for TA. We applied these relationships to high-resolution NO3- data sets collected during a novel 20 h glider flight and a GLOBEC mesoscale SeaSoar survey. Results from the glider flight demonstrated time/space along-isopycnal variability of aragonite saturations (Ωarag) associated with a dicothermal layer (a cold near-surface layer found in high latitude oceans) that rivaled changes seen vertically through the thermocline. The SeaSoar survey captured the uplift to aragonite saturation horizon (depth where Ωarag = 1) shoaled to a previously unseen depth in the northern GOA. This work is similar to recent studies aimed at predicting the carbonate system in continental margin settings, albeit demonstrates that a NO3--based approach can be applied to high-latitude data collected from platforms capable of high-frequency measurements.

  13. A model-based examination of multivariate physical modes in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, A. J.; Ladd, C.; Cheng, W.; Curchitser, E. N.; Hedstrom, K.

    2016-10-01

    We use multivariate output from a hydrodynamic model of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) to explore the covariance among its physical state and air/sea fluxes. We attempt to summarize this coupled variability using a limited set of patterns, and examine their correlation to three large-scale climate indices relevant to the Northeast Pacific. This analysis is focused on perturbations from monthly climatology of the following attributes of the GOA: sea surface temperature, sea surface height, mixed layer depth, sea surface salinity, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, shortwave irradiance, net long wave irradiance, currents at 40 m depth, and wind stress. We identified two multivariate modes, both substantially correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Multivariate El Nino (MEI) indices on interannual timescales, which together account for 30% of the total normalized variance of the perturbation time series. These two modes indicate the following covarying events during periods of positive PDO/MEI: (1) anomalously warm, wet and windy conditions (typically in winter), with elevated coastal SSH, followed 2-5 months later by (2) reduced cloud cover, with emerging shelf-break eddies. Similar modes are found when the analysis is performed separately on the eastern and western GOA; in general, modal amplitudes appear stronger in the western GOA.

  14. Full replacement of menhaden fish meal protein by low-gossypol cottonseed flour protein in the diet of juvenile black sea bass Centropristis striata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight iso-nitrogeneous (46% crude protein) and iso-lipidic (14% crude lipid) diets were formulated and prepared to replace menhaden fish meal (FM) protein (59.5% CP) by low-gossypol glandless meal (GCSM) protein (50.4% CP), solvent-extracted cottonseed meal (SCSM) protein (53.8% protein) and high go...

  15. Development of predictive models for determining enterococci levels at Gulf Coast beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zaihong; Deng, Zhiqiang; Rusch, Kelly A

    2012-02-01

    The US EPA BEACH Act requires beach managers to issue swimming advisories when water quality standards are exceeded. While a number of methods/models have been proposed to meet the BEACH Act requirement, no systematic comparisons of different methods against the same data series are available in terms of relative performance of existing methods. This study presents and compares three models for nowcasting and forecasting enterococci levels at Gulf Coast beaches in Louisiana, USA. One was developed using the artificial neural network (ANN) in MATLAB Toolbox and the other two were based on the US EPA Virtual Beach (VB) Program. A total of 944 sets of environmental and bacteriological data were utilized. The data were collected and analyzed weekly during the swimming season (May-October) at six sites of the Holly Beach by Louisiana Beach Monitoring Program in the six year period of May 2005-October 2010. The ANN model includes 15 readily available environmental variables such as salinity, water temperature, wind speed and direction, tide level and type, weather type, and various combinations of antecedent rainfalls. The ANN model was trained, validated, and tested using 308, 103, and 103 data sets (collected in 2007, 2008, and 2009) with an average linear correlation coefficient (LCC) of 0.857 and a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.336. The two VB models, including a linear transformation-based model and a nonlinear transformation-based model, were constructed using the same data sets. The linear VB model with 6 input variables achieved an LCC of 0.230 and an RMSE of 1.302 while the nonlinear VB model with 5 input variables produced an LCC of 0.337 and an RMSE of 1.205. In order to assess the predictive performance of the ANN and VB models, hindcasting was conducted using a total of 430 sets of independent environmental and bacteriological data collected at six Holly Beach sites in 2005, 2006, and 2010. The hindcasting results show that the ANN model is capable of

  16. Persistence and Evolutions of the Rentier State Model in Gulf Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozyavuz, Anais; Schmid, Dorothee

    2015-04-01

    A general economic model of understanding Middle Eastern states was elaborated by political scientists around the 1980's, based on the concept of rent. Rent derived from the exploitations and sales of natural resources (mainly crude-oil and gas reserves for the Middle-East area) became a new factor of wealth around which the economic model as much as the governance of energy-rich countries was reorganized. The particular case of GCC's countries as rentier state has been at the cornerstone of this concept since they own the most important share of energy resources in the world. Despite bringing high revenues to resource-abundant countries, rent clearly has a bad reputation, implying a system of 'allocative state' vs. 'productive state'. After four decades of the concept's circulation, the historicity of the rentier state theory clearly requires discussion. This paper will first deal with the emergence of the concept of rent in Gulf countries, and will study in which extend GCC member states have undertaken reforms and changes for depending less on oil-wealth and for reaching a more diversified economy. Despite their efforts and achievements - both endogenous as exogenous factors - are still inhibiting the development processes in each country. The improvements of the economy and the governance in those 6 countries have been - and will be - important not only for the concerned countries but also for the development and especially the stability of the Middle-East area. This last concern is definitely the main issue of last months for the area, being in the chaos since the emergence of a new regional player, the terrorist group Daesh. (author)

  17. Ensemble modeling informs hypoxia management in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavia, Donald; Bertani, Isabella; Obenour, Daniel R; Turner, R Eugene; Forrest, David R; Katin, Alexey

    2017-08-15

    A large region of low-dissolved-oxygen bottom waters (hypoxia) forms nearly every summer in the northern Gulf of Mexico because of nutrient inputs from the Mississippi River Basin and water column stratification. Policymakers developed goals to reduce the area of hypoxic extent because of its ecological, economic, and commercial fisheries impacts. However, the goals remain elusive after 30 y of research and monitoring and 15 y of goal-setting and assessment because there has been little change in river nitrogen concentrations. An intergovernmental Task Force recently extended to 2035 the deadline for achieving the goal of a 5,000-km 2 5-y average hypoxic zone and set an interim load target of a 20% reduction of the spring nitrogen loading from the Mississippi River by 2025 as part of their adaptive management process. The Task Force has asked modelers to reassess the loading reduction required to achieve the 2035 goal and to determine the effect of the 20% interim load reduction. Here, we address both questions using a probabilistic ensemble of four substantially different hypoxia models. Our results indicate that, under typical weather conditions, a 59% reduction in Mississippi River nitrogen load is required to reduce hypoxic area to 5,000 km 2 The interim goal of a 20% load reduction is expected to produce an 18% reduction in hypoxic area over the long term. However, due to substantial interannual variability, a 25% load reduction is required before there is 95% certainty of observing any hypoxic area reduction between consecutive 5-y assessment periods.

  18. Modeling GIA at the Gulf of Mexico and environs: a Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, L.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E. Y.; Adhikari, S.

    2017-12-01

    The massive amount of new data that constrain global mass changes that are derived from space missions, such as JASON, ENVISat, ICEsat, GRACE time series coupled to GNSS determined vertical land motion (VLM), have revolutionized our understanding of near real-time changes in water storage, sea-level rise (SLR) and ice mass balance on decadal time scales. In order to better interpret these data sets, however, background secular signals need to be removed if a mass conserving reconstruction of ongoing changes in surface mass can be accurately determined with appropriate error statistics. Among the major contaminants of measurements is the signal due to the growth and collapse of the great ice sheets during the last glacial cycle, a phenomenon known as Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Linear trends in VLM, gravity and tide-gauge measurements of local sea-level may be removed by using GIA models. The major caveat for GIA models is that no reliable error statistic comes with the correction. Consequently, the community struggles to establish a consensus about GIA model predictions. A formal calculation of the uncertainty in the prediction is logically an absolute corner stone for quantifying the degree of knowledge we have about this phenomenon. GIA uncertainty should be incorporated and propagated into the uncertainty estimates for any scientific results that employ geodetic measurements that also contain the GIA signature. We propose a new method based on model ensembles and Bayesian framework to provide statistical characterization of the present-day GIA signal. Through more than 30,000 forward models, our approach explores the range of possible solutions by varying jointly the Earth properties, such as the mantle rheology and structure, and the ice loading history. Our inversion is constrained by 459 GNSS stations (with trends accurate to less than 0.5 mm/yr) that cover non-tectonic North America, Europe and Antarctica, as well as 11451 paleo sea level records

  19. Lessons learned using water quality models to develop numeric nutrient criteria for a Gulf coast estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensacola Bay is a shallow, mesotrophic estuary located in the north-central coast of the Gulf of Mexico, US. In November 2012, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) proposed numeric total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) water quality cr...

  20. Factors controlling the evolution of the Perdido Fold Belt, northwestern Gulf of Mexico, determined from numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradmann, Sofie; Beaumont, Christopher; Albertz, Markus

    2009-04-01

    The Perdido Fold Belt (PFB) is a prominent salt-cored deep water structure in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. It is characterized by symmetric, kink-banded folds of a ˜4.5 km thick prekinematic layer and its vicinity to the extensive Sigsbee Salt Canopy. We use 2-D finite element numerical models to study the evolution of the PFB as a gravity-driven fold belt both in a local context and in the context of the larger-scale passive margin, influenced by adjacent allochthonous salt structures. We show that parameters such as overburden strength, salt geometry, or salt viscosity determine timing, extent, and location of the modeled fold belt. Simplified models of the Gulf of Mexico show that toe-of-slope folding is a viable mechanism to develop diapirs in the deep salt basin and to delay folding of the distal overburden. In this scenario, the PFB likely represents the terminal folding of a much larger, diachronously formed fold belt system.

  1. A Hybrid Decision-Making Model for Selecting Container Seaport in the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Sayareh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ports have always played a vital role in international transportation. Port selection decision is a process that requires consideration of many important and relevant criteria. The selection of the influential decision-making criteria is also a significant and vital issue which demands cautious thoughts. The main objective of this paper is to weigh the most dominant decision-making criteria by Technique for Order Preference to Similarity by Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and select an optimised container seaport in the Persian Gulf by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP according to decisive port selection factors. This paper presents an extensive review of port selection decision-making attributes in different past studies. Finally, by using TOPSIS and AHP, the findings of this research suggest that the working time, stevedoring rate, safety, port entrance, sufficient draft, capacity of port facilities, operating cost, number of berths, ship chandelling, and international policies are critical factors for selecting container seaport in the Persian Gulf.

  2. Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea Data and Model Base Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    apparently taking place in the shallower water depths. Although Mexico has deep water reserves, PEMEX is developing the fields under shallow water first...Campeche is presently being explored by 9 rigs, so we can expect about that number of supply boats to b’. operating there at all times. PEMEX is...the northern Gulf of Mexico, and PEMEX is reportedly using 2 in the vicinity of the Bay of Campeche and the periphery of the Yucatan Atoll. With this

  3. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative: A Funding Model for Science, Engineering, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill, a massive ecological event, resulted in the tragic loss of 11 lives, and an environmental release of more than 130 million gallons of crude oil. Approximately 1.8 million gallons of dispersants were used in remediation efforts. An immediate response by BP was to establish a ten-year research program, with funding of 500 million. The funding was to determine the impact and long-term ecological and public health effects of oil spills and to develop improved preparation in the event of future oil or gas release into the environment. This Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI), established by BP, provided independent leadership for both the program and administration of the 500 million funding, and the Research Board provides oversight, assisted by excellent staff. The Research Board of the GoMRI comprises twenty scientists, many of whom have prior scientific research administrative expertise. The Research Board, in accordance with its charge, develops research programs and carries out their evaluation and oversight, employing the peer review and operational principles of the National Science Foundation and the National Academies of Science. With these guiding principles, the Research Board established procedures for conflict of interest oversight and requesting and evaluating research programs. It has also focused on communicating the research findings accurately and responsibly. The GoMRI Research Board operates with transparency and ensures availability of all scientific results and data. GoMRI, currently midway through its 10-year mandate, has funded more than 3,000 scientists, representing 278 institutions in 42 states and 17 countries, who have produced more than 1,000 peer-reviewed publications to date. The Research Board is exploring mechanisms by which the GoMRI science findings can be communicated to the broader community and the public and to continue availability of data when the program has ended. A major contribution

  4. Multiscale habitat suitability index models for priority landbirds in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Tirpak; D. Todd Jones-Farrand; Frank R., III Thompson; Daniel J. Twedt; William B., III Uihlein

    2009-01-01

    Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models were developed to assess habitat quality for 40 priority bird species in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions. The models incorporated both site and landscape environmental variables from one of six nationally consistent datasets. Potential habitat was first defined from unique...

  5. Modeling the cost of shut-in production and the value of information in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.

    2006-01-01

    Weather delay is a common risk in offshore energy production, and in the Gulf of Mexico, the occurrence of tropical storms and hurricanes regularly force operators to shut-down production, cease drilling and construction activities, and evacuate personnel. In physical terms, shutting-in a well will usually not cause a loss of the hydrocarbon resource, but in financial terms, the impact of deferred production can have a significant economic effect. Improved ocean observation systems in the Gulf of Mexico are expected to enhance the reliability and accuracy of hurricane forecasting, lowering the probabilities of false positives, and positively impacting the economic and human life consequences. Improved information reduces risk, and to the extent that operators are risk averse, enhanced information increases welfare. The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodological framework to estimate the cost of shut-in production due to extreme weather, and to provide a first-order lower-bound estimate of the market value of improved weather forecasting. Shut-in production is modeled using various recovery scenarios and valued in terms of the cash flow analysis over the life of the asset. A description of the valuation model and the nature of production recovery is outlined and illustrated through stylized examples. (author)

  6. Modeling the cost of shut-in production and the value of information in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G. [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Energy Coast and Environment Building, Nicholson Extension Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Weather delay is a common risk in offshore energy production, and in the Gulf of Mexico, the occurrence of tropical storms and hurricanes regularly force operators to shut-down production, cease drilling and construction activities, and evacuate personnel. In physical terms, shutting-in a well will usually not cause a loss of the hydrocarbon resource, but in financial terms, the impact of deferred production can have a significant economic effect. Improved ocean observation systems in the Gulf of Mexico are expected to enhance the reliability and accuracy of hurricane forecasting, lowering the probabilities of false positives, and positively impacting the economic and human life consequences. Improved information reduces risk, and to the extent that operators are risk averse, enhanced information increases welfare. The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodological framework to estimate the cost of shut-in production due to extreme weather, and to provide a first-order lower-bound estimate of the market value of improved weather forecasting. Shut-in production is modeled using various recovery scenarios and valued in terms of the cash flow analysis over the life of the asset. A description of the valuation model and the nature of production recovery is outlined and illustrated through stylized examples. (author)

  7. Mass spectrometric elucidation of triacylglycerol content of Brevoortia tyrannus (menhaden) oil using non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography under ultra high pressure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugo, Paola; Beccaria, Marco; Fawzy, Nermeen; Donato, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Mondello, Luigi

    2012-10-12

    A non-aqueous reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed, and optimized for triacylglycerol analysis in a Brevoortia tyrannus (menhaden) oil sample. Four columns were serially coupled to tackle such a task, for a total length of 60 cm of shell-packed stationary phase, and operated under ultra high pressure conditions. As detection, positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry was used to attain identification of the analyzed sample components. A number of 137 triacylglycerols containing up to 19 fatty acids, with 14-22 carbon atom alkyl chain length and 0-6 double bonds, were positively identified in the complex lipidic sample. This is the first work that reports an extensive characterization of the triacylglycerol fraction of menhaden oil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Population parameters and dynamic pool models of commercial fishes in the Beibu Gulf, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuehui; Qiu, Yongsong; Du, Feiyan; Lin, Zhaojin; Sun, Dianrong; Huang, Shuolin

    2012-01-01

    Length-frequency data of eight commercial fish species in the Beibu Gulf (Golf of Tonkin), northern South China Sea, were collected during 2006-2007. Length-weight relationships and growth and mortality parameters were analyzed using FiSAT II software. Five species had isometric growth, two species had negative allometric growth, and one species had positive allometric growth. Overall, the exploitation rates of the eight species were lower in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999: for four species ( Saurida tumbil, Saurida undosquamis, Argyrosomus macrocephalus, and Nemipterus virgatus) it was lower in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999, for two species ( Parargyrops edita and Trichiurus haumela) it remained the same, and for the other two species ( Trachurus japonicus and Decapterus maruadsi) it was higher in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999. The exploitation rates might have declined because of the decline in fishing intensity caused by high crude oil prices. The optimum exploitation rate, estimated using Beverton-Holt dynamic pool models, indicated that although fishes in the Beibu Gulf could sustain high exploitation rates, the under-size fishes at first capture resulted in low yields. To increase the yield per recruitment, it is more effective to increase the size at first capture than to control fishing effort.

  9. Storm-driven delivery of sediment to the continental slope: Numerical modeling for the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C. K.; Kniskern, T. A.; Arango, H.

    2016-02-01

    The supply of sediment from the continental shelf to deeper waters is of critical importance for building continental margin repositories of sediment, and may also factor into episodic events on the continental slope such as turbidity currents and slope failures. While numerical sediment transport models have been developed for coastal and continental shelf areas, they have not often been used to infer sediment delivery to deeper waters. A three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic - suspended sediment transport model for the northern Gulf of Mexico has been developed and run to evaluate the types of conditions that are associated with delivery of suspended sediment to the continental slope. Accounting for sediment delivery by riverine plumes and for sediment resuspension by energetic waves and currents, the sediment transport calculations were implemented within the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The model domain represents the northern Gulf of Mexico shelf and slope including the Mississippi birdfoot delta and the Mississippi and DeSoto Canyons. To investigate the role of storms in driving down-slope sediment fluxes, model runs that encompassed fall, 2007 through late summer, 2008 the summer and fall of 2008 were analyzed. This time period included several winter storms, and the passage of two hurricanes (Ike and Gustav) over the study area. Preliminary results indicated that sediment delivery to the continental slope was triggered by the passage of these storm events, and focused at certain locations, such as submarine canyons. Additionally, a climatological analysis indicates that storm track influences both the wind-driven currents and wave energy on the shelf, and as such plays an important role in determining which storms trigger delivery of suspended continental shelf sediment to the adjacent slope.

  10. Deep Structure and Evolution of the Northeastern Gulf of Aden Margin From Wide-Angle Seismic and Thermomechanical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watremez, L.; Leroy, S.; Rouzo, S.; D'Acremont, E.; Burov, E. B.

    2009-12-01

    The Encens survey wide-angle and gravity data (Leroy et al., Feb. March 2006) allow us to determine the deep structure of the northeastern Gulf of Aden non-volcanic passive margin. The Gulf of Aden is a young oceanic basin. Its accretion began at least 17.6 Ma ago. Its current geometry shows 1st and 2nd order segmentation. Our study focus on the second order Ashawq-Salalah segment. We studied six wide-angle seismic (WAS) and gravity profiles (three along and three across the margin). Modeling of the WAS and gravity data gives insights on the first and second orders structures : (1) Continental thinning is abrupt (15-20 km thinning along 50-100 km distance). It is accommodated by four tilted blocks. (2) The OCT is narrow (15 km wide). Its geometry is determined by the velocity models: oceanic-type upper-crust (4.5 km/s) and continental-type lower-crust (> 6.5 km/s). (3) The thickness of the oceanic crust decreases from West (10 km) to East (5.5 km). This pattern is probably linked to a variation of magma supply along the paleo-slow-spreading ridge axis. (4) A 5 km thick intermediate velocity body (7.6 to 7.8 km/s) is present at the crust-mantle interface below the margin. It is interpreted as post-rift underplated, or partly intruded, mafic material. This interpretation is consistent with the presence of a volcano evidenced by heat flow measurement and multichannel seismic reflection (Encens surveys). The studied segment is mainly characterized by abrupt continental thinning and narrow OCT. Moreover, this non-volcanic passive margin is affected by post-rift volcanism evidenced by the mafic body. We then suggest that the evolution of non-volcanic passive margins may be influenced by post-rift thermal anomalies. We will compare these above results with thermomechanical models in order to constrain the margin evolution and factors leading to the Gulf of Aden formation. Modeling is processed using Para(o)voz/Flamar code. This allows us to experiment the influence of

  11. Climatic change on the Gulf of Fonseca (Central America) using two-step statistical downscaling of CMIP5 model outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribalaygua, Jaime; Gaitán, Emma; Pórtoles, Javier; Monjo, Robert

    2018-05-01

    A two-step statistical downscaling method has been reviewed and adapted to simulate twenty-first-century climate projections for the Gulf of Fonseca (Central America, Pacific Coast) using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models. The downscaling methodology is adjusted after looking for good predictor fields for this area (where the geostrophic approximation fails and the real wind fields are the most applicable). The method's performance for daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature is analysed and revealed suitable results for all variables. For instance, the method is able to simulate the characteristic cycle of the wet season for this area, which includes a mid-summer drought between two peaks. Future projections show a gradual temperature increase throughout the twenty-first century and a change in the features of the wet season (the first peak and mid-summer rainfall being reduced relative to the second peak, earlier onset of the wet season and a broader second peak).

  12. The Role of Protein Radicals in Chronic Neuroimmune Dysfunction and Neuropathology in Response to a Multiple-Hit Model of Gulf War Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    War Illness Mouse Model, Chlorpyrifos, LPS, NF-KB p50, microglia , chronic neuroinflammation , serum markers, neuropathology 16. SECURITY...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Chronic peripheral inflammation and neuroinflammation have been linked to Gulf...sample analysis is ongoing, preliminary results suggest that the hippocampus in NF-κB p50-/- mice is more vulnerable to chronic neuroinflammation at

  13. Anxiety, neuroinflammation, cholinergic and GABAergic abnormalities are early markers of Gulf War illness in a mouse model of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Isabel; Aytan, Nurgul; Mellott, Tiffany; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Lehar, Margaret; Crabtree, Leah; Leite-Morris, Kimberly; Jenkins, Bruce G; Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof; Dedeoglu, Alpaslan

    2018-02-15

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic disease that affects the 1991 Gulf War (GW) veterans for which treatment is lacking. It has been hypothesized that drugs used to protect military personnel from chemical attacks and insects during the war: pyridostigmine bromide (PB),N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), and permethrin (PER) together with stress may have contributed collectively and synergistically to generate GWI. There is a need to find markers of pathology to be used in pre-clinical trials. For this purpose we employed a previously validated mouse model of GWI evoked by daily exposure to PB (1.3 mg/kg), DEET (40 mg/kg), PER (0.13 mg/kg), and 5 min of restraint stress for 28 days to analyze behavior, brain pathology and neurochemical outcomes three months later. GWI-model mice were characterized by increased anxiety, decreased hippocampal levels of N-acetyl aspartate, GABA, the GABA-producing enzyme GAD-67 and microglial activation. We also observed that GWI model was sexually dimorphic on some measures: males had increased while females had decreased protein levels of the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase, in the septum and hippocampus and decreased levels of the receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, TrkB140, in the hippocampus. Increased hippocampal levels of nerve growth factor were detected in males only. Together the data show behavioral and neuropathological abnormalities detected at 3 months post-exposure and that some of them are sexually dimorphic. Future preclinical studies for GWI may take advantage of this short latency model and should include both males and females as their response to treatment may differ. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Modelling the cohesive sediment transport in the marine environment: the case of Thermaikos Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Krestenitis

    2007-01-01

    vertical stratification of the water-column is taken into consideration by appropriate damping of the vertical diffusion term. Variations in cohesive sediment properties during the abidance in the aquatic environment include coagulation and flock break-up processes, quantification of the effects of ambient density to the density of the cohesive aggregate and the associated alterations to the falling speed of the particle. In the vicinity of the seabed, particles may deposit and gradually consolidate with time, the particles remain settled onto the bed, re-enter the flow at a later temporal point or may enter the water column for the first time, originating from the erosion of the bed. The occurrence of each of the aforementioned near-bed processes is defined according to the prevailing benthic shear stress conditions. The mathematical model has been applied to the Thermaikos Gulf, an area of high environmental and socioeconomic importance but also a region of significant pollutant forcing from various anthropogenic activities taking place in the adjoining land. Various kinds of outputs can be extracted, such as trajectories of the overall movement of specific particles and related alterations of their characteristics with time, snapshots of the domain with respect to suspended or deposited matter and natural concentrations of sediments at every required temporal and spatial point. Indicative results from yearly and monthly simulations, using input baroclinic circulation data from the North Aegean Sea model and river discharges are presented and discussed, including outputs from a Typical One-Year Simulation (TOYS, the simulation of the period from 3 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 (S1A2 and the January 2003 experiment (J03. The description of the processes that have been incorporated in the parameterization covers the most significant factors controlling transport and mixing of fine grained sediments in the marine environment, thus validating the accuracy and completeness

  15. 2015 Gulf Guardian Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program Partnership developed the Gulf Guardian awards as a way to recognize and honor the businesses, community groups, individuals, and agencies that are taking positive steps to keep the Gulf healthy, beautiful and productive.

  16. Object Location and Object Recognition Memory Impairments, Motivation Deficits and Depression in a Model of Gulf War Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi eHattiangady

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Memory and mood deficits are the enduring brain-related symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI. Both animal model and epidemiological investigations have indicated that these impairments in a majority of GW veterans are linked to exposures to chemicals such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB, an anti nerve gas drug, permethrin (PM, an insecticide and DEET (a mosquito repellant encountered during the Persian Gulf War-1. Our previous study in a rat model has shown that combined exposures to low doses of GWI-related (GWIR chemicals PB, PM and DEET with or without 5-minutes of restraint stress (a mild stress paradigm causes hippocampus-dependent spatial memory dysfunction in a water maze test and increased depressive-like behavior in a forced swim test. In this study, using a larger cohort of rats exposed to GWIR-chemicals and stress, we investigated whether the memory deficiency identified earlier in a water maze test is reproducible with an alternative and stress free hippocampus-dependent memory test such as the object location test. We also ascertained the possible co-existence of hippocampus-independent memory dysfunction using a novel object recognition test, and alterations in mood function with additional tests for motivation and depression. Our results provide new evidence that exposure to low doses of GWIR-chemicals and stress for four weeks causes deficits in hippocampus-dependent object location memory and perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition memory. An open field test performed prior to other behavioral analyses revealed that memory impairments were not associated with increased anxiety or deficits in general motor ability. However, behavioral tests for mood function such as a voluntary physical exercise paradigm and a novelty suppressed feeding test showed decreased motivation and depression. Thus, exposure to GWIR-chemicals and stress causes both hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent memory impairments as well as

  17. High Resolution Modeling of the Water Cycle to Refine GRACE Signal Analysis in the Gulf of Alaska Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, J.; Hill, D. F.; Arendt, A. A.; Luthcke, S. B.; Liston, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive study of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) drainage basin was carried out to improve understanding of the coastal freshwater discharge (FWD) and surface mass balance (SMB) of glaciers. Coastal FWD and SMB for all glacier surfaces were modeled using a suite of physically based, spatially distributed weather, energy-balance snow/ice melt, soil water balance, and runoff routing models at a high resolution (1 km horizontal grid; daily time step). A 35 year hind cast was performed, providing complete records of precipitation, runoff, snow water equivalent (SWE) depth, evapotranspiration, coastal FWD and glacier SMB. Meteorological forcing was provided by the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) datasets. A fourth dataset was created by bias-correcting the NARR data to recently-developed monthly weather grids based on PRISM climatologies (NARR-BC). Each weather dataset and model combination was individually calibrated using PRISM climatologies, streamflow, and glacier mass balance measurements from four locations in the study domain. Simulated mean annual FWD into the GOA ranged from 600 km3 yr-1 using NARR to 850 km3 yr-1 from NARR-BC. The CFSR-forced simulations with optimized model parameters produced a simulated regional water storage that compared favorably to data from the NASA/DLR Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) high resolution mascon solutions (Figure). Glacier runoff, taken as the sum of rainfall, snow and ice melt occurring on glacier surfaces, ranged from 260 km3 yr-1 from MERRA to 400 km3 yr-1 from NARR-BC, approximately one half of the signal from both glaciers and surrounding terrain. The large contribution from non-glacier surfaces to the seasonal water balance is likely not being fully removed from GRACE solutions aimed at isolating the glacier signal alone. We will discuss methods to use our simulations

  18. Data collection for cooperative water resources modeling in the Lower Rio Grande Basin, Fort Quitman to the Gulf of Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard David; Pallachula, Kiran (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Villalobos, Joshua (Texas A& M University); Piccinni, Giovanni (Texas A& M University); Brainard, James Robert; Gerik, Thomas (Texas A& M University); Morrison, Wendy (Texas A& M University); Serrat-Capdevila, Aleix (University of Arizona); Valdes, Juan (University of Arizona); Sheng, Zhuping (Texas A& M University); Lovato, Rene (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Guitron, Alberto (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Ennis, Martha Lee; Aparicio, Javier (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Newman, Gretchen Carr (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Michelsen, Ari M. (Texas A& M University)

    2004-10-01

    Water resource scarcity around the world is driving the need for the development of simulation models that can assist in water resources management. Transboundary water resources are receiving special attention because of the potential for conflict over scarce shared water resources. The Rio Grande/Rio Bravo along the U.S./Mexican border is an example of a scarce, transboundary water resource over which conflict has already begun. The data collection and modeling effort described in this report aims at developing methods for international collaboration, data collection, data integration and modeling for simulating geographically large and diverse international watersheds, with a special focus on the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo. This report describes the basin, and the data collected. This data collection effort was spatially aggregated across five reaches consisting of Fort Quitman to Presidio, the Rio Conchos, Presidio to Amistad Dam, Amistad Dam to Falcon Dam, and Falcon Dam to the Gulf of Mexico. This report represents a nine-month effort made in FY04, during which time the model was not completed.

  19. Tsunami-Induced Nearshore Hydrodynamic Modeling using a 3D VOF Method: A Gulf of Mexico Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kian, R.; Horrillo, J. J.; Fang, N. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term morphology changes can be interrupted by extreme events such as hurricanes and tsunamis. In particular, the impact of tsunamis on coastal erosion and accretion patterns is presently not well understood. In order to understand the sediment movement during coastal tsunami impact a numerical sediment transport model is added to a 3D VOF model. This model allows for spatially varying bottom sediment characteristics and entails functions for entrainment, bedload, and suspended load transport. As a case study, a Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coastal study site is selected to investigate the effect of a landslide-tsunami on the coastal morphology. The GOM is recognized as a vast and productive body of water with great ecologic and economic value. The morphodynamic response of the nearshore environment to the tsunami hydrodynamic forcing is influenced by many factors including bathymetry, topography, tsunami wave and current magnitude, and the characteristics of the local bottom substrate. The 3D model addition can account for all these factors. Finally, necessary strategies for reduction of the potential tsunami impact and management of the morphological changes are discussed.

  20. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  1. Gravitational collapse and Neogene sediment transfer across the western margin of the Gulf of Mexico: Insights from numerical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alzaga-Ruiz, H.; Granjeon, D.; Lopez, M.; Séranne, M.; Roure, F.

    2009-01-01

    The western margin of the Gulf of Mexico (Veracruz State, Mexico) displays an extensive Neogene gravitational system, whereby the Neogene siliciclastic sediments are detached from underlying Mesozoic carbonates along decollement surface in Oligocene underpressured clays. Rapidly subsiding

  2. Refining the model of barrier island formation along a paraglacial coast in the Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Christopher J.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Carruthers, Emily A.; Stone, Byron D.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Gontz, Allen M.

    2012-01-01

    Details of the internal architecture and local geochronology of Plum Island, the longest barrier in the Gulf of Maine, have refined our understanding of barrier island formation in paraglacial settings. Ground-penetrating radar and shallow-seismic profiles coupled with sediment cores and radiocarbon dates provide an 8000-year evolutionary history of this barrier system in response to changes in sediment sources and supply rates as well as variability in the rate of sea-level change. The barrier sequence overlies tills of Wisconsinan and Illinoian glaciations as well as late Pleistocene glaciomarine clay deposited during the post-glacial sea-level highstand at approximately 17 ka. Holocene sediment began accumulating at the site of Plum Island at 7–8 ka, in the form of coarse fluvial channel-lag deposits related to the 50-m wide erosional channel of the Parker River that carved into underlying glaciomarine deposits during a lower stand of sea level. Plum Island had first developed in its modern location by ca. 3.6 ka through onshore migration and vertical accretion of reworked regressive and lowstand deposits. The prevalence of southerly, seaward-dipping layers indicates that greater than 60% of the barrier lithosome developed in its modern location through southerly spit progradation, consistent with a dominantly longshore transport system driven by northeast storms. Thinner sequences of northerly, landward-dipping clinoforms represent the northern recurve of the prograding spit. A 5–6-m-thick inlet-fill sequence was identified overlying the lower stand fluvial deposit; its stratigraphy captures events of channel migration, ebb-delta breaching, onshore bar migration, channel shoaling and inlet infilling associated with the migration and eventual closure of the inlet. This inlet had a maximum cross-sectional area of 2800 m2 and was active around 3.5–3.6 ka. Discovery of this inlet suggests that the tidal prism was once larger than at present. Bay infilling

  3. The Role of Protein Radicals in Chronic Neuroimmune Dysfunction and Neuropathology in Response to a Multiple-Hit Model of Gulf War Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Model, Chlorpyrifos, LPS, NF-KB p50, microglia , chronic neuroinflammation , serum markers, neuropathology 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Chronic peripheral inflammation and neuroinflammation have been linked to Gulf War Illness (GWI...ongoing, preliminary results suggest that the hippocampus in NF-κB p50-/- mice is more vulnerable to chronic neuroinflammation at one week after pro

  4. Diagenesis, compaction, and fluid chemistry modeling of a sandstone near a pressure seal: Lower Tuscaloosa Formation, Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedman, S.D.; Brantley, S.L.; Shiraki, R.; Poulson, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Petrographic, isotopic, and fluid-inclusion evidence from normally and overpressured sandstones of the lower Tuscaloosa Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in the Gulf Coast documents quartz-overgrowth precipitation at 90??C or less, calcite cement precipitation at approximately 100?? and 135??C, and prismatic quartz cement precipitation at about 125??C. Textural evidence suggests that carbonate cement dissolution occurred before the second phases of calcite and quartz precipitation, and was followed by precipitation of grain-rimming chlorite and pore-filling kaolinite. Geochemical calculations demonstrate that present-day lower Tuscaloosa Formation water from 5500 m depth could either dissolve or precipitate calcite cements in model simulations of upward water flow. Calcite dissolution or precipitation depends on PCO2 variability with depth (i.e., whether there is one or two-phase flow) or on the rate of generation of CO2 with depth. Calculations suggest that 105-106 rock volumes of water are required to flow through the section to precipitate 1-10% calcite cement. Compaction analysis suggests that late-stage compaction occurred in normally pressured sandstones after dissolution of carbonate cements, but was hindered in overpressured sandstones despite the presence of high porosity. These results document the inhibition of compaction by overpressured fluids and constrain the timing of pressure seal formation. Modeling results demonstrate that the proposed paragenesis used to constrain timing of pressure seal formation is feasible, and that most of the cement diagenesis occurred before the pressure seal became effective as a permeability barrier.

  5. Seasonal variability and detection range modeling of baleen whale calls in the Gulf of Alaska, 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Kathleen M; Mellinger, David K; Moore, Sue E; Fox, Christopher G

    2007-12-01

    Five species of large whales, including the blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (B. physalus), sei (B. borealis), humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), and North Pacific right (Eubalaena japonica), were the target of commercial harvests in the Gulf of Alaska (GoA) during the 19th through mid-20th Centuries. Since this time, there have been a few summer time visual surveys for these species, but no overview of year-round use of these waters by endangered whales primarily because standard visual survey data are difficult and costly. From October 1999-May 2002, moored hydrophones were deployed in six locations in the GoA to record whale calls. Reception of calls from fin, humpback, and blue whales and an unknown source, called Watkins' whale, showed seasonal and geographic variation. Calls were detected more often during the winter than during the summer, suggesting that animals inhabit the GoA year-round. To estimate the distance at which species-diagnostic calls could be heard, parabolic equation propagation loss models for frequencies characteristic of each of each call type were run. Maximum detection ranges in the subarctic North Pacific ranged from 45 to 250 km among three species (fin, humpback, blue), although modeled detection ranges varied greatly with input parameters and choice of ambient noise level.

  6. Multiple regression models of δ13C and δ15N for fish populations in the eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radabaugh, Kara R.; Peebles, Ernst B.

    2014-08-01

    Multiple regression models were created to explain spatial and temporal variation in the δ13C and δ15N values of fish populations on the West Florida Shelf (eastern Gulf of Mexico, USA). Extensive trawl surveys from three time periods were used to acquire muscle samples from seven groundfish species. Isotopic variation (δ13Cvar and δ15Nvar) was calculated as the deviation from the isotopic mean of each fish species. Static spatial data and dynamic water quality parameters were used to create models predicting δ13Cvar and δ15Nvar in three fish species that were caught in the summers of 2009 and 2010. Additional data sets were then used to determine the accuracy of the models for predicting isotopic variation (1) in a different time period (fall 2010) and (2) among four entirely different fish species that were collected during summer 2009. The δ15Nvar model was relatively stable and could be applied to different time periods and species with similar accuracy (mean absolute errors 0.31-0.33‰). The δ13Cvar model had a lower predictive capability and mean absolute errors ranged from 0.42 to 0.48‰. δ15N trends are likely linked to gradients in nitrogen fixation and Mississippi River influence on the West Florida Shelf, while δ13C trends may be linked to changes in algal species, photosynthetic fractionation, and abundance of benthic vs. planktonic basal resources. These models of isotopic variability may be useful for future stable isotope investigations of trophic level, basal resource use, and animal migration on the West Florida Shelf.

  7. Sediment transport modelling in the Gulf of Lion with the perspective of studying the fate of radionuclides originated by the Rhone River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufois, Francois

    2008-01-01

    Among the various contaminants introduced in the environment, artificial radionuclides appear particularly important to consider because of their chemical toxicity and / or of their radio-toxicity. Some radionuclides present a high affinity with particles so that the study of the sediment dynamics is a useful preliminary to the study of their dispersion on the open sea. This thesis is focused on the fate of sediments in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean sea) and in particular on the impact of the Rhone River, which is the main source of particulate matter in the Gulf of Lion. In order to study the sediment transport mechanisms on various space and time scales, this thesis is based on mathematical modelling. The hydro-sedimentary model set up in the Gulf of Lion, which takes into account the gathered effect of waves and currents, was supported by recent hydro-sedimentary data analyses. CARMA (winter 2006/2007) and SCOPE (winter 2007/2008) experiments were used to better understand the physical processes which control the sediment transport on the Rhone pro-delta and to validate the model. The period of the centennial Rhone River flood of December 2003 was also simulated in order to determine the impact of such extreme events on the fate of sediments. Both observations and simulations of the studied periods highlight the high capacity of erosion and transport induced by south-eastern storms on the pro-delta

  8. Stratigraphy of two conjugate margins (Gulf of Lion and West Sardinia): modeling of vertical movements and sediment budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Estelle; Gorini, Christian; Aslanian, Daniel; Rabineau, Marina; Blanpied, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup; Robin, Cécile; Granjeon, Didier; Taillepierre, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The post-rift (~20-0 Ma) vertical movements of the Provence Basin (West Mediterranean) are quantified on its both conjugate (the Gulf of Lion and the West Sardinia) margins. This work is based on the stratigraphic study of sedimentary markers using a large 3D grid of seismic data, correlations with existing drillings and refraction data. The post-rift subsidence is measured by the direct use of sedimentary geometries analysed in 3D [Gorini et al., 2015; Rabineau et al., 2014] and validated by numerical stratigraphic modelling. Three domains were found: on the platform (1) and slope (2), the subsidence takes the form of a seaward tilting with different amplitudes, whereas the deep basin (3) subsides purely vertically [Leroux et al., 2015a]. These domains correspond to the deeper crustal domains respectively highlighted by wide angle seismic data. The continental crust (1) and the thinned continental crust (2) are tilted, whereas the intermediate crust, identified as lower continental exhumed crust [Moulin et al., 2015, Afhilado et al., 2015] (3) sagged. The post-break-up subsidence re-uses the initial hinge lines of the rifting phase. This striking correlation between surface geologic processes and deep earth dynamic processes emphasizes that the sedimentary record and sedimentary markers is a window into deep geodynamic processes and dynamic topography. Pliocene-Pleistocene seismic markers enabled high resolution quantification of sediment budgets over the past 6 Myr [Leroux et al., in press]. Sediment budget history is here completed on the Miocene interval. Thus, the controlling factors (climate, tectonics and eustasy) are discussed. Afilhado, A., Moulin, M., Aslanian, D., Schnürle, P., Klingelhoefer, F., Nouzé, H., Rabineau, M., Leroux, E. & Beslier, M.-O. (2015). Deep crustal structure across a young 1 passive margin from wide-angle and reflection seismic data (The SARDINIA Experiment) - II. Sardinia's margin. Bull. Soc. géol. France, 186, ILP Spec. issue, 4

  9. Conceptual Model for the Geothermal System of the Wagner Basin, Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Neumann, F.; Negrete-Aranda, R.; Contreras, J.; Batista-Cruz, R. Y.; Kretzschmar, T.; Avilés-Esquivel, T. A.; Reyes Ortega, V.; Flores-Luna, C. F.; Gomez-Trevino, E.; Martin, A.; Constable, S.

    2017-12-01

    Cerro Prieto in northwestern Mexico is one of the biggest geothermal plants in the world. Cerro Prieto sits in the Gulf of California rift system, which consists of a series of spreading centers and transform faults. The aim of this study is to evaluate the geothermal potential of the nearby offshore Wagner basin. To this end, we acquired and analyzed a set of different methods, such as reflection seismics, heat flow, magnetotelluric and controlled source electromagnetics, hydrogeochemistry and echosounder. Seismic reflection data show that the Wagner basin is a semi-graben, A profile crossing it shows numerous closely spaced faults, particularly in its eastern part. We found very high heat flow values, in excess of 1000 mW/m2, and large variability on the eastern flank of the Wagner basin, whereas there are more consistent and much lower values across the central and western parts. The high and variable heat flow values are suggestive of advective heat transfer We collected cores and interstitial water samples. The hydrogeochemistry analyses show that in the cores recovered from high heat flow areas, the relations bromide/choride and bromide/sulfide are clearly different from sea water. In contrast, those relations were close to sea water in areas with low heat flow. Similarly, the isotope relations such as 2H/18O show a similar pattern, further indicating the groundwater origin of the interstitial water found in high heat flow zones. In the magnetoteluric measurements we found the presence of a deep conductor that is located approximately under the basin center, extends from the base of the crust to depths of about 40 km, and dips toward the NE. This conductor is probably related to the heat source of the geothermal system. Active source electromagnetics show the presence of shallow conductors that correlate with the faults visible in the seismic sections. There are two distinct conductors, one in the eastern flank and another in the western flank of the basin

  10. Altered gut microbiome in a mouse model of Gulf War Illness causes neuroinflammation and intestinal injury via leaky gut and TLR4 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Alhasson

    Full Text Available Many of the symptoms of Gulf War Illness (GWI that include neurological abnormalities, neuroinflammation, chronic fatigue and gastrointestinal disturbances have been traced to Gulf War chemical exposure. Though the association and subsequent evidences are strong, the mechanisms that connect exposure to intestinal and neurological abnormalities remain unclear. Using an established rodent model of Gulf War Illness, we show that chemical exposure caused significant dysbiosis in the gut that included increased abundance of phylum Firmicutes and Tenericutes, and decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes. Several gram negative bacterial genera were enriched in the GWI-model that included Allobaculum sp. Altered microbiome caused significant decrease in tight junction protein Occludin with a concomitant increase in Claudin-2, a signature of a leaky gut. Resultant leaching of gut caused portal endotoxemia that led to upregulation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4 activation in the small intestine and the brain. TLR4 knock out mice and mice that had gut decontamination showed significant decrease in tyrosine nitration and inflammatory mediators IL1β and MCP-1 in both the small intestine and frontal cortex. These events signified that gut dysbiosis with simultaneous leaky gut and systemic endotoxemia-induced TLR4 activation contributes to GW chemical-induced neuroinflammation and gastrointestinal disturbances.

  11. Coastal groundwater discharge for the U.S. East and Gulf Coasts calculated with three-dimensional groundwater flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befus, K. M.; Kroeger, K. D.; Smith, C. G.; Swarzenski, P. W.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh groundwater discharge to coastal environments contribute to the physical and chemical conditions of coastal waters. At regional scales, groundwater fluxes remain poorly constrained, representing uncertainty in both water and chemical budgets that have implications for downstream ecosystem health and for how human activities alter coastal hydrologic processes. Coastal groundwater discharges remain widely unconstrained due to the interconnectedness of highly heterogeneous hydrogeologic frameworks and hydrologic conditions. We use regional-scale, three-dimensional groundwater flow models with the best available hydrostratigraphic framework data to calculate the magnitude of groundwater discharging from coastal aquifers to coastal waterbodies along the eastern U.S. In addition, we constrain the inland areas that contribute to coastal groundwater discharges using particle tracking. We find that 27 km3/yr of groundwater enters coastal waters of the eastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico and was over 175,000 km2. The contributing areas to coastal groundwater discharge extended kilometers inland and often were supplied by recharge occurring tens of kilometers inland. These results suggest that coastal groundwater discharges rely on larger contributing areas and potentially transport more dissolved constituents than previously calculated, which are important factors for constraining the role of groundwater in coastal chemical budgets and its impacts on coastal ecosystems.

  12. Improvements of Storm Surge Modelling in the Gulf of Venice with Satellite Data: The ESA Due Esurge-Venice Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasio, F.; Bajo, M.; Vignudelli, S.; Papa, A.; della Valle, A.; Umgiesser, G.; Donlon, C.; Zecchetto, S.

    2016-08-01

    Among the most detrimental natural phenomena, storm surges heavily endanger the environment, the economy and the everyday life of sea-side countries and coastal zones. Considering that 120.000.000 people live in the Mediterranean area, with additional 200.000.000 presences in Summer for tourism purposes, the correct prediction of storm surges is crucial to avoid fatalities and economic losses. Earth Observation (EO) can play an important role in operational storm surge forecasting, yet it is not widely diffused in the storm surge community. In 2011 the European Space Agency (ESA), through its Data User Element (DUE) programme, financed two projects aimed at encouraging the uptake of EO data in this sector: eSurge and eSurge-Venice (eSV). The former was intended to address the issues of a wider users' community, while the latter was focused on a restricted geographical area: the northern Adriatic Sea and the Gulf of Venice. Among the objectives of the two projects there were a number of storm surge hindcast experiments using satellite data, to demonstrate the improvements on the surge forecast brought by EO. We report here the results of the hindcast experiments of the eSV project. They were aimed to test the sensitivity of a storm surge model to a forcing wind field modified with scatterometer data in order to reduce the bias between simulated and observed winds. Hindcast experiments were also performed to test the response of the storm surge model to the assimilation, with a dual 4D-Var system, of satellite altimetry observations as model errors of the initial state of the sea surface level. Remarkable improvements on the storm surge forecast have been obtained for what concerns the modified model wind forcing. Encouraging results have been obtained also in the assimilation experiments.

  13. Study the Seasonal Variability of Plankton and Forage Fish in the Gulf of Khambhat Using Npzfd Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.; Kumar, S.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical modelling of marine ecology exploits several assumptions and it is indeed quite challenging to include marine ecological phenomena into a mathematical framework with too many unknown parameters. The governing ordinary differential equations represent the interaction of the biological and chemical processes in a marine environment. The key concern in the development of a numerical models are parameterizations based on output, viz., mathematical modelling of ecological system mainly depends on parameters and its variations. Almost, all constituents of each trophic level of marine food web are depended on phytoplankton, which are mostly influenced by initial slope of P-I curve and nutrient stock in the study domain. Whereas, the earlier plankton dynamic models rarely include a compartment of small fish and as an agent in zooplankton mortality, which is most important for the modelling of higher trophic level of marine species. A compartment of forage fish in the modelling of plankton dynamics has been given more realistic mortality rates of plankton, viz., they feed upon phytoplankton and zooplankton. The inclusion of an additional compartment increases complexity of earlier plankton dynamics model as it introduces additional unknown parameters, which has been specified for performing the numerical simulations.As a case study we applied our analysis to explain the aquatic ecology of Gulf of Khambhat (19o 48' N - 22o20' N, 65o E - 72o40' E), west coast of India, which has rich bio-diversity and a high productive area in the form of plankton and forage fish. It has elevated turbidity and varying geography location, viz., one of the regions among world's ocean with high biological productivity.The model presented in this study is able to bring out the essential features of the observed data; that includes the bimodal oscillations in the observed data, monthly mean chlorophyll-a in the SeaWiFs/MODIS Aqua data and in-situ data of plankton. The additional

  14. Chemical and histological comparisons between Brevoortia sp. (menhaden) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA and Delaware Bay, NJ following the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivegna, Carolyn S; Cooper, Keith R; Olson, Gregory; Pena, Edwin A; Millemann, Daniel R; Portier, Ralph J

    2015-12-01

    Body burdens of PAHs were compared to histological effects in menhaden (Family: Clupeidae, Genus: Brevoortia) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA (BBLA) and Delaware Bay, NJ (DBNJ). Barataria Bay was heavily oiled during the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, while Delaware Bay although urbanized had no reported recent oil spills. GCMS analyses of pre-spill 2009, BBLA and DBNJ fish found predominantly C2/C3 phenanthrene (1.28-6.52 ng/mg). However, BBLA also contained five higher molecular weight PAHs (0.06-0.34 ng/mg DW). Fluorescent aromatic compound spectroscopy (FACS) of gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissue showed statistically higher levels of hydroxypyrene-like PAHs in DBNJ than BBLA fish. Histopathologic lesions were more prevalent in BBLA than DBNJ fish. The lesion prevalence (gill, trunk kidney, epidermis, stomach) in the BBLA menhaden were significantly higher and more severe than observed in the DBNJ menhaden. Reversible lesions included gill lamellar hyperplasia, adhesions, edema, and epidermal hyperplasia. The increased pigmented macrophage centers were indicative of activated macrophages responding to connective tissue damage or other antigens. The liver hepatic necrosis and renal tissue mineralization may well have undergone repair, but damage to the kidney nephrons and hepatic/biliary regions of the liver would be slower to resolve and apparently remained after elimination of PAHs. Therefore, a direct cause and effect between DWH oil spill and increased lesion prevalence in BBLA menhaden could not be established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High-resolution modeling of coastal freshwater discharge and glacier mass balance in the Gulf of Alaska watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, J. P.; Hill, D. F.; Arendt, A.; Liston, G. E.

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive study of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) drainage basin was carried out to improve understanding of the coastal freshwater discharge (FWD) and glacier volume loss (GVL). Hydrologic processes during the period 1980-2014 were modeled using a suite of physically based, spatially distributed weather, energy-balance snow/ice melt, soil water balance, and runoff routing models at a high-resolution (1 km horizontal grid; daily time step). Meteorological forcing was provided by the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data sets. Streamflow and glacier mass balance modeled using MERRA and CFSR compared well with observations in four watersheds used for calibration in the study domain. However, only CFSR produced regional seasonal and long-term trends in water balance that compared favorably with independent Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and airborne altimetry data. Mean annual runoff using CFSR was 760 km3 yr-1, 8% of which was derived from the long-term removal of stored water from glaciers (glacier volume loss). The annual runoff from CFSR was partitioned into 63% snowmelt, 17% glacier ice melt, and 20% rainfall. Glacier runoff, taken as the sum of rainfall, snow, and ice melt occurring each season on glacier surfaces, was 38% of the total seasonal runoff, with the remaining runoff sourced from nonglacier surfaces. Our simulations suggests that existing GRACE solutions, previously reported to represent glacier mass balance alone, are actually measuring the full water budget of land and ice surfaces.

  16. Predominant nonlinear atmospheric response to meridional shift of the Gulf Stream path from the WRF atmospheric model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, H.; Kwon, Y. O.; Joyce, T. M.

    2016-02-01

    A remarkably strong nonlinear behavior of the atmospheric circulation response to North Atlantic SST anomalies (SSTA) is revealed from a set of large-ensemble, high-resolution, and hemispheric-scale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations. The model is forced with the SSTA associated with meridional shift of the Gulf Stream (GS) path, constructed from a lag regression of the winter SST on a GS Index from observation. Analysis of the systematic set of experiments with SSTAs of varied amplitudes and switched signs representing various GS-shift scenarios provides unique insights into mechanism for emergence and evolution of transient and equilibrium response of atmospheric circulation to extratropical SSTA. Results show that, independent of sign of the SSTA, the equilibrium response is characterized by an anomalous trough over the North Atlantic Ocean and the Western Europe concurrent with enhanced storm track, increased rainfall, and reduced blocking days. To the north of the anomalous low, an anomalous ridge emerges over the Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian Seas accompanied by weakened storm track, reduced rainfall and increased blocking days. This nonlinear component of the total response dominates the weak and oppositely signed linear response that is directly forced by the SSTA, yielding an anomalous ridge (trough) downstream of the warm (cold) SSTA. The amplitude of the linear response is proportional to that of the SSTA, but this is masked by the overwhelmingly strong nonlinear behavior showing no clear correspondence to the SSTA amplitude. The nonlinear pattern emerges 3-4 weeks after the model initialization in November and reaches its first peak amplitude in December/January. It appears that altered baroclinic wave activity due to the GS SSTA in November lead to low-frequency height responses in December/January through transient eddy vorticity flux convergence.

  17. Physical processes in the Gulf of Kachchh: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.

    of the Gulf, off Bedi in the central Gulf and off Navlakhi in the eastern Gulf during pre-monsoon show that flood-currents are stronger than ebb- currents6. Strong flood currents result in piling up of sediments in the mud flats at the head of the Gulf.... Although previous studies have shown that bulk of the suspended sediment near the head of the Gulf is delivered by numerous tidal creeks present within the tidal mud flats7 model studies show that the tidal currents should lead to net piling...

  18. Gulf of Tonkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Erich

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson on the Gulf of Tonkin incident during the Vietnam War and the resulting Tonkin Gulf Resolution. Recommends using the resolution as a way of studying the war making powers of the U.S. presidency. Includes excerpts from the Tonkin Gulf Resolution as student readings. (CFR)

  19. Observations and operational model simulations reveal the impact of Hurricane Matthew (2016) on the Gulf Stream and coastal sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tal; Atkinson, Larry P.; Tuleya, Robert

    2017-12-01

    In October 7-9, 2016, Hurricane Matthew moved along the southeastern coast of the U.S., causing major flooding and significant damage, even to locations farther north well away from the storm's winds. Various observations, such as tide gauge data, cable measurements of the Florida Current (FC) transport, satellite altimeter data and high-frequency radar data, were analyzed to evaluate the impact of the storm. The data show a dramatic decline in the FC flow and increased coastal sea level along the U.S. coast. Weakening of the Gulf Stream (GS) downstream from the storm's area contributed to high coastal sea levels farther north. Analyses of simulations of an operational hurricane-ocean coupled model reveal the disruption that the hurricane caused to the GS flow, including a decline in transport of ∼20 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1). In comparison, the observed FC reached a maximum transport of ∼40 Sv before the storm on September 10 and a minimum of ∼20 Sv after the storm on October 12. The hurricane impacts both the geostrophic part of the GS and the wind-driven currents, generating inertial oscillations with velocities of up to ±1 m s-1. Analysis of the observed FC transport since 1982 indicated that the magnitude of the current weakening in October 2016 was quite rare (outside 3 standard deviations from the mean). Such a large FC weakening in the past occurred more often in October and November, but is extremely rare in June-August. Similar impacts on the FC from past tropical storms and hurricanes suggest that storms may contribute to seasonal and interannual variations in the FC. The results also demonstrated the extended range of coastal impacts that remote storms can cause through their influence on ocean currents.

  20. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Florida and East Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  1. A modeling study of coastal inundation induced by storm surge, sea-level rise, and subsidence in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Kraucunas, Ian P.; Rice, Jennie S.; Preston, Benjamin; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2013-12-10

    The northern coasts of the Gulf of Mexico are highly vulnerable to the direct threats of climate change, such as hurricane-induced storm surge, and such risks can be potentially exacerbated by land subsidence and global sea level rise. This paper presents an application of a coastal storm surge model to study the coastal inundation process induced by tide and storm surge, and its response to the effects of land subsidence and sea level rise in the northern Gulf coast. An unstructured-grid Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model was used to simulate tides and hurricane-induced storm surges in the Gulf of Mexico. Simulated distributions of co-amplitude and co-phase of semi-diurnal and diurnal tides are in good agreement with previous modeling studies. The storm surges induced by four historical hurricanes (Rita, Katrina, Ivan and Dolly) were simulated and compared to observed water levels at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration tide stations. Effects of coastal subsidence and future global sea level rise on coastal inundation in the Louisiana coast were evaluated using a parameter “change of inundation depth” through sensitivity simulations that were based on a projected future subsidence scenario and 1-m global sea level rise by the end of the century. Model results suggested that hurricane-induced storm surge height and coastal inundation could be exacerbated by future global sea level rise and subsidence, and that responses of storm surge and coastal inundation to the effects of sea level rise and subsidence are highly nonlinear and vary on temporal and spatial scales.

  2. Recent Advances in Modeling Phosphorus and Nitrogen Delivery to the Gulf of Mexico and Implications for Managing Nutrients n the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.; Schwarz, G. E.; Boyer, E. W.; Nolan, J. V.; Brakebill, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Although the increased availability of reactive nutrients in past decades has benefited society via food and energy production, the corresponding rise in nutrient loadings to aquatic ecosystems is of particular concern, especially in many estuaries globally where increased nutrient loads have contributed to eutrophic conditions. In the United States, elevated riverine nutrients have contributed to stressed trophic conditions in a majority of estuaries, including the shallow coastal waters of the Louisiana shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico, where both nitrogen and phosphorus loadings are recognized as contributing to seasonal hypoxic conditions. Advances in geospatial modeling of nitrogen and phosphorus sources and transport in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River Basins (MARB), as reported in a recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study, provide important information to support improved assessments and management of nutrient loadings to the northern Gulf of Mexico. We summarize the findings of this study and discuss the implications for managing nutrient sources in the MARB. The study reveals important differences in the sources and aquatic transport of nitrogen and phosphorus that affect delivery to the Gulf. Although agricultural sources contribute a majority of the delivered nutrients to the Gulf, corn and soybean cultivation is the largest contributor of nitrogen whereas phosphorus originates primarily from animal manure on pasture and rangelands. Atmospheric deposition is the second leading source of nitrogen, with urban sources contributing relatively small quantities of both nutrients. Furthermore, we find that both nitrogen and phosphorus delivery to the Gulf is controlled by hydrological and biogeochemical processes (e.g., water travel time, denitrification, storage) that scale with stream size, although phosphorus also displays large local- and regional-scale differences in delivery caused by reservoir trapping. The importance of these processes

  3. A model study of the Copper River plume and its effect on the northern Gulf of Alaska (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, H.; Wang, Y.; Chai, F.; Chao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Using a three-level nested Regional Ocean Modeling System coupled with the Carbon, Silicate, Nitrogen Ecosystem model, this study illustrated the seasonal evolution of the Copper River (CR) plume and how it influences the along- and across-shore transport in the northern Gulf of Alaska (NGoA). A passive tracer was introduced in the model to delineate the growth and decay of the plume and to diagnose the spread of the CR discharge in the shelf, into Prince William Sound (PWS) and offshore. Furthermore, a model experiment with doubled discharge was conducted to investigate potential impacts of accelerated glacier melt in future climate scenarios. The 2010 and 2011 simulation revealed that the upstream (eastward) transport in the NGoA is almost nil. About 60% of the passive tracer released in the CR discharge is transported southwestward on the shelf, while another one third goes into PWS with close to 60% of which exiting PWS to the shelf from Montague Strait. The rest few percent is transported across the shelf break and exported to the GoA basin. The downstream transport and the transport into PWS are regulated by the downwelling favorable wind, while the offshore transport is related to the accumulation of plume water in the shelf, frontal instability and the Alaskan Stream. The CR plume appears to decay much faster than its formation. It takes weeks for the buoyancy to accumulate so that a bulge forms outside of the CR estuary. If the wind remains calm as in the summer of 2010, the bulge continues growing to trigger frontal instability. These frontal features can interact with the Alaskan Stream to send intense transport pulses across the shelf break. Alternatively as in 2011, a downwelling favorable wind event in early August (near the peak discharge) accelerates the southwestward coastal current and produces an enormous downstream transport event. Both processes result in fast drains of the buoyancy and the plume content, thereby rapid disintegration of the

  4. Vertical and horizontal resolution dependency in the model representation of tracer dispersion along the continental slope in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, Annalisa; Choi, Jun; Kurian, Jaison; Chang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    A set of nine regional ocean model simulations at various horizontal (from 1 to 9 km) and vertical (from 25 to 150 layers) resolutions with different vertical mixing parameterizations is carried out to examine the transport and mixing of a passive tracer released near the ocean bottom over the continental slope in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The release location is in proximity to the Deepwater Horizon oil well that ruptured in April 2010. Horizontal and diapycnal diffusivities are calculated and their dependence on the model set-up and on the representation of mesoscale and submesoscale circulations is discussed. Horizontal and vertical resolutions play a comparable role in determining the modeled horizontal diffusivities. Vertical resolution is key to a proper representation of passive tracer propagation and - in the case of the Gulf of Mexico - contributes to both confining the tracer along the continental slope and limiting its vertical spreading. The choice of the tracer advection scheme is also important, with positive definiteness in the tracer concentration being achieved at the price of spurious mixing across density surfaces. In all cases, however, the diapycnal mixing coefficient derived from the model simulations overestimates the observed value, indicating an area where model improvement is needed.

  5. Modeling of seismic amplitude to discriminate the effects of lithology and fluids in AVO anomalies in deep water of the Gulf of Mexico Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdan, T.; Ramirez Ortega, C.; Gonzalez Ibarra, A.

    2007-05-01

    Recently the interest in deep water hydrocarbon exploration of the Gulf of Mexico Basin has increased. Hydrocarbon detection with AVO method in deep water presents greater ambiguity than at shallow depth. For this reason it is necessary to establish an strategy that reduces the risk of perforation associated with the interpretation of AVO anomalies. For the case of sandstone and shale, their petrophysical properties vary widely in the Gulf of Mexico Basin. For example, sandstones located at depths greater than 2-3 km can loose porosity due to cementation and hence this affect rock properties as impedance and Poisson coefficient, producing changes in seismic amplitudes. Reservoir sandstones can produce positive, negative o null reflections in the seismic sections. Throughout the Tertiary basins in the Gulf of México there are areas where acoustic impedance values of shales and gas sandstones are approximately equal. This means that those zones with hydrocarbon can appear as dim spot and are difficult to detect with conventional 3D seismic data. Hydrocarbon saturation affected the velocity of soft rocks at shallow depths, where sandstones is not cemented, but at greater depth when cementation increases susceptibility of rocks to fluid diminishes. For that reason it is important before AVO to make the elastic modeling to study the influence of different factors like mineralogy (obtained from analysis of well core and well logs), pore pressure, attenuation, illumination, anisotropy, etc. The studied elastic models show that it is often difficult to isolate the lithologic and fluid contribution to seismic response. To discriminate lithology from hydrocarbon it is necessary to make anelastic modeling (including attenuation), based on the fact that sands with gas produce attenuation anomaly whereas mineralogical changes do not. A detailed study of attenuation will allow to evaluate if the volume of gas in reservoir is commercial or not.

  6. A model study of the Copper River plume and its effects on the northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Xue, Huijie; Chai, Fei; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John

    2014-01-01

    A three-level nested Regional Ocean Modeling System was used to examine the seasonal evolution of the Copper River (CR) plume and how it influences the along- and across-shore transport in the northern Gulf of Alaska (NGoA). A passive tracer was introduced in the model to delineate the growth and decay of the plume and to diagnose the spread of the CR discharge in the shelf, into Prince William Sound (PWS) and offshore. Furthermore, a model experiment with doubled discharge was conducted to investigate potential impacts of accelerated glacier melt in future climate scenarios. The 2010 and 2011 simulation revealed that the upstream (eastward) transport in the NGoA is negligible. About 60 % of the passive tracer released in the CR discharge is transported southwestward on the shelf, while another one third goes into PWS with close to 60 % of which exiting PWS to the shelf from Montague Strait. The rest few percent is transported across the shelf break and exported to the GoA basin. The downstream transport and the transport into PWS are strongly regulated by the downwelling-favorable wind, while the offshore transport is related to the accumulation of plume water in the shelf, frontal instability, and the Alaskan Stream. It takes weeks in spring for the buoyancy to accumulate so that a bulge forms outside of the CR estuary. The absence of strong storms as in the summer of 2010 allows the bulge continue growing to trigger frontal instability. These frontal features can interact with the Alaskan Stream to induce transport pulses across the shelf break. Alternatively as in 2011, a downwelling-favorable wind event in early August (near the peak discharge) accelerates the southwestward coastal current and produces an intense downstream transport event. Both processes result in fast drains of the buoyancy and the plume content, thereby rapid disintegration of the plume in the shelf. The plume in the doubled discharge case can be two to three times in size, which affects

  7. Modelling nitrogen and phosphorus limitation on phytoplankton growth in Narva Bay, south-eastern Gulf of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadi Lessin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The relative roles of nitrogen and phosphorus in the limitationof phytoplankton growth in Narva Bay, south-eastern Gulf of Finland,were studied by combining the results of numerical modellingand nutrient enrichment experiments. Modelled biomass-based intracellularnutrient concentrations (nutrient functions were used to estimatethe limiting nutrient in Narva Bay. Nutrient functions - NF∈ [0; 1] for nitrogen and PF ∈ [0; 1] for phosphorus - definethe dependence of the phytoplankton growth rate on nutrients:NF = PF = 1 corresponds to non-limitation of phytoplankton growthby nutrients, whereas NF = 0 or PF = 0 to zero growth. Thebiotests indicated the response of phytoplankton growth to anincrease in nutrient concentration in the surrounding water.Three locations were selected for detailed analyses of temporalvariations in the nutrient functions: the offshore station N12,station N8 at the mouth of the River Narva, and coastal station38. The biotests were performed at the same stations.NF and PF reached values of 0.9 prior to the spring bloom.With the onset of the spring bloom, NF decreased rapidly and remained below0.1 in the open part of Narva Bay for the rest of that period.In the coastal zone, NF was in excess of 0.1, with a localmaximum in the river mouth area. PF decreased to 0.3-0.4 inthe open bay after the spring bloom. In the coastal zone PFremained above 0.4, with a certain increase from the midsummerminimum towards the end of summer. The numerical modelling resultsclearly show that nitrogen limits phytoplankton growth in NarvaBay. Phosphorus limitation may occur only for a limited periodand over a limited area at the Narva River mouth and other coastallocations. In general, the biotests backed up the modelling results,the main exception being in the open bay during summer. The modeldoes not account for nitrogen fixation, however. Since N-fixingcyanobacteria were prevalent in the offshore area, the additionof phosphorus led to enhanced

  8. Influence of Subtropical Jetstream on Arabian Gulf Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, S.; Pauluis, O.; Ravindran, A. M.; TP, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Arabian Gulf and surrounding regions are predominantly arid. However, this region hosts a large population due to the intense economic activity that is centered on the exploration of natural resources in and around the Arabian Gulf. Thus, few precipitation events that occur during boreal winter are important for society and ecology of this region. The mechanisms of winter precipitation over the Gulf are not well understood, partly due to a lack of long term meteorological observation. Here we explore the dynamics of Arabian Gulf winter precipitation events using available observations and a high resolution atmospheric model simulation. Our analyses show that the northern Gulf receives about six times more precipitation than the southern Gulf. Often, the southern Gulf precipitation forms as a result of downstream development of northern Gulf disturbance. The southward movement of northern Gulf disturbances is influenced by the location of subtropical jet. The probability of a northern Gulf precipitating weather system to move south is higher when the subtropical jet is located equatorward of 30°N. The equatorward position of jet favors the penetration of mid-latitude weather systems over the Arabian Peninsula, which in turn pushes the Arabian anticyclone eastward and triggers moisture transport from the Arabian Sea that is essential for southern Gulf precipitation events.

  9. Two depositional models for Pliocene coastal plain fluvial systems, Goliad Formation, south Texas Gulf Coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, H.D.; Galloway, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Goliad Formation consists of four depositional systems-the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems in the southwest and the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems in the northeast. Five facies are recognized in the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems: (1) primary channel-fill facies, (2) chaotic flood channel-fill facies, (3) complex splay facies, (4) flood plain facies, and (5) playa facies. A model for Realitos-Mathis depositional environments shows arid-climate braided stream complexes with extremely coarse sediment load, highly variable discharge, and marked channel instability. Broad, shallow, straight to slightly sinuous primary channels were flanked by wide flood channels. Flood channels passed laterally into broad, low-relief flood plains. Small playas occupied topographic lows near large channel axes. Three facies are recognized in the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems: (1) channel-fill facies, (2) crevasse splay facies, and (3) flood plain facies. A model for Cuero-Eagle Lake depositional environments shows coarse-grained meander belts in a semi-arid climate. Slightly to moderately sinuous meandering streams were flanked by low, poorly developed natural levees. Crevasse splays were common, but tended to be broad and ill-defined. Extensive, low-relief flood plains occupied interaxial areas. The model proposed for the Realitos and Mathis fluvial systems may aid in recognition of analogous ancient depositional systems. In addition, since facies characteristics exercise broad controls on Goliad uranium mineralization, the proposed depositional models aid in defining target zones for Goliad uranium exploration

  10. Dynamical Evaluation of Ocean Models Using the Gulf Stream as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ECMWF over 2004-2006, (c) a 1978-2002 climatology derived using an ECMWF 40-year reanalysis (ERA-40) (Kallberg et al. 2004) and (d) a 2003-2008 clima ...these experiments starts from an initial state forced by ECMWF clima - tology for the surface momentum and heat. However, starting points for the two...winds. This correction is applied to a new model spin up using the ERA-40 clima - tology to generate a new initial condition for an interannual forced

  11. Studying methane migration mechanisms at Walker Ridge, Gulf of Mexico, via 3D methane hydrate reservoir modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nole, Michael [University of Texas at Austin; Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin; Mohanty, Kishore [University of Texas at Austin; Cook, Ann [Ohio State University; Hillman, Jess [Ohio State University

    2015-12-15

    We have developed a 3D methane hydrate reservoir simulator to model marine methane hydrate systems. Our simulator couples highly nonlinear heat and mass transport equations and includes heterogeneous sedimentation, in-situ microbial methanogenesis, the influence of pore size contrast on solubility gradients, and the impact of salt exclusion from the hydrate phase on dissolved methane equilibrium in pore water. Using environmental parameters from Walker Ridge in the Gulf of Mexico, we first simulate hydrate formation in and around a thin, dipping, planar sand stratum surrounded by clay lithology as it is buried to 295mbsf. We find that with sufficient methane being supplied by organic methanogenesis in the clays, a 200x pore size contrast between clays and sands allows for a strong enough concentration gradient to significantly drop the concentration of methane hydrate in clays immediately surrounding a thin sand layer, a phenomenon that is observed in well log data. Building upon previous work, our simulations account for the increase in sand-clay solubility contrast with depth from about 1.6% near the top of the sediment column to 8.6% at depth, which leads to a progressive strengthening of the diffusive flux of methane with time. By including an exponentially decaying organic methanogenesis input to the clay lithology with depth, we see a decrease in the aqueous methane supplied to the clays surrounding the sand layer with time, which works to further enhance the contrast in hydrate saturation between the sand and surrounding clays. Significant diffusive methane transport is observed in a clay interval of about 11m above the sand layer and about 4m below it, which matches well log observations. The clay-sand pore size contrast alone is not enough to completely eliminate hydrate (as observed in logs), because the diffusive flux of aqueous methane due to a contrast in pore size occurs slower than the rate at which methane is supplied via organic methanogenesis

  12. 2015 Gulf Guardian Award Winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program Partnership developed the Gulf Guardian awards as a way to recognize and honor the businesses, community groups, individuals, and agencies that are taking positive steps to keep the Gulf healthy, beautiful and productive.

  13. 2017 Gulf Guardian Award Winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program Partnership developed the Gulf Guardian awards as a way to recognize and honor the businesses, community groups, individuals, and agencies that are taking positive steps to keep the Gulf healthy, beautiful and productive.

  14. Source characterization and tsunami modeling of submarine landslides along the Yucatán Shelf/Campeche Escarpment, southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, Jason D.; Geist, Eric L.; Paull, Charles K.; Caress, David W; Gwiazda, Roberto; Urrutia Fucugauchi, Jaime; Rebolledo Vieyra, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Submarine landslides occurring along the margins of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) represent a low-likelihood, but potentially damaging source of tsunamis. New multibeam bathymetry coverage reveals that mass wasting is pervasive along the Yucatán Shelf edge with several large composite landslides possibly removing as much as 70 km3 of the Cenozoic sedimentary section in a single event. Using GIS-based analysis, the dimensions of six landslides from the central and northern sections of the Yucatán Shelf/Campeche Escarpment were determined and used as input for preliminary tsunami generation and propagation models. Tsunami modeling is performed to compare the propagation characteristics and distribution of maximum amplitudes throughout the GOM among the different landslide scenarios. Various factors such as landslide geometry, location along the Yucatán Shelf/Campeche Escarpment, and refraction during propagation result in significant variations in the affected part of the Mexican and US Gulf Coasts. In all cases, however, tsunami amplitudes are greatest along the northern Yucatán Peninsula.

  15. A coupled physical-biological model of the Northern Gulf of Mexico shelf: model description, validation and analysis of phytoplankton variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fennel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Texas-Louisiana shelf in the Northern Gulf of Mexico receives large inputs of nutrients and freshwater from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River system. The nutrients stimulate high rates of primary production in the river plume, which contributes to the development of a large and recurring hypoxic area in summer, but the mechanistic links between hypoxia and river discharge of freshwater and nutrients are complex as the accumulation and vertical export of organic matter, the establishment and maintenance of vertical stratification, and the microbial degradation of organic matter are controlled by a non-linear interplay of factors. Unraveling these interactions will have to rely on a combination of observations and models. Here we present results from a realistic, 3-dimensional, physical-biological model with focus on a quantification of nutrient-stimulated phytoplankton growth, its variability and the fate of this organic matter. We demonstrate that the model realistically reproduces many features of observed nitrate and phytoplankton dynamics including observed property distributions and rates. We then contrast the environmental factors and phytoplankton source and sink terms characteristic of three model subregions that represent an ecological gradient from eutrophic to oligotrophic conditions. We analyze specifically the reasons behind the counterintuitive observation that primary production in the light-limited plume region near the Mississippi River delta is positively correlated with river nutrient input, and find that, while primary production and phytoplankton biomass are positively correlated with nutrient load, phytoplankton growth rate is not. This suggests that accumulation of biomass in this region is not primarily controlled bottom up by nutrient-stimulation, but top down by systematic differences in the loss processes.

  16. Estimating surface pCO2 in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Which remote sensing model to use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangling; Hu, Chuanmin; Cai, Wei-Jun; Yang, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Various approaches and models have been proposed to remotely estimate surface pCO2 in the ocean, with variable performance as they were designed for different environments. Among these, a recently developed mechanistic semi-analytical approach (MeSAA) has shown its advantage for its explicit inclusion of physical and biological forcing in the model, yet its general applicability is unknown. Here, with extensive in situ measurements of surface pCO2, the MeSAA, originally developed for the summertime East China Sea, was tested in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) where river plumes dominate water's biogeochemical properties during summer. Specifically, the MeSAA-predicted surface pCO2 was estimated by combining the dominating effects of thermodynamics, river-ocean mixing and biological activities on surface pCO2. Firstly, effects of thermodynamics and river-ocean mixing (pCO2@Hmixing) were estimated with a two-endmember mixing model, assuming conservative mixing. Secondly, pCO2 variations caused by biological activities (ΔpCO2@bio) was determined through an empirical relationship between sea surface temperature (SST)-normalized pCO2 and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) 8-day composite chlorophyll concentration (CHL). The MeSAA-modeled pCO2 (sum of pCO2@Hmixing and ΔpCO2@bio) was compared with the field-measured pCO2. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was 22.94 μatm (5.91%), with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.25, mean bias (MB) of - 0.23 μatm and mean ratio (MR) of 1.001, for pCO2 ranging between 316 and 452 μatm. To improve the model performance, a locally tuned MeSAA was developed through the use of a locally tuned ΔpCO2@bio term. A multi-variate empirical regression model was also developed using the same dataset. Both the locally tuned MeSAA and the regression models showed improved performance comparing to the original MeSAA, with R2 of 0.78 and 0.84, RMSE of 12.36 μatm (3.14%) and 10.66 μatm (2.68%), MB of 0.00 μatm and - 0

  17. Optical Models for Remote Sensing of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter Absorption and Salinity in New England, Middle Atlantic and Gulf Coast Estuaries USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl J. Keith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean color algorithms have been successfully developed to estimate chlorophyll a and total suspended solids concentrations in coastal and estuarine waters but few have been created to estimate light absorption due to colored dissolved inorganic matter (CDOM and salinity from the spectral signatures of these waters. In this study, we used remotely sensed reflectances in the red and blue-green portions of the visible spectrum retrieved from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS and the International Space Station (ISS Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO images to create a model to estimate CDOM absorption. CDOM absorption results were then used to develop an algorithm to predict the surface salinities of coastal bays and estuaries in New England, Middle Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico regions. Algorithm-derived CDOM absorptions and salinities were successfully validated using laboratory measured absorption values over magnitudes of ~0.1 to 7.0 m−1 and field collected CTD data from oligohaline to polyhaline (S less than 5 to 18–30 environments in Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island; the Neuse River Estuary (North Carolina; Pensacola Bay (Florida; Choctawhatchee Bay (Florida; St. Andrews Bay (Florida; St. Joseph Bay (Florida; and inner continental shelf waters of the Gulf of Mexico.

  18. Which Fault Orientations Occur during Oblique Rifting? Combining Analog and Numerical 3d Models with Observations from the Gulf of Aden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, J.; Brune, S.

    2013-12-01

    Oblique rift systems like the Gulf of Aden are intrinsically three-dimensional. In order to understand the evolution of these systems, one has to decode the fundamental mechanical similarities of oblique rifts. One way to accomplish this, is to strip away the complexity that is generated by inherited fault structures. In doing so, we assume a laterally homogeneous segment of Earth's lithosphere and ask how many different fault populations are generated during oblique extension inbetween initial deformation and final break-up. We combine results of an analog and a numerical model that feature a 3D segment of a layered lithosphere. In both cases, rift evolution is recorded quantitatively in terms of crustal fault geometries. For the numerical model, we adopt a novel post-processing method that allows to infer small-scale crustal fault orientation from the surface stress tensor. Both models involve an angle of 40 degrees between the rift normal and the extensional direction which allows comparison to the Gulf of Aden rift system. The resulting spatio-temporal fault pattern of our models shows three normal fault orientations: rift-parallel, extension-orthogonal, and intermediate, i.e. with a direction inbetween the two previous orientations. The rift evolution involves three distinct phases: (i) During the initial rift phase, wide-spread faulting with intermediate orientation occurs. (ii) Advanced lithospheric necking enables rift-parallel normal faulting at the rift flanks, while strike-slip faulting in the central part of the rift system indicates strain partitioning. (iii) During continental break-up, displacement-orthogonal as well as intermediate faults occur. We compare our results to the structural evolution of the Eastern Gulf of Aden. External parts of the rift exhibit intermediate and displacement-orthogonal faults while rift-parallel faults are present at the rift borders. The ocean-continent transition mainly features intermediate and displacement

  19. 3-D architecture modeling using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control: Example from the Mars {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, M.A.; Tiller, G.M.; Mahaffie, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Economic considerations of the deep-water turbidite play, in the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere, require large reservoir volumes to be drained by relatively few, very expensive wells. Deep-water development projects to date have been planned on the basis of high-quality 3-D seismic data and sparse well control. The link between 3-D seismic, well control, and the 3-D geological and reservoir architecture model are demonstrated here for Pliocene turbidite sands of the {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. This information was used to better understand potential reservoir compartments for development well planning.

  20. Modeling connectivity of walleye pollock in the Gulf of Alaska: Are there any linkages to the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Carolina; Hinckley, Sarah; Horne, John; Mazur, Michael; Hermann, Albert; Curchister, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the connectivity of walleye pollock in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) and linkages to the Bering Sea (BS) and Aleutian Island (AL) regions. We used a spatially-explicit Individual-based model (IBM) coupled to 6 years of a hydrodynamic model that simulates the early life history of walleye pollock in the GOA (eggs to age-0 juveniles). The processes modeled included growth, movement, mortality, feeding and the bioenergetics component for larvae and juveniles. Simulations were set to release particles on the 1st of the month (February to May) in fourteen historical spawning areas in the GOA up to the 1st of September each year. Model results reproduced the link between the Shelikof Strait spawning area and the Shumagin nursery region for March and April spawners, besides other Potential Nursery Areas (PNAs) found in the GOA. A prominent finding of this study was the appearance of the BS as important PNAs for several GOA spawning grounds, which is supported by a consistent flow into the BS through Unimak Pass. The simulations showed the highest density of simulated surviving pollock in the western Bering Sea (WBS) region with the lowest coefficients of variation of the whole domain. Three spawning sectors were defined, which aggregate multiple spawning areas in the eastern (EGOA), central (CGOA) and western Gulf of Alaska (WGOA). A connectivity matrix showed strong retention within the CGOA (25.9%) and EGOA (23.8%), but not in the WGOA (7.2%). Within the GOA, the highest connectivity is observed from EGOA to CGOA (57.8%) followed by the connection from CGOA to WGOA (24.3%). Overall, one of the most prominent connections was from WGOA to WBS (62.8%), followed by a connection from CGOA to WBS (29.2%). In addition, scenarios of shifting spawning locations and nursery sectors of GOA, BS and AL are explored and implications for walleye pollock stock structure hypotheses are discussed.

  1. How and when did a strong thinning occur in the Gulf of Aden? A discussion from field, geophysical data and analogue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahsen, N.; Autin, J.; Leroy, S. D.; D'Acremont, E.; Beslier, M.; Husson, L.; Al-Toubi, K. I.

    2009-12-01

    In the complex evolution of modern scenario of continental rifting, questions about transitions between stages of extension (distributed vs. localized extension, mantle exhumation …) may arise. How and why extension localizes is still a matter of debate. Thus, the parameters controlling the triggering of localized extension must be discussed. Here, we study the effect of local stresses arising from thickness variations in the crust. Here, we use the Gulf of Aden as a natural laboratory to better constrain the evolution of the modes of extension. The Gulf of Aden, at the boundary between Arabian and Somalian plates, offers many advantages, among which its obliquity: the Gulf (075°E) trends obliquely to the plate displacement (025°E). Thus, many fault populations were initiated with different strike through time. Those different fault populations were due to different processes and different stress regimes. From field data in southern Sultanate of Oman and Yemen (Socotra Island), we show that a complex space and time distribution of fault initiation occurred. A counter-clockwise rotation of extension (from 020°E to 160°E, becoming orthogonal to the rift) might have happened during rifting. We suggest that this may be due to local stresses arising from crust thickness variations. However, the question is whether or not those local stresses strongly influenced the rift localization. On seismic profiles, constrained by bathymetric, gravity data and seismic refraction, shallow and deep structure were imaged. Several faults are observed, some of them clearly accommodating much of the far-field early and late extension. A detailed mapping, in map view, of those faults shows that many of them strike at a significant angle from the perpendicular to the divergence. Thus, one can wonder that those faults may be due to local stresses oblique to the rift trend. Finally, we present an analogue model of oblique rifting that allows observing the fault evolution through time

  2. Modelling nearshore hydrodynamics and circulation under the impact of high waves at the coast of Varkiza in Saronic-Athens Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas A. Belibassakis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A plethora of physical parameters, such as hydro-, litho- and morpho-dynamic characteristics, are essential for understanding the response of coastal systems to intense sea states in terms of sediment transport and shoreline evolution. Nowadays, numerical models are extensively applied to meet the above needs and support coastal planning and management. In the present work, a 2DH dynamic modelling system is used for simulating the hydrodynamic and meteorological/oceanographic characteristics of the Saronic Gulf, in order to examine circulation patterns and predict sediment transport phenomena under high wave conditions at the coast of Varkiza, a sandy beach in the southern Attica, Greece. Time series of wind and wave data were used as input at the open boundaries of the model domain while the model was calibrated and validated through (linear and directional statistical measures with respect to in situ wave measurements, since there was lack of hydrodynamic data at the site of interest. The simulation period of the model was between January 3 and February 19, 2013, with consecutive high waves in-between. The good agreement of the numerical results from the wave and hydrodynamic model with in situ measurements confirmed the suitability of the model for the support of sediment transport rates at Varkiza coastal segment. Model results reveal that there is a counter-clockwise water circulation during high waves that contribute to the erosion of the examined beach, which is also confirmed by independent field measurements.

  3. Selective Toxicity of Persian Gulf Sea Cucumber (Holothuria parva) and Sponge (Haliclona oculata) Methanolic Extracts on Liver Mitochondria Isolated from an Animal Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydi, Enayatollah; Motallebi, Abbasali; Dastbaz, Maryam; Dehghan, Sahar; Salimi, Ahmad; Nazemi, Melika; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2015-12-01

    Natural products isolated from marine environments are well known for their pharmacodynamic potential in diverse disease treatments, such as for cancer or inflammatory conditions. Sea cucumbers are marine animals of the phylum Echinoderm and the class Holothuroidea, with leathery skin and gelatinous bodies. Sponges are important components of Persian Gulf animal communities, and the marine sponges of the genus Haliclona have been known to display broad-spectrum biological activity. Many studies have shown that sea cucumbers and sponges contain antioxidants and anti-cancer compounds. This study was designed to determine the selective toxicity of Persian Gulf sea cucumber (Holothuria parva) and sponge (Haliclona oculata) methanolic extracts on liver mitochondria isolated from an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma, as part of a national project that hopes to identify novel potential anticancer candidates among Iranian Persian Gulf flora and fauna. To induce hepatocarcinogenesis, rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) injections (200 mg/kg i.p. by a single dose), and then the cancer was promoted with 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) (0.02 w/w) for two weeks. Histopathological evaluations were performed, and levels of liver injury markers and a specific liver cancer marker (alpha-fetoprotein), were determined for confirmation of hepatocellular carcinoma induction. Finally, mitochondria were isolated from cancerous and non-cancerous hepatocytes. Our results showed that H. parva methanolic extracts (250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL) and H. oculata methanolic extracts (200, 400, and 800 µg/mL) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial swelling, and cytochrome c release in the mitochondria obtained from cancerous hepatocytes, but not in mitochondria obtained from non-cancerous liver hepatocytes. These extracts also induced caspase-3 activation, which is known as a final mediator of apoptosis, in the hepatocytes

  4. Comparison of modeling methods to predict the spatial distribution of deep-sea coral and sponge in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooper, Christopher N.; Zimmermann, Mark; Prescott, Megan M.

    2017-08-01

    Deep-sea coral and sponge ecosystems are widespread throughout most of Alaska's marine waters, and are associated with many different species of fishes and invertebrates. These ecosystems are vulnerable to the effects of commercial fishing activities and climate change. We compared four commonly used species distribution models (general linear models, generalized additive models, boosted regression trees and random forest models) and an ensemble model to predict the presence or absence and abundance of six groups of benthic invertebrate taxa in the Gulf of Alaska. All four model types performed adequately on training data for predicting presence and absence, with regression forest models having the best overall performance measured by the area under the receiver-operating-curve (AUC). The models also performed well on the test data for presence and absence with average AUCs ranging from 0.66 to 0.82. For the test data, ensemble models performed the best. For abundance data, there was an obvious demarcation in performance between the two regression-based methods (general linear models and generalized additive models), and the tree-based models. The boosted regression tree and random forest models out-performed the other models by a wide margin on both the training and testing data. However, there was a significant drop-off in performance for all models of invertebrate abundance ( 50%) when moving from the training data to the testing data. Ensemble model performance was between the tree-based and regression-based methods. The maps of predictions from the models for both presence and abundance agreed very well across model types, with an increase in variability in predictions for the abundance data. We conclude that where data conforms well to the modeled distribution (such as the presence-absence data and binomial distribution in this study), the four types of models will provide similar results, although the regression-type models may be more consistent with

  5. Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters from Menhaden Oil Using Proteus vulgaris Lipase-Mediated One-Step Transesterification and Urea Complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

    2016-05-01

    An organic solvent-stable lipase from Proteus vulgaris K80 was used to produce the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ethyl esters (ω-3 PUFA EEs). First, the lyophilized recombinant lipase K80 (LyoK80) was used to perform the transesterification reaction of menhaden oil and ethanol. LyoK80 produced the ω-3 PUFA EEs with a conversion yield of 82 % in the presence of 20 % water content via a three-step ethanol-feeding process; however, in a non-aqueous condition, LyoK80 produced only a slight amount of the ω-3 PUFA EEs. To enhance its reaction properties, the lipase K80 was immobilized on a hydrophobic bead to derive ImmK80; the biochemical properties and substrate specificity of ImmK80 are similar to those of LyoK80. ImmK80 was then used to produce ω-3 PUFA EEs in accordance with the same transesterification reaction. Unlike LyoK80, ImmK80 achieved a high ω-3 PUFA EE conversion yield of 86 % under a non-aqueous system via a one-step ethanol-feeding reaction. The ω-3 PUFA EEs were purified up to 92 % using a urea complexation method.

  6. Gulf Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Landings - This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by the larger vessels that fish near and offshore for...

  7. Gulf operations still recovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that reports of damage caused by Hurricane Andrew were leveling off last week at the U.S. Minerals Management Service as Gulf of Mexico operators pressed ahead with repairs. The hurricane struck South Florida Aug. 4, churned west into the gulf, then swung north and hit the South Louisiana coast Aug. 5. By the close of business Sept. 8 MMS had received damage reports covering 83 pipeline segments and 193 platforms and satellite installations. MMS last week estimated about 500 MMcfd of gas production had been restored in the gulf and 100,000-150,000 b/d of oil. Production still lost as a result of Andrew was estimated at 2-2.5 bcfd of gas and 90,000-120 b/d of oil. MMS estimates Gulf of Mexico wells before the storm were producing about 12.5-13 bcfd of gas and 750,000 b/d of oil

  8. Gulf Petro Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathi Boukadi

    2011-02-05

    In this report, technologies for petroleum production and exploration enhancement in deepwater and mature fields are developed through basic and applied research by: (1) Designing new fluids to efficiently drill deepwater wells that can not be cost-effectively drilled with current technologies. The new fluids will be heavy liquid foams that have low-density at shallow dept to avoid formation breakdown and high density at drilling depth to control formation pressure. The goal of this project is to provide industry with formulations of new fluids for reducing casing programs and thus well construction cost in deepwater development. (2) Studying the effects of flue gas/CO{sub 2} huff n puff on incremental oil recovery in Louisiana oilfields bearing light oil. An artificial neural network (ANN) model will be developed and used to map recovery efficiencies for candidate reservoirs in Louisiana. (3) Arriving at a quantitative understanding for the three-dimensional controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) geophysical response of typical Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon reservoirs. We will seek to make available tools for the qualitative, rapid interpretation of marine CSEM signatures, and tools for efficient, three-dimensional subsurface conductivity modeling.

  9. Effects of sarin on temperature and activity of rats as a model for gulf war syndrome neuroregulatory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Carole A; Dokladny, Karol; Ménache, Margaret G; Barr, Edward B; Kozak, Wieslaw; Kozak, Anna; Wachulec, Maceij; Rudolph, Karin; Kluger, Matthew J; Henderson, Rogene F

    2002-10-15

    Coexposure to subclinical levels of nerve gas and to heat stress may have induced some of the clinical symptoms of the Gulf War Syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that single or repeated subclinical exposure to sarin, particularly under conditions of heat stress, would impair regulation of body temperature and locomotor activity. Male F344 rats were housed at 25 degrees C or under mild heat stress at 32 degrees C and were exposed 1 h/day for 1, 5, or 10 days to 0, 0.2, or 0.4 mg/m(3) of sarin in a nose-only exposure system. Body temperature and activity were monitored continuously by telemetry during exposure and 1 month postexposure. Exposed rats showed no clinical symptoms of toxicity such as tremors, despite evidence of reduced red blood cell cholinesterase activity. Heat stress consistently elevated body temperature in unexposed animals, particularly during the dark period when animals are most active. Inhalation of sarin gas at the two subclinical levels did not affect body temperature acutely in a biologically meaningful manner after the first exposure nor after 5 or 10 repeated exposures, either at thermoneutral ambient temperature or during chronic heat stress. There were no consistent effects of sarin or housing temperature on activity. The data suggest that subclinical levels of sarin have minimal effects on temperature regulation and locomotor activity under these observation conditions.

  10. Numerical Modeling of the Effects of Nutrient-rich Coastal-water Input on the Phytoplankton in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, A.; Rivas, D.

    2015-12-01

    Phytoplankton bloom dynamics depends on the interactions of favorable physical, chemical, and biotic conditions, particularly on the available nutrients that enhance phytoplankton growth, like nitrogen. Costal and estuarine environments are heavily influenced by exogenous sources of nitrogen; the anthropogenic inputs include urban and rural wastewater coming from agricultural activities (i.e., fertilizers and animal waste). In response, new production is often enhanced, leading eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms, including harmful taxa. These events have become more frequent, and with it the interest to evaluate their effects on marine ecosystems and the impact on human health. In the Gulf of California the harmful algal blooms (HABs) had affected aquaculture, fisheries, and even tourism, thereby it is important to generate information about biological and physical factors that can influence their appearance. A numerical model is a tool that may bring key information about the origin and distribution of phytoplankton blooms. Herein the analysis is based on a three-dimensional, hydrodynamical numerical model, coupled to a Nitrogen-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) model. Several numerical simulations using different forcing and scenarios are carried out in order to evaluate the processes that influence the phytoplankton growth. These numerical results are compared to available observations. Thus, the main environmental factors triggering the generation of HABs can be identified.

  11. Using Coupled Models to Study the Effects of River Discharge on Biogeochemical Cycling and Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penta, Bradley; Ko, D.; Gould, Richard W.; Arnone, Robert A.; Greene, R.; Lehrter, J.; Hagy, James; Schaeffer, B.; Murrell, M.; Kurtz, J.; hide

    2009-01-01

    We describe emerging capabilities to understand physical processes and biogeoehemical cycles in coastal waters through the use of satellites, numerical models, and ship observations. Emerging capabilities provide significantly improved ability to model ecological systems and the impact of environmental management actions on them. The complex interaction of physical and biogeoehemical processes responsible for hypoxic events requires an integrated approach to research, monitoring, and modeling in order to fully define the processes leading to hypoxia. Our efforts characterizes the carbon cycle associated with river plumes and the export of organic matter and nutrients form coastal Louisiana wetlands and embayments in a spatially and temporally intensive manner previously not possible. Riverine nutrients clearly affect ecosystems in the northern Gulf of Mexico as evidenced in the occurrence of regional hypoxia events. Less known and largely unqualified is the export of organic matter and nutrients from the large areas of disappearing coastal wetlands and large embayments adjacent to the Louisiana Continental Shelf. This project provides new methods to track the river plume along the shelf and to estimate the rate of export of suspended inorganic and organic paniculate matter and dissolved organic matter form coastal habitats of south Louisiana.

  12. Bioenergetic model estimates of interannual and spatial patterns in consumption demand and growth potential of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J.H.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Cross, A.D.; Farley, E.V.; Murphy, J.M.; Helle, J.H.; Walker, R.V.; Myers, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    A bioenergetic model of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) was used to estimate daily prey consumption and growth potential of four ocean habitats in the Gulf of Alaska during 2001 and 2002. Growth potential was not significantly higher in 2002 than in 2001 at an alpha level of 0.05 (P=0.073). Average differences in growth potential across habitats were minimal (slope habitat=0.844 g d-1, shelf habitat=0.806 g d-1, offshore habitat=0.820 g d-1, and nearshore habitat=0.703 g d-1) and not significantly different (P=0.630). Consumption demand differed significantly between hatchery and wild stocks (P=0.035) when examined within year due to the interaction between hatchery verses wild origin and year. However, the overall effect of origin across years was not significant (P=0.705) due to similar total amounts of prey consumed by all juvenile pink salmon in both study years. We anticipated that years in which ocean survival was high would have had high growth potential, but this relationship did not prove to be true. Therefore, modeled growth potential may not be useful as a tool for forecasting survival of Prince William Sound hatchery pink salmon stocks. Significant differences in consumption demand and a two-fold difference in nearshore abundance during 2001 of hatchery and wild pink salmon confirmed the existence of strong and variable interannual competition and the importance of the nearshore region as being a potential competitive bottleneck.

  13. Downscaling, 2-way Nesting, and Data Assimilative Modeling in Coastal and Shelf Waters of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, J.; Levin, J.; Lopez, A.; Arango, H.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal ocean models that downscale output from basin and global scale models are widely used to study regional circulation at enhanced resolution and locally important ecosystem, biogeochemical, and geomorphologic processes. When operated as now-cast or forecast systems, these models offer predictions that assist decision-making for numerous maritime applications. We describe such a system for shelf waters of the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) and Gulf of Maine (GoM) where the MARACOOS and NERACOOS associations of U.S. IOOS operate coastal ocean observing systems that deliver a dense observation set using CODAR HF-radar, autonomous underwater glider vehicles (AUGV), telemetering moorings, and drifting buoys. Other U.S. national and global observing systems deliver further sustained observations from moorings, ships, profiling floats, and a constellation of satellites. Our MAB and GoM re-analysis and forecast system uses the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS; myroms.org) with 4-dimensional Variational (4D-Var) data assimilation to adjust initial conditions, boundary conditions, and surface forcing in each analysis cycle. Data routinely assimilated include CODAR velocities, altimeter satellite sea surface height (with coastal corrections), satellite temperature, in situ CTD data from AUGV and ships (NMFS Ecosystem Monitoring voyages), and all in situ data reported via the WMO GTS network. A climatological data assimilative analysis of hydrographic and long-term mean velocity observations specifies the regional Mean Dynamic Topography that augments altimeter sea level anomaly data and is also used to adjust boundary condition biases that would otherwise be introduced in the process of downscaling from global models. System performance is described with respect to the impact of satellite, CODAR and in situ observations on analysis skill. Results from a 2-way nested modeling system that adds enhanced resolution over the NSF OOI Pioneer Array in the central MAB are also

  14. Integrating the effects of salinity on the physiology of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in the northern Gulf of Mexico through a Dynamic Energy Budget model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaud, Romain; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Casas, Sandra M.; Bacher, C.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2017-01-01

    We present a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model for the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, which enables the inclusion of salinity as a third environmental variable, on top of the standard foodr and temperature variables. Salinity changes have various effects on the physiology of oysters, potentially altering filtration and respiration rates, and ultimately impacting growth, reproduction and mortality. We tested different hypotheses as to how to include these effects in a DEB model for C. virginica. Specifically, we tested two potential mechanisms to explain changes in oyster shell growth (cm), tissue dry weight (g) and gonad dry weight (g) when salinity moves away from the ideal range: 1) a negative effect on filtration rate and 2) an additional somatic maintenance cost. Comparative simulations of shell growth, dry tissue biomass and dry gonad weight in two monitored sites in coastal Louisiana experiencing salinity from 0 to 28 were statistically analyzed to determine the best hypothesis. Model parameters were estimated through the covariation method, using literature data and a set of specifically designed ecophysiological experiments. The model was validated through independent field studies in estuaries along the northern Gulf of Mexico. Our results suggest that salinity impacts C. virginica’s energy budget predominantly through effects on filtration rate. With an overwhelming number of environmental factors impacting organisms, and increasing exposure to novel and extreme conditions, the mechanistic nature of the DEB model with its ability to incorporate more than the standard food and temperature variables provides a powerful tool to verify hypotheses and predict individual organism performance across a range of conditions.

  15. Storm surge and wave simulations in the Gulf of Mexico using a consistent drag relation for atmospheric and storm surge models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vatvani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To simulate winds and water levels, numerical weather prediction (NWP and storm surge models generally use the traditional bulk relation for wind stress, which is characterized by a wind drag coefficient. A still commonly used drag coefficient in those models, some of them were developed in the past, is based on a relation, according to which the magnitude of the coefficient is either constant or increases monotonically with increasing surface wind speed (Bender, 2007; Kim et al., 2008; Kohno and Higaki, 2006. The NWP and surge models are often tuned independently from each other in order to obtain good results. Observations have indicated that the magnitude of the drag coefficient levels off at a wind speed of about 30 m s−1, and then decreases with further increase of the wind speed. Above a wind speed of approximately 30 m s−1, the stress above the air-sea interface starts to saturate. To represent the reducing and levelling off of the drag coefficient, the original Charnock drag formulation has been extended with a correction term.

    In line with the above, the Delft3D storm surge model is tested using both Charnock's and improved Makin's wind drag parameterization to evaluate the improvements on the storm surge model results, with and without inclusion of the wave effects. The effect of waves on storm surge is included by simultaneously simulating waves with the SWAN model on identical model grids in a coupled mode. However, the results presented here will focus on the storm surge results that include the wave effects.

    The runs were carried out in the Gulf of Mexico for Katrina and Ivan hurricane events. The storm surge model was initially forced with H*wind data (Powell et al., 2010 to test the effect of the Makin's wind drag parameterization on the storm surge model separately. The computed wind, water levels and waves are subsequently compared with observation data. Based on the good

  16. ENSO-Modulation of Plankton Production in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: A High-Resolution Ocean-Biogeochemical Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, F. A.; Lee, S. K.; Liu, Y.; Hernandez, F., Jr.; Lamkin, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) plays a role in modulating phytoplankton biomass and the reproductive success of marine species in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). However, characterizations of ENSO-related ecosystem responses such as plankton production have not been fully addressed for the region. Here we examine ENSO impacts on biogeochemical processes within coastal and open ocean domains in the GoM, using a three dimensional high-resolution ocean-biogeochemical model, forced with historical surface fluxes and river run-off for 1979 - 2014. Enhanced precipitation across southern US during El Nino winter increases freshwater discharge and nutrient load into the GoM mainly via the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River. Those anomalies lead to reduced salinity and greater concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and plankton production in the northern shelf especially during winter. In addition, the frequency of northerly wind anomalies that cool the upper ocean increases during El Nino. The negative surface heat flux anomalies further decrease vertical thermal stratification and thus increase phytoplankton production during early spring in the northern deep GoM.

  17. Beyond the Gulf Metropolises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    The extended studies on urbanisation in the Gulf region that came up in the early 2000s concentrated on the main centres with their worldwide-admired mega-projects and branding strategies. Only rather recently did a more general interest arise in the second-tier range of Gulf cities, which also s...... of the urban landscape. Finally, it will point to the shift from overall structural planning to individual master plans, and discuss the marketing of the new Salalah versus the selective conservation of the old....

  18. Gulf of Mexico development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenz, D.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has seen significant deepwater growth. An overview of the GOM deepwater leaseholds by Shell and developments by competing companies is presented. Deepwater GOM developments, total production from the shelf and from deepwater wells, new offshore pipeline capacity and ownership, and processing plant capacity are also discussed. Significant deepwater growth in the Gulf is anticipated. Despite significant economic and technological challenges, the area is judged to be the prime exploration and production opportunity in the lower 48 states of the USA. tabs., figs

  19. Beyond the Gulf Metropolises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    The extended studies on urbanisation in the Gulf region that came up in the early 2000s concentrated on the main centres with their worldwide-admired mega-projects and branding strategies. Only rather recently did a more general interest arise in the second-tier range of Gulf cities, which also......, which started in the late 1990s. After a short review of the city‘s development until the 1980s, this paper will also present its current urban and economic evolution. Then it will turn to the globalisation of Salalah in the context of national post-oil strategies, and study the physical fragmentation...

  20. NASA'S SERVIR Gulf of Mexico Project: The Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative (GoMRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Irwin, Daniel; Presson, Joan; Estes, Maury; Estes, Sue; Judd, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative (GoMRC) is a NASA-funded project that has as its goal to develop an integrated, working, prototype IT infrastructure for Earth science data, knowledge and models for the five Gulf U.S. states and Mexico, and to demonstrate its ability to help decision-makers better understand critical Gulf-scale issues. Within this preview, the mission of this project is to provide cross cutting solution network and rapid prototyping capability for the Gulf of Mexico region, in order to demonstrate substantial, collaborative, multi-agency research and transitional capabilities using unique NASA data sets and models to address regional problems. SERVIR Mesoamerica is seen as an excellent existing framework that can be used to integrate observational and GIs data bases, provide a sensor web interface, visualization and interactive analysis tools, archival functions, data dissemination and product generation within a Rapid Prototyping concept to assist decision-makers in better understanding Gulf-scale environmental issues.

  1. Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force---Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Science Assessment and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shelby; Dausman, Alyssa M.; Lavoie, Dawn L.

    2012-01-01

    watersheds are managed to help support healthy and sustainable Gulf of Mexico ecosystems.Offshore environments are healthy and well managedEach working group was charged with defining their specific goal, describing the current conditions related to that goal (for example, the status of coastal habitats in the Gulf of Mexico), providing highlevel activities needed to further define and achieve the goal, with associated outcome-based performance indicators, and identifying the scientific gaps in understanding to accomplish the goal and implement the recommended activities. The overall scientific assessment reveals that the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem continues to suffer from extensive degradation, and action is necessary to develop a healthy, resilient, and sustainable Gulf of Mexico ecosystem. The six groups also were tasked with outlining the necessary monitoring, modeling, and research needs to aid in achieving the goals. Recognizing that (1) the scientific needs (monitoring, modeling, and research) overlap among many of the goals, and (2) an overarching scientific framework could be developed to implement the necessary science in support of the Strategy, a seventh group was created with several members from each of the original six working groups. This seventh group compiled all of the cross-cutting monitoring, modeling, and research needs previously identified by the individual groups. These scientific requirements are found in Chapter 5 of this document. The seventh group also has developed a Science Plan, outlined in Chapter 6. The Science Plan provides the basic science infrastructure to support the overall Gulf restoration program and Strategy. The Science Plan allows for the development of an iterative and flexible approach to adaptive management and decision-making related to restoration projects based on sound science that includes monitoring, modeling, and research. Taken in its entirety, this document helps to articulate the current state of the system and the

  2. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2002-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of rockfluid interactions, (2) petrophysical and engineering characterization, (3) data integration, (4) 3-D geologic modeling, (5) 3-D reservoir simulation and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 2. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions is near completion. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and

  3. Dichotomous factor analysis of symptoms reported by UK and US veterans of the 1991 Gulf War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hull Lisa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factor analysis is one of the most used statistical techniques to analyze the inter-relationships among symptoms reported by Gulf War veterans. The objective of this study was to apply factor analyses to binary symptom data from the UK study of Gulf War illness and the US Air Force study of Gulf War veterans, and to compare the symptom domains derived from the distinct samples. Methods UK veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (n = 3,454, individuals deployed to Bosnia on U.N. peacekeeping operations (n = 1,979 and Gulf War-era servicemen (n = 2,577 who were not deployed to the Gulf were surveyed in 1997–1998, and US 1991 Gulf War veterans from four Air Force units (n = 1,163 were surveyed in 1995 to collect health characteristics including symptoms. Each sample was randomly split in half for exploratory and confirmatory dichotomous factor analyses with promax oblique rotation. Results Four correlated factors were identified in each of the samples. Three factors (Respiratory, Mood-Cognition, Peripheral Nervous overlapped considerably across the UK cohorts. The Gastrointestinal/Urogenital factor in the UK Gulf cohort was noticeably different from the Gastrointestinal factor identified from the Bosnia and Era cohorts. Symptoms from Gulf War UK and U.S cohorts yielded similar Gastrointestinal, Respiratory and Mood-Cognition factors, despite differences in symptom inventories between the two surveys. A Musculoskeletal factor was only elicited from the US Gulf sample. Conclusion Findings of this report are consistent with those from other factor analysis studies that identified similar symptom dimensions between Gulf and non-Gulf War veterans, except that the Gastrointestinal factor in Gulf veterans included other symptom types. Correlations among factors raise the question as to whether there is a general illness, even if not unique to Gulf veterans, representing the common pathway underlying the identified factors. Hierarchical factor

  4. Conceptualization of a fresh groundwater lens influenced by climate change: A modeling study of an arid-region island in the Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodzadeh, Davood; Ketabchi, Hamed; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Simmons, Craig T.

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the fresh groundwater lens (FGL) behavior and potential threat of climatic-induced seawater intrusion (SWI) are significant for the future water resources management of many small islands. In this paper, the FGL of Kish Island, an arid-region case in the Persian Gulf, Iran, is modeled using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulations. These simulations are based on the application of SUTRA, a density-dependent groundwater numerical model. Also, the numerical model parameters are calibrated using PEST, an automated parameter estimation code. Firstly a detailed conceptualization of the FGL model is completed to understand the sensitivity of the FGL to some particular aspects of the model prior to analysis of climate change simulations. For these investigations, the FGL system is defined based on Kish Island system to accomplish the integrated comparison of features of a conceptual model that are representative of real-world systems. This is the first study which adopts such an approach. The comparison of cross-sectional simulations suggests that the two-layer properties of the Kish Island aquifer have a significant influence on the FGL while the impacts of lateral-boundary irregularities are negligible. The impacts of sea-level rise (SLR), associated land-surface inundation (LSI), and variations in recharge rate on the FGL salinization of Kish Island are investigated numerically. Variations of SLR value (1-4 m) and net recharge rate (17-24 mm/year) are considered to cover a possible range of climatic scenarios in this arid-region island. The 2D and 3D simulation results demonstrate that LSI caused by SLR and recharge rate variation impacts are more important factors in the FGL in comparison to estimated SLR impacts without LSI. It is also shown that climate change impacts on the FGL are long-term to reach a new FGL equilibrium in the case of Kish Island's aquifer system. The comparative analysis of 2D and 3D results shows that three

  5. Functioning of the planktonic ecosystem on the Gulf of Lions shelf (NW Mediterranean during spring and its impact on the carbon deposition: a field data and 3-D modelling combined approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Auger

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical modelling is developed to address main mechanisms that drive the particulate organic carbon (POC deposition in the Gulf of Lions (NW-Mediterranean. Low-salinity water (LSW, salinity <37.5 lenses detached from the Rhone River plume under specific wind conditions tend to favour the biological productivity and provide a good opportunity for validating a planktonic ecosystem modelling. A specific calibration dedicated to river plume ecosystems is then proposed and validated using in situ measurements within such LSW lens (BIOPRHOFI cruise – May 2006 and on the Gulf of Lions. During spring 2006, the POC deposition is maximal on the prodelta area and within the coastal area in the Gulf of Lions. Organic detritus mostly contribute to the total POC deposition (82–92% whereas the contribution of living organisms (microphytoplankton appears lower than 17%. Exploring both influences of terrestrial inputs from the Rhone River and planktonic ecosystems on the POC deposition on the shelf, we estimated that the contribution of terrestrial POM inputs to the total POC deposition is lower than 17% at the shelf scale during the study period, with maxima during peak discharges of the Rhone River. The main deposition area of terrestrial POC is found in the vicinity of the river mouth in agreement with sediment data. On the other hand, a remarkable influence of marine biological processes on the POC deposition is highlighted further on the shelf (from 60 to 80 m depth. A tight feedback between zooplankton and POM contents in the water column is proposed to explain the control of POC deposition by zooplankton: terrestrial POM inputs would favour the development of living organisms through photosynthesis and grazing processes increasing the retention of organic matter within the food web. By favouring the development of large-sized zooplankton, LSW lenses may have paradoxically a negative impact on the carbon deposition on the

  6. Changing climate in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluch-Cota, Salvador E.; Parés-Sierra, Alejandro; Magaña-Rueda, Víctor O.; Arreguín-Sánchez, Francisco; Bazzino, Gastón; Herrera-Cervantes, Hugo; Lluch-Belda, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    We conducted a four year interdisciplinary collaborative project focused in the Gulf of California, the most important fishing region for Mexico. We reviewed published reports, collected and analyzed physical, chemical and ecological data sets, and developed models for the physical (atmosphere and ocean) and ecological components of this large marine ecosystem, to examine prevalent scientific questions regarding climate variability and change in the region, covering three time scales (ENSO, decadal-to-interdecadal, and long-term trend). We were able to describe how the Gulf of California influences the northward propagation of coastal trapped Kelvin waves associated with El Niño (ENSO) events, and how this signal, together with changes in the atmospheric forcing, results in a ENSO signature inside the Gulf. For the decadal-to-multidecadal scales, we found coherent trends among series, and with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The long-term temperature signal for the Gulf of California shows a warming that occurred in the mid 20th century, approximately a decade before that in the California Current. This signal is coherent with fluctuations in the industrial fisheries catch records (sardine and shrimps). For the recent decades we found no significant sustained long-term trend in any of the time series of physical and ecological variables that we considered. Instead, variability seems to be fully dominated by the interaction of PDO and ENSO. We stress the urgent need for more modeling efforts and the establishment of interdisciplinary (physical and biological) observation platforms for the marine environment in the Gulf of California.

  7. Persistent Lagrangian transport patterns in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, M. K.; Beron-Vera, F. J.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Sheinbaum, J.; Juoanno, J.; Duran, R.

    2017-01-01

    Persistent Lagrangian transport patterns at the ocean surface are revealed from Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) computed from daily climatological surface current velocities in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico (NWGoM). The velocities are produced by a submesoscale permitting regional ocean model of the Gulf of Mexico. The significance of the climatological LCSs (cLCSs) is supported with ensemble-mean drifter density evolutions from simulated and historical satellite-tracked drifter traje...

  8. Spatio-temporal modelling of wind speed variations and extremes in the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Igor; Mao, Wengang

    2018-02-01

    The wind speed variability in the North Atlantic has been successfully modelled using a spatio-temporal transformed Gaussian field. However, this type of model does not correctly describe the extreme wind speeds attributed to tropical storms and hurricanes. In this study, the transformed Gaussian model is further developed to include the occurrence of severe storms. In this new model, random components are added to the transformed Gaussian field to model rare events with extreme wind speeds. The resulting random field is locally stationary and homogeneous. The localized dependence structure is described by time- and space-dependent parameters. The parameters have a natural physical interpretation. To exemplify its application, the model is fitted to the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data set. The model is applied to compute long-term wind speed distributions and return values, e.g., 100- or 1000-year extreme wind speeds, and to simulate random wind speed time series at a fixed location or spatio-temporal wind fields around that location.

  9. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling that utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling, testing of the geologic-engineering model, and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of seismic attributes, (2) petrophysical characterization, (3) data integration, (4) the building of the geologic-engineering model, (5) the testing of the geologic-engineering model and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 3. Progress on the project is as follows: geoscientific reservoir characterization is completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been completed. Observations regarding the diagenetic

  10. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2001-09-14

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been reservoir description and characterization. This effort has included four tasks: (1) geoscientific reservoir characterization, (2) the study of rock-fluid interactions, (3) petrophysical and engineering characterization and (4) data integration. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 1. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been initiated. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been

  11. Development and application of a remote sensing-based salinity prediction model for a large estuarine lake in the US Gulf of Mexico coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fugui; Xu, Y. Jun

    2008-10-01

    SummarySalinity in estuaries is highly variable due to river discharge, tidal motion, and winds. Information on the spatial and temporal changes in salinity can provide important ecological indications, but accurate monitoring of the space-time variability for a large estuary is often costly and time-consuming. This study applied remote sensing techniques to develop a salinity prediction model for Lake Pontchartrain, a large estuarine lake located in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, USA. "Ground truth" salinity was measured along two transects across the lake and near the shoreline. Water-leaving reflectance from the measurement locations was extracted from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images pre-processed through "banding" noise reduction and radiometrical correction approaches. Ordinary least square and ridge regression methods were performed to identify model parameters and to determine relationships between salinity and reflectance. Salinity in the lake on eight dates was predicted with the developed model. Difference in salinity level and patterns, and impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on salinity were assessed with ANOVA and Fuzzy Similarity methods. The results showed that the model achieved a high power in prediction of the lake salinity ( R2 = 0.89 and RMSE of validation = 0.27). Reflectance from TM bands 1, 2, and 4 was positively correlated to salinity levels and explained 1.9%, 20.3%, and 10.2% variance in salinity levels. Reflectance from bands 3 and 5 was negatively correlated to salinity and explained 34.1% and 31.2% variance. Under normal circumstances without the impacts of hurricanes, the lake salinity presented two patterns with average salinity level of 5.5 ppt. After Katrina's landfall, the average was significantly increased by 1.1 ppt and the spatial patterns were altered. The pattern on 30 August 2005 was the most dissimilar one as compared to the two normal patterns, and then followed by the patterns on 9 and 25 October, and 7 September

  12. Hurricane slams gulf operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that reports of damage by Hurricane Andrew escalated last week as operators stepped up inspections of oil and gas installations in the Gulf of Mexico. By midweek, companies operating in the gulf and South Louisiana were beginning to agree that earlier assessments of damage only scratched the surface. Damage reports included scores of lost, toppled, or crippled platforms, pipeline ruptures, and oil slicks. By midweek the U.S. coast Guard had received reports of 79 oil spills. Even platforms capable of resuming production in some instances were begin curtailed because of damaged pipelines. Offshore service companies the another 2-4 weeks could be needed to fully assess Andrew's wrath. Lack of personnel and equipment was slowing damage assessment and repair

  13. Gulf operators resuming production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Gulf of Mexico operators last week were gradually restoring production at installations struck by Hurricane Andrew. The Minerals Management Service continued receiving reports of more damage. By the end of the day Sept. 8, MMS had received reports of damage to 83 pipeline segments and 193 platforms and satellite installations. Damage reports listed 112 installations with structural damage, 13 platforms toppled and five leaning, and 30 satellite platforms toppled and 33 leaning. But despite the extent of damage the storm inflicted on oil and gas installations in the gulf, it pales in comparison to the misery and suffering the storm caused in Florida and Louisiana, an oil company official said

  14. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-02-28

    The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule. The principal objectives of the project are to develop through basin analysis and modeling the concept that petroleum systems acting in a basin can be identified through basin modeling and to demonstrate that the information and analysis resulting from characterizing and modeling of these petroleum systems in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin can be used in providing a more reliable and advanced approach for targeting stratigraphic traps and specific reservoir facies within a geologic system and in providing a refined assessment of undiscovered and underdeveloped reservoirs and associated oil and gas resources.

  15. Sediment distribution study in the Gulf of Kachchh, India, from 3D hydrodynamic model simulation and satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Zhao, C.; Osawa, T.; Sugimori, Y.

    on the hydrostatic and Boussinesq approximations and uses a vertical double sigma coordinate with a step-like grid. In addition to the momentum and continuity equations, the model solves two-transport equations for salinity and temperature and an equation of state...

  16. Matrix Model for Methamphetamine Dependence Among Iranian Female Methadone Patients: The First Report From the Most Populated Persian Gulf Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Massah

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: The results indicated that the Matrix Model is effective for treating MA dependence. However, the long length of the treatment, lack of cost-effectiveness, and intensive staff training are significant problems associated with providing MA treatment. Further studies are suggested to evaluate the role of brief interventions in reducing these problems in methadone treatment services.

  17. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-12-31

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  18. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2007-06-30

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Mesozoic (Bossier) petroleum system characterization and modeling and refined resource assessment. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  19. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modelling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  20. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-07-31

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications are in the process of being acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  1. All-Cause Mortality Among US Veterans of the Persian Gulf War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Han K.; Bullman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We determined cause-specific mortality prevalence and risks of Gulf War deployed and nondeployed veterans to determine if deployed veterans were at greater risk than nondeployed veterans for death overall or because of certain diseases or conditions up to 13 years after conflict subsided. Methods: Follow-up began when the veteran left the Gulf War theater or May 1, 1991, and ended on the date of death or December 31, 2004. We studied 621   901 veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War and 746   247 veterans who served but were not deployed during the Gulf War. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate rate ratios adjusted for age at entry to follow-up, length of follow-up, race, sex, branch of service, and military unit. We compared the mortality of (1) Gulf War veterans with non–Gulf War veterans and (2) Gulf War army veterans potentially exposed to nerve agents at Khamisiyah in March 1991 with those not exposed. We compared standardized mortality ratios of deployed and nondeployed Gulf War veterans with the US population. Results: Male Gulf War veterans had a lower risk of mortality than male non–Gulf War veterans (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-0.99), and female Gulf War veterans had a higher risk of mortality than female non–Gulf War veterans (aRR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.28). Khamisiyah-exposed Gulf War army veterans had >3 times the risk of mortality from cirrhosis of the liver than nonexposed army Gulf War veterans (aRR = 3.73; 95% CI, 1.64-8.48). Compared with the US population, female Gulf War veterans had a 60% higher risk of suicide and male Gulf War veterans had a lower risk of suicide (standardized mortality ratio = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.88). Conclusion: The vital status and mortality risk of Gulf War and non–Gulf War veterans should continue to be investigated. PMID:28123229

  2. Novel Therapeutic Approaches for the Treatment of Depression and Cognitive Deficits in a Rodent Model of Gulf War Veterans Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    rationale for these studies is as follows: Calcium is a major second messenger and plays a vital role in cellular signaling, in developing neuronal...Indeed, it has been recently shown that the RyR antagonist dantrolene significantly improves cognition in a murine model of Alzheimer’s disease [52...Similarly, pharmacological blockade of the intracellular Ca2+ release using both the IP3R and RyR antagonist has been demonstrated to produce anti

  3. Multi-Species Models of Time-Varying Catchability in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Thorson, James Turner

    2009-01-01

    The catchability coefficient is used in most marine stock assessment models, and is usually assumed to be stationary and density-independent. However, recent research has shown that these assumptions are violated in most fisheries. Violation of these assumptions will cause underestimation of stock declines or recoveries, leading to inappropriate management policies. This project assesses the soundness of stationarity and density independence assumptions using multi-species data for seven s...

  4. Some Observational and Modeling Studies of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Mississippi Gulf Coast for Air Pollution Dispersion Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu Yerramilli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal atmospheric conditions widely vary from those over inland due to the land-sea interface, temperature contrast and the consequent development of local circulations. In this study a field meteorological experiment was conducted to measure vertical structure of boundary layer during the period 25-29 June, 2007 at three locations Seabee base, Harrison and Wiggins sites in the Mississippi coast. A GPS Sonde along with slow ascent helium balloon and automated weather stations equipped with slow and fast response sensors were used in the experiment. GPS sonde were launched at three specific times (0700 LT, 1300 LT and 1800 LT during the experiment days. The observations indicate shallow boundary layer near the coast which gradually develops inland. The weather research and forecasting (WRF meso-scale atmospheric model and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (HYSPLIT are used to simulate the lower atmospheric flow and dispersion in a range of 100 km from the coast for 28-30 June, 2007. The simulated meteorological parameters were compared with the experimental observations. The meso-scale model results show significant temporal and spatial variations in the meteorological fields as a result of development of sea breeze flow, its coupling with the large scale flow field and the ensuing alteration in the mixing depth across the coast. Simulated ground-level concentrations of SO2 from four elevated point sources located along the coast indicate diurnal variation and impact of the local sea-land breeze on the direction of the plume. Model concentration levels were highest during the stable morning condition and during the sea-breeze time in the afternoon. The highest concentrations were found up to 40 km inland during sea breeze time. The study illustrates the application of field meteorological observations for the validation of WRF which is coupled to HYSPLIT for dispersion assessment in the coastal region.

  5. Modelling the effect of climate change on nutrient loading, temperature regime and algal biomass in the Gulf of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inkala, A. [Environmental Impact Assessment Center of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Bilaletdin, Ae.; Podsetchine, V. [Regional Environmental Agency of Haeme, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Climate changes and the potential related warming can change runoff, nutrient transport, mean wind velocities and water temperatures. These changes will further effect algal growth in a way that can be modelled. The changes to the nutrient load, temperature regime and algal biomass were simulated by three separate models. The simulations were made for the years 2020, 2050 and 2090. The simulated temperature variations and nutrient loading dynamics were used by algal model to predict changes of the algal biomass under the three different climate scenarios. According to the different scenarios, the maximum temperature of the surface water increased by 0.3-6.2 deg C, but in the deeper waters (> 40 m) by less than 0.1 deg C. The major part of the nutrient loads is anthropologic and this part did not change in the scenarios. Thus the changes in the algal biomass were also relatively small. However, the timing and quantity of spring bloom did change noticeably, at most in 2090, two weeks earlier and 20 % higher than nowadays. (orig.)

  6. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-02-25

    The University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company, has undertaken an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary goal of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. Geoscientific reservoir property, geophysical seismic attribute, petrophysical property, and engineering property characterization has shown that reef (thrombolite) and shoal reservoir lithofacies developed on the flanks of high-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Vocation Field example) and on the crest and flanks of low-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Appleton Field example). The reef thrombolite lithofacies have higher reservoir quality than the shoal lithofacies due to overall higher permeabilities and greater interconnectivity. Thrombolite dolostone flow units, which are dominated by dolomite intercrystalline and vuggy pores, are characterized by a pore system comprised of a higher percentage of large-sized pores and larger pore throats. Rock-fluid interactions (diagenesis) studies have shown that although the primary control on

  7. Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Judd, Chaeli [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gulbransen, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Michael G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodruff, Dana L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzy, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hardin, Danny [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Estes, Maury [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative (GoMRC), a year-long project funded by NASA. The GoMRC project was organized around end user outreach activities, a science applications team, and a team for information technology (IT) development. Key outcomes are summarized below for each of these areas. End User Outreach; Successfully engaged federal and state end users in project planning and feedback; With end user input, defined needs and system functional requirements; Conducted demonstration to End User Advisory Committee on July 9, 2007 and presented at Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) meeting of Habitat Identification committee; Conducted significant engagement of other end user groups, such as the National Estuary Programs (NEP), in the Fall of 2007; Established partnership with SERVIR and Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System (HABSOS) programs and initiated plan to extend HABs monitoring and prediction capabilities to the southern Gulf; Established a science and technology working group with Mexican institutions centered in the State of Veracruz. Key team members include the Federal Commission for the Protection Against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS), the Ecological Institute (INECOL) a unit of the National Council for science and technology (CONACYT), the Veracruz Aquarium (NOAA’s first international Coastal Ecology Learning Center) and the State of Veracruz. The Mexican Navy (critical to coastal studies in the Southern Gulf) and other national and regional entities have also been engaged; and Training on use of SERVIR portal planned for Fall 2007 in Veracruz, Mexico Science Applications; Worked with regional scientists to produce conceptual models of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) ecosystems; Built a logical framework and tool for ontological modeling of SAV and HABs; Created online guidance for SAV restoration planning; Created model runs which link potential future land use trends, runoff and SAV viability; Analyzed SAV

  8. Curcumin Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    and stress. It is envisaged that improved cognitive, memory and mood function in GWI-rats with nCUR administration will occur via improvements in...biodegradable polymer nanosystems (nCUR) for alleviating cognitive, memory and mood impairments in a rat model of gulf war illness (GWI). Specific...Aim 1 studies involve quantification of the efficacy of oral administration of different doses of nCUR for improving neurogenesis and suppressing

  9. NASA Gulf of Mexico Initiative Hypoxia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    The Applied Science & Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center (SSC) manages NASA's Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI). Addressing short-term crises and long-term issues, GOMI participants seek to understand the environment using remote sensing, in-situ observations, laboratory analyses, field observations and computational models. New capabilities are transferred to end-users to help them make informed decisions. Some GOMI activities of interest to the hypoxia research community are highlighted.

  10. Optical model for the water characterization of the highly turbid water of the Winam Gulf (Victoria Lake)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, F.; Cavalli, R. M.; Palombo, A.; Pignatti, S.

    2007-10-01

    The study, proposed within the framework of the cooperation with Kenyan Authorities, has been carried out on the Kenyan part of the Lake Victoria. This lake is one of the largest freshwater bodies of the world where, over the last few years, environmental challenges and human impact have perturbed the ecological balance. Pollution and sediments loads from the tributaries rivers and antrophic sources caused a worrying increase of the turbidity level of the lake water. Secchi transparency index has declined from 5 meters in the 1930s to less than one meter in the 1990s. With the aim of providing an inexpensive way to gather information linked to the water clarity and quality, a method for remotely sensed data interpretation, devoted to produce chl (chlorophyll), CDOM (coloured dissolved organic matter) and TSS (total suspended solids) maps, has been assessed. At this purpose a bio-optical model, based on radiative transfer theory in water bodies, has been refined. The method has been applied on an image acquired on January 2004 by ENVISAT/MERIS sensor just a week after an in situ campaign took place. During the in situ campaign a data set for model refinement and products validation has been collected. This data comprise surface radiometric quantity and samples for laboratory analyses. The comparison between the obtained maps and the data provided by the laboratory analysis showed a good correspondence, demonstrating the potentiality of remote observation in supporting the management of the water resources.

  11. Modelling the variation in larval dispersal of marbled rock crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus in the Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    T Pires, R.; Pan, M.; Peliz, A.; Santos, A. M. P. A.; Boutov, D.; Dos Santos, A.

    2016-02-01

    Pachygrapsus marmoratus is a common coastal crab occurring in rocky shores of the northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. Information on the planktonic larval phase for this species is still incomplete. However, for the first six zoeal stages a long larval duration of around 30 days was observed. Larvae are released in the intertidal area and exported to the shelf in order to complete their development. In situ data obtained during an oceanographic survey along the southern Portuguese coast in August 2010 consisting on CTD casts and plankton hauls were analyzed. The first five zoeal stages and megalopae were captured and results showed a progressively wider distribution towards offshore through the larval development with megalopae being found close to the coast. A modelling approach was employed to explain the mechanisms used by megalopae (last larval phase) to return to adult habitats. Their vertical distribution, oceanic circulation of the area and the points of larval release were integrated in the model to understand the influence of vertical migrations on the dispersal range of Pachygrapsus larvae.

  12. The Arab Gulf Cooperation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    AD-A202 042,,, ’q AIR WAR CoLLEGE * RESEARCH REPORT THE ARAB GULF COOPEwATION COUNCIL COLONEL MOHAMMAD) F. ALBISUI ROYAL SAUDI AIR FORCE 1988...THE ARAB GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL by Mohammad F. Albishi Colonel, Royal Saudi Air Force A RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY in FULFILLMENT OF THE...4 Qatar........................................ 5 Saudi Arabia................................. 6 United Arab Emirates

  13. Hurricane shuts down gulf activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that producers in the Gulf of Mexico and plant operators in South Louisiana last week were checking for damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew. In its wake Andrew left evacuated rigs and platforms in the gulf and shuttered plants across a wide swath of the Gulf Coast. Operations were beginning to return to normal late last week. Not all gulf operators, especially in the central gulf, expected to return to offshore facilities. And even producers able to book helicopters did not expect to be able to fully assess damage to all offshore installations before the weekend. MMS officials in Washington estimated that 37,500 offshore workers were evacuated from 700 oil and gas installations on the gulf's Outer Continental Shelf. Gulf oil and gas wells account for about 800,000 b/d of oil and one fourth of total U.S. gas production. MMS was awaiting an assessment of hurricane damage before estimating how soon and how much gulf oil and gas production would be restored

  14. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman

    2005-05-10

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  15. Engineering and environmental remediation scenarios due to leakage from the Gulf War oil spill using 3-D numerical contaminant modellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Al-Weshah, Radwan A.

    2017-11-01

    The transport groundwater modelling has been undertaken to assess potential remediation scenarios and provide an optimal remediation options for consideration. The purpose of the study was to allow 50 years of predictive remediation simulation time. The results depict the likely total petroleum hydrocarbon migration pattern in the area under the worst-case scenario. The remediation scenario simulations indicate that do nothing approach will likely not achieve the target water quality within 50 years. Similarly, complete source removal approach will also likely not achieve the target water quality within 50 years. Partial source removal could be expected to remove a significant portion of the contaminant mass, but would increase the rate of contaminant recharge in the short to medium term. The pump-treat-reinject simulation indicates that the option appears feasible and could achieve a reduction in the area of the 0.01 mg/L TPH contour area for both Raudhatain and Umm Al-Aish by 35 and 30%, respectively, within 50 years. The rate of improvement and the completion date would depend on a range of factors such as bore field arrangements, pumping rates, reinjection water quality and additional volumes being introduced and require further optimisation and field pilot trials.

  16. Influence of the Gulf Stream on the troposphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minobe, Shoshiro; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira; Komori, Nobumasa; Xie, Shang-Ping; Small, Richard Justin

    2008-03-13

    The Gulf Stream transports large amounts of heat from the tropics to middle and high latitudes, and thereby affects weather phenomena such as cyclogenesis and low cloud formation. But its climatic influence, on monthly and longer timescales, remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how the warm current affects the free atmosphere above the marine atmospheric boundary layer. Here we consider the Gulf Stream's influence on the troposphere, using a combination of operational weather analyses, satellite observations and an atmospheric general circulation model. Our results reveal that the Gulf Stream affects the entire troposphere. In the marine boundary layer, atmospheric pressure adjustments to sharp sea surface temperature gradients lead to surface wind convergence, which anchors a narrow band of precipitation along the Gulf Stream. In this rain band, upward motion and cloud formation extend into the upper troposphere, as corroborated by the frequent occurrence of very low cloud-top temperatures. These mechanisms provide a pathway by which the Gulf Stream can affect the atmosphere locally, and possibly also in remote regions by forcing planetary waves. The identification of this pathway may have implications for our understanding of the processes involved in climate change, because the Gulf Stream is the upper limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, which has varied in strength in the past and is predicted to weaken in response to human-induced global warming in the future.

  17. Space-time monitoring of coastal pollution in the Gulf of Gaeta, Italy, using δ15N values of Ulva lactuca, landscape hydromorphology, and Bayesian Kriging modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Loreto; Calizza, Edoardo; Careddu, Giulio; Rossi, David; Orlandi, Lucia; Jona-Lasinio, Giovanna; Aguzzi, Laura; Costantini, Maria Letizia

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the space-time dynamics of N pollution in a Mediterranean gulf (Gulf of Gaeta) by means of δ 15 N variation in seaweed fronds (Ulva lactuca) previously collected from an unpolluted habitat. We used a comprehensive deployment grid that enabled the generation of isotopic seascapes (isoseascapes) describing the topography of N pollution in coastal waters and identifying N input hotspots and their pathways of dispersion at sea. The δ 15 N values of U. lactuca increased during 48h of exposure to the gulf waters, indicating anthropogenic N inputs from wastewater-derived sources. Comparison of the isoseascapes between two years differing in terms of rainfall identified coastal and offshore areas that were vulnerable to freshwater-transported nutrients, consistent with terrestrial hydromorphology and sea surface-water circulation. Isoseacapes were robust enough to reduce deployment effort, representing a powerful tool for monitoring and management strategies and useful for Environmental Protection Agencies, the main target audience of applied ecological research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-05-26

    The principal research effort for Phase 1 (Concept Development) of the project has been data compilation; determination of the tectonic, depositional, burial, and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin; basin modeling (geohistory, thermal maturation, hydrocarbon expulsion); petroleum system identification; comparative basin evaluation; and resource assessment. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, and regional cross sections have been prepared. Structure, isopach and formation lithology maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs include Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies; shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies; and carbonate shoal, shelf and reef facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary. Hydrocarbon

  19. Diets enriched in menhaden fish oil, seal oil, or shark liver oil have distinct effects on the lipid and fatty-acid composition of guinea pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M G; Wright, V; Ackman, R G; Horackova, M

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether diets supplemented with oils from three different marine sources, all of which contain high proportions of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), result in qualitatively distinct lipid and fatty acid profiles in guinea pig heart. Albino guinea pigs (14 days old) were fed standard, nonpurified guinea pig diets (NP) or NP supplemented with menhaden fish oil (MO), harp seal oil (SLO) or porbeagle shark liver oil (PLO) (10%, w/w) for 4-5 weeks. An n-6 PUFA control group was fed NP supplemented with corn oil (CO). All animals appeared healthy, with weight gains marginally lower in animals fed the marine oils. Comparison of relative organ weights indicated that only the livers responded to the diets, and that they were heavier only in the marine-oil fed guinea pigs. Heart total cholesterol levels were unaffected by supplementing NP with any of the oils, whereas all increased the triacylglycerol (TAG) content. The fatty-acid profiles of total phospholipid (TPL), TAG and free fatty acid (FFA) fractions of heart lipids showed that feeding n-3 PUFA significantly altered the proportions of specific fatty-acid classes. For example, all marine-oil-rich diets were associated with increases in total monounsaturated fatty acids in TPL (p docosahexacnoic acid (DHA), ratios of DHA/EPA in the hearts were 1.2, 2.2 and 1.5 in TPL, TAG and FFA, respectively. In SLO-fed guinea pigs in which dietary EPA approximately DHA, ratios of DHA/EPA were 0.9, 3.4 and 2.1 in TPL, TAG and FFA, respectively. Feeding NP + PLO (DHA/EPA = 4.8), resulted in values for DHA/EPA in cardiac tissue of 2.1, 10.6 and 2.9 in TPL, TAG and FFA, respectively. In the TAG and FFA, proportions of n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (n-3 DPA) were equal to or higher than EPA in the SLO- and PLO-fed animals. The latter group exhibited the greatest difference between the DHA/n-3 DPA ratio in the diet and in cardiac TAG and FFA fractions (7, 3.4 and 3

  20. Factors Influencing Student Satisfaction in Universities in the Gulf Region: Does Gender of Students Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parahoo, Sanjai K.; Harvey, Heather L.; Tamim, Rana M.

    2013-01-01

    While various research studies have focused on antecedents and consequences of student satisfaction, few studies have done so in the Gulf region. The objective of the present study was therefore to design and empirically examine a model of student satisfaction in a private university in the Gulf region that operates in a high-technology-enabled…

  1. Oceanographic and fisheries data collected from NOAA and academic research vessels, and commercial menhaden vessels in Gulf of Mexico from 1988-06-14 to 1991-06-22 (NCEI Accession 0156304)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic and fisheries data were collected during 1988 through 1991 through a multiagency research project to develop a remote sensing system to provide near...

  2. Population Structure, Abundance and Movement of Whale Sharks in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P; Jaidah, Mohammed Y; Bach, Steffen; Lee, Katie; Jabado, Rima W; Rohner, Christoph A; March, Abi; Caprodossi, Simone; Henderson, Aaron C; Mair, James M; Ormond, Rupert; Pierce, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Data on the occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman were collected by dedicated boat surveys and via a public-sightings scheme during the period from 2011 to 2014. A total of 422 individual whale sharks were photo-identified from the Arabian Gulf and the northern Gulf of Oman during that period. The majority of sharks (81%, n = 341) were encountered at the Al Shaheen area of Qatar, 90 km off the coast, with the Musandam region of Oman a secondary area of interest. At Al Shaheen, there were significantly more male sharks (n = 171) than females (n = 78; X2 = 17.52, P sharks was 6.90 m ± 1.24 (median = 7 m; n = 296). Males (7.25 m ± 1.34; median = 8 m, n = 171) were larger than females (6.44 m ±1.09; median = 7 m, n = 78; Mann-Whitney U test, p sharks assessed for maturity 63% were mature (n = 81), with 50% attaining maturity by 7.29 m and 100% by 9.00 m. Two female sharks of >9 m individuals were visually assessed as pregnant. Connectivity among sharks sighted in Qatari, Omani and UAE waters was confirmed by individual spot pattern matches. A total of 13 identified sharks were re-sighted at locations other than that at which they were first sighted, including movements into and out of the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to model an estimated combined population for the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman of 2837 sharks ± 1243.91 S.E. (95% C.I. 1720-6295). The Al Shaheen aggregation is thus the first site described as being dominated by mature males while the free-swimming pregnant females are the first reported from the Indian Ocean.

  3. RESULTS FROM THE (1) DATA COLLECTION WORKSHOP, (2) MODELING WORKSHOP AND (3) DRILLING AND CORING METHODS WORKSHOP AS PART OF THE JOINT INDUSTRY PARTICIPATION (JIP) PROJECT TO CHARACTERIZE NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen A. Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2002-09-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. As part of the project, three workshops were held. The first was a data collection workshop, held in Houston during March 14-15, 2002. The purpose of this workshop was to find out what data exist on gas hydrates and to begin making that data available to the JIP. The second and third workshop, on Geoscience and Reservoir Modeling, and Drilling and Coring Methods, respectively, were held simultaneously in Houston during May 9-10, 2002. The Modeling Workshop was conducted to find out what data the various engineers, scientists and geoscientists want the JIP to collect in both the field and the laboratory. The Drilling and Coring workshop was to begin making plans on how we can collect the data required by the project's principal investigators.

  4. Modelling of migration and fate of selected persistent organic pollutants in the Gulf of Gdansk and the Vistula catchment (Poland): selected results from the EU ELOISE EuroCat project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowska, Barbara; Pacyna, Jozef; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2005-02-01

    The ELOISE EU EuroCat project integrated natural and social sciences to link the impacts affecting the coastal sea to the human activities developed along the catchments. In EuroCat project river catchments' changes and their impact on the inflow area were analysed. The information was linked with environmental models. The part of the EU ELOISE EuroCat project focusing on the Vistula River catchment and the Baltic Sea costal zone was named VisCat. Within the framework of the EU ELOISE EuroCat - VisCat project, CoZMo-POP (Coastal Zone Model for Persistent Organic Pollutants), a non-steady-state multicompartmental mass balance model of long-term chemical fate in the coastal environment or the drainage basin of a large lake environment was used. The model is parameterised and tested herein to simulate the long-term fate and distribution of selected HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexanes) and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in the Gulf of Gdansk and the Vistula River drainage basin environment. The model can also be used in the future to predict future concentrations in relation to various emission scenarios and in management of economic development and regulations of substance-emission to this environment. However, this would require more extensive efforts in the future on model parameterisation and validation in order to increase the confidence in current model outputs.

  5. Seasonal Sea Level Cycle Change: Understanding the Possible Climate Feedbacks Over the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf Stream Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricko, M.; Ray, R. D.; Beckley, B. D.

    2016-12-01

    Recent change in the seasonal sea level cycle has been observed in satellite radar altimetry record, especially over regions such as the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf Stream region. Gridded satellite data is in a good agreement with ground tide gauge data that also confirm increased annual amplitude of sea level during most recent years. Data analysis is based on a set of tide gauges, satellite measurements and models. A consistent positive trend in the seasonal sea level cycle during recent years over different regions has been well confirmed (e.g., Wahl et al. 2014, Etcheverry et al. 2015). Over a longer timescale, historical tide gauge data give a neutral or slightly positive trend in the seasonal cycle of sea level along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. This observed signal of increased seasonal sea level cycle in tide gauges over the coastal areas is extended with satellite observations to open ocean regions. It is most evident during last several years (2007-2015) over most of the Gulf of Mexico, especially over north-eastern and central parts of the Gulf of Mexico, and over the Gulf Stream region, showing mean annual amplitude larger than 15 cm. One part of this increase appears to be due to change in mean sea level pressure. However, main causes of seasonal sea level cycle change on interannual to climate scale have not yet been understood. To determine possible climate feedbacks responsible for observed change in the seasonal sea level cycle, its relationship with parameters such as sea surface temperature, wind curl, circulation, mesoscale eddies, etc., is investigated. Model-based results (e.g., NASA's GMAO model) give similar trend and feedbacks, but with a consistent bias and underestimation of annual amplitude increase. Understanding climate mechanisms responsible for observed seasonal sea level cycle change would offer better prediction of sea level variability on interannual to interdecadal time scales.

  6. Citizenship and migration in Arab Gulf monarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sater, J.

    2014-01-01

    In many industrialized countries, the issue of migration has traditionally raised the question of whether migrant groups fully enjoy citizenship rights. Political debates about models of migration emphasize either the values of cultural diversity or the value of integration into 'host' societies......, whereas fear and security concerns are often embedded in more populist debates. In the Arab Gulf region, as in many other regions, such as East Asia, this debate has taken distinctively different shapes, partially because the concept of citizenship remains a contested notion not just with regard...

  7. Scientific issues in the Gulf Stream locale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, P.; Daum, M.L.; Raman, S.; Leach, M.

    1994-01-01

    Of the five primary CART sites, the Gulf Stream locale, a western boundary current location, uniquely experiences positive sensible and latent heat fluxes that span wide ranges and are likely the largest on earth. Scientific issues relating to this area are grouped under two objectives: (1) Relate observed instantaneous radiative properties of the atmosphere to the then-present atmospheric temperature and composition and surface radiative properties, both as a function of position, and develop parameterizations for these relationships. (2) Develop parameterizations to describe atmospheric composition and surface properties governing atmospheric radiation in terms of relevant prognostic variables, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation and related models

  8. Lower Cretaceous Source Rock and its Implication for the Gulf of Guinea Petroleum System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, B.R.; Griffith, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Current petroleum system models for the Gulf of Guinea propose Tertiary-age deltaic organic material as the principal source for the hydrocarbons found there. Although previous workers recognized numerous difficulties and inconsistencies, no alternative model has been resented to adequately explain the complete petroleum system. We propose that the principal source rock for the Gulf of Guinea system occurs in upper lower Cretaceous-age shales at the rift-drift transition. Tertiary loading and the consequent maturation of this lower Cretaceous source rock can explain the controls on tap formation, reservoir distribution and hydrocarbon types found in the Gulf of Guinea

  9. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quattrocchi, G.; Pierini, S.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS) and GS extension (GSE) is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with

  10. Anisotropic models to account for large borehole washouts to estimate gas hydrate saturations in the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II Alaminos 21 B well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.; Lewis, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Through the use of 3-D seismic amplitude mapping, several gashydrate prospects were identified in the Alaminos Canyon (AC) area of the Gulf of Mexico. Two locations were drilled as part of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (JIP Leg II) in May of 2009 and a comprehensive set of logging-while-drilling (LWD) logs were acquired at each well site. LWD logs indicated that resistivity in the range of ~2 ohm-m and P-wave velocity in the range of ~1.9 km/s were measured in the target sand interval between 515 and 645 feet below sea floor. These values were slightly elevated relative to those measured in the sediment above and below the target sand. However, the initial well log analysis was inconclusive regarding the presence of gashydrate in the logged sand interval, mainly because largewashouts caused by drilling in the target interval degraded confidence in the well log measurements. To assess gashydratesaturations in the sedimentary section drilled in the Alaminos Canyon 21B (AC21-B) well, a method of compensating for the effect of washouts on the resistivity and acoustic velocities was developed. The proposed method models the washed-out portion of the borehole as a vertical layer filled with sea water (drilling fluid) and the apparent anisotropic resistivity and velocities caused by a vertical layer are used to correct the measured log values. By incorporating the conventional marine seismic data into the well log analysis, the average gashydratesaturation in the target sand section in the AC21-Bwell can be constrained to the range of 8–28%, with 20% being our best estimate.

  11. Gulf and Dilmun Type seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    From around 2100 BC a glyptic tradition emerges in the Arabian Gulf, which is dependant on the well-established schools of the Indus Valley seal cutters. These circular hybrids of classic Harappan seals rapidly became popular amongst the merchants of Dilmun, centered on Bahrain Island. At first...... these Gulf Type‘ seals drew heavily on Indus Valley iconography and Indus script was occasionally employed in a pidgin-like manner. While the earliest circular seals incorporate features from Mesopotamian glyptic only to a lesser extent, this becomes a more important source of inspiration for later Dilmun...... Type seals....

  12. A Technology Analysis to Support Acquisition of UAVs for Gulf Coalition Forces Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Houthi militias (red agents ) are adept in rugged terrain and travel faster, which requires the GCF to respond quickly. The total simulation run time is...Uniform Automata, an agent -based simulation software platform, for the computational experiments. It models the operational area, system entities for the...aerial vehicle, border security, simulation, Agent -Based Modeling, Gulf Coalition Forces, Decisive Storm, Gulf Corporation Council, analytic hierarchy

  13. Academics in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The job market on North American campuses may be heading for the deep freeze, but hundreds of positions are opening up in the Persian Gulf as American universities scramble to set down roots in those petrodollar-rich states. The combination of money and opportunity on offer may seem hard to resist. But academics who trade the rich intellectual…

  14. Blood Biomarkers of Chronic Inflammation in Gulf War Illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard J Johnson

    Full Text Available More than twenty years following the end of the 1990-1991 Gulf War it is estimated that approximately 300,000 veterans of this conflict suffer from an unexplained chronic, multi-system disorder known as Gulf War Illness (GWI. The etiology of GWI may be exposure to chemical toxins, but it remains only partially defined, and its case definition is based only on symptoms. Objective criteria for the diagnosis of GWI are urgently needed for diagnosis and therapeutic research.This study was designed to determine if blood biomarkers could provide objective criteria to assist diagnosis of GWI.A surveillance study of 85 Gulf War Veteran volunteers identified from the Department of Veterans Affairs Minnesota Gulf War registry was performed. All subjects were deployed to the Gulf War. Fifty seven subjects had GWI defined by CDC criteria, and 28 did not have symptomatic criteria for a diagnosis of GWI. Statistical analyses were performed on peripheral blood counts and assays of 61 plasma proteins using the Mann-Whitney rank sum test to compare biomarker distributions and stepwise logistic regression to formulate a diagnostic model.Lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts were higher in GWI subjects. Six serum proteins associated with inflammation were significantly different in GWI subjects. A diagnostic model of three biomarkers-lymphocytes, monocytes, and C reactive protein-had a predicted probability of 90% (CI 76-90% for diagnosing GWI when the probability of having GWI was above 70%.The results of the current study indicate that inflammation is a component of the pathobiology of GWI. Analysis of the data resulted in a model utilizing three readily measurable biomarkers that appears to significantly augment the symptom-based case definition of GWI. These new observations are highly relevant to the diagnosis of GWI, and to therapeutic trials.

  15. 78 FR 14225 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    .... 120417412-2412-01] RIN 0648-XC510 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery; 2013 Accountability Measure for Gulf of Mexico Commercial Gray Triggerfish... measure (AM) for commercial gray triggerfish in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) reef fish fishery for the 2013...

  16. 75 FR 70365 - Agency Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY...).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA..., will help VA to assess the health of Gulf War veterans who were exposed to a variety of environmental...

  17. 75 FR 54445 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans) Activity: Comment Request... assist in VA's efforts to address the health concerns and problems of Gulf War Veterans. DATES: Written... of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA Form 10-0488, and Consent Form for Release of Medical Records...

  18. 77 FR 56168 - Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Individual Fishing Quota Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    .... 090206140-91081-03] RIN 0648-XC227 Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Individual... red snapper and grouper/tilefish components of the reef fish fishery in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf), the... INFORMATION: The reef fish fishery of the Gulf of Mexico is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for Reef...

  19. Prospects and Techniques for Eddy-Resolving Acoustic Tomography in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruthers, J. W.; Nechaev, D.; Roman, D. A.; Sidorovskaia, N. A.; Ioup, G. E.; Ioup, J.; Yaremchuk, M.

    2007-05-01

    For several decades monitoring and modeling the dynamics and physical structure of the Gulf of Mexico have been major efforts undertaken by oceanographers of the United States and other American countries. There are very interesting physical oceanographic features in the Gulf, not the least of which are the Gulf Loop Current and the eddies it spawns. Satellite sensing of IR and altimeter imagery has been a major input to modeling those features. Such efforts are very important to the economy and well being of much of the United States and Mexico, including fisheries, mineral economies, hurricane strengths and paths in the summer, and severe snow storms in the eastern US in the winter. A major shortcoming of the present monitoring of the Gulf is the lack of subsurface input to the dynamic models of the Gulf. Acoustic tomography is a viable means of providing that missing input. Several universities have come together to investigate the prospects for establishing a Gulf Eddy Monitoring System (GEMS) for the deep eastern half of the Gulf using acoustic tomography. The group has conducted several acoustics experiments and propagation studies to determine the feasibility of long-range propagation in the eastern Gulf and the mitigation of adverse effects on marine mammal populations in that region under the Office of Naval Research project entitled the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC). The group has also convened an invited session for the 9th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (WMSCI 2005) Orlando, FL, July 2005. This paper discusses prospects for establishing the GEMS tomographic system, its technical characteristics, and its contributions to advancing the knowledge of the dynamics of the Gulf. This presentation will concentrate on the characteristics of a single-slice tomographic system, called GEMS Phase I, across the approaches to the DeSoto Canyon in the northeastern Gulf and its prospect for monitoring the movements of

  20. Environmental Impact on the Northern Persian Gulf: A Mine Drift and Chemical Spill Study Centered on Iraq’s Oil Terminals using Navy’s Ocean-Atmospheric Physical and Chemical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    shallow nature, the Persian Gulf appears to be influenced by winds and surface thermohaline fluxes. The persistent southward wind stress, at least in the...persistent thermal front across the Persian Gulf about the latitude of Qatar appears related to the thermohaline exchange through the Hormuz Strait and...the same methods to ingest COAMPS into HPAC, it was discovered that it was impossible to do from the Naval Postgraduate School. ASA was very

  1. A conceptual model for hydrocarbon accumulation and seepage processes inside Chapopote asphalt volcanism site, Southern Gulf of Mexico: from high resolution seismic point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, F.; Spiess, V.; Fekete, N.; Keil, H.; Bohrmann, G.

    2007-05-01

    As part of the German R/V Meteor M67/2 expedition in 2006 to the southern Gulf of Mexico, a set of 2D high resolution seismic profiles was acquired across the Chapopote knoll to study sea floor asphalt occurrences and their origin. Based on regional seismic stratigraphy studies, correlated to DSDP sites, a higher reflective coarse grained sediment unit of Late Miocene age is identified as a potential shallow gas reservoir, overlain by a low permeability fine grained Pliocene and Pleistocene cover. As a result of salt diapirism, local uplift has caused reduced accumulation rates above the diaper since the late Pliocene, while the rates had been uniform throughout the area before. This has further improved the seal properties, since more fine grained material deposited in elevated locations. Nevertheless, on the crest of Chapopote, sediments above the coarse sediment unit are only around 150-75 m thick. Since oil and gas production can well be expected at depth in Jurassic and Tertiary source rocks, the presence of high amplitude reflector packages within the reservoir unit is interpreted as a result of the presence of hydrocarbons. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that some reflectors are cross-cutting and/or reveal a drop in instantaneous frequency. But, the thin seal above the reservoir unit, located directly underneath a widespread occurrence of asphalts at the sea floor, probably facilitates the leakage of hydrocarbons trapped inside the reservoir through a ~ 750 m wide acoustically chaotic zone partly aided by faulting. Since the top of Chapopote shows a high structural complexity, more seepage sites may exist beyond where seafloor asphalts have been found so far. Evolution and structure of the migration and reservoir system, which may be deep rooted, will be discussed both with respect to shallow gas and asphalt occurrences.

  2. Coral reef connectivity within the Western Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Monreal, David; Marin-Hernandez, Mark; Salas-Perez, Jose de Jesus; Salas-de-Leon, David Alberto; Monreal-Gomez, Maria Adela; Perez-España, Horacio

    2018-03-01

    The yearlong monthly mean satellite data of the geostrophic velocities, the sea surface temperature and the chlorophyll-a values were used to elucidate any possible pathway among the different coral reef systems of the Western Gulf of Mexico (WGM). The geostrophic current velocities suggested different pathways connecting the coral reef areas. The typical coastal alongshore pathway constricted to the continental shelf, and two open ocean pathway, the first connecting the Campeche Reef System (CRS) with the Veracruz (VRS) and Tuxpan-Lobos Reef Systems (TLRS), and the second pathway connecting the Tuxpan-Lobos Reef System with the Flower Garden Reef System (FGRS). According to the pathways there should be more larvae transport from the southern Gulf of Mexico reef systems toward the FGRS than the other way. The connection from the southern Gulf of Mexico toward the FGRS took place during January, May, July, August and September (2015), while the connection from the FGRS toward the southern Gulf of Mexico reef system took place during January and February (2015), this was also suggested via model outputs. The density radio (R) was used as a first approximation to elucidate the influence of the freshwater continental discharges within the continental shelf. All coral reef areas were located where the Chlorophyll-a monthly mean values had values bellow 1 mg m- 2 with a density radio between 0 and 1, i.e. under the influence of continental discharges.

  3. The determinants of Islamic banks’ liquidity in Malaysia and the Gulf Corporation Council

    OpenAIRE

    Tunku Mahmood Fawzy, Tunku Suleiman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The study explores the determinants of Islamic banks’ liquidity in Malaysia and the Gulf Corporation Council countries. Design/methodology/approach – The study takes the context of Islamic banks in Malaysia and the Gulf Corporation Council between 2009 and 2014 except the Sultanate of Oman. The Sultanate of Oman was excluded from the sample size because its first Islamic bank only began operations in 2012. The study used a fixed effect least square model. The two dependent variab...

  4. Brain Immune Interactions as the Basis of Gulf War Illness: Gulf War Illness Consortium (GWIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    priming of glial responses that cause a chronic activation loop of stronger and longer proinflammatory signaling effects between the immune system and the...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0072 TITLE: Brain Immune Interactions as the Basis of Gulf War Illness: Gulf War Illness Consortium (GWIC) PRINCIPAL...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Brain Immune Interactions as the Basis of Gulf War Illness: Gulf War Illness Consortium (GWIC) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  5. 76 FR 64248 - Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery; Closure of the 2011 Gulf of Mexico Commercial Sector for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ...NMFS closes the commercial sector for greater amberjack in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). These actions are necessary to reduce overfishing of the Gulf greater amberjack resource.

  6. Probiotic (VSL 3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Gulf War (GW) veterans report gastroenteritis during deployment and it is a risk factor for development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) after...intestinal symptoms (fatigue, joint pain, insomnia, general stiffness and headache) associated with IBS. All of these symptoms are part of the Gulf War...SUBJECT TERMS Irritable bowel syndrome, probiotic, Gulf War Illness, diarrhea 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION 18. 19a. NAME OF

  7. Physical Oceanography of the Gulf of Aden

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al Saafani, M.A.

    maps of Seriy and Khimitsa [1963] indicated two eddies in the Gulf of Aden during the winter monsoon, one cyclonic in the gulf, east of 50 ◦ E, and the other anticyclonic to the east of the gulf off Ras Fartak. Mohammed and Kolli [1992] used... the hydrographic data from three cruises to de- scribe the circulation in the northern Gulf of Aden. During January, one cyclonic eddy developed between 46 ◦ E and 50 ◦ E. West of the cyclonic eddy, the flow was towards Bab el Mandab. During May, the flow...

  8. The outer Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henery, D. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij BV, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with the offshore activity in the Gulf of Mexico. Up to the end of 1995 there have been close to 300 exploratory wells drilled in water depths beyond 450 metres, and over 50 development wells. In addition approximately 1.500 leases have been awarded in the deep water. Themes discussed are deep water discoveries, average well rates, and key learnings points

  9. 3D architecture modeling of reservoir compartments in a Shingled Turbidite Reservoir using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control, example from Mars {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, M.A.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Tiller, G.M. [Shell Exploration and Production Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Economics of most deep-water development projects require large reservoir volumes to be drained with relatively few wells. The presence of reservoir compartments must therefore be detected and planned for in a pre-development stage. We have used 3-D seismic data to constrain large-scale, deterministic reservoir bodies in a 3-D architecture model of Pliocene-turbidite sands of the {open_quotes}E{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. Reservoir compartmentalization is influenced by stratigraphic shingling, which in turn is caused by low accommodation space predentin the upper portion of a ponded seismic sequence within a salt withdrawal mini-basin. The accumulation is limited by updip onlap onto a condensed section marl, and by lateral truncation by a large scale submarine erosion surface. Compartments were suggested by RFT pressure variations and by geochemical analysis of RFT fluid samples. A geological interpretation derived from high-resolution 3-D seismic and three wells was linked to 3-D architecture models through seismic inversion, resulting in a reservoir all available data. Distinguishing subtle stratigraphical shingles from faults was accomplished by detailed, loop-level mapping, and was important to characterize the different types of reservoir compartments. Seismic inversion was used to detune the seismic amplitude, adjust sandbody thickness, and update the rock properties. Recent development wells confirm the architectural style identified. This modeling project illustrates how high-quality seismic data and architecture models can be combined in a pre-development phase of a prospect, in order to optimize well placement.

  10. 3D architecture modeling of reservoir compartments in a Shingled Turbidite Reservoir using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control, example from Mars [open quotes]Pink[close quotes] reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, M.A.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Tiller, G.M. (Shell Exploration and Production Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Economics of most deep-water development projects require large reservoir volumes to be drained with relatively few wells. The presence of reservoir compartments must therefore be detected and planned for in a pre-development stage. We have used 3-D seismic data to constrain large-scale, deterministic reservoir bodies in a 3-D architecture model of Pliocene-turbidite sands of the [open quotes]E[close quotes] or [open quotes]Pink[close quotes] reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. Reservoir compartmentalization is influenced by stratigraphic shingling, which in turn is caused by low accommodation space predentin the upper portion of a ponded seismic sequence within a salt withdrawal mini-basin. The accumulation is limited by updip onlap onto a condensed section marl, and by lateral truncation by a large scale submarine erosion surface. Compartments were suggested by RFT pressure variations and by geochemical analysis of RFT fluid samples. A geological interpretation derived from high-resolution 3-D seismic and three wells was linked to 3-D architecture models through seismic inversion, resulting in a reservoir all available data. Distinguishing subtle stratigraphical shingles from faults was accomplished by detailed, loop-level mapping, and was important to characterize the different types of reservoir compartments. Seismic inversion was used to detune the seismic amplitude, adjust sandbody thickness, and update the rock properties. Recent development wells confirm the architectural style identified. This modeling project illustrates how high-quality seismic data and architecture models can be combined in a pre-development phase of a prospect, in order to optimize well placement.

  11. Three-dimensional connectivity during summer in the northern Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Montaño-Cortés

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Connectivity studies in the Gulf of California are an important tool for improving the use and management of the gulf’s natural resources. The goal of this work was to study the three-dimensional connectivity in the northern Gulf of California during two representative months of summer when most local marine species spawn. Passive particles were advected for eight weeks in a three-dimensional current field generated by a three-dimensional baroclinic numerical model. The results indicate that the locations of greatest particle retention were the Upper Gulf and the Seasonal Eddy. The Seasonal Eddy corresponded to the area of largest particle catchment because the continental coastal current carries most particles released in the Midriff Archipelago region; subsequently these particles were entrained in the seasonal cyclonic eddy, causing most of them to remain within it. We conclude that the continental coastal current and the Seasonal Eddy control the connectivity patterns in the northern Gulf of California.

  12. Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

  13. Application of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model for guidance of response efforts related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northern Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Alabama and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Thompson, David M.; Raabe, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have provided a model-based assessment of transport and deposition of residual Deepwater Horizon oil along the shoreline within the northern Gulf of Mexico in the form of mixtures of sand and weathered oil, known as surface residual balls (SRBs). The results of this USGS research, in combination with results from other components of the overall study, will inform operational decisionmaking. The results will provide guidance for response activities and data collection needs during future oil spills. In May 2012 the U.S. Coast Guard, acting as the Deepwater Horizon Federal on-scene coordinator, chartered an operational science advisory team to provide a science-based review of data collected and to conduct additional directed studies and sampling. The goal was to characterize typical shoreline profiles and morphology in the northern Gulf of Mexico to identify likely sources of residual oil and to evaluate mechanisms whereby reoiling phenomena may be occurring (for example, burial and exhumation and alongshore transport). A steering committee cochaired by British Petroleum Corporation (BP) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is overseeing the project and includes State on-scene coordinators from four States (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi), trustees of the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), and representatives from the U.S. Coast Guard. This report presents the results of hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and developed techniques for analyzing potential SRB movement and burial and exhumation along the coastline of Alabama and Florida. Results from these modeling efforts are being used to explain the complexity of reoiling in the nearshore environment and to broaden consideration of the different scenarios and difficulties that are being faced in identifying and removing residual oil. For instance, modeling results suggest that larger SRBs are not, under the most commonly

  14. Monosodium Luminol for Improving Brain Function in Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    exhibited greater latencies to eat food than naïve control rats (Fig. 3), which implied that they have mood dysfunction or motivational deficit. In contrast...luminol-GVT (MSL-GVT, an antioxidant drug from Bach Pharma) in a rat model of Gulf war illness (GWI) would alleviate mood and memory dysfunction...Specific Aim 2 studies are focused on examining whether long-term administration of an apt dose of MSL-GVT would alleviate mood and memory dysfunction

  15. Fishery potential of the Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.; Ramaiah, Neelam; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    Fishery potential of the interior Gulf of Kachchh and adjacent creek regions was reported for the first time as baseline data for future ecological assessment. The experimental trawling and gill netting indicated that the inner Gulf (av. 7.8 kg...

  16. Plutonium in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.; Salter, P.F.

    The geochemistry of fallout plutonium in the sediments of the Gulf of Mexico was studied. A series of sediment cores was collected in a traverse from the deep Gulf of Mexico to the Mississippi Delta. The cores were sliced into 1 cm intervals and analyzed for plutonium. Explanations for the variations in concentration are presented

  17. A Short Reference Grammar of Gulf Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qafisheh, Hamdi A.

    This work seeks to fill important gaps existing in the study of Peninsular Arabic, especially that of the United Arab Emirates. It presents an explicit outline of the structure of Gulf Arabic, based on the dialect of Abu Dhabi. It is intended for students and teachers of Gulf Arabic, for linguists and dialectologists, and for other individuals who…

  18. Sandwaves of the Gulf of Khambhat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Gujar, A.R.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    In the Gulf of Khambhat (Gujarat, India) the best formed sandwaves are seen in the west close to the Eastern Sand Bank. With increasing clay content and clay cover of the sea bed, the sandwaves become poorly formed. In the southern part of the Gulf...

  19. Comment on "Simulation of Surface Ozone Pollution in the Central Gulf Coast Region Using WRF/Chem Model: Sensitivity to PBL and Land Surface Physics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recently published meteorology and air quality modeling study has several serious deficiencies deserving comment. The study uses the weather research and forecasting/chemistry (WRF/Chem) model to compare and evaluate boundary layer and land surface modeling options. The most se...

  20. Wave-current interaction near the Gulf Stream during the surface wave dynamics experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David W.; Liu, Antony K.; Peng, Chih Y.; Meindl, Eric A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a case study on the wave-current interaction near the local curvature of a Gulf Stream meander. The wave data were obtained from in situ measurements by a pitch-roll discus buoy during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) conducted off Wallops Island, Virginia, from October 1990 to March 1991. Owing to the advection of the Gulf Stream by the semidiurnal tide, the discus buoy was alternately located outside and inside the Gulf Stream. The directional wave measurements from the buoy show the changes in wave direction, wave energy, and directional spreading when waves encountered the current in the Gulf Stream meanders. A wave refraction model, using the ray-tracing method with an estimated Gulf Stream velocity field and meandering condition, was used to simulate wave refraction patterns and to estimate wave parameters at relative locations corresponding to buoy measurements. The numerical simulation shows that a focusing zone of wave rays was formed near the boundary and behind the crest of a simulated Gulf Stream meander. The focusing of wave rays causes changes in wave direction, increases in wave energy, and decreases in wave directional spreading, which are in good agreement with the results from the buoy measurements.

  1. 76 FR 65321 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review of VA's approach to and programs addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The second Gulf... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION...

  2. 2007 USGS/NPS/NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL): Northern Gulf of Mexico Barrier Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the northern Gulf of Mexico barrier islands and Naval Live Oaks was produced from...

  3. Use of a Florida Gulf Coast Barrier Island by Spring Trans-Gulf Migrants and the Projected Effects of Sea Level Rise on Habitat Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Lori A; Gutierrez Ramirez, Mariamar; Kneidel, Alan H; Heckscher, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Barrier islands on the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico are an internationally important coastal resource. Each spring hundreds of thousands of Nearctic-Neotropical songbirds crossing the Gulf of Mexico during spring migration use these islands because they provide the first landfall for individuals following a trans-Gulf migratory route. The effects of climate change, particularly sea level rise, may negatively impact habitat availability for migrants on barrier islands. Our objectives were (1) to confirm the use of St. George Island, Florida by trans-Gulf migrants and (2) to determine whether forested stopover habitat will be available for migrants on St. George Island following sea level rise. We used avian transect data, geographic information systems, remote sensing, and simulation modelling to investigate the potential effects of three different sea level rise scenarios (0.28 m, 0.82 m, and 2 m) on habitat availability for trans-Gulf migrants. We found considerable use of the island by spring trans-Gulf migrants. Migrants were most abundant in areas with low elevation, high canopy height, and high coverage of forests and scrub/shrub. A substantial percentage of forest (44%) will be lost by 2100 assuming moderate sea level rise (0.82 m). Thus, as sea level rise progresses, less forests will be available for migrants during stopover. Many migratory bird species' populations are declining, and degradation of barrier island stopover habitat may further increase the cost of migration for many individuals. To preserve this coastal resource, conservation and wise management of migratory stopover areas, especially near ecological barriers like the Gulf of Mexico, will be essential as sea levels rise.

  4. Visual Basic Growth-and-Yield Models With A Merchandising Optimizer For Planted Slash and Loblolly Pine in the West Gulf Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.L. Busby; S.J. Chang; P.R. Pasala; J.C.G. Goelz

    2004-01-01

    We developed two growth-and-yield models for thinned and unthinned plantations of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var elliottii) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.). The models, VB Merch-Slash and VB Merch-Lob, can be used to forecast product volumes and stand values for stands partitioned into 1-inch diameter-at...

  5. Estimation of carrying capacity of the Gulf of Kachchh, west coast of India in relation to petroleum hydrocarbon through oil spill modeling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Reddy, G.S.; Sudheesh, K.; Desa, E.; Zingde, M.D.

    devised to estimate CC using a coupled 2D hydrodynamic - oil spill model. The model was run to assess the dissolution of the oil for various meteorological and oceanographic conditions and oil characteristics. In the case of operational discharge from a...

  6. 78 FR 76758 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    .... 130212129-3474-02] RIN 0648-XC967 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Closure of the 2014 Gulf of Mexico Recreational Season for Red Snapper... INFORMATION: The Gulf reef fish fishery, which includes red snapper, is managed under the Fishery Management...

  7. 78 FR 56217 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) and South Atlantic, is intended to... marine protected areas, marine sanctuaries, or special management zones, without additional authorization... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and Southern...

  8. 75 FR 54965 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans) Activity: Comment Request... needed to assist in VA's efforts to address the health concerns and problems of Gulf War Veterans. DATES... use of other forms of information technology. Titles: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War...

  9. 78 FR 14983 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... of Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council Spanish Mackerel and Cobia Stock Assessment Review Workshop. SUMMARY: Independent peer review of Gulf of Mexico Spanish Mackerel and Cobia stocks will be...

  10. Gulf Canada's Russian joint venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motyka, D.

    1992-01-01

    After three years of evaluating prospects and negotiating with government and industry representatives, Gulf Canada established its first joint venture in the Russian Federation with Komineft, a production association from the Komi autonomous republic. Komineft has a 50% share of the venture, and the rest is shared equally between Gulf and British Gas. The operating area is at the Vozey and Upper Vozey fields in the Timan-Pechora Basin, some 1,500 km northeast of Moscow just inside the Arctic Circle. An attractive feature of the Upper Vozey project is low development costs of ca $2/bbl. In the Vozey field, the venture will set up an enhanced oil recovery demonstration project to test techniques perfected in Alberta. About 60 Canadians are involved on the project, and headquarters are in Usinsk, ca 100 km south of the oil fields. In the first half of 1992, oil production in the first phase of the venture averaged around 10,000 bbl/d and continues to increase

  11. Gulf of Mexico production still recovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the extent of damage caused by Hurricane Andrew to Gulf of Mexico oil and gas installations continues coming into focus. A preliminary tally by Minerals Management Service offers a reasonably complete summary of gulf production and pipeline systems damage detectable at the surface. MMS requires Outer Continental Shelf operators to inspect for underwater damage all platforms, pipelines, risers, and other structures within an 85 mile corridor along the path of Andrew's eye as it churned through the gulf. OCS operators have until Oct. 16 to submit plans for the Level II surveys

  12. Leviathan moving to expand Gulf gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Leviathan Gas Pipeline Co., Houston, has advanced plans for a large deepwater pipeline gathering system in the Gulf of Mexico. Under an agreement between Deep-Tech International Inc. and Transco Energy Co., Leviathan will pay $65 million for Transco interests in several gulf gas gathering pipelines and related facilities. Leviathan is a Deep Tech subsidiary. Gulf pipeline assets Leviathan acquired from Transco include Louisiana Offshore Pipeline Systems (LOPS), Green Canyon Pipeline Co., and companies owning at 40% interest in High Island Offshore System (HIOS) and a 33 1/1% interest in United Texas Offshore System (UTOS)

  13. US Gulf operators take the long view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatern, Rick von

    1999-01-01

    Oil projects in the Gulf of Mexico have suffered from the crash in oil prices in the mid-1980s, however as these projects tend to be long-term and therefore less sensitive to current oil prices, many are continuing to be funded. It is now believed by deepwater exploration operators that the Gulf of Mexico may be one of the world's most promising sources of new reserves. This article analyses the likely future exploration of deepwater reserves by major companies such as Shell, noted for its capital intensive and technologically innovative activity in the Gulf, as well as the newer, smaller independent operators. (UK)

  14. Oil-material fractionation in Gulf deep water horizontal intrusion layer: Field data analysis with chemodynamic fate model for Macondo 252 oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A T; Thibodeaux, L J; Parsons, A R; Overton, E; Valsaraj, K T; Nandakumar, K

    2016-04-15

    Among the discoveries of the Deepwater Horizon blowout was the so-called "sub-surface plume"; herein termed the "oil-trapping layer". Hydrocarbons were found positioned at ~1100-1300m with thickness ~100-150m and moving horizontally to the SW in a vertically stratified layer at the junction of the cold abyssal water and the permanent thermocline. This study focuses on its formation process and fate of the hydrocarbons within. The originality of this work to the field is two-fold, first it provides a conceptual framework which places layer origin in the context of a horizontal "intrusion" from the near-field, vertical, blow-out plume and second, it offers a theoretical model for the hydrocarbon chemicals within the horizontal layer as it moves far-afield. The model quantifies the oil-material fractionation process for the soluble and fine particle. The classical Box model, retrofitted with an internal gradient, the "G-Box", allows an approach that includes turbulent eddy diffusion coupled with droplet rise velocity and reactive decay to produce a simple, explicit, transparent, algebraic model with few parameters for the fate of the individual fractions. Computations show the soluble and smallest liquid droplets moving very slowly vertically through the layer appearing within the trapping layer at low concentration with high persistence. The larger droplets move-through this trapping zone quickly, attain high concentrations, and eventually form the sea surface slick. It impacts the field of oil spill engineering science by providing the conceptual idea and the algorithms for projecting the quantities and fractions of oil-material in a deep water, horizontal marine current being dispersed and moving far afield. In the field of oil spill modeling this work extends the current generation near-field plume source models to the far-field. The theory portrays the layer as an efficient oil-material trap. The model-forecasted concentration profiles for alkanes and aromatics

  15. Gulf of Mexico soundscapes as indicators of ecological stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorovskaia, N.; Li, K.; Tiemann, C.; Ackleh, A. S.; Tang, T.; Risbourg, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    Soundscapes in the Northern Gulf of Mexico are complex and represent a combination of anthropogenic noise (oil exploration and production, shipping, rig construction, etc.), bio-soundscapes (sound of marine mammals and fish), and geo-soundscapes (weather events, submarine landslides, distant earthquakes, natural gas seeps). We will discuss how Passive Acoustic Monitoring in the deep Gulf has been utilized during the past decade to study the soundscape variability on daily, monthly, and yearly timescales and what environmental information can be extracted from this variability. Isolation of bio-soundscapes, identification of their sources, and abundance estimates based on acoustic cues are used to track the recovery of marine mammal species after major ecological disasters, such as the recent 2010 oil spill. Association of acoustic activity of marine species with anthropogenic noise levels and other environmental variables can provide base data that can be used to build ecological models of habitat preferences for different marine species. Understanding how the variability of anthropogenic soundscapes correlates with marine species distributions is critically important for regional conservation and mitigation strategies. Such studies can also assist in forecasting the long-term ecosystem health status and ecosystem response to disturbances of different spatial and temporal extent, including slow variations associated with climate change. [This research was made possible in part by a grant from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative, and in part by funding provided by ONR and The Joint Industry Programme.

  16. Drifter Observations of the Gulf of Maine Coastal Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, J P; McGillicuddy, D J; Pettigrew, N R; Churchill, J H; Incze, L S

    2009-04-15

    Two-hundred and twenty seven satellite-tracked drifters were deployed in the Gulf of Maine (GoM) from 1988 to 2007, primarily during spring and summer. The archive of tracks includes over 100,000 kilometers logged thus far. Statistics such as transit times, mean velocities, response to wind events, and preferred pathways are compiled for various areas of the coastal GoM. We compare Lagrangian flow with Eulerian estimates from near-by moorings and evaluate drifter trajectories using Ekman theory and 3-D ocean circulation models. Results indicate that the Gulf of Maine Coastal Current is a strong and persistent feature centered on the 94 ± 23 meter isobath, but that particles: a) deviate from the seasonal-mean core fairly regularly, and are often re-entrained; b) follow a slower (9 cm/s), less-constrained path in the western portion off the coast of Maine relative to the eastern (16 cm/s) section; and c) can be affected by wind events and small scale baroclinic structures. Residence times calculated for each ½ degree grid cell throughout the GoM depict some regions (Eastern Maine and Western Nova Scotia) as being relatively steady, flow-through systems, while others (Penobscot, Great South Channel) have more variable, branching pathways. Travel times for drifters that are retained within the coastal current along the entire western side of the Gulf of Maine are typically less than two months (55 days).

  17. Estimating hydrologic budgets for six Persian Gulf watersheds, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Majid; Ghafouri, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, MahmoudReza; Goodarzi, Masoud; Mokarian, Zeinab

    2017-10-01

    Estimation of the major components of the hydrologic budget is important for determining the impacts on the water supply and quality of either planned or proposed land management projects, vegetative changes, groundwater withdrawals, and reservoir management practices and plans. As acquisition of field data is costly and time consuming, models have been created to test various land use practices and their concomitant effects on the hydrologic budget of watersheds. To simulate such management scenarios realistically, a model should be able to simulate the individual components of the hydrologic budget. The main objective of this study is to perform the SWAT2012 model for estimation of hydrological budget in six subbasin of Persian Gulf watershed; Golgol, Baghan, Marghab Shekastian, Tangebirim and Daragah, which are located in south and south west of Iran during 1991-2009. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, hydrological data, soil map, land use map and digital elevation model (DEM) are obtained and prepared for each catchment to run the model. SWAT-CUP with SUFI2 program was used for simulation, uncertainty and validation with 95 Percent Prediction Uncertainty. Coefficient of determination ( R 2) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) were used for evaluation of the model simulation results. Comparison of measured and predicted values demonstrated that each component of the model gave reasonable output and that the interaction among components was realistic. The study has produced a technique with reliable capability for annual and monthly water budget components in Persian Gulf watershed.

  18. Novel Therapeutic Approaches for the Treatment of Depression and Cognitive Deficits in a Rodent Model of Gulf War Veterans’ Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0478 TITLE: Novel Therapeutic Approaches for the Treatment of Depression and Cognitive Deficits in a Rodent Model of...Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in...designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of

  19. Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most ecologically and economically valuable marine ecosystems in the world and is affected by a variety of natural and anthropogenic...

  20. Seasonal Composite Chlorophyll Concentrations - Gulf of Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This personal geodatabase contains raster images of chlorophyll concentrations in the Gulf of Maine. These raster images are seasonal composites, and were calculated...

  1. 2013 Gulf of Mexico SPCE angler survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey provides economic data related to marine recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico. The data collected include preference and opinion information...

  2. Southeast Gulf of Mexico Sperm Whale Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large vessel surveys were conducted during the summers of 2012 and 2014 in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico north of the Dry Tortugas. Data were collected on the...

  3. Gulf of Mexico Nutrient, carbon, CTD data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gulf of Mexico cruise, nearshore and CTD data collected by the USEPA during 2002 - 2008. This dataset is associated with the following publications: Pauer , J., T....

  4. Persian Gulf War Chronology and Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    An index to newspaper articles from New York Times, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal and miscellaneous other sources about the Persian Gulf War. Covers the time period August 1990 through March 1991.

  5. Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific Fishery Management Council adopted the Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program (Rockfish Program) on June 14, 2010, to replace the expiring Pilot...

  6. Gulf Coast climate change adaptation pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Climate change-related issues place substantial operating and financial burdens on public transit agencies, particularly in coastal settings. Gulf of Mexico coastal transit agencies and their constituents are especially vulnerable to natural hazards ...

  7. A Markov model for planning and permitting offshore wind energy: A case study of radio-tracked terns in the Gulf of Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, Alexana; Smetzer, Jennifer R; Welch, Linda; Baker, Erin

    2017-05-15

    Quantifying and managing the potential adverse wildlife impacts of offshore wind energy is critical for developing offshore wind energy in a sustainable and timely manner, but poses a significant challenge, particularly for small marine birds that are difficult to monitor. We developed a discrete-time Markov model of seabird movement around a colony site parameterized by automated radio telemetry data from common terns (Sterna hirundo) and Arctic terns (S. paradisaea), and derived impact functions that estimate the probability of collision fatality as a function of the distance and bearing of wind turbines from a colony. Our purpose was to develop and demonstrate a new, flexible tool that can be used for specific management and wind-energy planning applications when adequate data are available, rather than inform wind-energy development at this site. We demonstrate how the tool can be used 1) in marine spatial planning exercises to quantitatively identify setback distances under development scenarios given a risk threshold, 2) to examine the ecological and technical trade-offs of development alternatives to facilitate negotiation between objectives, and 3) in the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process to estimate collision fatality under alternative scenarios. We discuss model limitations and data needs, and highlight opportunities for future model extension and development. We present a highly flexible tool for wind energy planning that can be easily extended to other central place foragers and data sources, and can be updated and improved as new monitoring data arises. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of 3-dimensional Hydro-dynamical Model Simulation in the Gulf of Kutch, India and Its Comparison with Satellite Data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Osawa, T.; Zhao, C.; Kunte, P.D.; Ae, L.S.; Hara, M.; Moriyama, T.

    stream_size 29769 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name La_mer_41_94.pdf.txt stream_source_info La_mer_41_94.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Analysis of 3...): ?Modele mathematique Da la propagation Da la maree en stuaire et des transports sableux associes. Application aux estuaries Da la Loire et Da la Seine? (in French), Ph.D thesis, Univ. De Nretagne Occidentale, Brest, France, pp.257. Platt T., S...

  9. Detangling Spaghetti: Tracking Deep Ocean Currents in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Mary Carla; Bower, Amy S.; Furey, Heather H.

    2017-01-01

    Creation of physical models can help students learn science by enabling them to be more involved in the scientific process of discovery and to use multiple senses during investigations. This activity achieves these goals by having students model ocean currents in the Gulf of Mexico. In general, oceans play a key role in influencing weather…

  10. Predicted Effects of Climate Change on Northern Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia (Book Chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe the application of a coastal ocean ecosystem model to assess the effect of a future climate scenario of plus (+) 3 °C air temperature and + 10% river discharge on hypoxia (O2 < 63 mmol m−3) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We applied the model to the Louisiana shelf as...

  11. Predicted Effects of Climate Change on Northern Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe the application of a coastal ocean ecosystem model to assess the effect of a future climate scenario of plus (+) 3 °C air temperature and + 10% river discharge on hypoxia (O2 < 63 mmol m−3) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We applied the model to the Louisiana shelf as...

  12. A finite element simulation of tidal circulation in the Gulf of Kutch, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A; Luick, J

    A finite element (fe) model using the software package ADCTRC was developed to simulate the tides and currents in the Gulf of Kutch, located on the northwest coast of India. The surface elevations from the model were analysed for the amplitudes...

  13. Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): Impact of extreme storms and floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulses, C.; Estournel, C.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Palanques, A.

    2008-01-01

    In situ observations were combined with 3D modeling to gain understanding of and to quantify the suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea). The outputs of a hydrodynamic–sediment transport coupled model were compared to near-bottom current and suspended sediment

  14. Hydro- and morphodynamic tsunami simulations for the Ambrakian Gulf (Greece) and comparison with geoscientific field traces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röbke, B. R.; Schüttrumpf, H.; Vött, A.

    2018-04-01

    In order to derive local tsunami risks for a particular coast, hydro- and morphodynamic numerical models that are calibrated and compared with sedimentary field data of past tsunami impacts have proven very effective. While this approach has widely been used with regard to recent tsunami events, comparable investigations into pre-/historical tsunami impacts hardly exist, which is the objective of this study focusing on the Ambrakian Gulf in northwestern Greece. The Ambrakian Gulf is located in the most active seismotectonic and by this most tsunamigenic area of the Mediterranean. Accordingly, palaeotsunami field studies have revealed repeated tsunami impacts on the gulf during the past 8000 yr. The current study analyses 151 vibracores of the Ambrakian Gulf coast in order to evaluate tsunami signals in the sedimentary record. Based on a hydro- and morphodynamic numerical model of the study area, various tsunami waves are simulated with the aim of finding scenarios that compare favourably with tsunami deposits detected in the field. Both, field data and simulation results suggest a decreasing tsunami influence from the western to the eastern Ambrakian Gulf. Various scenarios are needed to explain tsunami deposits in different parts of the gulf. Whereas shorter period tsunami waves (T = 30 min) from the south and west compare favourably with field data in the western gulf, longer period waves (T = 80 min) from a western direction show the best agreement with tsunami sediments detected in southwestern Aktio Headland and in the more central parts of the Ambrakian Gulf including Lake Voulkaria. Tsunamis from the southwest generally do not accord with field traces. Besides the spatial sediment distribution, the numerical model accurately reflects the sedimentary composition of the detected event deposits and reproduces a number of essential features typical of tsunamites, which were also observed in the field. Such include fining- and thinning-landward and the marine

  15. Simulated Impacts of Juvenile Mortality on Gulf of Mexico Sturgeon Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Tate

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We used an age-structured computer model to assess the impact of changes in juvenile mortality on the Gulf of Mexico sturgeon population in the Suwannee River, Florida. We simulated population trends under four levels of annual juvenile mortality (20, 25, 30, and 35%. As the rate of mortality increased, population size decreased, and rates of population growth shifted from positive to negative. Our models indicated that juvenile survival is important to the success of gulf sturgeon populations, and mortality estimates are needed to predict population viability. We suggest that life history studies in estuaries should be conducted, and bycatch rates for commercial fisheries should be quantified to aid in the management and conservation of gulf sturgeon.

  16. Rayleigh and Love Wave Phase Velocities in the Northern Gulf Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.; Yao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The last major tectonic event in the northern Gulf Coast of the United States is Mesozoic continental rifting that formed the Gulf of Mexico. This area also experienced igneous activity and local uplifts during Cretaceous. To investigate lithosphere evolution associated with the rifting and igneous activity, we construct Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocity models at the periods of 6 s to 125 s in the northern Gulf Coast from Louisiana to Alabama including the eastern Ouachita and southern Appalachian orogeny. The phase velocities are derived from ambient noise and earthquake data recorded at the 120 USArray Transportable Array stations. At periods below 20 s, phase velocity maps are characterized by significant low velocities in the Interior Salt Basin and Gulf Coast Basin, reflecting the effects of thick sediments. The northern Louisiana and southern Arkansas are imaged as a low velocity anomaly in Rayleigh wave models but a high velocity anomaly of Love wave at the periods of 14 s to 30 s, indicating strong lower crust extension to the Ouachita front. High velocity is present in the Mississippi Valley Graben from period 20 s to 35 s, probably reflecting a thin crust or high-velocity lower crust. At longer periods, low velocities are along the Mississippi River to the Gulf Coast Basin, and high velocity anomaly mainly locates in the Black Warrior Basin between the Ouachita Belt and Appalachian Orogeny. The magnitude of anomalies in Love wave images is much smaller than that in Rayleigh wave models, which is probably due to radial anisotropy in the upper mantle. A 3-D anisotropic shear velocity model will be developed from the phase velocities and will provide more details for the crust and upper mantle structure beneath the northern Gulf of Mexico continental margin.

  17. Impact of Gulf Stream SST biases on the global atmospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert W.; Woollings, Tim J.; Hoskins, Brian J.; Williams, Keith D.; O'Reilly, Christopher H.; Masato, Giacomo

    2018-02-01

    The UK Met Office Unified Model in the Global Coupled 2 (GC2) configuration has a warm bias of up to almost 7 K in the Gulf Stream SSTs in the winter season, which is associated with surface heat flux biases and potentially related to biases in the atmospheric circulation. The role of this SST bias is examined with a focus on the tropospheric response by performing three sensitivity experiments. The SST biases are imposed on the atmosphere-only configuration of the model over a small and medium section of the Gulf Stream, and also the wider North Atlantic. Here we show that the dynamical response to this anomalous Gulf Stream heating (and associated shifting and changing SST gradients) is to enhance vertical motion in the transient eddies over the Gulf Stream, rather than balance the heating with a linear dynamical meridional wind or meridional eddy heat transport. Together with the imposed Gulf Stream heating bias, the response affects the troposphere not only locally but also in remote regions of the Northern Hemisphere via a planetary Rossby wave response. The sensitivity experiments partially reproduce some of the differences in the coupled configuration of the model relative to the atmosphere-only configuration and to the ERA-Interim reanalysis. These biases may have implications for the ability of the model to respond correctly to variability or changes in the Gulf Stream. Better global prediction therefore requires particular focus on reducing any large western boundary current SST biases in these regions of high ocean-atmosphere interaction.

  18. Major reproductive health characteristics in male Gulf War Veterans. The Danish Gulf War Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøy, T; Andersson, A M; Suadicani, Poul Vilhelm

    2001-01-01

    The male reproductive system could have been affected by various hazardous agents and exposures during and in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War scenario. We tested the hypothesis that, compared to controls, male Danish Gulf War Veterans would have adverse sex hormone levels, decreased fertility...

  19. GuLF Study: The Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and resulting oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico differed from previous spill in that the leak ... 644-4853) or visit https://gulfstudy.nih.gov/en/index.html . The study protocol, questionnaires, and a ...

  20. Burial and thermal history simulation of the Abu Rudeis-Sidri oil field, Gulf of Suez-Egypt: A 1D basin modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadalla, Ahmed; Hegab, Omar A.; Ahmed, Mohammed A.; Hassan, Saad

    2018-02-01

    An integrated 1D model on seven wells has been performed to simulate the multi-tectonic phases and multiple thermal regimes in the Abu Rudeis-Sidri oilfield. Concordance between measured and calculated present-day temperatures is achieved with present-day heat flows in the range of 42-55 mW/m2. Reconstruction of the thermal and burial histories provides information on the paleotemperature profiles, the timing of thermal activation as well as the effect of the Oligo-Miocene rifting phases and its associated magmatic activity. The burial histories show the pre-rift subsidence was progressive but modest, whereas the syn-rift was more rapid (contemporaneous with the main rifting phases and basin formation). Finally, the early post-rift thermal subsidence was slow to moderate in contrast to the late post-rift thermal subsidence which was moderate to rapid. The simulated paleo heat flow illustrates a steady state for the pre-rift phase and non-steady state (transient) for syn-rift and postrift phases. Three geothermal regimes are recognized, each of which is associated with a specific geological domain. 1) A lower geothermal regime reflects the impact of stable tectonics (pre-rift). 2) The higher temperature distribution reflects the syn-rift high depositional rate as well as the impact of stretching and thinning (rifting phases) of the lithosphere. 3) A local higher geothermal pulse owing to the magmatic activity during the Oligo-Miocene time (ARM-1 and Sidri-7 wells). Paleoheat flow values of 100mW/m2 (Oligo-Miocene rifting phase) increased to 120mW/m2 (Miocene rifting phase) and lesser magnitude of 80mW/m2 (Mio- Pliocene reactivation phase) have been specified. These affected the thermal regime and temperature distribution by causing perturbations in subsurface temperatures. A decline in the background value of 60mW/m2 owing to conductive cooling has been assigned. The blanketing effect caused by low thermal conductivity of the basin-fill sediments has been simulated

  1. Swainson's Thrushes do not show strong wind selectivity prior to crossing the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolus, Rachel T; Diehl, Robert H; Moore, Frank R; Deppe, Jill L; Ward, Michael P; Smolinsky, Jaclyn; Zenzal, Theodore J

    2017-10-27

    During long-distance fall migrations, nocturnally migrating Swainson's Thrushes often stop on the northern Gulf of Mexico coast before flying across the Gulf. To minimize energetic costs, trans-Gulf migrants should stop over when they encounter crosswinds or headwinds, and depart with supportive tailwinds. However, time constrained migrants should be less selective, balancing costs of headwinds with benefits of continuing their migrations. To test the hypotheses that birds select supportive winds and that selectivity is mediated by seasonal time constraints, we examined whether local winds affected Swainson's Thrushes' arrival and departure at Ft. Morgan, Alabama, USA at annual, seasonal, and nightly time scales. Additionally, migrants could benefit from forecasting future wind conditions, crossing on nights when winds are consistently supportive across the Gulf, thereby avoiding the potentially lethal consequences of depleting their energetic reserves over water. To test whether birds forecast, we developed a movement model, calculated to what extent departure winds were predictive of future Gulf winds, and tested whether birds responded to predictability. Swainson's Thrushes were only slightly selective and did not appear to forecast. By following the simple rule of avoiding only the strongest headwinds at departure, Swainson's Thrushes could survive the 1500 km flight between Alabama and Veracruz, Mexico.

  2. Influence of the Gulf Stream on the Barents Sea ice retreat and Eurasian coldness during early winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazutoshi; Inoue, Jun; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal sea-ice retreat over the Barents Sea during early winter has been considered a leading driver of recent midlatitude severe winters over Eurasia. However, causal relationships between such retreat and the atmospheric circulation anomalies remains uncertain. Using a reanalysis dataset, we found that poleward shift of a sea surface temperature front over the Gulf Stream likely induces warm southerly advection and consequent sea-ice decline over the Barents Sea sector, and a cold anomaly over Eurasia via planetary waves triggered over the Gulf Stream region. The above mechanism is supported by the steady atmospheric response to the diabatic heating anomalies over the Gulf Stream region obtained with a linear baroclinic model. The remote atmospheric response from the Gulf Stream would be amplified over the Barents Sea region via interacting with sea-ice anomaly, promoting the warm Arctic and cold Eurasian pattern. (letter)

  3. Gulf of Mexico dead zone - the last 150 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Lisa; Swarzenski, P.W.; Poore, R.Z.

    2006-01-01

    'Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone-The Last 150 Years' discusses the dead zone that forms seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico when subsurface waters become depleted in dissolved oxygen and cannot support most life.

  4. Status of Flora and Fauna of Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    developments are planned in an ecofriendly manner to maintain the high productivity and biodiversity of the Gulf region. In this context, Department of Ocean Development, Government of India is planning a strategy for management of the Gulf adopting...

  5. Military and Non Military Threats to the Gulf Cooperation Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Khulaifi, Hamad H

    2008-01-01

    The international strategic importance of Gulf oil resources, the intense political and economic attention to the Gulf Countries affairs by nations beyond the region, necessitate looking at the impact...

  6. Reproductive health and pregnancy outcomes among French gulf war veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Verret, Catherine; Jutand, Mathe-Aline; De Vigan, Catherine; Bégassat, Marion; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Brochard, Patrick; Salamon, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Since 1993, many studies on the health of Persian Gulf War veterans (PGWVs) have been undertaken. Some authors have concluded that an association exists between Gulf War service and reported infertility or miscarriage, but that effects on PGWV's children were limited. The present study's objective was to describe the reproductive outcome and health of offspring of French Gulf War veterans. Methods The French Study on the Persian Gulf War (PGW) and its Health Consequences i...

  7. The United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kechichian, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The United States has enduring strategic interests in the Persian Gulf region. To understand these interests and the Usa policy towards the Arab Gulf Monarchies, the french institute of international relations (IFRI) proposes this document. The following chapters are detailed: the United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies, overview, Chief Unites States Objective: Access to oil, re-evaluating United States Foreign Policy in the Gulf, the second term (Usa strategy). (A.L.B.)

  8. Crustal structure of the Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwafor, Emeka

    The Gulf of Mexico initiated in the Late Triassic as South America and Africa separated from North America during the break up of Pangea. Previous studies indicate three models for the opening of the GOM. These include counter clockwise rotation of the Yucatan Block, rotation of the Yucatan Block about the same pole of rotation as those describing seafloor spreading in the central North Atlantic, and clockwise rotation of the Yucatan Block. There is much debate about the margin type and the crustal structure of the Eastern Gulf of Mexico (EGOM), especially below the depth of 6 km where crustal structure is poorly imaged on seismic reflection data. Two 2.5-D forward gravity and magnetic models across the margin are presented. These are constrained by basement picks from sparse seismic reflection and refraction data, spectral analysis of gravity data to determine the depth to source, magnetic susceptibility derived from results from other margins, the empirical relationship between P-wave velocity and density, and crustal scale isostatic modeling. The models, combined with a kinematic reconstruction of the GOM, show that: 1) it is a rifted margin; 2) the point where the Moho deepens downward from ˜17 km to ˜32 km is approximately 50 km outboard of the topographic shelf edge; 3) the carbonate bank retreated by several kilometers from its original termination due to the action of contourite currents; 4) extension and subsidence was accommodated with little shallow brittle faulting; 5) oceanic lithosphere is possibly outboard of the EGOM continental slope.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1472 - Menhaden oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific....0 percent Snack foods, § 170.3(n)(37) of this chapter 5.0 percent Soft candy, § 170.3(n)(38) of this...

  10. 50 CFR 622.47 - Gulf groundfish trawl fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Management Measures § 622.47 Gulf groundfish trawl fishery. Gulf groundfish trawl fishery means fishing in... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gulf groundfish trawl fishery. 622.47 Section 622.47 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  11. 77 FR 18307 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The GWVI-TF published its first annual report in September... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Report AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) established the Gulf War Veterans...

  12. Ocean swell variability along the northern coast of the Gulf of Guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyses a 4.5 year (September 2009–March 2014) time-series of remotely-sensed data of altimeter significant wave heights to describe the temporal and spatial variability of ocean swells along the northern coast of the Gulf of Guinea. The NOAA WAVEWATCH III (NWW3) wave model data were used with ...

  13. Tidal propagation in the Gulf of Khambhat, Bombay High, and surrounding areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Shetye, S.R.; Michael, G.S.

    -diurnal and diurnal constituents at forty-two ports in the Gulf and surrounding areas is sued to define characteristics of the tides. A barotropic numerical model based on shallow water wave equations to simulate the sea level and circulation in the region is used...

  14. Climate change impact on wave energy in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamranzad, Bahareh; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir; Chegini, Vahid; Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Excessive usage of fossil fuels and high emission of greenhouse gases have increased the earth's temperature, and consequently have changed the patterns of natural phenomena such as wind speed, wave height, etc. Renewable energy resources are ideal alternatives to reduce the negative effects of increasing greenhouse gases emission and climate change. However, these energy sources are also sensitive to changing climate. In this study, the effect of climate change on wave energy in the Persian Gulf is investigated. For this purpose, future wind data obtained from CGCM3.1 model were downscaled using a hybrid approach and modification factors were computed based on local wind data (ECMWF) and applied to control and future CGCM3.1 wind data. Downscaled wind data was used to generate the wave characteristics in the future based on A2, B1, and A1B scenarios, while ECMWF wind field was used to generate the wave characteristics in the control period. The results of these two 30-yearly wave modelings using SWAN model showed that the average wave power changes slightly in the future. Assessment of wave power spatial distribution showed that the reduction of the average wave power is more in the middle parts of the Persian Gulf. Investigation of wave power distribution in two coastal stations (Boushehr and Assalouyeh ports) indicated that the annual wave energy will decrease in both stations while the wave power distribution for different intervals of significant wave height and peak period will also change in Assalouyeh according to all scenarios.

  15. Forced tidal response in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouillon, Flavien; Morey, Steven L.; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S.; O'Brien, James J.

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of tides in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and the response to forcing by local tidal potential and tides propagating as waves through straits connecting this semienclosed sea to the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. Numerical simulations performed with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model run in a barotropic configuration with 1/60° horizontal resolution are used to analyze the tidal response to different forcing mechanisms. The tidal energy budget and tidal energy fluxes in the GoM are calculated from the simulations. Results show that diurnal tides in the GoM are dominantly due to co-oscillation with the western Atlantic and that a substantial amount of semidiurnal tidal energy also enters the Gulf through the straits. Model experiments suggest that adding the local tidal potential significantly modifies the propagation of the semidiurnal tidal signal within the GoM and reduces the tidal power associated with the diurnal tides in the basin. An interesting phenomenon of nonlinear interaction between the two forcing mechanisms (local forcing and propagation through the straits) is described and explained by using a mechanistic mass-spring system model.

  16. Principal component analysis of the summertime winds over the Gulf of California: A gulf surge index

    OpenAIRE

    Bordoni, S.; Stevens, B.

    2006-01-01

    A principal component analysis of the summertime near-surface Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) winds is used to identify the leading mode of synoptic-scale variability of the low-level flow along the Gulf of California during the North American monsoon season. A gulf surge mode emerges from this analysis as the leading EOF, with the corresponding principal component time series interpretable as an objective index for gulf surge occurrence. This index is used as a reference time series for regre...

  17. 76 FR 23911 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... monetary sale amount per pound of fish before any deductions are made. The revision to the definition of..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Red Snapper Management... amendment to the Fishery Management Plan for the Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico (FMP) prepared by...

  18. 76 FR 50979 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... prepared and submitted by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council). Amendment 26 established.... citizens or permanent resident aliens to meet current Gulf IFQ program and Magnuson-Stevens Fishery... reef fish fishery of the Gulf of Mexico is managed under the FMP. The FMP was prepared by the Council...

  19. 75 FR 64171 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... reached by October 28, 2010. This closure is necessary to prevent overfishing of Gulf greater amberjack... legal requirements to prevent and end overfishing and rebuild greater amberjack in the Gulf. On August 4... prevent overfishing of Gulf greater amberjack and increase the likelihood that the 2010 quota will not be...

  20. 78 FR 32179 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ..., weekend fishing, peak season fishing, increases in stock abundance, potentially significant levels of... red snapper in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) reef fish fishery for the 2013 fishing year and announces the... recreational fishing season. This final rule is intended to help achieve optimum yield for the Gulf red snapper...

  1. 77 FR 6988 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... allocation allows commercial fishermen more flexibility in how they can fish, including fishing year-round if.... 100217095-2081-04] RIN 0648-AY56 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish... (FMP) for the Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico (Amendment 32) prepared by the Gulf of Mexico...

  2. 75 FR 74656 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... where they can fish. A ban on longline gear is outside the scope of this action because a gear ban is.... 100803319-0565-02] RIN 0648-BA04 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish... the Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico (FMP) prepared by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management...

  3. Gulf Canada Resources Limited 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A review of operations in 1998 and financial information from Gulf Canada Resources Limited is provided to keep shareholders abreast of company performance. Gulf Canada Resources Limited explores for, develops, produces and markets conventional and synthetic crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. In 1998, the company's main operating centres were in western Canada (where it owns a nine per cent interest in the Syncrude Joint Venture), Indonesia, the North Sea and Australia. The report summarizes the company's energy resource activities, presents a detailed review of operations, and provides consolidated financial statements, and common share information. Although Gulf Canada Resources sold $ 1.2 billion worth of non-producing assets during the year, year end proved reserves of 838 million barrels of oil equivalent were less than ten per cent lower than a year earlier, reflecting reserve additions of 100 million barrels of oil equivalent. tabs., figs

  4. The deepwater Gulf of Mexico : promises delivered?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    A summary review of deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) oil production was presented for the years 1989 to 1998. Trends and prospects in deepwater GOM production and leasing were assessed. Promises and forecasts made in the early 1990s were compared with what actually happened since then. Forecasts in the early 1990s promised deeper, faster and cheaper developments in the deepwater Gulf. Results of the comparison showed that the prognosticators were correct on all three counts. Regarding the future of the Gulf, one can be justified in being optimistic in so far as more experience, robust economics, more and cheaper rigs can be taken as reliable indicators of optimism. In contrast, there are certain negatives to consider, such as low commodity prices, budget constraints, lease expirations, technical challenges and increased competition. . 12 figs

  5. Gulf of Mexico deep-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The deepwater Gulf of Mexico, an emerging basin with 20 BBOE resource potential, was discussed. Technologies are advancing and development options are increasing within the Gulf of Mexico deepwater environment. Deepwater offers significant rate potentials leading to strong cash flows. The projected steep rate of resources captured in the next five years show that there is a short window of opportunity to establish a business position. The major production variables are development costs and cycle time. There is a definite market for Gulf of Mexico products because U.S. energy demand is expected to outstrip U.S. supply. Present infrastructure is capable of moving large volumes of gas into major U.S. markets, but with the large number of projects currently underway, especially in the United States, supply could exceed capacity. 1 tab., 16 figs

  6. ADCIRC: An Advanced Three-Dimensional Circulation Model for Shelves, Coasts, and Estuaries. Report 3. Development of a Tidal Constituent DataBase for the Western North Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    in phase which occur on the Flor - ida shelf, off the Mississippi delta, and near the center of the Gulf associ- ated with amphidromes. The increased... de - gree of resolution of the coastal boundary itself. Grids RI through R5, as well as grids VI and V2, all represented the coastal boundary with the...tion of roughly 5’ (equivalent to the resolution of the most resolved re- gions in grid VI). The islands of Puerto Rico, Andros, and Jamaica , in

  7. Recent changes to the Gulf Stream causing widespread gas hydrate destabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phrampus, B. J.; Hornbach, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Gulf Stream is an ocean current that modulates climate in the northern hemisphere by transporting warm waters from the Gulf of Mexico into the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans (Lynch-Stieglitz et al., 1999, 2011). A changing Gulf Stream has the potential to thaw and convert hundreds of gigatons of frozen methane hydrate trapped below the seafloor into methane gas, increasing the risk of slope failure and methane release (Dickens, 2001; Kennett et al., 2003; Flemings et al., 2003; Archer et al., 2004). How the Gulf Stream changes with time and what effect these changes have on methane hydrate stability is unclear. Here, using seismic data combined with heat-flow models, we show that recent changes in intermediate ocean temperatures associated with the Gulf Stream are rapidly destabilizing methane hydrate along a broad swath of the North American Margin. The area of active hydrate destabilization covers as much as ~10,000 km^2 of the United States Eastern margin and occurs in a region prone to kilometer-scale slope failures. Previous hypothetical studies (Hornbach et al., 2004; Winguth et al., 2010) postulate that a 5 degC increase in intermediate ocean temperatures could release enough methane hydrate to explain extreme global warming events like the Late Palaeocene Thermal Maximum (LPTM) and trigger widespread ocean acidification (Biastock et al., 2011). Our analysis suggests that changes in Gulf Stream flow or temperature within the last ~5,000 years are warming the western North Atlantic Margin by as much as 8 degC and triggering contemporary methane hydrate destabilization along hundreds of kilometers that may continue for centuries. Other recent studies hypothesize similar ocean temperature changes may occur in the Arctic Ocean (Westbrook et al., 2009; Rajan et al., 2012). Thus, our estimate of 2.5 gigatons of destabilizing methane—or ~1% of that necessary to explain the LPTM— may represent only a fraction of the methane hydrate currently destabilizing

  8. Recent changes to the Gulf Stream causing widespread gas hydrate destabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phrampus, Benjamin J; Hornbach, Matthew J

    2012-10-25

    The Gulf Stream is an ocean current that modulates climate in the Northern Hemisphere by transporting warm waters from the Gulf of Mexico into the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans. A changing Gulf Stream has the potential to thaw and convert hundreds of gigatonnes of frozen methane hydrate trapped below the sea floor into methane gas, increasing the risk of slope failure and methane release. How the Gulf Stream changes with time and what effect these changes have on methane hydrate stability is unclear. Here, using seismic data combined with thermal models, we show that recent changes in intermediate-depth ocean temperature associated with the Gulf Stream are rapidly destabilizing methane hydrate along a broad swathe of the North American margin. The area of active hydrate destabilization covers at least 10,000 square kilometres of the United States eastern margin, and occurs in a region prone to kilometre-scale slope failures. Previous hypothetical studies postulated that an increase of five degrees Celsius in intermediate-depth ocean temperatures could release enough methane to explain extreme global warming events like the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and trigger widespread ocean acidification. Our analysis suggests that changes in Gulf Stream flow or temperature within the past 5,000 years or so are warming the western North Atlantic margin by up to eight degrees Celsius and are now triggering the destabilization of 2.5 gigatonnes of methane hydrate (about 0.2 per cent of that required to cause the PETM). This destabilization extends along hundreds of kilometres of the margin and may continue for centuries. It is unlikely that the western North Atlantic margin is the only area experiencing changing ocean currents; our estimate of 2.5 gigatonnes of destabilizing methane hydrate may therefore represent only a fraction of the methane hydrate currently destabilizing globally. The transport from ocean to atmosphere of any methane released--and thus its

  9. Impact of remote oceanic forcing on Gulf of Alaska sea levels and mesoscale circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsom, Arne; Metzger, E. Joseph; Hurlburt, Harley E.

    2003-11-01

    We examine the relative importance of regional wind forcing and teleconnections by an oceanic pathway for impact on interannual ocean circulation variability in the Gulf of Alaska. Any additional factors that contribute to this variability, such as freshwater forcing from river runoff, are disregarded. The study is based on results from numerical simulations, sea level data from tide gauge stations, and sea surface height anomalies from satellite altimeter data. At the heart of this investigation is a comparison of ocean simulations that include and exclude interannual oceanic teleconnections of an equatorial origin. Using lagged correlations, the model results imply that 70-90% of the interannual coastal sea level variance in the Gulf of Alaska can be related to interannual sea levels at La Libertad, Equador. These values are higher than the corresponding range from sea level data, which is 25-55%. When oceanic teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific are excluded in the model, the explained variance becomes about 20% or less. During poleward propagation the coastally trapped sea level signal in the model is less attenuated than the observed signal. In the Gulf of Alaska we find well-defined sea level peaks in the aftermath of El Niño events. The interannual intensity of eddies in the Gulf of Alaska also peaks after El Niño events; however, these maxima are less clear after weak and moderate El Niño events. The interannual variations in eddy activity intensity are predominantly governed by the regional atmospheric forcing.

  10. Gulf International Conference on Applied Mathematics 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Advances in Applied Mathematics

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains contributions from the Gulf International Conference in Applied Mathematics, held at the Gulf University for Science & Technology. The proceedings reflects the three major themes of the conference. The first of these was mathematical biology, including a keynote address by Professor Philip Maini. The second theme was computational science/numerical analysis, including a keynote address by Professor Grigorii Shishkin. The conference also addressed more general applications topics, with papers in business applications, fluid mechanics, optimization, scheduling problems, and engineering applications, as well as a keynote by Professor Ali Nayfeh.

  11. Energy partnership: Israel and the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2005-01-01

    In early 2003, American troops toppled the regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. Few weeks later, President Bush introduced his vision to solve the Arab-Israeli conflict in what is known as the ''road map''. These interrelated developments confirm the connection between the two Middle-Eastern sub-systems-the Persian Gulf and the Levant and provide an opportunity to achieve a comprehensive peace. Regional economic cooperation is seen as the sine qua non of a durable peace. This study examines the potential for an energy partnership between the Persian Gulf hydrocarbon producers and Israel. (author)

  12. Energy partnership: Israel and the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2005-01-01

    In the early 2003, American troops toppled the regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. Few weeks later, President Bush introduced his vision to solve the Arab-Israeli conflict in what is known as the 'road map'. These interrelated developments confirm the connection between the two Middle-Eastern sub-systems--the Persian Gulf and the Levant and provide an opportunity to achieve a comprehensive peace. Regional economic cooperation is seen as the sine qua non of a durable peace. This study examines the potential for an energy partnership between the Persian Gulf hydrocarbon producers and Israel

  13. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, Gavin [Houston Advanced Research Center, TX (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  14. Probiotic (VSL# 3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0593 TITLE: Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok Tuteja, M.D. M.P.H. CONTRACTING...failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO... Gulf War Illness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0593 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6 . AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ashok Tuteja, M.D. 5e. TASK NUMBER

  15. Star Formation in the Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Armond, Tina; Reipurth, Bo; Bally, John; Aspin, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We present an optical/infrared study of the dense molecular cloud, L935, dubbed "The Gulf of Mexico", which separates the North America and the Pelican nebulae, and we demonstrate that this area is a very active star forming region. A wide-field imaging study with interference filters has revealed 35 new Herbig-Haro objects in the Gulf of Mexico. A grism survey has identified 41 Halpha emission-line stars, 30 of them new. A small cluster of partly embedded pre-main sequence stars is located a...

  16. Gulf Cooperation Council: Arabian Gulf Cooperation Continues Defense Forces (Peninsula Shield Force)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    GCC was intended to sustain cooperation, coordination, and integration across the fields of politics, education, economy , and information. The......situation resembles a 55 Gareth Stansfield, Gulf Security Following the Invasion of Iraq ( Abu Dhabi

  17. Coastal sensitivity mapping of Gulf of Kachchh and Gulf of Cambay, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Boora, P.; Vethamony, P.

    ’s cargo. There are many environmental problems associated with increased port development and maritime activity including tanker spills and accidents as well as sediment deposition on corals due to dredging activities. Gulf of Kachchh is very high...

  18. Hurricane Risk Variability along the Gulf of Mexico Coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier, Jill C.; Ellis, Kelsey N.; Tucker, Clay S.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane risk characteristics are examined across the U. S. Gulf of Mexico coastline using a hexagonal tessellation. Using an extreme value model, parameters are collected representing the rate or λ (frequency), the scale or σ (range), and the shape or ξ (intensity) of the extreme wind distribution. These latent parameters and the 30-year return level are visualized across the grid. The greatest 30-year return levels are located toward the center of the Gulf of Mexico, and for inland locations, along the borders of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Using a geographically weighted regression model, the relationship of these parameters to sea surface temperature (SST) is found to assess sensitivity to change. It is shown that as SSTs increase near the coast, the frequency of hurricanes in these grids decrease significantly. This reinforces the importance of SST in areas of likely tropical cyclogenesis in determining the number of hurricanes near the coast, along with SSTs along the lifespan of the storm, rather than simply local SST. The range of hurricane wind speeds experienced near Florida is shown to increase with increasing SSTs (insignificant), suggesting that increased temperatures may allow hurricanes to maintain their strength as they pass over the Florida peninsula. The modifiable areal unit problem is assessed using multiple grid sizes. Moran’s I and the local statistic G are calculated to examine spatial autocorrelation in the parameters. This research opens up future questions regarding rapid intensification and decay close to the coast and the relationship to changing SSTs. PMID:25767885

  19. The Gulf of Mexico air quality study: An industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    Section 328 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 required the EPA to promulgate a rule establishing air pollution control requirements for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) sources. Congress exempted Gulf of Mexico OCS sources west of 87.5 degrees longitude (near the border of Alabama and Florida) pending the results of a ''three year'' study conducted by the Department of Interior (DOI) - Minerals Management Service (MMS). The study required an examination of the impacts of emissions from OCS activities in such areas that fail to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for either ozone or nitrogen dioxide. This paper reviews the MMS Gulf of Mexico Air Quality Study's (GMAQS) emission inventory development, historical ozone episode modeling, field sampling, and preliminary photochemical modeling results. Industry has developed a standardized spreadsheet to calculate emissions and a software package to allow operators to figure out the cost to control OCS sources for NO x and VOCs under the EPA's OCS Air Regulations (40 CFR Part 55). Cost estimates are provided for various regulatory scenarios currently being reviewed by the EPA and MMS

  20. Hydrocarbon production cost functions in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J. [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Energy Coast and Environment Building, Nicholson Extension Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Hydrocarbon production is the process of extracting oil and gas reserves from the earth, and then treating, processing, and transporting the oil and gas to market. Production costs are those costs required to operate and maintain wells and related equipment and facilities. Production costs are generally not available in commercial databases, however, and must be derived from survey instruments or extracted from company records. An alternative approach is to infer production cost based on an assessment of the economic limit of structures removed from service. The purpose of this paper is to derive generalized production cost functions of offshore structures in the Gulf of Mexico using the economic limit model. A statistical description of over 1700 offshore structures removed in the Gulf of Mexico over the past two decades is provided, followed by generalized regression models that infer production cost from gross revenue statistics at the time of abandonment. A description of the factors involved in the analysis and a summary of the results are presented. (author)

  1. Revisiting the Mesozoic opening of the Southeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, G.; Pascoe, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Southeastern Gulf of Mexico (SEGOM) is defined here as the seaway between Yucatan and Florida, south of the Tampa Embayment. This area is regarded as a southward propagating rift in the Gulf of Mexico. There is an overwhelming amount of previous evidence that the Yucatan block rotated counterclockwise about 42 degrees around a pole located just north of present-day Cuba (23oN, 84oW) during the Late Jurassic to Earliest Cretaceous oceanic spreading phase. North of the pole in the SEGOM the rotational movement of Yucatan was accommodated by a uniformly increasing amount of SW-NE extension. The degree of extension north of 25oN was large enough to result in rifting and oceanic spreading. Lack of salt in the area south of the Tampa embayment indicates that the SEGOM was not affected by the large amount of NW-SE continental extension as observed in the rest of the Gulf of Mexico. Thus, the area between Yucatan and the Sarasota arch remained a land bridge between the proto- GOM and the Proto-Caribbean and formed a barrier to salt deposition. During the period of late Jurassic oceanic crust formation (and Yucatan rotation), the southern tip of the oceanic spreading center propagated south from 27oN to 25oN, or about 220 km. In the 220 km long zone from 25oN to the pole (23oN) the rotation of Yucatan was accommodated by continental rifting only. The validity of the above outlined propagating rift model in the SEGOM is also supported by the age differences in the observed post-rift unconformities along its margins. At the edge of the salt basin to the north, the post-rift unconformity in the upper crust occurs at the base of the Louann salt and thus is Callovian in age. In the southern continental rift segment of the SEGOM, a seismic to well tie at the DSDP Site 535 shows that the post-rift unconformity is no younger than Late Berriasian to Early Valanginian. This latter age bracket constrains a) the cessation of continental rifting in the SEGOM, b) the time when the

  2. 78 FR 42021 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Aggregated Large Coastal Shark and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Aggregated Large Coastal Shark and Gulf of Mexico Hammerhead Shark... management groups for aggregated large coastal sharks (LCS) and hammerhead sharks in the Gulf of Mexico...: The commercial Gulf of Mexico aggregated LCS and Gulf of Mexico hammerhead shark management groups are...

  3. Marine and brackish-water molluscan biodiversity in the Gulf of California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel E. Hendrickx

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A database containing taxonomic, distributional and ecological data of 2194 species of marine molluscs (1528 Gastropoda, 565 Bivalvia, 59 Polyplacophora, 21 Scaphopoda, 20 Cephalopoda, and one Monoplacophora known to the Gulf of California, Mexico, was used to analyse their latitudinal and bathymetric distribution, to define their substrate preferences, and to elaborate a biodiversity model for the study area. The model was based on a comparison between the set of data associated with each species (i.e., depth range, associated substrates and geographic distribution within the Gulf and the environmental conditions prevailing in the Gulf (i.e., depth and substrate, using a georeferenced grid of 2 x 2 nautical miles. Results are presented as predictive biodiversity distribution maps for the major molluscan groups. Putative biodiversity ranges were defined using a percentage accumulative system with 20% classes. As expected, the highest biodiversity occurs along the coastline and around the islands. A south-north biodiversity gradient is observed, although it is less evident between the southern and central Gulf.

  4. Madonnas, Whores, and the Persian Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Maria F.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses reactions and attitudes of students in a women's studies course during the Gulf War. Contends that the imagery of war as a sexual, phallic event was a major topic of class discussion. Presents excerpts from teacher and student conversations. (CFR)

  5. Prospects for Gulf Region with closed greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    In countries such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, water is scarce as rainfall is minimal. Growers in the Gulf Region rely on groundwater for evaporative cooling and irrigation. This source of water is running out and growers are deciding to end production. The governments of the

  6. Fishery potential of the Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.; Ramaiah, Neelam; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    /h) was three times more productive than the creek (av. 2.3 kg/h). The number of species found in the Gulf and creek were respectively 34 and 20 suggesting good biodiversity of the living resources of the area....

  7. Building Security in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    research_briefs/RB9326/ Gopal, Anand, “No Afghan-Taliban Peace Talks, for Now,” Christian Science Monitor, October 9, 2008. Gordon, Michael R., “War in the Gulf...Nader, Jeremy Ghez, Lydia Hansell , and Robert A. Guffey, Saudi-Iranian Relations Since the Fall of Saddam: Rivalry, Cooperation, and Implications

  8. Fish larvae from the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Aceves-Medina

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic composition of fish larvae was analysed from 464 plankton samples obtained during 10 oceanographic surveys in the Gulf of California between 1984 and 1988. We identified 283 taxa: 173 species, 57 genera, and 53 families. Tropical and subtropical species predominated except during the winter, when temperate-subarctic species were dominant. The most abundant species were the mesopelagic Benthosema panamense, Triphoturus mexicanus and Vinciguerria lucetia, but the coastal pelagic species Engraulis mordax, Opisthonema spp., Sardinops caeruleus and Scomber japonicus were also prominent. The taxonomic composition of the ichthyoplankton shows the seasonality of the Gulf as well as environmental changes that occurred between the 1984-1987 warm period and the 1956-1957 cool period previously reported. The presence of E. mordax larvae as one of the most abundant species in the Gulf provides evidence of the reproduction of this species two years before the development of the northern anchovy fishery and the decline of the sardine fishery in the Gulf of California.

  9. 77 FR 56749 - Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... the Resources and Ecosystems Sustainability, Tourist Opportunities, and Revived Economies of the Gulf..., including waters, sediments, barrier islands, wetlands, soils, land management, air resources, and drinking... functions of the Trustee Council, or those of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, relating...

  10. A vorticity budget for the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bras, Isabela; Toole, John

    2017-04-01

    We develop a depth-averaged vorticity budget framework to diagnose the dynamical balance of the Gulf Stream, and apply this framework to observations and the ECCO state estimate (Wunsch and Heimbach 2013) above the thermocline in the subtropical North Atlantic. Using the hydrographic and ADCP data along the WOCE/CLIVAR section A22 and a variety of wind stress data products, we find that the advective vorticity flux out of the western region is on the same order as the wind stress forcing over the eastern portion of the gyre. This is consistent with a large-scale balance between a negative source of vorticity from wind stress forcing and a positive source of vorticity in the western region. Additionally, the form of the vorticity flux indicates that the Gulf Stream has a significant inertial component. In the ECCO state estimate, we diagnose a seasonal cycle in advective vorticity flux across a meridional section associated with seasonal fluctuations in Gulf Stream transport. This vorticity flux is forced by wind stress over the eastern subtropical North Atlantic and balanced by lateral friction with the western boundary. The lateral friction in ECCO is a necessary parameterization of smaller scale processes that occur in the real ocean, and quantifying these remains an open and interesting question. This simplified framework provides a means to interpret large scale ocean dynamics. In our application, it points to wind stress forcing over the subtropical North Altantic as an important regulator of the Gulf Stream and hence the climate system.

  11. Toxicological assessments of Gulf War veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Concerns about unexplained illnesses among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War appeared soon after that conflict ended. Many environmental causes have been suggested, including possible exposure to depleted uranium munitions, vaccines and other drugs used to protect troops, deliberate or accidental exposure to chemical warfare agents and pesticides and smoke from oil-well fires. To help resolve these issues, US and UK governments have sought independent expert scientific advice from prestigious, independent scientific and public health experts, including the US National Academies of Science and the UK Royal Society and Medical Research Council. Their authoritative and independent scientific and medical reviews shed light on a wide range of Gulf War environmental hazards. However, they have added little to our understanding of Gulf War veterans' illnesses, because identified health effects have been previously well characterized, primarily in the occupational health literature. This effort has not identified any new health effects or unique syndromes associated with the evaluated environmental hazards. Nor do their findings provide an explanation for significant amounts of illnesses among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. Nevertheless, these independent and highly credible scientific reviews have proven to be an effective means for evaluating potential health effects from deployment-related environmental hazards. PMID:16687269

  12. New offshore platform in the Mexican Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beisel, T.

    1982-04-01

    After a construction period of only 10 months, the second steel Offshore platform was recently completed in the Mexican Gulf. The pattern for this structure was the Cognac platform. The erection of the new platform, called the 'Cerveza' platform, is described in the article.

  13. Energy partnership: China and the Gulf states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most significant developments in the global energy market in the last several years has been China's skyrocketing demand for energy. In 1993, China became a net oil importer for the first time in its history and in 2003 replaced Japan as the world's second-largest oil importer (after the United States). The country needs more energy to maintain its spectacular economic performance. This study examines China's attempts to satisfy its growing needs for oil and natural gas by increasing imports from Russia and Central Asia/Caspian Sea region. The analysis suggests that despite growing cooperation between the two sides, the Gulf region is likely to satisfy most of China's hydrocarbons needs. Energy partnership between China and the Gulf has already started and is likely to be consolidated over the next few decades. The study also argues that this growing partnership between China and the Gulf should not be seen as a threat to any third party. The global energy market is well-integrated. Energy policy should not be seen in zero-sum terms. A China-Gulf partnership will benefit both sides and contribute to the stability of global energy markets. (author)

  14. Lithosphere thickness in the Gulf of California region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Alejandra; Pérez-Campos, Xyoli

    2017-11-01

    The Gulf of California has a long tectonic history. Before the subduction of the Guadalupe and Magdalena plates ceased, extension of the Gulf began to the east, at the Basin and Range province. Later, it was focused west of the Sierra Madre Occidental and the opening of the Gulf started. Currently, the Gulf rifting has different characteristics to the north than to the south. In this study, we analyze the lithosphere thickness in the Gulf of California region by means of P-wave and S-wave receiver functions. We grouped our lithosphere-thickness estimates into five froups: 1) North of the Gulf, with a thin lithosphere ( 50 km) related to the extension observed in the Salton Through region; 2) the northwestern part of Baja California, with a thicker lithosphere ( 80 km), thinning towards the Gulf due to the extension and opening processes ( 65 km); 3) central Baja California, with no converted phase corresponding to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary but evidence of the presence of a slab remnant; 4) the southern Baja California peninsula, showing a shallow lithosphere-astenosphere boundary (LAB) (Gulf; and 5) the eastern Gulf margin with lithosphere thinning towards the south. These groups can be further assembled into three regions: A) The northernmost Gulf, where both margins of the Gulf show a relatively constant lithosphere thickness, consistent with an old basement in Sonora and the presence of the Peninsular Ranges batholith in northern Baja California, thinning up towards the axis of the rift in the northernmost Gulf. B) Central and southern Gulf, where the lithosphere thickness in this region ranges from 40 to 55 km, which is consistent with the presence of a younger crust. C) Central Baja California peninsula, where LAB is not detected; but there is evidence of a slab remnant.

  15. Transport and Vertical Distribution of Urban Pollutants over the Guinean Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroubaix, Adrien; Flamant, Cyrille; Menut, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    In the countries of the Guinean Gulf, the population has been growing rapidly during the last decades. The sustained economic growth is associated with increased emissions from traffic, industries, and households, and with high pollution levels. Particulate matter (PM10) emissions from urbanized areas are analyzed in the Guinean gulf coastal region by both models (WRF and CHIMERE) and observations during the beginning of the monsoon from May to July. From the Guinean gulf coast to the Sahel, the urban PM10 concentrations are highest in June, and they display frequent northward transport events. These urban pollution transport events occurred over the entire Guinean Gulf coastal region with a zonal gradient of low concentration in Abidjan to high concentration in Lagos. The main drivers are the absence of precipitation and low wind associated with the low boundary layer height. The major part of the urban pollution is transported at night in the surface layer (3 m/s), but a significant part of the pollution is caught by the low level jet and transported rapidly (15 m/s). All these results highlight specific atmospheric conditions leading to high urban pollution events along the coast and to pollution transport reaching the Sahel, which may severely impact human health.

  16. Impacts from oil and gas produced water discharges on the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, M.E.; Satterlee, K.; Veil, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Shallow water areas of the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf experience low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) each summer. The hypoxic zone is primarily caused by input of nutrients from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate the growth of phytoplankton, which leads to reduction of the oxygen concentration near the sea floor. During the renewal of an offshore discharge permit used by the oil and gas industry in the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified the need to assess the potential contribution from produced water discharges to the occurrence of hypoxia. The EPA permit required either that all platforms in the hypoxic zone submit produced water samples, or that industry perform a coordinated sampling program. This paper, based on a report submitted to EPA in August 2005 (1), describes the results of the joint industry sampling program and the use of those results to quantify the relative significance of produced water discharges in the context of other sources on the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. In the sampling program, 16 facilities were selected for multiple sampling - three times each at one month intervals-- and another 34 sites for onetime sampling. The goal of the sampling program was to quantify the sources and amount of oxygen demand associated with a variety of Gulf of Mexico produced waters. Data collected included direct oxygen demand measured by BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) and indirect oxygen demand measured by nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrate, nitrate, and TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen)) and phosphorus (total phosphorus and orthophosphate). These data will serve as inputs to several available computer models currently in use for forecasting the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. The output of each model will be compared for consistency in their predictions and then a semi-quantitative estimate of the relative significance of

  17. Gulf of Mexico Air/Sea Interaction: Measurements and Initial Data Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, C.; Huang, C. H.; Roberts, P. T.; Bariteau, L.; Fairall, C. W.; Gibson, W.; Ray, A.

    2011-12-01

    Corporate, government, and university researchers collaborated to develop an atmospheric boundary layer environmental observations program on an offshore platform in the Gulf of Mexico. The primary goals of this project were to provide data to (1) improve our understanding of boundary layer processes and air-sea interaction over the Gulf of Mexico; (2) improve regional-scale meteorological and air quality modeling; and (3) provide a framework for advanced offshore measurements to support future needs such as emergency response, exploration and lease decisions, wind energy research and development, and meteorological and air quality forecasting. In October 2010, meteorological and oceanographic sensors were deployed for an extended period (approximately 12 months) on a Chevron service platform (ST 52B, 90.5W, 29N) to collect boundary layer and sea surface data sufficient to support these objectives. This project has significant importance given the large industrial presence in the Gulf, sizeable regional population nearby, and the recognized need for precise and timely pollutant forecasts. Observations from this project include surface meteorology; sodar marine boundary layer winds; microwave radiometer profiles of temperature, relative humidity, and liquid water; ceilometer cloud base heights; water temperature and current profiles; sea surface temperature; wave height statistics; downwelling solar and infrared radiation; and air-sea turbulent momentum and heat fluxes. This project resulted in the collection of an unprecedented set of boundary layer measurements over the Gulf of Mexico that capture the range of meteorological and oceanographic interactions and processes that occur over an entire year. This presentation will provide insight into the logistical and scientific issues associated with the deployment and operations of unique measurements in offshore areas and provide results from an initial data analysis of boundary layer processes over the Gulf of

  18. Impacts from oil and gas produced water discharges on the gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, M. E.; Satterlee, K.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division; ExxonMobil Production Co.; Shell Offshore

    2006-01-01

    Shallow water areas of the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf experience low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) each summer. The hypoxic zone is primarily caused by input of nutrients from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate the growth of phytoplankton, which leads to reduction of the oxygen concentration near the sea floor. During the renewal of an offshore discharge permit used by the oil and gas industry in the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified the need to assess the potential contribution from produced water discharges to the occurrence of hypoxia. The EPA permit required either that all platforms in the hypoxic zone submit produced water samples, or that industry perform a coordinated sampling program. This paper, based on a report submitted to EPA in August 2005 (1), describes the results of the joint industry sampling program and the use of those results to quantify the relative significance of produced water discharges in the context of other sources on the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. In the sampling program, 16 facilities were selected for multiple sampling - three times each at one month intervals-- and another 34 sites for onetime sampling. The goal of the sampling program was to quantify the sources and amount of oxygen demand associated with a variety of Gulf of Mexico produced waters. Data collected included direct oxygen demand measured by BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) and indirect oxygen demand measured by nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrate, nitrate, and TKN [total Kjeldahl nitrogen]) and phosphorus (total phosphorus and orthophosphate). These data will serve as inputs to several available computer models currently in use for forecasting the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. The output of each model will be compared for consistency in their predictions and then a semi-quantitative estimate of the relative significance of

  19. Time required for gulf restoration uncertain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Hurricane Andrew's long term effect on Gulf of Mexico oil and gas operations likely won't be known until next year. This paper reports that while damage assessments have moved beyond the emergency stage, many offshore service companies say reliable estimates of the extent of damage or cost of repairs still are unavailable. The time needed to complete restorations won't be known conclusively until more organized surveys are complete. Even then, many contractors say, gulf operators must decide how to handle damage at each location-whether to repair damaged structures or replace them by applying technology not available when many of the fields were developed. Some damaged installations will not be replaced or restored, and the production will be lost

  20. Futuristic isotope hydrology in the Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravana Kumar, U.; Hadi, Khaled

    2018-03-01

    The Gulf region is one of the most water-stressed parts in the world. Water in the region is very scarce, shortage of supply and lacking of renewable water resources, while the demand for water is growing day by day. It is thus essential to implement modern approaches and technologies in addressing water-related issues. In this context, isotope hydrology will provide invaluable aid. Some of the most important areas of futuristic applications of isotope hydrology include evaluation of aquifer recharge, storage and their recovery system, understanding of dynamic changes due to long-term exploitation of the groundwater, development and management of shared groundwater aquifers, fresh groundwater discharge along the Arabian Gulf, identification and quantification of hydrocarbon contamination in groundwater; soil moisture and solute movement in unsaturated zone, paleoclimate reconstruction, etc. Literature survey suggests, in general, not many isotope studies on the above have been reported.

  1. Survey to assess Persian Gulf spill effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that an international group is poised for an extensive survey of the Persian Gulf, including an assessment of the long term effects of last year's oil spill, a legacy of the Persian Gulf war. Saudi Arabia plans a $450 million cleanup program on beaches fouled by the massive spill. Plans for the survey were disclosed by the United National Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco). It is to be carried out under the auspices of the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (Ropme), Unesco's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Ropme member countries are Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates

  2. Gulf of Mexico forecasts : the dead sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good Abbott, C.

    1999-01-01

    The future gas supply potential from the offshore Gulf of Mexico region was discussed with particular emphasis on the issue of whether there is enough growth potential to satisfy the anticipated growth in power generation markets. In 1980, a forecasted decrease in gas supply proved to be wrong. In fact, supply actually increased and productivity in the Gulf of Mexico has been relatively stable since 1982. A significant growth has been forecasted for 1997 to 2010. This growth will coincide with a large growth in gas demand in the northeastern U.S. The fact that electric power generation is changing hands adds to the opportunities in the northeast. It was emphasized that Canadian supply must be present to compete. 1 tab., 16 figs

  3. Estimating the spatial distribution of power outages during hurricanes in the Gulf coast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.-R.; Guikema, Seth D.; Quiring, Steven M.; Lee, Kyung-Ho; Rosowsky, David; Davidson, Rachel A.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes have caused severe damage to the electric power system throughout the Gulf coast region of the US, and electric power is critical to post-hurricane disaster response as well as to long-term recovery for impacted areas. Managing power outage risk and preparing for post-storm recovery efforts requires accurate methods for estimating the number and location of power outages. This paper builds on past work on statistical power outage estimation models to develop, test, and demonstrate a statistical power outage risk estimation model for the Gulf Coast region of the US. Previous work used binary hurricane-indicator variables representing particular hurricanes in order to achieve a good fit to the past data. To use these models for predicting power outages during future hurricanes, one must implicitly assume that an approaching hurricane is similar to the average of the past hurricanes. The model developed in this paper replaces these indicator variables with physically measurable variables, enabling future predictions to be based on only well-understood characteristics of hurricanes. The models were developed using data about power outages during nine hurricanes in three states served by a large, investor-owned utility company in the Gulf Coast region

  4. An integrated systems framework for service vessel forecasting in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J. [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Energy Coast and Environment Building, Nicholson Extension Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Throughout the world wherever oil and gas is discovered, a support industry will develop and evolve with the needs of industry and government regulation. In the Gulf of Mexico, a large variety of marine vessels transport goods and provide services to exploration, development and production activity, and play an important role in the economic and ecological impacts across communities. The spatial and temporal dynamics of the logistics network is complex and dynamic and closely related to the magnitude, duration, type, and sequence of offshore workflows and activities. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodological framework to quantify the number of offshore supply vessel and crew boat departures by activity across the Gulf's coastal regions in support of the oil and gas industry. The logistics network is modeled as a linear time-invariant deterministic system and implemented using an input-output model. We provide a methodological framework to quantify the magnitude and distribution of service vessel trips to forecast port activity. This is the first integrated modeling study on service vessel trips in the Gulf of Mexico and special attention is paid to the analytic framework, model assumptions, and limitations of the analysis. Generic examples illustrate the model implementation. (author)

  5. Alleghenian Reconstruction and Subsequent Evolution of the Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, and Proto-Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindell, James L.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed model for the evolution of the Gulf of Mexico, the Bahamas and the Proto-Caribbean is built within the framework provided by a detailed initial Alleghenian (western Pangean) reconstruction and an accurate subsequent relative-motion history between North America and Gondwana (northern Africa and South America). The Alleghenian reconstruction closes all pre-Jurassic oceans; accounts for Jurassic attenuation of continental crust by restoring that attenuation to original prerift continental thicknesses; incorporates an improved Equatorial Atlantic fit between northern Brazil and the Guinea margin of Africa; quantitatively removes changes in shape of northern South America due to Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic accretion and internal deformation; includes pre-Mesozoic continental crust presently underlying the western Bahamas and southern Florida; and correlates Late Paleozoic geology of Yucatan with its neighboring continental masses. Extension occurred within the Gulf of Mexico from Late Triassic to earliest Cretaceous time, but seafloor spreading was delayed until the Late Callovian. This divided a single Gulf-wide salt basin into the Louann and Campeche salt provinces. The Yucatan block progressively rotated about 43 degrees counterclockwise away from the Texas-Louisiana margin around a pole in northern Florida. The Tamaulipas-Golden Lane-Chiapas fault zone of eastern Mexico is interpreted as the remains of an initially intracontinental transform system along which Yucatan migrated. Attenuated continental crust beneath southern Florida and the western Bahamas, termed here the Florida Straits block, migrated approximately 300 km out of the eastern Gulf, approximately along Central Atlantic flow lines. These rotations are consistent with recently suggested magnetic anomaly trends in the Gulf of Mexico (Shepherd et al., 1982; S. Hall, personal communication, 1984). The Proto-Caribbean formed synchronously by a fan-like rotation of Yucatan away from Venezuela.

  6. Nutrients distribution and trophic status assessment in the northern Beibu Gulf, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Junxiang; Jiang, Fajun; Ke, Ke; Xu, Mingben; Lei, Fu; Chen, Bo

    2014-09-01

    Using historical and 2010 field data, the distribution of nutrients in the northern Beibu Gulf of China is described. There was a decreasing trend in the concentration of nutrients from the north coast to offshore waters of the northern Beibu Gulf, reflecting the influence of inputs from land-based sources. High concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and phosphate (PO4-P) occurred mainly at Fangchenggang Bay, Qinzhou Bay, and Lianzhou Bay. Four different methods were used to assess eutrophication. The trophic status of the Beibu Gulf was characterized using the single factor, Eutrophication index (EI), Trophic index (TRIX) and Assessment of Estuarine Trophic Status (ASSETS) methods. Based on nutrient concentrations, 73.9% of DIN and 26.7% of PO4-P samples exceeded the fourth grade Seawater Quality Standard of China. Eutrophication index values varied widely, but higher levels of eutrophication were generally found in bays and estuaries. TRIX values ranged from 2.61 to 7.27, with an average of 4.98, indicating a mesotrophic and moderately productive system. A positive correlation between TRIX and harmful algal species richness and abundance was observed. The ASSETS model evaluates eutrophication status based on a Pressure-State-Response approach, including three main indices: influencing factors, overall eutrophic condition, and future outlook. The Beibu Gulf was graded as moderate using ASSETS. The single factor and Chinese nutrient index methods were considered inadequate for the assessment of trophic status. TRIX can be used as an indicator of trophic state and ASSETS showed good potential to assess eutrophication. The results of TRIX and ASSETS depend on threshold values. To establish these values, further research is required within the northern Beibu Gulf.

  7. Dolphins in a Scaled-Down Mediterranean: The Gulf of Corinth's Odontocetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearzi, G; Bonizzoni, S; Santostasi, N L; Furey, N B; Eddy, L; Valavanis, V D; Gimenez, O

    The Gulf of Corinth is a 2400-km 2 semi-enclosed inland system (a mediterraneus) in central Greece. Its continental shelf areas, steep bottom relief, and waters up to 500-900m deep offer suitable habitat to neritic and pelagic species. We used photographic capture-recapture, distribution modelling, and direct observations to investigate the abundance, status, habitat preferences, movements, and group size of four odontocete species regularly observed in the Gulf, based on five years (2011-2015) of survey effort from small boats. Striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) are more abundant (1324 individuals, 95%CI 1158-1515) than was determined from previous estimates. Striped dolphins appear to be confined to the Gulf, where they favour deep and oligotrophic waters, and were encountered in single-species and mixed-species groups. Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) (22 individuals, 95%CI 16-31), individuals with intermediate pigmentation (possibly striped/common dolphin hybrids) (55, 95%CI 36-83), and a single Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) were only encountered in mixed-species groups with striped dolphins. Short-beaked common dolphins constitute a discrete conservation unit (subpopulation), and based on the current estimate, would qualify as Critically Endangered according to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) (39 animals, 95%CI 33-47) occur in single-species groups; they prefer continental shelf waters and areas near fish farms in the northern sector, and several animals appear to move into and out of the Gulf. Additionally, we contribute records of marine fauna and an assessment of the fishing fleet operating in the Gulf. Our study shows that the importance of this vulnerable marine environment has been underestimated, and management action must be taken to mitigate human impact and ensure long-term protection. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  8. Shelf Circulation in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    I., and M. A. Alatorre, Investigaciones recientes sobre la circulacion en al parte exte- rior del Golfo de California , Contribucion No. 210 del... California during a joint field study by Centro de Investigaci6n Cientffica y de Educaci6n Superior de Ensenada (CICESE) and the Scripps Institution of...AD-A233 570 Shelf Circulation in the Gulf of California 50 . 25 I E LOr 011991 29 Jun 6 July 13 20 -27 Mark 4ndrew Merrifield 11989 , , i I

  9. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  10. Grand Gulf-prioritization of regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisner, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    As cost pressures mount, Grand Gulf nuclear station (GGNS) is relying increasingly on various prioritization approaches to implement, modify, eliminate, or defer regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements can be prioritized through the use of three measures: (1) safety (or risk) significance; (2) cost; and (3) public policy (or political) significance. This paper summarizes GGNS' efforts to implement solutions to regulatory issues using these three prioritization schemes to preserve a balance between cost and safety benefit

  11. Combating Piracy in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    stretching from Cape Verde to An- gola (Figure 1), is the main transit hub and facilitator to the region’s rapid economic growth which has averaged...17 citations for illegal fish- ing that resulted in hefty fines in Cameroon alone.15 There is an ongoing effort to consummate an Economic Community...consumed in Europe, North America, and Asia transiting this waterway.2 This economic boom, however, is threatened. In 2012, the Gulf of Guinea

  12. Toxicological assessments of Gulf War veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Concerns about unexplained illnesses among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War appeared soon after that conflict ended. Many environmental causes have been suggested, including possible exposure to depleted uranium munitions, vaccines and other drugs used to protect troops, deliberate or accidental exposure to chemical warfare agents and pesticides and smoke from oil-well fires. To help resolve these issues, US and UK governments have sought independent expert scientific advice from prestigious, in...

  13. A Large Scale Corpus of Gulf Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa, Salam; Habash, Nizar; Abdulrahim, Dana; Hassan, Sara

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Most Arabic natural language processing tools and resources are developed to serve Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), which is the official written language in the Arab World. Some Dialectal Arabic varieties, notably Egyptian Arabic, have received some attention lately and have a growing collection of resources that include annotated corpora and morphological analyzers and taggers. Gulf Arabic, however, lags behind in that respect. In this paper, we present the Gumar Corpus...

  14. New Alberta sulfur deliveries to US Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Christopher E. [Oil and Gas Journal (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This document presents a review of the new perspectives for Alberta sulphur deliveries to the US Gulf. The sulphur market is growing, both globally and in Canada (Alberta) and there is a need for more transport facilities and capacity to ensure the future of this industry. Sulphur is a by-product of bitumen refining and is in great demand in the US Gulf area. One concept for promoting sulphur would be to move bitumen by rail to create new markets, especially in the U.S. Rail capacity at the present time is 6,000b/d and the railway serves Chicago, Toledo/ Detroit, the Lower Mississippi and Puget Sound. The rail timeline for sulphur deliveries is to achieve 60,000 b/d by 2015, this includes deliveries within Canada as well as to the US market. A second way to transport sulphur to the US Gulf would be by pipeline. Many pipeline projects are expected to be be completed by 2015, adding more than one million barrels per day of capacity.

  15. Physical characterization of core samples recovered from Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Tae Sup; Carlos Santamarina, J. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 790 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0355 (United States); Narsilio, Guillermo A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Engineering Block D 321, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2006-12-15

    Seventy whole rounds from conventional cores obtained during drilling to 300mbsf at Atwater Valley and Keathley Canyon in the Gulf of Mexico in April and May 2005 were tested to determine geophysical and geomechanical parameters (liquid and plastic limit, porosity, specific surface, pH, sediment electrical conductivity, P- and S-wave velocities and undrained shear strength). Available data from a pressure core are included as well. Results show that the sediments are high specific surface plastic clays, and exhibit pronounced time-dependent stiffness recovery. Strains during coring disturb specimens, yet, the water content retains the effective stress history and permits gaining stiffness and strength information from conventional cores. Remolding is exacerbated when gas expands upon decompression; the limited pressure core data available show the advantages of preserving the pore fluid pressure during core recovery and testing. Valuable parameters for sediment characterization and engineering analysis are extracted from the data using pre-existing soil models. (author)

  16. Local amplification of storm surge by Super Typhoon Haiyan in Leyte Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Nobuhito; Kato, Masaya; Kim, Sooyoul; Mase, Hajime; Shibutani, Yoko; Takemi, Tetsuya; Tsuboki, Kazuhisa; Yasuda, Tomohiro

    2014-07-01

    Typhoon Haiyan, which struck the Philippines in November 2013, was an extremely intense tropical cyclone that had a catastrophic impact. The minimum central pressure of Typhoon Haiyan was 895 hPa, making it the strongest typhoon to make landfall on a major island in the western North Pacific Ocean. The characteristics of Typhoon Haiyan and its related storm surge are estimated by numerical experiments using numerical weather prediction models and a storm surge model. Based on the analysis of best hindcast results, the storm surge level was 5-6 m and local amplification of water surface elevation due to seiche was found to be significant inside Leyte Gulf. The numerical experiments show the coherent structure of the storm surge profile due to the specific bathymetry of Leyte Gulf and the Philippines Trench as a major contributor to the disaster in Tacloban. The numerical results also indicated the sensitivity of storm surge forecast.

  17. A bottom-driven mechanism for distributed faulting: Insights from the Gulf of California Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, P.; Tan, E.; Choi, E.; Contreras, J.; Lavier, L. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Gulf of California is a young oblique rift that displays a variation in rifting style along strike. Despite the rapid localization of strain in the Gulf at 6 Ma, the northern rift segment has the characteristics of a wide rift, with broadly distributed extensional strain and small gradients in topography and crustal thinning. Observations of active faulting in the continent-ocean transition of the Northern Gulf show multiple oblique-slip faults distributed in a 200 x 70 km2area developed some time after a westward relocation of the plate boundary at 2 Ma. In contrast, north and south of this broad pull-apart structure, major transform faults accommodate Pacific-North America plate motion. Here we propose that the mechanism for distributed brittle deformation results from the boundary conditions present in the Northern Gulf, where basal shear is distributed between the Cerro Prieto strike-slip fault (southernmost fault of the San Andreas fault system) and the Ballenas Transform fault. We hypothesize that in oblique-extensional settings whether deformation is partitioned in a few dip-slip and strike-slip faults, or in numerous oblique-slip faults may depend on (1) bottom-driven, distributed extension and shear deformation of the lower crust or upper mantle, and (2) the rift obliquity. To test this idea, we explore the effects of bottom-driven shear on the deformation of a brittle elastic-plastic layer with pseudo-three dimensional numerical models that include side forces. Strain localization results when the basal shear is a step-function while oblique-slip on numerous faults dominates when basal shear is distributed. We further investigate how the style of faulting varies with obliquity and demonstrate that the style of faulting observed in the Northern Gulf of California is reproduced in models with an obliquity of 0.7 and distributed basal shear boundary conditions, consistent with the interpreted obliquity and boundary conditions of the study area. Our

  18. Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Since 1985, scientists have been documenting a hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico each year. The hypoxic zone, an area of low dissolved oxygen that cannot support marine life, generally manifests itself in the spring. Since marine species either die or flee the hypoxic zone, the spread of hypoxia reduces the available habitat for marine species, which are important for the ecosystem as well as commercial and recreational fishing in the Gulf. Since 2001, the hypoxic zone has averaged 16,500 km{sup 2} during its peak summer months, an area slightly larger than the state of Connecticut, and ranged from a low of 8,500 km{sup 2} to a high of 22,000 km{sup 2}. To address the hypoxia problem, the Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force (or Task Force) was formed to bring together representatives from federal agencies, states, and tribes to consider options for responding to hypoxia. The Task Force asked the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to conduct a scientific assessment of the causes and consequences of Gulf hypoxia through its Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR). In 2000 the CENR completed An Integrated Assessment: Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (or Integrated Assessment), which formed the scientific basis for the Task Force's Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (Action Plan, 2001). In its Action Plan, the Task Force pledged to implement ten management actions and to assess progress every 5 years. This reassessment would address the nutrient load reductions achieved, the responses of the hypoxic zone and associated water quality and habitat conditions, and economic and social effects. The Task Force began its reassessment in 2005. In 2006 as part of the reassessment, USEPA's Office of Water, on behalf of the Task Force, requested that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) convene an independent

  19. Estimating sustainable bycatch rates for California sea lion populations in the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Jared G; Hernandez Camacho, Claudia J; Aurioles-Gamboa, David; Gerber, Leah R

    2008-06-01

    Commercial and subsistence fisheries pressure is increasing in the Gulf of California, Mexico. One consequence often associated with high levels of fishing pressure is an increase in bycatch of marine mammals and birds. Fisheries bycatch has contributed to declines in several pinniped species and may be affecting the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) population in the Gulf of California. We used data on fisheries and sea lion entanglement in gill nets to estimate current fishing pressure and fishing rates under which viable sea lion populations could be sustained at 11 breeding sites in the Gulf of California. We used 3 models to estimate sustainable bycatch rates: a simple population-growth model, a demographic model, and an estimate of the potential biological removal. All models were based on life history and census data collected for sea lions in the Gulf of California. We estimated the current level of fishing pressure and the acceptable level of fishing required to maintain viable sea lion populations as the number of fishing days (1 fisher/boat setting and retrieving 1 day's worth of nets) per year. Estimates of current fishing pressure ranged from 101 (0-405) fishing days around the Los Machos breeding site to 1887 (842-3140) around the Los Islotes rookery. To maintain viable sea lion populations at each site, the current level of fishing permissible could be augmented at some sites and should be reduced at other sites. For example, the area around San Esteban could support up to 1428 (935-2337) additional fishing days, whereas fishing around Lobos should be reduced by at least 165 days (107-268). Our results provide conservation practitioners with site-specific guidelines for maintaining sustainable sea lion populations and provide a method to estimate fishing pressure and sustainable bycatch rates that could be used for other marine mammals and birds.

  20. Assessment of seismic hazards along the northern Gulf of Aqaba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abueladas, Abdel-Rahman Aqel

    Aqaba and Elat are very important port and recreation cities for the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and Israel, respectively. The two cities are the most susceptible to damage from a destructive future earthquake because they are located over the tectonically active Dead Sea transform fault (DST) that is the source of most of the major historical earthquakes in the region. The largest twentieth century earthquake on the DST, the magnitude Mw 7.2 Nuweiba earthquake of November 22, 1995, caused damage to structures in both cities. The integration of geological, geophysical, and earthquake engineering studies will help to assess the seismic hazards by determining the location and slip potential of active faults and by mapping areas of high liquefaction susceptibility. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a high resolution shallow geophysical tool was used to map the shallow active faults in Aqaba, Taba Sabkha area, and Elat. The GPR data revealed the onshore continuation of the Evrona, West Aqaba, Aqaba fault zones, and several transverse faults. The integration of offshore and onshore data confirm the extension of these faults along both sides of the Gulf of Aqaba. A 3D model of GPR data at one site in Aqaba indicates that the NW-trending transverse faults right laterally offset older than NE-trending faults. The most hazardous fault is the Evrona fault which extends north to the Tabs Sabkha. A geographic information system (GIS) database of the seismic hazard was created in order to facilitate the analyzing, manipulation, and updating of the input parameters. Liquefaction potential maps were created for the region based on analysis of borehole data. The liquefaction map shows high and moderate liquefaction susceptibility zones along the northern coast of the Gulf of Aqaba. In Aqaba several hotels are located within a high and moderate liquefaction zones. The Yacht Club, Aqaba, Ayla archaeological site, and a part of commercial area are also situated in a risk area. A part

  1. Understanding the sediment routing system along the Gulf of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding the sediment routing system along the Gulf of Kachchh coast, western India: Significance of small ephemeral rivers ... is an attempt towards understanding the sediment routing system in the semi-arid margin of the Gulf of Kachchh, which is one of the largest macrotidal regimes in the northern Arabian Sea.

  2. Why is Habitat Restoration Near the Gulf of Mexico Essential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration in the Gulf of MexicoWetlands in the coastal watersheds make up about 38 percent of total wetland area in the conterminous United States, and Gulf of Mexico Coastal Wetlands make up 37 percent of such wetlands in the United State

  3. Behavior and trends for Zn in Saronikos Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalkiadakis O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of Zn in the water column of Saronikos Gulf in Greece during a two year period between 2008 and 2010 added data to the available time series of metal data for this marine area since 1985. The Saronikos Gulf, is directly influenced by the Athens metropolitan area. The operation of the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Athens situated on the small island of Psitalia, in 1995, was considered to be the turning point in the efforts of de-pollution of the gulf. Major sources of pollution for the gulf include also the port of Piraeus, with intensive navigation and shipping activities and the significant industrial activity occurring along the coast of Attica. This study of dissolved and particulate Zn gave results consistent with previous studies of the area such as the prevalence of the dissolved form of Zn and the most affected areas being the smaller most enclosed Gulf of Elefsina and Psitalia Island near the wastewater outfall. However, the concentrations of Zn were below toxic levels for marine aquatic organisms. Furthermore, a clear decrease in the Eastern part of the gulf was exhibited as well as a more subtle decrease in the gulf of Elefsina. The levels of Zn in Saronikos Gulf were found comparable to those of other Greek coastal areas.

  4. DISSOLVED METHANE IN THE SILLS AREA, GULF OF CALIFORNIA, MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The northern part of the Gulf of California is physically separated from the rest of the Gulf by a series of sills and islands. Its waters are highly productive as several water masses interact with each other at the sills. One of the characteristics in the area is the presence o...

  5. Basic Gulf Arabic Based on Colloquial Abu Dhabi Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qafisheh, Hamdi A.

    This volume, developed for an introductory course in Gulf Arabic, utilizes the dialect of Abu Dhabi, a leading member of the Federation of Arab Emirates on the Persian Gulf. Although specifically developed for the University of Arizona Environmental Research Laboratory personnel, it can be used as a beginning textbook for college students and…

  6. Sediment dispersal in the macro tidal Gulf of Kachchh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    of the inner gulf is marked with U and V shaped cuttings extending in the parallel clays, deposited in an earlier phase of deposition. In the outer gulf, there exists a palaeo-channel, buried under 18 m thick sediments (in the central region). Existence...

  7. Geodynamics of the Gulf of California from surface wave tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Paulssen, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Gulf of California, which forms part of the Pacific–North American plate boundary, is an ideal place to investigate upper mantle dynamics in a continental rifting area. With 19 seismic stations located around the gulf, the NARS-Baja experiment (2002–2008) was designed to image its crustal and

  8. Geodynamics of the Gulf of California from surface wave tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Paulssen, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Gulf of California, which forms part of the Pacific-North American plate boundary, is an ideal place to investigate upper mantle dynamics in a continental rifting area. With 19 seismic stations located around the gulf, the NARS-Baja experiment (2002-2008) was designed to image its crustal and

  9. An American Honors Program in the Arab Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yyelland, Byrad

    2012-01-01

    The first Western honors program to be established in the Arab Gulf is offered in Doha, Qatar, on a small satellite campus of an American university. Doha is the capital city of Qatar, a sovereign Arab state physically located on a small peninsula bordering Saudi Arabia in the south and jutting into the Persian Gulf. With a population of only 1.7…

  10. Gulf States Strategic Vision to Face Iranian Nuclear Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the promotion and protection of investment and avoidance of double taxation .56 Their agreement also promoted cooperation in education, agriculture... doubling between the Gulf states and Iran.180 This has a direct impact on the conflicting situations of the Gulf states from those who are for or

  11. Gulf of Mexico hurricane wave simulations using SWAN : Bulk formula-based drag coefficient sensitivity for Hurricane Ike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Weisberg, R.H.; Zheng, L.; Zijlema, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of wind input parameterizations on wave estimations under hurricane conditions are examined using the unstructured grid, third-generation wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Experiments using Hurricane Ike wind forcing, which impacted the Gulf of Mexico in 2008, illustrate

  12. Estimating occurrence and detection probabilities for stream-breeding salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Jennifer Y.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Qualls, Carl P.

    2017-01-01

    Large gaps exist in our knowledge of the ecology of stream-breeding plethodontid salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Data describing where these salamanders are likely to occur along environmental gradients, as well as their likelihood of detection, are important for the prevention and management of amphibian declines. We used presence/absence data from leaf litter bag surveys and a hierarchical Bayesian multispecies single-season occupancy model to estimate the occurrence of five species of plethodontids across reaches in headwater streams in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Average detection probabilities were high (range = 0.432–0.942) and unaffected by sampling covariates specific to the use of litter bags (i.e., bag submergence, sampling season, in-stream cover). Estimates of occurrence probabilities differed substantially between species (range = 0.092–0.703) and were influenced by the size of the upstream drainage area and by the maximum proportion of the reach that dried. The effects of these two factors were not equivalent across species. Our results demonstrate that hierarchical multispecies models successfully estimate occurrence parameters for both rare and common stream-breeding plethodontids. The resulting models clarify how species are distributed within stream networks, and they provide baseline values that will be useful in evaluating the conservation statuses of plethodontid species within lotic systems in the Gulf Coastal Plain.

  13. Evolution of the Sedimentary Basin Within the Eastern Eez Polygon at the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, S.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Bandy, W. L.; Escobar-Briones, E. G.; Perez, D. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study shows the seafloor structures and magnetic anomalies inside the eastern EEZ polygon at the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of this study is to examine the previous hypothesis of the Gulf of Mexico opening, based on the seafloor magnetic character. Researchers from the "Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología" at UNAM, collected , multibeam bathymetric data, high-resolution seismic reflection and magnetic profiles along 37 E-W transects during two campaigns on board the UNAM vessel, BO JUSTO SIERRA, SIGSBEE-11 in 2008 and SIGSBEE-13 in 2010. Results of the bathymetry data gathered with the EM300 multibeam echo sounder (Kongsberg) and processed with the software Caraibes from IFREMER has generated a bathymetry chart of seafloor at the Eastern Polygon, and a mosaic of back-scattering images. The high-resolution seismic profiles gathered with the subbottom profiler TOPAS PS-18 (Kongsberg) provide information on the stratigraphy sediment packages across this polygon and across the deep Mississippi Canyon. The magnetic anomalies are reduced from the data gathered with a proton-precession magnetometer, G877 (GEOMETRICS). The anomalies are modeled, based on a N_S rift at the Gulf central sector. The bathymetric chart and reflectivity mosaics of SIGSBEE-11 and SIGSBEE-13 documented the smooth relief of the seabed slope toward the Gulf central sector and abrupt morphological features associated to the meanders of the Mississippi Canyon that trend to the East. The multibeam bathymetry chart shows a relief depth that goes from 2,900 to 3,400 m from north to south. Meanders are observed in the seabed within the Eastern Polygon which is related to turbidity currents from the Mississippi River, and having a trend from west to east. The relief of the canyon shows channels with widths between 400 and 1800 m, and canyon depths up to 80 m. The high-resolution seismic sections, show well defined stratigraphy packages, where clear sediment strata are interrupted by

  14. SUMMER ABUNDANCE AND ECOLOGY OF ZOOPLANKTON IN THE GULF STREAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, W G; Conrad, J E

    1975-12-01

    We have described the results of laboratory analyses of 42 horizontal tows using a Clarke-Bumpus plankton sampler with a 100 µ emmesh net in the Gulf Stream. Classifications of 20 zooplankton taxa have been made for the 42 hauls. Calanoids dominate the hauls. It was found that the zooplankton population distribution and density varied considerably from haul to haul, but there was no consistent buildup or depletion of population with progress of the flow north in the Gulf Stream. These biological arguments reinforce previous conjectures that there is a geostrophically-balanced inflow of continental shelf and Labrador Sea water that gradually mixes with the Gulf Stream water mass. These inflows provide sources of zooplankton and phytoplankton to the Gulf Stream as it progresses northward. Also, an ecological analysis of the Gulf Stream indicates that the dry organic matter is over an order of magnitude below that which is theoretically possible.

  15. Western Gulf of Mexico lease sale draws weak response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that puny participation in the federal lease sale for the western Gulf of Mexico reflected a lack of open acreage on attractive prospects and the crisis sweeping the U.S. offshore oil and gas industry. Thirty-eight companies participating in the Minerals Management Service's Outer Continental Shelf Sale 141 offered 81 bids for 61 tracts in the western gulf planning area. That was the fewest bids offered in a western gulf sale since operators offered 52 bids for 41 tracts at Sale 105 in August 1986. The only Gulf of Mexico minerals sale to attract less bonus money was the MMS sulfur and salt sale in the central gulf in February 1988 in which $20.8 million was exposed

  16. 76 FR 61695 - Gulf of Mexico Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy (Preliminary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OA-2011-0798; FRL-9475-6] Gulf of Mexico Regional... of Availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of the Gulf of Mexico Regional... and the public throughout the Gulf Coast to develop a Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Restoration Strategy...

  17. 76 FR 68339 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... submitted by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council). Amendment 26 established an individual... and participants to certify their status as U.S. citizens or permanent resident aliens to meet current... fishery of the Gulf of Mexico is managed under the FMP. The FMP was prepared by the Council and is...

  18. 75 FR 63786 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... proposed temporary rule that would implement interim measures to reduce overfishing of gag in the Gulf of... this proposed rule is to reduce overfishing of the gag resource in the Gulf. DATES: Written comments... prevent overfishing and achieve, on a continuing basis, the optimum yield (OY) from Federally managed fish...

  19. 76 FR 69136 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... rule to extend the effective date of interim measures to reduce overfishing of gag in the Gulf of... extends the interim measures implemented to reduce overfishing of gag in the Gulf by reducing the... Management Council (Council). The intended effect of this rule is to reduce overfishing of the gag resource...

  20. 75 FR 74650 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... fishery and further limited where they can fish. Comment 7: Several commenters indicated regionalized gag.... 100806332-0573-02] RIN 0648-BA02 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The reef fish fishery of the Gulf of Mexico is managed under...

  1. Forecasting CO2 emissions in the Persian Gulf States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Olabemiwo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Persian Gulf States (Bahrain. Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and United Arab Emirate have dominated the oil and gas sector since the discovery of oil in the region. They are the world largest producers of crude oil, producing about 35 and 25 percent of the world natural gas and crude oil respectively. The use of fossil fuels is directly linked to the release of CO2 into the environment. CO2 accounts for 58.8 percent of all greenhouse gases released via human activities, consequently, presenting a malign impact on the environment through climate change, global warming, biodiversity, acid rain and desertification among others. Due to its importance, the data on CO2 emission obtained from US EIA from 1980 – 2010 was regressed using least square techniques and projections were made to the year 2050. Results indicated that each country’s p-value was less than 0.05 which implies that the models can be used for predicting CO2 emissions into the future. The data shows the emission of CO2 by countries from the highest to the lowest in 2016 as: Iran (590.72 Mtonnes; 7.58 tonnes of CO2/person > Saudi Arabia (471.82 Mtonnes; 18 tonnes of CO2/person > UAE (218.58 Mtonnes; 41.31 tonnes of CO2/person > Iraq (114.01 Mtonees; 3.71 tonnes of CO2/person > Kuwait (92.58 Mtonnes; 36.31 tonnes of CO2/person > Qatar (68.26 Mtonnes; 37 tonnes of CO2/person > Bahrain (33.16 Mtonnes; 27.5 tonnes of CO2/person". The sequence from the country with highest emission (Iran to the country with lowest emission (Bahrain will remain the same until 2050. A projection depicting a 7.7 percent yearly increase in CO2 emission in the Persian Gulf States.

  2. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico: high prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkland, G.

    2000-01-01

    The present and future role of the deepwater Gulf of Mexico to meeting natural gas requirements of the United States are reviewed.The steady increase in U.S. demand, outpacing U.S.supply for over 10 years and the increasing reliance by the USA on Canadian exports is demonstrated in conjunction with the '30 Tcf Challenge'. Regarding the Gulf of Mexico specifically, it is estimated that to meet expectations, production there needs to grow to 22 Bcfpd by 2020, especially the deepwater pools which have a potential of 80 to 140 Tcf over the next 50 years. These pools already produce as much oil as the shelf region, but only 25 per cent as much gas. To produce the expected 7 to 12 Bcfpd oil production must reach 4 million barrel of oil per day, which involves cycle time, new technologies and cost challenges. Much of the new technology needed is related to cutting costs and while good progress is being made, it is argued that further gains could occur if international technology were applied in the Gulf. The rate of success in exploration has also improved, with over one billion barrels of deepwater discoveries per year over the last four years. Cycle times have also improved, although the impact of cycle time in the deeper water regions is cause for some concern. The overall assessment is that to get the gas, one has to get the oil first, meaning that deepwater success is more dependent on oil prices than on gas prices. Nevertheless, the need for developing and applying new technologies remains paramount, including the application of existing foreign technologies that have proven successful elsewhere. It is equally important to demonstrate a high level of environmental stewardship, and to continue focusing on cycle time, including access to prospective acreage, a well-trained workforce, and reasonable regulatory and permitting requirements

  3. Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    clinical trial were published in the online journal PLOS ONE (6) on June 23,2016. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/ article ?id=10.1371/journal.pone...there have been 15,149 views and 480 downloads of the paper. That puts us in the top 1% most downloaded for all PLOS ONE research articles published in...www.npr.org/2013/03/22/175054277/ scientists -search-for-gulf-war-illness-answers www.research.va.gov/currents/0716-1.cfm http

  4. Assessment of pipeline stability in the Gulf of Mexico during hurricanes using dynamic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Tian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pipelines are the critical link between major offshore oil and gas developments and the mainland. Any inadequate on-bottom stability design could result in disruption and failure, having a devastating impact on the economy and environment. Predicting the stability behavior of offshore pipelines in hurricanes is therefore vital to the assessment of both new design and existing assets. The Gulf of Mexico has a very dense network of pipeline systems constructed on the seabed. During the last two decades, the Gulf of Mexico has experienced a series of strong hurricanes, which have destroyed, disrupted and destabilized many pipelines. This paper first reviews some of these engineering cases. Following that, three case studies are retrospectively simulated using an in-house developed program. The study utilizes the offshore pipeline and hurricane details to conduct a Dynamic Lateral Stability analysis, with the results providing evidence as to the accuracy of the modeling techniques developed.

  5. Volume 4: Characterization of representative reservoirs -- Gulf of Mexico field, U-8 reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperna, G.J. Jr.; Johnson, H.R. [BDM Federal, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K. [BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Sawyer, W.K. [Mathematical and Computer Services, Inc., Danville, VA (United States); Kimbrell, W.C.; Schenewerk, P.A. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    1998-07-01

    A reservoir study was performed using a publicly available black oil simulator to history match and predict the performance of a Gulf of Mexico reservoir. The first objective of this simulation study was to validate the Black Oil Applied Simulation Tool version three for personal computers (BOAST3-PC) model to ensure the integrity of the simulation runs. Once validation was completed, a field history match for the Gulf of Mexico U-8 oil reservoir was attempted. A verbal agreement was reached with the operator of this reservoir to blindcode the name and location of the reservoir. In return, the operator supplied data and assistance in regards to the technical aspects of the research. On the basis of the best history match, different secondary recovery techniques were simulated as a predictive study for enhancing the reservoir productivity.

  6. [The Gulf War Syndrome twenty years on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxéméry, Y

    2013-10-01

    After Operation Desert Storm which took place in Iraq from August 1990 to July 1991 involving a coalition of 35 countries and a 700,000 strong contingent of mainly American men, some associations of war veterans, the media and researchers described a new diagnostic entity: the Gulf War Syndrome (GWS). GWS seems to be a new disorder which associates a litany of functional symptoms integrating the musculoskeletal, digestive, tegumentary and neurosensory systems. The symptoms presented do not allow a syndrome already known to be considered and the aetiology of the clinical picture remains unexplained, an increasing cause for concern resulting from the extent of the phenomenon and its media coverage. It quickly appears that there is no consensus amongst the scientific community concerning a nosographic description of GWS: where can all these functional complaints arise from? Different aetiopathogenic hypotheses have been studied by the American administration who is attempting to incriminate exposure to multiple risks such as vaccines and their adjuvants, organophosphorous compounds, pyridostigmine (given to the troops for the preventive treatment of the former), impoverished uranium, and the toxic emanations from oil well fires. But despite extremely in-depth scientific investigations, 10 years after the end of the war, no objective marker of physical suffering has been retained to account for the disorders presented. It would appear that the former soldiers are in even better objective health than the civil population whereas their subjective level of health remains low. Within this symptomatic population, some authors have begun to notice that the psychological disorders appear and persist associating: asthenia, fatigability, mood decline, sleep disorders, cognitive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Within the nosological framework, does GWS cause functional disorders or somatisation? Finally, 20 years after the end of the fighting, only PTSD has

  7. Phytoplankton dynamics in the Gulf of Aqaba (Eilat, Red Sea): A simulation study of mariculture effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laiolo, Leonardo; Barausse, Alberto; Dubinsky, Zvy; Palmeri, Luca; Goffredo, Stefano; Kamenir, Yury; Al-Najjar, Tariq; Iluz, David

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fish farms in the Gulf of Aqaba strongly affect phytoplankton levels. • Integrating statistics and ecological models help understand phytoplankton dynamics. • Phytoplankton dynamics are driven by mariculture activity and natural forces. • Mariculture can alter typical phytoplankton dynamics and seasonal succession. - Abstract: The northern Gulf of Aqaba is an oligotrophic water body hosting valuable coral reefs. In the Gulf, phytoplankton dynamics are driven by an annual cycle of stratification and mixing. Superimposed on that fairly regular pattern was the establishment of a shallow-water fish-farm initiative that increased gradually until its activity was terminated in June 2008. Nutrient, water temperature, irradiation, phytoplankton data gathered in the area during the years 2007–2009, covering the peak of the fish-farm activity and its cessation, were analyzed by means of statistical analyses and ecological models of phytoplankton dynamics. Two datasets, one from an open water station and one next to the fish farms, were used. Results show that nutrient concentrations and, consequently, phytoplankton abundance and seasonal succession were radically altered by the pollution originating from the fish-farm in the sampling station closer to it, and also that the fish-farm might even have influenced the open water station

  8. Cold Surge Activity Over the Gulf of Mexico in a Warmer Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Perez Perez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cold surges are a dominant feature of midlatitude tropical interaction. During the North Hemisphere (NH winter, midlatitude waves propagating from the Rocky Mountains into the Gulf of Mexico result in cold surges, also known as Nortes or Tehuantepecers, associated with severe weather over the southern part of Mexico. The magnitude of their intense surface winds, precipitation and drops in surface temperature depends on the characteristics of the midlatitude wave propagating into the tropics. The high spatial resolution (20km X 20km version of the TL959L60-AGC Model of the Meteorological Research Institute of Japan is used to examine changes in cold surge activity under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario for the 2080 - 2099 period. The model realistically reproduces the spatial and temporal characteristics of cold surges for the 1980 - 1989 control period. The effect of changes in baroclinicity, static stability and mean flow over North America suggest that in a warmer climate, increased cold surge activity over the Gulf of Mexico would occur. However, these systems would have shorter wavelength (higher phase speeds and shorter lifespans that could reduce the total amount of winter precipitation. The increased frequency of cold surges over the Gulf of Mexico would be a consequence of weaker baroclinicity and static stability in the lower troposphere over the cold surge genesis region, along with more dominant westerly winds, resulting from ENSO-like conditions in the atmospheric circulations over North America.

  9. Hurricane frequency and landfall distribution for coastal wetlands of the Gulf coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    The regularity and severity of tropical storms are major determinants controlling ecosystem structure and succession for coastal ecosystems. Hurricane landfall rates vary greatly with high and low frequency for given coastal stretches of the southeastern United States. Site-specific meteorological data of hurricane wind speeds and direction, however, are only available for select populated cities of relatively sparse distribution and inland from the coast. A spatial simulation model of hurricane circulation, HURASIM, was applied to reconstruct chronologies of hurricane wind speeds and vectors for northern Gulf coast locations derived from historical tracking data of North Atlantic tropical storms dating back to 1851. Contrasts of storm frequencies showed that tropical storm incidence is nearly double for Florida coastal ecosystems than the westernmost stretches of Texas coastline. Finer-scale spatial simulations for the north-central Gulf coast exhibited sub-regional differences in storm strength and frequency with coastal position and latitude. The overall pattern of storm incidence in the Gulf basin indicates that the disturbance regime of coastal areas varies greatly along the coast, inland from the coast, and temporally over the period of record. Field and modeling studies of coastal ecosystems will benefit from this retrospective analysis of hurricane incidence and intensity both on a local or regional basis. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  10. Application of SWAN+ADCIRC to tide-surge and wave simulation in Gulf of Maine during Patriot's Day storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-mei Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The southern coast of the Gulf of Maine in the United States is prone to flooding caused by nor'easters. A state-of-the-art fully-coupled model, the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN model with unstructured grids and the ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC model, was used to study the hydrodynamic response in the Gulf of Maine during the Patriot's Day storm of 2007, a notable example of nor'easters in this area. The model predictions agree well with the observed tide-surges and waves during this storm event. Waves and circulation in the Gulf of Maine were analyzed. The Georges Bank plays an important role in dissipating wave energy through the bottom friction when waves propagate over the bank from offshore to the inner gulf due to its shallow bathymetry. Wave energy dissipation results in decreasing significant wave height (SWH in the cross-bank direction and wave radiation stress gradient, which in turn induces changes in currents. While the tidal currents are dominant over the Georges Bank and in the Bay of Fundy, the residual currents generated by the meteorological forcing and waves are significant over the Georges Bank and in the coastal area and can reach 0.3 m/s and 0.2 m/s, respectively. In the vicinity of the coast, the longshore current generated by the surface wind stress and wave radiation stress acting parallel to the coastline is inversely proportional to the water depth and will eventually be limited by the bottom friction. The storm surge level reaches 0.8 m along the western periphery of the Gulf of Maine while the wave set-up due to radiation stress variation reaches 0.2 m. Therefore, it is significant to coastal flooding.

  11. Gulf War Syndrome: a review of current knowledge and understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, D

    2014-01-01

    The 1991 Persian Gulf War was a resounding military success for coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait following the Iraqi invasion. The medical legacy we have from the conflict is the poorly understood, yet remarkable, phenomenon of Gulf War Syndrome, which surfaced soon after. Epidemiological research has proven beyond doubt that Gulf War veterans report a wide variety of symptoms, in excess of appropriately matched control subjects, and experience worse general health. Numerous toxic environmental hazards have been suggested as causes of Gulf War Syndrome, yet exhaustive scientific study has failed to provide conclusive proof of any link. No novel or recognised disease has been found to account for the symptomatic burden of veterans, and the optimal treatment remains uncertain. This understanding can be added to from an anthropological perspective, where the narratives of those afflicted provide further insight. The nature of military life was changing at the time of the Gulf War, challenging the identity and beliefs of some veterans and causing socio-cultural distress. The symptomatic presentation of Gulf War Syndrome can be considered an articulation of this disharmony. Gulf War Syndrome can also be considered within the group of post-combat disorders such as shellshock, the like of which have occurred after major wars in the last century. With the current withdrawal from Afghanistan, the Defence Medical Services (DMS) should heed the lessons of history.

  12. Phytoplankton and sediments in Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Affected both by terrestrial factors like agriculture, deforestation, and erosion, and by marine factors like salinity levels, ocean temperature and water pollution, coastal environments are the dynamic interface between land and sea. In this MODIS image from January 15, 2002, the Gulf of Mexico is awash in a mixture of phytoplankton and sediment. Tan-colored sediment is flowing out into the Gulf from the Mississippi River, whose floodplain cuts a pale, wide swath to the right of center in the image, and also from numerous smaller rivers along the Louisiana coast (center). Mixing with the sediment are the multi-colored blue and green swirls that reveal the presence of large populations of marine plants called phytoplankton. Phytoplankton populations bloom and then fade, and these cycles affect fish and mammals-including humans-higher up the food chain. Certain phytoplankton are toxic to both fish and humans, and coastal health departments must monitor ecosystems carefully, often restricting fishing or harvesting of shellfish until the blooms have subsided.

  13. Site characterization plan: Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing technology and providing facilities for safe, environmentally acceptable, permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation has been intensively investigating Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin salt domes and bedded salt in Texas and Utah since 1978. In the Gulf Coast, the application of screening criteria in the region phase led to selection of eight domes for further study in the location phase. Further screening in the area phase identified four domes for more intensive study in the location phase: Oakwood Dome, Texas; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. For each dome, this Site Characterization Plan identifies specific hydrologic, geologic, tectonic, geochemical, and environmental key issues that are related to the DOE/NWTS screening criteria or affect the feasibility of constructing an exploratory shaft. The Site Characterization Plan outlines studies need to: (1) resolve issues sufficiently to allow one or more salt domes to be selected and compared to bedded salt sites in order to determine a prime salt site for an exploratory shaft; (2) conduct issue-related studies to provide a higher level of confidence that the preferred salt dome site is viable for construction of an exploratory shaft; and (3) provide a vehicle for state input to issues. Extensive references, 7 figures, 20 tables

  14. Changes in the distribution of atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the Gulf of Maine 1979-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golet, Walter J; Galuardi, Benjamin; Cooper, Andrew B; Lutcavage, Molly E

    2013-01-01

    The Gulf of Maine, NW Atlantic Ocean, is a productive, seasonal foraging ground for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), but commercial landings of adult size classes were up to 40% below the allocated total allowable catch between 2004 to 2008 for the rod and reel, harpoon, and purse seine categories in the Gulf of Maine. Reduction in Atlantic bluefin tuna catches in the Gulf of Maine could represent a decline in spawning stock biomass, but given wide-ranging, complex migration patterns, and high energetic requirements, an alternative hypothesis is that their dispersal patterns shifted to regions with higher prey abundance or profitability, reducing availability to U.S. fishing fleets. This study fit generalized linear models to Atlantic bluefin tuna landings data collected from fishermen's logbooks (1979-2005) as well as the distances between bluefin tuna schools and Atlantic herring (Clupeaharengus), a primary prey species, to test alternative hypotheses for observed shifts in Atlantic bluefin tuna availability in the Gulf of Maine. For the bluefin model, landings varied by day of year, latitude and longitude. The effect of latitude differed by day of year and the effect of longitude differed by year. The distances between Atlantic bluefin tuna schools and Atlantic herring schools were significantly smaller (pBank in spring and autumn surveys respectively (p<0.01, r(2)=0.24, p<0.01, r(2)=0.42). Fishermen's logbooks contributed novel spatial and temporal information towards testing these hypotheses for the bluefin tuna fishery.

  15. Trends in brain cancer mortality among U.S. Gulf War veterans: 21 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Shannon K; Dursa, Erin K; Bossarte, Robert M; Schneiderman, Aaron I

    2017-10-01

    Previous mortality studies of U.S. Gulf War veterans through 2000 and 2004 have shown an increased risk of brain cancer mortality among some deployed individuals. When veterans possibly exposed to environmental contaminants associated with demolition of the Khamisiyah Ammunition Storage Facility at Khamisiyah, Iraq, have been compared to contemporaneously deployed unexposed veterans, the results have suggested increased risk for mortality from brain cancer among the exposed. Brain cancer mortality risk in this cohort has not been updated since 2004. This study analyzes the risk for brain cancer mortality between 1991-2011 through two series of comparisons: U.S. Gulf War deployed and non-deployed veterans from the same era; and veterans possibly exposed to environmental contaminants at Khamisiyah compared to contemporaneously deployed but unexposed U.S. Gulf War veterans. Risk of brain cancer mortality was determined using logistic regression. Life test hazard models were created to plot comparisons of annual hazard rates. Joinpoint regression models were applied to assess trends in hazard rates for brain cancer mortality. U.S. Army veterans possibly exposed at Khamisiyah had similar rates of brain cancer mortality compared to those not possibly exposed; however, veterans possibly exposed had a higher risk of brain cancer in the time period immediately following the Gulf War. Results from these analyses suggest that veterans possibly exposed at Khamisiyah experienced different patterns of brain cancer mortality risk compared to the other groups. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A data assimilation tool for the Pagasitikos Gulf ecosystem dynamics: Methods and benefits

    KAUST Repository

    Korres, Gerasimos

    2012-06-01

    Within the framework of the European INSEA project, an advanced assimilation system has been implemented for the Pagasitikos Gulf ecosystem. The system is based on a multivariate sequential data assimilation scheme that combines satellite ocean sea color (chlorophyll-a) data with the predictions of a three-dimensional coupled physical-biochemical model of the Pagasitikos Gulf ecosystem presented in a companion paper. The hydrodynamics are solved with a very high resolution (1/100°) implementation of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). This model is nested within a coarser resolution model of the Aegean Sea which is part of the Greek POSEIDON forecasting system. The forecast of the Aegean Sea model, itself nested and initialized from a Mediterranean implementation of POM, is also used to periodically re-initalize the Pagatisikos hydrodynamics model using variational initialization techniques. The ecosystem dynamics of Pagasitikos are tackled with a stand-alone implementation of the European Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The assimilation scheme is based on the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter, in which the error statistics are parameterized by means of a suitable set of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs).The assimilation experiments were performed for year 2003 and additionally for a 9-month period over 2006 during which the physical model was forced with the POSEIDON-ETA 6-hour atmospheric fields. The assimilation system is validated by assessing the relevance of the system in fitting the data, the impact of the assimilation on non-observed biochemical processes and the overall quality of the forecasts. Assimilation of either GlobColour in 2003 or SeaWiFS in 2006 chlorophyll-a data enhances the identification of the ecological state of the Pagasitikos Gulf. Results, however, suggest that subsurface ecological observations are needed to improve the controllability of the ecosystem in the deep layers. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Ocean Observing Public-Private Collaboration to Improve Tropical Storm and Hurricane Predictions in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R.; Leung, P.; McCall, W.; Martin, K. M.; Howden, S. D.; Vandermeulen, R. A.; Kim, H. S. S.; Kirkpatrick, B. A.; Watson, S.; Smith, W.

    2016-02-01

    In 2008, Shell partnered with NOAA to explore opportunities for improving storm predictions in the Gulf of Mexico. Since, the collaboration has grown to include partners from Shell, NOAA National Data Buoy Center and National Center for Environmental Information, National Center for Environmental Prediction, University of Southern Mississippi, and the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System. The partnership leverages complementary strengths of each collaborator to build a comprehensive and sustainable monitoring and data program to expand observing capacity and protect offshore assets and Gulf communities from storms and hurricanes. The program combines in situ and autonomous platforms with remote sensing and numerical modeling. Here we focus on profiling gliders and the benefits of a public-private partnership model for expanding regional ocean observing capacity. Shallow and deep gliders measure ocean temperature to derive ocean heat content (OHC), along with salinity, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, and CDOM, in the central and eastern Gulf shelf and offshore. Since 2012, gliders have collected 4500+ vertical profiles and surveyed 5000+ nautical miles. Adaptive sampling and mission coordination with NCEP modelers provides specific datasets to assimilate into EMC's coupled HYCOM-HWRF model and 'connect-the-dots' between well-established Eulerian metocean measurements by obtaining (and validating) data between fixed stations (e.g. platform and buoy ADCPs) . Adaptive sampling combined with remote sensing provides satellite-derived OHC validation and the ability to sample productive coastal waters advected offshore by the Loop Current. Tracking coastal waters with remote sensing provides another verification of estimate Loop Current and eddy boundaries, as well as quantifying productivity and analyzing water quality on the Gulf coast, shelf break and offshore. Incorporating gliders demonstrates their value as tools to better protect offshore oil and gas assets

  18. Predicted impacts from offshore produced water discharges on hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, V. J.; Hinz, S.C.; Justic, D.; Scavia, D.; Veil, J. A.; Satterlee, K.; Parker, M. E.; Wilson, S.; Environmental Science Division; LimnoTech.; Louisiana State Univ.; Univ of Michigan; Shell E& P Co.; Exxon Mobil Production Co.; U.S. EPA

    2008-06-01

    Summer hypoxia (dissolved oxygen < 2 mg/L) in the bottom waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico has received considerable scientific and policy attention because of potential ecological and economic impacts. This hypoxic zone forms off the Louisiana coast each summer and has increased from an average of 8,300 km{sup 2} in 1985-1992 to over 16,000 km{sup 2} in 1993-2001, reaching a record 22,000 km{sup 2} in 2002. The almost threefold increase in nitrogen load from the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) to the Gulf since the middle of the last century is the primary external driver for hypoxia. A goal of the 2001 Federal Action Plan is to reduce the 5-year running average size of the hypoxic zone to below 5,000 km{sup 2} by 2015. After the Action Plan was developed, a new question arose as to whether sources other than the MRB may also contribute significant quantities of oxygen-demanding substances. One very visible potential source is the hundreds of offshore oil and gas platforms located within or near the hypoxic zone, many of which discharge varying volumes of produced water. The objectives of this study were to assess the incremental impacts of produced water discharges on dissolved oxygen in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and to evaluate the significance of these discharges relative to loadings from the MRB. Predictive simulations were conducted with three existing models of Gulf hypoxia using produced water loads from an industry study. Scenarios were designed that addressed loading uncertainties, settleability of suspended constituents, and different assumptions on delivery locations for the produced water loads. Model results correspond to the incremental impacts of produced water loads, relative to the original model results, which included only loads from the MRB. The predicted incremental impacts of produced water loads on dissolved oxygen in the northern Gulf of Mexico from all three models were small. Even considering the predicted ranges between lower- and

  19. Combining Multicomponent Seismic Attributes, New Rock Physics Models, and In Situ Data to Estimate Gas-Hydrate Concentrations in Deep-Water, Near-Seafloor Strata of the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau of Economic Geology

    2009-04-30

    The Bureau of Economic Geology was contracted to develop technologies that demonstrate the value of multicomponent seismic technology for evaluating deep-water hydrates across the Green Canyon area of the Gulf of Mexico. This report describes the methodologies that were developed to create compressional (P-P) and converted-shear (P-SV) images of near-seafloor geology from four-component ocean-bottom-cable (4C OBC) seismic data and the procedures used to integrate P-P and P-SV seismic attributes with borehole calibration data to estimate hydrate concentration across two study areas spanning 16 and 25 lease blocks (or 144 and 225 square miles), respectively. Approximately 200 km of two-dimensional 4C OBC profiles were processed and analyzed over the course of the 3-year project. The strategies we developed to image near-seafloor geology with 4C OBC data are unique, and the paper describing our methodology was peer-recognized with a Best Paper Award by the Society of Exploration Geophysicists in the first year of the project (2006). Among the valuable research findings demonstrated in this report, the demonstrated ability to image deep-water near-seafloor geology with sub-meter resolution using a standard-frequency (10-200 Hz) air gun array on the sea surface and 4C sensors on the seafloor has been the accomplishment that has received the most accolades from professional peers. Our study found that hydrate is pervasive across the two study areas that were analyzed but exists at low concentrations. Although our joint inversion technique showed that in some limited areas, and in some geologic units across those small areas, hydrates occupied up to 40-percent of the sediment pore space, we found that when hydrate was present, hydrate concentration tended to occupy only 10-percent to 20-percent of the pore volume. We also found that hydrate concentration tended to be greater near the base of the hydrate stability zone than it was within the central part of the stability

  20. Report A, chemical oceanographic data from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman from 17 April 1972 to 17 March 1978 (NODC Accession 7900091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and chemical data were collected using bottle casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE and other platforms in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman from 17...

  1. Northern Gulf Littoral Initiative (NGLI), Geology and Physical Properties of Marine Sediments in the N.E. Gulf of Mexico: Data Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern Gulf Littoral Initiative (NGLI), Geology and Physical Properties of Marine Sediments in the N.E. gulf of Mexico: Data Report, was produced by the U.S....

  2. Crust and mantle of the gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G.W.

    1972-01-01

    A SEEMING paradox has puzzled investigators of the crustal structure of the Gulf of Mexico since Ewing et al.1 calculated that a unit area of the rather thick crust in the gulf contains less mass than does a combination of the crust and enough of the upper mantle to make a comparable thickness in the Atlantic Ocean. They also noted that the free-air gravity of the gulf is essentially normal and fails by a large factor to be low enough to reflect the mass difference that they calculated. We propose a solution to this problem. ?? 1972 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Quattrocchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS and GS extension (GSE is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with schematic boundaries including the essential geometric features of the coastline and a realistic zonal basin width at all latitudes. The forcing is provided by a time-independent climatological surface wind stress obtained from 41 years of monthly ECMWF fields. The model response yields strong intrinsic low-frequency fluctuations on the interannual to decadal time scales. The modelled time-averaged GS/GSE flows are found to exhibit several features that can also be deduced from satellite altimeter data, such as the Florida Current seaward deflection, the GS separation at Cape Hatteras, and the overall structure of the GSE. The intrinsic low-frequency variability yields two preferred states of the GSE differing in latitudinal location that also have their counterpart in the altimeter data. A preliminary analysis of the variability in terms of dynamical systems theory is carried out by using the lateral eddy viscosity as the control parameter. A complex transition sequence from a steady state to irregular low-frequency variability emerges, in which Hopf and global bifurcations can be identified.

  4. Sea snakes (Elapidae, Hydrophiinae) in their westernmost extent: an updated and illustrated checklist and key to the species in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaie-Atagholipour,Mohsen; Ghezellou,Parviz; Hesni,Majid Askari; Dakhteh,Seyyed Mohammad Hashem; Ahmadian,Hooman; Vidal,Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The Persian Gulf is known as the westernmost distribution limit for sea snakes, except for Hydrophis platurus (Linnaeus, 1766) that reaches southeastern Africa. Previous identification guides for sea snakes of the Persian Gulf and its adjacent waters in the Gulf of Oman were based on old data and confined mostly to written descriptions. Therefore, a series of field surveys were carried out in 2013 and 2014 through Iranian coastal waters of both gulfs to provide a comprehensive sampling of sea...

  5. HIGH COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL SAFETY OF NPPS IN THE GULF REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BYUNG KOO KIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf region has one of the highest ocean temperatures, reaching above 35 degrees and ambient temperatures over 50 degrees in the summer. Two nuclear power plants (NPP are being introduced in the region for the first time, one at Bushehr (1,000 MWe PWR plant from Russia, and a much larger one at Barakah (4X1,400 MWe PWR from Korea. Both plants take seawater from the Gulf for condenser cooling, having to modify the secondary/tertiary side cooling systems design by increasing the heat transfer surface area from the country of origin. This paper analyses the secondary side of a typical PWR plant operating under the Rankine cycle with a simplified thermal-hydraulic model. Parametric study of ocean cooling temperatures is conducted to estimate thermal efficiency variations and its associated design changes for the secondary side. Operational safety is reviewed to deliver rated power output with acceptable safety margins in line with technical specifications, mainly in the auxiliary systems together with the cooling water temperature. Impact on the Gulf seawater as the ultimate heat sink is considered negligible, affecting only the adjacent water near the NPP site, when compared to the solar radiation on the sea surface.

  6. Panmixia in a Critically Endangered Fish: The Totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) in the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Quiñonez, Fausto; De-Anda-Montañez, Juan A; Gilbert-Horvath, Elizabeth; Garza, John Carlos; García-De León, Francisco J

    2016-11-01

    Conservation of the evolutionary legacy of endangered species is a key component for long-term persistence. Totoaba is a long-lived fish endemic to the Gulf of California and is considered critically endangered. There is currently a debate concerning its conservation status and whether it can be used as a fishery resource. Unfortunately, basic information on biological and genetic population structure of the species is lacking. We sampled 313 individuals and employed 16 microsatellite loci and 3 mitochondrial DNA markers (16S, 547 pb; COI, 619 pb; control region, 650 pb) to assess population structure and demography of totoaba in the Gulf of California, with samples from locations that encompass nearly all of its recognized geographic distribution. We could not reject a hypothesis of panmixia for totoaba, using nuclear or mitochondrial markers. Demographic analysis of mtDNA suggests a sudden population expansion model. The results have important implications for totoaba conservation because poaching is a significant conservation challenge and could have additive negative effects over the single population of totoaba in the Gulf of California. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Lagrangian trajectories, residual currents and rectification process in the Northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Pablo Alonso; Carbajal, Noel; Rodríguez, Juan Heberto Gaviño

    2017-07-01

    Considering a semi-implicit approximation of the Coriolis terms, a numerical solution of the vertically integrated equations of motion is proposed. To test the two-dimensional numerical model, several experiments for the calculation of Euler, Stokes and Lagrange residual currents in the Gulf of California were carried out. To estimate the Lagrangian residual current, trajectories of particles were also simulated. The applied tidal constituents were M2, S2, K2, N2, K1, P1 and O1. At spring tides, strong tidal velocities occur in the northern half of the gulf. In this region of complex geometry, depths change from a few meter in the northern shelf zone to more than 3000 m in the southern part. In the archipelago region, the presence of islands alters amplitude and direction of tidal currents producing a rectification process which is reflected in a clockwise circulation around Tiburón Island in the Lagrangian residual current. The rectification process is explained by the superposition of the Euler and Stokes residual currents. Residual current patterns show several cyclonic and anticyclonic gyres in the Northern Gulf of California. Numerical experiments for individual and combinations of several tidal constituents revealed a large variability of Lagrangian trajectories.

  8. Design of a Sea-level Tsunami Detection Network for the Gulf of Cadiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Omira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The devastating impact of the Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004, raised the question for scientists of how to forecast a tsunami threat. In 2005, the IOC-UNESCO XXIII assembly decided to implement a global tsunami warning system to cover the regions that were not yet protected, namely the Indian Ocean, the Caribbean and the North East Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (the NEAM region. Within NEAM, the Gulf of Cadiz is the more sensitive area, with an important record of devastating historical events. The objective of this paper is to present a preliminary design for a reliable tsunami detection network for the Gulf of Cadiz, based on a network of sea-level observatories. The tsunamigenic potential of this region has been revised in order to define the active tectonic structures. Tsunami hydrodynamic modeling and GIS technology have been used to identify the appropriate locations for the minimum number of sea-level stations. Results show that 3 tsunameters are required as the minimum number of stations necessary to assure an acceptable protection to the large coastal population in the Gulf of Cadiz. In addition, 29 tide gauge stations could be necessary to fully assess the effects of a tsunami along the affected coasts of Portugal, Spain and Morocco.

  9. Seismic structure beneath the Gulf of California: a contribution from group velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luccio, F.; Persaud, P.; Clayton, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion measurements from local and regional earthquakes are used to interpret the lithospheric structure in the Gulf of California region. We compute group velocity maps for Rayleigh waves from 10 to 150 s using earthquakes recorded by broad-band stations of the Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs in Baja California and Mexico mainland, UNM in Mexico, BOR, DPP and GOR in southern California and TUC in Arizona. The study area is gridded in 120 longitude cells by 180 latitude cells, with an equal spacing of 10 × 10 km. Assuming that each gridpoint is laterally homogeneous, for each period the tomographic maps are inverted to produce a 3-D lithospheric shear wave velocity model for the region. Near the Gulf of California rift axis, we found three prominent low shear wave velocity regions, which are associated with mantle upwelling near the Cerro Prieto volcanic field, the Ballenas Transform Fault and the East Pacific Rise. Upwelling of the mantle at lithospheric and asthenospheric depths characterizes most of the Gulf. This more detailed finding is new when compared to previous surface wave studies in the region. A low-velocity zone in northcentral Baja at ˜28ºN which extends east-south-eastwards is interpreted as an asthenospheric window. In addition, we also identify a well-defined high-velocity zone in the upper mantle beneath central-western Baja California, which correlates with the previously interpreted location of the stalled Guadalupe and Magdalena microplates. We interpret locations of the fossil slab and slab window in light of the distribution of unique post-subduction volcanic rocks in the Gulf of California and Baja California. We also observe a high-velocity anomaly at 50-km depth extending down to ˜130 km near the southwestern Baja coastline and beneath Baja, which may represent another remnant of the Farallon slab.

  10. The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: A Decade of Data Aggregation and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.; Gayanilo, F.; Kobara, S.; Baum, S. K.; Currier, R. D.; Stoessel, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association (GCOOS-RA) celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2015. GCOOS-RA is one of 11 RAs organized under the NOAA-led U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Program Office to aggregate regional data and make these data publicly-available in preferred forms and formats via standards-based web services. Initial development of GCOOS focused on building elements of the IOOS Data Management and Communications Plan which is a framework for end-to-end interoperability. These elements included: data discovery, catalog, metadata, online-browse, data access and transport. Initial data types aggregated included near real-time physical oceanographic, marine meteorological and satellite data. Our focus in the middle of the past decade was on the production of basic products such as maps of current oceanographic conditions and quasi-static datasets such as bathymetry and climatologies. In the latter part of the decade we incorporated historical physical oceanographic datasets and historical coastal and offshore water quality data into our holdings and added our first biological dataset. We also developed web environments and products to support Citizen Scientists and stakeholder groups such as recreational boaters. Current efforts are directed towards applying data quality assurance (testing and flagging) to non-federal data, data archiving at national repositories, serving and visualizing numerical model output, providing data services for glider operators, and supporting marine biodiversity observing networks. GCOOS Data Management works closely with the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative and various groups involved with Gulf Restoration. GCOOS-RA has influenced attitudes and behaviors associated with good data stewardship and data management practices across the Gulf and will to continue to do so into the next decade.

  11. Migratory corridors of adult female Kemp’s ridley turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Pena, Jaime; Gamez, Daniel Gomez; Gonzales Diaz Miron, Raul de Jesus; Burchfield, Patrick M.; Martinez, Hector J.; Ortiz, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    For many marine species, locations of migratory pathways are not well defined. We used satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM) to define the migratory corridor used by Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico. The turtles were tagged after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA from 1997 to 2014 (PAIS; n = 80); Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico from 2010 to 2011 (RN; n = 14); Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico from 2012 to 2013 (VC; n = 13); and Gulf Shores, Alabama, USA during 2012 (GS; n = 1). The migratory corridor lies in nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters in the USA and Mexico with mean water depth of 26 m and a mean distance of 20 km from the nearest mainland coast. Migration from the nesting beach is a short phenomenon that occurs from late-May through August, with a peak in June. There was spatial similarity of post-nesting migratory pathways for different turtles over a 16 year period. Thus, our results indicate that these nearshore Gulf waters represent a critical migratory habitat for this species. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the migratory pathways used by this and other species to return from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Therefore, our results highlight the need for tracking reproductive individuals from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Continued tracking of adult females from PAIS, RN, and VC nesting beaches will allow further study of environmental and bathymetric components of migratory habitat and threats occurring within our defined corridor. Furthermore, the existence of this migratory corridor in nearshore waters of both the USA and Mexico demonstrates that international cooperation is necessary to protect essential migratory habitat for this imperiled species.

  12. The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: A Gulf Science Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.; Gayanilo, F.; Kobara, S.; Jochens, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System's (GCOOS) regional science portal (gcoos.org) was designed to aggregate data and model output from distributed providers and to offer these, and derived products, through a single access point in standardized ways to a diverse set of users. The portal evolved under the NOAA-led U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) program where automated largely-unattended machine-to-machine interoperability has always been a guiding tenet for system design. The web portal has a business unit where membership lists, new items, and reference materials are kept, a data portal where near real-time and historical data are held and served, and a products portal where data are fused into products tailored for specific or general stakeholder groups. The staff includes a system architect who built and maintains the data portal, a GIS expert who built and maintains the current product portal, the executive director who marshals resources to keep news items fresh and data manger who manages most of this. The business portal is built using WordPress which was selected because it appeared to be the easiest content management system for non-web programmers to add content to, maintain and enhance. The data portal is custom built and uses database, PHP, and web services based on Open Geospatial Consortium standards-based Sensor Observation Service (SOS) with Observations and Measurements (O&M) encodings. We employ a standards-based vocabulary, which we helped develop, which is registered at the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Registry and Repository (http://mmisw.org). The registry is currently maintained by one of the authors. Products appearing in the products portal are primarily constructed using ESRI software by a Ph.D. level Geographer. Some products were built with other software, generally by graduate students over the years. We have been sensitive to the private sector when deciding which products to produce. While

  13. Vagus Nerve Stimulation: A Non-Invasive Treatment to Improve the Health of Gulf Veterans with Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a condition occurring in some veterans who served in the 1990-91 Gulf War . To date there is no specific treatment for it. A...major complaint of veteran subjects with GWI is widespread pain and achiness. Currently, some drugs are available to treat these symptoms, but these...complaint of Gulf War veterans with GWI using a hand-held neuro-stimulator device that activates a nerve in the neck called the vagus. This study will

  14. [Variation of thermohaline properties in the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, C L; Léon, S; Chaves, J

    2001-12-01

    The time-space behavior of thermohaline properties of the water masses in the Gulf of Nicoya, a tropical estuary in the Costa Rican Pacific coast, was studied by sampling monthly from April 1992 to April 1993. The saline field has a seasonal maximum during April, a month before the maximum temperature is observed. Minimun values were observed during October and November, in the rainy season. A defined surface saline front is located towards the east of Negritos Islands; it is produced by the interaction of freshwater from the Tarcoles River and the oceanic waters that enter through the occidental coast of the gulf. The vertical distribution of temperature and salinity indicates a gulf whose internal area is highly stratified in the rainy season, and much less stratified, or even well mixed in the dry season. The outer area of the Gulf is stratified throughout the year.

  15. Diet of bonnethead shark in eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To examine variation in diet and daily ration of the bonnethead, Sphyrna tiburo (Linnaeus, 1758), sharks were collected from three areas in the eastern Gulf of...

  16. Gulf of Mexico Kemps ridley sea turtle age and growth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study involves analysis of skeletal growth marks in humerus bones of 333 Kemps ridley sea turtles stranded dead along the Gulf of Mexico US coast (hatchling to...

  17. Water Stratification Raster Images for the Gulf of Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geodatabase contains seasonal water stratification raster images for the Gulf of Maine. They were created by interpolating water density (sigma t) values at 0...

  18. Patriot PAC-2 Development and Deployment in The Gulf War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherman, J

    2003-01-01

    .... Patriot PAC-2 is a case study in effective project management that resulted in the extraordinary acceleration in the final stages of development production and deployment in time to play a historic role in the Gulf War...

  19. Gulf sturgeon Critical Habitat Units 1-7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Gulf Sturgeon as designated by Federal Register Vol. 68, No. 53, Wednesday, March 19, 2003, Rules and Regulations.

  20. Water Density Raster Images for the Gulf of Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geodatabase contains water density raster images for the Gulf of Maine that were interpolated from water density (sigma t or kilograms/ meters cubed) point data...

  1. Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0123320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology is a set of objectively analyzed climatological fields of temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, and nitrate at...

  2. Gulf of Mexico killer whale photo-ID catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photo-identification data on killer whales occupying the northern Gulf of Mexico have been collected in association with large vessel surveys since 1991. Photographs...

  3. Gulf of Mexico Helicopter Offshore System Technologies Recommended Development Path

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koenke, Edmund

    1999-01-01

    ...) contracted with the System Resources Corporation (SRC) for the evaluation of the existing environment and the identification of user and service provider needs in the Gulf of Mexico low-altitude Offshore Sector...

  4. Alternative surveillance technology for the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-26

    In the Gulf of Mexico, there are two major operating aviation users: low altitude offshore and high altitude. The low altitude offshore operators are primarily helicopter fleets supporting the oil and gas exploration efforts; their traffic typically ...

  5. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in the Gulf of Mexico from 1991 to the present. These are designed as...

  6. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Vessel Surveys - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large vessel surveys were conducted during June-August and Oct-Nov, 2010 in the north central Gulf of Mexico to collect data on marine mammal spatial distribution...

  7. Gulf of Maine Cooperative Bottom Longline Survey Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is for a bottom longline (fixed gear) survey executed in the western and central Gulf of Maine targeting complex rocky habitats. The survey is operated...

  8. Gulf of Mexico Sperm Whale Acoustic Prey Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large vessel surveys were conducted during the summer of 2009 and the winter of 2010 in the north-central Gulf of Mexico to examine the spatial distribution of sperm...

  9. Gulf of Mexico sperm whale photo-ID catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photo-identification data on sperm whales occupying the north central Gulf of Mexico have been collected during vessel surveys. Photographs of sperm whales are taken...

  10. Directional wave measurements off Navinal, Gulf of Kachchh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; KrishnaKumar, V.; Suryanarayana, A.; Antony, M.K.; Swamy, G.N.

    Results of directional wave measurements carried out off Navinal, Gulf of Kachchh representing pre-monsoon and southwest monsoon wave conditions are presented. Maximum wave height encountered during pre-monsoon and southwest monsoon is 1.36 and 1...

  11. 2012 Economic Survey of Gulf State Shrimp License Holders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This mail survey collected economic data on inshore commercial shrimp fishermen who held licenses to commercially harvest shrimp in state waters of the U.S. Gulf of...

  12. 2009 Survey of Gulf of Mexico Dockside Seafood Processors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey gathered and analyze economic data from seafood processors throughout the states in the Gulf region. The survey sought to collect financial variables...

  13. Extreme Hurricane-Generated Waves in Gulf of Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberto, Carlos; Fernandes, Santos

    2005-01-01

    .... Data from seven National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys in the Gulf of Mexico, together with an array of pressure and pressure-velocity sensors deployed on the Florida Panhandle shelf during the Office of Naval Research (ONR...

  14. Gulf of Mexico Protected Species Assessment Aerial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of aerial line-transect surveys conducted over continental shelf waters of the Gulf of Mexico since 1992. The majority of these...

  15. Forecasting of Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Harvests (NCEI Accession 0157225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information important to annual forecasting of the shrimp catch from the western Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-13 to 2016-06-20

  16. Nutrient flux fuels the summer primary productivity in the oligotrophic waters of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Al-Najjar

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The thermohaline characteristics of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea,depict a well-defined seasonal pattern of winter mixing from December toApril and summer stratification from May to November. This thermohalinestructure is a major controlling factor of the nutrient, chlorophyll aand primary productivity seasonal cycles. The nitrate and chlorophyll aconcentration records generated down to 200 m at a vertical resolution of25 m - weekly during 1994, 1995 and every two weeks from April 1997 throughto December 2000 - are employed to assess the nitrogen flux across the summerthermocline of the Gulf of Aqaba. The flux calculations are based on a simplediffusion model that incorporates the physical stress eddy diffusivity factorKz and a biological stress factor k. Both Kz and k arecalculated using the Michaelis-Menten equation and the nitrate concentrationgradient. The total nitrate flux of the Gulf of Aqaba during the seven summermonths (May-November is estimated at 0.52 mole N m-2. In relation toestablished primary productivity values (75.5 g C m-2 (MayNovember-1 and the generated chlorophyll a records, thisyields an f fraction of new to total primary production of 0.50. Thisrelatively high f value is discussed with respect to the geophysicalcharacteristics of the Gulf of Aqaba and similar oceanic basins. The remaining50% is accounted for by cross-sectional flow from the relativelynutrient-rich coral reef coastal habitat and rapid recycling, triggered byhigh irradiance and water temperature.

  17. Status of Gulf Coast salt dome characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, O.E.; Gibbons, M.G.; Deyling, M.A.; McPherson, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Screening and characterization for a potential nuclear waste repository have progressed through the area phase in these Gulf Coast Salt Basins. The domes studied during the area phase are described briefly. The area characterization studies are outlined, and the resulting reports are listed. Geologic and environmental studies resulted in elimination of four domes from further consideration. The remaining domes were judged acceptable and were classified as to their favorability to license. Site characterization planning for location phase activities deals primarily with technical, environmental, and socioeconomic issues of concern to the states and/or to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), Department of Energy (DOE). These issues are listed and discussed. 16 references, 9 figures

  18. The Gulf War and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1994-01-01

    The Gulf War inflicted dramatic environmental damage upon the fragile desert and shore environments of Kuwait and northeastern Saudi Arabia. Coastal and marine environments experienced oil spills of more than 8 million barrels, which killed wildlife and damaged the fishing industry. In inland Kuwait, hundreds of oil lakes are scattered across the desert surface: these lakes emit noxious gases, drown insects and birds, and may seep to pollute groundwater. Exploding and burning oil wells released soot particles, oil droplets, and noxious chemicals into the atmosphere, spreading air pollution, acid rain, and respiratory problems. Military diggings, constructions, and vehicles have destroyed much of the desert pavement, resulting in increased dust storms and large, moving dunes

  19. Screening specifications for Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunton, G.D.; Laughon, R.B.; McClain, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    A reconnaissance survey of the salt domes of Mississippi, Louisiana, and east Texas is being planned to identify study areas for potential sites for radioactive waste disposal. Preliminary screening specifications were derived for each of the geological evaluation criteria by application of the significant factors that will have an impact on the reconnaissance survey. The procedure for the derivation of each screening specification is discussed. The screening specifications are the official OWI values to be used for the first-cut acceptance for salt dome study areas along the Gulf Coast. The derivation of the screening specifications is illustrated by (1) a statement of the geological evaluation criterion, (2) a discussion of the pertinent factors affecting the criterion, and (3) the evaluation of the value of the specification

  20. Vascular and Skeletal Muscle Function in Gulf War Veterans Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    pain, memory loss, and mood changes reported by Gulf War Veterans shortly after their return in 1991. Approximately 40% of Gulf War Veterans (over...Exercise and Cardiopulmonary Stress Testing Schedule Visit 2 (Exercise and cardiopulmonary stress tests) 3-28 Scheduling for Visit 1 continues to...occur at least 2 weeks after completion of Visit 1, limited by Veteran’s availability. Complete exercise and cardiopulmonary stress studies and

  1. United States Military Strategy in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-27

    500.000 ASA 25.000-100.000 ~ gra - - Bhbah~nhSdn Under 25,000 Day,- A N 0 so 100 dmtr KU IT KNTI n uwait Tris I’IF I / Gahiiat. 00ye m\\lL AM Ata ae Prsi~ean ’eua ret ihwr peetto Aid Strai ofer~ abntai 50U22(S474GulfS O-45

  2. Gulf War Illness-Evaluation of an Innovative Detoxification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    of symptoms, now known as Gulf War Illness, characterized by chronic pain, fatigue, insomnia, gastrointestinal symptoms and altered nervous system...East Campus, 5 University Place, Room A217, Rensselaer, NY 12144-3429 PH : 518-525-2660 FX: 518-525-2665 www.albany.edu/ihe FINAL REPORT: GW0930766...insomnia, gastrointestinal symptoms and altered nervous system function. Although the cause of Gulf War Illness remains uncertain, exposure to toxic

  3. Enduring U.S. Interests in the Persian Gulf Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    Security Dilemma: The Arab States, The United States, and Iran,” in Jamal S. Al-Suwaidi, ed., Iran and the Gulf—A Search for Stability ( Abu Dhabi ...military, and diplomatic tools but also encourage other stakeholders to take a larger role in underwriting Persian Gulf security. The global economy ...the world economy ; somewhere between 15-20% of all the world’s daily crude petroleum exports pass through the Strait of Hormuz, into the Gulf of Oman

  4. Satellite photography of eddies in the gulf loop current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, G. A.; Norris, D. R.; Johnson, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Cyclonic ocean eddies, approximately 12 to 32 kilometers in diameter, have been photographed in the eastern Gulf of Mexico by SKYLAB. Apparently caused by horizon velocity shear, these features are associated with the Gulf Loop Current, whose position was known a fortnight before and after the observation. The eddies were discovered in sunlight-enhanced patterns of streamlines on the surface, and appear to be embedded in the flow.

  5. Associations between the self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms in theater and regional brain volume in Gulf War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L.; Reeb, Rosemary; Esparza, Iva L.; Abadjian, Linda R.

    2017-01-01

    Background We previously reported evidence of reduced cortical gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and hippocampal volume in Gulf War (GW) veterans with predicted exposure to low-levels of nerve agent according to the 2000 Khamisiyah plume model analysis. Because there is suggestive evidence that other nerve agent exposures may have occurred during the Gulf War, we examined the association between the self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms sound during deployment in the Gulf War and regional brain volume in GW veterans. Methods Ninety consecutive GW veterans (15 female, mean age: 52±8 years) participating in a VA-funded study underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 3 T scanner. Freesurfer (version 5.1) was used to obtain regional measures of cortical GM, WM, hippocampal, and insula volume. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the association between the self-reported frequencies of hearing chemical alarms during the Gulf War and regional brain volume. Results There was an inverse association between the self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms sound and total cortical GM (adjusted p = 0.007), even after accounting for potentially confounding demographic and clinical variables, the veterans’ current health status, and other concurrent deployment-related exposures that were correlated with hearing chemical alarms. Post-hoc analyses extended the inverse relationship between the frequency of hearing chemical alarms to GM volume in the frontal (adjusted p = 0.02), parietal (adjusted p = 0.01), and occipital (adjusted p = 0.001) lobes. In contrast, regional brain volumes were not significantly associated with predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume or with Gulf War Illness status defined by the Kansas or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Conclusions Many veterans reported hearing chemical alarms sound during the Gulf War. The current findings suggest that exposure to substances that triggered

  6. Breastfeeding patterns in the Arabian Gulf countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, A O

    1995-01-01

    The rapid economic change experienced in the Arab Gulf countries in the past two decades has resulted in a dramatic decline in the number of infants breast fed and the duration of breast feeding. This survey describes the current status of breast feeding in the Arabian Gulf countries in terms of the duration of exclusive breast feeding; initiation, frequency, and duration of breast feeding; bottle feeding practices; breast feeding and fertility; reasons for cessation of breast feeding; and the relationship between breast feeding and gastroenteritis. After a brief discussion of weaning practices, the paper considers factors influencing the decision to breast feed, including mothers age, education, urban-rural residence, and employment status; the influence of house maids and health workers; and the sex of the child. The marketing of baby foods in the area is described, as are various programs to support breast feeding, such as maternity protection, educational activities, marketing activities, support of appropriate weaning practices, workshops and seminars, and research activities. It is concluded that these programs have had very little effect on the promotion of breast feeding in the region for the following reasons: 1) lack of coordination; 2) lack of health regulations covering formulas and baby foods; 3) the encouragement of bottle feeding in private hospitals; 4) insufficient knowledge of managing breast feeding among health personnel; 5) a shortage of studies relating to breast feeding; and 6) insufficient training of health personnel. The institution of a global promotional policy is recommended. Such a policy would include the development of strict regulations covering marketing of substitutes, training of health workers, mass media campaigns, school and university curricula changes, and convincing policy-makers that breast feeding is beneficial.

  7. Variations of Oceanic Crust in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico From Integrated Geophysical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Filina, I.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic history of the Gulf of Mexico remains a subject of debate due to structural complexity of the area and lack of geological constraints. In this study, we focus our investigation on oceanic domain of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico to characterize the crustal distribution and structures. We use published satellite derived potential fields (gravity and magnetics), seismic refraction data (GUMBO3 and GUMBO4) and well logs to build the subsurface models that honor all available datasets. In the previous study, we have applied filters to potential fields grids and mapped the segments of an extinct mid-ocean ridge, ocean-continent boundary (OCB) and several transform faults in our study area. We also developed the 2D potential fields model for seismic profile GUMBO3 (Eddy et al., 2014). The objectives of this study are: 1) to develop a similar model for another seismic profile GUMBO 4 (Christeson, 2014) and derive subsurface properties (densities and magnetic susceptibilities), 2) to compare and contrast the two models, 3) to establish spatial relationship between the two crustal domains. Interpreted seismic velocities for the profiles GUMBO 3 and GUMBO 4 show significant differences, suggesting that these two profiles cross different segments of oceanic crust. The total crustal thickness along GUMBO 3 is much thicker (up to 10 km) than the one for GUMBO 4 (5.7 km). The upper crustal velocity along GUMBO 4 (6.0-6.7 km/s) is significantly higher than the one for GUMBO 3 ( 5.8 km/s). Based our 2D potential fields models along both of the GUMBO lines, we summarize physical properties (seismic velocities, densities and magnetic susceptibilities) for different crustal segments, which are proxies for lithologies. We use our filtered potential fields grids to establish the spatial relationship between these two segments of oceanic crust. The results of our integrated geophysical analysis will be used as additional constraints for the future tectonic reconstruction of

  8. NOAA’s Nested Northern Gulf of Mexico Operational Forecast Systems Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The NOAA National Ocean Service’s (NOS Northern Gulf of Mexico Operational Forecast System (NGOFS became operational in March 2012. Implemented with the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM as its core three-dimensional oceanographic circulation model, NGOFS produces a real-time nowcast (−6 h to zero and six-hourly, two-day forecast guidance for water levels and three-dimensional currents, water temperature and salinity over the northern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf. Designed as a regional scale prediction system, NGOFS lacks sufficient spatial coverage and/or resolution to fully resolve hydrodynamic features in critical seaports and estuaries. To overcome this shortcoming and better support the needs of marine navigation, emergency response, and environmental management, two FVCOM-based, high-resolution, estuary-scale nested forecast modeling systems, namely the Northwest and Northeast Gulf of Mexico Operational Forecast Systems (NWGOFS and NEGOFS, have been developed through one-way nesting in NGOFS. Using the atmospheric forecast guidance from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/NWS (National Weather Services’ North American Mesoscale (NAM Forecast System, US Geological Survey (USGS river discharge observations, and the NGOFS water level, current, water temperature and salinity as the surface, river, and open ocean boundary forcing, respectively, a six-month model hindcast for the period October 2010–March 2011 has been conducted. Modeled water levels, currents, salinity and water temperature are compared with observations using the NOS standard skill assessment software. Skill assessment scores indicated that NWGOFS and NEGOFS demonstrate improvement over NGOFS. The NWGOFS and NEGOFS are under real-time nowcast/forecast test and evaluation by NOS’s Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS. The forecast systems are scheduled to be implemented operational on NOAA Weather

  9. Seafloor spreading in the eastern Gulf of Mexico: New evidence for marine magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskamani, Philip K.

    Possible sea-floor spreading anomalies are indentified in marine magnetic surveys conducted in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. A symmetric pattern of lineated anomalies can be correlated with the geomagnetic time scale using previously proposed opening histories for the Gulf of Mexico basin. Lineated magnetic anomalies are characterized by amplitudes of up to 30 nT and wavelengths of 45-55 km, and are correlatable across 12 different ship tracks spanning a combined distance of 6,712 km. The magnetic lineations are orientated in a NW-SE direction with 3 distinct positive lineations on either side of the inferred spreading ridge anomalies. The magnetic anomalies were forward modeled with a 2 km thick magnetic crust composed of vertically bounded blocks of normal and reverse polarity at a model source depth of 10 km. Remnant magnetization intensity and inclination are 1.6 A m-1 and 0.2° respectively, chosen to best fit the magnetic observed amplitudes and, for inclination, in accord with the nearly equatorial position of the Gulf of Mexico during Jurassic seafloor spreading. The current magnetic field is modeled with declination and inclination of and 0.65° and 20° respectively. Using a full seafloor spreading rate of 1.7 cm/yr, the anomalies correlate with magnetic chrons M21 to M10. The inferred spreading direction is consistent with previous suggestions of a North-East to South-West direction of sea-floor spreading off the west coast of Florida beginning 149 Ma (M21) and ending 134 Ma (M10). The opening direction is also consistent with the counter-clockwise rotation of Yucatan proposed in past models.

  10. Interaction between the tidal and seasonal variability of the Gulf of Maine and Scotian Shelf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavouta, Anna; Thompson, Keith; Lu, Youyu; Loder, John

    2017-04-01

    In the Gulf of Maine and Scotian Shelf (off the northeastern coast of North America) tides are large and can alter the local hydrographic properties, circulation, and sea surface height through processes such as tidal rectification, mixing, and horizontal advection. Furthermore, the stratification of the water column can influence tidal elevation and currents over the shelves (e.g., baroclinic tides). To investigate this interaction, a newly developed high resolution (1/36 degree) regional circulation model is used (GoMSS model). First, numerical experiments with and without density stratification are used to demonstrate the influence of stratification on the tides. GoMSS model is then used to interpret the physical mechanisms responsible for the largest seasonal variations in the M2 surface current which occur over, and to the north of, Georges Bank. An alternating pattern of highs and lows in the summer maximum M2 surface speed in the Gulf of Maine is identified, for the first time, in both the model output and observations by a high frequency coastal radar system. This pattern consists of extended striations in tidal speed aligned with the northern flank of Georges Bank that separates the Gulf of Maine from the North Atlantic. The striations are explained in terms of a linear superposition of the barotropic tide flowing across the northern flank of Georges Bank and the reflected, phase-locked baroclinic tide. The striations have amplitudes of about 0.1 m/s and longitudinal length scales of order 100 km, and are thus of practical significance.

  11. Identifying fluorescent pulp mill effluent in the Gulf of Maine and its watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Kaelin M.; Butler, Kenna D.; Aiken, George R.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Huntington, Thomas G.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Using fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) we characterized and modeled the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in samples from the Penobscot River, Androscoggin River, Penobscot Bay, and the Gulf of Maine (GoM). We analyzed excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) using an existing PARAFAC model (Cory and McKnight, 2005) and created a system-specific model with seven components (GoM PARAFAC). The GoM PARAFAC model contained six components similar to those in other PARAFAC models and one unique component with a spectrum similar to a residual found using the Cory and McKnight (2005) model. The unique component was abundant in samples from the Androscoggin River immediately downstream of a pulp mill effluent release site. The detection of a PARAFAC component associated with an anthropogenic source of DOM, such as pulp mill effluent, demonstrates the importance for rigorously analyzing PARAFAC residuals and developing system-specific models.

  12. Simulating biogeo-optical dynamics in the bottom boundary layer: northern Gulf of Mexico test case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, Jason K.; Ladner, Sherwin; Smith, Travis; Penko, Allison; Jarosz, Ewa; Lovitt, Todd

    2017-05-01

    Interdisciplinary coastal observations over a two-week period in the northern Gulf of Mexico reveal a complex and dynamic bottom boundary layer (BBL) that is characterized by both biological and suspended sediment (biogeo-) optical signals. Much of the BBL optical variance is concealed from remote sensing by the opacity of the nearly omnipresent surface river plume, however, the BBL physical dynamics and resulting optical excitation are indeed responding to surface wind stress forcing and surface gravity wave-induced turbulence. Here we present a series of numerical modeling efforts and approaches aimed towards resolving and simulating these observed biogeo-physical and -optical processes. First, we examine results from the Tactical Ocean Data System (TODS), which combines daily satellite imagery with numerical circulation model results to render a three-dimensional estimate of the optical field and then execute a reduced-order complexity advection-diffusionreaction model to render hourly forecasts. Whereas the TODS system has the advantage of effectively assimilating both glider data and satellite images, the 3D generation algorithms still have difficulty in the northern Gulf's complex 3-layered system (surface plume, geostrophic interior, BBL). Second, we present results from the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Prediction (COAMPS) system that has been modified to include interactive surface-gravity wave simulations. Results from this complex numerical modeling system suggest that Stokes drift current (SDC) has a potentially major role in determining the physical and kinematic characteristics of the BBL, and will substantially impact model-based estimates of sediment resuspension and transport.

  13. Drivers of the Seasonal Carbon Cycle in the Coastal Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, D.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Hermann, A. J.; Coyle, K. O.; Mathis, J. T.

    2016-02-01

    The Coastal Gulf of Alaska serves as a significant carbon sink annually, but varies seasonally from net carbon efflux in winter, to net carbon uptake from spring through fall. This significant uptake of anthropogenic CO2 combined with the naturally cold, low calcium carbonate surface waters is expected to accelerate ocean acidification. Observational evidence has already detected subsurface aragonite undersaturation, likely resulting from carbon remineralization of sinking organic matter. Other processes such as storm-induced vertical mixing, glacial runoff, temperature change, and nutrient supply can further modify the carbon cycle. Improving knowledge of these seasonal processes is critical for the region's fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services and can be adversely impacted by sub-optimal aragonite saturation conditions. We use a regional model of the Coastal Gulf of Alaska coupled to an ecosystem model with full carbonate chemistry to investigate the physical and biogeochemical mechanisms that drive the seasonal carbon cycle. Boundary conditions are set from the coarser Northeast Pacific model, with alkalinity and carbon concentrations determined from empirical relationships with salinity. Model output from a 2009 hindcast simulation is compared to observations of alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations for model verification and to elucidate seasonal mechanisms.

  14. Methane hydrate resource assessment of the outer continental shelf : in-place Gulf of Mexico results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, M. [Minerals Mangement Service, Herndon, VA (United States); Grace, J. [Earth Science Associates, Long Beach, CA (United States); Hunt, J.; Shedd, W. [Minerals Management Service, New Orleans, LA (United States); Kaufman, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Boston, MA (United States); Schuenemeyer, J. [Southwest Statistical Consulting, Cortez, CO (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Minerals Management Service (MMS) is division of the United States (U.S.) Department of the Interior. Its mandate is to manage natural gas, oil, and other mineral resources on the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS). The MMS launched a project in order to provide an assessment of the natural gas hydrate resource potential across the entire OCS, including the Alaskan, Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific margins. The purpose of this ongoing project is to provide a probabilistic evaluation of in-place, technically recoverable, and economically recoverable gas hydrate resources. This paper provided an overview of the project, including a preliminary assessment of in-place gas hydrate resources in the Gulf of Mexico. The paper described the probabilistic model that was built on a mass balance approach to assessment. The model provided a high degree of spatial resolution and supported detailed mapping. The model produced a Monte Carlo distribution of in-place resources that ranged from 314 trillion to 974 trillion cubic meters (TCM) with a mean value of 607 TCM. The paper also provided a link to the full report which included the model methodology, underlying assumptions, and input datasets. Additional work on the development of a technically recoverable model component is currently underway. 1 fig.

  15. Glider based turbulence measurements in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodtsov, S.; Anis, A.; Amon, R. M. W.; Perez-Brunius, P.

    2017-12-01

    For the first time turbulence was estimated from microstructure velocity and temperature fluctuations measured within an anticyclonic eddy originating from the Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico during Oct. - Nov., 2016. The microstructure instrument was mounted on a G2 Webb Research ocean glider. Well defined vertical TKE dissipation rate patterns in the eddy and the surface mixed layer were clearly identified from both the velocity and temperature microstructure data. TKE dissipation rates were also estimated using Thorpe's displacement parameterization and measurements from the glider's CTD and compared to those estimated from the microstructure measurements. The directly measured turbulence patterns agreed well with those from temperature based Thorpe displacements calculated using intermediate temperature profiles following Gargett and Garner, 2008. The scaling coefficient for the parametrization was derived by fitting Thorpe scale based dissipation rates to those from the microstructure measurements. Dissipation rates ranged from 10-8 - 10-10 W/ kg at the edges and center of the eddy, respectively. The relatively high dissipation rates coincided with elevated salinity patches on the side and bottom of the eddy as has been shown in previous modeling studies. The surface mixed layer exhibited dissipation rates higher than 10-8 W kg-1 while the deep ocean dissipation rates were O(10-10) W/ kg.

  16. Water Quality Drivers in 11 Gulf of Mexico Estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. McCarthy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal water-quality is both a primary driver and also a consequence of coastal ecosystem health. Turbidity, a measure of dissolved and particulate water-quality matter, is a proxy for water quality, and varies on daily to interannual periods. Turbidity is influenced by a variety of factors, including algal particles, colored dissolved organic matter, and suspended sediments. Identifying which factors drive trends and extreme events in turbidity in an estuary helps environmental managers and decision makers plan for and mitigate against water-quality issues. Efforts to do so on large spatial scales have been hampered due to limitations of turbidity data, including coarse and irregular temporal resolution and poor spatial coverage. We addressed these issues by deriving a proxy for turbidity using ocean color satellite products for 11 Gulf of Mexico estuaries from 2000 to 2014 on weekly, monthly, seasonal, and annual time-steps. Drivers were identified using Akaike’s Information Criterion and multiple regressions to model turbidity against precipitation, wind speed, U and V wind vectors, river discharge, water level, and El Nino Southern Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation climate indices. Turbidity variability was best explained by wind speed across estuaries for both time-series and extreme turbidity events, although more dynamic patterns were found between estuaries over various time steps.

  17. Energy benchmarking for shopping centers in Gulf Coast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juaidi, Adel; AlFaris, Fadi; Montoya, Francisco G.; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Building sector consumes a significant amount of energy worldwide (up to 40% of the total global energy); moreover, by the year 2030 the consumption is expected to increase by 50%. One of the reasons is that the performance of buildings and its components degrade over the years. In recent years, energy benchmarking for government office buildings, large scale public buildings and large commercial buildings is one of the key energy saving projects for promoting the development of building energy efficiency and sustainable energy savings in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Benchmarking would increase the purchase of energy efficient equipment, reducing energy bills, CO 2 emissions and conventional air pollution. This paper focuses on energy benchmarking for shopping centers in Gulf Coast Region. In addition, this paper will analyze a sample of shopping centers data in Gulf Coast Region (Dubai, Ajman, Sharjah, Oman and Bahrain). It aims to develop a benchmark for these shopping centers by highlighting the status of energy consumption performance. This research will support the sustainability movement in Gulf area through classifying the shopping centers into: Poor, Usual and Best Practices in terms of energy efficiency. According to the benchmarking analysis in this paper, the shopping centers best energy management practices in the Gulf Coast Region are the buildings that consume less than 810 kW h/m 2 /yr, whereas the poor building practices are the centers that consume greater than 1439 kW h/m 2 /yr. The conclusions of this work can be used as a reference for shopping centres benchmarking with similar climate. - Highlights: •The energy consumption data of shopping centers in Gulf Coast Region were gathered. •A benchmarking of energy consumption for the public areas for the shopping centers in the Gulf Coast Region was developed. •The shopping centers have the usual practice in the region between 810 kW h/m 2 /yr and 1439 kW h/m 2 /yr.

  18. Seismic Activity in the Gulf of Mexico: a Preliminary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, S. I.; Canet, C.; Iglesias, A.; Valdes-Gonzales, C. M.

    2013-05-01

    The southwestern corner of Gulf of Mexico (around the northern Isthmus of Tehuantepec) is exposed to an intense deep (> 100 km) seismic activity caused by the subduction of the Cocos plate. Aside from this, the gulf has been considered as a zone of low or no-seismicity. However, a sparse shallow seismic activity is observed across the Gulf of Mexico; some of these earthquakes have been strongly felt (e.g. 23/05/2007 and 10/09/2006), and the Jaltipan, 1959 earthquake caused fatalities and severe destruction in central and southern Veracruz. In this work we analyze 5 relevant earthquakes that occurred since 2001. At the central Gulf of Mexico focal mechanisms show inverse faults oriented approximately NW-SE with dip near 45 degrees, suggesting a link to sediment loading and/or to salt tectonics. On the other hand, in the southwestern corner of the gulf we analyzed some clear examples of strike-slip faults and activity probably related to the Veracruz Fault. One anomalous earthquake, recorded in 2007 in the western margin of the gulf, shows a strike-slip mechanism indicating a transform regime probably related with the East Mexican Fault. The recent improvement of the Mexican Seismological broadband network have allowed to record small earthquakes distributed in and around the Gulf of Mexico. Although the intermediate and large earthquakes in the region are infrequent, the historic evidence indicates that the magnitudes could reach Mw~6.4. This fact could be taken in consideration to reassess the seismic hazard for oil and industrial infrastructure in the region.

  19. Central Gulf of Mexico lease sale draws weak industry response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that interest in oil and gas leases in the Gulf of Mexico continued spiraling downward at the latest Minerals Management Service offshore sale. Companies participating in Outer Continental Shelf Sale 139 last week in New Orleans offered 196 bids for 151 blocks in the central Gulf of Mexico. MMS offered 5,213 blocks for lease. The number of tracts receiving bids was the fewest at a central gulf lease sale since 114 tracts garnered high bids totaling $146.4 million at Sale 104 in April 1986. Apparent high bids in Sale 139 totaled $56,195,552, and all bids offered totaled just $65,300,864. Both bidding totals were the lowest in a Gulf of Mexico lease sale since MMS began area-wide gulf leasing at Sale 72 in May 1983. Only 64 of 93 qualified companies participated in Sale 139. Fifty-five companies offered apparent winning bids. By comparison, 123 companies at central gulf lease Sale 131 in March 1991 offered 637 bids totaling $320.5 million for 464 tracts. Apparent high bids last spring totaled $259.9 million. At central gulf lease Sale 123 in March 1990, high bids totaled $427.4 million for 538 tracts. In that sale, BP Exploration Inc. led all bidders, exposing $78 million in 79 high bids, including 60 for deepwater tracts. Since then, interest in deepwater tracts has waned in part because of sagging oil and gas prices as U.S. operators sought bigger prospects outside the U.S. Ironically, Sale 139 was dominated by the U.S. subsidiary of an Italian holding company

  20. Site Selection for DOE/JIP Gas Hydrate Drilling in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.R. (USGS); Shelander, D. (Schlumberger, Houston, TX); Dai, J. (Schlumberger, Hoston, TX); McConnell, D. (AOA Geophysics, Inc., Houston, TX); Shedd, W. (Minerals Management Service); Frye, M. (Minerals Management Service); Ruppel, C. (USGS); Boswell, R.; Jones, E. (Chevron Energy Technology Corp., Houston, TX); Collett, T.S. (USGS); Rose, K.; Dugan, B. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX); Wood, W. (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory); Latham, T. (Chevron Energy Technology Corp., Houston, TX)

    2008-07-01

    In the late spring of 2008, the Chevron-led Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project (JIP) expects to conduct an exploratory drilling and logging campaign to better understand gas hydrate-bearing sands in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. The JIP Site Selection team selected three areas to test alternative geological models and geophysical interpretations supporting the existence of potential high gas hydrate saturations in reservoir-quality sands. The three sites are near existing drill holes which provide geological and geophysical constraints in Alaminos Canyon (AC) lease block 818, Green Canyon (GC) 955, and Walker Ridge (WR) 313. At the AC818 site, gas hydrate is interpreted to occur within the Oligocene Frio volcaniclastic sand at the crest of a fold that is shallow enough to be in the hydrate stability zone. Drilling at GC955 will sample a faulted, buried Pleistocene channel-levee system in an area characterized by seafloor fluid expulsion features, structural closure associated with uplifted salt, and abundant seismic evidence for upward migration of fluids and gas into the sand-rich parts of the sedimentary section. Drilling at WR313 targets ponded sheet sands and associated channel/levee deposits within a minibasin, making this a non-structural play. The potential for gas hydrate occurrence at WR313 is supported by shingled phase reversals consistent with the transition from gas-charged sand to overlying gas-hydrate saturated sand. Drilling locations have been selected at each site to 1) test geological methods and models used to infer the occurrence of gas hydrate in sand reservoirs in different settings in the northern Gulf of Mexico; 2) calibrate geophysical models used to detect gas hydrate sands, map reservoir thicknesses, and estimate the degree of gas hydrate saturation; and 3) delineate potential locations for subsequent JIP drilling and coring operations that will collect samples for comprehensive physical property, geochemical and other

  1. Anomalous inland influx of the River Indus, Gulf of Kachchh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Jayakumar, S.; Menezes, A.A.S.; Rajawat, A.S.; Nayak, S.R.

    The Gulf of Kachchh is a funnel shaped, macrotidal water body located in the arid region of northwestern India with ~ 50 cm annual rainfall and insignificant fluvial input. The Gulf waters, however, have high-suspended matter. Time series...

  2. Treating Gulf War Illness with Novel Anti-Inflammatories: A Screening of Botantical Microglia Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Gulf War Illness, botanical, anti-inflammatory, biomarker, microglia, improvement, treatment 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Younger, J.W. (2016, October) Diagnostic overlap of Gulf War Illness, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/ Chronic Fatigue syndrome, and Fibromyalgia in

  3. Reproductive Outcomes Among Gulf War Era US Military Veterans: Miscarriages May Be Increased

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sato, Paul

    2000-01-01

    ... singleton or multiple births, ectopic pregnancies, or stillbirths. Male Gulf War veterans did report increased odds that their partners had exerienced a miscarriage in the first 2 years following the Gulf War.

  4. State of oil pollution in the northern Arabian Sea after the 1991 Gulf oil spill

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sengupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Alagarsamy, R.

    Following the enormous oil spills resulting from the 1990-91 military conflict in the Gulf, fears were expressed concerning dissipation of oil from the Gulf into the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean. To investigate contamination of the northern Arabian...

  5. 78 FR 9814 - Drawbridge Operating Regulations; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Belle Chasse, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (Algiers Alternate Route), mile 3.8, at Belle Chasse, Plaquemines Parish... known as the Judge Perez Bridge, across the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (Algiers Alternate Route), mile 3...

  6. Finite-time compressibility as an agent of frequent spontaneous patch formation in the surface layer: A case study for the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, Andrea; Soomere, Tarmo

    2014-12-15

    We explore the possibilities for spontaneous formation of surface patches with high concentrations of contaminants through time correlations of the convergence field and the Lagrangian transport. The test area is the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, where surface velocity fields show extensive convergence. The flow properties are extracted from 3D velocity fields simulated for 1987-1991 using the OAAS model with a resolution of 1 mile. The focus is on the spatial distribution of the areas in which the values of finite-time flow compressibility of surface velocity fields exceed the threshold for clustering of floats. The distribution of such areas is asymmetric, with likely areas of patch formation located predominantly in the southern and eastern regions of the gulf. Out of nine areas of likely patch formation, six are located along the coast in regions of frequent downwelling, while three are identified in the central region of the gulf. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term infrastructure forecasting in the Gulf of Mexico: a decision- and resource-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.; Mesyanzhinov, D.V.; Pulsipher, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    A long-term infrastructure forecast in the Gulf of Mexico is developed in a disaggregated decision- and resource-based environment. Models for the installation and removal rates of structures are performed across five water depth categories for the Western and Central Gulf of Mexico planning areas for structures grouped according to a major and nonmajor classification. Master hydrocarbon production schedules are constructed per water depth and planning area using a two-parameter decision model, where 'bundled' resources are recoverable at a given time and at a specific rate. The infrastructure requirements to support the expected production is determined by extrapolating historical data. The analytic forecasting framework allows for subjective judgement, technological change, analogy, and historical trends to be employed in a user-defined manner. Special attention to the aggregation procedures employed and the general methodological framework are highlighted, including a candid discussion of the limitations of analysis and suggestions for further research

  8. Reproductive health of male Australian veterans of the 1991 Gulf War

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsall, Helen L; Sim, Malcolm R; Ikin, Jillian F; Forbes, Andrew B; McKenzie, Dean P; Glass, Deborah C; Ittak, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the 1991 Gulf War concerns have been raised about the effects of deployment to the Gulf War on veterans' health. Studies of the reproductive health of Gulf War veterans have reported varied findings. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional study of male Australian Gulf War veterans (n = 1,424) and a randomly sampled military comparison group (n = 1,548). The study was conducted from August 2000 to April 2002. A postal questionnaire included questions about difficultie...

  9. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Gulf of Mexico Region (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Gulf of Mexico region.

  10. Improvements for the Western North Atlantic, Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico ADCIRC Tidal Database (EC2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Szpilka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research details the development and validation of an updated constituent tidal database for the Western North Atlantic, Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico (WNAT region, referred to as the EC2015 database. Regional databases, such as EC2015, provide much higher resolution than global databases allowing users to more accurately define the tidal forcing on smaller sub-region domains. The database last underwent major updates in 2001 and was developed using the two-dimensional, depth-integrated form of the coastal hydrodynamic model, ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC, which solves the shallow-water equations in the generalized wave continuity equation form. Six main areas of improvement are examined: (1 placement of the open ocean boundary; (2 higher coastal resolution using Vertical Datum (VDatum models; (3 updated bathymetry from global databases; (4 updated boundary forcing compared using two global tidal databases; (5 updated bottom friction formulations; and (6 improved model physics by incorporating the advective terms in ADCIRC. The skill of the improved database is compared to that of its predecessor and is calculated using harmonic data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (NOAA CO-OPS stations and historic International Hydrographic Organization (IHO data. Overall, the EC2015 database significantly reduces errors realized in the EC2001 database and improves the quality of coastal tidal constituents available for smaller sub-regional models in the Western North Atlantic, Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico (WNAT region.

  11. Air-sea exchange of CO2 in the Gulf of Kutch, northern Arabian Sea based on bomb-carbon in corals and tree rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Ramesh, R.; Krishnaswami, S.

    1994-01-01

    Radiocarbon analyses were carried out in the annual bands of a 40 year old coral collected from the Gulf of Kutch (22.6degN, 70degE) in the northern Arabian Sea and in the annual rings of a teak tree from Thane (19deg14'N, 73deg24'E) near Bombay. These measurements were made in order to obtain the rates of air-sea exchange of CO 2 and the advective mixing of water in the Gulf of Kutch. The Δ 14 C peak in the Thane tree occurs in the year 1964, with a value of ∼630 part per thousand, significantly lower than that of the mean atmospheric Δ 14 C of the northern hemisphere (∼1000 part per thousand). The radiocarbon time series of the coral was modelled considering the supply of carbon and radiocarbon to the gulf through air-sea exchange and advective water transport from the open Arabian Sea. A reasonable fit for the coral data was obtained with an air-sea CO 2 exchange rate of 11-12 mol m -2 yr -1 , and an advective velocity of 28 m yr -1 between the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Kutch; this was based on a model generated time series for radiocarbon in the Arabian Sea. The deduced velocity (∼ 28 m yr -1 ) of the advective transport of water between the Gulf and the Arabian Sea is much lower than the surface tidal current velocity in this region, but can be understood in terms of net fluxes of carbon and radiocarbon to the gulf to match the observed coral Δ 14 C time series. (author). 30 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Africa and Arab Gulf states : divergent development paths and prospects for convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Fofack, Hippolyte

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the similarities between Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arab Gulf region (Gulf Cooperation Council states), development policies implemented in these two regions of the world have produced markedly different and even divergent outcomes. While Gulf Cooperation Council states have drawn on hydrocarbon revenues to dramatically transform their economic landscape, Sub-Saharan African co...

  13. 75 FR 17755 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel GULF TIGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel GULF TIGER AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... vessel GULF TIGER as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81.18. DATES: The Certificate of Alternate... for the h offshore supply vessel GULF TIGER. Full compliance with 72 COLREGS and the Inland Rules Act...

  14. 78 FR 77205 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... related to Gulf War Veterans' illnesses and updates on relevant scientific research published since the... to Gulf War Veterans' illnesses and treatments guided by systems biology. There will also be Committee training and updates on the Department of Defense and VA Gulf War research initiatives. A...

  15. Observing environmental change in of the Gulf of Maine: ICUC smartphone app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Want to help collect data on environmental change in the Gulf of Maine with your smartphone? The Gulf of Maine Council’s EcoSystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) is growing the community of citizen scientists in the Gulf of Maine region through its new smartphone app: ICUC (...

  16. 78 FR 49603 - Gulf Gateway Deepwater Port Decommissioning and License Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [USCG-2003-14294] Gulf Gateway Deepwater Port... Approval of the Gulf Gateway Deepwater Port Decommissioning and License Termination. SUMMARY: The Maritime Administration (MARAD) announces its final clearance and authorization of the decommissioning of the Gulf Gateway...

  17. 78 FR 63966 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...: The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of the Socioeconomic... Friday, November 8, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management... Diagne, Economist, Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; telephone: (813) 348-1630; fax: (813) 348...

  18. 78 FR 43146 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ...: The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of the Standing, Special... be held at the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council, 2203 North Lois Avenue, Suite 1100, Tampa... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC763 Gulf of...

  19. 77 FR 40859 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Gulf of Mexico Fishery.... SUMMARY: The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council) will convene its Law Enforcement Advisory... Ludwig Lane, Grand Isle, LA 70358; telephone: (985) 787-2163 Council address: Gulf of Mexico Fishery...

  20. 77 FR 42698 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    .... SUMMARY: The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council will convene a meeting of the Reef Fish Advisory... Tuesday, August 7, 2012. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management...: Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council, 2203 N. Lois Avenue, Suite 1100, Tampa, FL 33607. FOR...