International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Hara, J.M.
1994-07-01
Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O`Hara, J.M.
1994-07-01
Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.
10 CFR 1023.9 - General guidelines.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General guidelines. 1023.9 Section 1023.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) CONTRACT APPEALS Overview: Organization, Functions and Authorities § 1023.9 General guidelines. (a) The principles of this Overview shall apply to all Board functions...
Guidelines for computer security in general practice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Schattner
2007-06-01
Conclusions This paper maps out a process for developing computer security guidelines for general practice. The specific content will vary in different countries according to their levels of adoption of IT, and cultural, technical and other health service factors. Making these guidelines relevant to local contexts should help maximise their uptake.
Guidelines for computer security in general practice.
Schattner, Peter; Pleteshner, Catherine; Bhend, Heinz; Brouns, Johan
2007-01-01
As general practice becomes increasingly computerised, data security becomes increasingly important for both patient health and the efficient operation of the practice. To develop guidelines for computer security in general practice based on a literature review, an analysis of available information on current practice and a series of key stakeholder interviews. While the guideline was produced in the context of Australian general practice, we have developed a template that is also relevant for other countries. Current data on computer security measures was sought from Australian divisions of general practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with general practitioners (GPs), the medical software industry, senior managers within government responsible for health IT (information technology) initiatives, technical IT experts, divisions of general practice and a member of a health information consumer group. The respondents were asked to assess both the likelihood and the consequences of potential risks in computer security being breached. The study suggested that the most important computer security issues in general practice were: the need for a nominated IT security coordinator; having written IT policies, including a practice disaster recovery plan; controlling access to different levels of electronic data; doing and testing backups; protecting against viruses and other malicious codes; installing firewalls; undertaking routine maintenance of hardware and software; and securing electronic communication, for example via encryption. This information led to the production of computer security guidelines, including a one-page summary checklist, which were subsequently distributed to all GPs in Australia. This paper maps out a process for developing computer security guidelines for general practice. The specific content will vary in different countries according to their levels of adoption of IT, and cultural, technical and other health service factors. Making
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idriss, A.; Spurrell, F.
2009-06-01
Alberta Environment has developed a guidelines for operations and proposed operations that require approvals under the province's Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act or that operate under a code of practice for emissions to the atmosphere. In an effort to ensure consistency in the use of dispersion models for regulatory applications in Alberta, this document provided detailed guidance on suitable methods and approaches that should be employed to assess air quality from emission sources, specifically, information required to demonstrate that a source meets the Alberta ambient air quality objectives. The document outlined the statutory authority and provided an overview of the approach. It provided detailed advice on the types and uses of dispersion models with particular reference to the modelling protocol, input data, and output interpretation. Guidance on the application of regulatory models were also presented. Various models were described and their intended uses were explained. Internet addresses for different modelling resources were also offered. Last, some information about regional modelling in the province of Alberta was discussed. 40 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs., 3 appendices.
Factors influencing adherence to guidelines in general practice
Stewart, RE; Vroegop, S; van der Werf, GT; Meyboom-de Jong, B; Kamps, G.
2003-01-01
Objectives: To identify and assess the effects of general practitioner and patient characteristics on global adherence to pharmacotherapeutic guidelines. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in the northern Netherlands, a two-level multilevel model was applied to patients (n = 269,067) in 190
Characteristics of effective clinical guidelines for general practice.
Burgers, J.S.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Zaat, J.O.M.; Spies, T.H.; Bij, A.K. van der; Mokkink, H.G.A.
2003-01-01
BACKGROUND: The use of clinical guidelines in general practice is often limited. Research on barriers to guideline adherence usually focuses on attitudinal factors. Factors linked to the guideline itself are much less studied. AIM: To identify characteristics of effective clinical guidelines for
Heins, M.J.; Jong, J.D. de; Spronk, I.; Ho, V.K.; Brink, M.; Korevaar, J.C.
2017-01-01
Background: Guideline adherence remains a challenge in clinical practice, despite guidelines’ ascribed potential to improve patient outcomes. We studied the level of adherence to recommendations from Dutch national cancer treatment guidelines, and the influence of general and
43 CFR 4.100 - General rules and guidelines.
2010-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General rules and guidelines. 4.100... rules and guidelines. (a) Effective date and applicability—(1) Effective date and general applicability..., in which event the period shall run to the end of the next business day. (e) General guidelines—(1...
Guideline Knowledge Representation Model (GLIKREM)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Buchtela, David; Peleška, Jan; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvárová, Jana; Zvolský, Miroslav
2008-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 1 (2008), s. 17-23 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : knowledge representation * GLIF model * guidelines Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/articles/200812/34/1.html
General Guidelines for Remote Operation and Maintenance of Pyroprocess Equipment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, S. H.; Park, B. S.; Park, H. S.; Lee, H. J.; Choi, C. W.; Lee, J. K
2007-12-15
As the pyroprocess handle the high radioactive materials, a high radioactive material handling facility required high safety, radioactive shielding, strict quality control, and the remote handling equipment of high technology. This report describes the guidelines of for pyroprocess based the design guides for radioactive material handling facility and equipment from American Nuclear Society(ANS), design guidelines for remotely maintained equipment from Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL), and the experience of design for ACP equipment installed at the ACPF(Advanced Conditioning Process Facility). The General guidelines in this report are as follows. The General guidelines for remote operation and maintenance of pyroprocess equipment: Pyroprocess, Remote handling equipment for pyroprocess, General guide for remote operation and maintenance, general guidelines for the design of remotely operated and maintained equipment, Estimation and analysis for remote maintenance.
Design patterns for modelling guidelines
Serban, Radu; Ten Teije, Annette; Marcos, Mar; Polo-Conde, Cristina; Rosenbrand, Kitty C J G M; Wittenberg, Jolanda; van Croonenborg, Joyce
2005-01-01
It is by now widely accepted that medical guidelines can help to significantly improve the quality of medical care. Unfortunately, constructing the required medical guidelines is a very labour intensive and costly process. The cost of guideline construction would decrease if guidelines could be
Tailoring Earned Value Management. General Guidelines
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
2002-01-01
Partial Contents: General Principles, A Spectrum of Implementation, OMB Guidance, A Special Note about DOD, Risk Factors to Consider, How can EVMS be tailored, Tailor EVMS to Inherent Risk, Application Thresholds-DoD...
Maintaining formal models of living guidelines efficiently
Seyfang, Andreas; Martínez-Salvador, Begoña; Serban, Radu; Wittenberg, Jolanda; Miksch, Silvia; Marcos, Mar; Ten Teije, Annette; Rosenbrand, Kitty C J G M
2007-01-01
Translating clinical guidelines into formal models is beneficial in many ways, but expensive. The progress in medical knowledge requires clinical guidelines to be updated at relatively short intervals, leading to the term living guideline. This causes potentially expensive, frequent updates of the
Strategy Guideline: Modeling Enclosure Design in Above-Grade Walls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)
2016-02-24
The Strategy Guideline describes how to model and interpret results of models for above grade walls. The Measure Guideline analyzes the failure thresholds and criteria for above grade walls. A library of above-grade walls with historically successful performance was used to calibrate WUFI (Warme Und Feuchte Instationar) software models. The information is generalized for application to a broad population of houses within the limits of existing experience.
Guidelines prescribed by general practitioners to patients with acute ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The aim of this study was to investigate the guidelines prescribed by general practitioners (GPs) to patients with acute low back pain (ALBP) regarding 'return to work'. Methods: A systematic sample of 212 GPs, selected from a list supplied by the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA), was selected to complete ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schellevis François G
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1996 the guideline 'The Red Eye' was first published by the Dutch College of General Practitioners. The extent to which general practitioners adhere to this guideline is unclear. Recently, data on the management of infectious conjunctivitis by general practitioners became available from the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice. We measured the age-specific incidence of infectious conjunctivitis, described its management by Dutch general practitioners, and then compared these findings with the recommendations made in the guideline. Methods In 2001, over a 12-month period, data from all patient contacts with 195 general practitioners were taken from electronic medical records. Registration was episode-oriented; all consultations dealing with the same health problem were grouped into disease episodes. Data concerning all episodes of infectious conjunctivitis (ICPC-code F70 and sub codes were analysed. Results Over one year, 5,213 new and recurrent episodes of infectious conjunctivitis were presented to general practitioners from a population of N = 375,899, resulting in an overall incidence rate of 13.9 per 1000 person-years, varying from more than 80/1000 py in children up to one-year old, to less than 12/1000 py in children over the age of 4. Topical ophthalmic ointments were prescribed in 87% of the episodes, of which 80% was antibiotic treatment. Fusidic acid gel was most frequently prescribed (69%. In most episodes general practitioners did not adhere to the guideline. Conclusion In 2001, the management of infectious conjunctivitis by Dutch general practitioners was not in accordance with the recommendations of the consensus-based guideline published five years previously, despite its wide distribution. In 2006 this guideline was revised. Its successful implementation requires more than distribution alone. Probably the most effective way to achieve this is by following a model for systemic implementation.
A Typology for Modeling Processes in Clinical Guidelines and Protocols
Tu, Samson W.; Musen, Mark A.
We analyzed the graphical representations that are used by various guideline-modeling methods to express process information embodied in clinical guidelines and protocols. From this analysis, we distilled four modeling formalisms and the processes they typically model: (1) flowcharts for capturing problem-solving processes, (2) disease-state maps that link decision points in managing patient problems over time, (3) plans that specify sequences of activities that contribute toward a goal, (4) workflow specifications that model care processes in an organization. We characterized the four approaches and showed that each captures some aspect of what a guideline may specify. We believe that a general guideline-modeling system must provide explicit representation for each type of process.
Benos, Dale J; Vollmer, Sara H
2010-12-01
Modifying images for scientific publication is now quick and easy due to changes in technology. This has created a need for new image processing guidelines and attitudes, such as those offered to the research community by Doug Cromey (Cromey 2010). We suggest that related changes in technology have simplified the task of detecting misconduct for journal editors as well as researchers, and that this simplification has caused a shift in the responsibility for reporting misconduct. We also argue that the concept of best practices in image processing can serve as a general model for education in best practices in research.
Scandinavian clinical practice guidelines on general anaesthesia for emergency situations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gadegaard Jensen, Anders; Callesen, T; Hagemo, J S
2010-01-01
Emergency patients need special considerations and the number and severity of complications from general anaesthesia can be higher than during scheduled procedures. Guidelines are therefore needed. The Clinical Practice Committee of the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care...... Medicine appointed a working group to develop guidelines based on literature searches to assess evidence, and a consensus meeting was held. Consensus opinion was used in the many topics where high-grade evidence was unavailable. The recommendations include the following: anaesthesia for emergency patients...... breathing for 3 min or eight deep breaths over 60 s and oxygen flow 10 l/min should be used. Pre-oxygenation in the obese patients should be performed in the head-up position. The use of cricoid pressure is not considered mandatory, but can be used on individual judgement. The hypnotic drug has a minor...
Lieshout, J. van; Wessels, P.; Rijswijk, E. van; Boer, A.M; Wiersma, A.; Goudswaard, A.N.
2007-01-01
--The practice guideline 'Thyroid disorders' developed by the Dutch College of General Practitioners replaces the practice guideline 'Functional thyroid disorders' from 1996. Recommendations for palpable thyroid disorders have been added. --Hypothyroidism can often be treated by the general
Methods of Medical Guidelines Modelling in GLIF.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Buchtela, David; Anger, Z.; Peleška, Jan (ed.); Tomečková, Marie; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvárová, Jana
2005-01-01
Roč. 11, - (2005), s. 1529-1532 ISSN 1727-1983. [EMBEC'05. European Medical and Biomedical Conference /3./. Prague, 20.11.2005-25.11.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : medical guidelines * knowledge modelling * GLIF model Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information
Allen, Johnie J.; Anderson, Craig A.; Bushman, Brad J.
The General Aggression Model (GAM) is a comprehensive, integrative, framework for understanding aggression. It considers the role of social, cognitive, personality, developmental, and biological factors on aggression. Proximate processes of GAM detail how person and situation factors influence
The generalized circular model
Webers, H.M.
1995-01-01
In this paper we present a generalization of the circular model. In this model there are two concentric circular markets, which enables us to study two types of markets simultaneously. There are switching costs involved for moving from one circle to the other circle, which can also be thought of as
Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models
Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura
2016-01-01
With the aim of considering models with persistent memory we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macrovolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth...
Johnson, L; Stricker, R B
2009-05-01
Lyme disease is one of the most controversial illnesses in the history of medicine. In 2006 the Connecticut Attorney General launched an antitrust investigation into the Lyme guidelines development process of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). In a recent settlement with IDSA, the Attorney General noted important commercial conflicts of interest and suppression of scientific evidence that had tainted the guidelines process. This paper explores two broad ethical themes that influenced the IDSA investigation. The first is the growing problem of conflicts of interest among guidelines developers, and the second is the increasing centralisation of medical decisions by insurance companies, which use treatment guidelines as a means of controlling the practices of individual doctors and denying treatment for patients. The implications of the first-ever antitrust investigation of medical guidelines and the proposed model to remediate the tainted IDSA guidelines process are also discussed.
Transport properties site descriptive model. Guidelines for evaluation and modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berglund, Sten; Selroos, Jan-Olof
2004-04-01
This report describes a strategy for the development of Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models within the SKB Site Investigation programme. Similar reports have been produced for the other disciplines in the site descriptive modelling (Geology, Hydrogeology, Hydrogeochemistry, Rock mechanics, Thermal properties, and Surface ecosystems). These reports are intended to guide the site descriptive modelling, but also to provide the authorities with an overview of modelling work that will be performed. The site descriptive modelling of transport properties is presented in this report and in the associated 'Strategy for the use of laboratory methods in the site investigations programme for the transport properties of the rock', which describes laboratory measurements and data evaluations. Specifically, the objectives of the present report are to: Present a description that gives an overview of the strategy for developing Site Descriptive Models, and which sets the transport modelling into this general context. Provide a structure for developing Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models that facilitates efficient modelling and comparisons between different sites. Provide guidelines on specific modelling issues where methodological consistency is judged to be of special importance, or where there is no general consensus on the modelling approach. The objectives of the site descriptive modelling process and the resulting Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models are to: Provide transport parameters for Safety Assessment. Describe the geoscientific basis for the transport model, including the qualitative and quantitative data that are of importance for the assessment of uncertainties and confidence in the transport description, and for the understanding of the processes at the sites. Provide transport parameters for use within other discipline-specific programmes. Contribute to the integrated evaluation of the investigated sites. The site descriptive modelling of
General Quality Control (QC) Guidelines for SAM Methods
Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).
General fire protection guidelines for egyptian nuclear facilities. Vol. 4
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radhad, S; Hussien, A Z; Hammad, F H [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)
1996-03-01
The purpose of this paper is to establish the regulatory requirements of that will provide and ensure fire protection of egyptian nuclear facilities. Those facilities that use, handle and store low and/or medium radioactive substances are included. Two or more classes of occupancy are considered to occur in the same building or structure. Fir protection measures and systems were reviewed for three of the egyptian Nuclear facilities. These are egypt first nuclear reactor (ETRR-1) building and systems, hot laboratories buildings and facilities, and the building including the AECL type Is-6500 industrial cobalt-60 gamma irradiator {sup E}gypt`s mega gamma I{sup .} The study includes the outlines of the various aspects of fire protection with a view to define the relevant highlights and scope of egyptian guideline for nuclear installations. The study considers fire protection aspects including the following items: 1- Site selection. 2- General facility design. 3- Fire alarm, detection and suppression systems. (4- Protection for specific areas/control room, cable spreading room, computer room) 5- Fire emergency response planning. 6- Fire water supply. 7- Emergency lighting and communication. 8- Rescue and escape routes. 9- Explosion protection. 10-Manual fire fighting. 11- Security consideration in the interest of fire protection. 12- quality assurance programme. Therefore, first of all the design stage, then during the construction stage, and later during the operation stage, measures must be taken to forestall the risks associated with the outbreak of fire and to ensure that consequences of fire accidents remain limited.
General fire protection guidelines for egyptian nuclear facilities. Vol. 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radhad, S.; Hussien, A.Z.; Hammad, F.H.
1996-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to establish the regulatory requirements of that will provide and ensure fire protection of egyptian nuclear facilities. Those facilities that use, handle and store low and/or medium radioactive substances are included. Two or more classes of occupancy are considered to occur in the same building or structure. Fir protection measures and systems were reviewed for three of the egyptian Nuclear facilities. These are egypt first nuclear reactor (ETRR-1) building and systems, hot laboratories buildings and facilities, and the building including the AECL type Is-6500 industrial cobalt-60 gamma irradiator E gypt's mega gamma I . The study includes the outlines of the various aspects of fire protection with a view to define the relevant highlights and scope of egyptian guideline for nuclear installations. The study considers fire protection aspects including the following items: 1- Site selection. 2- General facility design. 3- Fire alarm, detection and suppression systems. 4- Protection for specific areas/control room, cable spreading room, computer room) 5- Fire emergency response planning. 6- Fire water supply. 7- Emergency lighting and communication. 8- Rescue and escape routes. 9- Explosion protection. 10-Manual fire fighting. 11- Security consideration in the interest of fire protection. 12- quality assurance programme. Therefore, first of all the design stage, then during the construction stage, and later during the operation stage, measures must be taken to forestall the risks associated with the outbreak of fire and to ensure that consequences of fire accidents remain limited
General guidelines for recommendation of sites for nuclear waste repositories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-01-01
These guidelines were developed in accordance with the requirements of Section 112(a) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 for use by the Secretary of Energy in evaluating the suitability of sites for the development of repositories. The guidelines will be used for suitability evaluations and determinations made pursuant to Section 112(b) and any preliminary suitability determinations required by Section 114(f). The guidelines set forth in this Part are intended to complement the requirements set forth in the Act, 10 CFR Part 60, and 40 CFR Part 191. In applying these guidelines, the DOE will resolve any inconsistencies between these guidelines and the above documents in a manner determined by the DOE to most closely agree with the intent of the Act
2011-08-31
... rule updates the Attorney General's interpretative guidelines under the language minority provisions of.... Also, on July 26, 2002, the Assistant Attorney General of the Civil Rights Division sent a letter to... of the then-existing Attorney General's interpretative guidelines, 28 CFR part 55. This rule conforms...
Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models
Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura
2016-11-01
With the aim of considering models related to random graphs growth exhibiting persistent memory, we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macroevolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth rates. Among the main results we derive the explicit distribution of the number of in-links of a webpage chosen uniformly at random recognizing the contribution to the asymptotics and the finite time correction. The mean value of the latter distribution is also calculated explicitly in the most general case. Furthermore, in order to show the usefulness of our results, we particularize them in the case of specific birth rates giving rise to a saturating behaviour, a property that is often observed in nature. The further specialization to the non-fractional case allows us to extend the Yule model accounting for a nonlinear growth.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borregaard, Michael K.; Matthews, Thomas J.; Whittaker, Robert James
2016-01-01
Aim: Island biogeography focuses on understanding the processes that underlie a set of well-described patterns on islands, but it lacks a unified theoretical framework for integrating these processes. The recently proposed general dynamic model (GDM) of oceanic island biogeography offers a step...... towards this goal. Here, we present an analysis of causality within the GDM and investigate its potential for the further development of island biogeographical theory. Further, we extend the GDM to include subduction-based island arcs and continental fragment islands. Location: A conceptual analysis...... of evolutionary processes in simulations derived from the mechanistic assumptions of the GDM corresponded broadly to those initially suggested, with the exception of trends in extinction rates. Expanding the model to incorporate different scenarios of island ontogeny and isolation revealed a sensitivity...
Strategy Guideline. Modeling Enclosure Design in Above-Grade Walls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)
2016-02-01
The Strategy Guideline, written by the U.S. Department of Energy's research team Building Science Corporation, 1) describes how to model and interpret results of models for above-grade walls, and 2) analyzes the failure thresholds and criteria for above-grade walls. A library of above-grade walls with historically successful performance was used to calibrate WUFI (Wärme und Feuchte instationär) software models. The information is generalized for application to a broad population of houses within the limits of existing experience.
Anomaly General Circulation Models.
Navarra, Antonio
The feasibility of the anomaly model is assessed using barotropic and baroclinic models. In the barotropic case, both a stationary and a time-dependent model has been formulated and constructed, whereas only the stationary, linear case is considered in the baroclinic case. Results from the barotropic model indicate that a relation between the stationary solution and the time-averaged non-linear solution exists. The stationary linear baroclinic solution can therefore be considered with some confidence. The linear baroclinic anomaly model poses a formidable mathematical problem because it is necessary to solve a gigantic linear system to obtain the solution. A new method to find solution of large linear system, based on a projection on the Krylov subspace is shown to be successful when applied to the linearized baroclinic anomaly model. The scheme consists of projecting the original linear system on the Krylov subspace, thereby reducing the dimensionality of the matrix to be inverted to obtain the solution. With an appropriate setting of the damping parameters, the iterative Krylov method reaches a solution even using a Krylov subspace ten times smaller than the original space of the problem. This generality allows the treatment of the important problem of linear waves in the atmosphere. A larger class (nonzonally symmetric) of basic states can now be treated for the baroclinic primitive equations. These problem leads to large unsymmetrical linear systems of order 10000 and more which can now be successfully tackled by the Krylov method. The (R7) linear anomaly model is used to investigate extensively the linear response to equatorial and mid-latitude prescribed heating. The results indicate that the solution is deeply affected by the presence of the stationary waves in the basic state. The instability of the asymmetric flows, first pointed out by Simmons et al. (1983), is active also in the baroclinic case. However, the presence of baroclinic processes modifies the
Allen, Johnie J; Anderson, Craig A; Bushman, Brad J
2018-02-01
The General Aggression Model (GAM) is a comprehensive, integrative, framework for understanding aggression. It considers the role of social, cognitive, personality, developmental, and biological factors on aggression. Proximate processes of GAM detail how person and situation factors influence cognitions, feelings, and arousal, which in turn affect appraisal and decision processes, which in turn influence aggressive or nonaggressive behavioral outcomes. Each cycle of the proximate processes serves as a learning trial that affects the development and accessibility of aggressive knowledge structures. Distal processes of GAM detail how biological and persistent environmental factors can influence personality through changes in knowledge structures. GAM has been applied to understand aggression in many contexts including media violence effects, domestic violence, intergroup violence, temperature effects, pain effects, and the effects of global climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bosch, W.J.H.M. van den
2002-01-01
The Dutch College of General Practitioners' practice guideline on the menopause will not be any major cause for discussion. The hot issue of giving oestrogens to peri- and postmenopausal women to prevent osteoporosis or cardiovascular disease was already covered in the practice guideline on
Bioassay guideline 1: general guidlines for bioassay programs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1980-01-01
This guideline is the first of a series of documents which elaborate criteria for bioassay programs, to be presented as recommendations to the Atomic Energy Control Board. It specifies which workers require routine bioassays, the accuracy and frequency of measurements, the dose levels at which specific actions must be taken, and the documentation required
The generalized collective model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Troltenier, D.
1992-07-01
In this thesis a new way of proceeding, basing on the method of the finite elements, for the solution of the collective Schroedinger equation in the framework of the Generalized Collective Model was presented. The numerically reachable accuracy was illustrated by the comparison to analytically known solutions by means of numerous examples. Furthermore the potential-energy surfaces of the 182-196 Hg, 242-248 Cm, and 242-246 Pu isotopes were determined by the fitting of the parameters of the Gneuss-Greiner potential to the experimental data. In the Hg isotopes a shape consistency of nearly spherical and oblate deformations is shown, while the Cm and Pu isotopes possess an essentially equal remaining prolate deformation. By means of the pseudo-symplectic model the potential-energy surfaces of 24 Mg, 190 Pt, and 238 U were microscopically calculated. Using a deformation-independent kinetic energy so the collective excitation spectra and the electrical properties (B(E2), B(E4) values, quadrupole moments) of these nuclei were calculated and compared with the experiment. Finally an analytic relation between the (g R -Z/A) value and the quadrupole moment was derived. The study of the experimental data of the 166-170 Er isotopes shows an in the framework of the measurement accuracy a sufficient agreement with this relation. Furthermore it is by this relation possible to determine the effective magnetic dipole moment parameter-freely. (orig./HSI) [de
Modeling Guidelines for Code Generation in the Railway Signaling Context
Ferrari, Alessio; Bacherini, Stefano; Fantechi, Alessandro; Zingoni, Niccolo
2009-01-01
recommendations has been performed for the automotive control systems domain in order to enforce code generation [7]. The MAAB guidelines have been found profitable also in the aerospace/avionics sector [1] and they have been adopted by the MathWorks Aerospace Leadership Council (MALC). General Electric Transportation Systems (GETS) is a well known railway signaling systems manufacturer leading in Automatic Train Protection (ATP) systems technology. Inside an effort of adopting formal methods within its own development process, GETS decided to introduce system modeling by means of the MathWorks tools [2], and in 2008 chose to move to code generation. This article reports the experience performed by GETS in developing its own modeling standard through customizing the MAAB rules for the railway signaling domain and shows the result of this experience with a successful product development story.
Bosch, W.J.H.M. van den
2003-01-01
The practice guideline 'Anaemia' from the Dutch College of General Practitioners will certainly be a support for the Dutch general practitioner. The inclusion of an algorithm to make a more precise diagnosis is an experiment that needs to be evaluated in the near future. However, many general
Cholesterol management in Dutch general practice: a comparison with national guidelines.
Weijden, T. van der; Hutten, J.B.F.; Brandenburg, B.J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Velden, K. van der
1994-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To examine cholesterol diagnosis and treatment by Dutch general practitioners (GPs) in the period before publication of national guidelines, in order to develop implementation strategies based on discrepancies found between daily practice and the guidelines. DESIGN: Data of the 'Dutch
Susi, Frank; Mundell, Robert
1980-01-01
Guidelines developed by the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Association for Dental Schools are presented. These guidelines were drawn up as an effort to provide a general criterion-referenced standard against which a school can measure its course content in histology. (MLW)
2010-04-29
... NATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES Notice of Continuance for General Clearance for Guidelines, Applications, and Reporting Forms AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services. ACTION... of higher education, library and museum professional associations, and museum and library...
Glauber model and its generalizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bialkowski, G.
The physical aspects of the Glauber model problems are studied: potential model, profile function and Feynman diagrams approaches. Different generalizations of the Glauber model are discussed: particularly higher and lower energy processes and large angles [fr
Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathy P; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Vap, Linda M; Getzy, Karen M; Evans, Ellen W; Harr, Kendal E
2010-09-01
Owing to lack of governmental regulation of veterinary laboratory performance, veterinarians ideally should demonstrate a commitment to self-monitoring and regulation of laboratory performance from within the profession. In response to member concerns about quality management in veterinary laboratories, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) formed a Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards (QAS) committee in 1996. This committee recently published updated and peer-reviewed Quality Assurance Guidelines on the ASVCP website. The Quality Assurance Guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports on 1) general analytic factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons, 2) hematology and hemostasis, and 3) clinical chemistry, endocrine assessment, and urinalysis. This report documents recommendations for control of general analytical factors within veterinary clinical laboratories and is based on section 2.1 (Analytical Factors Important In Veterinary Clinical Pathology, General) of the newly revised ASVCP QAS Guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimum guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing. It is hoped that these guidelines will provide a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. ©2010 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
General guidelines solution for linear programming with fuzzy coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergio Gerardo de los Cobos Silva
2013-08-01
Full Text Available This work introduce to the Possibilistic Programming and the Fuzzy Programming as paradigms that allow to resolve problems of linear programming when the coefficients of the model or the restrictions on the same are presented as fuzzy numbers, rather than exact numbers (crisp. This work presents some examples based on [1].
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-12-01
These general guidelines are intended to be used as a basis for what requirements are reasonable from a radiation protection point of view and should be part of the contract in connection with the purchase of equipment for x-ray diagnostics. Technical performance requirements are addressed as well as items like documentation, instructions for use and education and training. The guidelines are also useful for the design of quality assurance programs. In the comments in addition to these guidelines legal aspects are noted, including a list of relevant laws, regulations and directives. Standards, both national and international, within the field are referred to with a short description of their content. 40 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-12-01
These general guidelines are intended to be used as a basis for what requirements are reasonable from a radiation protection point of view and should be part of the contract in connection with the purchase of equipment for x-ray diagnostics. Technical performance requirements are addressed as well as items like documentation, instructions for use and education and training. The guidelines are also useful for the design of quality assurance programs. In the comments in addition to these guidelines legal aspects are noted, including a list of relevant laws, regulations and directives. Standards, both national and international, within the field are referred to with a short description of their content. 40 refs.
Schellevis, F.G.; Eijk, J.T.M. van; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Velden, J. van der; Weel, C. van
1994-01-01
In a prospective longitudinal study over 21 months the performance of general practitioners and the disease status of their patients was measured during the formulation and implementation of guidelines on follow-up care. Data on 15 general practitioners and on 613 patients with hypertension, 95 with
Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models
McCulloch, Charles E; Neuhaus, John M
2011-01-01
An accessible and self-contained introduction to statistical models-now in a modernized new editionGeneralized, Linear, and Mixed Models, Second Edition provides an up-to-date treatment of the essential techniques for developing and applying a wide variety of statistical models. The book presents thorough and unified coverage of the theory behind generalized, linear, and mixed models and highlights their similarities and differences in various construction, application, and computational aspects.A clear introduction to the basic ideas of fixed effects models, random effects models, and mixed m
Cosyn, Jan; Thevissen, Eric; Reners, Michèle; Rompen, Eric; Klinge, Björn; De Bruyn, Hugo
2008-01-01
As the prevalence of periodontitis is more than 40 % in the adult Belgian population, periodontists are clearly understaffed to treat this disease in all patients. Therefore, it seems logic that mild forms of chronic periodontitis are treated by the general practitioner especially because Belgium lacks dental hygienists. Important prerequisites for organizing periodontal care as such relate to the general practitioner who should use the same techniques, have comparable communicative skills to motivate patients and create a similar amount of time for periodontal treatment as the specialist. After all, the patient has the right to qualitative treatment regardless of the level of education of the care provider. In order to guarantee this in general practice as much as possible, there is a need for clinical guidelines developed by specialists. These guidelines should not only support the general practitioner in treating disease; above all, they should assist the dentist in periodontal diagnosis. Hitherto, periodontal screening by general dentists seems to be infrequently performed even though reimbursement of the Dutch Periodontal Screening Index is implemented in the Belgian healthcare security system. In this manuscript possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed. Apart from the need for guidelines in general practice, guidelines for surgical treatment seem compulsory to uniform treatment protocols in specialized practice. Extreme variation in the recommendation of surgery among Belgian specialists calls for consensus statements.
Introduction to generalized linear models
Dobson, Annette J
2008-01-01
Introduction Background Scope Notation Distributions Related to the Normal Distribution Quadratic Forms Estimation Model Fitting Introduction Examples Some Principles of Statistical Modeling Notation and Coding for Explanatory Variables Exponential Family and Generalized Linear Models Introduction Exponential Family of Distributions Properties of Distributions in the Exponential Family Generalized Linear Models Examples Estimation Introduction Example: Failure Times for Pressure Vessels Maximum Likelihood Estimation Poisson Regression Example Inference Introduction Sampling Distribution for Score Statistics Taylor Series Approximations Sampling Distribution for MLEs Log-Likelihood Ratio Statistic Sampling Distribution for the Deviance Hypothesis Testing Normal Linear Models Introduction Basic Results Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance General Linear Models Binary Variables and Logistic Regression Probability Distributions ...
Guideline validation in multiple trauma care through business process modeling.
Stausberg, Jürgen; Bilir, Hüseyin; Waydhas, Christian; Ruchholtz, Steffen
2003-07-01
Clinical guidelines can improve the quality of care in multiple trauma. In our Department of Trauma Surgery a specific guideline is available paper-based as a set of flowcharts. This format is appropriate for the use by experienced physicians but insufficient for electronic support of learning, workflow and process optimization. A formal and logically consistent version represented with a standardized meta-model is necessary for automatic processing. In our project we transferred the paper-based into an electronic format and analyzed the structure with respect to formal errors. Several errors were detected in seven error categories. The errors were corrected to reach a formally and logically consistent process model. In a second step the clinical content of the guideline was revised interactively using a process-modeling tool. Our study reveals that guideline development should be assisted by process modeling tools, which check the content in comparison to a meta-model. The meta-model itself could support the domain experts in formulating their knowledge systematically. To assure sustainability of guideline development a representation independent of specific applications or specific provider is necessary. Then, clinical guidelines could be used for eLearning, process optimization and workflow management additionally.
Wiersma, T.; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Verhoeven, S.; Bentum, S.T.B. van; Goudswaard, A.N.
2005-01-01
The new practice guideline of the Dutch College of General Practitioners on the management of patients with a TIA resembles the first version, but there are some important changes: The concept TIA has been narrowed to a neurological deficit that has resolved spontaneously by the time the patient
Formalized 2003 ESH/ESC Hypertension Guidelines in Hospital and General Practice
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peleška, Jan; Anger, Z.; Buchtela, David; Tomečková, Marie; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvárová, Jana
22 Suppl. 2, - (2004), s. 253 ISSN 0263-6352. [European Meeting on Hypertension /14./. 13.06.2004-17.06.2004, Paris] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00B107 Keywords : hypertension guidelines * electronic form Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Dionne, Raymond A
2016-09-01
Recently proposed revisions to the American Dental Association's Guidelines for the Use of Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentists, aimed at improving safety in dental offices, differentiate between levels of sedation based on drug-induced changes in physiologic and behavioral states. However, the author of this op-ed is concerned the proposed revisions may have far-reaching and unintended consequences.
Best-practices guidelines for L2PSA development and applications. Volume 1 - General
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raimond, E.; Pichereau, F.; Durin, T.; Rahni, N.; Loeffler, H.; Roesch, O.; Lajtha, G.; Santamaria, C.S.; Dienstbier, J.; Rydl, A.; Holmberg, J.E.; Lindholm, I.; Maennistoe, I.; Pauli, E.M.; Dirksen, G.; Grindon, L.; Peers, K.; Bassi, C.; Hulqvist, G.; Parozzi, F.; Polidoro, F.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazkova, J.; Burgazzi, L.; Brinkman, H.; Seidel, A.; Schubert, B.; Wohlstein, R.; Guentay, S.; Oury, L.; Ngatchou, C.; Siltanen, S.; Niemela, I.; Routamo, T.; Vincon, L.; Helstroem, P.
2010-01-01
The objective of this coordinated action was to develop best practice guidelines for the performance and application of Level 2 PSA with a view to achieve harmonisation at EU level and to allow a meaningful and practical uncertainty evaluation in a Level 2 PSA. Specific relationships with communities in charge of nuclear reactor safety (utilities, safety authorities, vendors, and research or services companies) have been established in order to define the current needs in terms of guidelines for Level 2 PSA development and application. An international workshop was organised in Hamburg, with the support of VATTENFALL, in November 2008. The Level 2 PSA experts from ASAMPSA2 project partners have proposed some guidelines for the development and application of L2PSA based on their experience, open literature, and on information available from international cooperation (EC Severe Accident network of Excellence - SARNET, IAEA standards, OECD-NEA publications and workshop). There are a large number of technical issues addressed in the guideline which are not all covered with the same level of detail in the first version of the guideline. This version was submitted for external review in November 2010 by severe accident and PSA experts (especially from SARNET and OECD-NEA members). The feedback of the external review will be dis cussed during an international open works hop planned for March 2011 and all outcomes will be taken into consideration in the final version of this guideline (June 2011). The guideline includes 3 volumes: - Volume 1 - General considerations on L2PSA. - Volume 2 - Technical recommendations for Gen II and III reactors. - Volume 3 - Specific considerations for future reactors (Gen IV). The recommendations formulated in the guideline should not be considered as 'mandatory' but should help Level 2 PSA developers to achieve high quality studies with limited time and resources. It may also help Level 2 PSA reviewers by positioning one specific study in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doerfel, H.; Andrasi, A.; Bailey, M.; Blanchardon, E.; Cruz-Suarez, R.; Berkovski, V.; Castellani, C. M.; Hurtgenv, C.; Leguen, B.; Malatova, I.; Marsh, J.; Stather, J.; Zeger, J.
2007-01-01
In recent major international intercomparison exercises on intake and internal dose assessments from monitoring data, the results calculated by different participants varied significantly. Based on this experience the need for harmonisation of the procedures has been formulated within an EU 5. Framework Programme research project. The aim of the project, IDEAS, is to develop general guidelines for standardising assessments of intakes and internal doses. The IDEAS project started in October 2001 and ended in June 2005. The project is closely related to some goals of the work of Committee 2 of the ICRP and since 2003 there has been close cooperation between the two groups. To ensure that the guidelines are applicable to a wide range of practical situations, the first step was to compile a database of well-documented cases of internal contamination. In parallel, an improved version of an existing software package was developed and distributed to the partners for further use. A large number of cases from the database was evaluated independently by the partners and the results reviewed. Based on these evaluations, guidelines were drafted and discussed with dosimetry professionals from around the world by means of a virtual workshop on the Internet early in 2004. The guidelines have been revised and refined on the basis of the experiences and discussions in this virtual workshop. The general philosophy of the Guidelines is presented here, focusing on the principles of harmonisation, optimisation and proportionality. Finally, the proposed Levels of Task to structure the approach of internal dose evaluation are reported. (authors)
Generalized Ordinary Differential Equation Models.
Miao, Hongyu; Wu, Hulin; Xue, Hongqi
2014-10-01
Existing estimation methods for ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are not applicable to discrete data. The generalized ODE (GODE) model is therefore proposed and investigated for the first time. We develop the likelihood-based parameter estimation and inference methods for GODE models. We propose robust computing algorithms and rigorously investigate the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator by considering both measurement errors and numerical errors in solving ODEs. The simulation study and application of our methods to an influenza viral dynamics study suggest that the proposed methods have a superior performance in terms of accuracy over the existing ODE model estimation approach and the extended smoothing-based (ESB) method.
Bolter, R.; Freund, T.; Ledig, T.; Boll, B.; Szecsenyi, J.; Roos, M.
2012-01-01
Introduction: The planned modification of the Medical Licenses Act in Germany will strengthen the specialty of general practice. Therefore, medical students should get to know the daily routine of general practitioners during their academic studies. At least 10% of students should get the
Cosmological models in general relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Cosmological models in general relativity. B B PAUL. Department of Physics, Nowgong College, Nagaon, Assam, India. MS received 4 October 2002; revised 6 March 2003; accepted 21 May 2003. Abstract. LRS Bianchi type-I space-time filled with perfect fluid is considered here with deceler- ation parameter as variable.
ORGEST: Regional guidelines and silvicultural models for sustainable forest management
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piqué, Míriam; Vericat, Pau; Beltrán, Mario
2017-11-01
Aim of the study: To develop regional guidelines for sustainable forest management. Area of the study: Forests of Catalonia (NE Spain). Material and methods: The process of developing the forest management guidelines (FMG) started by establishing a thorough classification of forest types at stand level. This classification hinges on two attributes: tree species composition and site quality based on ecological variables, which together determine potential productivity. From there, the management guidelines establish certain objectives and silvicultural models for each forest type. The forest type classifications, like the silvicultural models, were produced using both existing and newly-built growth models based on data from the National Forest Inventory (NFI) and expert knowledge. The effort involved over 20 expert working groups in order to better integrate the expertise and vision of different sectorial agents. Main results: The FMG consist in quantitative silvicultural models that include typical silvicultural variables, technical descriptions of treatments and codes of good practice. Guidelines now cover almost all forest types in Catalonia (spanning up to 90% of the Catalan forest area). Different silvicultural models have been developed for pure and mixed stands, different site quality classes (2–3 classes per species), and even- and multi-aged stands. Research highlights: FMG: i) orient the management of private and public forests, (ii) provide a technical scaffold for efficient allocation/investment of public subsidies in forest management, and (iii) bridge forest planning instruments at regional (strategic-tactical) and stand (operational) level.
ORGEST: Regional guidelines and silvicultural models for sustainable forest management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piqué, Míriam; Vericat, Pau; Beltrán, Mario
2017-01-01
Aim of the study: To develop regional guidelines for sustainable forest management. Area of the study: Forests of Catalonia (NE Spain). Material and methods: The process of developing the forest management guidelines (FMG) started by establishing a thorough classification of forest types at stand level. This classification hinges on two attributes: tree species composition and site quality based on ecological variables, which together determine potential productivity. From there, the management guidelines establish certain objectives and silvicultural models for each forest type. The forest type classifications, like the silvicultural models, were produced using both existing and newly-built growth models based on data from the National Forest Inventory (NFI) and expert knowledge. The effort involved over 20 expert working groups in order to better integrate the expertise and vision of different sectorial agents. Main results: The FMG consist in quantitative silvicultural models that include typical silvicultural variables, technical descriptions of treatments and codes of good practice. Guidelines now cover almost all forest types in Catalonia (spanning up to 90% of the Catalan forest area). Different silvicultural models have been developed for pure and mixed stands, different site quality classes (2–3 classes per species), and even- and multi-aged stands. Research highlights: FMG: i) orient the management of private and public forests, (ii) provide a technical scaffold for efficient allocation/investment of public subsidies in forest management, and (iii) bridge forest planning instruments at regional (strategic-tactical) and stand (operational) level.
Generalized waste package containment model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liebetrau, A.M.; Apted, M.J.
1985-02-01
The US Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a performance assessment strategy to demonstrate compliance with standards and technical requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in geologic repositories. One aspect of this strategy is the development of a unified performance model of the entire geologic repository system. Details of a generalized waste package containment (WPC) model and its relationship with other components of an overall repository model are presented in this paper. The WPC model provides stochastically determined estimates of the distributions of times-to-failure of the barriers of a waste package by various corrosion mechanisms and degradation processes. The model consists of a series of modules which employ various combinations of stochastic (probabilistic) and mechanistic process models, and which are individually designed to reflect the current state of knowledge. The WPC model is designed not only to take account of various site-specific conditions and processes, but also to deal with a wide range of site, repository, and waste package configurations. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mazza Danielle
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite strong evidence of the benefits of preconception interventions for improving pregnancy outcomes, the delivery and uptake of preconception care and periconceptional folate supplementation remain low. General practitioners play a central role in the delivery of preconception care. Understanding general practitioners’ perceptions of the barriers and enablers to implementing preconception care allows for more appropriate targeting of quality improvement interventions. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the barriers and enablers to the delivery and uptake of preconception care guidelines from general practitioners’ perspective using theoretical domains related to behaviour change. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using focus groups consisting of 22 general practitioners who were recruited from three regional general practice support organisations. Questions were based on the theoretical domain framework, which describes 12 domains related to behaviour change. General practitioners’ responses were classified into predefined themes using a deductive process of thematic analysis. Results Beliefs about capabilities, motivations and goals, environmental context and resources, and memory, attention and decision making were the key domains identified in the barrier analysis. Some of the perceived barriers identified by general practitioners were time constraints, the lack of women presenting at the preconception stage, the numerous competing preventive priorities within the general practice setting, issues relating to the cost of and access to preconception care, and the lack of resources for assisting in the delivery of preconception care guidelines. Perceived enablers identified by general practitioners included the availability of preconception care checklists and patient brochures, handouts, and waiting room posters outlining the benefits and availability of preconception care consultations
Multivariate covariance generalized linear models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bonat, W. H.; Jørgensen, Bent
2016-01-01
are fitted by using an efficient Newton scoring algorithm based on quasi-likelihood and Pearson estimating functions, using only second-moment assumptions. This provides a unified approach to a wide variety of types of response variables and covariance structures, including multivariate extensions......We propose a general framework for non-normal multivariate data analysis called multivariate covariance generalized linear models, designed to handle multivariate response variables, along with a wide range of temporal and spatial correlation structures defined in terms of a covariance link...... function combined with a matrix linear predictor involving known matrices. The method is motivated by three data examples that are not easily handled by existing methods. The first example concerns multivariate count data, the second involves response variables of mixed types, combined with repeated...
Fermions as generalized Ising models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Wetterich
2017-04-01
Full Text Available We establish a general map between Grassmann functionals for fermions and probability or weight distributions for Ising spins. The equivalence between the two formulations is based on identical transfer matrices and expectation values of products of observables. The map preserves locality properties and can be realized for arbitrary dimensions. We present a simple example where a quantum field theory for free massless Dirac fermions in two-dimensional Minkowski space is represented by an asymmetric Ising model on a euclidean square lattice.
Anisotropic charged generalized polytropic models
Nasim, A.; Azam, M.
2018-06-01
In this paper, we found some new anisotropic charged models admitting generalized polytropic equation of state with spherically symmetry. An analytic solution of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations is obtained through the transformation introduced by Durgapal and Banerji (Phys. Rev. D 27:328, 1983). The physical viability of solutions corresponding to polytropic index η =1/2, 2/3, 1, 2 is analyzed graphically. For this, we plot physical quantities such as radial and tangential pressure, anisotropy, speed of sound which demonstrated that these models achieve all the considerable physical conditions required for a relativistic star. Further, it is mentioned here that previous results for anisotropic charged matter with linear, quadratic and polytropic equation of state can be retrieved.
Thiel, Rainer; Viceconti, Marco; Stroetmann, Karl
2011-01-01
Biocomputational modelling as developed by the European Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) Initiative is the area of ICT most likely to revolutionise in the longer term the practice of medicine. Using the example of osteoporosis management, a socio-economic assessment framework is presented that captures how the transformation of clinical guidelines through VPH models can be evaluated. Applied to the Osteoporotic Virtual Physiological Human Project, a consequent benefit-cost analysis delivers promising results, both methodologically and substantially.
Conceptual Models and Guidelines for Clinical Assessment of Financial Capacity.
Marson, Daniel
2016-09-01
The ability to manage financial affairs is a life skill of critical importance, and neuropsychologists are increasingly asked to assess financial capacity across a variety of settings. Sound clinical assessment of financial capacity requires knowledge and appreciation of applicable clinical conceptual models and principles. However, the literature has presented relatively little conceptual guidance for clinicians concerning financial capacity and its assessment. This article seeks to address this gap. The article presents six clinical models of financial capacity : (1) the early gerontological IADL model of Lawton, (2) the clinical skills model and (3) related cognitive psychological model developed by Marson and colleagues, (4) a financial decision-making model adapting earlier decisional capacity work of Appelbaum and Grisso, (5) a person-centered model of financial decision-making developed by Lichtenberg and colleagues, and (6) a recent model of financial capacity in the real world developed through the Institute of Medicine. Accompanying presentation of the models is discussion of conceptual and practical perspectives they represent for clinician assessment. Based on the models, the article concludes by presenting a series of conceptually oriented guidelines for clinical assessment of financial capacity. In summary, sound assessment of financial capacity requires knowledge and appreciation of clinical conceptual models and principles. Awareness of such models, principles and guidelines will strengthen and advance clinical assessment of financial capacity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Boukes, F S; Boeke, A J P; Dekker, J H; Wiersma, T; Goudswaard, A N
2007-06-16
The 1996 practice guideline of the Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) on vaginal discharge has been updated. Most women who visit their doctor with complaints about vaginal discharge do not have an increased risk of a sexually-transmitted disease. Investigations into vaginal discharge comprise history taking, physical examination and microscopic analysis in the laboratory of the general practitioner. Additional investigation into Chlamydia, gonorrhoea and Trichomonas infection is only necessary if the patient history reveals an increased risk of a sexually-transmitted disease. A Candida infection or bacterial vaginosis should only be treated if the patient experiences bothersome complaints. Treatment of a Candida infection consists of a vaginally applied imidazole compound. Bacterial vaginosis can be treated with oral administration of metronidazole. Patients with vaginal fluor can be examined and, if necessary, treated by their general practitioner. Referral to a gynaecologist is rarely necessary.
Rosemann, T.J.; Joos, S.; Szecsenyi, J.
2008-01-01
BACKGROUND: In most countries, guidelines for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) are available. However, in Germany, no guideline for the primary care sector is available. The care provider of most patients is the general practitioner (GP). The aim of the study was to investigate the approaches in
Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Sørensen, Tina Brandt; Højmark, Torben Brunse; Olsen, Kim Rose; Vedsted, Peter
2013-03-01
The general practitioner (GP) is often the first healthcare contact for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To determine whether participating in a standardised educational programme delivered in the GP's own practice is associated with adherence to COPD guidelines. A nationwide register-based observational before and after study was undertaken with a control group of propensity-matched practices (follow-up period 6 months). COPD was defined as age 40+ years and at least two prescriptions for inhaled medication. The educational programme consisted of a 3-hr teaching lesson with a respiratory specialist and five visits by a representative from the sponsoring pharmaceutical company focusing on assessment and management of patients including written algorithms. A one-to-one propensity-matched control group of practices was selected. Register data were used to compare the rate of spirometry testing, preventive consultations, and influenza vaccinations provided to COPD patients and the rate of spirometry testing in non-COPD individuals, assumed to reflect diagnostic activity. Data for 102 participating GP practices were analysed. Participating clinics had a significant increase in preventive consultations and influenza vaccinations (peducation of GPs and their staff delivered in the GPs' own practices may improve adherence to COPD guidelines, not least for clinics with a high potential for improvement.
Chapter A6. Section 6.0. General Information and Guidelines
Wilde, Franceska D.; Radtke, Dean B.
2005-01-01
This report summarizes information, guidelines, and minimum requirements that apply generally to the seven field-measurement sections that comprise the rest of Chapter A6 of this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (NFM). Protocols are specified for establishing and maintaining data records, use of field-measurement instruments and methods, and quality assurance of data-collection and reporting methods that are relevant to surface-water and ground-water field-measurement activities.
General guidelines for the Assessment of Internal Dose from Monitoring Data (Project IDEAS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doerfel, H.; Andrasi, A.; Bailey, M.; Blanchardon, E.; Berkovski, V.; Castellani, C. M.; Hurtgen, C.; Jourdain, J. R.; LeGuen, B.; Puncher, M.
2004-01-01
In recent major international intercomparison exercises on intake and internal dose assessments from monitoring data the results calculated by different participants varied significantly. This was mainly due to the broad variety of methods and assumptions applied in the assessment procedure. Based on these experiences the need for harmonisation of the procedures has been formulated within an EU research project under the 5th Framework Programme. The aim of the project, IDEAS, is to develop general guidelines for standardising assessments of intakes and internal doses. The IDEAS project started in October 2001 and will end in March 2005. Eight institutions from seven European countries are participating. Inputs from internal dosimetry professionals from across Europe are also being used to ensure a broad consensus in the outcome of the project. The IDEAS project is closely related to some goals of the work of Committee 2 of the ICRP and since 2003 there has been close cooperation between the two groups. To ensure that the guidelines are applicable to a wide range of practical situations, the first step has been to compile a database of well-documented cases of internal contamination. In parallel, an improved version of an existing software package has been developed and distributed to the partners for further use. A large number of cases from the database have been evaluated independently by partners in the project using the same software and the results have been reviewed. Based on these evaluations guidelines are being drafted and will be discussed with dosimetry professionals from around the world by means of a virtual workshop on the Internet early in 2004. The guidelines will be revised and refined on the basis of the experiences and discussions of this virtual workshop and the outcome of an intercomparison exercise organised as part of the project. This will be open to all internal dosimetry professionals. (Author) 10 refs
Generalized model of island biodiversity
Kessler, David A.; Shnerb, Nadav M.
2015-04-01
The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical.
nestor Guideline for Preservation Planning – a Process Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sabine Schrimpf
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The nestor guideline for preservation planning is the latest in a series of nestor publications. nestor is the German competence network for digital preservation and it offers all interested parties from the private and public domains the possibility to participate in working groups. The guideline for preservation planning is the result of such a working group, which discussed the conceptual and practical issues of implementing the OAIS Functional Entity “Preservation Planning”.The guideline describes a process model and offers some guidance on potential implementations. It integrates and builds on recognized community concepts like Significant Properties, the OAIS Designated Community, the National Archives of Australia’s Performance Model, the PREMIS concept of Intellectual Entities and Representations, and the PLANET’s approach to preservation planning. Furthermore, it introduces the concepts “intended use” (Nutzungsziele, “information type” (Informationstyp and “preservation group” (Erhaltungsgruppe. The purpose of these new categories is that information objects shall be grouped by information type (e.g., audio, video, text… and intended use (e.g., reading for pleasure, search for specific information… to preservation groups for automatic processing. Significant properties can then be derived for whole preservation groups. The file format alone is considered as not completely sufficient for such categorisation. Some exemplary implementation solutions of the new concepts are presented in an annex.The guideline takes into account that resources for preservation planning and preservation actions are limited and has therefore adopted 4 premises: adequacy, financial viability, automation, and authenticity of archived objects. Its pragmatic approach becomes apparent in the definition and explanation of these dimensions. The guideline is written from the point of view of representatives of memory institutions, i
Management of venous leg ulcers in general practice - a practical guideline.
Sinha, Sankar; Sreedharan, Sadhishaan
2014-09-01
Chronic venous leg ulcers are the most common wounds seen in general practice. Their management can be both challenging and time-consuming. To produce a short practical guideline incorporating the TIME concept and A2BC2D approach to help general practitioners and their practice nurses in delivering evidence-based initial care to patients with chronic venous leg ulcers. Most chronic venous leg ulcers can be managed effectively in the general practice setting by following the simple, evidence-based approach described in this article. Figure 1 provides a flow chart to aid in this process. Figure 2 illustrates the principles of management in general practice. Effective management of chronic ulcers involves the assessment of both the ulcer and the patient. The essential requirements of management are to debride the ulcer with appropriate precautions, choose dressings that maintain adequate moisture balance, apply graduated compression bandage after evaluation of the arterial circulation and address the patient's concerns, such as pain and offensive wound discharge.
Prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media: a consensus report and guidelines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morcos, S.K. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Thomsen, H.S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Webb, J.A.W. [Diagnostic Radiology Department, St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)
2001-09-01
The aim of this study was to document, using consensus methodology, current practice for prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media, to identify areas where there is disagreement or confusion and to draw up guidelines for reducing the risk of generalized contrast media reactions based on the survey and a review of the literature. A document with 165 questions was mailed to 202 members of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. The questions covered risk factors and prophylactic measures for generalized contrast media reactions. Sixty-eight members (34%) responded. The majority indicated that a history of moderate and severe reaction(s) to contrast media and asthma are important risk factors. The survey also indicated that patients with risk factors should receive non-ionic contrast media. In patients at high risk of reaction, if the examination is deemed absolutely necessary, a resuscitation team should be available at the time of the procedure. The majority (91%) used corticosteroid prophylaxis given at least 11 h before contrast medium to patients at increased risk of reaction. The frequency of the dosage varied from one to three times. Fifty-five percent also use antihistamine Hl, mainly administered orally and once. Antihistamine H2 and ephedrine are rarely used. All essential drugs are available on the emergency resuscitation trolley. Patients with risk factors are observed up to 30 min by 48% and up to 60 min by 43% of the responders. Prophylactic measures are not taken before extravascular use of contrast media. Prophylactic drugs are given to patients with a history of moderate or severe generalized reaction to contrast media. In patients with asthma, opinion is divided with only half of the responders giving prophylactic drugs. Aspirin, {beta}-blockers, interleukin-2 and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs are not considered risk factors and therefore are not stopped before injection of contrast media. The survey showed some variability in
Prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media: a consensus report and guidelines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morcos, S.K.; Thomsen, H.S.; Webb, J.A.W.
2001-01-01
The aim of this study was to document, using consensus methodology, current practice for prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media, to identify areas where there is disagreement or confusion and to draw up guidelines for reducing the risk of generalized contrast media reactions based on the survey and a review of the literature. A document with 165 questions was mailed to 202 members of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. The questions covered risk factors and prophylactic measures for generalized contrast media reactions. Sixty-eight members (34%) responded. The majority indicated that a history of moderate and severe reaction(s) to contrast media and asthma are important risk factors. The survey also indicated that patients with risk factors should receive non-ionic contrast media. In patients at high risk of reaction, if the examination is deemed absolutely necessary, a resuscitation team should be available at the time of the procedure. The majority (91%) used corticosteroid prophylaxis given at least 11 h before contrast medium to patients at increased risk of reaction. The frequency of the dosage varied from one to three times. Fifty-five percent also use antihistamine Hl, mainly administered orally and once. Antihistamine H2 and ephedrine are rarely used. All essential drugs are available on the emergency resuscitation trolley. Patients with risk factors are observed up to 30 min by 48% and up to 60 min by 43% of the responders. Prophylactic measures are not taken before extravascular use of contrast media. Prophylactic drugs are given to patients with a history of moderate or severe generalized reaction to contrast media. In patients with asthma, opinion is divided with only half of the responders giving prophylactic drugs. Aspirin, β-blockers, interleukin-2 and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs are not considered risk factors and therefore are not stopped before injection of contrast media. The survey showed some variability in
Di Giorgio, Marina; Radl, Analía; Taja, María R; Bubniak, Ruth; Deminge, Mayra; Sapienza, Carla; Vázquez, Marina; Baciu, Florian; Kenny, Pat
2014-06-01
It has been observed that victims of accidental overexposures show better chance of survival if they receive medical treatment early. The increased risk of scenarios involving mass casualties has stimulated the scientific community to develop tools that would help the medical doctors to treat victims. The biological dosimetry has become a routine test to estimate the dose, supplementing physical and clinical dosimetry. In case of radiation emergencies, in order to provide timely and effectively biological dosimetry assistance it is essential to guarantee an adequate transport of blood samples in principal, for providing support to countries that do not have biodosimetry laboratories. The objective of the present paper is to provide general guidelines, summarised in 10 points, for timely and proper receiving and sending of blood samples under National and International regulations, for safe and expeditious international transport. These guidelines cover the classification, packaging, marking, labelling, refrigeration and documentation requirements for the international shipping of blood samples and pellets, to provide assistance missions with a tool that would contribute with the preparedness for an effective biodosimetric response in cases of radiological or nuclear emergencies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
2013-01-01
Background Although the United Kingdom’s (UK’s) General Medical Council (GMC) recommends that graduating medical students are competent to discuss obesity and behaviour change with patients, it is difficult to integrate this education into existing curricula, and clinicians report being unprepared to support patients needing obesity management in practice. We therefore aimed to identify factors influencing the integration of obesity management education within medical schools. Methods Twenty-seven UK and Irish medical school educators participated in semi-structured interviews. Grounded theory principles informed data collection and analysis. Themes emerging directly from the dataset illustrated key challenges for educators and informed several suggested solutions. Results Factors influencing obesity management education included: 1) Diverse and opportunistic learning and teaching, 2) Variable support for including obesity education within undergraduate medical programmes, and 3) Student engagement in obesity management education. Findings suggest several practical solutions to identified challenges including clarifying recommended educational agendas; improving access to content-specific guidelines; and implementing student engagement strategies. Conclusions Students’ educational experiences differ due to diverse interpretations of GMC guidelines, educators’ perceptions of available support for, and student interest in obesity management education. Findings inform the development of potential solutions to these challenges which may be tested further empirically. PMID:23578257
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrasi, A.; Bailey, M.; Puncher, M.; Berkovski, V.; Eric Blanchardon, E.; Jourdain, J.-R.; Carlo-Maria Castellani, C.-M.; Doerfel, H.; Christian Hurtgen, Ch.; Le Guen, B.
2003-01-01
Several international intercomparison exercises on intake and internal dose assessments from monitoring data led to the conclusion that the results calculated by different participants varied significantly mainly because of the wide variety of methods and assumptions applied in the assessment procedure. Based on these experiences the need for harmonisation of the procedures has been formulated as an EU research project under the 5 th Framework Programme (2001-2005), with the aim of developing general guidelines for standardising assessments of intakes and internal doses. In the IDEAS project eight institutions from seven European countries are participating using inputs also from internal dosimetry professionals from across Europe to ensure broad consensus in the outcome of the project. The IDEAS project is explained
General safety guidelines for looking for a low mass activity-long life waste storage site
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2008-01-01
The objective of this document is to define general guidelines which must be followed during the stages of search for a site and stages of design of a storage facility for low activity-long life radioactive wastes, in order to ensure its safety after closure. After having specified the considered wastes, geological shapes, and situations, this document defines the fundamental objective and the associated criteria (protection against chemical risk, radioprotection). It presents the design aspects related to safety (safety principles and functions, waste packages, public works engineering, geological environment, storage concepts). The last part deals with the safety demonstration after site closure which includes the control of some components, the assessment of disturbances in the storage facility or due to its presence, the taking of uncertainty and sensitivity studies into account, the influence of natural events
Generalized complex geometry, generalized branes and the Hitchin sigma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zucchini, Roberto
2005-01-01
Hitchin's generalized complex geometry has been shown to be relevant in compactifications of superstring theory with fluxes and is expected to lead to a deeper understanding of mirror symmetry. Gualtieri's notion of generalized complex submanifold seems to be a natural candidate for the description of branes in this context. Recently, we introduced a Batalin-Vilkovisky field theoretic realization of generalized complex geometry, the Hitchin sigma model, extending the well known Poisson sigma model. In this paper, exploiting Gualtieri's formalism, we incorporate branes into the model. A detailed study of the boundary conditions obeyed by the world sheet fields is provided. Finally, it is found that, when branes are present, the classical Batalin-Vilkovisky cohomology contains an extra sector that is related non trivially to a novel cohomology associated with the branes as generalized complex submanifolds. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Riis, Allan; Jensen, Cathrine Elgaard; Bro, Flemming
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND: Guidelines are often slowly adapted into clinical practice. However, actively supporting healthcare professionals in evidence-based treatment may speed up guideline implementation. Danish low back pain (LBP) guidelines focus on primary care treatment of LBP, to reduce referrals from p...
General introduction to simulation models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette
2012-01-01
trials. However, if simulation models would be used, good quality input data must be available. To model FMD, several disease spread models are available. For this project, we chose three simulation model; Davis Animal Disease Spread (DADS), that has been upgraded to DTU-DADS, InterSpread Plus (ISP......Monte Carlo simulation can be defined as a representation of real life systems to gain insight into their functions and to investigate the effects of alternative conditions or actions on the modeled system. Models are a simplification of a system. Most often, it is best to use experiments and field...... trials to investigate the effect of alternative conditions or actions on a specific system. Nonetheless, field trials are expensive and sometimes not possible to conduct, as in case of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Instead, simulation models can be a good and cheap substitute for experiments and field...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-01-01
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425, referred to in this document as the Act) assigned to the US Department of Energy (DOE) the authority for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Among other provisions, the Act specifies a process and schedule for the siting of two geologic repositories for this purpose. The Act requires that the DOE issue general guidelines for the recommendation of sites for repositories. The guidelines are to be developed in consultation with three Federal agencies (the Council on Environmental Quality, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Geological Survey) and with interested Governors and issued with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To meet this directive, the DOE convened a task force of program experts to develop proposed guidelines, issued the proposed guidelines on February 7, 1983, and invited comments from the specified Federal agencies, interested Governors, and the general public. Public hearings on the proposed guidelines were held in March at the following locations: Chicago, New Orleans, Washington, DC, Salt Lake City, and Seattle. After considering the resulting comments and preparing responses to them, the task force prepared a draft of this comment-response document and a set of alternative guidelines; these documents were issued on May 27, 1983. This document summarizes the record of comments that directly led to the alternative guidelines of May 27, 1983. It contains synopses of comments, presents the responses of the task force to the comments, and briefly describes how the proposed guidelines of February 7, 1983, were revised to produce the alternative guidelines of May 27, 1983. 13 references
Multivariate generalized linear mixed models using R
Berridge, Damon Mark
2011-01-01
Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Models Using R presents robust and methodologically sound models for analyzing large and complex data sets, enabling readers to answer increasingly complex research questions. The book applies the principles of modeling to longitudinal data from panel and related studies via the Sabre software package in R. A Unified Framework for a Broad Class of Models The authors first discuss members of the family of generalized linear models, gradually adding complexity to the modeling framework by incorporating random effects. After reviewing the generalized linear model notation, they illustrate a range of random effects models, including three-level, multivariate, endpoint, event history, and state dependence models. They estimate the multivariate generalized linear mixed models (MGLMMs) using either standard or adaptive Gaussian quadrature. The authors also compare two-level fixed and random effects linear models. The appendices contain additional information on quadrature, model...
Generalized latent variable modeling multilevel, longitudinal, and structural equation models
Skrondal, Anders; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia
2004-01-01
This book unifies and extends latent variable models, including multilevel or generalized linear mixed models, longitudinal or panel models, item response or factor models, latent class or finite mixture models, and structural equation models.
General Pressurization Model in Simscape
Servin, Mario; Garcia, Vicky
2010-01-01
System integration is an essential part of the engineering design process. The Ares I Upper Stage (US) is a complex system which is made up of thousands of components assembled into subsystems including a J2-X engine, liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) tanks, avionics, thrust vector control, motors, etc. System integration is the task of connecting together all of the subsystems into one large system. To ensure that all the components will "fit together" as well as safety and, quality, integration analysis is required. Integration analysis verifies that, as an integrated system, the system will behave as designed. Models that represent the actual subsystems are built for more comprehensive analysis. Matlab has been an instrument widely use by engineers to construct mathematical models of systems. Simulink, one of the tools offered by Matlab, provides multi-domain graphical environment to simulate and design time-varying systems. Simulink is a powerful tool to analyze the dynamic behavior of systems over time. Furthermore, Simscape, a tool provided by Simulink, allows users to model physical (such as mechanical, thermal and hydraulic) systems using physical networks. Using Simscape, a model representing an inflow of gas to a pressurized tank was created where the temperature and pressure of the tank are measured over time to show the behavior of the gas. By further incorporation of Simscape into model building, the full potential of this software can be discovered and it hopefully can become a more utilized tool.
Process generalization in conceptual models
Wieringa, Roelf J.
In conceptual modeling, the universe of discourse (UoD) is divided into classes which have a taxonomic structure. The classes are usually defined in terms of attributes (all objects in a class share attribute names) and possibly of events. For enmple, the class of employees is the set of objects to
Vector models and generalized SYK models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peng, Cheng [Department of Physics, Brown University,Providence RI 02912 (United States)
2017-05-23
We consider the relation between SYK-like models and vector models by studying a toy model where a tensor field is coupled with a vector field. By integrating out the tensor field, the toy model reduces to the Gross-Neveu model in 1 dimension. On the other hand, a certain perturbation can be turned on and the toy model flows to an SYK-like model at low energy. A chaotic-nonchaotic phase transition occurs as the sign of the perturbation is altered. We further study similar models that possess chaos and enhanced reparameterization symmetries.
Modelling guidelines for core exit temperature simulations with system codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freixa, J., E-mail: jordi.freixa-terradas@upc.edu [Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) (Spain); Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Martínez-Quiroga, V., E-mail: victor.martinez@nortuen.com [Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) (Spain); Zerkak, O., E-mail: omar.zerkak@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Reventós, F., E-mail: francesc.reventos@upc.edu [Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) (Spain)
2015-05-15
Highlights: • Core exit temperature is used in PWRs as an indication of core heat up. • Modelling guidelines of CET response with system codes. • Modelling of heat transfer processes in the core and UP regions. - Abstract: Core exit temperature (CET) measurements play an important role in the sequence of actions under accidental conditions in pressurized water reactors (PWR). Given the difficulties in placing measurements in the core region, CET readings are used as criterion for the initiation of accident management (AM) procedures because they can indicate a core heat up scenario. However, the CET responses have some limitation in detecting inadequate core cooling and core uncovery simply because the measurement is not placed inside the core. Therefore, it is of main importance in the field of nuclear safety for PWR power plants to assess the capabilities of system codes for simulating the relation between the CET and the peak cladding temperature (PCT). The work presented in this paper intends to address this open question by making use of experimental work at integral test facilities (ITF) where experiments related to the evolution of the CET and the PCT during transient conditions have been carried out. In particular, simulations of two experiments performed at the ROSA/LSTF and PKL facilities are presented. The two experiments are part of a counterpart exercise between the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 and OECD/NEA PKL-2 projects. The simulations are used to derive guidelines in how to correctly reproduce the CET response during a core heat up scenario. Three aspects have been identified to be of main importance: (1) the need for a 3-dimensional representation of the core and Upper Plenum (UP) regions in order to model the heterogeneity of the power zones and axial areas, (2) the detailed representation of the active and passive heat structures, and (3) the use of simulated thermocouples instead of steam temperatures to represent the CET readings.
Testing the generalized partial credit model
Glas, Cornelis A.W.
1996-01-01
The partial credit model (PCM) (G.N. Masters, 1982) can be viewed as a generalization of the Rasch model for dichotomous items to the case of polytomous items. In many cases, the PCM is too restrictive to fit the data. Several generalizations of the PCM have been proposed. In this paper, a generalization of the PCM (GPCM), a further generalization of the one-parameter logistic model, is discussed. The model is defined and the conditional maximum likelihood procedure for the method is describe...
Actuarial statistics with generalized linear mixed models
Antonio, K.; Beirlant, J.
2007-01-01
Over the last decade the use of generalized linear models (GLMs) in actuarial statistics has received a lot of attention, starting from the actuarial illustrations in the standard text by McCullagh and Nelder [McCullagh, P., Nelder, J.A., 1989. Generalized linear models. In: Monographs on Statistics
Testing the generalized partial credit model
Glas, Cornelis A.W.
1996-01-01
The partial credit model (PCM) (G.N. Masters, 1982) can be viewed as a generalization of the Rasch model for dichotomous items to the case of polytomous items. In many cases, the PCM is too restrictive to fit the data. Several generalizations of the PCM have been proposed. In this paper, a
Rosemann, T; Joos, S; Szecsenyi, J
2008-01-01
In most countries, guidelines for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) are available. However, in Germany, no guideline for the primary care sector is available. The care provider of most patients is the general practitioner (GP). The aim of the study was to investigate the approaches in diagnosing and treating OA of German GPs and to assess adherence to international guidelines. Cross-sectional study using a structured questionnaire with a random sample of 144 GPs. Regarding diagnosis, the importance of X-rays was overestimated. Regarding treatment approaches, exercising and weight reduction were regarded as primary treatment targets. Pharmacological treatment approaches were somewhat guideline oriented, but conservative approaches such as physical therapy were overestimated as invasive treatments such as intra-articular injections were underestimated in its benefit. Establishing a guideline specifically for primary care and increasing guideline adherence could help to prevent the present overuse of X-rays and the high amount of referrals to orthopaedics, save costs and reduce inadequate treatments.
Medford, Andrew Rl; Pepperell, Justin Ct
2007-10-01
In 1993, the British Thoracic Society (BTS) issued guidelines for the management of spontaneous pneumothorax (SP). These were refined in 2003. To determine adherence to the 2003 BTS SP guidelines in a district general hospital. An initial retrospective audit of 52 episodes of acute SP was performed. Subsequent intervention involved a junior doctor educational update on both the 2003 BTS guidelines and the initial audit results, and the setting up of an online guideline hyperlink. After the educational intervention a further prospective re-audit of 28 SP episodes was performed. Management of SP deviated considerably from the 2003 BTS guidelines in the initial audit - deviation rate 26.9%. After the intervention, a number of clinical management deviations persisted (32.1% deviation rate); these included failure to insert a chest drain despite unsuccessful aspiration, and attempting aspiration of symptomatic secondary SPs. Specific tools to improve standards might include a pneumothorax proforma to improve record keeping and a pneumothorax care pathway to reduce management deviations compared to BTS guidelines. Successful change also requires identification of the total target audience for any educational intervention.
Proliferation Risk Characterization Model Prototype Model - User and Programmer Guidelines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dukelow, J.S.; Whitford, D.
1998-12-01
A model for the estimation of the risk of diversion of weapons-capable materials was developed. It represents both the threat of diversion and site vulnerability as a product of a small number of variables (two to eight), each of which can take on a small number (two to four) of qualitatively defined (but quantitatively implemented) values. The values of the overall threat and vulnerability variables are then converted to threat and vulnerability categories. The threat and vulnerability categories are used to define the likelihood of diversion, also defined categorically. The evaluator supplies an estimate of the consequences of a diversion, defined categorically, but with the categories based on the IAEA Attractiveness levels. Likelihood and Consequences categories are used to define the Risk, also defined categorically. The threat, vulnerability, and consequences input provided by the evaluator contains a representation of his/her uncertainty in each variable assignment which is propagated all the way through to the calculation of the Risk categories. [Appendix G available on diskette only.
Micro Data and General Equilibrium Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Peter; Heckman, James J.
1999-01-01
Dynamic general equilibrium models are required to evaluate policies applied at the national level. To use these models to make quantitative forecasts requires knowledge of an extensive array of parameter values for the economy at large. This essay describes the parameters required for different...... economic models, assesses the discordance between the macromodels used in policy evaluation and the microeconomic models used to generate the empirical evidence. For concreteness, we focus on two general equilibrium models: the stochastic growth model extended to include some forms of heterogeneity...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neudecker, Denise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gray, Mark Girard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McCartney, Austin Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parsons, Donald Kent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); White, Morgan Curtis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-04-12
This memo contains general guidelines on what documentation and tools need to be in place as well as format and data testing requirements such that evaluated nuclear data sets or entire libraries can be adopted by the nuclear data team. Additional requirements beyond this memo might apply for specific nuclear data observables. These guidelines were established based on discussions between J.L. Conlin, M.G. Gray, A.P. McCartney, D. Neudecker, D.K. Parsons and M.C. White.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Speriusi-Vlad Alin
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Today, the intellectual property protection is no longer an absolute social and legal that justifies adoption of any measures necessary to protect it. Initially seen as the prerequisite for sustainable development, implementation of new technologies, and encouragement of international trade, the intellectual property, especially prior to ACTA (Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement international trial implementation, and also thereafter, was increasingly identified as a source of violation of fundamental rights and civil liberties, i.e. the right to protection of personal data, the right to privacy, freedom to send and receive information freedom of information, freedom to contract, and freedom to carry out economic activities (freedom of commerce. As far as international trade transactions have often a component of intellectual property that requires to be protected, it is necessary to identify the landmarks, the rules establishing de facto limits in order to protect the intellectual property without risk of infringement of fundamental rights and civil liberties of other persons, in particular users or potential users of goods and services incorporating intellectual property. The best guidelines in this regard may be provided by the CJEU (Court of Justice of the European Union case-law both due to its reasoning underlying the decision of the Parliament to reject ACTA ratification and the fact that the case-law of this Court, especially the most recent one, is highly complex and nuanced, not denying in any way the importance of intellectual property, and identifying certain cases where their primacy persist and whose analysis leads to laying down some general rules in the field.
International common-cause failure data exchange. ICDE general coding guidelines - Technical note
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johanson, Gunnar; Werner, Wolfgang; Concepcion Capote, Marina; Kreuser, Albert; Rasmuson, Dale; Jonsson, Esther; Pereira Pagan, Begona; Tirira, Jorge; Morris, Ian; Morales, Rosa; Oxberry, Anna; Kreuser, Albert
2004-01-01
Several Member countries of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) have established the International Common-Cause Failure Data Exchange Project (ICDE Project) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data relating to Common-Cause Failure (CCF) events. The objectives of the ICDE Project are to: a) Collect and analyse CCF events over the long term so as to better understand such events, their causes, and their prevention; b) Generate qualitative insights into the root causes of CCF events which can then be used to derive approaches or mechanisms for their prevention or for mitigating their consequences; c) Establish a mechanism for the efficient feedback of experience gained in connection with CCF phenomena, including the development of defences against their occurrence, such as indicators for risk based inspections; and d) Record event attributes to facilitate quantification of CCF frequencies when so decided by the Project Working Group. The ICDE Project is envisaged to comprise all possible events of interest, including both complete and partial ICDE events. The ICDE Project will cover the key components of the main safety systems. Presently, the components listed below are included in the ICDE Project. Data have been collected for the six first components in the list: Centrifugal pumps, Diesel generators, Motor operated valves, Safety relief valves/power operated relief valves, Check valves, Batteries, Level measurement, Breakers, Control rod drive assemblies. Others will be added to this list later on. In this component coding guidelines, explanations on the ICDE General coding format are given. The guide reflects present experience with the data format and with the collected data. Further interpretations and clarifications will be added, should they become necessary. For each component analysed in the ICDE project, separate coding guidance is provided in the appendices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johanson, Gunnar; Werner, Wolfgang; Capote, Marina Concepcion; Kreuser, Albert
2012-01-01
Several OECD/NEA member countries have established the International Common-Cause Failure Data Exchange Project ('ICDE Project') to encourage multilateral cooperation in the collection and analysis of data relating to Common-Cause Failure (CCF) events. The objectives of the ICDE Project are to: a) Collect and analyse CCF events over the long term so as to better understand such events, their causes, and their prevention. b) Generate qualitative insights into the root causes of CCF events which can then be used to derive approaches or mechanisms for their prevention or for mitigating their consequences. c) Establish a mechanism for the efficient feedback of experience gained in connection with CCF phenomena, including the development of defenses against their occurrence, such as indicators for risk based inspections. d) Record event attributes to facilitate quantification of CCF frequencies when so decided by the Project Working Group. The ICDE Project is envisaged to comprise all possible events of interest, including both complete and partial ICDE events. The ICDE Project will cover the key components of the main safety systems. Presently, the components listed below are included in the ICDE Project. Data have been collected for the six first components in the list: Centrifugal pumps, Diesel generators, Motor operated valves, Safety relief valves/power operated relief valves, Check valves, Batteries, Level measurement, Breakers, Control rod drive assemblies. Others will be added to this list later on. In this component coding guidelines, explanations on the ICDE general coding format are given. The guide reflects present experience with the data format and with the collected data. Further interpretations and clarifications will be added, should they become necessary. For each component analysed in the ICDE project, separate coding guidance is provided in the appendices ICDECG 01-06, specifying details relevant to the respective components
A general consumer-resource population model
Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M.
2015-01-01
Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knafla, A.L.; Carey, J.
2009-01-01
Chloroform exposure was first identified in showers. Shower exposures were then examined for other volatile substances. This presentation discussed the development of a shower exposure model for benzene and included background work for potential recommended updates to the recently derived drinking water guidelines. Specifically, the presentation addressed the relevance for oil and gas sites and the influence on the drinking water guideline. Issues and limitation with Health Canada's Khrisnan model were identified. The advantages of an alternate model development were also presented. Model structure was examined with particular reference to how model exposures are modelled and the risk associated with taking showers with impacted water. Two general types of models were discussed, notably the simple model used to estimate exposures and the integrated physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model. The relevance of the drinking water guideline revision to the petroleum industry was addressed. It was concluded that future water quality guidelines will likely incorporate shower exposures. tabs., figs.
A Generalized Random Regret Minimization Model
Chorus, C.G.
2013-01-01
This paper presents, discusses and tests a generalized Random Regret Minimization (G-RRM) model. The G-RRM model is created by replacing a fixed constant in the attribute-specific regret functions of the RRM model, by a regret-weight variable. Depending on the value of the regret-weights, the G-RRM
EOP MIT General Circulation Model (MITgcm)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains a regional implementation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) at a 1-km spatial resolution for the...
Generalized Reduced Order Model Generation, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes to develop a generalized reduced order model generation method. This method will allow for creation of reduced order aeroservoelastic state...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harris Mark F
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are significant gaps in the implementation and uptake of evidence-based guideline recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes in Australian general practice. This study protocol describes the methodology for a cluster randomised trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a model that aims to improve the implementation of these guidelines in Australian general practice developed by a collaboration between researchers, non-government organisations, and the profession. Methods We hypothesise that the intervention will alter the behaviour of clinicians and patients resulting in improvements of recording of lifestyle and physiological risk factors (by 20% and increased adherence to guideline recommendations for: the management of CVD and diabetes risk factors (by 20%; and lifestyle and physiological risk factors of patients at risk (by 5%. Thirty-two general practices will be randomised in a 1:1 allocation to receive either the intervention or continue with usual care, after stratification by state. The intervention will be delivered through: small group education; audit of patient records to determine preventive care; and practice facilitation visits adapted to the needs of the practices. Outcome data will be extracted from electronic medical records and patient questionnaires, and qualitative evaluation from provider and patient interviews. Discussion We plan to disseminate study findings widely and directly inform implementation strategies by governments, professional bodies, and non-government organisations including the partner organisations.
Foundations of linear and generalized linear models
Agresti, Alan
2015-01-01
A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,
Lord, J; Willis, S; Eatock, J; Tappenden, P; Trapero-Bertran, M; Miners, A; Crossan, C; Westby, M; Anagnostou, A; Taylor, S; Mavranezouli, I; Wonderling, D; Alderson, P; Ruiz, F
2013-12-01
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) clinical guidelines (CGs) make recommendations across large, complex care pathways for broad groups of patients. They rely on cost-effectiveness evidence from the literature and from new analyses for selected high-priority topics. An alternative approach would be to build a model of the full care pathway and to use this as a platform to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of multiple topics across the guideline recommendations. In this project we aimed to test the feasibility of building full guideline models for NICE guidelines and to assess if, and how, such models can be used as a basis for cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). A 'best evidence' approach was used to inform the model parameters. Data were drawn from the guideline documentation, advice from clinical experts and rapid literature reviews on selected topics. Where possible we relied on good-quality, recent UK systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Two published NICE guidelines were used as case studies: prostate cancer and atrial fibrillation (AF). Discrete event simulation (DES) was used to model the recommended care pathways and to estimate consequent costs and outcomes. For each guideline, researchers not involved in model development collated a shortlist of topics suggested for updating. The modelling teams then attempted to evaluate options related to these topics. Cost-effectiveness results were compared with opinions about the importance of the topics elicited in a survey of stakeholders. The modelling teams developed simulations of the guideline pathways and disease processes. Development took longer and required more analytical time than anticipated. Estimates of cost-effectiveness were produced for six of the nine prostate cancer topics considered, and for five of eight AF topics. The other topics were not evaluated owing to lack of data or time constraints. The modelled results suggested 'economic priorities' for an update that differed from
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Flynn, E
2012-03-01
ABPM is an invaluable clinical tool, as it has been shown to improve blood pressure control in primary care. Many clinical guidelines for hypertension advocate ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. This study aims to quantify the use of clinical guidelines for hypertension and to explore the role of ABPM in Primary Care. A questionnaire survey was sent to GPs working in the West of Ireland. 88% (n=139) of GPs use clinical guidelines that recommend the use of ABPM. 82% (n=130) of GPs find use of clinic blood pressure monitoring insufficient for the diagnosis and monitoring of hypertension. Despite good access to ABPM, GPs report lack of remuneration, 72% (n=116), cost 68% (n=108), and lack of time, 51% (n=83) as the main limiting factors to use of ABPM. GPs recognise the clinical value of ABPM, but this study identifies definite barriers to the use of ABPM in Primary Care.
Simple implementation of general dark energy models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bloomfield, Jolyon K.; Pearson, Jonathan A.
2014-01-01
We present a formalism for the numerical implementation of general theories of dark energy, combining the computational simplicity of the equation of state for perturbations approach with the generality of the effective field theory approach. An effective fluid description is employed, based on a general action describing single-scalar field models. The formalism is developed from first principles, and constructed keeping the goal of a simple implementation into CAMB in mind. Benefits of this approach include its straightforward implementation, the generality of the underlying theory, the fact that the evolved variables are physical quantities, and that model-independent phenomenological descriptions may be straightforwardly investigated. We hope this formulation will provide a powerful tool for the comparison of theoretical models of dark energy with observational data
Marres, H.A.M.
2008-01-01
In this comment, the practice guideline 'Sore throat' (second revision) is discussed. This guideline, composed by the Dutch College of General Practitioners, offers general practitioners a well-appreciated overview of the common practices regarding diagnostic tests and treatment of pharyngitis and
Generalization of the quark rearrangement model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fields, T.; Chen, C.K.
1976-01-01
An extension and generalization of the quark rearrangement model of baryon annihilation is described which can be applied to all annihilation reactions and which incorporates some of the features of the highly successful quark parton model. Some p anti-p interactions are discussed
Geometrical efficiency in computerized tomography: generalized model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, P.R.; Robilotta, C.C.
1992-01-01
A simplified model for producing sensitivity and exposure profiles in computerized tomographic system was recently developed allowing the forecast of profiles behaviour in the rotation center of the system. The generalization of this model for some point of the image plane was described, and the geometrical efficiency could be evaluated. (C.G.C.)
2012-05-10
... Guidelines, Applications and Reporting Forms AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services, National.... SUMMARY: The Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), as part of its continuing effort to reduce... proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency...
Moderation in the Certificates of General Education for Adults. Guidelines for Providers.
Council of Adult Education, Melbourne (Australia).
This document provides guidelines for the process of moderation and verification of assessments for educators involved in adult education. As used in the education establishment in Australia, "moderation" is the process of ensuring the standardization of assessment. Through the moderation process, assessment procedures conducted in a…
Guidelines for a graph-theoretic implementation of structural equation modeling
Grace, James B.; Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Little, Amanda M.; Mitchell, Brian R.; Miller, Kathryn M.; Schweiger, E. William
2012-01-01
Structural equation modeling (SEM) is increasingly being chosen by researchers as a framework for gaining scientific insights from the quantitative analyses of data. New ideas and methods emerging from the study of causality, influences from the field of graphical modeling, and advances in statistics are expanding the rigor, capability, and even purpose of SEM. Guidelines for implementing the expanded capabilities of SEM are currently lacking. In this paper we describe new developments in SEM that we believe constitute a third-generation of the methodology. Most characteristic of this new approach is the generalization of the structural equation model as a causal graph. In this generalization, analyses are based on graph theoretic principles rather than analyses of matrices. Also, new devices such as metamodels and causal diagrams, as well as an increased emphasis on queries and probabilistic reasoning, are now included. Estimation under a graph theory framework permits the use of Bayesian or likelihood methods. The guidelines presented start from a declaration of the goals of the analysis. We then discuss how theory frames the modeling process, requirements for causal interpretation, model specification choices, selection of estimation method, model evaluation options, and use of queries, both to summarize retrospective results and for prospective analyses. The illustrative example presented involves monitoring data from wetlands on Mount Desert Island, home of Acadia National Park. Our presentation walks through the decision process involved in developing and evaluating models, as well as drawing inferences from the resulting prediction equations. In addition to evaluating hypotheses about the connections between human activities and biotic responses, we illustrate how the structural equation (SE) model can be queried to understand how interventions might take advantage of an environmental threshold to limit Typha invasions. The guidelines presented provide for
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haftu Hailu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop an integrated literature based TPM, TPS and TQM mod-el through PDCA cycle, and implementation guideline for the implementation of the model. At this time very few studies are available on this research area, even this research on integrated model of TPM, TPS and TQM practices, and implementation guideline are not corresponding. The method-ology to develop the model and the implementation guideline is based on identifying the uniqueness and common practices of TPM, TPS and TQM systems, existing practice of the integration and implementation guideline, identifying the existing gaps on the model and implementation guideline, developing new integrated TPM, TPS and TQM practice model, and implementation guideline. Previous very few studies of uniqueness, common practices and implementation guideline of the three systems are preserved. The findings of this research, an integrated cutting-edge model of TPM, TPS and TQM practices and implementation guidelines are developed. The originality / value of the developed model and implementation guideline enable manufacturing industries continuously to be competitive and profitable.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1983-01-01
In accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Pub. L. 97-425), hereinafter referred to as the Act, the Department of Energy is proposing general guidelines for the recommendation of sites for repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in geologic formations. These guidelines are based on the criteria that the Department has used in its National Waste Terminal Storage program, the criteria proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the environmental standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency. These guidelines establish the performance requirements for a geologic repository system, specify how the Department will implement its site-selection program, and define the technical qualifications that candidate sites must meet in the various steps of the site-selection process mandated by the Act. After considering comments from the public; consulting with the Council on Environmental Quality, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Director of the Geological Survey, and interested Governors; and obtaining NRC concurrence, the Department will issue these guidelines in final form as a new Part 960 to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 960)
Topics in the generalized vector dominance model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chavin, S.
1976-01-01
Two topics are covered in the generalized vector dominance model. In the first topic a model is constructed for dilepton production in hadron-hadron interactions based on the idea of generalized vector-dominance. It is argued that in the high mass region the generalized vector-dominance model and the Drell-Yan parton model are alternative descriptions of the same underlying physics. In the low mass regions the models differ; the vector-dominance approach predicts a greater production of dileptons. It is found that the high mass vector mesons which are the hallmark of the generalized vector-dominance model make little contribution to the large yield of leptons observed in the transverse-momentum range 1 less than p/sub perpendicular/ less than 6 GeV. The recently measured hadronic parameters lead one to believe that detailed fits to the data are possible under the model. The possibility was expected, and illustrated with a simple model the extreme sensitivity of the large-p/sub perpendicular/ lepton yield to the large-transverse-momentum tail of vector-meson production. The second topic is an attempt to explain the mysterious phenomenon of photon shadowing in nuclei utilizing the contribution of the longitudinally polarized photon. It is argued that if the scalar photon anti-shadows, it could compensate for the transverse photon, which is presumed to shadow. It is found in a very simple model that the scalar photon could indeed anti-shadow. The principal feature of the model is a cancellation of amplitudes. The scheme is consistent with scalar photon-nucleon data as well. The idea is tested with two simple GVDM models and finds that the anti-shadowing contribution of the scalar photon is not sufficient to compensate for the contribution of the transverse photon. It is found doubtful that the scalar photon makes a significant contribution to the total photon-nuclear cross section
Generalized Born Models of Macromolecular Solvation Effects
Bashford, Donald; Case, David A.
2000-10-01
It would often be useful in computer simulations to use a simple description of solvation effects, instead of explicitly representing the individual solvent molecules. Continuum dielectric models often work well in describing the thermodynamic aspects of aqueous solvation, and approximations to such models that avoid the need to solve the Poisson equation are attractive because of their computational efficiency. Here we give an overview of one such approximation, the generalized Born model, which is simple and fast enough to be used for molecular dynamics simulations of proteins and nucleic acids. We discuss its strengths and weaknesses, both for its fidelity to the underlying continuum model and for its ability to replace explicit consideration of solvent molecules in macromolecular simulations. We focus particularly on versions of the generalized Born model that have a pair-wise analytical form, and therefore fit most naturally into conventional molecular mechanics calculations.
Direct mail improves knowledge of basic life support guidelines in general practice
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Secher, Niels; Mikkelsen, Mette Marie; Adelborg, Kasper
2012-01-01
Dette studie viste, at ved at fremsende vejledning i basal genoplivning direkte til alment praktiserende læger var det muligt at øge lægernes viden om dette område samt implementere de nye guidelines på området. Enhver praktiserende læge er til stadighed i kontakt med personer, der potentielt kan...
Crash data modeling with a generalized estimator.
Ye, Zhirui; Xu, Yueru; Lord, Dominique
2018-05-11
The investigation of relationships between traffic crashes and relevant factors is important in traffic safety management. Various methods have been developed for modeling crash data. In real world scenarios, crash data often display the characteristics of over-dispersion. However, on occasions, some crash datasets have exhibited under-dispersion, especially in cases where the data are conditioned upon the mean. The commonly used models (such as the Poisson and the NB regression models) have associated limitations to cope with various degrees of dispersion. In light of this, a generalized event count (GEC) model, which can be generally used to handle over-, equi-, and under-dispersed data, is proposed in this study. This model was first applied to case studies using data from Toronto, characterized by over-dispersion, and then to crash data from railway-highway crossings in Korea, characterized with under-dispersion. The results from the GEC model were compared with those from the Negative binomial and the hyper-Poisson models. The cases studies show that the proposed model provides good performance for crash data characterized with over- and under-dispersion. Moreover, the proposed model simplifies the modeling process and the prediction of crash data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Generalized formal model of Big Data
Shakhovska, N.; Veres, O.; Hirnyak, M.
2016-01-01
This article dwells on the basic characteristic features of the Big Data technologies. It is analyzed the existing definition of the “big data” term. The article proposes and describes the elements of the generalized formal model of big data. It is analyzed the peculiarities of the application of the proposed model components. It is described the fundamental differences between Big Data technology and business analytics. Big Data is supported by the distributed file system Google File System ...
A new General Lorentz Transformation model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novakovic, Branko; Novakovic, Alen; Novakovic, Dario
2000-01-01
A new general structure of Lorentz Transformations, in the form of General Lorentz Transformation model (GLT-model), has been derived. This structure includes both Lorentz-Einstein and Galilean Transformations as its particular (special) realizations. Since the free parameters of GLT-model have been identified in a gravitational field, GLT-model can be employed both in Special and General Relativity. Consequently, the possibilities of an unification of Einstein's Special and General Theories of Relativity, as well as an unification of electromagnetic and gravitational fields are opened. If GLT-model is correct then there exist four new observation phenomena (a length and time neutrality, and a length dilation and a time contraction). Besides, the well-known phenomena (a length contraction, and a time dilation) are also the constituents of GLT-model. It means that there is a symmetry in GLT-model, where the center of this symmetry is represented by a length and a time neutrality. A time and a length neutrality in a gravitational field can be realized if the velocity of a moving system is equal to the free fall velocity. A time and a length neutrality include an observation of a particle mass neutrality. A special consideration has been devoted to a correlation between GLT-model and a limitation on particle velocities in order to investigate the possibility of a travel time reduction. It is found out that an observation of a particle speed faster then c=299 792 458 m/s, is possible in a gravitational field, if certain conditions are fulfilled
Generalizations of the noisy-or model
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vomlel, Jiří
2015-01-01
Roč. 51, č. 3 (2015), s. 508-524 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Bayesian networks * noisy-or model * classification * generalized linear models Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.628, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/vomlel-0447357.pdf
Adaptive Inference on General Graphical Models
Acar, Umut A.; Ihler, Alexander T.; Mettu, Ramgopal; Sumer, Ozgur
2012-01-01
Many algorithms and applications involve repeatedly solving variations of the same inference problem; for example we may want to introduce new evidence to the model or perform updates to conditional dependencies. The goal of adaptive inference is to take advantage of what is preserved in the model and perform inference more rapidly than from scratch. In this paper, we describe techniques for adaptive inference on general graphs that support marginal computation and updates to the conditional ...
Riis, Allan; Jensen, Cathrine Elgaard; Bro, Flemming; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Petersen, Karin Dam; Bendtsen, Mette Dahl; Jensen, Martin Bach
2016-10-21
Guidelines are often slowly adapted into clinical practice. However, actively supporting healthcare professionals in evidence-based treatment may speed up guideline implementation. Danish low back pain (LBP) guidelines focus on primary care treatment of LBP, to reduce referrals from primary care to secondary care. The primary aim of this project was to reduce secondary care referral within 12 weeks by a multifaceted implementation strategy (MuIS). In a cluster randomised design, 189 general practices from the North Denmark Region were invited to participate. Practices were randomised (1:1) and stratified by practice size to MuIS (28 practices) or a passive implementation strategy (PaIS; 32 practices). Included were patients with LBP aged 18 to 65 years who were able to complete questionnaires, had no serious underlying pathology, and were not pregnant. We developed a MuIS including outreach visits, quality reports, and the STarT Back Tool for subgrouping patients with LBP. Both groups were offered the usual dissemination of guidelines, guideline-concordant structuring of the medical record, and a new referral opportunity for patients with psycho-social problems. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the primary and secondary outcomes pertained to the patient, and a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a healthcare sector perspective. Patients and the assessment of outcomes were blinded. Practices and caregivers delivering the interventions were not blinded. Between January 2013 and July 2014, 60 practices were included, of which 54 practices (28 MuIS, 26 PaIS) included 1101 patients (539 MuIS, 562 PaIS). Follow-up data for the primary outcome were available on 100 % of these patients. Twenty-seven patients (5.0 %) in the MuIS group were referred to secondary care vs. 59 patients (10.5 %) in the PaIS group. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 0.52 [95 % CI 0.30 to 0.90; p = 0.020]. The MuIS was cost-saving £-93.20 (£406.51 vs. £499.71 per patient
Bouma, M; van Geldrop, W J; Numans, M E; Wiersma, Tj; Goudswaard, A N
2008-12-06
The revised Dutch College of General Practitioners' practice guideline 'Viral hepatitis and other liver diseases' offers advice in the diagnosis and management of viral hepatitis A, B and C and other liver diseases. The guideline is important for general practitioners as well as specialists in internal medicine and gastroenterology. The emphasis is on the management of chronic hepatitis B en C, because the prevalence of these diseases has increased in the Netherlands and, in addition, the treatment options for chronic hepatitis have improved. Consequently, timely recognition and adequate referral of patients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C have become more important. However, many patients with a chronic liver disease have no symptoms. Therefore, the general practitioner should be aware that a patient visiting the practice with fatigue and malaise could have a liver disease if he or she belongs to a high-risk group or has had high-risk contacts. If the general practitioner repeatedly finds increased liver transaminase values during routine examination of asymptomatic patients, additional diagnostic tests should be performed. Further tests should focus on viral hepatitis as well as on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or, depending on the history-taking, liver damage due to excessive alcohol, medication or drug use.
Mung'ayi, V; Karuga, R
2010-08-01
There are emerging therapies for managing septic critically-ill patients. There is little data from the developing world on their usage. To determine the conformity rate for resuscitation and management bundles for septic patients amongst physicians in a general intensive care unit. Cross sectional observational study. The general intensive care unit, Aga Khan University Hospital,Nairobi. Admitting physicians from all specialties in the general intensive care unit. The physicians had high conformity rates of 92% and 96% for the fluid resuscitation and use of va so pressors respectively for the initial resuscitation bundle. They had moderate conformity rates for blood cultures prior to administering antibiotics (57%) and administration of antibiotics within first hour of recognition of septic shock (54%). There was high conformity rate to the glucose control policy (81%), use of protective lung strategy in acute lung injury/Acute respiratory distress syndrome, venous thromboembolism prophylaxis (100%) and stress ulcer prophylaxis (100%) in the management bundle. Conformity was moderate for use of sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxant policy (69%), continuous renal replacement therapies (54%) and low for steroid policy (35%), administration ofdrotrecogin alfa (0%) and selective digestive decontamination (15%). There is varying conformity to the international sepsis guidelines among physicians caring for patients in our general ICU. Since increased conformity would improve survival and reduce morbidity, there is need for sustained education and guideline based performance improvement.
The General Education Collaboration Model: A Model for Successful Mainstreaming.
Simpson, Richard L.; Myles, Brenda Smith
1990-01-01
The General Education Collaboration Model is designed to support general educators teaching mainstreamed disabled students, through collaboration with special educators. The model is based on flexible departmentalization, program ownership, identification and development of supportive attitudes, student assessment as a measure of program…
General Equilibrium Models: Improving the Microeconomics Classroom
Nicholson, Walter; Westhoff, Frank
2009-01-01
General equilibrium models now play important roles in many fields of economics including tax policy, environmental regulation, international trade, and economic development. The intermediate microeconomics classroom has not kept pace with these trends, however. Microeconomics textbooks primarily focus on the insights that can be drawn from the…
The generalized spherical model of ferromagnetic films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costache, G.
1977-12-01
The D→ infinity of the D-vectorial model of a ferromagnetic film with free surfaces is exactly solved. The mathematical mechanism responsible for the onset of a phase transition in the system is a generalized sticking phenomenon. It is shown that the temperature at which the sticking appears, the transition temperature of the model is monotonously increasing with increasing the number of layers of the film, contrary to what happens in the spherical model with overall constraint. Certain correlation inequalities of Griffiths type are shown to hold. (author)
Consensus-based training and assessment model for general surgery.
Szasz, P; Louridas, M; de Montbrun, S; Harris, K A; Grantcharov, T P
2016-05-01
Surgical education is becoming competency-based with the implementation of in-training milestones. Training guidelines should reflect these changes and determine the specific procedures for such milestone assessments. This study aimed to develop a consensus view regarding operative procedures and tasks considered appropriate for junior and senior trainees, and the procedures that can be used as technical milestone assessments for trainee progression in general surgery. A Delphi process was followed where questionnaires were distributed to all 17 Canadian general surgery programme directors. Items were ranked on a 5-point Likert scale, with consensus defined as Cronbach's α of at least 0·70. Items rated 4 or above on the 5-point Likert scale by 80 per cent of the programme directors were included in the models. Two Delphi rounds were completed, with 14 programme directors taking part in round one and 11 in round two. The overall consensus was high (Cronbach's α = 0·98). The training model included 101 unique procedures and tasks, 24 specific to junior trainees, 68 specific to senior trainees, and nine appropriate to all. The assessment model included four procedures. A system of operative procedures and tasks for junior- and senior-level trainees has been developed along with an assessment model for trainee progression. These can be used as milestones in competency-based assessments. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Manna, D.R.; Bruijnzeels, M.A.; Mokkink, H.G.A.; Berg, M. van den
2003-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether ethnic differences present in the scientific literature used as the basis for the Dutch College of General Practitioner's (NHG) practice guidelines were reflected in the ethnic-specific information the guidelines contained. DESIGN: Analysis of published information.
Suman, Arnela; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; van de Ven, Peter M; Slottje, Pauline; Buchbinder, Rachelle; van Tulder, Maurits W; Anema, Johannes R
2018-05-11
To improve patient care, and to reduce unnecessary referrals for diagnostic imaging and medical specialist care for low back pain, an evidence-based guideline for low back pain was developed in the Netherlands in 2010. The current study evaluated the effect of a multifaceted implementation strategy on guideline adherence among Dutch general practitioners. The implementation strategy included a multidisciplinary training, provision of educational material and an interactive website for healthcare professionals, supported by a multimedia eHealth intervention for patients with low back pain. Adherence was measured using performance indicators based on 3 months data extracted from the contacts with patients with low back pain recorded in the electronic medical records of participating general practitioners. Performance indicators were compared between two groups: a usual care group and an implementation group. Performance indicators were referrals to consultations with medical specialists, to diagnostic imaging, and to psychosocial and/or occupational physician consultations, and inquiries about psychosocial and occupational risk factors. The electronic medical records of 5130 patient contacts for LBP were analysed; 2453 patient contacts in the usual care group and 2677 patient contacts in the implementation group. Overall, rates of referral and of recorded inquiries regarding psychosocial and occupational risk factors remained low in both groups over time. The only statistically significant difference found was a reduction in the number of referrals to neurologists in the implementation group (from 100 (7%) to 50 (4%)) compared to the usual care group (from 48 (4%) to 50 (4%), (p strategy did not result in improved guideline adherence among general practitioners, and it is not recommended for widespread use. However, baseline referral rates in participating practices were already low, possibly leaving only little room for improvement. Inquiries for psychosocial and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.
1999-01-01
The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.
1999-04-01
The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandes, Axel; Overgaard, Mikkel; Plauborg, Liane
2013-01-01
with a mean age of 74.811.2 years. The mean CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scores were 1.9 +/- 1.3 and 3.5 +/- 1.8, respectively. Of the patients, 12.4% and 4.04%, respectively, were at truly low risk, with a CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score 0 (P ... proportion of patients with nonvalvular AF do not receive guideline-adherent antithrombotic treatment in primary care. MethodsWe performed a cross-sectional survey of antithrombotic treatment using data of AF patients from general practices. ResultsSixty-four general practitioners enrolled 1743 patients......) score. Applying the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score, this proportion was only 53.4%. Antiplatelet drug treatment was in adherence to the guidelines (CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score of 1) in only 31% and 12% of the patients, respectively. ConclusionsAntithrombotic treatment of AF patients is in general well...
Basedow, Martin; Runciman, William B; Lipworth, Wendy; Esterman, Adrian
2016-11-01
Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been shown to improve processes of care and health outcomes, but there is often a discrepancy between recommendations for care and clinical practice. This study sought to explore general practitioner (GP) attitudes towards CPGs, in general and specifically for osteoarthritis (OA), with the implications for translating OA care into practice. A self-administered questionnaire was conducted in January 2013 with a sample of 228 GPs in New South Wales and South Australia. Seventy-nine GPs returned questionnaires (response rate 35%). Nearly all GPs considered that CPGs support decision-making in practice (94%) and medical education (92%). Very few respondents regarded CPGs as a threat to clinical autonomy, and most recognised that individual patient circumstances must be taken into account. Shorter CPG formats were preferred over longer and more comprehensive formats, with preferences being evenly divided among respondents for short, 2-3-page summaries, flowcharts or algorithms and single page checklists. GPs considered accessibility to CPGs to be important, and electronic formats were popular. Familiarity and use of The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners OA Guideline was poor, with most respondents either not aware of it (30%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 27 - 41%), had never used it (19%; 95% CI 12 - 29%) or rarely used it (34%; 95% CI 25-45%). If CPGs are to assist with the translation of evidence into practice, they must be easily accessible and in a format that encourages use.
A General Model for Estimating Macroevolutionary Landscapes.
Boucher, Florian C; Démery, Vincent; Conti, Elena; Harmon, Luke J; Uyeda, Josef
2018-03-01
The evolution of quantitative characters over long timescales is often studied using stochastic diffusion models. The current toolbox available to students of macroevolution is however limited to two main models: Brownian motion and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, plus some of their extensions. Here, we present a very general model for inferring the dynamics of quantitative characters evolving under both random diffusion and deterministic forces of any possible shape and strength, which can accommodate interesting evolutionary scenarios like directional trends, disruptive selection, or macroevolutionary landscapes with multiple peaks. This model is based on a general partial differential equation widely used in statistical mechanics: the Fokker-Planck equation, also known in population genetics as the Kolmogorov forward equation. We thus call the model FPK, for Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov. We first explain how this model can be used to describe macroevolutionary landscapes over which quantitative traits evolve and, more importantly, we detail how it can be fitted to empirical data. Using simulations, we show that the model has good behavior both in terms of discrimination from alternative models and in terms of parameter inference. We provide R code to fit the model to empirical data using either maximum-likelihood or Bayesian estimation, and illustrate the use of this code with two empirical examples of body mass evolution in mammals. FPK should greatly expand the set of macroevolutionary scenarios that can be studied since it opens the way to estimating macroevolutionary landscapes of any conceivable shape. [Adaptation; bounds; diffusion; FPK model; macroevolution; maximum-likelihood estimation; MCMC methods; phylogenetic comparative data; selection.].
Towards a traceable clinical guidelines application. A model-driven approach.
Domínguez, E; Pérez, B; Zapata, M
2010-01-01
The goal of this research is to provide an overall framework to enable model-based development of clinical guideline-based decision support systems (GBDSSs). The automatically generated GBDSSs are aimed at providing guided support to the physician during the application of guidelines and automatically storing guideline application data for traceability purposes. The development process of a GBDSS for a guideline is based on model-driven development (MDD) techniques which allow us to carry out such a process automatically, making development more agile and saving on human resource costs. We use UML Statecharts to represent the dynamics of guidelines and, based on this model, we use a MDD-based tool chain to generate the guideline-dependent components of each GBDSS in an automatic way. In particular, as for the traceability capabilities of each GBDSS, MDD techniques are combined with database schema mappings for metadata management in order to automatically generate the GBDSS-persistent component as one of the main contributions of this paper. The complete framework has been implemented as an Eclipse plug-in named GBDSSGenerator which, starting from the statechart representing a guideline, allows the development process to be carried out automatically by only selecting different menu options the plug-in provides. We have successfully validated our overall approach by generating the GBDSS for different types of clinical guidelines, even for laboratory guidelines. The proposed framework allows the development of clinical guideline-based decision support systems in an automatic way making this process more agile and saving on human resource costs.
General Business Model Patterns for Local Energy Management Concepts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Facchinetti, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.facchinetti@hslu.ch; Sulzer, Sabine [Lucerne Competence Center for Energy Research, Lucerne University of Applied Science and Arts, Horw (Switzerland)
2016-03-03
The transition toward a more sustainable global energy system, significantly relying on renewable energies and decentralized energy systems, requires a deep reorganization of the energy sector. The way how energy services are generated, delivered, and traded is expected to be very different in the coming years. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver for the successful implementation of the energy turnaround. This work contributes to this topic by introducing a heuristic methodology easing the identification of general business model patterns best suited for Local Energy Management concepts such as Energy Hubs. A conceptual framework characterizing the Local Energy Management business model solution space is developed. Three reference business model patterns providing orientation across the defined solution space are identified, analyzed, and compared. Through a market review, a number of successfully implemented innovative business models have been analyzed and allocated within the defined solution space. The outcomes of this work offer to potential stakeholders a starting point and guidelines for the business model innovation process, as well as insights for policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management concepts.
General Business Model Patterns for Local Energy Management Concepts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Facchinetti, Emanuele; Sulzer, Sabine
2016-01-01
The transition toward a more sustainable global energy system, significantly relying on renewable energies and decentralized energy systems, requires a deep reorganization of the energy sector. The way how energy services are generated, delivered, and traded is expected to be very different in the coming years. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver for the successful implementation of the energy turnaround. This work contributes to this topic by introducing a heuristic methodology easing the identification of general business model patterns best suited for Local Energy Management concepts such as Energy Hubs. A conceptual framework characterizing the Local Energy Management business model solution space is developed. Three reference business model patterns providing orientation across the defined solution space are identified, analyzed, and compared. Through a market review, a number of successfully implemented innovative business models have been analyzed and allocated within the defined solution space. The outcomes of this work offer to potential stakeholders a starting point and guidelines for the business model innovation process, as well as insights for policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management concepts.
General regression and representation model for classification.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianjun Qian
Full Text Available Recently, the regularized coding-based classification methods (e.g. SRC and CRC show a great potential for pattern classification. However, most existing coding methods assume that the representation residuals are uncorrelated. In real-world applications, this assumption does not hold. In this paper, we take account of the correlations of the representation residuals and develop a general regression and representation model (GRR for classification. GRR not only has advantages of CRC, but also takes full use of the prior information (e.g. the correlations between representation residuals and representation coefficients and the specific information (weight matrix of image pixels to enhance the classification performance. GRR uses the generalized Tikhonov regularization and K Nearest Neighbors to learn the prior information from the training data. Meanwhile, the specific information is obtained by using an iterative algorithm to update the feature (or image pixel weights of the test sample. With the proposed model as a platform, we design two classifiers: basic general regression and representation classifier (B-GRR and robust general regression and representation classifier (R-GRR. The experimental results demonstrate the performance advantages of proposed methods over state-of-the-art algorithms.
Higher dimensional generalizations of the SYK model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berkooz, Micha [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Narayan, Prithvi [International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, Hesaraghatta,Bengaluru North, 560 089 (India); Rozali, Moshe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia,Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Simón, Joan [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, University of Edinburgh,King’s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom)
2017-01-31
We discuss a 1+1 dimensional generalization of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model. The model contains N Majorana fermions at each lattice site with a nearest-neighbour hopping term. The SYK random interaction is restricted to low momentum fermions of definite chirality within each lattice site. This gives rise to an ordinary 1+1 field theory above some energy scale and a low energy SYK-like behavior. We exhibit a class of low-pass filters which give rise to a rich variety of hyperscaling behaviour in the IR. We also discuss another set of generalizations which describes probing an SYK system with an external fermion, together with the new scaling behavior they exhibit in the IR.
Current definition and a generalized federbush model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, L.P.S.; Hagen, C.R.
1978-01-01
The Federbush model is studied, with particular attention being given to the definition of currents. Inasmuch as there is no a priori restriction of local gauge invariance, the currents in the interacting case can be defined more generally than in Q.E.D. It is found that two arbitrary parameters are thereby introduced into the theory. Lowest order perturbation calculations for the current correlation functions and the Fermion propagators indicate that the theory admits a whole class of solutions dependent upon these parameters with the closed solution of Federbush emerging as a special case. The theory is shown to be locally covariant, and a conserved energy--momentum tensor is displayed. One finds in addition that the generators of gauge transformations for the fields are conserved. Finally it is shown that the general theory yields the Federbush solution if suitable Thirring model type counterterms are added
Generalized Additive Models for Nowcasting Cloud Shading
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Brabec, Marek; Paulescu, M.; Badescu, V.
2014-01-01
Roč. 101, March (2014), s. 272-282 ISSN 0038-092X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12009 Grant - others:European Cooperation in Science and Technology(XE) COST ES1002 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : sunshine number * nowcasting * generalized additive model * Markov chain Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.469, year: 2014
A General Business Model for Marine Reserves
Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid
2013-01-01
Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192
Sinnema, H.; Terluin, B.; Wensing, M.; Volker, D.; Franx, G.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; de Lange, J.
2013-01-01
Background: The uptake of guideline recommendations in general practice can potentially be improved by designing implementation interventions that are tailored to prospectively identify barriers. However, there is insufficient evidence regarding the most effective and efficient approaches to
Sinnema, H.; Terluin, B.; Wensing, M.; Volker, D.; Franx, G.; Balkom, A. van; Lange, J.
2013-01-01
BACKGROUND: The uptake of guideline recommendations in general practice can potentially be improved by designing implementation interventions that are tailored to prospectively identify barriers. However, there is insufficient evidence regarding the most effective and efficient approaches to
A proposed general model of information behaviour.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Presents a critical description of Wilson's (1996 global model of information behaviour and proposes major modification on the basis of research into information behaviour of managers, conducted in Poland. The theoretical analysis and research results suggest that Wilson's model has certain imperfections, both in its conceptual content, and in graphical presentation. The model, for example, cannot be used to describe managers' information behaviour, since managers basically are not the end users of external from organization or computerized information services, and they acquire information mainly through various intermediaries. Therefore, the model cannot be considered as a general model, applicable to every category of information users. The proposed new model encompasses the main concepts of Wilson's model, such as: person-in-context, three categories of intervening variables (individual, social and environmental, activating mechanisms, cyclic character of information behaviours, and the adoption of a multidisciplinary approach to explain them. However, the new model introduces several changes. They include: 1. identification of 'context' with the intervening variables; 2. immersion of the chain of information behaviour in the 'context', to indicate that the context variables influence behaviour at all stages of the process (identification of needs, looking for information, processing and using it; 3. stress is put on the fact that the activating mechanisms also can occur at all stages of the information acquisition process; 4. introduction of two basic strategies of looking for information: personally and/or using various intermediaries.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nair Rosana Sommaruga Montiel
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The paper is a summary of the landscape studies developed in the framework of 'Lineamientos generales para el Plan Director del Parque Santa Teresa' (General guidelines for Santa Teresa Park Master Plan, agreement made between the Ministry of Tourism, and the Faculty of Architecture, Design And Urbanism of the University of the Republic between August 2015 and July 2016. The purpose of the Convention is to position the Santa Teresa Park as a "model park" for Uruguay, putting in value its patrimonial, landscape and Environmental characteristics, thus contributing to its tourism and sociocultural promotion. The entire project includes and combines different disciplinary studies as well as external contributions. The Research program “Landscape and Public Space” from the Institute of Design in collaboration with VIDIALAB develops the Characterization and Landscape Assessment of the Park, through studies and proposals on its landscape structures, sociocultural perceptions and the qualification of the visual landscape.
General guidelines for biomedical software development [version 1; referees: 2 approved
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis Bastiao Silva
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Most bioinformatics tools available today were not written by professional software developers, but by people that wanted to solve their own problems, using computational solutions and spending the minimum time and effort possible, since these were just the means to an end. Consequently, a vast number of software applications are currently available, hindering the task of identifying the utility and quality of each. At the same time, this situation has hindered regular adoption of these tools in clinical practice. Typically, they are not sufficiently developed to be used by most clinical researchers and practitioners. To address these issues, it is necessary to re-think how biomedical applications are built and adopt new strategies that ensure quality, efficiency, robustness, correctness and reusability of software components. We also need to engage end-users during the development process to ensure that applications fit their needs. In this review, we present a set of guidelines to support biomedical software development, with an explanation of how they can be implemented and what kind of open-source tools can be used for each specific topic.
General guidelines for biomedical software development [version 2; referees: 2 approved
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis Bastiao Silva
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Most bioinformatics tools available today were not written by professional software developers, but by people that wanted to solve their own problems, using computational solutions and spending the minimum time and effort possible, since these were just the means to an end. Consequently, a vast number of software applications are currently available, hindering the task of identifying the utility and quality of each. At the same time, this situation has hindered regular adoption of these tools in clinical practice. Typically, they are not sufficiently developed to be used by most clinical researchers and practitioners. To address these issues, it is necessary to re-think how biomedical applications are built and adopt new strategies that ensure quality, efficiency, robustness, correctness and reusability of software components. We also need to engage end-users during the development process to ensure that applications fit their needs. In this review, we present a set of guidelines to support biomedical software development, with an explanation of how they can be implemented and what kind of open-source tools can be used for each specific topic.
A generalized additive regression model for survival times
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scheike, Thomas H.
2001-01-01
Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models......Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models...
Do general practices adhere to organizational guidelines for effective cervical cancer screening?
Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Mulder, J; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P
BACKGROUND: Well-organized cervical screening has been shown to be effective in the reduction of both morbidity and mortality from cancer of the uterine cervix. In The Netherlands, the GP plays an important role in the cervical screening. The question is whether the general practices are able to
1986-02-01
espacially trte for the topics of sampling and analytical methods, statistical considerations, and the design of general water quality monitoring networks. For...and to the establishment and habitat differentiation of biological populations within reservoirs. Reservoir operatirn, esp- cially the timing...8217 % - - % properties of bottom sediments, as well as specific habitat associations of biological populations of reservoirs. Thus, such heterogeneities
Spronk, I.; Schellevis, F.G.; Korevaar, J.C.
2015-01-01
Background: The number of prostate cancer survivors requiring aftercare is rising. This places extra burden on hospital care. Therefore there are increasing appeals for greater involvement of General Practitioners (GPs) in the aftercare of prostate cancer survivors. To date, there is little
Basic Guidelines to Introduce Electric Circuit Simulation Software in a General Physics Course
Moya, A. A.
2018-01-01
The introduction of electric circuit simulation software for undergraduate students in a general physics course is proposed in order to contribute to the constructive learning of electric circuit theory. This work focuses on the lab exercises based on dc, transient and ac analysis in electric circuits found in introductory physics courses, and…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet Akif Topçuoğlu
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In this section, in the light of evidence-based data concerning essentiality that the stoke patients should be treated in A stroke unit and related centers, a brief and current information about general stroke treatment of patients with stroke during acute phase will be offered.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Dirk Keene
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Dozens of transgenic mouse models, generally based on mutations associated with familial Alzheimer's disease (AD, have been developed, in part, for preclinical testing of candidate AD therapies. However, none of these models has successfully predicted the clinical efficacy of drugs for treating AD patients. Therefore, development of more translationally relevant AD mouse models remains a critical unmet need in the field. A concept not previously implemented in AD preclinical drug testing is the use of mouse lines that have been validated for neuropathological features of human AD. Current thinking suggests that amyloid plaque and neurofibrillary tangle deposition is an essential component for accurate modeling of AD. Therefore, the AD translational paradigm would require pathologic Aβ and tau deposition, a disease-relevant distribution of plaques and tangles, and a pattern of disease progression of Aβ and tau isoforms similar to the neuropathological features found in the brains of AD patients. Additional parameters useful to evaluate parallels between AD and animal models would include 1 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF AD biomarker changes with reduced Aβ and increased phospho-tau/tau; 2 structural and functional neuroimaging patterns including MRI hippocampal atrophy, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG, and amyloid/tau PET alterations in activity and/or patterns of pathologic peptide deposition and distribution; and 3 cognitive impairment with emphasis on spatial learning and memory to distinguish presymptomatic and symptomatic mice at specific ages. A validated AD mouse model for drug testing would likely show tau-related neurofibrillary degeneration following Aβ deposition and demonstrate changes in pathology, CSF analysis, and neuroimaging that mirror human AD. Development of the ideal model would revolutionize the ability to establish the translational value of AD mouse models and serve as a platform for discussions about national phenotyping guidelines
Generalized model of the microwave auditory effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yitzhak, N M; Ruppin, R; Hareuveny, R
2009-01-01
A generalized theoretical model for evaluating the amplitudes of the sound waves generated in a spherical head model, which is irradiated by microwave pulses, is developed. The thermoelastic equation of motion is solved for a spherically symmetric heating pattern of arbitrary form. For previously treated heating patterns that are peaked at the sphere centre, the results reduce to those presented before. The generalized model is applied to the case in which the microwave absorption is concentrated near the sphere surface. It is found that, for equal average specific absorption rates, the sound intensity generated by a surface localized heating pattern is comparable to that generated by a heating pattern that is peaked at the centre. The dependence of the induced sound pressure on the shape of the microwave pulse is explored. Another theoretical extension, to the case of repeated pulses, is developed and applied to the interpretation of existing experimental data on the dependence of the human hearing effect threshold on the pulse repetition frequency.
Modelling debris flows down general channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. P. Pudasaini
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is an extension of the single-phase cohesionless dry granular avalanche model over curved and twisted channels proposed by Pudasaini and Hutter (2003. It is a generalisation of the Savage and Hutter (1989, 1991 equations based on simple channel topography to a two-phase fluid-solid mixture of debris material. Important terms emerging from the correct treatment of the kinematic and dynamic boundary condition, and the variable basal topography are systematically taken into account. For vanishing fluid contribution and torsion-free channel topography our new model equations exactly degenerate to the previous Savage-Hutter model equations while such a degeneration was not possible by the Iverson and Denlinger (2001 model, which, in fact, also aimed to extend the Savage and Hutter model. The model equations of this paper have been rigorously derived; they include the effects of the curvature and torsion of the topography, generally for arbitrarily curved and twisted channels of variable channel width. The equations are put into a standard conservative form of partial differential equations. From these one can easily infer the importance and influence of the pore-fluid-pressure distribution in debris flow dynamics. The solid-phase is modelled by applying a Coulomb dry friction law whereas the fluid phase is assumed to be an incompressible Newtonian fluid. Input parameters of the equations are the internal and bed friction angles of the solid particles, the viscosity and volume fraction of the fluid, the total mixture density and the pore pressure distribution of the fluid at the bed. Given the bed topography and initial geometry and the initial velocity profile of the debris mixture, the model equations are able to describe the dynamics of the depth profile and bed parallel depth-averaged velocity distribution from the initial position to the final deposit. A shock capturing, total variation diminishing numerical scheme is implemented to
A generalized model for compact stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aziz, Abdul [Bodai High School (H.S.), Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Rahaman, Farook [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)
2016-05-15
By virtue of the maximum entropy principle, we get an Euler-Lagrange equation which is a highly nonlinear differential equation containing the mass function and its derivatives. Solving the equation by a homotopy perturbation method we derive a generalized expression for the mass which is a polynomial function of the radial distance. Using the mass function we find a partially stable configuration and its characteristics. We show that different physical features of the known compact stars, viz. Her X-1, RX J 1856-37, SAX J (SS1), SAX J (SS2), and PSR J 1614-2230, can be explained by the present model. (orig.)
Testing Parametric versus Semiparametric Modelling in Generalized Linear Models
Härdle, W.K.; Mammen, E.; Müller, M.D.
1996-01-01
We consider a generalized partially linear model E(Y|X,T) = G{X'b + m(T)} where G is a known function, b is an unknown parameter vector, and m is an unknown function.The paper introduces a test statistic which allows to decide between a parametric and a semiparametric model: (i) m is linear, i.e.
A Model Fit Statistic for Generalized Partial Credit Model
Liang, Tie; Wells, Craig S.
2009-01-01
Investigating the fit of a parametric model is an important part of the measurement process when implementing item response theory (IRT), but research examining it is limited. A general nonparametric approach for detecting model misfit, introduced by J. Douglas and A. S. Cohen (2001), has exhibited promising results for the two-parameter logistic…
The Generalized Quantum Episodic Memory Model.
Trueblood, Jennifer S; Hemmer, Pernille
2017-11-01
Recent evidence suggests that experienced events are often mapped to too many episodic states, including those that are logically or experimentally incompatible with one another. For example, episodic over-distribution patterns show that the probability of accepting an item under different mutually exclusive conditions violates the disjunction rule. A related example, called subadditivity, occurs when the probability of accepting an item under mutually exclusive and exhaustive instruction conditions sums to a number >1. Both the over-distribution effect and subadditivity have been widely observed in item and source-memory paradigms. These phenomena are difficult to explain using standard memory frameworks, such as signal-detection theory. A dual-trace model called the over-distribution (OD) model (Brainerd & Reyna, 2008) can explain the episodic over-distribution effect, but not subadditivity. Our goal is to develop a model that can explain both effects. In this paper, we propose the Generalized Quantum Episodic Memory (GQEM) model, which extends the Quantum Episodic Memory (QEM) model developed by Brainerd, Wang, and Reyna (2013). We test GQEM by comparing it to the OD model using data from a novel item-memory experiment and a previously published source-memory experiment (Kellen, Singmann, & Klauer, 2014) examining the over-distribution effect. Using the best-fit parameters from the over-distribution experiments, we conclude by showing that the GQEM model can also account for subadditivity. Overall these results add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that quantum probability theory is a valuable tool in modeling recognition memory. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sebastiano Piccolroaz
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Water temperature plays a primary role in controlling a wide range of physical, geochemical and ecological processes in lakes, with considerable influences on lake water quality and ecosystem functioning. Being able to reliably predict water temperature is therefore a desired goal, which stimulated the development of models of different type and complexity, ranging from simple regression-based models to more sophisticated process-based numerical models. However, both types of models suffer of some limitations: the first are not able to address some fundamental physical processes as e.g., thermal stratification, while the latter generally require a large amount of data in input, which are not always available. In this work, lake surface temperature is simulated by means of air2water, a hybrid physically-based/statistical model, which is able to provide a robust, predictive understanding of LST dynamics knowing air temperature only. This model showed performances that are comparable with those obtained by using process based models (a root mean square error on the order of 1°C, at daily scale, while retaining the simplicity and parsimony of regression-based models, thus making it a good candidate for long-term applications.The aim of the present work is to provide the reader with useful and practical guidelines for proper use of the air2water model and for critical analysis of results. Two case studies have been selected for the analysis: Lake Superior and Lake Erie. These are clear and emblematic examples of a deep and a shallow temperate lake characterized by markedly different thermal responses to external forcing, thus are ideal for making the results of the analysis the most general and comprehensive. Particular attention is paid to assessing the influence of missing data on model performance, and to evaluating when an observed time series is sufficiently informative for proper model calibration or, conversely, data are too scarce thus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Allan Riis
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines are often slowly adapted into clinical practice. However, actively supporting healthcare professionals in evidence-based treatment may speed up guideline implementation. Danish low back pain (LBP guidelines focus on primary care treatment of LBP, to reduce referrals from primary care to secondary care. The primary aim of this project was to reduce secondary care referral within 12 weeks by a multifaceted implementation strategy (MuIS. Methods In a cluster randomised design, 189 general practices from the North Denmark Region were invited to participate. Practices were randomised (1:1 and stratified by practice size to MuIS (28 practices or a passive implementation strategy (PaIS; 32 practices. Included were patients with LBP aged 18 to 65 years who were able to complete questionnaires, had no serious underlying pathology, and were not pregnant. We developed a MuIS including outreach visits, quality reports, and the STarT Back Tool for subgrouping patients with LBP. Both groups were offered the usual dissemination of guidelines, guideline-concordant structuring of the medical record, and a new referral opportunity for patients with psycho-social problems. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the primary and secondary outcomes pertained to the patient, and a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a healthcare sector perspective. Patients and the assessment of outcomes were blinded. Practices and caregivers delivering the interventions were not blinded. Results Between January 2013 and July 2014, 60 practices were included, of which 54 practices (28 MuIS, 26 PaIS included 1101 patients (539 MuIS, 562 PaIS. Follow-up data for the primary outcome were available on 100 % of these patients. Twenty-seven patients (5.0 % in the MuIS group were referred to secondary care vs. 59 patients (10.5 % in the PaIS group. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR was 0.52 [95 % CI 0.30 to 0.90; p = 0.020]. The MuIS was cost
The epistemological status of general circulation models
Loehle, Craig
2018-03-01
Forecasts of both likely anthropogenic effects on climate and consequent effects on nature and society are based on large, complex software tools called general circulation models (GCMs). Forecasts generated by GCMs have been used extensively in policy decisions related to climate change. However, the relation between underlying physical theories and results produced by GCMs is unclear. In the case of GCMs, many discretizations and approximations are made, and simulating Earth system processes is far from simple and currently leads to some results with unknown energy balance implications. Statistical testing of GCM forecasts for degree of agreement with data would facilitate assessment of fitness for use. If model results need to be put on an anomaly basis due to model bias, then both visual and quantitative measures of model fit depend strongly on the reference period used for normalization, making testing problematic. Epistemology is here applied to problems of statistical inference during testing, the relationship between the underlying physics and the models, the epistemic meaning of ensemble statistics, problems of spatial and temporal scale, the existence or not of an unforced null for climate fluctuations, the meaning of existing uncertainty estimates, and other issues. Rigorous reasoning entails carefully quantifying levels of uncertainty.
Basic guidelines to introduce electric circuit simulation software in a general physics course
Moya, A. A.
2018-05-01
The introduction of electric circuit simulation software for undergraduate students in a general physics course is proposed in order to contribute to the constructive learning of electric circuit theory. This work focuses on the lab exercises based on dc, transient and ac analysis in electric circuits found in introductory physics courses, and shows how students can use the simulation software to do simple activities associated with a lab exercise itself and with related topics. By introducing electric circuit simulation programs in a general physics course as a brief activitiy complementing lab exercise, students develop basic skills in using simulation software, improve their knowledge on the topology of electric circuits and perceive that the technology contributes to their learning, all without reducing the time spent on the actual content of the course.
Peters-Klimm, F; Müller-Tasch, T; Schellberg, D; Remppis, A; Barth, A; Holzapfel, N; Jünger, J; Herzog, W; Szecsenyi, J
2008-04-01
There is robust evidence for effective pharmacotherapy of chronic (systolic) heart failure (CHF) which has led to the creation of guidelines, but many surveys evaluating CHF treatment show an under-utilisation of relevant drugs, while setting and patient population appear to be crucial for adequate appraisal of treatment patterns. To evaluate the guideline adherence (GA) of general practitioners (GPs) in a well-defined patient population with CHF in primary care (PC). A cross-sectional analysis was performed with the data of 167 patients enrolled in 37 GP practices (Germany) with documented left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVEF: 33.3 +/- 6.9%). GA was assessed as usual (prescribing "yes" or "no"), through evaluation of target dosing, while adjusting for potential clinical contraindications, and through a modified Guideline Adherence Indicator-3 (mGAI-3), which assesses three relevant groups of substances according to New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class: ACE-Inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), beta-blockers (BB) and aldosterone-antagonists (AA). Prescription rates for ACE-I/ARB, BB or both were 80%, 75% and 62%, respectively. The proportion of target doses reached for ACE-I was 16%, for BB only 8%. When adjusted for potential (mainly relative) contraindications (COPD, heart rate <60/min, hypotension, hyperkalaemia and renal dysfunction), the percentage of target doses reached increased to 49% for ACE-I/ARBs and 46% for BB. Application of the mGAI-3 showed moderate to perfect GA for usual assessment, proportion of target dose reached and adjusted in 83%, 16% and 55% of the patients, respectively. In the context of this patient and doctor setting, life-saving treatment was provided above average when assessed by usual criteria. The application of additional criteria showed further room for improvement. Future interventions aiming at optimisation should be tailored to the needs of doctors and patients likewise.
Generalized Penner models and multicritical behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan, C.
1992-01-01
In this paper, we are interested in the critical behavior of generalized Penner models at t∼-1+μ/N where the topological expansion for the free energy develops logarithmic singularities: Γ∼-(χ 0 μ 2 lnμ+χ 1 lnμ+...). We demonstrate that these criticalities can best be characterized by the fact that the large-N generating function becomes meromorphic with a single pole term of unit residue, F(z)→1/(z-a), where a is the location of the ''sink.'' For a one-band eigenvalue distribution, we identify multicritical potentials; we find that none of these can be associated with the c=1 string compactified at an integral multiple of the self-dual radius. We also give an exact solution to the Gaussian Penner model and explicitly demonstrate that, at criticality, this solution does not correspond to a c=1 string compactified at twice the self-dual radius
Aspects of general linear modelling of migration.
Congdon, P
1992-01-01
"This paper investigates the application of general linear modelling principles to analysing migration flows between areas. Particular attention is paid to specifying the form of the regression and error components, and the nature of departures from Poisson randomness. Extensions to take account of spatial and temporal correlation are discussed as well as constrained estimation. The issue of specification bears on the testing of migration theories, and assessing the role migration plays in job and housing markets: the direction and significance of the effects of economic variates on migration depends on the specification of the statistical model. The application is in the context of migration in London and South East England in the 1970s and 1980s." excerpt
Guidelines for Reproducibly Building and Simulating Systems Biology Models.
Medley, J Kyle; Goldberg, Arthur P; Karr, Jonathan R
2016-10-01
Reproducibility is the cornerstone of the scientific method. However, currently, many systems biology models cannot easily be reproduced. This paper presents methods that address this problem. We analyzed the recent Mycoplasma genitalium whole-cell (WC) model to determine the requirements for reproducible modeling. We determined that reproducible modeling requires both repeatable model building and repeatable simulation. New standards and simulation software tools are needed to enhance and verify the reproducibility of modeling. New standards are needed to explicitly document every data source and assumption, and new deterministic parallel simulation tools are needed to quickly simulate large, complex models. We anticipate that these new standards and software will enable researchers to reproducibly build and simulate more complex models, including WC models.
Guidelines for system modeling: pre-accident human errors, rev.0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Dae Il; Jung, W. D.; Lee, Y. H.; Hwang, M. J.; Yang, J. E.
2004-01-01
The evaluation results of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) of pre-accident human errors in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for the Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) using the ASME PRA standard show that more than 50% of 10 items to be improved are related to the identification and screening analysis for them. Thus, we developed a guideline for modeling pre-accident human errors for the system analyst to resolve some items to be improved for them. The developed guideline consists of modeling criteria for the pre-accident human errors (identification, qualitative screening, and common restoration errors) and detailed guidelines for pre-accident human errors relating to testing, maintenance, and calibration works of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The system analyst use the developed guideline and he or she applies it to the system which he or she takes care of. The HRA analyst review the application results of the system analyst. We applied the developed guideline to the auxiliary feed water system of the KSNP to show the usefulness of it. The application results of the developed guideline show that more than 50% of the items to be improved for pre-accident human errors of auxiliary feed water system are resolved. The guideline for modeling pre-accident human errors developed in this study can be used for other NPPs as well as the KSNP. It is expected that both use of the detailed procedure, to be developed in the future, for the quantification of pre-accident human errors and the guideline developed in this study will greatly enhance the PSA quality in the HRA of pre-accident human errors
Guidelines for system modeling: pre-accident human errors, rev.0
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Dae Il; Jung, W. D.; Lee, Y. H.; Hwang, M. J.; Yang, J. E
2004-01-01
The evaluation results of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) of pre-accident human errors in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for the Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) using the ASME PRA standard show that more than 50% of 10 items to be improved are related to the identification and screening analysis for them. Thus, we developed a guideline for modeling pre-accident human errors for the system analyst to resolve some items to be improved for them. The developed guideline consists of modeling criteria for the pre-accident human errors (identification, qualitative screening, and common restoration errors) and detailed guidelines for pre-accident human errors relating to testing, maintenance, and calibration works of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The system analyst use the developed guideline and he or she applies it to the system which he or she takes care of. The HRA analyst review the application results of the system analyst. We applied the developed guideline to the auxiliary feed water system of the KSNP to show the usefulness of it. The application results of the developed guideline show that more than 50% of the items to be improved for pre-accident human errors of auxiliary feed water system are resolved. The guideline for modeling pre-accident human errors developed in this study can be used for other NPPs as well as the KSNP. It is expected that both use of the detailed procedure, to be developed in the future, for the quantification of pre-accident human errors and the guideline developed in this study will greatly enhance the PSA quality in the HRA of pre-accident human errors.
Generalized Linear Models in Vehicle Insurance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silvie Kafková
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Actuaries in insurance companies try to find the best model for an estimation of insurance premium. It depends on many risk factors, e.g. the car characteristics and the profile of the driver. In this paper, an analysis of the portfolio of vehicle insurance data using a generalized linear model (GLM is performed. The main advantage of the approach presented in this article is that the GLMs are not limited by inflexible preconditions. Our aim is to predict the relation of annual claim frequency on given risk factors. Based on a large real-world sample of data from 57 410 vehicles, the present study proposed a classification analysis approach that addresses the selection of predictor variables. The models with different predictor variables are compared by analysis of deviance and Akaike information criterion (AIC. Based on this comparison, the model for the best estimate of annual claim frequency is chosen. All statistical calculations are computed in R environment, which contains stats package with the function for the estimation of parameters of GLM and the function for analysis of deviation.
Guidelines for visualizing and annotating rule-based models.
Chylek, Lily A; Hu, Bin; Blinov, Michael L; Emonet, Thierry; Faeder, James R; Goldstein, Byron; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Haugh, Jason M; Lipniacki, Tomasz; Posner, Richard G; Yang, Jin; Hlavacek, William S
2011-10-01
Rule-based modeling provides a means to represent cell signaling systems in a way that captures site-specific details of molecular interactions. For rule-based models to be more widely understood and (re)used, conventions for model visualization and annotation are needed. We have developed the concepts of an extended contact map and a model guide for illustrating and annotating rule-based models. An extended contact map represents the scope of a model by providing an illustration of each molecule, molecular component, direct physical interaction, post-translational modification, and enzyme-substrate relationship considered in a model. A map can also illustrate allosteric effects, structural relationships among molecular components, and compartmental locations of molecules. A model guide associates elements of a contact map with annotation and elements of an underlying model, which may be fully or partially specified. A guide can also serve to document the biological knowledge upon which a model is based. We provide examples of a map and guide for a published rule-based model that characterizes early events in IgE receptor (FcεRI) signaling. We also provide examples of how to visualize a variety of processes that are common in cell signaling systems but not considered in the example model, such as ubiquitination. An extended contact map and an associated guide can document knowledge of a cell signaling system in a form that is visual as well as executable. As a tool for model annotation, a map and guide can communicate the content of a model clearly and with precision, even for large models.
Customer-centered careflow modeling based on guidelines.
Huang, Biqing; Zhu, Peng; Wu, Cheng
2012-10-01
In contemporary society, customer-centered health care, which stresses customer participation and long-term tailored care, is inevitably becoming a trend. Compared with the hospital or physician-centered healthcare process, the customer-centered healthcare process requires more knowledge and modeling such a process is extremely complex. Thus, building a care process model for a special customer is cost prohibitive. In addition, during the execution of a care process model, the information system should have flexibility to modify the model so that it adapts to changes in the healthcare process. Therefore, supporting the process in a flexible, cost-effective way is a key challenge for information technology. To meet this challenge, first, we analyze various kinds of knowledge used in process modeling, illustrate their characteristics, and detail their roles and effects in careflow modeling. Secondly, we propose a methodology to manage a lifecycle of the healthcare process modeling, with which models could be built gradually with convenience and efficiency. In this lifecycle, different levels of process models are established based on the kinds of knowledge involved, and the diffusion strategy of these process models is designed. Thirdly, architecture and prototype of the system supporting the process modeling and its lifecycle are given. This careflow system also considers the compatibility of legacy systems and authority problems. Finally, an example is provided to demonstrate implementation of the careflow system.
The Interconnection Guidelines provide general guidance on the steps involved with connecting biogas recovery systems to the utility electrical power grid. Interconnection best practices including time and cost estimates are discussed.
A general phenomenological model for work function
Brodie, I.; Chou, S. H.; Yuan, H.
2014-07-01
A general phenomenological model is presented for obtaining the zero Kelvin work function of any crystal facet of metals and semiconductors, both clean and covered with a monolayer of electropositive atoms. It utilizes the known physical structure of the crystal and the Fermi energy of the two-dimensional electron gas assumed to form on the surface. A key parameter is the number of electrons donated to the surface electron gas per surface lattice site or adsorbed atom, which is taken to be an integer. Initially this is found by trial and later justified by examining the state of the valence electrons of the relevant atoms. In the case of adsorbed monolayers of electropositive atoms a satisfactory justification could not always be found, particularly for cesium, but a trial value always predicted work functions close to the experimental values. The model can also predict the variation of work function with temperature for clean crystal facets. The model is applied to various crystal faces of tungsten, aluminium, silver, and select metal oxides, and most demonstrate good fits compared to available experimental values.
B.G. Marcot; J.D. Steventon; G.D. Sutherland; R.K. McCann
2006-01-01
We provide practical guidelines for developing, testing, and revising Bayesian belief networks (BBNs). Primary steps in this process include creating influence diagrams of the hypothesized "causal web" of key factors affecting a species or ecological outcome of interest; developing a first, alpha-level BBN model from the influence diagram; revising the model...
Symplectic models for general insertion devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Y.; Forest, E.; Robin, D. S.; Nishimura, H.; Wolski, A.; Litvinenko, V. N.
2001-01-01
A variety of insertion devices (IDs), wigglers and undulators, linearly or elliptically polarized,are widely used as high brightness radiation sources at the modern light source rings. Long and high-field wigglers have also been proposed as the main source of radiation damping at next generation damping rings. As a result, it becomes increasingly important to understand the impact of IDs on the charged particle dynamics in the storage ring. In this paper, we report our recent development of a general explicit symplectic model for IDs with the paraxial ray approximation. High-order explicit symplectic integrators are developed to study real-world insertion devices with a number of wiggler harmonics and arbitrary polarizations
A generalized model for coincidence counting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Ming-Shih; Teichmann, T.
1992-01-01
The aim of this paper is to provide a description of the multiplicative processes associated with coincidence counting techniques, for example in the NDA of plutonium bearing materials. The model elucidates both the physical processes and the underlying mathematical formalism in a relatively simple but comprehensive way. In particular, it includes the effect of absorption by impurities or poisons, as well as that of neutron leakage on a parallel basis to the treatment of induced fission itself. The work thus parallels and generalizes the methods of Boehnel of Hage and Cifarelli, and more recently of Yanjushkin. This paper introduces the concept of a dual probability generating function to account for both the basic physical multiplication phenomena, as well as the detection phenomena. The underlying approach extends the idea of a simple probability generating function, due to De Moivre. The basic mathematical background may be found, for example, in Feller 1966
Hogewoning, C J A; Ottervanger, H P; Adriaanse, A H; Trum, J W
2007-06-16
The Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) revised their practice guideline on vaginal discharge. From a gynaecological point of view, relocation of cervix problems from this guideline to the NHG guideline 'The STD consultation' is not practical. Moreover, the role of simple, but effective diagnosis with a microscope in the primary-care setting cannot be overemphasized. The reluctance to oral treatment is rather inopportune, because once-only ingestion has the advantage of promoting compliance. As physical examination is not always necessary in a recurrent Candida infection, treatment performed by the patient with imidazole compounds is a possibility that does not always result in abuse or increased resistance.
Dynamical reduction models with general gaussian noises
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bassi, Angelo; Ghirardi, GianCarlo
2002-02-01
We consider the effect of replacing in stochastic differential equations leading to the dynamical collapse of the statevector, white noise stochastic processes with non white ones. We prove that such a modification can be consistently performed without altering the most interesting features of the previous models. One of the reasons to discuss this matter derives from the desire of being allowed to deal with physical stochastic fields, such as the gravitational one, which cannot give rise to white noises. From our point of view the most relevant motivation for the approach we propose here derives from the fact that in relativistic models the occurrence of white noises is the main responsible for the appearance of untractable divergences. Therefore, one can hope that resorting to non white noises one can overcome such a difficulty. We investigate stochastic equations with non white noises, we discuss their reduction properties and their physical implications. Our analysis has a precise interest not only for the above mentioned subject but also for the general study of dissipative systems and decoherence. (author)
Dynamical reduction models with general Gaussian noises
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bassi, Angelo; Ghirardi, GianCarlo
2002-01-01
We consider the effect of replacing in stochastic differential equations leading to the dynamical collapse of the state vector, white-noise stochastic processes with nonwhite ones. We prove that such a modification can be consistently performed without altering the most interesting features of the previous models. One of the reasons to discuss this matter derives from the desire of being allowed to deal with physical stochastic fields, such as the gravitational one, which cannot give rise to white noises. From our point of view, the most relevant motivation for the approach we propose here derives from the fact that in relativistic models intractable divergences appear as a consequence of the white nature of the noises. Therefore, one can hope that resorting to nonwhite noises, one can overcome such a difficulty. We investigate stochastic equations with nonwhite noises, we discuss their reduction properties and their physical implications. Our analysis has a precise interest not only for the above-mentioned subject but also for the general study of dissipative systems and decoherence
MODEL OF BRAZILIAN URBANIZATION: GENERAL NOTES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leandro da Silva Guimarães
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The full text format seeks to analyze the social inequality in Brazil through the spatial process of that inequality in this sense it analyzes, scratching the edges of what is known of the Brazilian urbanization model and how this same model produced gentrification cities and exclusive. So search the text discuss the country’s urban exclusion through consolidation of what is conventionally called peripheral areas, or more generally, of peripheries. The text on screen is the result of research carried out at the Federal Fluminense University in Masters level. In this study, we tried to understand the genesis of an urban housing development located in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro called Jardim Catarina. Understand what the problem space partner who originated it. In this sense, his analysis becomes consubstantial to understand the social and spatial inequalities in Brazil, as well as the role of the state as planning manager socio-spatial planning and principal agent in the solution of such problems. It is expected that with the realization of a study of greater amounts, from which this article is just a micro work can contribute subsidies that contribute to the arrangement and crystallization of public policies that give account of social inequalities and serve to leverage a country more fair and equitable cities.
Evaluating the double Poisson generalized linear model.
Zou, Yaotian; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy; Lord, Dominique
2013-10-01
The objectives of this study are to: (1) examine the applicability of the double Poisson (DP) generalized linear model (GLM) for analyzing motor vehicle crash data characterized by over- and under-dispersion and (2) compare the performance of the DP GLM with the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson (COM-Poisson) GLM in terms of goodness-of-fit and theoretical soundness. The DP distribution has seldom been investigated and applied since its first introduction two decades ago. The hurdle for applying the DP is related to its normalizing constant (or multiplicative constant) which is not available in closed form. This study proposed a new method to approximate the normalizing constant of the DP with high accuracy and reliability. The DP GLM and COM-Poisson GLM were developed using two observed over-dispersed datasets and one observed under-dispersed dataset. The modeling results indicate that the DP GLM with its normalizing constant approximated by the new method can handle crash data characterized by over- and under-dispersion. Its performance is comparable to the COM-Poisson GLM in terms of goodness-of-fit (GOF), although COM-Poisson GLM provides a slightly better fit. For the over-dispersed data, the DP GLM performs similar to the NB GLM. Considering the fact that the DP GLM can be easily estimated with inexpensive computation and that it is simpler to interpret coefficients, it offers a flexible and efficient alternative for researchers to model count data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Generalized Reduced Order Modeling of Aeroservoelastic Systems
Gariffo, James Michael
Transonic aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic (ASE) modeling presents a significant technical and computational challenge. Flow fields with a mixture of subsonic and supersonic flow, as well as moving shock waves, can only be captured through high-fidelity CFD analysis. With modern computing power, it is realtively straightforward to determine the flutter boundary for a single structural configuration at a single flight condition, but problems of larger scope remain quite costly. Some such problems include characterizing a vehicle's flutter boundary over its full flight envelope, optimizing its structural weight subject to aeroelastic constraints, and designing control laws for flutter suppression. For all of these applications, reduced-order models (ROMs) offer substantial computational savings. ROM techniques in general have existed for decades, and the methodology presented in this dissertation builds on successful previous techniques to create a powerful new scheme for modeling aeroelastic systems, and predicting and interpolating their transonic flutter boundaries. In this method, linear ASE state-space models are constructed from modal structural and actuator models coupled to state-space models of the linearized aerodynamic forces through feedback loops. Flutter predictions can be made from these models through simple eigenvalue analysis of their state-transition matrices for an appropriate set of dynamic pressures. Moreover, this analysis returns the frequency and damping trend of every aeroelastic branch. In contrast, determining the critical dynamic pressure by direct time-marching CFD requires a separate run for every dynamic pressure being analyzed simply to obtain the trend for the critical branch. The present ROM methodology also includes a new model interpolation technique that greatly enhances the benefits of these ROMs. This enables predictions of the dynamic behavior of the system for flight conditions where CFD analysis has not been explicitly
A Note on the Identifiability of Generalized Linear Mixed Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Labouriau, Rodrigo
2014-01-01
I present here a simple proof that, under general regularity conditions, the standard parametrization of generalized linear mixed model is identifiable. The proof is based on the assumptions of generalized linear mixed models on the first and second order moments and some general mild regularity...... conditions, and, therefore, is extensible to quasi-likelihood based generalized linear models. In particular, binomial and Poisson mixed models with dispersion parameter are identifiable when equipped with the standard parametrization...
Angus, Robert M; Thompson, Elizabeth B; Davies, Lisa; Trusdale, Ann; Hodgson, Chris; McKnight, Eddie; Davies, Andrew; Pearson, Mike G
2012-12-01
Applying guidelines is a universal challenge that is often not met. Intelligent software systems that facilitate real-time management during a clinical interaction may offer a solution. To determine if the use of a computer-guided consultation that facilitates the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence-based chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) guidance and prompts clinical decision-making is feasible in primary care and to assess its impact on diagnosis and management in reviews of COPD patients. Practice nurses, one-third of whom had no specific respiratory training, undertook a computer-guided review in the usual consulting room setting using a laptop computer with the screen visible to them and to the patient. A total of 293 patients (mean (SD) age 69.7 (10.1) years, 163 (55.6%) male) with a diagnosis of COPD were randomly selected from GP databases in 16 practices and assessed. Of 236 patients who had spirometry, 45 (19%) did not have airflow obstruction and the guided clinical history changed the primary diagnosis from COPD in a further 24 patients. In the 191 patients with confirmed COPD, the consultations prompted management changes including 169 recommendations for altered prescribing of inhalers (addition or discontinuation, inhaler dose or device). In addition, 47% of the 55 current smokers were referred for smoking cessation support, 12 (6%) for oxygen assessment, and 47 (24%) for pulmonary rehabilitation. Computer-guided consultations are practicable in general practice. Primary care COPD databases were confirmed to contain a significant proportion of incorrectly assigned patients. They resulted in interventions and the rationalisation of prescribing in line with recommendations. Only in 22 (12%) of those fully assessed was no management change suggested. The introduction of a computer-guided consultation offers the prospect of comprehensive guideline quality management.
Bayesian Subset Modeling for High-Dimensional Generalized Linear Models
Liang, Faming
2013-06-01
This article presents a new prior setting for high-dimensional generalized linear models, which leads to a Bayesian subset regression (BSR) with the maximum a posteriori model approximately equivalent to the minimum extended Bayesian information criterion model. The consistency of the resulting posterior is established under mild conditions. Further, a variable screening procedure is proposed based on the marginal inclusion probability, which shares the same properties of sure screening and consistency with the existing sure independence screening (SIS) and iterative sure independence screening (ISIS) procedures. However, since the proposed procedure makes use of joint information from all predictors, it generally outperforms SIS and ISIS in real applications. This article also makes extensive comparisons of BSR with the popular penalized likelihood methods, including Lasso, elastic net, SIS, and ISIS. The numerical results indicate that BSR can generally outperform the penalized likelihood methods. The models selected by BSR tend to be sparser and, more importantly, of higher prediction ability. In addition, the performance of the penalized likelihood methods tends to deteriorate as the number of predictors increases, while this is not significant for BSR. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.
Cosmological models in the generalized Einstein action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arbab, A.I.
2007-12-01
We have studied the evolution of the Universe in the generalized Einstein action of the form R + β R 2 , where R is the scalar curvature and β = const. We have found exact cosmological solutions that predict the present cosmic acceleration. These models predict an inflationary de-Sitter era occurring in the early Universe. The cosmological constant (Λ) is found to decay with the Hubble constant (H) as, Λ ∝ H 4 . In this scenario the cosmological constant varies quadratically with the energy density (ρ), i.e., Λ ∝ ρ 2 . Such a variation is found to describe a two-component cosmic fluid in the Universe. One of the components accelerated the Universe in the early era, and the other in the present era. The scale factor of the Universe varies as a ∼ t n = 1/2 in the radiation era. The cosmological constant vanishes when n = 4/3 and n =1/2. We have found that the inclusion of the term R 2 mimics a cosmic matter that could substitute the ordinary matter. (author)
A generalized model for homogenized reflectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pogosbekyan, Leonid; Kim, Yeong Il; Kim, Young Jin; Joo, Hyung Kook
1996-01-01
A new concept of equivalent homogenization is proposed. The concept employs new set of homogenized parameters: homogenized cross sections (XS) and interface matrix (IM), which relates partial currents at the cell interfaces. The idea of interface matrix generalizes the idea of discontinuity factors (DFs), proposed and developed by K. Koebke and K. Smith. The method of K. Smith can be simulated within framework of new method, while the new method approximates hetero-geneous cell better in case of the steep flux gradients at the cell interfaces. The attractive shapes of new concept are:improved accuracy, simplicity of incorporation in the existing codes, equal numerical expenses in comparison to the K. Smith's approach. The new concept is useful for: (a) explicit reflector/baffle simulation; (b)control blades simulation; (c) mixed UO 2 /MOX core simulation. The offered model has been incorporated in the finite difference code and in the nodal code PANBOX. The numerical results show good accuracy of core calculations and insensitivity of homogenized parameters with respect to in-core conditions
Climatology of the HOPE-G global ocean general circulation model - Sea ice general circulation model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Legutke, S. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Maier-Reimer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)
1999-12-01
The HOPE-G global ocean general circulation model (OGCM) climatology, obtained in a long-term forced integration is described. HOPE-G is a primitive-equation z-level ocean model which contains a dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model. It is formulated on a 2.8 grid with increased resolution in low latitudes in order to better resolve equatorial dynamics. The vertical resolution is 20 layers. The purpose of the integration was both to investigate the models ability to reproduce the observed general circulation of the world ocean and to obtain an initial state for coupled atmosphere - ocean - sea-ice climate simulations. The model was driven with daily mean data of a 15-year integration of the atmosphere general circulation model ECHAM4, the atmospheric component in later coupled runs. Thereby, a maximum of the flux variability that is expected to appear in coupled simulations is included already in the ocean spin-up experiment described here. The model was run for more than 2000 years until a quasi-steady state was achieved. It reproduces the major current systems and the main features of the so-called conveyor belt circulation. The observed distribution of water masses is reproduced reasonably well, although with a saline bias in the intermediate water masses and a warm bias in the deep and bottom water of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The model underestimates the meridional transport of heat in the Atlantic Ocean. The simulated heat transport in the other basins, though, is in good agreement with observations. (orig.)
van den Hoogen, Sharayke C T A; van de Pol, Alma C; Meijer, Yolanda; Toet, Jaap; van Klei, Céline; de Wit, Niek J
2014-08-09
Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the most common food allergy among infants. No data are available on the health care burden of suspected CMA in general practice. This study was conducted to evaluate the burden of suspected CMA in general practice (GP): (a) prevalence, (b) presenting symptoms, (c) diagnostic process, (d) guideline adherence, and (e) dietary measures. A retrospective cohort study was carried out in four Julius Healthcare Centers (JHCs). These JHCs form the core primary care academic network of the department of general practice of the University Medical Center of Utrecht. Electronic records of the first year of infants born May 2009 - April 2010 registered in the JHCs were screened for possible CMA suspicion. Preventive child healthcare (PCH) records were reviewed for additional information. Clinical presentation, diagnostic strategies and dietary measures were extracted. Of 804 infants evaluated, 55 presented with symptoms fitting the suspicion of CMA (prevalence of 7%). Presenting complaints involved the skin (71%); the gastrointestinal tract (60%); the respiratory tract (13%) or other symptoms (36%) and 23 infants presented with symptoms of two or more organ systems. In 31 children (56%) a food challenge was performed (n = 28 open and n = 3 double-blind). Open challenge test results were difficult to interpret due to inadequate implementation or reporting. None had confirmed CMA after an adequate challenge test. Long term milk substitute formulas were prescribed in 39 (71%) infants. On a yearly basis seven percent of children visit their GP for suspected CMA. A positive CMA diagnosis was rarely established after adequate implementation and reporting of diagnostics, yet long term dietary measures were prescribed in >70% of patients. There is definitely need for improvement of diagnosing CMA in primary care.
Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michael J Iacono
2011-04-07
This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.
Gaum, Wilma G.; van Rooyen, Hugo G.
1997-01-01
Describes research to develop curriculum guidelines for a distance education course in urban agriculture. The course, designed to train the teacher, is based on an eclectic curriculum design model. The course is aimed at the socioeconomic empowerment of urban farmers and is based on sustainable ecological-agricultural principles, an…
General IDRC Funding Guidelines
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
Loretta Rocca
Financial and Administrative Assessment ... the organization has independent legal status (or 'legal personality') and is capable of contracting ... Books and journal articles generated from IDRC-funded projects will be made accessible free of.
Thurstonian models for sensory discrimination tests as generalized linear models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brockhoff, Per B.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen
2010-01-01
as a so-called generalized linear model. The underlying sensory difference 6 becomes directly a parameter of the statistical model and the estimate d' and it's standard error becomes the "usual" output of the statistical analysis. The d' for the monadic A-NOT A method is shown to appear as a standard......Sensory discrimination tests such as the triangle, duo-trio, 2-AFC and 3-AFC tests produce binary data and the Thurstonian decision rule links the underlying sensory difference 6 to the observed number of correct responses. In this paper it is shown how each of these four situations can be viewed...
Luo, Wei; Phung, Dinh; Tran, Truyen; Gupta, Sunil; Rana, Santu; Karmakar, Chandan; Shilton, Alistair; Yearwood, John; Dimitrova, Nevenka; Ho, Tu Bao; Venkatesh, Svetha; Berk, Michael
2016-12-16
As more and more researchers are turning to big data for new opportunities of biomedical discoveries, machine learning models, as the backbone of big data analysis, are mentioned more often in biomedical journals. However, owing to the inherent complexity of machine learning methods, they are prone to misuse. Because of the flexibility in specifying machine learning models, the results are often insufficiently reported in research articles, hindering reliable assessment of model validity and consistent interpretation of model outputs. To attain a set of guidelines on the use of machine learning predictive models within clinical settings to make sure the models are correctly applied and sufficiently reported so that true discoveries can be distinguished from random coincidence. A multidisciplinary panel of machine learning experts, clinicians, and traditional statisticians were interviewed, using an iterative process in accordance with the Delphi method. The process produced a set of guidelines that consists of (1) a list of reporting items to be included in a research article and (2) a set of practical sequential steps for developing predictive models. A set of guidelines was generated to enable correct application of machine learning models and consistent reporting of model specifications and results in biomedical research. We believe that such guidelines will accelerate the adoption of big data analysis, particularly with machine learning methods, in the biomedical research community. ©Wei Luo, Dinh Phung, Truyen Tran, Sunil Gupta, Santu Rana, Chandan Karmakar, Alistair Shilton, John Yearwood, Nevenka Dimitrova, Tu Bao Ho, Svetha Venkatesh, Michael Berk. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 16.12.2016.
Links, P.; Horsman, Peter; Kühnel, Karsten; Priddy, M.; Reijnhoudt, Linda; Merenmies, Mark
2013-01-01
The Guidelines follow the conceptual metadata model (deliverable 17.2). They include guidelines for description of collection-holding institutions, document collections, organisations, personalities, events, camps and ghettos. As much as possible the guidelines comply with the descriptive standards
Multivariate statistical modelling based on generalized linear models
Fahrmeir, Ludwig
1994-01-01
This book is concerned with the use of generalized linear models for univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Its emphasis is to provide a detailed introductory survey of the subject based on the analysis of real data drawn from a variety of subjects including the biological sciences, economics, and the social sciences. Where possible, technical details and proofs are deferred to an appendix in order to provide an accessible account for non-experts. Topics covered include: models for multi-categorical responses, model checking, time series and longitudinal data, random effects models, and state-space models. Throughout, the authors have taken great pains to discuss the underlying theoretical ideas in ways that relate well to the data at hand. As a result, numerous researchers whose work relies on the use of these models will find this an invaluable account to have on their desks. "The basic aim of the authors is to bring together and review a large part of recent advances in statistical modelling of m...
A generalized multivariate regression model for modelling ocean wave heights
Wang, X. L.; Feng, Y.; Swail, V. R.
2012-04-01
In this study, a generalized multivariate linear regression model is developed to represent the relationship between 6-hourly ocean significant wave heights (Hs) and the corresponding 6-hourly mean sea level pressure (MSLP) fields. The model is calibrated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis of Hs and MSLP fields for 1981-2000, and is validated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis for 2001-2010 and ERA40 reanalysis of Hs and MSLP for 1958-2001. The performance of the fitted model is evaluated in terms of Pierce skill score, frequency bias index, and correlation skill score. Being not normally distributed, wave heights are subjected to a data adaptive Box-Cox transformation before being used in the model fitting. Also, since 6-hourly data are being modelled, lag-1 autocorrelation must be and is accounted for. The models with and without Box-Cox transformation, and with and without accounting for autocorrelation, are inter-compared in terms of their prediction skills. The fitted MSLP-Hs relationship is then used to reconstruct historical wave height climate from the 6-hourly MSLP fields taken from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR, Compo et al. 2011), and to project possible future wave height climates using CMIP5 model simulations of MSLP fields. The reconstructed and projected wave heights, both seasonal means and maxima, are subject to a trend analysis that allows for non-linear (polynomial) trends.
The ECHAM3 atmospheric general circulation model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-09-01
The ECHAM model has been developed from the ECMWF model (cycle 31, November 1988). It contains several changes, mostly in the parameterization, in order to adjust the model for climate simulations. The technical details of the ECHAM operational model are described. (orig./KW)
INFORMATION MODEL OF A GENERAL PRACTITIONER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. M. Zlepko
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In the paper the authors developed information model family doctor shows its innovation and functionality. The proposed model meets the requirements of the current job description and criteria World Organization of Family Doctors.
Generalization of Random Intercept Multilevel Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rehan Ahmad Khan
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The concept of random intercept models in a multilevel model developed by Goldstein (1986 has been extended for k-levels. The random variation in intercepts at individual level is marginally split into components by incorporating higher levels of hierarchy in the single level model. So, one can control the random variation in intercepts by incorporating the higher levels in the model.
generalized constitutive model for stabilized quick clay
African Journals Online (AJOL)
QUICK CLAY. PANCRAS MUGISHAGWE BUJULU AND GUSTAV GRIMSTAD. ABSTRACT. An experimentally-based two yield surface constitutive model for cemented quick clay has been ... Clay Model, the Koiter Rule and two Mapping Rules. .... models, where a mobilization formulation is used, this is independent of q.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt
2016-01-01
scale pig barns was simulated to show the procedures of validating a CFD simulation in livestock buildings. After summarizing the guideline and/or best practice for CFD modeling, the authors addressed the issues related to numerical methods and the governing equations, which were limited to RANS models....... Although it is not necessary to maintain the same format of reporting the CFD modeling as presented in this paper, the authors would suggest including all the information related to the selection of turbulence models, difference schemes, convergence criteria, boundary conditions, geometry simplification......, simulating domain etc. This information is particularly important for the readers to evaluate the quality of the CFD simulation results....
A Generalized Deduction of the Ideal-Solution Model
Leo, Teresa J.; Perez-del-Notario, Pedro; Raso, Miguel A.
2006-01-01
A new general procedure for deriving the Gibbs energy of mixing is developed through general thermodynamic considerations, and the ideal-solution model is obtained as a special particular case of the general one. The deduction of the Gibbs energy of mixing for the ideal-solution model is a rational one and viewed suitable for advanced students who…
Stratospheric General Circulation with Chemistry Model (SGCCM)
Rood, Richard B.; Douglass, Anne R.; Geller, Marvin A.; Kaye, Jack A.; Nielsen, J. Eric; Rosenfield, Joan E.; Stolarski, Richard S.
1990-01-01
In the past two years constituent transport and chemistry experiments have been performed using both simple single constituent models and more complex reservoir species models. Winds for these experiments have been taken from the data assimilation effort, Stratospheric Data Analysis System (STRATAN).
Development of a generalized integral jet model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duijm, Nijs Jan; Kessler, A.; Markert, Frank
2017-01-01
Integral type models to describe stationary plumes and jets in cross-flows (wind) have been developed since about 1970. These models are widely used for risk analysis, to describe the consequences of many different scenarios. Alternatively, CFD codes are being applied, but computational requireme......Integral type models to describe stationary plumes and jets in cross-flows (wind) have been developed since about 1970. These models are widely used for risk analysis, to describe the consequences of many different scenarios. Alternatively, CFD codes are being applied, but computational...... requirements still limit the number of scenarios that can be dealt with using CFD only. The integral models, however, are not suited to handle transient releases, such as releases from pressurized equipment, where the initially high release rate decreases rapidly with time. Further, on gas ignition, a second...... model is needed to describe the rapid combustion of the flammable part of the plume (flash fire) and a third model has to be applied for the remaining jet fire. The objective of this paper is to describe the first steps of the development of an integral-type model describing the transient development...
Generalized coupling in the Kuramoto model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filatrella, G.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Wiesenfeld, K.
2007-01-01
We propose a modification of the Kuramoto model to account for the effective change in the coupling constant among the oscillators, as suggested by some experiments on Josephson junction, laser arrays, and mechanical systems, where the active elements are turned on one by one. The resulting model...... with the behavior of Josephson junctions coupled via a cavity....
Schmidt, Morten; Mansfield, Kathryn E; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Nitsch, Dorothea; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Smeeth, Liam; Tomlinson, Laurie A
2017-01-09
To examine adherence to serum creatinine and potassium monitoring and discontinuation guidelines following initiation of treatment with ACE inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs); and whether high-risk patients are monitored. A general practice-based cohort study using electronic health records from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics. UK primary care, 2004-2014. 223 814 new ACEI/ARB users. Proportion of patients with renal function monitoring before and after ACEI/ARB initiation; creatinine increase ≥30% or potassium levels >6 mmol/L at first follow-up monitoring; and treatment discontinuation after such changes. Using logistic regression models, we also examined patient characteristics associated with these biochemical changes, and with follow-up monitoring within the guideline recommendation of 2 weeks after treatment initiation. 10% of patients had neither baseline nor follow-up monitoring of creatinine within 12 months before and 2 months after initiation of an ACEI/ARB, 28% had monitoring only at baseline, 15% only at follow-up, and 47% both at baseline and follow-up. The median period between the most recent baseline monitoring and drug initiation was 40 days (IQR 12-125 days). 34% of patients had baseline creatinine monitoring within 1 month before initiating therapy, but creatinine increase ≥30% (n=567, 1.2%) or potassium level >6 mmol/L (n=191, 0.4%), 80% continued treatment. Although patients with prior myocardial infarction, hypertension or baseline potassium >5 mmol/L were at high risk of ≥30% increase in creatinine after ACEI/ARB initiation, there was no evidence that they were more frequently monitored. Only one-tenth of patients initiating ACEI/ARB therapy receive the guideline-recommended creatinine monitoring. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients fulfilling postinitiation discontinuation criteria for creatinine and potassium increases continue on treatment
Schmidt, Morten; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Nitsch, Dorothea; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Smeeth, Liam; Tomlinson, Laurie A
2017-01-01
Objectives To examine adherence to serum creatinine and potassium monitoring and discontinuation guidelines following initiation of treatment with ACE inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs); and whether high-risk patients are monitored. Design A general practice-based cohort study using electronic health records from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics. Setting UK primary care, 2004–2014. Subjects 223 814 new ACEI/ARB users. Main outcome measures Proportion of patients with renal function monitoring before and after ACEI/ARB initiation; creatinine increase ≥30% or potassium levels >6 mmol/L at first follow-up monitoring; and treatment discontinuation after such changes. Using logistic regression models, we also examined patient characteristics associated with these biochemical changes, and with follow-up monitoring within the guideline recommendation of 2 weeks after treatment initiation. Results 10% of patients had neither baseline nor follow-up monitoring of creatinine within 12 months before and 2 months after initiation of an ACEI/ARB, 28% had monitoring only at baseline, 15% only at follow-up, and 47% both at baseline and follow-up. The median period between the most recent baseline monitoring and drug initiation was 40 days (IQR 12–125 days). 34% of patients had baseline creatinine monitoring within 1 month before initiating therapy, but creatinine increase ≥30% (n=567, 1.2%) or potassium level >6 mmol/L (n=191, 0.4%), 80% continued treatment. Although patients with prior myocardial infarction, hypertension or baseline potassium >5 mmol/L were at high risk of ≥30% increase in creatinine after ACEI/ARB initiation, there was no evidence that they were more frequently monitored. Conclusions Only one-tenth of patients initiating ACEI/ARB therapy receive the guideline-recommended creatinine monitoring. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients fulfilling postinitiation
Smooth generalized linear models for aggregated data
Ayma Anza, Diego Armando
2016-01-01
Mención Internacional en el título de doctor Aggregated data commonly appear in areas such as epidemiology, demography, and public health. Generally, the aggregation process is done to protect the privacy of patients, to facilitate compact presentation, or to make it comparable with other coarser datasets. However, this process may hinder the visualization of the underlying distribution that follows the data. Also, it prohibits the direct analysis of relationships between ag...
Demonstration of a computer model for residual radioactive material guidelines, RESRAD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Wallo, A. III
1989-01-01
A computer model was developed to calculate residual radioactive material guidelines for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This model, called RESRAD, can be run on IBM or IBM-compatible microcomputer. Seven potential exposure pathways from contaminated soil are analyzed, including external radiation exposure and internal radiation exposure from inhalation and food digestion. The RESRAD code has been applied to several DOE sites to derive soil cleanup guidelines. The experience gained indicates that a comprehensive set of site-specific hydrogeologic and geochemical input parameters must be used for a realistic pathway analysis. The RESRAD code is a useful tool; it is easy to run and very user-friendly. 6 refs., 12 figs
Universality in generalized models of inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Binétruy, P.; Pieroni, M. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Mabillard, J., E-mail: pierre.binetruy@apc.univ-paris7.fr, E-mail: joel.mabillard@ed.ac.uk, E-mail: mauro.pieroni@apc.in2p3.fr [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)
2017-03-01
We discuss the cosmological evolution of a scalar field with non standard kinetic term in terms of a Renormalization Group Equation (RGE). In this framework inflation corresponds to the slow evolution in a neighborhood of a fixed point and universality classes for inflationary models naturally arise. Using some examples we show the application of the formalism. The predicted values for the speed of sound c {sub s} {sup 2} and for the amount of non-Gaussianities produced in these models are discussed. In particular, we show that it is possible to introduce models with c {sub s} {sup 2} ≠ 1 that can be in agreement with present cosmological observations.
Modeling and Design Guidelines for P⁺ Guard Rings in Lightly Doped CMOS Substrates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Ming; Mikkelsen, Jan H.; Zhang, Ke
2013-01-01
of ${rm P}^{+}$ guard rings in terms of S-parameters, which is useful for substrate noise mitigation in mixed-signal system-on-chips. Validation of the model has been done by both electromagnetic simulation and experimental results from guard rings implemented using a standard 0.18-$mu{rm m}$ CMOS process....... In addition, design guidelines have been drawn for minimizing the guard ring size while maintaining the noise suppression performance....
Paulina Krolo; Davor Grandić; Mladen Bulić
2016-01-01
The aim of this paper is the development of the two different numerical techniques for the preloading of bolts by the finite element method using the software Abaqus Standard. Furthermore, this paper gave detailed guidelines for modelling contact, method for solving the numerical error problems such as numerical singularity error and negative eigenvalues due to rigid body motion or the problem of the extensive elongation of bolts after pretension which is occurring during the analysis. The be...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halsnaes, K.; Painuly, J.P.; Turkson, J.; Meyer, H.J.; Markandya, A.
1999-09-01
This document is a summary version of the methodological guidelines for climate change mitigation assessment developed as part of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) project Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations; Methodological Guidelines. The objectives of this project have been to develop a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can use in the construction of national climate change mitigation policies and in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC. The methodological framework developed in the Methodological Guidelines covers key economic concepts, scenario building, modelling tools and common assumptions. It was used by several country studies included in the project. (au) 13 refs.
Tsai, Tien-Lung; Shau, Wen-Yi; Hu, Fu-Chang
2006-01-01
This article generalizes linear path analysis (PA) and simultaneous equations models (SiEM) to deal with mixed responses of different types in a recursive or triangular system. An efficient instrumental variable (IV) method for estimating the structural coefficients of a 2-equation partially recursive generalized path analysis (GPA) model and…
Vos, H.M.M.; Delft, D.H. Van; Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Nielen, M.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
2014-01-01
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: In 2011 the module cardiometabolic risk of the Prevention Consultation guideline was introduced in the Netherlands in order to prevent cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to compare attitudes and working methods of Dutch general practitioners (GPs) towards selective
Vos, H.M.M.; Delft, D.H.W.J.M. van; Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Nielen, M.M.J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
2014-01-01
Rationale, aims and objectives; In 2011 the module cardiometabolic risk of the Prevention Consultation guideline was introduced in the Netherlands in order to prevent cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to compare attitudes and working methods of Dutch general practitioners (GPs) towards selective
Vos, H.M.M.; Van Delft, D.H.W.J.; de Kleijn, M.J.J.; Nielen, M.M.J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
2014-01-01
Rationale, aims and objectives In 2011 the module cardiometabolic risk of the Prevention Consultation guideline was introduced in the Netherlands in order to prevent cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to compare attitudes and working methods of Dutch general practitioners (GPs) towards selective
Double generalized linear compound poisson models to insurance claims data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Daniel Arnfeldt; Bonat, Wagner Hugo
2017-01-01
This paper describes the specification, estimation and comparison of double generalized linear compound Poisson models based on the likelihood paradigm. The models are motivated by insurance applications, where the distribution of the response variable is composed by a degenerate distribution...... implementation and illustrate the application of double generalized linear compound Poisson models using a data set about car insurances....
Fung, L.S.N.; Fung, Nick Lik San; Widya, I.A.; Broens, T.H.F.; Larburu Rubio, Nekane; Bults, Richard G.A.; Shalom, Erez; Jones, Valerie M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.
2014-01-01
We present a conceptual framework for modelling clinical guidelines as networks of concurrent processes. This enables the guideline to be partitioned and distributed at run-time across a knowledge-based telemedicine system, which is distributed by definition but whose exact physical configuration
The Five-Factor Model: General Overview
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A A Vorobyeva
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The article describes the five-factor model (FFM, giving an overview of its history, basic dimensions, cross-cultural research conducted on the model and highlights some practical studies based on the FFM, including the studies on job performance, leader performance and daily social interactions. An overview of the recent five-factor theory is also provided. According to the theory, the five factors are encoded in human genes, therefore it is almost impossible to change the basic factors themselves, but a person's behavior might be changed due to characteristic adaptations which do not alter personality dimensions, only a person's behavior.
Esperanto: A Unique Model for General Linguistics.
Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.
1988-01-01
Esperanto presents a unique model for linguistic research by allowing the study of language development from project to fully functioning language. Esperanto provides insight into the growth of polysemy and redundancy, as well as into language universals and the phenomenon of social control. (Author/CB)
Multiple phase transitions in the generalized Curie-Weiss model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eisele, T.; Ellis, R.S.
1988-01-01
The generalized Curie-Weiss model is an extension of the classical Curie-Weiss model in which the quadratic interaction function of the mean spin value is replaced by a more general interaction function. It is shown that the generalized Curie-Weiss model can have a sequence of phase transitions at different critical temperatures. Both first-order and second-order phase transitions can occur, and explicit criteria for the two types are given. Three examples of generalized Curie-Weiss models are worked out in detail, including one example with infinitely many phase transitions. A number of results are derived using large-deviation techniques
On A General Frame For Macroeconomic Modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emil DINGA
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the research project was to identify the methodological bases for the aggregate description of the Romanian national economy, both logically and in terms of the sources of empirical data for modelling. The specific objectives of the project were: a description of the economic markets in correlation with the logic description of the economic behaviours; b determination of the sectoral blocks of the Romanian economy, on the basis of the homogeneity of the economic; activity and behaviour; c association of the sectoral blocks to the national accounts, so as to ensure the sources of empirical data for the calibration and utilisation of the model; d association of the sectoral blocks to the economic markets; e association of the national accounts with the economic markets; f identification of the classes of interactions between the determined sectoral blocks.
Generalized Mathai-Quillen Topological Sigma Models
Llatas, Pablo M.
1995-01-01
A simple field theoretical approach to Mathai-Quillen topological field theories of maps $X: M_I \\to M_T$ from an internal space to a target space is presented. As an example of applications of our formalism we compute by applying our formulas the action and Q-variations of the fields of two well known topological systems: Topological Quantum Mechanics and type-A topological Sigma Model.
Reduced Order Modeling in General Relativity
Tiglio, Manuel
2014-03-01
Reduced Order Modeling is an emerging yet fast developing filed in gravitational wave physics. The main goals are to enable fast modeling and parameter estimation of any detected signal, along with rapid matched filtering detecting. I will focus on the first two. Some accomplishments include being able to replace, with essentially no lost of physical accuracy, the original models with surrogate ones (which are not effective ones, that is, they do not simplify the physics but go on a very different track, exploiting the particulars of the waveform family under consideration and state of the art dimensional reduction techniques) which are very fast to evaluate. For example, for EOB models they are at least around 3 orders of magnitude faster than solving the original equations, with physically equivalent results. For numerical simulations the speedup is at least 11 orders of magnitude. For parameter estimation our current numbers are about bringing ~100 days for a single SPA inspiral binary neutron star Bayesian parameter estimation analysis to under a day. More recently, it has been shown that the full precessing problem for, say, 200 cycles, can be represented, through some new ideas, by a remarkably compact set of carefully chosen reduced basis waveforms (~10-100, depending on the accuracy requirements). I will highlight what I personally believe are the challenges to face next in this subarea of GW physics and where efforts should be directed. This talk will summarize work in collaboration with: Harbir Antil (GMU), Jonathan Blackman (Caltech), Priscila Canizares (IoA, Cambridge, UK), Sarah Caudill (UWM), Jonathan Gair (IoA. Cambridge. UK), Scott Field (UMD), Chad R. Galley (Caltech), Frank Herrmann (Germany), Han Hestahven (EPFL, Switzerland), Jason Kaye (Brown, Stanford & Courant). Evan Ochsner (UWM), Ricardo Nochetto (UMD), Vivien Raymond (LIGO, Caltech), Rory Smith (LIGO, Caltech) Bela Ssilagyi (Caltech) and MT (UMD & Caltech).
Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
2005-01-01
The practice guideline 'Miscarriage' has been reviewed for the second time in fifteen years. It provides the practitioner with distinct diagnostic tools for vaginal bleeding in the first sixteen weeks of pregnancy and a clear management algorithm. The management of miscarriage is based on a joint
Guidelines for Using Building Information Modeling for Energy Analysis of Buildings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Reeves
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Building energy modeling (BEM, a subset of building information modeling (BIM, integrates energy analysis into the design, construction, and operation and maintenance of buildings. As there are various existing BEM tools available, there is a need to evaluate the utility of these tools in various phases of the building lifecycle. The goal of this research was to develop guidelines for evaluation and selection of BEM tools to be used in particular building lifecycle phases. The objectives of this research were to: (1 Evaluate existing BEM tools; (2 Illustrate the application of the three BEM tools; (3 Re-evaluate the three BEM tools; and (4 Develop guidelines for evaluation, selection and application of BEM tools in the design, construction and operation/maintenance phases of buildings. Twelve BEM tools were initially evaluated using four criteria: interoperability, usability, available inputs, and available outputs. Each of the top three BEM tools selected based on this initial evaluation was used in a case study to simulate and evaluate energy usage, daylighting performance, and natural ventilation for two academic buildings (LEED-certified and non-LEED-certified. The results of the case study were used to re-evaluate the three BEM tools using the initial criteria with addition of the two new criteria (speed and accuracy, and to develop guidelines for evaluating and selecting BEM tools to analyze building energy performance. The major contribution of this research is the development of these guidelines that can help potential BEM users to identify the most appropriate BEM tool for application in particular building lifecycle phases.
Pasupuleti, Mohan Kumar; Molahally, Subramanya Shetty; Salwaji, Supraja
2016-01-01
Laboratory animal models serve as a facilitator to investigate the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease, are used to know the efficacy of reconstructive and regenerative procedures, and are also helpful in evaluation of newer therapeutic techniques including laser and implant therapies prior to application in the human beings. The aim of this review is to know the different animal models used in various specialties of dental research and to know the ethical guidelines prior to the usage of experimental models with main emphasis on how to refine, replace, and reduce the number of animal models usage in the laboratory. An online search for experimental animal models used in dental research was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed database. Publications from 2009 to May 2013 in the specialty of periodontics were included in writing this review. A total of 652 references were published in PubMed/MEDLINE databases based on the search terms used. Out of 245 studies, 241 were related to the periodontal research published in English from 2009 to 2013. Relevant papers were chosen according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After extensive electronic and hand search on animal models, it has been observed that various animal models were used in dental research. Search on animal models used for dental research purpose revealed that various animals such as rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbit, beagle dogs, goats, and nonhuman primates were extensively used. However, with the new advancement of ex vivo animal models, it has become easy to investigate disease pathogenesis and to test the efficacy of newer therapeutic modalities with the reduced usage of animal models. This review summarized the large amount of literature on animal models used in periodontal research with main emphasis on ethical guidelines and on reducing the animal model usage in future perspective.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohan Kumar Pasupuleti
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Laboratory animal models serve as a facilitator to investigate the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease, are used to know the efficacy of reconstructive and regenerative procedures, and are also helpful in evaluation of newer therapeutic techniques including laser and implant therapies prior to application in the human beings. The aim of this review is to know the different animal models used in various specialties of dental research and to know the ethical guidelines prior to the usage of experimental models with main emphasis on how to refine, replace, and reduce the number of animal models usage in the laboratory. An online search for experimental animal models used in dental research was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed database. Publications from 2009 to May 2013 in the specialty of periodontics were included in writing this review. A total of 652 references were published in PubMed/MEDLINE databases based on the search terms used. Out of 245 studies, 241 were related to the periodontal research published in English from 2009 to 2013. Relevant papers were chosen according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After extensive electronic and hand search on animal models, it has been observed that various animal models were used in dental research. Search on animal models used for dental research purpose revealed that various animals such as rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbit, beagle dogs, goats, and nonhuman primates were extensively used. However, with the new advancement of ex vivo animal models, it has become easy to investigate disease pathogenesis and to test the efficacy of newer therapeutic modalities with the reduced usage of animal models. This review summarized the large amount of literature on animal models used in periodontal research with main emphasis on ethical guidelines and on reducing the animal model usage in future perspective.
Models and materials for generalized Kitaev magnetism
Winter, Stephen M.; Tsirlin, Alexander A.; Daghofer, Maria; van den Brink, Jeroen; Singh, Yogesh; Gegenwart, Philipp; Valentí, Roser
2017-12-01
The exactly solvable Kitaev model on the honeycomb lattice has recently received enormous attention linked to the hope of achieving novel spin-liquid states with fractionalized Majorana-like excitations. In this review, we analyze the mechanism proposed by Jackeli and Khaliullin to identify Kitaev materials based on spin-orbital dependent bond interactions and provide a comprehensive overview of its implications in real materials. We set the focus on experimental results and current theoretical understanding of planar honeycomb systems (Na2IrO3, α-Li2IrO3, and α-RuCl3), three-dimensional Kitaev materials (β- and γ-Li2IrO3), and other potential candidates, completing the review with the list of open questions awaiting new insights.
Modeling electrokinetics in ionic liquids: General
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Chao [Physical and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Bao, Jie [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Pan, Wenxiao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI USA; Sun, Xin [Physical and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA
2017-04-07
Using direct numerical simulations we provide a thorough study on the electrokinetics of ionic liquids. In particular, the modfied Poisson-Nernst-Planck (MPNP) equations are solved to capture the crowding and overscreening effects that are the characteristics of an ionic liquid. For modeling electrokinetic flows in an ionic liquid, the MPNP equations are coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations to study the coupling of ion transport, hydrodynamics, and electrostatic forces. Specifically, we consider the ion transport between two parallel plates, charging dynamics in a 2D straight-walled pore, electro-osmotic ow in a nano-channel, electroconvective instability on a plane ion-selective surface, and electroconvective ow on a curved ion-selective surface. We discuss how the crowding and overscreening effects and their interplay affect the electrokinetic behaviors of ionic liquids in these application problems.
The DART general equilibrium model: A technical description
Springer, Katrin
1998-01-01
This paper provides a technical description of the Dynamic Applied Regional Trade (DART) General Equilibrium Model. The DART model is a recursive dynamic, multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model. All regions are fully specified and linked by bilateral trade flows. The DART model can be used to project economic activities, energy use and trade flows for each of the specified regions to simulate various trade policy as well as environmental policy scenarios, and to analy...
Generalized bi-additive modelling for categorical data
P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); A.J. Koning (Alex)
2004-01-01
textabstractGeneralized linear modelling (GLM) is a versatile technique, which may be viewed as a generalization of well-known techniques such as least squares regression, analysis of variance, loglinear modelling, and logistic regression. In may applications, low-order interaction (such as
A QCD Model Using Generalized Yang-Mills Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Dianfu; Song Heshan; Kou Lina
2007-01-01
Generalized Yang-Mills theory has a covariant derivative, which contains both vector and scalar gauge bosons. Based on this theory, we construct a strong interaction model by using the group U(4). By using this U(4) generalized Yang-Mills model, we also obtain a gauge potential solution, which can be used to explain the asymptotic behavior and color confinement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.
1985-05-01
This document was written to provide guidance to managers and site operators on how ground-water transport codes should be selected for assessing burial site performance. There is a need for a formal approach to selecting appropriate codes from the multitude of potentially useful ground-water transport codes that are currently available. Code selection is a problem that requires more than merely considering mathematical equation-solving methods. These guidelines are very general and flexible and are also meant for developing systems simulation models to be used to assess the environmental safety of low-level waste burial facilities. Code selection is only a single aspect of the overall objective of developing a systems simulation model for a burial site. The guidance given here is mainly directed toward applications-oriented users, but managers and site operators need to be familiar with this information to direct the development of scientifically credible and defensible transport assessment models. Some specific advice for managers and site operators on how to direct a modeling exercise is based on the following five steps: identify specific questions and study objectives; establish costs and schedules for achieving answers; enlist the aid of professional model applications group; decide on approach with applications group and guide code selection; and facilitate the availability of site-specific data. These five steps for managers/site operators are discussed in detail following an explanation of the nine systems model development steps, which are presented first to clarify what code selection entails
A generalized model via random walks for information filtering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Kong, Yixiu; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
2016-01-01
There could exist a simple general mechanism lurking beneath collaborative filtering and interdisciplinary physics approaches which have been successfully applied to online E-commerce platforms. Motivated by this idea, we propose a generalized model employing the dynamics of the random walk in the bipartite networks. Taking into account the degree information, the proposed generalized model could deduce the collaborative filtering, interdisciplinary physics approaches and even the enormous expansion of them. Furthermore, we analyze the generalized model with single and hybrid of degree information on the process of random walk in bipartite networks, and propose a possible strategy by using the hybrid degree information for different popular objects to toward promising precision of the recommendation. - Highlights: • We propose a generalized recommendation model employing the random walk dynamics. • The proposed model with single and hybrid of degree information is analyzed. • A strategy with the hybrid degree information improves precision of recommendation.
A generalized model via random walks for information filtering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ren, Zhuo-Ming, E-mail: zhuomingren@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 3, CH-1700, Fribourg (Switzerland); Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ChongQing, 400714 (China); Kong, Yixiu [Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 3, CH-1700, Fribourg (Switzerland); Shang, Ming-Sheng, E-mail: msshang@cigit.ac.cn [Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ChongQing, 400714 (China); Zhang, Yi-Cheng [Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 3, CH-1700, Fribourg (Switzerland)
2016-08-06
There could exist a simple general mechanism lurking beneath collaborative filtering and interdisciplinary physics approaches which have been successfully applied to online E-commerce platforms. Motivated by this idea, we propose a generalized model employing the dynamics of the random walk in the bipartite networks. Taking into account the degree information, the proposed generalized model could deduce the collaborative filtering, interdisciplinary physics approaches and even the enormous expansion of them. Furthermore, we analyze the generalized model with single and hybrid of degree information on the process of random walk in bipartite networks, and propose a possible strategy by using the hybrid degree information for different popular objects to toward promising precision of the recommendation. - Highlights: • We propose a generalized recommendation model employing the random walk dynamics. • The proposed model with single and hybrid of degree information is analyzed. • A strategy with the hybrid degree information improves precision of recommendation.
Practical guidelines for modelling post-entry spread in invasion ecology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hazel Parry
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this article we review a variety of methods to enable understanding and modelling the spread of a pest or pathogen post-entry. Building upon our experience of multidisciplinary research in this area, we propose practical guidelines and a framework for model development, to help with the application of mathematical modelling in the field of invasion ecology for post-entry spread. We evaluate the pros and cons of a range of methods, including references to examples of the methods in practice. We also show how issues of data deficiency and uncertainty can be addressed. The aim is to provide guidance to the reader on the most suitable elements to include in a model of post-entry dispersal in a risk assessment, under differing circumstances. We identify both the strengths and weaknesses of different methods and their application as part of a holistic, multidisciplinary approach to biosecurity research.
Reliability assessment of competing risks with generalized mixed shock models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rafiee, Koosha; Feng, Qianmei; Coit, David W.
2017-01-01
This paper investigates reliability modeling for systems subject to dependent competing risks considering the impact from a new generalized mixed shock model. Two dependent competing risks are soft failure due to a degradation process, and hard failure due to random shocks. The shock process contains fatal shocks that can cause hard failure instantaneously, and nonfatal shocks that impact the system in three different ways: 1) damaging the unit by immediately increasing the degradation level, 2) speeding up the deterioration by accelerating the degradation rate, and 3) weakening the unit strength by reducing the hard failure threshold. While the first impact from nonfatal shocks comes from each individual shock, the other two impacts are realized when the condition for a new generalized mixed shock model is satisfied. Unlike most existing mixed shock models that consider a combination of two shock patterns, our new generalized mixed shock model includes three classic shock patterns. According to the proposed generalized mixed shock model, the degradation rate and the hard failure threshold can simultaneously shift multiple times, whenever the condition for one of these three shock patterns is satisfied. An example using micro-electro-mechanical systems devices illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach with sensitivity analysis. - Highlights: • A rich reliability model for systems subject to dependent failures is proposed. • The degradation rate and the hard failure threshold can shift simultaneously. • The shift is triggered by a new generalized mixed shock model. • The shift can occur multiple times under the generalized mixed shock model.
Hsiao, Ju-Ling; Chen, Rai-Fu
2016-01-16
With the widespread use of information communication technologies, computerized clinical practice guidelines are developed and considered as effective decision supporting tools in assisting the processes of clinical activities. However, the development of computerized clinical practice guidelines in Taiwan is still at the early stage and acceptance level among major users (physicians) of computerized clinical practice guidelines is not satisfactory. This study aims to investigate critical factors influencing physicians' intention to computerized clinical practice guideline use through an integrative model of activity theory and the technology acceptance model. The survey methodology was employed to collect data from physicians of the investigated hospitals that have implemented computerized clinical practice guidelines. A total of 505 questionnaires were sent out, with 238 completed copies returned, indicating a valid response rate of 47.1 %. The collected data was then analyzed by structural equation modeling technique. The results showed that attitudes toward using computerized clinical practice guidelines (γ = 0.451, p technology) factors mentioned in the activity theory should be carefully considered when introducing computerized clinical practice guidelines. Managers should pay much attention on those identified factors and provide adequate resources and incentives to help the promotion and use of computerized clinical practice guidelines. Through the appropriate use of computerized clinical practice guidelines, the clinical benefits, particularly in improving quality of care and facilitating the clinical processes, will be realized.
Maillot, Matthieu; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam
2013-01-01
The 2010 US Dietary Guidelines recommended limiting intake of sodium to 1500 mg/d for people older than 50 years, African Americans, and those suffering from chronic disease. The guidelines recommended that all other people consume less than 2300 mg sodium and 4700 mg of potassium per day. The theoretical feasibility of meeting the sodium and potassium guidelines while simultaneously maintaining nutritional adequacy of the diet was tested using food pattern modeling based on linear programming. Dietary data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2002 were used to create optimized food patterns for 6 age-sex groups. Linear programming models determined the boundary conditions for the potassium and sodium content of the modeled food patterns that would also be compatible with other nutrient goals. Linear programming models also sought to determine the amounts of sodium and potassium that both would be consistent with the ratio of Na to K of 0.49 and would cause the least deviation from the existing food habits. The 6 sets of food patterns were created before and after an across-the-board 10% reduction in sodium content of all foods in the Food and Nutrition Database for Dietary Studies. Modeling analyses showed that the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for sodium were incompatible with potassium guidelines and with nutritionally adequate diets, even after reducing the sodium content of all US foods by 10%. Feasibility studies should precede or accompany the issuing of dietary guidelines to the public. PMID:23507224
Learning general phonological rules from distributional information: a computational model.
Calamaro, Shira; Jarosz, Gaja
2015-04-01
Phonological rules create alternations in the phonetic realizations of related words. These rules must be learned by infants in order to identify the phonological inventory, the morphological structure, and the lexicon of a language. Recent work proposes a computational model for the learning of one kind of phonological alternation, allophony (Peperkamp, Le Calvez, Nadal, & Dupoux, 2006). This paper extends the model to account for learning of a broader set of phonological alternations and the formalization of these alternations as general rules. In Experiment 1, we apply the original model to new data in Dutch and demonstrate its limitations in learning nonallophonic rules. In Experiment 2, we extend the model to allow it to learn general rules for alternations that apply to a class of segments. In Experiment 3, the model is further extended to allow for generalization by context; we argue that this generalization must be constrained by linguistic principles. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
General Friction Model Extended by the Effect of Strain Hardening
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Chris V.; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels
2016-01-01
An extension to the general friction model proposed by Wanheim and Bay [1] to include the effect of strain hardening is proposed. The friction model relates the friction stress to the fraction of real contact area by a friction factor under steady state sliding. The original model for the real...... contact area as function of the normalized contact pressure is based on slip-line analysis and hence on the assumption of rigid-ideally plastic material behavior. In the present work, a general finite element model is established to, firstly, reproduce the original model under the assumption of rigid...
On a Generalized Squared Gaussian Diffusion Model for Option Valuation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edeki S.O.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In financial mathematics, option pricing models are vital tools whose usefulness cannot be overemphasized. Modern approaches and modelling of financial derivatives are therefore required in option pricing and valuation settings. In this paper, we derive via the application of Ito lemma, a pricing model referred to as Generalized Squared Gaussian Diffusion Model (GSGDM for option pricing and valuation. Same approach can be considered via Stratonovich stochastic dynamics. We also show that the classical Black-Scholes, and the square root constant elasticity of variance models are special cases of the GSGDM. In addition, general solution of the GSGDM is obtained using modified variational iterative method (MVIM.
Kalman Filter for Generalized 2-D Roesser Models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHENG Mei; ZOU Yun
2007-01-01
The design problem of the state filter for the generalized stochastic 2-D Roesser models, which appears when both the state and measurement are simultaneously subjected to the interference from white noise, is discussed. The wellknown Kalman filter design is extended to the generalized 2-D Roesser models. Based on the method of "scanning line by line", the filtering problem of generalized 2-D Roesser models with mode-energy reconstruction is solved. The formula of the optimal filtering, which minimizes the variance of the estimation error of the state vectors, is derived. The validity of the designed filter is verified by the calculation steps and the examples are introduced.
Generalized Linear Models with Applications in Engineering and the Sciences
Myers, Raymond H; Vining, G Geoffrey; Robinson, Timothy J
2012-01-01
Praise for the First Edition "The obvious enthusiasm of Myers, Montgomery, and Vining and their reliance on their many examples as a major focus of their pedagogy make Generalized Linear Models a joy to read. Every statistician working in any area of applied science should buy it and experience the excitement of these new approaches to familiar activities."-Technometrics Generalized Linear Models: With Applications in Engineering and the Sciences, Second Edition continues to provide a clear introduction to the theoretical foundations and key applications of generalized linear models (GLMs). Ma
Critical Comments on the General Model of Instructional Communication
Walton, Justin D.
2014-01-01
This essay presents a critical commentary on McCroskey et al.'s (2004) general model of instructional communication. In particular, five points are examined which make explicit and problematize the meta-theoretical assumptions of the model. Comments call attention to the limitations of the model and argue for a broader approach to…
Membrane models and generalized Z2 gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lowe, M.J.; Wallace, D.J.
1980-01-01
We consider models of (d-n)-dimensional membranes fluctuating in a d-dimensional space under the action of surface tension. We investigate the renormalization properties of these models perturbatively and in 1/n expansion. The potential relationships of these models to generalized Z 2 gauge theories are indicated. (orig.)
A Duality Result for the Generalized Erlang Risk Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lanpeng Ji
2014-11-01
Full Text Available In this article, we consider the generalized Erlang risk model and its dual model. By using a conditional measure-preserving correspondence between the two models, we derive an identity for two interesting conditional probabilities. Applications to the discounted joint density of the surplus prior to ruin and the deficit at ruin are also discussed.
A Generalized Partial Credit Model: Application of an EM Algorithm.
Muraki, Eiji
1992-01-01
The partial credit model with a varying slope parameter is developed and called the generalized partial credit model (GPCM). Analysis results for simulated data by this and other polytomous item-response models demonstrate that the rating formulation of the GPCM is adaptable to the analysis of polytomous item responses. (SLD)
Linear and Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Their Applications
Jiang, Jiming
2007-01-01
This book covers two major classes of mixed effects models, linear mixed models and generalized linear mixed models, and it presents an up-to-date account of theory and methods in analysis of these models as well as their applications in various fields. The book offers a systematic approach to inference about non-Gaussian linear mixed models. Furthermore, it has included recently developed methods, such as mixed model diagnostics, mixed model selection, and jackknife method in the context of mixed models. The book is aimed at students, researchers and other practitioners who are interested
a Proposal for Generalization of 3d Models
Uyar, A.; Ulugtekin, N. N.
2017-11-01
In recent years, 3D models have been created of many cities around the world. Most of the 3D city models have been introduced as completely graphic or geometric models, and the semantic and topographic aspects of the models have been neglected. In order to use 3D city models beyond the task, a generalization is necessary. CityGML is an open data model and XML-based format for the storage and exchange of virtual 3D city models. Level of Details (LoD) which is an important concept for 3D modelling, can be defined as outlined degree or prior representation of real-world objects. The paper aim is first describes some requirements of 3D model generalization, then presents problems and approaches that have been developed in recent years. In conclude the paper will be a summary and outlook on problems and future work.
General classical solutions in the noncommutative CPN-1 model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foda, O.; Jack, I.; Jones, D.R.T.
2002-01-01
We give an explicit construction of general classical solutions for the noncommutative CP N-1 model in two dimensions, showing that they correspond to integer values for the action and topological charge. We also give explicit solutions for the Dirac equation in the background of these general solutions and show that the index theorem is satisfied
Parameter Estimation for a Computable General Equilibrium Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arndt, Channing; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn
2002-01-01
We introduce a maximum entropy approach to parameter estimation for computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. The approach applies information theory to estimating a system of non-linear simultaneous equations. It has a number of advantages. First, it imposes all general equilibrium constraints...
Parameter Estimation for a Computable General Equilibrium Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arndt, Channing; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn
We introduce a maximum entropy approach to parameter estimation for computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. The approach applies information theory to estimating a system of nonlinear simultaneous equations. It has a number of advantages. First, it imposes all general equilibrium constraints...
Dividend taxation in an infinite-horizon general equilibrium model
Pham, Ngoc-Sang
2017-01-01
We consider an infinite-horizon general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agents and financial market imperfections. We investigate the role of dividend taxation on economic growth and asset price. The optimal dividend taxation is also studied.
Two point function for a simple general relativistic quantum model
Colosi, Daniele
2007-01-01
We study the quantum theory of a simple general relativistic quantum model of two coupled harmonic oscillators and compute the two-point function following a proposal first introduced in the context of loop quantum gravity.
Generalized model for Memristor-based Wien family oscillators
Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we report the unconventional characteristics of Memristor in Wien oscillators. Generalized mathematical models are developed to analyze four members of the Wien family using Memristors. Sustained oscillation is reported for all types
The DINA model as a constrained general diagnostic model: Two variants of a model equivalency.
von Davier, Matthias
2014-02-01
The 'deterministic-input noisy-AND' (DINA) model is one of the more frequently applied diagnostic classification models for binary observed responses and binary latent variables. The purpose of this paper is to show that the model is equivalent to a special case of a more general compensatory family of diagnostic models. Two equivalencies are presented. Both project the original DINA skill space and design Q-matrix using mappings into a transformed skill space as well as a transformed Q-matrix space. Both variants of the equivalency produce a compensatory model that is mathematically equivalent to the (conjunctive) DINA model. This equivalency holds for all DINA models with any type of Q-matrix, not only for trivial (simple-structure) cases. The two versions of the equivalency presented in this paper are not implied by the recently suggested log-linear cognitive diagnosis model or the generalized DINA approach. The equivalencies presented here exist independent of these recently derived models since they solely require a linear - compensatory - general diagnostic model without any skill interaction terms. Whenever it can be shown that one model can be viewed as a special case of another more general one, conclusions derived from any particular model-based estimates are drawn into question. It is widely known that multidimensional models can often be specified in multiple ways while the model-based probabilities of observed variables stay the same. This paper goes beyond this type of equivalency by showing that a conjunctive diagnostic classification model can be expressed as a constrained special case of a general compensatory diagnostic modelling framework. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
A Generalized QMRA Beta-Poisson Dose-Response Model.
Xie, Gang; Roiko, Anne; Stratton, Helen; Lemckert, Charles; Dunn, Peter K; Mengersen, Kerrie
2016-10-01
Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is widely accepted for characterizing the microbial risks associated with food, water, and wastewater. Single-hit dose-response models are the most commonly used dose-response models in QMRA. Denoting PI(d) as the probability of infection at a given mean dose d, a three-parameter generalized QMRA beta-Poisson dose-response model, PI(d|α,β,r*), is proposed in which the minimum number of organisms required for causing infection, K min , is not fixed, but a random variable following a geometric distribution with parameter 0Poisson model, PI(d|α,β), is a special case of the generalized model with K min = 1 (which implies r*=1). The generalized beta-Poisson model is based on a conceptual model with greater detail in the dose-response mechanism. Since a maximum likelihood solution is not easily available, a likelihood-free approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) algorithm is employed for parameter estimation. By fitting the generalized model to four experimental data sets from the literature, this study reveals that the posterior median r* estimates produced fall short of meeting the required condition of r* = 1 for single-hit assumption. However, three out of four data sets fitted by the generalized models could not achieve an improvement in goodness of fit. These combined results imply that, at least in some cases, a single-hit assumption for characterizing the dose-response process may not be appropriate, but that the more complex models may be difficult to support especially if the sample size is small. The three-parameter generalized model provides a possibility to investigate the mechanism of a dose-response process in greater detail than is possible under a single-hit model. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.
Specific and General Human Capital in an Endogenous Growth Model
Evangelia Vourvachaki; Vahagn Jerbashian; : Sergey Slobodyan
2014-01-01
In this article, we define specific (general) human capital in terms of the occupations whose use is spread in a limited (wide) set of industries. We analyze the growth impact of an economy's composition of specific and general human capital, in a model where education and research and development are costly and complementary activities. The model suggests that a declining share of specific human capital, as observed in the Czech Republic, can be associated with a lower rate of long-term grow...
Dynamical CP violation of the generalized Yang-Mills model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Dianfu; Chang Xiaojing; Sun Xiaoyu
2011-01-01
Starting from the generalized Yang-Mills model which contains, besides the vector part V μ , also a scalar part S and a pseudoscalar part P . It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, that CP violation can be realized dynamically. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills model and the NJL mechanism provides a new way to explain CP violation. (authors)
A general model for membrane-based separation processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soni, Vipasha; Abildskov, Jens; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil
2009-01-01
behaviour will play an important role. In this paper, modelling of membrane-based processes for separation of gas and liquid mixtures are considered. Two general models, one for membrane-based liquid separation processes (with phase change) and another for membrane-based gas separation are presented....... The separation processes covered are: membrane-based gas separation processes, pervaporation and various types of membrane distillation processes. The specific model for each type of membrane-based process is generated from the two general models by applying the specific system descriptions and the corresponding...
Generalized continua as models for classical and advanced materials
Forest, Samuel
2016-01-01
This volume is devoted to an actual topic which is the focus world-wide of various research groups. It contains contributions describing the material behavior on different scales, new existence and uniqueness theorems, the formulation of constitutive equations for advanced materials. The main emphasis of the contributions is directed on the following items - Modelling and simulation of natural and artificial materials with significant microstructure, - Generalized continua as a result of multi-scale models, - Multi-field actions on materials resulting in generalized material models, - Theories including higher gradients, and - Comparison with discrete modelling approaches.
Pricing Participating Products under a Generalized Jump-Diffusion Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tak Kuen Siu
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a model for valuing participating life insurance products under a generalized jump-diffusion model with a Markov-switching compensator. It also nests a number of important and popular models in finance, including the classes of jump-diffusion models and Markovian regime-switching models. The Esscher transform is employed to determine an equivalent martingale measure. Simulation experiments are conducted to illustrate the practical implementation of the model and to highlight some features that can be obtained from our model.
Multilevel Modeling and Policy Development: Guidelines and Applications to Medical Travel
Garcia-Garzon, Eduardo; Zhukovsky, Peter; Haller, Elisa; Plakolm, Sara; Fink, David; Petrova, Dafina; Mahalingam, Vaishali; Menezes, Igor G.; Ruggeri, Kai
2016-01-01
Medical travel has expanded rapidly in recent years, resulting in new markets and increased access to medical care. Whereas several studies investigated the motives of individuals seeking healthcare abroad, the conventional analytical approach is limited by substantial caveats. Classical techniques as found in the literature cannot provide sufficient insight due to the nested nature of data generated. The application of adequate analytical techniques, specifically multilevel modeling, is scarce to non-existent in the context of medical travel. This study introduces the guidelines for application of multilevel techniques in public health research by presenting an application of multilevel modeling in analyzing the decision-making patterns of potential medical travelers. Benefits and potential limitations are discussed. PMID:27252672
Multilevel Modeling and Policy Development: Guidelines and Applications to Medical Travel.
Garcia-Garzon, Eduardo; Zhukovsky, Peter; Haller, Elisa; Plakolm, Sara; Fink, David; Petrova, Dafina; Mahalingam, Vaishali; Menezes, Igor G; Ruggeri, Kai
2016-01-01
Medical travel has expanded rapidly in recent years, resulting in new markets and increased access to medical care. Whereas several studies investigated the motives of individuals seeking healthcare abroad, the conventional analytical approach is limited by substantial caveats. Classical techniques as found in the literature cannot provide sufficient insight due to the nested nature of data generated. The application of adequate analytical techniques, specifically multilevel modeling, is scarce to non-existent in the context of medical travel. This study introduces the guidelines for application of multilevel techniques in public health research by presenting an application of multilevel modeling in analyzing the decision-making patterns of potential medical travelers. Benefits and potential limitations are discussed.
Qualitative and quantitative guidelines for the comparison of environmental model predictions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, M.
1995-03-01
The question of how to assess or compare predictions from a number of models is one of concern in the validation of models, in understanding the effects of different models and model parameterizations on model output, and ultimately in assessing model reliability. Comparison of model predictions with observed data is the basic tool of model validation while comparison of predictions amongst different models provides one measure of model credibility. The guidance provided here is intended to provide qualitative and quantitative approaches (including graphical and statistical techniques) to such comparisons for use within the BIOMOVS II project. It is hoped that others may find it useful. It contains little technical information on the actual methods but several references are provided for the interested reader. The guidelines are illustrated on data from the VAMP CB scenario. Unfortunately, these data do not permit all of the possible approaches to be demonstrated since predicted uncertainties were not provided. The questions considered are concerned with a) intercomparison of model predictions and b) comparison of model predictions with the observed data. A series of examples illustrating some of the different types of data structure and some possible analyses have been constructed. A bibliography of references on model validation is provided. It is important to note that the results of the various techniques discussed here, whether qualitative or quantitative, should not be considered in isolation. Overall model performance must also include an evaluation of model structure and formulation, i.e. conceptual model uncertainties, and results for performance measures must be interpreted in this context. Consider a number of models which are used to provide predictions of a number of quantities at a number of time points. In the case of the VAMP CB scenario, the results include predictions of total deposition of Cs-137 and time dependent concentrations in various
International Competition and Inequality: A Generalized Ricardian Model
Adolfo Figueroa
2014-01-01
Why does the gap in real wage rates persist between the First World and the Third World after so many years of increasing globalization? The standard neoclassical trade model predicts that real wage rates will be equalized with international trade, whereas the standard Ricardian trade model does not. Facts are thus consistent with the Ricardian model. However, this model leaves undetermined income distribution. The objective of this paper is to fill this gap by developing a generalized Ricard...
Adaptation of a general circulation model to ocean dynamics
Turner, R. E.; Rees, T. H.; Woodbury, G. E.
1976-01-01
A primitive-variable general circulation model of the ocean was formulated in which fast external gravity waves are suppressed with rigid-lid surface constraint pressires which also provide a means for simulating the effects of large-scale free-surface topography. The surface pressure method is simpler to apply than the conventional stream function models, and the resulting model can be applied to both global ocean and limited region situations. Strengths and weaknesses of the model are also presented.
Ohlsson, Henrik; Merlo, Juan
2009-08-01
Therapeutic traditions at health care practices (HCPs) influence physicians' adherence to prescription guidelines for specific drugs, however, it is not known if such traditions affect all kinds of prescriptions or only specific types of drug. Our goal was to determine whether adherence to prescription guidelines is a common trait of HCPs or dependent on drug type. We fitted separate multi-level logistic regression models to all patients in the Skåne region who received a prescription for a statin drug (ATC: C10AA, n = 6232), an agent acting on the renin-angiotensin system (ATC: C09, n = 7222) or a proton pump inhibitor (ATC: A02BC, n = 11 563) at 198 HCPs from July 2006 to December 2006. There was a high clustering of adherence to prescription guidelines at HCPs for the different drug types (MOR(agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system) = 4.72 [95% CI: 3.90-5.92], MOR(Statins) = 2.71 [95% CI: 2.23-3.39] and MOR(Proton pump inhibitors) = 2.16 [95% CI: 1.95-2.45]). Compared with HCPs with low adherence to guidelines in two drug types, those HCPs with the highest level of adherence for these two drug types also showed a higher probability of adherence for the third drug type. Physicians' decisions to follow prescription guidelines seem to be influenced by therapeutic traditions at the HCP. Moreover, these therapeutic traditions seem to affect all kinds of prescriptions. This information can be used as basis for interventions to support rational and cost-effective medication use. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A generalized statistical model for the size distribution of wealth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clementi, F; Gallegati, M; Kaniadakis, G
2012-01-01
In a recent paper in this journal (Clementi et al 2009 J. Stat. Mech. P02037), we proposed a new, physically motivated, distribution function for modeling individual incomes, having its roots in the framework of the κ-generalized statistical mechanics. The performance of the κ-generalized distribution was checked against real data on personal income for the United States in 2003. In this paper we extend our previous model so as to be able to account for the distribution of wealth. Probabilistic functions and inequality measures of this generalized model for wealth distribution are obtained in closed form. In order to check the validity of the proposed model, we analyze the US household wealth distributions from 1984 to 2009 and conclude an excellent agreement with the data that is superior to any other model already known in the literature. (paper)
A generalized statistical model for the size distribution of wealth
Clementi, F.; Gallegati, M.; Kaniadakis, G.
2012-12-01
In a recent paper in this journal (Clementi et al 2009 J. Stat. Mech. P02037), we proposed a new, physically motivated, distribution function for modeling individual incomes, having its roots in the framework of the κ-generalized statistical mechanics. The performance of the κ-generalized distribution was checked against real data on personal income for the United States in 2003. In this paper we extend our previous model so as to be able to account for the distribution of wealth. Probabilistic functions and inequality measures of this generalized model for wealth distribution are obtained in closed form. In order to check the validity of the proposed model, we analyze the US household wealth distributions from 1984 to 2009 and conclude an excellent agreement with the data that is superior to any other model already known in the literature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brannon, R.M.; Wong, M.K.
1996-08-01
A set of model interface guidelines, called MIG, is presented as a means by which any compliant numerical material model can be rapidly installed into any parent code without having to modify the model subroutines. Here, {open_quotes}model{close_quotes} usually means a material model such as one that computes stress as a function of strain, though the term may be extended to any numerical operation. {open_quotes}Parent code{close_quotes} means a hydrocode, finite element code, etc. which uses the model and enforces, say, the fundamental laws of motion and thermodynamics. MIG requires the model developer (who creates the model package) to specify model needs in a standardized but flexible way. MIG includes a dictionary of technical terms that allows developers and parent code architects to share a common vocabulary when specifying field variables. For portability, database management is the responsibility of the parent code. Input/output occurs via structured calling arguments. As much model information as possible (such as the lists of required inputs, as well as lists of precharacterized material data and special needs) is supplied by the model developer in an ASCII text file. Every MIG-compliant model also has three required subroutines to check data, to request extra field variables, and to perform model physics. To date, the MIG scheme has proven flexible in beta installations of a simple yield model, plus a more complicated viscodamage yield model, three electromechanical models, and a complicated anisotropic microcrack constitutive model. The MIG yield model has been successfully installed using identical subroutines in three vectorized parent codes and one parallel C++ code, all predicting comparable results. By maintaining one model for many codes, MIG facilitates code-to-code comparisons and reduces duplication of effort, thereby reducing the cost of installing and sharing models in diverse new codes.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Drummond, Frances J
2009-01-01
BACKGROUND: Increased use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been associated with increased prostate cancer incidence. Ireland is estimated to have one of the highest prostate cancer incidences in Europe and has no national guidelines for prostate cancer screening. GPs have a pivotal role in influencing PSA testing, therefore, our aim was to describe GP testing practices and to identify factors influencing these. METHODS: A postal survey, including questions on clinical practice and experience, knowledge and demographics was distributed to all GPs (n = 3,683). The main outcomes were (i) PSA testing asymptomatic men and (ii) "inappropriate" PSA testing, defined as testing asymptomatic men aged < 50 or > 75 years. Factors associated with these outcomes were identified using logistic regression. RESULTS: 1,625 GPs responded (response rate corrected for eligibility = 53%). Most respondents (79%) would PSA test asymptomatic men. Of these, 34% and 51% would test asymptomatic men < 50 and > 75 years, respectively. In multivariate analyses, GPs were more likely to test asymptomatic men if they were >or= 50 years, in practice >or= 10 years, female or less knowledgeable about PSA efficacy. Male GPs who would have a PSA test themselves were > 8-times more likely to PSA test asymptomatic men than GPs who would not have a test. GPs who had an asymptomatic patient diagnosed with prostate cancer following PSA testing, were > 3-times more likely to test asymptomatic men. Practice-related factors positively associated with testing included: running \\'well man\\' clinics, performing occupational health checks and performing other tests routinely with PSA. Factors positively associated with \\'inappropriate\\' testing included; being male and willing to have a PSA test, having worked\\/trained in the UK and supporting annual PSA testing. 91% of respondents supported the development of national PSA testing guidelines. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that widespread PSA testing
Generalized entropy formalism and a new holographic dark energy model
Sayahian Jahromi, A.; Moosavi, S. A.; Moradpour, H.; Morais Graça, J. P.; Lobo, I. P.; Salako, I. G.; Jawad, A.
2018-05-01
Recently, the Rényi and Tsallis generalized entropies have extensively been used in order to study various cosmological and gravitational setups. Here, using a special type of generalized entropy, a generalization of both the Rényi and Tsallis entropy, together with holographic principle, we build a new model for holographic dark energy. Thereinafter, considering a flat FRW universe, filled by a pressureless component and the new obtained dark energy model, the evolution of cosmos has been investigated showing satisfactory results and behavior. In our model, the Hubble horizon plays the role of IR cutoff, and there is no mutual interaction between the cosmos components. Our results indicate that the generalized entropy formalism may open a new window to become more familiar with the nature of spacetime and its properties.
A generalized model via random walks for information filtering
Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Kong, Yixiu; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
2016-08-01
There could exist a simple general mechanism lurking beneath collaborative filtering and interdisciplinary physics approaches which have been successfully applied to online E-commerce platforms. Motivated by this idea, we propose a generalized model employing the dynamics of the random walk in the bipartite networks. Taking into account the degree information, the proposed generalized model could deduce the collaborative filtering, interdisciplinary physics approaches and even the enormous expansion of them. Furthermore, we analyze the generalized model with single and hybrid of degree information on the process of random walk in bipartite networks, and propose a possible strategy by using the hybrid degree information for different popular objects to toward promising precision of the recommendation.
40 CFR Appendix W to Part 51 - Guideline on Air Quality Models
2010-07-01
... CTDMPLUS and a terrain processor is available. 27 A discussion of the model's performance characteristics... text editor; using both methods to select receptors will generally be necessary to assure that the... regulatory applications in all types of terrain, the recommended model is AERMOD. This recommendation is...
Merons in a generally covariant model with Gursey term
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akdeniz, K.G.; Smailagic, A.
1982-10-01
We study meron solutions of the generally covariant and Weyl invariant fermionic model with Gursey term. We find that, due to the presence of this term, merons can exist even without the cosmological constant. This is a new feature compared to previously studied models. (author)
Simulation modelling in agriculture: General considerations. | R.I. ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A computer simulation model is a detailed working hypothesis about a given system. The computer does all the necessary arithmetic when the hypothesis is invoked to predict the future behaviour of the simulated system under given conditions.A general pragmatic approach to model building is discussed; techniques are ...
Response of an ocean general circulation model to wind and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The stretched-coordinate ocean general circulation model has been designed to study the observed variability due to wind and thermodynamic forcings. The model domain extends from 60°N to 60°S and cyclically continuous in the longitudinal direction. The horizontal resolution is 5° × 5° and 9 discrete vertical levels.
General Separations Area (GSA) Groundwater Flow Model Update: Hydrostratigraphic Data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bagwell, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bennett, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2017-02-21
This document describes the assembly, selection, and interpretation of hydrostratigraphic data for input to an updated groundwater flow model for the General Separations Area (GSA; Figure 1) at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is one of several discrete but interrelated tasks that support development of an updated groundwater model (Bagwell and Flach, 2016).
Simplicial models for trace spaces II: General higher dimensional automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raussen, Martin
of directed paths with given end points in a pre-cubical complex as the nerve of a particular category. The paper generalizes the results from Raussen [19, 18] in which we had to assume that the HDA in question arises from a semaphore model. In particular, important for applications, it allows for models...
Generalized algebra-valued models of set theory
Löwe, B.; Tarafder, S.
2015-01-01
We generalize the construction of lattice-valued models of set theory due to Takeuti, Titani, Kozawa and Ozawa to a wider class of algebras and show that this yields a model of a paraconsistent logic that validates all axioms of the negation-free fragment of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory.
Efficient probabilistic model checking on general purpose graphic processors
Bosnacki, D.; Edelkamp, S.; Sulewski, D.; Pasareanu, C.S.
2009-01-01
We present algorithms for parallel probabilistic model checking on general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPUs). For this purpose we exploit the fact that some of the basic algorithms for probabilistic model checking rely on matrix vector multiplication. Since this kind of linear algebraic
Stability analysis for a general age-dependent vaccination model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Doma, M.
1995-05-01
An SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination model is investigated when the fertility, mortality and removal rates depends on age. We give threshold criteria of the existence of equilibriums and perform stability analysis. Furthermore a critical vaccination coverage that is sufficient to eradicate the disease is determined. (author). 12 refs
A General Polygon-based Deformable Model for Object Recognition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Rune Fisker; Carstensen, Jens Michael
1999-01-01
We propose a general scheme for object localization and recognition based on a deformable model. The model combines shape and image properties by warping a arbitrary prototype intensity template according to the deformation in shape. The shape deformations are constrained by a probabilistic distr...
A General Microscopic Traffic Model Yielding Dissipative Shocks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Caputo, Jean Guy; Christiansen, Peter Leth
2018-01-01
We consider a general microscopic traffic model with a delay. An algebraic traffic function reduces the equation to the Aw-Rascle microscopic model while a sigmoid function gives the standard “follow the leader”. For zero delay we prove that the homogeneous solution is globally stable...
Nature of dynamical suppressions in the generalized Veneziano model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Odorico, R.
1976-05-01
It is shown by explicit numerical calculations that of a class of coupling suppressions existing in the generalized Veneziano model, which have been recently used to interpret the psi data and other related phenomena, only a part can be attributed to the exponential growth with energy of the number of levels in the model. The remaining suppressions have a more direct dual origin
Bayesian Subset Modeling for High-Dimensional Generalized Linear Models
Liang, Faming; Song, Qifan; Yu, Kai
2013-01-01
criterion model. The consistency of the resulting posterior is established under mild conditions. Further, a variable screening procedure is proposed based on the marginal inclusion probability, which shares the same properties of sure screening
Infrared problems in two-dimensional generalized σ-models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curci, G.; Paffuti, G.
1989-01-01
We study the correlations of the energy-momentum tensor for classically conformally invariant generalized σ-models in the Wilson operator-product-expansion approach. We find that these correlations are, in general, infrared divergent. The absence of infrared divergences is obtained, as one can expect, for σ-models on a group manifold or for σ-models with a string-like interpretation. Moreover, the infrared divergences spoil the naive scaling arguments used by Zamolodchikov in the demonstration of the C-theorem. (orig.)
Calibration and validation of a general infiltration model
Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Ranjan Kumar, Shashi; Singh, Vijay P.
1999-08-01
A general infiltration model proposed by Singh and Yu (1990) was calibrated and validated using a split sampling approach for 191 sets of infiltration data observed in the states of Minnesota and Georgia in the USA. Of the five model parameters, fc (the final infiltration rate), So (the available storage space) and exponent n were found to be more predictable than the other two parameters: m (exponent) and a (proportionality factor). A critical examination of the general model revealed that it is related to the Soil Conservation Service (1956) curve number (SCS-CN) method and its parameter So is equivalent to the potential maximum retention of the SCS-CN method and is, in turn, found to be a function of soil sorptivity and hydraulic conductivity. The general model was found to describe infiltration rate with time varying curve number.
Partially Observed Mixtures of IRT Models: An Extension of the Generalized Partial-Credit Model
Von Davier, Matthias; Yamamoto, Kentaro
2004-01-01
The generalized partial-credit model (GPCM) is used frequently in educational testing and in large-scale assessments for analyzing polytomous data. Special cases of the generalized partial-credit model are the partial-credit model--or Rasch model for ordinal data--and the two parameter logistic (2PL) model. This article extends the GPCM to the…
Peters-Klimm, Frank; Müller-Tasch, Thomas; Remppis, Andrew; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Schellberg, Dieter
2008-10-01
Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) reflect the evidence of effective pharmacotherapy of chronic (systolic) heart failure (CHF) which needs to be implemented. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a new, multifaceted intervention (educational train-the-trainer course plus pharmacotherapy feedback = TTT) compared with standard education on guideline adherence (GA) in general practice. Thirty-seven participating general practitioners (GPs) were randomized (18 vs. 19) and included 168 patients with ascertained symptomatic CHF [New York Heart Association (NYHA) II-IV]. Groups received CPG, the TTT intervention consisted of four interactive educational meetings and a pharmacotherapy feedback, while the control group received a usual lecture (Standard). Outcome measure was GA assessed by prescription rates and target dosing of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), beta-blockers (BB) and aldosterone antagonists (AA) at baseline and 7-month follow-up. Group comparisons at follow-up were adjusted to GA, sex, age and NYHA stage at baseline. Prescription rates at baseline (n = 168) were high (ACE-I/ARB 90, BB 79 and AA 29%) in both groups. At follow up (n = 146), TTT improved compared with Standard regarding AA (43% vs. 23%, P = 0.04) and the rates of reached target doses of ACE-I/ARB (28% vs. 15%, P = 0.04). TTT group achieved significantly higher mean percentages of daily target dose (52% vs. 42%, mean difference 10.3%, 95% CI 0.84-19.8, P = 0.03). Despite of pre-existing high GA in both groups and an active control group, the multifaceted intervention was effective in quality of care measured by GA. Further research is needed on the choice of interventions in different provider populations.
Generalized Tavis-Cummings models and quantum networks
Gorokhov, A. V.
2018-04-01
The properties of quantum networks based on generalized Tavis-Cummings models are theoretically investigated. We have calculated the information transfer success rate from one node to another in a simple model of a quantum network realized with two-level atoms placed in the cavities and interacting with an external laser field and cavity photons. The method of dynamical group of the Hamiltonian and technique of corresponding coherent states were used for investigation of the temporal dynamics of the two nodes model.
Chatterjee, Robin; Chapman, Tim; Brannan, Mike Gt; Varney, Justin
2017-10-01
Physical activity (PA) brief advice in health care is effective at getting individuals active. It has been suggested that one in four people would be more active if advised by a GP or nurse, but as many as 72% of GPs do not discuss the benefits of physical activity with patients. To assess the knowledge, use, and confidence in national PA and Chief Medical Officer (CMO) health guidelines and tools among GPs in England. Online questionnaire-based survey of self-selecting GPs in England that took place over a 10-day period in March 2016. The questionnaire consisted of six multiple-choice questions and was available on the Doctors.net.uk (DNUK) homepage. Quotas were used to ensure good regional representation. The final analysis included 1013 responses. Only 20% of responders were broadly or very familiar with the national PA guidelines. In all, 70% of GPs were aware of the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), but 26% were not familiar with any PA assessment tools, and 55% reported that they had not undertaken any training with respect to encouraging PA. The majority of GPs in England (80%) are unfamiliar with the national PA guidelines. Awareness of the recommended tool for assessment, GPPAQ, is higher than use by GPs. This may be because it is used by other clinical staff, for example, as part of the NHS Health Check programme. Although brief advice in isolation by GPs on PA will only be a part of the behaviour change journey, it is an important prompt, especially if repeated as part of routine practice. This study highlights the need for significant improvement in knowledge, skills, and confidence to maximise the potential for PA advice in GP consultations. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Estimating and Forecasting Generalized Fractional Long Memory Stochastic Volatility Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shelton Peiris
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper considers a flexible class of time series models generated by Gegenbauer polynomials incorporating the long memory in stochastic volatility (SV components in order to develop the General Long Memory SV (GLMSV model. We examine the corresponding statistical properties of this model, discuss the spectral likelihood estimation and investigate the finite sample properties via Monte Carlo experiments. We provide empirical evidence by applying the GLMSV model to three exchange rate return series and conjecture that the results of out-of-sample forecasts adequately confirm the use of GLMSV model in certain financial applications.
Generalized heat-transport equations: parabolic and hyperbolic models
Rogolino, Patrizia; Kovács, Robert; Ván, Peter; Cimmelli, Vito Antonio
2018-03-01
We derive two different generalized heat-transport equations: the most general one, of the first order in time and second order in space, encompasses some well-known heat equations and describes the hyperbolic regime in the absence of nonlocal effects. Another, less general, of the second order in time and fourth order in space, is able to describe hyperbolic heat conduction also in the presence of nonlocal effects. We investigate the thermodynamic compatibility of both models by applying some generalizations of the classical Liu and Coleman-Noll procedures. In both cases, constitutive equations for the entropy and for the entropy flux are obtained. For the second model, we consider a heat-transport equation which includes nonlocal terms and study the resulting set of balance laws, proving that the corresponding thermal perturbations propagate with finite speed.
Generalized semi-Markovian dividend discount model: risk and return
D'Amico, Guglielmo
2016-01-01
The article presents a general discrete time dividend valuation model when the dividend growth rate is a general continuous variable. The main assumption is that the dividend growth rate follows a discrete time semi-Markov chain with measurable space. The paper furnishes sufficient conditions that assure finiteness of fundamental prices and risks and new equations that describe the first and second order price-dividend ratios. Approximation methods to solve equations are provided and some new...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-10-01
Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported
Practical likelihood analysis for spatial generalized linear mixed models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bonat, W. H.; Ribeiro, Paulo Justiniano
2016-01-01
We investigate an algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of spatial generalized linear mixed models based on the Laplace approximation. We compare our algorithm with a set of alternative approaches for two datasets from the literature. The Rhizoctonia root rot and the Rongelap are......, respectively, examples of binomial and count datasets modeled by spatial generalized linear mixed models. Our results show that the Laplace approximation provides similar estimates to Markov Chain Monte Carlo likelihood, Monte Carlo expectation maximization, and modified Laplace approximation. Some advantages...... of Laplace approximation include the computation of the maximized log-likelihood value, which can be used for model selection and tests, and the possibility to obtain realistic confidence intervals for model parameters based on profile likelihoods. The Laplace approximation also avoids the tuning...
Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population
Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.
2016-03-01
Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.
A general diagnostic model applied to language testing data.
von Davier, Matthias
2008-11-01
Probabilistic models with one or more latent variables are designed to report on a corresponding number of skills or cognitive attributes. Multidimensional skill profiles offer additional information beyond what a single test score can provide, if the reported skills can be identified and distinguished reliably. Many recent approaches to skill profile models are limited to dichotomous data and have made use of computationally intensive estimation methods such as Markov chain Monte Carlo, since standard maximum likelihood (ML) estimation techniques were deemed infeasible. This paper presents a general diagnostic model (GDM) that can be estimated with standard ML techniques and applies to polytomous response variables as well as to skills with two or more proficiency levels. The paper uses one member of a larger class of diagnostic models, a compensatory diagnostic model for dichotomous and partial credit data. Many well-known models, such as univariate and multivariate versions of the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic item response theory model, the generalized partial credit model, as well as a variety of skill profile models, are special cases of this GDM. In addition to an introduction to this model, the paper presents a parameter recovery study using simulated data and an application to real data from the field test for TOEFL Internet-based testing.
Xanthos, Theodoros; Tsirikos-Karapanos, Nikolas; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Tsiftsi, Katerina; Ekmektzoglou, Konstantinos A; Papadimitriou, Lila
2007-06-01
Ventricular fibrillation remains the leading cause of death in western societies. International organizations publish guidelines to follow in case of cardiac arrest. The aim of the present study is to assess whether the newly published guidelines record similar resuscitation success with the 2000 Advanced Life Support Guidelines on Resuscitation in a swine model of cardiac arrest. Nineteen landrace/large white pigs were used. Ventricular fibrillation was induced with the use of a transvenous pacing wire inserted into the right ventricle. The animals were randomized into two groups. In Group A, 10 animals were resuscitated using the 2000 guidelines, whereas in Group B, 9 animals were resuscitated using the 2005 guidelines. Both algorithms recorded similar successful resuscitation rates, as 60% of the animals in Group A and 44.5% in Group B were successfully resuscitated. However, animals in Group A restored a rhythm, compatible with a pulse, quicker than those in Group B (p=0.002). Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was not adversely affected by three defibrillation attempts in Group A. Both algorithms' resulted in comparable resuscitation success, however, guidelines 2000 resulted in faster resuscitation times. These preliminary results merit further investigation.
O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; MacFarlane, Anne; de Brún, Tomas; Okonkwo, Ekaterina; Bonsenge Bokanga, Jean Samuel; Manuela De Almeida Silva, Maria; Ogbebor, Florence; Mierzejewska, Aga; Nnadi, Lovina; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; van Weel, Chris
2015-09-21
The aim of this research was to involve migrants and other key stakeholders in a participatory dialogue to develop a guideline for enhancing communication in cross-cultural general practice consultations. In this paper, we focus on findings about the use of formal versus informal interpreters because dialogues about these issues emerged as central to the identification of recommendations for best practice. This qualitative case study involved a Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) research methodology. The sample comprised 80 stakeholders: 51 from migrant communities; 15 general practitioners (GPs) and general practice staff; 7 established migrants as peer researchers; 5 formal, trained interpreters; and 2 service planners from the national health authority. Galway, Ireland. There was 100% consensus across stakeholder groups that while informal interpreters have uses for migrants and general practice staff, they are not considered acceptable as best practice. There was also 100% consensus that formal interpreters who are trained and working as per a professional code of practice are acceptable as best practice. Policymakers and service planners need to work in partnership with service providers and migrants to progress the implementation of professional, trained interpreters as a routine way of working in general practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Generalized additive model of air pollution to daily mortality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J.; Yang, H.E.
2005-01-01
The association of air pollution with daily mortality due to cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and old age (65 or older) in Seoul, Korea was investigated in 1999 using daily values of TSP, PM10, O 3 , SO 2 , NO 2 , and CO. Generalized additive Poisson models were applied to allow for the highly flexible fitting of daily trends in air pollution as well as nonlinear association with meteorological variables such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed. To estimate the effect of air pollution and weather on mortality, LOESS smoothing was used in generalized additive models. The findings suggest that air pollution levels affect significantly the daily mortality. (orig.)
Symonds, Erin L; Simpson, Kalindra; Coats, Michelle; Chaplin, Angela; Saxty, Karen; Sandford, Jayne; Young Am, Graeme P; Cock, Charles; Fraser, Robert; Bampton, Peter A
2018-06-18
To examine the compliance of colorectal cancer surveillance decisions for individuals at greater risk with current evidence-based guidelines and to determine whether compliance differs between surveillance models. Prospective auditing of compliance of surveillance decisions with evidence-based guidelines (NHMRC) in two decision-making models: nurse coordinator-led decision making in public academic hospitals and physician-led decision making in private non-academic hospitals. Selected South Australian hospitals participating in the Southern Co-operative Program for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer (SCOOP). Proportions of recall recommendations that matched NHMRC guideline recommendations (March-May 2015); numbers of surveillance colonoscopies undertaken more than 6 months ahead of schedule (January-December 2015); proportions of significant neoplasia findings during the 15 years of SCOOP operation (2000-2015). For the nurse-led/public academic hospital model, the recall interval recommendation following 398 of 410 colonoscopies (97%) with findings covered by NHMRC guidelines corresponded to the guideline recommendations; for the physician-led/private non-academic hospital model, this applied to 257 of 310 colonoscopies (83%) (P < 0.001). During 2015, 27% of colonoscopies in public academic hospitals (mean, 27 months; SD, 13 months) and 20% of those in private non-academic hospitals (mean, 23 months; SD, 12 months) were performed more than 6 months earlier than scheduled, in most cases because of patient-related factors (symptoms, faecal occult blood test results). The ratio of the numbers of high risk adenomas to cancers increased from 6.6:1 during 2001-2005 to 16:1 during 2011-2015. The nurse-led/public academic hospital model for decisions about colorectal cancer surveillance intervals achieves a high degree of compliance with guideline recommendations, which should relieve burdening of colonoscopy resources.
Spronk, I.; Korevaar, J.C.; Burgers, J.S.; Albreht, T.; Schellevis, F.G.
2017-01-01
Background. General practitioners (GPs) will face cancer recurrences more frequently due to the rising number of cancer survivors and greater involvement of GPs in the follow-up care. Currently, GPs are uncertain about managing recurrence risks and may need more guidance. Objective. To explore what
Generalized memory associativity in a network model for the neuroses
Wedemann, Roseli S.; Donangelo, Raul; de Carvalho, Luís A. V.
2009-03-01
We review concepts introduced in earlier work, where a neural network mechanism describes some mental processes in neurotic pathology and psychoanalytic working-through, as associative memory functioning, according to the findings of Freud. We developed a complex network model, where modules corresponding to sensorial and symbolic memories interact, representing unconscious and conscious mental processes. The model illustrates Freud's idea that consciousness is related to symbolic and linguistic memory activity in the brain. We have introduced a generalization of the Boltzmann machine to model memory associativity. Model behavior is illustrated with simulations and some of its properties are analyzed with methods from statistical mechanics.
Automation of electroweak NLO corrections in general models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lang, Jean-Nicolas [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)
2016-07-01
I discuss the automation of generation of scattering amplitudes in general quantum field theories at next-to-leading order in perturbation theory. The work is based on Recola, a highly efficient one-loop amplitude generator for the Standard Model, which I have extended so that it can deal with general quantum field theories. Internally, Recola computes off-shell currents and for new models new rules for off-shell currents emerge which are derived from the Feynman rules. My work relies on the UFO format which can be obtained by a suited model builder, e.g. FeynRules. I have developed tools to derive the necessary counterterm structures and to perform the renormalization within Recola in an automated way. I describe the procedure using the example of the two-Higgs-doublet model.
Seasonal predictability of Kiremt rainfall in coupled general circulation models
Gleixner, Stephanie; Keenlyside, Noel S.; Demissie, Teferi D.; Counillon, François; Wang, Yiguo; Viste, Ellen
2017-11-01
The Ethiopian economy and population is strongly dependent on rainfall. Operational seasonal predictions for the main rainy season (Kiremt, June-September) are based on statistical approaches with Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST) as the main predictor. Here we analyse dynamical predictions from 11 coupled general circulation models for the Kiremt seasons from 1985-2005 with the forecasts starting from the beginning of May. We find skillful predictions from three of the 11 models, but no model beats a simple linear prediction model based on the predicted Niño3.4 indices. The skill of the individual models for dynamically predicting Kiremt rainfall depends on the strength of the teleconnection between Kiremt rainfall and concurrent Pacific SST in the models. Models that do not simulate this teleconnection fail to capture the observed relationship between Kiremt rainfall and the large-scale Walker circulation.
Interacting holographic dark energy models: a general approach
Som, S.; Sil, A.
2014-08-01
Dark energy models inspired by the cosmological holographic principle are studied in homogeneous isotropic spacetime with a general choice for the dark energy density . Special choices of the parameters enable us to obtain three different holographic models, including the holographic Ricci dark energy (RDE) model. Effect of interaction between dark matter and dark energy on the dynamics of those models are investigated for different popular forms of interaction. It is found that crossing of phantom divide can be avoided in RDE models for β>0.5 irrespective of the presence of interaction. A choice of α=1 and β=2/3 leads to a varying Λ-like model introducing an IR cutoff length Λ -1/2. It is concluded that among the popular choices an interaction of the form Q∝ Hρ m suits the best in avoiding the coincidence problem in this model.
a Model Study of Small-Scale World Map Generalization
Cheng, Y.; Yin, Y.; Li, C. M.; Wu, W.; Guo, P. P.; Ma, X. L.; Hu, F. M.
2018-04-01
With the globalization and rapid development every filed is taking an increasing interest in physical geography and human economics. There is a surging demand for small scale world map in large formats all over the world. Further study of automated mapping technology, especially the realization of small scale production on a large scale global map, is the key of the cartographic field need to solve. In light of this, this paper adopts the improved model (with the map and data separated) in the field of the mapmaking generalization, which can separate geographic data from mapping data from maps, mainly including cross-platform symbols and automatic map-making knowledge engine. With respect to the cross-platform symbol library, the symbol and the physical symbol in the geographic information are configured at all scale levels. With respect to automatic map-making knowledge engine consists 97 types, 1086 subtypes, 21845 basic algorithm and over 2500 relevant functional modules.In order to evaluate the accuracy and visual effect of our model towards topographic maps and thematic maps, we take the world map generalization in small scale as an example. After mapping generalization process, combining and simplifying the scattered islands make the map more explicit at 1 : 2.1 billion scale, and the map features more complete and accurate. Not only it enhance the map generalization of various scales significantly, but achieve the integration among map-makings of various scales, suggesting that this model provide a reference in cartographic generalization for various scales.
Study of the properties of general relativistic Kink model (GRK)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, L.C.S. de.
1980-01-01
The stability of the general relativistic Kink model (GRK) is studied. It is shown that the model is stable at least against radial perturbations. Furthermore, the Dirac field in the background of the geometry generated by the GRK is studied. It is verified that the GRK localizes the Dirac field, around the region of largest curvature. The physical interpretation of this system (the Dirac field in the GRK background) is discussed. (Author) [pt
Optimisation of a parallel ocean general circulation model
M. I. Beare; D. P. Stevens
1997-01-01
International audience; This paper presents the development of a general-purpose parallel ocean circulation model, for use on a wide range of computer platforms, from traditional scalar machines to workstation clusters and massively parallel processors. Parallelism is provided, as a modular option, via high-level message-passing routines, thus hiding the technical intricacies from the user. An initial implementation highlights that the parallel efficiency of the model is adversely affected by...
A general graphical user interface for automatic reliability modeling
Liceaga, Carlos A.; Siewiorek, Daniel P.
1991-01-01
Reported here is a general Graphical User Interface (GUI) for automatic reliability modeling of Processor Memory Switch (PMS) structures using a Markov model. This GUI is based on a hierarchy of windows. One window has graphical editing capabilities for specifying the system's communication structure, hierarchy, reconfiguration capabilities, and requirements. Other windows have field texts, popup menus, and buttons for specifying parameters and selecting actions. An example application of the GUI is given.
Optimal Designs for the Generalized Partial Credit Model
Bürkner, Paul-Christian; Schwabe, Rainer; Holling, Heinz
2018-01-01
Analyzing ordinal data becomes increasingly important in psychology, especially in the context of item response theory. The generalized partial credit model (GPCM) is probably the most widely used ordinal model and finds application in many large scale educational assessment studies such as PISA. In the present paper, optimal test designs are investigated for estimating persons' abilities with the GPCM for calibrated tests when item parameters are known from previous studies. We will derive t...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qinghua Xie
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, a general polarimetric model-based decomposition framework was proposed by Chen et al., which addresses several well-known limitations in previous decomposition methods and implements a simultaneous full-parameter inversion by using complete polarimetric information. However, it only employs four typical models to characterize the volume scattering component, which limits the parameter inversion performance. To overcome this issue, this paper presents two general polarimetric model-based decomposition methods by incorporating the generalized volume scattering model (GVSM or simplified adaptive volume scattering model, (SAVSM proposed by Antropov et al. and Huang et al., respectively, into the general decomposition framework proposed by Chen et al. By doing so, the final volume coherency matrix structure is selected from a wide range of volume scattering models within a continuous interval according to the data itself without adding unknowns. Moreover, the new approaches rely on one nonlinear optimization stage instead of four as in the previous method proposed by Chen et al. In addition, the parameter inversion procedure adopts the modified algorithm proposed by Xie et al. which leads to higher accuracy and more physically reliable output parameters. A number of Monte Carlo simulations of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR data are carried out and show that the proposed method with GVSM yields an overall improvement in the final accuracy of estimated parameters and outperforms both the version using SAVSM and the original approach. In addition, C-band Radarsat-2 and L-band AIRSAR fully polarimetric images over the San Francisco region are also used for testing purposes. A detailed comparison and analysis of decomposition results over different land-cover types are conducted. According to this study, the use of general decomposition models leads to a more accurate quantitative retrieval of target parameters. However, there
A formal approach to the analysis of clinical computer-interpretable guideline modeling languages.
Grando, M Adela; Glasspool, David; Fox, John
2012-01-01
To develop proof strategies to formally study the expressiveness of workflow-based languages, and to investigate their applicability to clinical computer-interpretable guideline (CIG) modeling languages. We propose two strategies for studying the expressiveness of workflow-based languages based on a standard set of workflow patterns expressed as Petri nets (PNs) and notions of congruence and bisimilarity from process calculus. Proof that a PN-based pattern P can be expressed in a language L can be carried out semi-automatically. Proof that a language L cannot provide the behavior specified by a PNP requires proof by exhaustion based on analysis of cases and cannot be performed automatically. The proof strategies are generic but we exemplify their use with a particular CIG modeling language, PROforma. To illustrate the method we evaluate the expressiveness of PROforma against three standard workflow patterns and compare our results with a previous similar but informal comparison. We show that the two proof strategies are effective in evaluating a CIG modeling language against standard workflow patterns. We find that using the proposed formal techniques we obtain different results to a comparable previously published but less formal study. We discuss the utility of these analyses as the basis for principled extensions to CIG modeling languages. Additionally we explain how the same proof strategies can be reused to prove the satisfaction of patterns expressed in the declarative language CIGDec. The proof strategies we propose are useful tools for analysing the expressiveness of CIG modeling languages. This study provides good evidence of the benefits of applying formal methods of proof over semi-formal ones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Anisotropic cosmological models and generalized scalar tensor theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper generalized scalar tensor theory has been considered in the background of anisotropic cosmological models, namely, axially symmetric Bianchi-I, Bianchi-III and Kortowski–. Sachs space-time. For bulk viscous fluid, both exponential and power-law solutions have been stud- ied and some assumptions ...
Anisotropic cosmological models and generalized scalar tensor theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper generalized scalar tensor theory has been considered in the background of anisotropic cosmological models, namely, axially symmetric Bianchi-I, Bianchi-III and Kortowski–Sachs space-time. For bulk viscous ﬂuid, both exponential and power-law solutions have been studied and some assumptions among the ...
A general circulation model (GCM) parameterization of Pinatubo aerosols
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lacis, A.A.; Carlson, B.E.; Mishchenko, M.I. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)
1996-04-01
The June 1991 volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo is the largest and best documented global climate forcing experiment in recorded history. The time development and geographical dispersion of the aerosol has been closely monitored and sampled. Based on preliminary estimates of the Pinatubo aerosol loading, general circulation model predictions of the impact on global climate have been made.
Confidence Intervals for Assessing Heterogeneity in Generalized Linear Mixed Models
Wagler, Amy E.
2014-01-01
Generalized linear mixed models are frequently applied to data with clustered categorical outcomes. The effect of clustering on the response is often difficult to practically assess partly because it is reported on a scale on which comparisons with regression parameters are difficult to make. This article proposes confidence intervals for…
Penalized Estimation in Large-Scale Generalized Linear Array Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Adam; Vincent, Martin; Hansen, Niels Richard
2017-01-01
Large-scale generalized linear array models (GLAMs) can be challenging to fit. Computation and storage of its tensor product design matrix can be impossible due to time and memory constraints, and previously considered design matrix free algorithms do not scale well with the dimension...
An applied general equilibrium model for Dutch agribusiness policy analysis
Peerlings, J.
1993-01-01
The purpose of this thesis was to develop a basic static applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to analyse the effects of agricultural policy changes on Dutch agribusiness. In particular the effects on inter-industry transactions, factor demand, income, and trade are of
Transmittivity and wavefunctions in one-dimensional generalized Aubry models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basu, C.; Mookerjee, A.; Sen, A.K.; Thakur, P.K.
1990-07-01
We use the vector recursion method of Haydock to obtain the transmittance of a class of generalized Aubry models in one-dimension. We also study the phase change of the wavefunctions as they travel through the chain and also the behaviour of the conductance with changes in size. (author). 10 refs, 9 figs
On the general procedure for modelling complex ecological systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Shanyu.
1987-12-01
In this paper, the principle of a general procedure for modelling complex ecological systems, i.e. the Adaptive Superposition Procedure (ASP) is shortly stated. The result of application of ASP in a national project for ecological regionalization is also described. (author). 3 refs
A generalized development model for testing GPS user equipment
Hemesath, N.
1978-01-01
The generalized development model (GDM) program, which was intended to establish how well GPS user equipment can perform under a combination of jamming and dynamics, is described. The systems design and the characteristics of the GDM are discussed. The performance aspects of the GDM are listed and the application of the GDM to civil aviation is examined.
Carretta Zamborlini, Veruska; Da Silveira, Marcos; Pruski, Cedric; ten Teije, Annette; van Harmelen, Frank
2014-01-01
Computer-Interpretable Guidelines (CIGs) are representations of Clinical Guidelines (CGs) in computer interpretable languages. CIGs have been pointed as an alternative to deal with the various limitations of paper based CGs to support healthcare activities. Although the improvements offered by
Al Hassan, Mohammad; Novack, Steven D.; Hatfield, Glen S.; Britton, Paul
2017-01-01
Today's launch vehicles complex electronic and avionic systems heavily utilize the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) integrated circuit (IC). FPGAs are prevalent ICs in communication protocols such as MIL-STD-1553B, and in control signal commands such as in solenoid/servo valves actuations. This paper will demonstrate guidelines to estimate FPGA failure rates for a launch vehicle, the guidelines will account for hardware, firmware, and radiation induced failures. The hardware contribution of the approach accounts for physical failures of the IC, FPGA memory and clock. The firmware portion will provide guidelines on the high level FPGA programming language and ways to account for software/code reliability growth. The radiation portion will provide guidelines on environment susceptibility as well as guidelines on tailoring other launch vehicle programs historical data to a specific launch vehicle.
A General Model for Testing Mediation and Moderation Effects
MacKinnon, David P.
2010-01-01
This paper describes methods for testing mediation and moderation effects in a dataset, both together and separately. Investigations of this kind are especially valuable in prevention research to obtain information on the process by which a program achieves its effects and whether the program is effective for subgroups of individuals. A general model that simultaneously estimates mediation and moderation effects is presented, and the utility of combining the effects into a single model is described. Possible effects of interest in the model are explained, as are statistical methods to assess these effects. The methods are further illustrated in a hypothetical prevention program example. PMID:19003535
Generalized Jaynes-Cummings model as a quantum search algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romanelli, A.
2009-01-01
We propose a continuous time quantum search algorithm using a generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings model. In this model the states of the atom are the elements among which the algorithm realizes the search, exciting resonances between the initial and the searched states. This algorithm behaves like Grover's algorithm; the optimal search time is proportional to the square root of the size of the search set and the probability to find the searched state oscillates periodically in time. In this frame, it is possible to reinterpret the usual Jaynes-Cummings model as a trivial case of the quantum search algorithm.
Generalized Roe's numerical scheme for a two-fluid model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toumi, I.; Raymond, P.
1993-01-01
This paper is devoted to a mathematical and numerical study of a six equation two-fluid model. We will prove that the model is strictly hyperbolic due to the inclusion of the virtual mass force term in the phasic momentum equations. The two-fluid model is naturally written under a nonconservative form. To solve the nonlinear Riemann problem for this nonconservative hyperbolic system, a generalized Roe's approximate Riemann solver, is used, based on a linearization of the nonconservative terms. A Godunov type numerical scheme is built, using this approximate Riemann solver. 10 refs., 5 figs,
Zeros of the partition function for some generalized Ising models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunlop, F.
1981-01-01
The author considers generalized Ising Models with two and four body interactions in a complex external field h such that Re h>=mod(Im h) + C, where C is an explicit function of the interaction parameters. The partition function Z(h) is then shown to satisfy mod(Z(h))>=Z(c), so that the pressure is analytic in h inside the given region. The method is applied to specific examples: the gauge invariant Ising Model, and the Widom Rowlinson model on the lattice. (Auth.)
A Graphical User Interface to Generalized Linear Models in MATLAB
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Dunn
1999-07-01
Full Text Available Generalized linear models unite a wide variety of statistical models in a common theoretical framework. This paper discusses GLMLAB-software that enables such models to be fitted in the popular mathematical package MATLAB. It provides a graphical user interface to the powerful MATLAB computational engine to produce a program that is easy to use but with many features, including offsets, prior weights and user-defined distributions and link functions. MATLAB's graphical capacities are also utilized in providing a number of simple residual diagnostic plots.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsu, Wen-Sheng, E-mail: wshsu@ess.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiang, Yu, E-mail: s101013702@m101.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Jong-Rong, E-mail: jongrongwang@gmail.com [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Ting-Yi, E-mail: minired1119@gmail.com [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Te-Chuan, E-mail: tcwang@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Atomic Energy Council, R.O.C., 1000, Wenhua Road Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Teng, Jyh-Tong, E-mail: jyhtong@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Shao-Wen, E-mail: chensw@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); and others
2017-01-15
Highlights: • The establishment of a MELCOR/SNAP model of Chinshan (BWR/4). • MELCOR/SNAP model was used to estimate the effectiveness of URG for Chinshan. • The MELCOR results were compared to MAAP, TRACE and PCTRAN. • URG is a new method to prevent a Fukushima-like accident. • The low raw water (150 GPM) can make the cladding temperature below 1088.7 K. - Abstract: After Fukushima Daiichi disaster, the safety analysis of severe accidents became one of the safety concerns in Taiwan. The Emergency Operating Procedure (EOP) cannot cope with a multiple system failure situation under a severe accident since it is a “Symptom-basis” procedure. To deal with that, Taiwan Power Company built up a new strategy for Fukushima-like accident called Ultimate Response Guideline (URG). It is a simple strategy with three main conditions: loss of regular motor driven injection system, loss of all AC power and tsunami/earthquake warning. If two of three happen, the operating procedure will change from EOP to URG and start the main works by following the strategy. There are three main works in URG: controlled-depressurization, line up low pressure injection water and prepare containment venting. In this study, MELCOR2.1 was used to calculate the cases of URG and checked the goal of the strategy that prevents the accident or not. There were three steps in this research. First, a model of Chinshan nuclear power plant (NPP) was built. Second, one was the case with URG and the other was not by using the above MELCOR model. The results were compared to MAAP5.0, TRACE and PCTRAN. Finally, some sensitivity studies of depressurization and water injection rate were done.
A General Accelerated Degradation Model Based on the Wiener Process.
Liu, Le; Li, Xiaoyang; Sun, Fuqiang; Wang, Ning
2016-12-06
Accelerated degradation testing (ADT) is an efficient tool to conduct material service reliability and safety evaluations by analyzing performance degradation data. Traditional stochastic process models are mainly for linear or linearization degradation paths. However, those methods are not applicable for the situations where the degradation processes cannot be linearized. Hence, in this paper, a general ADT model based on the Wiener process is proposed to solve the problem for accelerated degradation data analysis. The general model can consider the unit-to-unit variation and temporal variation of the degradation process, and is suitable for both linear and nonlinear ADT analyses with single or multiple acceleration variables. The statistical inference is given to estimate the unknown parameters in both constant stress and step stress ADT. The simulation example and two real applications demonstrate that the proposed method can yield reliable lifetime evaluation results compared with the existing linear and time-scale transformation Wiener processes in both linear and nonlinear ADT analyses.
Generalized Landau-Lifshitz models on the interval
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doikou, Anastasia; Karaiskos, Nikos
2011-01-01
We study the classical generalized gl n Landau-Lifshitz (L-L) model with special boundary conditions that preserve integrability. We explicitly derive the first non-trivial local integral of motion, which corresponds to the boundary Hamiltonian for the sl 2 L-L model. Novel expressions of the modified Lax pairs associated to the integrals of motion are also extracted. The relevant equations of motion with the corresponding boundary conditions are determined. Dynamical integrable boundary conditions are also examined within this spirit. Then the generalized isotropic and anisotropic gl n Landau-Lifshitz models are considered, and novel expressions of the boundary Hamiltonians and the relevant equations of motion and boundary conditions are derived.
Physics-based process modeling, reliability prediction, and design guidelines for flip-chip devices
Michaelides, Stylianos
Flip Chip on Board (FCOB) and Chip-Scale Packages (CSPs) are relatively new technologies that are being increasingly used in the electronic packaging industry. Compared to the more widely used face-up wirebonding and TAB technologies, flip-chips and most CSPs provide the shortest possible leads, lower inductance, higher frequency, better noise control, higher density, greater input/output (I/O), smaller device footprint and lower profile. However, due to the short history and due to the introduction of several new electronic materials, designs, and processing conditions, very limited work has been done to understand the role of material, geometry, and processing parameters on the reliability of flip-chip devices. Also, with the ever-increasing complexity of semiconductor packages and with the continued reduction in time to market, it is too costly to wait until the later stages of design and testing to discover that the reliability is not satisfactory. The objective of the research is to develop integrated process-reliability models that will take into consideration the mechanics of assembly processes to be able to determine the reliability of face-down devices under thermal cycling and long-term temperature dwelling. The models incorporate the time and temperature-dependent constitutive behavior of various materials in the assembly to be able to predict failure modes such as die cracking and solder cracking. In addition, the models account for process-induced defects and macro-micro features of the assembly. Creep-fatigue and continuum-damage mechanics models for the solder interconnects and fracture-mechanics models for the die have been used to determine the reliability of the devices. The results predicted by the models have been successfully validated against experimental data. The validated models have been used to develop qualification and test procedures for implantable medical devices. In addition, the research has helped develop innovative face
A generalized conditional heteroscedastic model for temperature downscaling
Modarres, R.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.
2014-11-01
This study describes a method for deriving the time varying second order moment, or heteroscedasticity, of local daily temperature and its association to large Coupled Canadian General Circulation Models predictors. This is carried out by applying a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) approach to construct the conditional variance-covariance structure between General Circulation Models (GCMs) predictors and maximum and minimum temperature time series during 1980-2000. Two MGARCH specifications namely diagonal VECH and dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) are applied and 25 GCM predictors were selected for a bivariate temperature heteroscedastic modeling. It is observed that the conditional covariance between predictors and temperature is not very strong and mostly depends on the interaction between the random process governing temporal variation of predictors and predictants. The DCC model reveals a time varying conditional correlation between GCM predictors and temperature time series. No remarkable increasing or decreasing change is observed for correlation coefficients between GCM predictors and observed temperature during 1980-2000 while weak winter-summer seasonality is clear for both conditional covariance and correlation. Furthermore, the stationarity and nonlinearity Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman (BDS) tests showed that GCM predictors, temperature and their conditional correlation time series are nonlinear but stationary during 1980-2000 according to BDS and KPSS test results. However, the degree of nonlinearity of temperature time series is higher than most of the GCM predictors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Linda J Cobiac
Full Text Available To model population health impacts of dietary changes associated with the redevelopment of the UK food-based dietary guidelines (the 'Eatwell Guide'.Using multi-state lifetable methods, we modelled the impact of dietary changes on cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancers over the lifetime of the current UK population. From this model, we determined change in life expectancy and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs that could be averted.Changing the average diet to that recommended in the new Eatwell Guide, without increasing total energy intake, could increase average life expectancy by 5.4 months (95% uncertainty interval: 4.7 to 6.2 for men and 4.0 months (3.4 to 4.6 for women; and avert 17.9 million (17.6 to 18.2 DALYs over the lifetime of the current population. A large proportion of the health benefits are from prevention of type 2 diabetes, with 440,000 (400,000 to 480,000 new cases prevented in men and 340,000 (310,000 to 370,000 new cases prevented in women, over the next ten years. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases and colorectal cancer is also large. However, if the diet recommended in the new Eatwell Guide is achieved with an accompanying increase in energy intake (and thus an increase in body mass index, around half the potential improvements in population health will not be realised.The dietary changes required to meet recommendations in the Eatwell Guide, which include eating more fruits and vegetables and less red and processed meats and dairy products, are large. However, the potential population health benefits are substantial.
Berry, Scott A; Laam, Leslie A; Wary, Andrea A; Mateer, Harry O; Cassagnol, Hans P; McKinley, Karen E; Nolan, Ruth A
2011-05-01
Geisinger Health System (GHS) has applied its ProvenCare model to demonstrate that a large integrated health care delivery system, enabled by an electronic health record (EHR), could reengineer a complicated clinical process, reduce unwarranted variation, and provide evidence-based care for patients with a specified clinical condition. In 2007 GHS began to apply the model to a more complicated, longer-term condition of "wellness"--perinatal care. ADAPTING PROVENCARE TO PERINATAL CARE: The ProvenCare Perinatal initiative was more complex than the five previous ProvenCare endeavors in terms of breadth, scope, and duration. Each of the 22 sites created a process flow map to depict the current, real-time process at each location. The local practice site providers-physicians and mid-level practitioners-reached consensus on 103 unique best practice measures (BPMs), which would be tracked for every patient. These maps were then used to create a single standardized pathway that included the BPMs but also preserved some unique care offerings that reflected the needs of the local context. A nine-phase methodology, expanded from the previous six-phase model, was implemented on schedule. Pre- to postimplementation improvement occurred for all seven BPMs or BPM bundles that were considered the most clinically relevant, with five statistically significant. In addition, the rate of primary cesarean sections decreased by 32%, and birth trauma remained unchanged as the number of vaginal births increased. Preliminary experience suggests that integrating evidence/guideline-based best practices into work flows in inpatient and outpatient settings can achieve improvements in daily patient care processes and outcomes.
Trewhella, Jill; Duff, Anthony P; Durand, Dominique; Gabel, Frank; Guss, J Mitchell; Hendrickson, Wayne A; Hura, Greg L; Jacques, David A; Kirby, Nigel M; Kwan, Ann H; Pérez, Javier; Pollack, Lois; Ryan, Timothy M; Sali, Andrej; Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Schwede, Torsten; Svergun, Dmitri I; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Tainer, John A; Vachette, Patrice; Westbrook, John; Whitten, Andrew E
2017-09-01
In 2012, preliminary guidelines were published addressing sample quality, data acquisition and reduction, presentation of scattering data and validation, and modelling for biomolecular small-angle scattering (SAS) experiments. Biomolecular SAS has since continued to grow and authors have increasingly adopted the preliminary guidelines. In parallel, integrative/hybrid determination of biomolecular structures is a rapidly growing field that is expanding the scope of structural biology. For SAS to contribute maximally to this field, it is essential to ensure open access to the information required for evaluation of the quality of SAS samples and data, as well as the validity of SAS-based structural models. To this end, the preliminary guidelines for data presentation in a publication are reviewed and updated, and the deposition of data and associated models in a public archive is recommended. These guidelines and recommendations have been prepared in consultation with the members of the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) Small-Angle Scattering and Journals Commissions, the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) Small-Angle Scattering Validation Task Force and additional experts in the field.
Generalized Modeling of the Human Lower Limb Assembly
Cofaru, Ioana; Huzu, Iulia
2014-11-01
The main reason for creating a generalized assembly of the main bones of the lower human member is to create the premises of realizing a biomechanic assisted study which could be used for the study of the high range of varieties of pathologies that exist at this level. Starting from 3D CAD models of the main bones of the lower human member, which were realized in previous researches, in this study a generalized assembly system was developed, system in which are highlighted both the situation of an healthy subject and the situation of the situation of a subject affected by axial deviations. In order to achieve these purpose reference systems were created, systems that are in accordance with the mechanical axes and the anatomic axes of the lower member, which were later generally assembled in a manner that provides an easy customization option
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruel, D.; Duez, C.; Ebel-Lao, S.; Garrigue, H.; Le Meur, C.
2011-01-01
The preparation of radiopharmaceutical drugs refers to the assessment of both pharmaceutical drugs and radionuclides preparations regulations. It should avoid microbiological contamination while ensuring staff as well as environmental protection from radioactive exposure. Therefore, in order to warranty sterility of injected doses, the environmental quality, specifically units indoor air quality and surfaces quality must be guaranteed. The aim of this work is to propose guidelines pertaining to environmental quality monitoring in the special field of radiopharmacy. These propositions are based on available guidances, including regulations, treating about methodology to apply for evaluation and control of hospital's environment. Throughout this report, the French College of Radiopharmacy proposals both improve the methodology for control and data analysis (targeted grade of environment, threshold for notification and corrective actions) and ensure follow-up and management of nonconformities. These recommendations represent a model for harmonization of radio-pharmacists practices with regards to frequency of environmental quality controls for facilities and equipments in their centralised radiopharmacy units. (authors)
Attractive Hubbard model with disorder and the generalized Anderson theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuchinskii, E. Z.; Kuleeva, N. A.; Sadovskii, M. V.
2015-01-01
Using the generalized DMFT+Σ approach, we study the influence of disorder on single-particle properties of the normal phase and the superconducting transition temperature in the attractive Hubbard model. A wide range of attractive potentials U is studied, from the weak coupling region, where both the instability of the normal phase and superconductivity are well described by the BCS model, to the strong-coupling region, where the superconducting transition is due to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of compact Cooper pairs, formed at temperatures much higher than the superconducting transition temperature. We study two typical models of the conduction band with semi-elliptic and flat densities of states, respectively appropriate for three-dimensional and two-dimensional systems. For the semi-elliptic density of states, the disorder influence on all single-particle properties (e.g., density of states) is universal for an arbitrary strength of electronic correlations and disorder and is due to only the general disorder widening of the conduction band. In the case of a flat density of states, universality is absent in the general case, but still the disorder influence is mainly due to band widening, and the universal behavior is restored for large enough disorder. Using the combination of DMFT+Σ and Nozieres-Schmitt-Rink approximations, we study the disorder influence on the superconducting transition temperature T c for a range of characteristic values of U and disorder, including the BCS-BEC crossover region and the limit of strong-coupling. Disorder can either suppress T c (in the weak-coupling region) or significantly increase T c (in the strong-coupling region). However, in all cases, the generalized Anderson theorem is valid and all changes of the superconducting critical temperature are essentially due to only the general disorder widening of the conduction band
A Non-Gaussian Spatial Generalized Linear Latent Variable Model
Irincheeva, Irina
2012-08-03
We consider a spatial generalized linear latent variable model with and without normality distributional assumption on the latent variables. When the latent variables are assumed to be multivariate normal, we apply a Laplace approximation. To relax the assumption of marginal normality in favor of a mixture of normals, we construct a multivariate density with Gaussian spatial dependence and given multivariate margins. We use the pairwise likelihood to estimate the corresponding spatial generalized linear latent variable model. The properties of the resulting estimators are explored by simulations. In the analysis of an air pollution data set the proposed methodology uncovers weather conditions to be a more important source of variability than air pollution in explaining all the causes of non-accidental mortality excluding accidents. © 2012 International Biometric Society.
A Non-Gaussian Spatial Generalized Linear Latent Variable Model
Irincheeva, Irina; Cantoni, Eva; Genton, Marc G.
2012-01-01
We consider a spatial generalized linear latent variable model with and without normality distributional assumption on the latent variables. When the latent variables are assumed to be multivariate normal, we apply a Laplace approximation. To relax the assumption of marginal normality in favor of a mixture of normals, we construct a multivariate density with Gaussian spatial dependence and given multivariate margins. We use the pairwise likelihood to estimate the corresponding spatial generalized linear latent variable model. The properties of the resulting estimators are explored by simulations. In the analysis of an air pollution data set the proposed methodology uncovers weather conditions to be a more important source of variability than air pollution in explaining all the causes of non-accidental mortality excluding accidents. © 2012 International Biometric Society.
Dynamic generalized linear models for monitoring endemic diseases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Jensen, Dan; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq
2016-01-01
The objective was to use a Dynamic Generalized Linear Model (DGLM) based on abinomial distribution with a linear trend, for monitoring the PRRS (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome sero-prevalence in Danish swine herds. The DGLM was described and its performance for monitoring control...... and eradication programmes based on changes in PRRS sero-prevalence was explored. Results showed a declining trend in PRRS sero-prevalence between 2007 and 2014 suggesting that Danish herds are slowly eradicating PRRS. The simulation study demonstrated the flexibility of DGLMs in adapting to changes intrends...... in sero-prevalence. Based on this, it was possible to detect variations in the growth model component. This study is a proof-of-concept, demonstrating the use of DGLMs for monitoring endemic diseases. In addition, the principles stated might be useful in general research on monitoring and surveillance...
Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others
1996-04-01
We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.
A General Model for Repeated Audit Controls Using Monotone Subsampling
Raats, V.M.; van der Genugten, B.B.; Moors, J.J.A.
2002-01-01
In categorical repeated audit controls, fallible auditors classify sample elements in order to estimate the population fraction of elements in certain categories.To take possible misclassifications into account, subsequent checks are performed with a decreasing number of observations.In this paper a model is presented for a general repeated audit control system, where k subsequent auditors classify elements into r categories.Two different sub-sampling procedures will be discussed, named 'stra...
Electromagnetic axial anomaly in a generalized linear sigma model
Fariborz, Amir H.; Jora, Renata
2017-06-01
We construct the electromagnetic anomaly effective term for a generalized linear sigma model with two chiral nonets, one with a quark-antiquark structure, the other one with a four-quark content. We compute in the leading order of this framework the decays into two photons of six pseudoscalars: π0(137 ), π0(1300 ), η (547 ), η (958 ), η (1295 ) and η (1760 ). Our results agree well with the available experimental data.
Nuclear inertia for fission in a generalized cranking model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunz, J.; Nix, J.R.
1984-01-01
A time dependent formalism which is appropriate for β vibrations and fission is developed for a generalized cranking model. The formalism leads to additional terms in the density matrix which affect the nuclear inertia. The case of a harmonic oscillator potential is used to demonstrate the contribution of the pairing gap term on the β vibrational inertia for Pu 240. The inertia remains finite and close to the limiting irrotational value
Generalized isothermal models with strange equation of state
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
intention to study the Einstein–Maxwell system with a linear equation of state with ... It is our intention to model the interior of a dense realistic star with a general ... The definition m(r) = 1. 2. ∫ r. 0 ω2ρ(ω)dω. (14) represents the mass contained within a radius r which is a useful physical quantity. The mass function (14) has ...
Generalized Calogero-Sutherland systems from many-matrix models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polychronakos, Alexios P.
1999-01-01
We construct generalizations of the Calogero-Sutherland-Moser system by appropriately reducing a model involving many unitary matrices. The resulting systems consist of particles on the circle with internal degrees of freedom, coupled through modifications of the inverse-square potential. The coupling involves SU(M) non-invariant (anti) ferromagnetic interactions of the internal degrees of freedom. The systems are shown to be integrable and the spectrum and wavefunctions of the quantum version are derived
Generalized Bogoliubov Polariton Model: An Application to Stock Exchange Market
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anh, Chu Thuy; Anh, Truong Thi Ngoc; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai
2016-01-01
A generalized Bogoliubov method for investigation non-simple and complex systems was developed. We take two branch polariton Hamiltonian model in second quantization representation and replace the energies of quasi-particles by two distribution functions of research objects. Application to stock exchange market was taken as an example, where the changing the form of return distribution functions from Boltzmann-like to Gaussian-like was studied. (paper)
Structural dynamic analysis with generalized damping models analysis
Adhikari , Sondipon
2013-01-01
Since Lord Rayleigh introduced the idea of viscous damping in his classic work ""The Theory of Sound"" in 1877, it has become standard practice to use this approach in dynamics, covering a wide range of applications from aerospace to civil engineering. However, in the majority of practical cases this approach is adopted more for mathematical convenience than for modeling the physics of vibration damping. Over the past decade, extensive research has been undertaken on more general ""non-viscous"" damping models and vibration of non-viscously damped systems. This book, along with a related book
A generalization of the bond fluctuation model to viscoelastic environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fritsch, Christian C
2014-01-01
A lattice-based simulation method for polymer diffusion in a viscoelastic medium is presented. This method combines the eight-site bond fluctuation model with an algorithm for the simulation of fractional Brownian motion on the lattice. The method applies to unentangled self-avoiding chains and is probed for anomalous diffusion exponents α between 0.7 and 1.0. The simulation results are in very good agreement with the predictions of the generalized Rouse model of a self-avoiding chain polymer in a viscoelastic medium. (paper)
Optimisation of a parallel ocean general circulation model
Beare, M. I.; Stevens, D. P.
1997-10-01
This paper presents the development of a general-purpose parallel ocean circulation model, for use on a wide range of computer platforms, from traditional scalar machines to workstation clusters and massively parallel processors. Parallelism is provided, as a modular option, via high-level message-passing routines, thus hiding the technical intricacies from the user. An initial implementation highlights that the parallel efficiency of the model is adversely affected by a number of factors, for which optimisations are discussed and implemented. The resulting ocean code is portable and, in particular, allows science to be achieved on local workstations that could otherwise only be undertaken on state-of-the-art supercomputers.
Energy spectra of odd nuclei in the generalized model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. O. Korzh
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Based on the generalized nuclear model, energy spectra of the odd nuclei of such elements as 25Mg, 41K, and 65Cu are determined, and the structure of wave functions of these nuclei in the excited and normal states is studied. High quality in determining the energy spectra is possible due to the accurate calculations of all elements of the energy matrix. It is demonstrated that the structure of the wave functions so determined provides the possibility to more accurately select the nuclear model and the method for calculating the nucleon cross-sections of the inelastic scattering of nucleons by odd nuclei.
Generalized model for Memristor-based Wien family oscillators
Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne
2012-07-23
In this paper, we report the unconventional characteristics of Memristor in Wien oscillators. Generalized mathematical models are developed to analyze four members of the Wien family using Memristors. Sustained oscillation is reported for all types though oscillating resistance and time dependent poles are present. We have also proposed an analytical model to estimate the desired amplitude of oscillation before the oscillation starts. These Memristor-based oscillation results, presented for the first time, are in good agreement with simulation results. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
General dosimetry model for internal contamination with radioisotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nino, L.
1989-01-01
Radiation dose by inner contamination with radioisotopes is not measured directly but evaluated by the application of mathematical models of fixation and elimination, taken into account biological activity of each organ with respect to the incorporated material. Models proposed by ICRP for the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts (30) seems that they should not be applied independently because of the evident correlation between them. In this paper both models are integrated in a more general one with neither modification nor limitation of the starting models. It has been applied to some patients in the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, who received some I-131 dose via oral and results are quite similar to dose experimentally obtained via urine spectrograms. Based on this results the method was formalized and applied to professional exposed personnel of the medical staff at the same Institute; due to high doses found in some of the urine samples, probable I-131 air contamination could be supposed
Working covariance model selection for generalized estimating equations.
Carey, Vincent J; Wang, You-Gan
2011-11-20
We investigate methods for data-based selection of working covariance models in the analysis of correlated data with generalized estimating equations. We study two selection criteria: Gaussian pseudolikelihood and a geodesic distance based on discrepancy between model-sensitive and model-robust regression parameter covariance estimators. The Gaussian pseudolikelihood is found in simulation to be reasonably sensitive for several response distributions and noncanonical mean-variance relations for longitudinal data. Application is also made to a clinical dataset. Assessment of adequacy of both correlation and variance models for longitudinal data should be routine in applications, and we describe open-source software supporting this practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pharmaceutical industry and trade liberalization using computable general equilibrium model.
Barouni, M; Ghaderi, H; Banouei, Aa
2012-01-01
Computable general equilibrium models are known as a powerful instrument in economic analyses and widely have been used in order to evaluate trade liberalization effects. The purpose of this study was to provide the impacts of trade openness on pharmaceutical industry using CGE model. Using a computable general equilibrium model in this study, the effects of decrease in tariffs as a symbol of trade liberalization on key variables of Iranian pharmaceutical products were studied. Simulation was performed via two scenarios in this study. The first scenario was the effect of decrease in tariffs of pharmaceutical products as 10, 30, 50, and 100 on key drug variables, and the second was the effect of decrease in other sectors except pharmaceutical products on vital and economic variables of pharmaceutical products. The required data were obtained and the model parameters were calibrated according to the social accounting matrix of Iran in 2006. The results associated with simulation demonstrated that the first scenario has increased import, export, drug supply to markets and household consumption, while import, export, supply of product to market, and household consumption of pharmaceutical products would averagely decrease in the second scenario. Ultimately, society welfare would improve in all scenarios. We presents and synthesizes the CGE model which could be used to analyze trade liberalization policy issue in developing countries (like Iran), and thus provides information that policymakers can use to improve the pharmacy economics.
The new hypertension guidelines.
Stern, Ralph H
2013-10-01
The Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) has published guidelines annually since 2000. The CHEP guidelines are a model of concise, comprehensive, up-to-date, evidence-rated guidelines for physicians who diagnose and treat hypertension. The guidelines address measurement of blood pressure and the definition of hypertension, secondary hypertension evaluation and treatment, and blood pressure targets and medication choices in patients with and without compelling indications. This review describes CHEP's process for developing guidelines and provides an overview of the 2013 recommendations. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Border Collision Bifurcations in a Generalized Model of Population Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lilia M. Ladino
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We analyze the dynamics of a generalized discrete time population model of a two-stage species with recruitment and capture. This generalization, which is inspired by other approaches and real data that one can find in literature, consists in considering no restriction for the value of the two key parameters appearing in the model, that is, the natural death rate and the mortality rate due to fishing activity. In the more general case the feasibility of the system has been preserved by posing opportune formulas for the piecewise map defining the model. The resulting two-dimensional nonlinear map is not smooth, though continuous, as its definition changes as any border is crossed in the phase plane. Hence, techniques from the mathematical theory of piecewise smooth dynamical systems must be applied to show that, due to the existence of borders, abrupt changes in the dynamic behavior of population sizes and multistability emerge. The main novelty of the present contribution with respect to the previous ones is that, while using real data, richer dynamics are produced, such as fluctuations and multistability. Such new evidences are of great interest in biology since new strategies to preserve the survival of the species can be suggested.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niehaus, T A; Suhai, S; March, N H
2008-01-01
Holas, Howard and March (2003 Phys. Lett. A 310 451) have obtained analytic solutions for ground-state properties of a whole family of two-electron spin-compensated harmonically confined model atoms whose different members are characterized by a specific interparticle potential energy u(r 12 ). Here, we make a start on the dynamic generalization of the harmonic external potential, the motivation being the serious criticism levelled recently against the foundations of time-dependent density-functional theory (e.g., Schirmer and Dreuw 2007 Phys. Rev. A 75 022513). In this context, we derive a simplified expression for the time-dependent electron density for arbitrary interparticle interaction, which is fully determined by a one-dimensional non-interacting Hamiltonian. Moreover, a closed solution for the momentum space density in the Moshinsky model is obtained
Nuclear inertia for fission in a generalized cranking model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunz, J.; Nix, J.R.
1984-01-01
The Inglis cranking model has been widely used to calculate the nuclear inertia associated with collective degrees of freedom. After the inclusion of pairing correlations, theoretical results obtained with the cranking model for nuclear rotations and γ-vibrations were in relatively good agreement with experimental data. Calculations of β-vibrational inertias were also performed in the cranking model for fission deformations. Theoretical results were several times the irrotational values and gave reasonable agreement with experimental spontaneous-fission lifetimes, although in one study a renormalization factor of 0.8 was required. However, as pointed out by many authors, the Inglis cranking model possesses two serious deficiencies. First, problems arise when the single-particle potential contains momentum-dependence terms. Second, in the limit of large pairing strength the inertia approaches zero instead of a finite (irrotational) limit. Alternative approaches to the cranking model which did not lead to such unacceptable results were developed by Migdal, Belyaev and Thouless and Valatin. They showed that these deficiencies of the cranking model are due to a lack of self-consistency, since the reaction of the mean field to the collective motion is neglected in the Inglis model. Previously we used their arguments and developed a generalized cranking model for stationary collective motion. Here it is shown how to develop a time-dependent formalism appropriate to β-vibrations and fission. 10 references
Proliferation Risk Characterization Model Prototype Model - User and Programmer Guidelines; TOPICAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dukelow, J.S.; Whitford, D.
1998-01-01
A model for the estimation of the risk of diversion of weapons-capable materials was developed. It represents both the threat of diversion and site vulnerability as a product of a small number of variables (two to eight), each of which can take on a small number (two to four) of qualitatively defined (but quantitatively implemented) values. The values of the overall threat and vulnerability variables are then converted to threat and vulnerability categories. The threat and vulnerability categories are used to define the likelihood of diversion, also defined categorically. The evaluator supplies an estimate of the consequences of a diversion, defined categorically, but with the categories based on the IAEA Attractiveness levels. Likelihood and Consequences categories are used to define the Risk, also defined categorically. The threat, vulnerability, and consequences input provided by the evaluator contains a representation of his/her uncertainty in each variable assignment which is propagated all the way through to the calculation of the Risk categories.[Appendix G available on diskette only.
A general modeling framework for describing spatially structured population dynamics
Sample, Christine; Fryxell, John; Bieri, Joanna; Federico, Paula; Earl, Julia; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady; Flockhart, Tyler; Nicol, Sam; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Norris, D. Ryan
2017-01-01
Variation in movement across time and space fundamentally shapes the abundance and distribution of populations. Although a variety of approaches model structured population dynamics, they are limited to specific types of spatially structured populations and lack a unifying framework. Here, we propose a unified network-based framework sufficiently novel in its flexibility to capture a wide variety of spatiotemporal processes including metapopulations and a range of migratory patterns. It can accommodate different kinds of age structures, forms of population growth, dispersal, nomadism and migration, and alternative life-history strategies. Our objective was to link three general elements common to all spatially structured populations (space, time and movement) under a single mathematical framework. To do this, we adopt a network modeling approach. The spatial structure of a population is represented by a weighted and directed network. Each node and each edge has a set of attributes which vary through time. The dynamics of our network-based population is modeled with discrete time steps. Using both theoretical and real-world examples, we show how common elements recur across species with disparate movement strategies and how they can be combined under a unified mathematical framework. We illustrate how metapopulations, various migratory patterns, and nomadism can be represented with this modeling approach. We also apply our network-based framework to four organisms spanning a wide range of life histories, movement patterns, and carrying capacities. General computer code to implement our framework is provided, which can be applied to almost any spatially structured population. This framework contributes to our theoretical understanding of population dynamics and has practical management applications, including understanding the impact of perturbations on population size, distribution, and movement patterns. By working within a common framework, there is less chance
General Potential-Current Model and Validation for Electrocoagulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubrawski, Kristian L.; Du, Codey; Mohseni, Madjid
2014-01-01
A model relating potential and current in continuous parallel plate iron electrocoagulation (EC) was developed for application in drinking water treatment. The general model can be applied to any EC parallel plate system relying only on geometric and tabulated input variables without the need of system-specific experimentally derived constants. For the theoretical model, the anode and cathode were vertically divided into n equipotential segments in a single pass, upflow, and adiabatic EC reactor. Potential and energy balances were simultaneously solved at each vertical segment, which included the contribution of ionic concentrations, solution temperature and conductivity, cathodic hydrogen flux, and gas/liquid ratio. We experimentally validated the numerical model with a vertical upflow EC reactor using a 24 cm height 99.99% pure iron anode divided into twelve 2 cm segments. Individual experimental currents from each segment were summed to determine total current, and compared with the theoretically derived value. Several key variables were studied to determine their impact on model accuracy: solute type, solute concentration, current density, flow rate, inter-electrode gap, and electrode surface condition. Model results were in good agreement with experimental values at cell potentials of 2-20 V (corresponding to a current density range of approximately 50-800 A/m 2 ), with mean relative deviation of 9% for low flow rate, narrow electrode gap, polished electrodes, and 150 mg/L NaCl. Highest deviation occurred with a large electrode gap, unpolished electrodes, and Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte, due to parasitic H 2 O oxidation and less than unity current efficiency. This is the first general model which can be applied to any parallel plate EC system for accurate electrochemical voltage or current prediction
Whitebark pine planting guidelines
Ward McCaughey; Glenda L. Scott; Kay L. Izlar
2009-01-01
This article incorporates new information into previous whitebark pine guidelines for planting prescriptions. Earlier 2006 guidelines were developed based on review of general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard US Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations. A recent study of biotic and abiotic factors...
A Generalized Dynamic Model of Geared System: Establishment and Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui Liu
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In order to make the dynamic characteristic simulation of the ordinary and planetary gears drive more accurate and more efficient , a generalized dynamic model of geared system is established including internal and external mesh gears in this paper. It is used to build a mathematical model, which achieves the auto judgment of the gear mesh state. We do not need to concern about active or passive gears any more, and the complicated power flow analysis can be avoided. With the numerical integration computation, the axis orbits diagram and dynamic gear mesh force characteristic are acquired and the results show that the dynamic response of translational displacement is greater when contacting line direction change is considered, and with the quickly change of direction of contacting line, the amplitude of mesh force would be increased, which easily causes the damage to the gear tooth. Moreover, compared with ordinary gear, dynamic responses of planetary gear would be affected greater by the gear backlash. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the generalized dynamic model and the mathematical model.
Reshocks, rarefactions, and the generalized Layzer model for hydrodynamic instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikaelian, K.O.
2008-01-01
We report numerical simulations and analytic modeling of shock tube experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. We examine single interfaces of the type A/B where the incident shock is initiated in A and the transmitted shock proceeds into B. Examples are He/air and air/He. In addition, we study finite-thickness or double-interface A/B/A configurations like air/SF 6 /air gas-curtain experiments. We first consider conventional shock tubes that have a 'fixed' boundary: A solid endwall which reflects the transmitted shock and reshocks the interface(s). Then we focus on new experiments with a 'free' boundary--a membrane disrupted mechanically or by the transmitted shock, sending back a rarefaction towards the interface(s). Complex acceleration histories are achieved, relevant for Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. We compare our simulation results with a generalized Layzer model for two fluids with time-dependent densities, and derive a new freeze-out condition whereby accelerating and compressive forces cancel each other out. Except for the recently reported failures of the Layzer model, the generalized Layzer model and hydrocode simulations for reshocks and rarefactions agree well with each other, and remain to be verified experimentally
Reshocks, rarefactions, and the generalized Layzer model for hydrodynamic instabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mikaelian, K O
2008-06-10
We report numerical simulations and analytic modeling of shock tube experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. We examine single interfaces of the type A/B where the incident shock is initiated in A and the transmitted shock proceeds into B. Examples are He/air and air/He. In addition, we study finite-thickness or double-interface A/B/A configurations like air/SF{sub 6}/air gas-curtain experiments. We first consider conventional shock tubes that have a 'fixed' boundary: A solid endwall which reflects the transmitted shock and reshocks the interface(s). Then we focus on new experiments with a 'free' boundary--a membrane disrupted mechanically or by the transmitted shock, sending back a rarefaction towards the interface(s). Complex acceleration histories are achieved, relevant for Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. We compare our simulation results with a generalized Layzer model for two fluids with time-dependent densities, and derive a new freeze-out condition whereby accelerating and compressive forces cancel each other out. Except for the recently reported failures of the Layzer model, the generalized Layzer model and hydrocode simulations for reshocks and rarefactions agree well with each other, and remain to be verified experimentally.
Analog quantum simulation of generalized Dicke models in trapped ions
Aedo, Ibai; Lamata, Lucas
2018-04-01
We propose the analog quantum simulation of generalized Dicke models in trapped ions. By combining bicromatic laser interactions on multiple ions we can generate all regimes of light-matter coupling in these models, where here the light mode is mimicked by a motional mode. We present numerical simulations of the three-qubit Dicke model both in the weak field (WF) regime, where the Jaynes-Cummings behavior arises, and the ultrastrong coupling (USC) regime, where a rotating-wave approximation cannot be considered. We also simulate the two-qubit biased Dicke model in the WF and USC regimes and the two-qubit anisotropic Dicke model in the USC regime and the deep-strong coupling regime. The agreement between the mathematical models and the ion system convinces us that these quantum simulations can be implemented in the laboratory with current or near-future technology. This formalism establishes an avenue for the quantum simulation of many-spin Dicke models in trapped ions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hillary, Jason; Walsh, Ed; Shah, Amip; Zhou, Rongliang; Walsh, Pat
2017-01-01
Improving building energy efficiency is of paramount importance due to the large proportion of energy consumed by thermal operations. Consequently, simulating a building's environment has gained popularity for assessing thermal comfort and design. The extended timeframes and large physical scales involved necessitate compact modelling approaches. The accuracy of such simulations is of chief concern, yet there is little guidance offered on achieving accurate solutions whilst mitigating prohibitive computational costs. Therefore, the present study addresses this deficit by providing clear guidance on discretisation levels required for achieving accurate but computationally inexpensive models. This is achieved by comparing numerical models of varying discretisation levels to benchmark analytical solutions with prediction accuracy assessed and reported in terms of governing dimensionless parameters, Biot and Fourier numbers, to ensure generality of findings. Furthermore, spatial and temporal discretisation errors are separated and assessed independently. Contour plots are presented to intuitively determine the optimal discretisation levels and time-steps required to achieve accurate thermal response predictions. Simulations derived from these contour plots were tested against various building conditions with excellent agreement observed throughout. Additionally, various scenarios are highlighted where the classical single lumped capacitance model can be applied for Biot numbers much greater than 0.1 without reducing accuracy. - Highlights: • Addressing the problems of inadequate discretisation within building energy models. • Accuracy of numerical models assessed against analytical solutions. • Fourier and Biot numbers used to provide generality of results for any material. • Contour plots offer intuitive way to interpret results for manual discretisation. • Results show proposed technique promising for automation of discretisation process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tam H Ho
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of individualised, reconciled evidence-based recommendations (IRERs and multidisciplinary care in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF on clinical guideline compliance for CHF and common comorbid conditions. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective hospital clinical audit conducted between 1st July 2006 and February 2011. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 255 patients with a diagnosis of CHF who attended the Multidisciplinary Ambulatory Consulting Services (MACS clinics, at the Royal Adelaide Hospital, were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Compliance with Australian clinical guideline recommendations for CHF, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus and ischaemic heart disease. RESULTS: Study participants had a median of eight medical conditions (IQR 6-10 and were on an average of 10 (±4 unique medications. Compliance with clinical guideline recommendations for pharmacological therapy for CHF, comorbid atrial fibrillation, diabetes or ischaemic heart disease was high, ranging from 86% for lipid lowering therapy to 98% anti-platelet agents. For all conditions, compliance with lifestyle recommendations was lower than pharmacological therapy, ranging from no podiatry reviews for CHF patients with comorbid diabetes to 75% for heart failure education. Concordance with many guideline recommendations was significantly associated if the patient had IRERs determined, a greater number of recommendations, more clinic visits or if patients participated in a heart failure program. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high number of comorbid conditions and resulting complexity of the management, high compliance to clinical guideline recommendations was associated with IRER determination in older patients with CHF. Importantly these recommendations need to be communicated to the patient's general practitioner, regularly monitored and adjusted at clinic visits.
Topics in conformal invariance and generalized sigma models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernardo, L.M.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA
1997-05-01
This thesis consists of two different parts, having in common the fact that in both, conformal invariance plays a central role. In the first part, the author derives conditions for conformal invariance, in the large N limit, and for the existence of an infinite number of commuting classical conserved quantities, in the Generalized Thirring Model. The treatment uses the bosonized version of the model. Two different approaches are used to derive conditions for conformal invariance: the background field method and the Hamiltonian method based on an operator algebra, and the agreement between them is established. The author constructs two infinite sets of non-local conserved charges, by specifying either periodic or open boundary conditions, and he finds the Poisson Bracket algebra satisfied by them. A free field representation of the algebra satisfied by the relevant dynamical variables of the model is also presented, and the structure of the stress tensor in terms of free fields (and free currents) is studied in detail. In the second part, the author proposes a new approach for deriving the string field equations from a general sigma model on the world sheet. This approach leads to an equation which combines some of the attractive features of both the renormalization group method and the covariant beta function treatment of the massless excitations. It has the advantage of being covariant under a very general set of both local and non-local transformations in the field space. The author applies it to the tachyon, massless and first massive level, and shows that the resulting field equations reproduce the correct spectrum of a left-right symmetric closed bosonic string
A Model Independent General Search for new physics in ATLAS
Amoroso, S; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
We present results of a model-independent general search for new phenomena in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The data set corresponds to a total integrated luminosity of 20.3~\\ifb. Event topologies involving isolated electrons, photons and muons, as well as jets, including those identified as originating from \\textit{b}-quarks (\\textit{b}-jets) and missing transverse momentum are investigated. The events are subdivided according to their final states into exclusive event classes. For the 697 classes with a Standard Model expectation greater than 0.1 events, a search algorithm tests the compatibility of data against the Monte Carlo simulated background in three kinematic variables sensitive to new physics effects. No significant deviation is found in data. The number and size of the observed deviations follow the Standard Model expectation obtained from simulated pseudo-experiments.
A Model Independent General Search for new physics in ATLAS
Amoroso, S.; ATLAS Collaboration
2016-04-01
We present results of a model-independent general search for new phenomena in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The data set corresponds to a total integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb-1. Event topologies involving isolated electrons, photons and muons, as well as jets, including those identified as originating from b-quarks (b-jets) and missing transverse momentum are investigated. The events are subdivided according to their final states into exclusive event classes. For the 697 classes with a Standard Model expectation greater than 0.1 events, a search algorithm tests the compatibility of data against the Monte Carlo simulated background in three kinematic variables sensitive to new physics effects. No significant deviation is found in data. The number and size of the observed deviations follow the Standard Model expectation obtained from simulated pseudo-experiments.
Statistical mechanics of sparse generalization and graphical model selection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lage-Castellanos, Alejandro; Pagnani, Andrea; Weigt, Martin
2009-01-01
One of the crucial tasks in many inference problems is the extraction of an underlying sparse graphical model from a given number of high-dimensional measurements. In machine learning, this is frequently achieved using, as a penalty term, the L p norm of the model parameters, with p≤1 for efficient dilution. Here we propose a statistical mechanics analysis of the problem in the setting of perceptron memorization and generalization. Using a replica approach, we are able to evaluate the relative performance of naive dilution (obtained by learning without dilution, following by applying a threshold to the model parameters), L 1 dilution (which is frequently used in convex optimization) and L 0 dilution (which is optimal but computationally hard to implement). Whereas both L p diluted approaches clearly outperform the naive approach, we find a small region where L 0 works almost perfectly and strongly outperforms the simpler to implement L 1 dilution
Dimensional Reduction for the General Markov Model on Phylogenetic Trees.
Sumner, Jeremy G
2017-03-01
We present a method of dimensional reduction for the general Markov model of sequence evolution on a phylogenetic tree. We show that taking certain linear combinations of the associated random variables (site pattern counts) reduces the dimensionality of the model from exponential in the number of extant taxa, to quadratic in the number of taxa, while retaining the ability to statistically identify phylogenetic divergence events. A key feature is the identification of an invariant subspace which depends only bilinearly on the model parameters, in contrast to the usual multi-linear dependence in the full space. We discuss potential applications including the computation of split (edge) weights on phylogenetic trees from observed sequence data.
The Michigan Titan Thermospheric General Circulation Model (TTGCM)
Bell, J. M.; Bougher, S. W.; de Lahaye, V.; Waite, J. H.
2005-12-01
The Cassini flybys of Titan since late October, 2004 have provided data critical to better understanding its chemical and thermal structures. With this in mind, a 3-D TGCM of Titan's atmosphere from 600km to the exobase (~1450km) has been developed. This paper presents the first results from the partially operational code. Currently, the TTGCM includes static background chemistry (Lebonnois et al 2001, Vervack et al 2004) coupled with thermal conduction routines. The thermosphere remains dominated by solar EUV forcing and HCN rotational cooling, which is calculated by a full line-by-line radiative transfer routine along the lines of Yelle (1991) and Mueller-Wodarg (2000, 2002). In addition, an approximate treatment of magnetospheric heating is explored. This paper illustrates the model's capabilities as well as some initial results from the Titan Thermospheric General Circulation model that will be compared with both the Cassini INMS data and the model of Mueller-Wodarg (2000,2002).
Three General Theoretical Models in Sociology: An Articulated ?(Disunity?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thaís García-Pereiro
2015-01-01
Full Text Available After merely a brief, comparative reconstruction of the three most general theoretical models underlying contemporary Sociology (atomic, systemic, and fluid it becomes necessary to review the question about the unity or plurality of Sociology, which is the main objective of this paper. To do so, the basic terms of the question are firstly updated by following the hegemonic trends in current studies of science. Secondly the convergences and divergences among the three models discussed are shown. Following some additional discussion, the conclusion is reached that contemporary Sociology is not unitary, and need not be so. It is plural, but its plurality is limited and articulated by those very models. It may therefore be portrayed as integrated and commensurable, to the extent that a partial and unstable (disunity may be said to exist in Sociology, which is not too far off from what happens in the natural sciences.
Generalized transport model for phase transition with memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Chi; Ciucci, Francesco
2013-01-01
A general model for phenomenological transport in phase transition is derived, which extends Jäckle and Frisch model of phase transition with memory and the Cahn–Hilliard model. In addition to including interfacial energy to account for the presence of interfaces, we introduce viscosity and relaxation contributions, which result from incorporating memory effect into the driving potential. Our simulation results show that even without interfacial energy term, the viscous term can lead to transient diffuse interfaces. From the phase transition induced hysteresis, we discover different energy dissipation mechanism for the interfacial energy and the viscosity effect. In addition, by combining viscosity and interfacial energy, we find that if the former dominates, then the concentration difference across the phase boundary is reduced; conversely, if the interfacial energy is greater then this difference is enlarged.
Toward a general psychological model of tension and suspense.
Lehne, Moritz; Koelsch, Stefan
2015-01-01
Tension and suspense are powerful emotional experiences that occur in a wide variety of contexts (e.g., in music, film, literature, and everyday life). The omnipresence of tension and suspense suggests that they build on very basic cognitive and affective mechanisms. However, the psychological underpinnings of tension experiences remain largely unexplained, and tension and suspense are rarely discussed from a general, domain-independent perspective. In this paper, we argue that tension experiences in different contexts (e.g., musical tension or suspense in a movie) build on the same underlying psychological processes. We discuss key components of tension experiences and propose a domain-independent model of tension and suspense. According to this model, tension experiences originate from states of conflict, instability, dissonance, or uncertainty that trigger predictive processes directed at future events of emotional significance. We also discuss possible neural mechanisms underlying tension and suspense. The model provides a theoretical framework that can inform future empirical research on tension phenomena.
A generalized and parameterized interference model for cognitive radio networks
Mahmood, Nurul Huda
2011-06-01
For meaningful co-existence of cognitive radios with primary system, it is imperative that the cognitive radio system is aware of how much interference it generates at the primary receivers. This can be done through statistical modeling of the interference as perceived at the primary receivers. In this work, we propose a generalized model for the interference generated by a cognitive radio network, in the presence of small and large scale fading, at a primary receiver located at the origin. We then demonstrate how this model can be used to estimate the impact of cognitive radio transmission on the primary receiver in terms of different outage probabilities. Finally, our analytical findings are validated through some selected computer-based simulations. © 2011 IEEE.
Guidelines for Use of the Approximate Beta-Poisson Dose-Response Model.
Xie, Gang; Roiko, Anne; Stratton, Helen; Lemckert, Charles; Dunn, Peter K; Mengersen, Kerrie
2017-07-01
For dose-response analysis in quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), the exact beta-Poisson model is a two-parameter mechanistic dose-response model with parameters α>0 and β>0, which involves the Kummer confluent hypergeometric function. Evaluation of a hypergeometric function is a computational challenge. Denoting PI(d) as the probability of infection at a given mean dose d, the widely used dose-response model PI(d)=1-(1+dβ)-α is an approximate formula for the exact beta-Poisson model. Notwithstanding the required conditions α1, issues related to the validity and approximation accuracy of this approximate formula have remained largely ignored in practice, partly because these conditions are too general to provide clear guidance. Consequently, this study proposes a probability measure Pr(0 (22α̂)0.50 for 0.020.99) . This validity measure and rule of thumb were validated by application to all the completed beta-Poisson models (related to 85 data sets) from the QMRA community portal (QMRA Wiki). The results showed that the higher the probability Pr(0 Poisson model dose-response curve. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.
The generalized hedgehog and the projected chiral soliton model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiolhais, M.; Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H.; Goeke, K.; Bochum Univ.; Gruemmer, F.; Urbano, J.N.
1988-01-01
The linear chiral soliton model with quark fields and elementary pion and sigma fields is solved in order to describe static properties of the nucleon and the delta resonance. To this end a Fock state of the system is constructed which consists of three valence quarks in a 1s orbit with a generalized hedgehog spin-flavour configuration cosηvertical strokeu↓> - sin ηvertical stroked↑>. Coherent states are used to provide a quantum description for the mesonic parts of the total wave function. The corresponding classical pion field also exhibits a generalized hedgehog structure. Various nucleon properties are calculated. These include proton and neutron charge raii, and the mangnetic moment of the proton for which experiment is obtained. (orig./HSI)
General circulation model study of atmospheric carbon monoxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinto, J.P.; Yung, Y.L.; Rind, D.; Russell, G.L.; Lerner, J.A.; Hansen, J.E.; Hameed, S.
1983-01-01
The carbon monoxide cycle is studied by incorporating the known and hypothetical sources and sinks in a tracer model that uses the winds generated by a general circulation model. Photochemical production and loss terms, which depend on OH radical concentrations, are calculated in an interactive fashion. The computed global distribution and seasonal variations of CO are compared with observations to obtain constraints on the distribution and magnitude of the sources and sinks of CO, and on the tropospheric abundance of OH. The simplest model that accounts for available observations requires a low latitude plant source of about 1.3 x 10 15 g yr -1 , in addition to sources from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and oxidation of methane. The globally averaged OH concentration calculated in the model is 7 x 10 5 cm -3 . Models that calculate globally averaged OH concentrations much lower than our nominal value are not consistent with the observed variability of CO. Such models are also inconsistent with measurements of CO isotopic abundances, which imply the existence of plant sources
A General Accelerated Degradation Model Based on the Wiener Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Le Liu
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Accelerated degradation testing (ADT is an efficient tool to conduct material service reliability and safety evaluations by analyzing performance degradation data. Traditional stochastic process models are mainly for linear or linearization degradation paths. However, those methods are not applicable for the situations where the degradation processes cannot be linearized. Hence, in this paper, a general ADT model based on the Wiener process is proposed to solve the problem for accelerated degradation data analysis. The general model can consider the unit-to-unit variation and temporal variation of the degradation process, and is suitable for both linear and nonlinear ADT analyses with single or multiple acceleration variables. The statistical inference is given to estimate the unknown parameters in both constant stress and step stress ADT. The simulation example and two real applications demonstrate that the proposed method can yield reliable lifetime evaluation results compared with the existing linear and time-scale transformation Wiener processes in both linear and nonlinear ADT analyses.
Generalized fish life-cycle poplulation model and computer program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeAngelis, D.L.; Van Winkle, W.; Christensen, S.W.; Blum, S.R.; Kirk, B.L.; Rust, B.W.; Ross, C.
1978-03-01
A generalized fish life-cycle population model and computer program have been prepared to evaluate the long-term effect of changes in mortality in age class 0. The general question concerns what happens to a fishery when density-independent sources of mortality are introduced that act on age class 0, particularly entrainment and impingement at power plants. This paper discusses the model formulation and computer program, including sample results. The population model consists of a system of difference equations involving age-dependent fecundity and survival. The fecundity for each age class is assumed to be a function of both the fraction of females sexually mature and the weight of females as they enter each age class. Natural mortality for age classes 1 and older is assumed to be independent of population size. Fishing mortality is assumed to vary with the number and weight of fish available to the fishery. Age class 0 is divided into six life stages. The probability of survival for age class 0 is estimated considering both density-independent mortality (natural and power plant) and density-dependent mortality for each life stage. Two types of density-dependent mortality are included. These are cannibalism of each life stage by older age classes and intra-life-stage competition
Implementation of GINA guidelines in Ho Chi Minh City: a model for Viet Nam.
Tho, N V; Loan, H T H; Thao, N T P; Dung, N T T; Lan, L T T
2012-12-21
The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines have not been implemented effectively in primary care settings in Viet Nam. To estimate the proportion of patients with controlled asthma and the direct health care costs of managing asthma according to GINA guidelines at four out-patient clinics in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Viet Nam. One hundred and six patients with asthma were treated and followed up according to GINA guidelines for 12 months. Clinical and pulmonary function responses and direct health care costs were evaluated every 3 months during the study. The proportion of patients with controlled asthma rose from 1.0% at the start of the study to 36.8% by the end of the study (P Viet Nam, improved asthma control with modest direct health care costs.
A general relativistic hydrostatic model for a galaxy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hojman, R.; Pena, L.; Zamorano, N.
1991-08-01
The existence of huge amounts of mass laying at the center of some galaxies has been inferred by data gathered at different wavelengths. It seems reasonable then, to incorporate general relativity in the study of these objects. A general relativistic hydrostatic model for a galaxy is studied. We assume that the galaxy is dominated by the dark mass except at the nucleus, where the luminous matter prevails. It considers four different concentric spherically symmetric regions, properly matched and with a specific equation of state for each of them. It yields a slowly raising orbital velocity for a test particle moving in the background gravitational field of the dark matter region. In this sense we think of this model as representing a spiral galaxy. The dependence of the mass on the radius in cluster and field spiral galaxies published recently, can be used to fix the size of the inner luminous core. A vanishing pressure at the edge of the galaxy and the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium everywhere generates a jump in the density and the orbital velocity at the shell enclosing the galaxy. This is a prediction of this model. The ratio between the size core and the shells introduced here are proportional to their densities. In this sense the model is scale invariant. It can be used to reproduce a galaxy or the central region of a galaxy. We have also compared our results with those obtained with the Newtonian isothermal sphere. The luminosity is not included in our model as an extra variable in the determination of the orbital velocity. (author). 29 refs, 10 figs
A generalized logarithmic image processing model based on the gigavision sensor model.
Deng, Guang
2012-03-01
The logarithmic image processing (LIP) model is a mathematical theory providing generalized linear operations for image processing. The gigavision sensor (GVS) is a new imaging device that can be described by a statistical model. In this paper, by studying these two seemingly unrelated models, we develop a generalized LIP (GLIP) model. With the LIP model being its special case, the GLIP model not only provides new insights into the LIP model but also defines new image representations and operations for solving general image processing problems that are not necessarily related to the GVS. A new parametric LIP model is also developed. To illustrate the application of the new scalar multiplication operation, we propose an energy-preserving algorithm for tone mapping, which is a necessary step in image dehazing. By comparing with results using two state-of-the-art algorithms, we show that the new scalar multiplication operation is an effective tool for tone mapping.
A GENERALIZATION OF TRADITIONAL KANO MODEL FOR CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renáta Turisová
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The theory of attractiveness determines the relationship between the technically achieved and customer perceived quality of product attributes. The most frequently used approach in the theory of attractiveness is the implementation of Kano‘s model. There exist a lot of generalizations of that model which take into consideration various aspects and approaches focused on understanding the customer preferences and identification of his priorities for a selling product. The aim of this article is to outline another possible generalization of Kano‘s model.Methodology/Approach: The traditional Kano’s model captures the nonlinear relationship between reached attributes of quality and customer requirements. The individual attributes of quality are divided into three main categories: must-be, one-dimensional, attractive quality and into two side categories: indifferent and reverse quality. The well selling product has to contain the must-be attribute. It should contain as many one-dimensional attributes as possible. If there are also supplementary attractive attributes, it means that attractiveness of the entire product, from the viewpoint of the customer, nonlinearly sharply rises what has a direct positive impact on a decision of potential customer when purchasing the product. In this article, we show that inclusion of individual quality attributes of a product to the mentioned categories depends, among other things, also on costs on life cycle of the product, respectively on a price of the product on the market.Findings: In practice, we are often encountering the inclusion of products into different price categories: lower, middle and upper class. For a certain type of products the category is either directly declared by a producer (especially in automotive industry, or is determined by a customer by means of assessment of available market prices. To each of those groups of a products different customer expectations can be assigned
Estimation and variable selection for generalized additive partial linear models
Wang, Li
2011-08-01
We study generalized additive partial linear models, proposing the use of polynomial spline smoothing for estimation of nonparametric functions, and deriving quasi-likelihood based estimators for the linear parameters. We establish asymptotic normality for the estimators of the parametric components. The procedure avoids solving large systems of equations as in kernel-based procedures and thus results in gains in computational simplicity. We further develop a class of variable selection procedures for the linear parameters by employing a nonconcave penalized quasi-likelihood, which is shown to have an asymptotic oracle property. Monte Carlo simulations and an empirical example are presented for illustration. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2011.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second p age and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the Content 1.1.1 Subheading of the Content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www.teachingenglish.org
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the content 1.1.1 Subheading of the content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Back Matter| 79 80 | STUDIES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2014 Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the Content 1.1.1 Subheading of the Content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the content 1.1.1 Subheading of the content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the content 1.1.1 Subheading of the content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from
Tappenden, Paul; Chilcott, Jim; Brennan, Alan; Squires, Hazel; Glynne-Jones, Rob; Tappenden, Janine
2013-06-01
To assess the feasibility and value of simulating whole disease and treatment pathways within a single model to provide a common economic basis for informing resource allocation decisions. A patient-level simulation model was developed with the intention of being capable of evaluating multiple topics within National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's colorectal cancer clinical guideline. The model simulates disease and treatment pathways from preclinical disease through to detection, diagnosis, adjuvant/neoadjuvant treatments, follow-up, curative/palliative treatments for metastases, supportive care, and eventual death. The model parameters were informed by meta-analyses, randomized trials, observational studies, health utility studies, audit data, costing sources, and expert opinion. Unobservable natural history parameters were calibrated against external data using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Economic analysis was undertaken using conventional cost-utility decision rules within each guideline topic and constrained maximization rules across multiple topics. Under usual processes for guideline development, piecewise economic modeling would have been used to evaluate between one and three topics. The Whole Disease Model was capable of evaluating 11 of 15 guideline topics, ranging from alternative diagnostic technologies through to treatments for metastatic disease. The constrained maximization analysis identified a configuration of colorectal services that is expected to maximize quality-adjusted life-year gains without exceeding current expenditure levels. This study indicates that Whole Disease Model development is feasible and can allow for the economic analysis of most interventions across a disease service within a consistent conceptual and mathematical infrastructure. This disease-level modeling approach may be of particular value in providing an economic basis to support other clinical guidelines. Copyright © 2013 International
Water tracers in the general circulation model ECHAM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffmann, G.; Heimann, M.
1993-01-01
We have installed a water tracer model into the ECHAM General Circulation Model (GCM) parameterizing all fractionation processes of the stable water isotopes ( 1 H 2 18 O and 1 H 2 H 16 O). A five year simulation was performed under present day conditions. We focus on the applicability of such a water tracer model to obtain information about the quality of the hydrological cycle of the GCM. The analysis of the simulated 1 H 2 18 O composition of the precipitation indicates too weak fractionated precipitation over the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets and too strong fractionated precipitation over large areas of the tropical and subtropical land masses. We can show that these deficiencies are connected with problems of model quantities such as the precipitation and the resolution of the orography. The linear relationship between temperature and the δ 18 O value, i.e. the Dansgaard slope, is reproduced quite well in the model. The slope is slightly too flat and the strong correlation between temperature and δ 18 O vanishes at very low temperatures compared to the observations. (orig.)
Computable general equilibrium model fiscal year 2013 capability development report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-05-17
This report documents progress made on continued developments of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) Computable General Equilibrium Model (NCGEM), developed in fiscal year 2012. In fiscal year 2013, NISAC the treatment of the labor market and tests performed with the model to examine the properties of the solutions computed by the model. To examine these, developers conducted a series of 20 simulations for 20 U.S. States. Each of these simulations compared an economic baseline simulation with an alternative simulation that assumed a 20-percent reduction in overall factor productivity in the manufacturing industries of each State. Differences in the simulation results between the baseline and alternative simulations capture the economic impact of the reduction in factor productivity. While not every State is affected in precisely the same way, the reduction in manufacturing industry productivity negatively affects the manufacturing industries in each State to an extent proportional to the reduction in overall factor productivity. Moreover, overall economic activity decreases when manufacturing sector productivity is reduced. Developers ran two additional simulations: (1) a version of the model for the State of Michigan, with manufacturing divided into two sub-industries (automobile and other vehicle manufacturing as one sub-industry and the rest of manufacturing as the other subindustry); and (2) a version of the model for the United States, divided into 30 industries. NISAC conducted these simulations to illustrate the flexibility of industry definitions in NCGEM and to examine the simulation properties of in more detail.
Scaling of Precipitation Extremes Modelled by Generalized Pareto Distribution
Rajulapati, C. R.; Mujumdar, P. P.
2017-12-01
Precipitation extremes are often modelled with data from annual maximum series or peaks over threshold series. The Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) is commonly used to fit the peaks over threshold series. Scaling of precipitation extremes from larger time scales to smaller time scales when the extremes are modelled with the GPD is burdened with difficulties arising from varying thresholds for different durations. In this study, the scale invariance theory is used to develop a disaggregation model for precipitation extremes exceeding specified thresholds. A scaling relationship is developed for a range of thresholds obtained from a set of quantiles of non-zero precipitation of different durations. The GPD parameters and exceedance rate parameters are modelled by the Bayesian approach and the uncertainty in scaling exponent is quantified. A quantile based modification in the scaling relationship is proposed for obtaining the varying thresholds and exceedance rate parameters for shorter durations. The disaggregation model is applied to precipitation datasets of Berlin City, Germany and Bangalore City, India. From both the applications, it is observed that the uncertainty in the scaling exponent has a considerable effect on uncertainty in scaled parameters and return levels of shorter durations.
General mirror pairs for gauged linear sigma models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aspinwall, Paul S.; Plesser, M. Ronen [Departments of Mathematics and Physics, Duke University,Box 90320, Durham, NC 27708-0320 (United States)
2015-11-05
We carefully analyze the conditions for an abelian gauged linear σ-model to exhibit nontrivial IR behavior described by a nonsingular superconformal field theory determining a superstring vacuum. This is done without reference to a geometric phase, by associating singular behavior to a noncompact space of (semi-)classical vacua. We find that models determined by reflexive combinatorial data are nonsingular for generic values of their parameters. This condition has the pleasant feature that the mirror of a nonsingular gauged linear σ-model is another such model, but it is clearly too strong and we provide an example of a non-reflexive mirror pair. We discuss a weaker condition inspired by considering extremal transitions, which is also mirror symmetric and which we conjecture to be sufficient. We apply these ideas to extremal transitions and to understanding the way in which both Berglund-Hübsch mirror symmetry and the Vafa-Witten mirror orbifold with discrete torsion can be seen as special cases of the general combinatorial duality of gauged linear σ-models. In the former case we encounter an example showing that our weaker condition is still not necessary.
General mirror pairs for gauged linear sigma models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aspinwall, Paul S.; Plesser, M. Ronen
2015-01-01
We carefully analyze the conditions for an abelian gauged linear σ-model to exhibit nontrivial IR behavior described by a nonsingular superconformal field theory determining a superstring vacuum. This is done without reference to a geometric phase, by associating singular behavior to a noncompact space of (semi-)classical vacua. We find that models determined by reflexive combinatorial data are nonsingular for generic values of their parameters. This condition has the pleasant feature that the mirror of a nonsingular gauged linear σ-model is another such model, but it is clearly too strong and we provide an example of a non-reflexive mirror pair. We discuss a weaker condition inspired by considering extremal transitions, which is also mirror symmetric and which we conjecture to be sufficient. We apply these ideas to extremal transitions and to understanding the way in which both Berglund-Hübsch mirror symmetry and the Vafa-Witten mirror orbifold with discrete torsion can be seen as special cases of the general combinatorial duality of gauged linear σ-models. In the former case we encounter an example showing that our weaker condition is still not necessary.
10 CFR 960.5 - Preclosure guidelines.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preclosure guidelines. 960.5 Section 960.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5 Preclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify the...
10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this subpart...
10 CFR 960.4 - Postclosure guidelines.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Postclosure guidelines. 960.4 Section 960.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4 Postclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify the...
Concept Note General Guidelines - English
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
NCDP
Total amount of funding requested in local currency (preferred) or Canadian dollars. • Duraon of ... The following format may be used: Total budget ... maximum length of up to 5 pages (not including the cover page, reference list and annexes).
A Bayesian, generalized frailty model for comet assays.
Ghebretinsae, Aklilu Habteab; Faes, Christel; Molenberghs, Geert; De Boeck, Marlies; Geys, Helena
2013-05-01
This paper proposes a flexible modeling approach for so-called comet assay data regularly encountered in preclinical research. While such data consist of non-Gaussian outcomes in a multilevel hierarchical structure, traditional analyses typically completely or partly ignore this hierarchical nature by summarizing measurements within a cluster. Non-Gaussian outcomes are often modeled using exponential family models. This is true not only for binary and count data, but also for, example, time-to-event outcomes. Two important reasons for extending this family are for (1) the possible occurrence of overdispersion, meaning that the variability in the data may not be adequately described by the models, which often exhibit a prescribed mean-variance link, and (2) the accommodation of a hierarchical structure in the data, owing to clustering in the data. The first issue is dealt with through so-called overdispersion models. Clustering is often accommodated through the inclusion of random subject-specific effects. Though not always, one conventionally assumes such random effects to be normally distributed. In the case of time-to-event data, one encounters, for example, the gamma frailty model (Duchateau and Janssen, 2007 ). While both of these issues may occur simultaneously, models combining both are uncommon. Molenberghs et al. ( 2010 ) proposed a broad class of generalized linear models accommodating overdispersion and clustering through two separate sets of random effects. Here, we use this method to model data from a comet assay with a three-level hierarchical structure. Although a conjugate gamma random effect is used for the overdispersion random effect, both gamma and normal random effects are considered for the hierarchical random effect. Apart from model formulation, we place emphasis on Bayesian estimation. Our proposed method has an upper hand over the traditional analysis in that it (1) uses the appropriate distribution stipulated in the literature; (2) deals
Generalized Skyrme model with the loosely bound potential
Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Zhang, Baiyang; Ma, Nana
2016-12-01
We study a generalization of the loosely bound Skyrme model which consists of the Skyrme model with a sixth-order derivative term—motivated by its fluidlike properties—and the second-order loosely bound potential—motivated by lowering the classical binding energies of higher-charged Skyrmions. We use the rational map approximation for the Skyrmion of topological charge B =4 , calculate the binding energy of the latter, and estimate the systematic error in using this approximation. In the parameter space that we can explore within the rational map approximation, we find classical binding energies as low as 1.8%, and once taking into account the contribution from spin-isospin quantization, we obtain binding energies as low as 5.3%. We also calculate the contribution from the sixth-order derivative term to the electric charge density and axial coupling.
General informatics teaching with B-Learning teaching model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nguyen The Dung
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Blended learning (B-learning, a combination of face-to-face teaching and E-learning-supported-teaching in an online course, and Information and Communication Technology (ICT tools have been studied in recent years. In addition, the use of this teaching model is effective in teaching and learning conditions in which some certain subjects are appropriate for the specific teaching context. As it has been a matter of concern of the universities in Vietnam today, deep studies related to this topic is crucial to be conducted. In this article, the process of developing online courses and organizing teaching for the General Informatics subject for first-year students at the Hue University of Education with B-learning teaching model will be presented. The combination of 60% face-to-face and 40% online learning.
Generalized flux states of the t-J model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nori, F.; Abrahams, E.; Zimanyi, G.T.
1990-01-01
We investigate certain generalized flux phases arising in a mean-field approach to the t-J model. First, we establish that the energy of noninteracting electrons moving in a uniform magnetic field has an absolute minimum as a function of the flux at exactly one flux quantum per particle. Using this result, we show that if the hard-core nature of the hole bosons is taken into account, then the slave-boson mean-field approximation for the t-J Hamiltonian allows for a solution where both the spinons and the holons experience an average flux of one flux quantum per particle. This enables them to achieve the lowest possible energy within the manifold of spatially uniform flux states. In the case of the continuum model, this is possible only for certain fractional fillings and we speculate that the system may react to this frustration effect by phase separation
Optimisation of a parallel ocean general circulation model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. I. Beare
1997-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a general-purpose parallel ocean circulation model, for use on a wide range of computer platforms, from traditional scalar machines to workstation clusters and massively parallel processors. Parallelism is provided, as a modular option, via high-level message-passing routines, thus hiding the technical intricacies from the user. An initial implementation highlights that the parallel efficiency of the model is adversely affected by a number of factors, for which optimisations are discussed and implemented. The resulting ocean code is portable and, in particular, allows science to be achieved on local workstations that could otherwise only be undertaken on state-of-the-art supercomputers.
Optimisation of a parallel ocean general circulation model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. I. Beare
Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a general-purpose parallel ocean circulation model, for use on a wide range of computer platforms, from traditional scalar machines to workstation clusters and massively parallel processors. Parallelism is provided, as a modular option, via high-level message-passing routines, thus hiding the technical intricacies from the user. An initial implementation highlights that the parallel efficiency of the model is adversely affected by a number of factors, for which optimisations are discussed and implemented. The resulting ocean code is portable and, in particular, allows science to be achieved on local workstations that could otherwise only be undertaken on state-of-the-art supercomputers.
[Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, W.C.
1993-01-01
This is a renewal proposal for an on-going project of the Department of Energy (DOE)/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The objective of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of radiation-cloud in GCMs so that reliable predictions of the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming and regional responses can be made. The ARM Program supports two research areas: (I) The modeling and analysis of data related to the parameterization of clouds and radiation in general circulation models (GCMs); and (II) the development of advanced instrumentation for both mapping the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere and high accuracy/precision radiometric observations. The present project conducts research in area (I) and focuses on GCM treatment of cloud life cycle, optical properties, and vertical overlapping. The project has two tasks: (1) Development and Refinement of GCM Radiation-Cloud Treatment Using ARM Data; and (2) Validation of GCM Radiation-Cloud Treatment
Explicit estimating equations for semiparametric generalized linear latent variable models
Ma, Yanyuan
2010-07-05
We study generalized linear latent variable models without requiring a distributional assumption of the latent variables. Using a geometric approach, we derive consistent semiparametric estimators. We demonstrate that these models have a property which is similar to that of a sufficient complete statistic, which enables us to simplify the estimating procedure and explicitly to formulate the semiparametric estimating equations. We further show that the explicit estimators have the usual root n consistency and asymptotic normality. We explain the computational implementation of our method and illustrate the numerical performance of the estimators in finite sample situations via extensive simulation studies. The advantage of our estimators over the existing likelihood approach is also shown via numerical comparison. We employ the method to analyse a real data example from economics. © 2010 Royal Statistical Society.
Generalized one-loop neutrino mass model with charged particles
Cheung, Kingman; Okada, Hiroshi
2018-04-01
We propose a radiative neutrino-mass model by introducing 3 generations of fermion pairs E-(N +1 )/2E+(N +1 )/2 and a couple of multicharged bosonic doublet fields ΦN /2,ΦN /2 +1, where N =1 , 3, 5, 7, 9. We show that the models can satisfy the neutrino masses and oscillation data, and are consistent with lepton-flavor violations, the muon anomalous magnetic moment, the oblique parameters, and the beta function of the U (1 )Y hypercharge gauge coupling. We also discuss the collider signals for various N , namely, multicharged leptons in the final state from the Drell-Yan production of E-(N +1 )/2E+(N +1 )/2. In general, the larger the N the more charged leptons will appear in the final state.
A stratiform cloud parameterization for General Circulation Models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R.; Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E.; McCaa, J.
1994-01-01
The crude treatment of clouds in General Circulation Models (GCMs) is widely recognized as a major limitation in the application of these models to predictions of global climate change. The purpose of this project is to develop a paxameterization for stratiform clouds in GCMs that expresses stratiform clouds in terms of bulk microphysical properties and their subgrid variability. In this parameterization, precipitating cloud species are distinguished from non-precipitating species, and the liquid phase is distinguished from the ice phase. The size of the non-precipitating cloud particles (which influences both the cloud radiative properties and the conversion of non-precipitating cloud species to precipitating species) is determined by predicting both the mass and number concentrations of each species
A stratiform cloud parameterization for general circulation models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R.; Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E.; McCaa, J.
1994-01-01
The crude treatment of clouds in general circulation models (GCMs) is widely recognized as a major limitation in applying these models to predictions of global climate change. The purpose of this project is to develop in GCMs a stratiform cloud parameterization that expresses clouds in terms of bulk microphysical properties and their subgrid variability. Various clouds variables and their interactions are summarized. Precipitating cloud species are distinguished from non-precipitating species, and the liquid phase is distinguished from the ice phase. The size of the non-precipitating cloud particles (which influences both the cloud radiative properties and the conversion of non-precipitating cloud species to precipitating species) is determined by predicting both the mass and number concentrations of each species
On the thermodynamic properties of the generalized Gaussian core model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B.M.Mladek
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We present results of a systematic investigation of the properties of the generalized Gaussian core model of index n. The potential of this system interpolates via the index n between the potential of the Gaussian core model and the penetrable sphere system, thereby varying the steepness of the repulsion. We have used both conventional and self-consistent liquid state theories to calculate the structural and thermodynamic properties of the system; reference data are provided by computer simulations. The results indicate that the concept of self-consistency becomes indispensable to guarantee excellent agreement with simulation data; in particular, structural consistency (in our approach taken into account via the zero separation theorem is obviously a very important requirement. Simulation results for the dimensionless equation of state, β P / ρ, indicate that for an index-value of 4, a clustering transition, possibly into a structurally ordered phase might set in as the system is compressed.
Convex Relaxations for a Generalized Chan-Vese Model
Bae, Egil
2013-01-01
We revisit the Chan-Vese model of image segmentation with a focus on the encoding with several integer-valued labeling functions. We relate several representations with varying amount of complexity and demonstrate the connection to recent relaxations for product sets and to dual maxflow-based formulations. For some special cases, it can be shown that it is possible to guarantee binary minimizers. While this is not true in general, we show how to derive a convex approximation of the combinatorial problem for more than 4 phases. We also provide a method to avoid overcounting of boundaries in the original Chan-Vese model without departing from the efficient product-set representation. Finally, we derive an algorithm to solve the associated discretized problem, and demonstrate that it allows to obtain good approximations for the segmentation problem with various number of regions. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.
The generalized chiral Schwinger model on the two-sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bassetto, A.
1995-01-01
A family of theories which interpolate between vector and chiral Schwinger models is studied on the two-sphere S 2 . The conflict between the loss of gauge invariance and global geometrical properties is solved by introducing a fixed background connection. In this way the generalized Dirac-Weyl operator can be globally defined on S 2 . The generating functional of the Green functions is obtained by taking carefully into account the contribution of gauge fields with non-trivial topological charge and of the related zero-modes of the Dirac determinant. In the decompactification limit, the Green functions of the flat case are recovered; in particular the fermionic condensate in the vacuum vanishes, at variance with its behaviour in the vector Schwinger model. ((orig.))
A more general interacting model of holographic dark energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Fei; Zhang Jingfei; Lu Jianbo; Wang Wei; Gui Yuanxing
2010-01-01
So far, there have been no theories or observational data that deny the presence of interaction between dark energy and dark matter. We extend naturally the holographic dark energy (HDE) model, proposed by Granda and Oliveros, in which the dark energy density includes not only the square of the Hubble scale, but also the time derivative of the Hubble scale to the case with interaction and the analytic forms for the cosmic parameters are obtained under the specific boundary conditions. The various behaviors concerning the cosmic expansion depend on the introduced numerical parameters which are also constrained. The more general interacting model inherits the features of the previous ones of HDE, keeping the consistency of the theory.
The role of model checking in critiquing based on clinical guidelines
Groot, Perry; Hommersom, Arjen; Lucas, Peter; Serban, Radu; Ten Teije, Annette; Van Harmelen, Frank
2007-01-01
Medical critiquing systems criticise clinical actions performed by a physician. In order to provide useful feedback, an important task is to find differences between the actual actions and a set of 'ideal' actions as described by a clinical guideline. In case differences exist, insight to which
Bos, Peter Martinus Jozef; Zeilmaker, Marco Jacob; Eijkeren, Jan Cornelis Henri van
2006-01-01
Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) are derived to protect the human population from adverse health effects in case of single exposure due to an accidental release of chemicals into the atmosphere. AEGLs are set at three different levels of increasing toxicity for exposure durations ranging from
Diabatic models with transferrable parameters for generalized chemical reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reimers, Jeffrey R; McKemmish, Laura K; McKenzie, Ross H; Hush, Noel S
2017-01-01
Diabatic models applied to adiabatic electron-transfer theory yield many equations involving just a few parameters that connect ground-state geometries and vibration frequencies to excited-state transition energies and vibration frequencies to the rate constants for electron-transfer reactions, utilizing properties of the conical-intersection seam linking the ground and excited states through the Pseudo Jahn-Teller effect. We review how such simplicity in basic understanding can also be obtained for general chemical reactions. The key feature that must be recognized is that electron-transfer (or hole transfer) processes typically involve one electron (hole) moving between two orbitals, whereas general reactions typically involve two electrons or even four electrons for processes in aromatic molecules. Each additional moving electron leads to new high-energy but interrelated conical-intersection seams that distort the shape of the critical lowest-energy seam. Recognizing this feature shows how conical-intersection descriptors can be transferred between systems, and how general chemical reactions can be compared using the same set of simple parameters. Mathematical relationships are presented depicting how different conical-intersection seams relate to each other, showing that complex problems can be reduced into an effective interaction between the ground-state and a critical excited state to provide the first semi-quantitative implementation of Shaik’s “twin state” concept. Applications are made (i) demonstrating why the chemistry of the first-row elements is qualitatively so different to that of the second and later rows, (ii) deducing the bond-length alternation in hypothetical cyclohexatriene from the observed UV spectroscopy of benzene, (iii) demonstrating that commonly used procedures for modelling surface hopping based on inclusion of only the first-derivative correction to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation are valid in no region of the chemical
... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/criteria.html MedlinePlus Quality Guidelines To use the sharing features on this ... materials must also meet our existing quality guidelines. Quality, authority and accuracy of health content The organization's ...
Lammers, Rianne J M; Palou, Joan; Witjes, Wim P J; Janzing-Pastors, Maria H D; Caris, Christien T M; Witjes, J Alfred
2014-08-01
To compare the risks according to the American Urological Association (AUA), EAU, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and Club Urológico Español de Tratamiento Oncologico (CUETO) classifications with real outcomes in a cohort of patients in the Netherlands, and to confirm that patients who were undertreated according to these risk models have worse outcomes than adequately treated patients. Patients treated with complete transurethral resection of bladder tumour and intravesical chemotherapy were included. Not all patients would have received intravesical chemotherapy had they been treated to current standards, and thus comparison of the observed outcomes in our Dutch cohort vs expected outcomes based on the EORTC risk tables and CUETO scoring model was possible. The cohort was reclassified according to the definitions of five index patients (IPs), as defined by the AUA guidelines, and three risk groups, defined according to the EAU guidelines, to compare the outcomes of undertreated patients with those of adequately treated patients. A total of 1001 patients were available for comparison with the AUA definitions and 728 patients were available for comparison with the EORTC and CUETO models. There was a large overlap between the observed outcomes and expected recurrence and progression probabilities when comparison was made using the EORTC risk tables. The observed recurrence outcomes were in general higher than the expected probabilities according to the CUETO risk classification, especially in the long term. No differences in progression were found when comparing these two models to the Dutch cohort. Patients who were undertreated according to the guidelines showed, in general, a higher risk of developing recurrence and progression. Limitations are i.a. its retrospective nature and the differences in grading system. Comparisons between the observed outcomes in our Dutch cohort and the expected outcomes based on EAU and CUETO risk
Singular solitons of generalized Camassa-Holm models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Lixin; Sun Lu
2007-01-01
Two generalizations of the Camassa-Holm system associated with the singular analysis are proposed for Painleve integrability properties and the extensions of already known analytic solitons. A remarkable feature of the physical model is that it has peakon solution which has peak form. An alternative WTC test which allowed the identifying of such models directly if formulated in terms of inserting a formed ansatz into these models. For the two models have Painleve property, Painleve-Baecklund systems can be constructed through the expansion of solitons about the singularity manifold. By the implementations of Maple, plentiful new type solitonic structures and some kink waves, which are affected by the variation of energy, are explored. If the energy is infinite in finite time, there will be a collapse in soliton systems by direct numerical simulations. Particularly, there are two collapses coexisting in our regular solitons, which occurred around its central regions. Simulation shows that in the bottom of periodic waves arises the non-zero parts of compactons and anti-compactons. We also get floating solitary waves whose amplitude is infinite. In contrary to which a finite-amplitude blow-up soliton is obtained. Periodic blow-ups are found too. Special kinks which have periodic cuspons are derived
A general evolving model for growing bipartite networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian, Lixin; He, Yinghuan; Liu, Haijun; Du, Ruijin
2012-01-01
In this Letter, we propose and study an inner evolving bipartite network model. Significantly, we prove that the degree distribution of two different kinds of nodes both obey power-law form with adjustable exponents. Furthermore, the joint degree distribution of any two nodes for bipartite networks model is calculated analytically by the mean-field method. The result displays that such bipartite networks are nearly uncorrelated networks, which is different from one-mode networks. Numerical simulations and empirical results are given to verify the theoretical results. -- Highlights: ► We proposed a general evolving bipartite network model which was based on priority connection, reconnection and breaking edges. ► We prove that the degree distribution of two different kinds of nodes both obey power-law form with adjustable exponents. ► The joint degree distribution of any two nodes for bipartite networks model is calculated analytically by the mean-field method. ► The result displays that such bipartite networks are nearly uncorrelated networks, which is different from one-mode networks.
Generalized model for k -core percolation and interdependent networks
Panduranga, Nagendra K.; Gao, Jianxi; Yuan, Xin; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo
2017-09-01
Cascading failures in complex systems have been studied extensively using two different models: k -core percolation and interdependent networks. We combine the two models into a general model, solve it analytically, and validate our theoretical results through extensive simulations. We also study the complete phase diagram of the percolation transition as we tune the average local k -core threshold and the coupling between networks. We find that the phase diagram of the combined processes is very rich and includes novel features that do not appear in the models studying each of the processes separately. For example, the phase diagram consists of first- and second-order transition regions separated by two tricritical lines that merge and enclose a two-stage transition region. In the two-stage transition, the size of the giant component undergoes a first-order jump at a certain occupation probability followed by a continuous second-order transition at a lower occupation probability. Furthermore, at certain fixed interdependencies, the percolation transition changes from first-order → second-order → two-stage → first-order as the k -core threshold is increased. The analytic equations describing the phase boundaries of the two-stage transition region are set up, and the critical exponents for each type of transition are derived analytically.
General Description of Fission Observables - JEFF Report 24. GEF Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Jurado, Beatriz; Amouroux, Charlotte
2014-06-01
The Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion (JEFF) Project is a collaborative effort among the member countries of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Data Bank to develop a reference nuclear data library. The JEFF library contains sets of evaluated nuclear data, mainly for fission and fusion applications; it contains a number of different data types, including neutron and proton interaction data, radioactive decay data, fission yield data and thermal scattering law data. The General fission (GEF) model is based on novel theoretical concepts and ideas developed to model low energy nuclear fission. The GEF code calculates fission-fragment yields and associated quantities (e.g. prompt neutron and gamma) for a large range of nuclei and excitation energy. This opens up the possibility of a qualitative step forward to improve further the JEFF fission yields sub-library. This report describes the GEF model which explains the complex appearance of fission observables by universal principles of theoretical models and considerations on the basis of fundamental laws of physics and mathematics. The approach reveals a high degree of regularity and provides a considerable insight into the physics of the fission process. Fission observables can be calculated with a precision that comply with the needs for applications in nuclear technology. The relevance of the approach for examining the consistency of experimental results and for evaluating nuclear data is demonstrated. (authors)
Modeling containment of large wildfires using generalized linear mixed-model analysis
Mark Finney; Isaac C. Grenfell; Charles W. McHugh
2009-01-01
Billions of dollars are spent annually in the United States to contain large wildland fires, but the factors contributing to suppression success remain poorly understood. We used a regression model (generalized linear mixed-model) to model containment probability of individual fires, assuming that containment was a repeated-measures problem (fixed effect) and...
Modeling Answer Change Behavior: An Application of a Generalized Item Response Tree Model
Jeon, Minjeong; De Boeck, Paul; van der Linden, Wim
2017-01-01
We present a novel application of a generalized item response tree model to investigate test takers' answer change behavior. The model allows us to simultaneously model the observed patterns of the initial and final responses after an answer change as a function of a set of latent traits and item parameters. The proposed application is illustrated…
Generalized PSF modeling for optimized quantitation in PET imaging.
Ashrafinia, Saeed; Mohy-Ud-Din, Hassan; Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Jha, Abhinav K; Casey, Michael E; Kadrmas, Dan J; Rahmim, Arman
2017-06-21
modeling does not offer optimized PET quantitation, and that PSF overestimation may provide enhanced SUV quantitation. Furthermore, generalized PSF modeling may provide a valuable approach for quantitative tasks such as treatment-response assessment and prognostication.
Complex Environmental Data Modelling Using Adaptive General Regression Neural Networks
Kanevski, Mikhail
2015-04-01
The research deals with an adaptation and application of Adaptive General Regression Neural Networks (GRNN) to high dimensional environmental data. GRNN [1,2,3] are efficient modelling tools both for spatial and temporal data and are based on nonparametric kernel methods closely related to classical Nadaraya-Watson estimator. Adaptive GRNN, using anisotropic kernels, can be also applied for features selection tasks when working with high dimensional data [1,3]. In the present research Adaptive GRNN are used to study geospatial data predictability and relevant feature selection using both simulated and real data case studies. The original raw data were either three dimensional monthly precipitation data or monthly wind speeds embedded into 13 dimensional space constructed by geographical coordinates and geo-features calculated from digital elevation model. GRNN were applied in two different ways: 1) adaptive GRNN with the resulting list of features ordered according to their relevancy; and 2) adaptive GRNN applied to evaluate all possible models N [in case of wind fields N=(2^13 -1)=8191] and rank them according to the cross-validation error. In both cases training were carried out applying leave-one-out procedure. An important result of the study is that the set of the most relevant features depends on the month (strong seasonal effect) and year. The predictabilities of precipitation and wind field patterns, estimated using the cross-validation and testing errors of raw and shuffled data, were studied in detail. The results of both approaches were qualitatively and quantitatively compared. In conclusion, Adaptive GRNN with their ability to select features and efficient modelling of complex high dimensional data can be widely used in automatic/on-line mapping and as an integrated part of environmental decision support systems. 1. Kanevski M., Pozdnoukhov A., Timonin V. Machine Learning for Spatial Environmental Data. Theory, applications and software. EPFL Press
General Methods for Evolutionary Quantitative Genetic Inference from Generalized Mixed Models.
de Villemereuil, Pierre; Schielzeth, Holger; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Morrissey, Michael
2016-11-01
Methods for inference and interpretation of evolutionary quantitative genetic parameters, and for prediction of the response to selection, are best developed for traits with normal distributions. Many traits of evolutionary interest, including many life history and behavioral traits, have inherently nonnormal distributions. The generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) framework has become a widely used tool for estimating quantitative genetic parameters for nonnormal traits. However, whereas GLMMs provide inference on a statistically convenient latent scale, it is often desirable to express quantitative genetic parameters on the scale upon which traits are measured. The parameters of fitted GLMMs, despite being on a latent scale, fully determine all quantities of potential interest on the scale on which traits are expressed. We provide expressions for deriving each of such quantities, including population means, phenotypic (co)variances, variance components including additive genetic (co)variances, and parameters such as heritability. We demonstrate that fixed effects have a strong impact on those parameters and show how to deal with this by averaging or integrating over fixed effects. The expressions require integration of quantities determined by the link function, over distributions of latent values. In general cases, the required integrals must be solved numerically, but efficient methods are available and we provide an implementation in an R package, QGglmm. We show that known formulas for quantities such as heritability of traits with binomial and Poisson distributions are special cases of our expressions. Additionally, we show how fitted GLMM can be incorporated into existing methods for predicting evolutionary trajectories. We demonstrate the accuracy of the resulting method for evolutionary prediction by simulation and apply our approach to data from a wild pedigreed vertebrate population. Copyright © 2016 de Villemereuil et al.
van de Wiel, A
2006-11-18
The prevalence of problem drinking in the Dutch population, affecting about 750,000 persons, is much higher than that of abuse or addiction and contributes substantially to healthcare workload and costs. However, recognition, not only in primary care but also in the hospital environment, can be difficult. The symptoms are often non-specific and are not always immediately related to the use of alcohol. Even in cases of overt abuse, like in injuries and trauma, routine drinking histories are recorded poorly and identification and signalling are inadequate. It is estimated that up to 16% of all emergency room patients have consumed alcohol within six hours before their visit. Since a patient will benefit not only from the treatment of his symptoms but also from the uncovering of the underlying problem, more emphasis should be laid on the early identification of problem drinking. Especially in the early phase of problem drinking, interventions, in most cases by primary-care physicians or nurse practitioners, may be successful. Since the revised version of the practice guideline 'Problematic alcohol consumption' from the Dutch College of General Practitioners contains clear and practical advice on the early recognition and management of problem drinking, its use is recommended not only to primary-care physicians but also to hospital-specialist staff.
van Avendonk, Mariëlle J P; Mensink, Paul A J S; Drenthen, A J M Ton; van Binsbergen, Jaap J
2012-04-01
The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally and forms a huge public health problem. On the other hand, the prevalence of malnutrition or undernutrition is substantial, especially in nursing homes or in the elderly at home. Primary care and public health are separate disciplines. But in the field of nutrition and other lifestyle-related interventions, there are many direct and indirect interfaces for over- as well as undernutrition. The Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) published the Practice Guideline Obesity in adults and children to lead GPs in this process and to bridge the gap with public health. The same applies for the recently published National Primary Care Cooperation Agreement Undernutrition on the collaboration of primary care workers to enhance awareness and early intervention in case of nutritional impairment. This article goes into the background as well as the content of these two NHG products and the implications for daily practice. An attempt is made to connect primary care and public health in this matter. Particularly in the case of obesity, a close relationship with public health is of vital importance.
Richter-Sundberg, Linda; Kardakis, Therese; Weinehall, Lars; Garvare, Rickard; Nyström, Monica E
2015-01-22
Many of the world's life threatening diseases (e.g. cancer, heart disease, stroke) could be prevented by eliminating life-style habits such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and excessive alcohol use. Incorporating evidence-based research on methods to change unhealthy lifestyle habits in clinical practice would be equally valuable. However gaps between guideline development and implementation are well documented, with implications for health care quality, safety and effectiveness. The development phase of guidelines has been shown to be important both for the quality in guideline content and for the success of implementation. There are, however, indications that guidelines related to general disease prevention methods encounter specific barriers compared to guidelines that are diagnosis-specific. In 2011 the Swedish National board for Health and Welfare launched guidelines with a preventive scope. The aim of this study was to investigate how implementation challenges were addressed during the development process of these disease preventive guidelines. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of the guideline development management group. Archival data detailing the guideline development process were also collected and used in the analysis. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis as the analytical framework. The study identified several strategies and approaches that were used to address implementation challenges during guideline development. Four themes emerged from the analysis: broad agreements and consensus about scope and purpose; a formalized and structured development procedure; systematic and active involvement of stakeholders; and openness and transparency in the specific guideline development procedure. Additional factors concerning the scope of prevention and the work environment of guideline developers were perceived to influence the possibilities to address implementation issues. This case study
Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles
Voronina, Ekaterina; Novikov, Lev
2016-07-01
In accordance with the resolution of ISO TC20/SC14 WG4/WG6 joint meeting, Technical Specification (TS) 'Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles' which describes computer simulation methods of space environment impact on nanostructured materials is being prepared. Nanomaterials surpass traditional materials for space applications in many aspects due to their unique properties associated with nanoscale size of their constituents. This superiority in mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties will evidently inspire a wide range of applications in the next generation spacecraft intended for the long-term (~15-20 years) operation in near-Earth orbits and the automatic and manned interplanetary missions. Currently, ISO activity on developing standards concerning different issues of nanomaterials manufacturing and applications is high enough. Most such standards are related to production and characterization of nanostructures, however there is no ISO documents concerning nanomaterials behavior in different environmental conditions, including the space environment. The given TS deals with the peculiarities of the space environment impact on nanostructured materials (i.e. materials with structured objects which size in at least one dimension lies within 1-100 nm). The basic purpose of the document is the general description of the methodology of applying computer simulation methods which relate to different space and time scale to modeling processes occurring in nanostructured materials under the space environment impact. This document will emphasize the necessity of applying multiscale simulation approach and present the recommendations for the choice of the most appropriate methods (or a group of methods) for computer modeling of various processes that can occur in nanostructured materials under the influence of different space environment components. In addition, TS includes the description of possible
Do downscaled general circulation models reliably simulate historical climatic conditions?
Bock, Andrew R.; Hay, Lauren E.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Atkinson, R. Dwight
2018-01-01
The accuracy of statistically downscaled (SD) general circulation model (GCM) simulations of monthly surface climate for historical conditions (1950–2005) was assessed for the conterminous United States (CONUS). The SD monthly precipitation (PPT) and temperature (TAVE) from 95 GCMs from phases 3 and 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5) were used as inputs to a monthly water balance model (MWBM). Distributions of MWBM input (PPT and TAVE) and output [runoff (RUN)] variables derived from gridded station data (GSD) and historical SD climate were compared using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS) test For all three variables considered, the KS test results showed that variables simulated using CMIP5 generally are more reliable than those derived from CMIP3, likely due to improvements in PPT simulations. At most locations across the CONUS, the largest differences between GSD and SD PPT and RUN occurred in the lowest part of the distributions (i.e., low-flow RUN and low-magnitude PPT). Results indicate that for the majority of the CONUS, there are downscaled GCMs that can reliably simulate historical climatic conditions. But, in some geographic locations, none of the SD GCMs replicated historical conditions for two of the three variables (PPT and RUN) based on the KS test, with a significance level of 0.05. In these locations, improved GCM simulations of PPT are needed to more reliably estimate components of the hydrologic cycle. Simple metrics and statistical tests, such as those described here, can provide an initial set of criteria to help simplify GCM selection.
A generalized model for estimating the energy density of invertebrates
James, Daniel A.; Csargo, Isak J.; Von Eschen, Aaron; Thul, Megan D.; Baker, James M.; Hayer, Cari-Ann; Howell, Jessica; Krause, Jacob; Letvin, Alex; Chipps, Steven R.
2012-01-01
Invertebrate energy density (ED) values are traditionally measured using bomb calorimetry. However, many researchers rely on a few published literature sources to obtain ED values because of time and sampling constraints on measuring ED with bomb calorimetry. Literature values often do not account for spatial or temporal variability associated with invertebrate ED. Thus, these values can be unreliable for use in models and other ecological applications. We evaluated the generality of the relationship between invertebrate ED and proportion of dry-to-wet mass (pDM). We then developed and tested a regression model to predict ED from pDM based on a taxonomically, spatially, and temporally diverse sample of invertebrates representing 28 orders in aquatic (freshwater, estuarine, and marine) and terrestrial (temperate and arid) habitats from 4 continents and 2 oceans. Samples included invertebrates collected in all seasons over the last 19 y. Evaluation of these data revealed a significant relationship between ED and pDM (r2 = 0.96, p cost savings compared to traditional bomb calorimetry approaches. This model should prove useful for a wide range of ecological studies because it is unaffected by taxonomic, seasonal, or spatial variability.
General relativity cosmological models without the big bang
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosen, N.
1985-01-01
Attention is given to the so-called standard model of the universe in the framework of the general theory of relativity. This model is taken to be homogeneous and isotropic and filled with an ideal fluid characterized by a density and a pressure. Taking into consideration, however, the assumption that the universe began in a singular state, it is found hard to understand why the universe is so nearly homogeneous and isotropic at present for a singularity represents a breakdown of physical laws, and the initial singularity cannot, therefore, predetermine the subsequent symmetries of the universe. The present investigation has the objective to find a way of avoiding this initial singularity, i.e., to look for a cosmological model without the big bang. The idea is proposed that there exists a limiting density of matter of the order of magnitude of the Planck density, and that this was the density of matter at the moment at which the universe began to expand
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xingwei Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the uneven distribution of pollutions and blur edge of pollutant area, there will exist uncertainty of source term shape in advective-diffusion equation model of contaminant transport. How to generalize those irregular source terms and deal with those uncertainties is very critical but rarely studied in previous research. In this study, the fate and transport of contaminant from rectangular and elliptic source geometry were simulated based on a three-dimensional analytical solute transport model, and the source geometry generalization guideline was developed by comparing the migration of contaminant. The result indicated that the variation of source area size had no effect on pollution plume migration when the plume migrated as far as five times of source side length. The migration of pollution plume became slower with the increase of aquifer thickness. The contaminant concentration was decreasing with scale factor rising, and the differences among various scale factors became smaller with the distance to field increasing.
Faraway, Julian J
2005-01-01
Linear models are central to the practice of statistics and form the foundation of a vast range of statistical methodologies. Julian J. Faraway''s critically acclaimed Linear Models with R examined regression and analysis of variance, demonstrated the different methods available, and showed in which situations each one applies. Following in those footsteps, Extending the Linear Model with R surveys the techniques that grow from the regression model, presenting three extensions to that framework: generalized linear models (GLMs), mixed effect models, and nonparametric regression models. The author''s treatment is thoroughly modern and covers topics that include GLM diagnostics, generalized linear mixed models, trees, and even the use of neural networks in statistics. To demonstrate the interplay of theory and practice, throughout the book the author weaves the use of the R software environment to analyze the data of real examples, providing all of the R commands necessary to reproduce the analyses. All of the ...
A general Bayes weibull inference model for accelerated life testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorp, J. Rene van; Mazzuchi, Thomas A.
2005-01-01
This article presents the development of a general Bayes inference model for accelerated life testing. The failure times at a constant stress level are assumed to belong to a Weibull distribution, but the specification of strict adherence to a parametric time-transformation function is not required. Rather, prior information is used to indirectly define a multivariate prior distribution for the scale parameters at the various stress levels and the common shape parameter. Using the approach, Bayes point estimates as well as probability statements for use-stress (and accelerated) life parameters may be inferred from a host of testing scenarios. The inference procedure accommodates both the interval data sampling strategy and type I censored sampling strategy for the collection of ALT test data. The inference procedure uses the well-known MCMC (Markov Chain Monte Carlo) methods to derive posterior approximations. The approach is illustrated with an example
Generalized Swept Mid-structure for Polygonal Models
Martin, Tobias; Chen, Guoning; Musuvathy, Suraj; Cohen, Elaine; Hansen, Charles
2012-01-01
We introduce a novel mid-structure called the generalized swept mid-structure (GSM) of a closed polygonal shape, and a framework to compute it. The GSM contains both curve and surface elements and has consistent sheet-by-sheet topology, versus triangle-by-triangle topology produced by other mid-structure methods. To obtain this structure, a harmonic function, defined on the volume that is enclosed by the surface, is used to decompose the volume into a set of slices. A technique for computing the 1D mid-structures of these slices is introduced. The mid-structures of adjacent slices are then iteratively matched through a boundary similarity computation and triangulated to form the GSM. This structure respects the topology of the input surface model is a hybrid mid-structure representation. The construction and topology of the GSM allows for local and global simplification, used in further applications such as parameterization, volumetric mesh generation and medical applications.
Generalized Swept Mid-structure for Polygonal Models
Martin, Tobias
2012-05-01
We introduce a novel mid-structure called the generalized swept mid-structure (GSM) of a closed polygonal shape, and a framework to compute it. The GSM contains both curve and surface elements and has consistent sheet-by-sheet topology, versus triangle-by-triangle topology produced by other mid-structure methods. To obtain this structure, a harmonic function, defined on the volume that is enclosed by the surface, is used to decompose the volume into a set of slices. A technique for computing the 1D mid-structures of these slices is introduced. The mid-structures of adjacent slices are then iteratively matched through a boundary similarity computation and triangulated to form the GSM. This structure respects the topology of the input surface model is a hybrid mid-structure representation. The construction and topology of the GSM allows for local and global simplification, used in further applications such as parameterization, volumetric mesh generation and medical applications.
Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: Public Health Implications and a Novel Model Treatment Guideline
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seth Meyer
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS is an entity associated with cannabinoid overuse. CHS typically presents with cyclical vomiting, diffuse abdominal pain, and relief with hot showers. Patients often present to the emergency department (ED repeatedly and undergo extensive evaluations including laboratory examination, advanced imaging, and in some cases unnecessary procedures. They are exposed to an array of pharmacologic interventions including opioids that not only lack evidence, but may also be harmful. This paper presents a novel treatment guideline that highlights the identification and diagnosis of CHS and summarizes treatment strategies aimed at resolution of symptoms, avoidance of unnecessary opioids, and ensuring patient safety. Methods: The San Diego Emergency Medicine Oversight Commission in collaboration with the County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency and San Diego Kaiser Permanente Division of Medical Toxicology created an expert consensus panel to establish a guideline to unite the ED community in the treatment of CHS. Results: Per the consensus guideline, treatment should focus on symptom relief and education on the need for cannabis cessation. Capsaicin is a readily available topical preparation that is reasonable to use as first-line treatment. Antipsychotics including haloperidol and olanzapine have been reported to provide complete symptom relief in limited case studies. Conventional antiemetics including antihistamines, serotonin antagonists, dopamine antagonists and benzodiazepines may have limited effectiveness. Emergency physicians should avoid opioids if the diagnosis of CHS is certain and educate patients that cannabis cessation is the only intervention that will provide complete symptom relief. Conclusion: An expert consensus treatment guideline is provided to assist with diagnosis and appropriate treatment of CHS. Clinicians and public health officials should identity and treat CHS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stehfest, E; De Waal, L.
2010-09-15
This document describes the requirements and guidelines for the software of the IMAGE system. The motivation for this report was a substantial restructuring of the source code for IMAGE version 2.5. The requirements and guidelines relate to design considerations as well as to aspects of maintainability and portability. The design considerations determine guidelines about subjects, such as program structure, model hierarchy, the use of data modules, and the error message system. Maintainability and portability aspects determine the guidelines on, for example, the Fortran 90 standard, naming conventions, code lay-out, and internal documentation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.
1985-05-01
This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. This volume includes specific recommendations for decision-making managers and site operators on how to use these guidelines. The more detailed discussions about the code selection approach are provided. 242 refs., 6 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.
1985-05-01
This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. This volume includes specific recommendations for decision-making managers and site operators on how to use these guidelines. The more detailed discussions about the code selection approach are provided. 242 refs., 6 figs
Lo, Nathan C; Lai, Ying-Si; Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Bogoch, Isaac I; Coulibaly, Jean T; Bendavid, Eran; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope; Andrews, Jason R
2016-09-01
WHO guidelines recommend annual treatment for schistosomiasis or soil-transmitted helminthiasis when prevalence in school-aged children is at or above a threshold of 50% and 20%, respectively. Separate treatment guidelines are used for these two helminthiases, and integrated community-wide treatment is not recommended. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of changing prevalence thresholds and treatment guidelines under an integrated delivery framework. We developed a dynamic, age-structured transmission and cost-effectiveness model that simulates integrated preventive chemotherapy programmes against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. We assessed a 5-year treatment programme with praziquantel (40 mg/kg per treatment) against schistosomiasis and albendazole (400 mg per treatment) against soil-transmitted helminthiasis at 75% coverage. We defined strategies as highly cost-effective if the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was less than the World Bank classification for a low-income country (gross domestic product of US$1045 per capita). We calculated the prevalence thresholds for cost-effective preventive chemotherapy of various strategies, and estimated treatment needs for sub-Saharan Africa. Annual preventive chemotherapy against schistosomiasis was highly cost-effective in treatment of school-aged children at a prevalence threshold of 5% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1·7-5·2; current guidelines recommend treatment at 50% prevalence) and for community-wide treatment at a prevalence of 15% (7·3-18·5; current recommendation is unclear, some community treatment recommended at 50% prevalence). Annual preventive chemotherapy against soil-transmitted helminthiasis was highly cost-effective in treatment of school-aged children at a prevalence of 20% (95% UI 5·4-30·5; current guidelines recommend treatment at 20% prevalence) and the entire community at 60% (35·3-85·1; no guidelines available). When both helminthiases were co-endemic, prevalence
A generalized methodology for identification of threshold for HRU delineation in SWAT model
M, J.; Sudheer, K.; Chaubey, I.; Raj, C.
2016-12-01
The distributed hydrological model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a comprehensive hydrologic model widely used for making various decisions. The simulation accuracy of the distributed hydrological model differs due to the mechanism involved in the subdivision of the watershed. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) considers sub-dividing the watershed and the sub-basins into small computing units known as 'hydrologic response units (HRU). The delineation of HRU is done based on unique combinations of land use, soil types, and slope within the sub-watersheds, which are not spatially defined. The computations in SWAT are done at HRU level and are then aggregated up to the sub-basin outlet, which is routed through the stream system. Generally, the HRUs are delineated by considering a threshold percentage of land use, soil and slope are to be given by the modeler to decrease the computation time of the model. The thresholds constrain the minimum area for constructing an HRU. In the current HRU delineation practice in SWAT, the land use, soil and slope of the watershed within a sub-basin, which is less than the predefined threshold, will be surpassed by the dominating land use, soil and slope, and introduce some level of ambiguity in the process simulations in terms of inappropriate representation of the area. But the loss of information due to variation in the threshold values depends highly on the purpose of the study. Therefore this research studies the effects of threshold values of HRU delineation on the hydrological modeling of SWAT on sediment simulations and suggests guidelines for selecting the appropriate threshold values considering the sediment simulation accuracy. The preliminary study was done on Illinois watershed by assigning different thresholds for land use and soil. A general methodology was proposed for identifying an appropriate threshold for HRU delineation in SWAT model that considered computational time and accuracy of the simulation
Digital terrain model generalization incorporating scale, semantic and cognitive constraints
Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Papadogiorgaki, Maria
2014-05-01
Cartographic generalization is a well-known process accommodating spatial data compression, visualization and comprehension under various scales. In the last few years, there are several international attempts to construct tangible GIS systems, forming real 3D surfaces using a vast number of mechanical parts along a matrix formation (i.e., bars, pistons, vacuums). Usually, moving bars upon a structured grid push a stretching membrane resulting in a smooth visualization for a given surface. Most of these attempts suffer either in their cost, accuracy, resolution and/or speed. Under this perspective, the present study proposes a surface generalization process that incorporates intrinsic constrains of tangible GIS systems including robotic-motor movement and surface stretching limitations. The main objective is to provide optimized visualizations of 3D digital terrain models with minimum loss of information. That is, to minimize the number of pixels in a raster dataset used to define a DTM, while reserving the surface information. This neighborhood type of pixel relations adheres to the basics of Self Organizing Map (SOM) artificial neural networks, which are often used for information abstraction since they are indicative of intrinsic statistical features contained in the input patterns and provide concise and characteristic representations. Nevertheless, SOM remains more like a black box procedure not capable to cope with possible particularities and semantics of the application at hand. E.g. for coastal monitoring applications, the near - coast areas, surrounding mountains and lakes are more important than other features and generalization should be "biased"-stratified to fulfill this requirement. Moreover, according to the application objectives, we extend the SOM algorithm to incorporate special types of information generalization by differentiating the underlying strategy based on topologic information of the objects included in the application. The final
Bayes estimation of the general hazard rate model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarhan, A.
1999-01-01
In reliability theory and life testing models, the life time distributions are often specified by choosing a relevant hazard rate function. Here a general hazard rate function h(t)=a+bt c-1 , where c, a, b are constants greater than zero, is considered. The parameter c is assumed to be known. The Bayes estimators of (a,b) based on the data of type II/item-censored testing without replacement are obtained. A large simulation study using Monte Carlo Method is done to compare the performance of Bayes with regression estimators of (a,b). The criterion for comparison is made based on the Bayes risk associated with the respective estimator. Also, the influence of the number of failed items on the accuracy of the estimators (Bayes and regression) is investigated. Estimations for the parameters (a,b) of the linearly increasing hazard rate model h(t)=a+bt, where a, b are greater than zero, can be obtained as the special case, letting c=2
Generalized Functional Linear Models With Semiparametric Single-Index Interactions
Li, Yehua
2010-06-01
We introduce a new class of functional generalized linear models, where the response is a scalar and some of the covariates are functional. We assume that the response depends on multiple covariates, a finite number of latent features in the functional predictor, and interaction between the two. To achieve parsimony, the interaction between the multiple covariates and the functional predictor is modeled semiparametrically with a single-index structure. We propose a two step estimation procedure based on local estimating equations, and investigate two situations: (a) when the basis functions are pre-determined, e.g., Fourier or wavelet basis functions and the functional features of interest are known; and (b) when the basis functions are data driven, such as with functional principal components. Asymptotic properties are developed. Notably, we show that when the functional features are data driven, the parameter estimates have an increased asymptotic variance, due to the estimation error of the basis functions. Our methods are illustrated with a simulation study and applied to an empirical data set, where a previously unknown interaction is detected. Technical proofs of our theoretical results are provided in the online supplemental materials.
CHAIN-WISE GENERALIZATION OF ROAD NETWORKS USING MODEL SELECTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Bulatov
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Streets are essential entities of urban terrain and their automatized extraction from airborne sensor data is cumbersome because of a complex interplay of geometric, topological and semantic aspects. Given a binary image, representing the road class, centerlines of road segments are extracted by means of skeletonization. The focus of this paper lies in a well-reasoned representation of these segments by means of geometric primitives, such as straight line segments as well as circle and ellipse arcs. We propose the fusion of raw segments based on similarity criteria; the output of this process are the so-called chains which better match to the intuitive perception of what a street is. Further, we propose a two-step approach for chain-wise generalization. First, the chain is pre-segmented using circlePeucker and finally, model selection is used to decide whether two neighboring segments should be fused to a new geometric entity. Thereby, we consider both variance-covariance analysis of residuals and model complexity. The results on a complex data-set with many traffic roundabouts indicate the benefits of the proposed procedure.
Cognitive performance modeling based on general systems performance theory.
Kondraske, George V
2010-01-01
General Systems Performance Theory (GSPT) was initially motivated by problems associated with quantifying different aspects of human performance. It has proved to be invaluable for measurement development and understanding quantitative relationships between human subsystem capacities and performance in complex tasks. It is now desired to bring focus to the application of GSPT to modeling of cognitive system performance. Previous studies involving two complex tasks (i.e., driving and performing laparoscopic surgery) and incorporating measures that are clearly related to cognitive performance (information processing speed and short-term memory capacity) were revisited. A GSPT-derived method of task analysis and performance prediction termed Nonlinear Causal Resource Analysis (NCRA) was employed to determine the demand on basic cognitive performance resources required to support different levels of complex task performance. This approach is presented as a means to determine a cognitive workload profile and the subsequent computation of a single number measure of cognitive workload (CW). Computation of CW may be a viable alternative to measuring it. Various possible "more basic" performance resources that contribute to cognitive system performance are discussed. It is concluded from this preliminary exploration that a GSPT-based approach can contribute to defining cognitive performance models that are useful for both individual subjects and specific groups (e.g., military pilots).
Critical rotation of general-relativistic polytropic models revisited
Geroyannis, V.; Karageorgopoulos, V.
2013-09-01
We develop a perturbation method for computing the critical rotational parameter as a function of the equatorial radius of a rigidly rotating polytropic model in the "post-Newtonia approximation" (PNA). We treat our models as "initial value problems" (IVP) of ordinary differential equations in the complex plane. The computations are carried out by the code dcrkf54.f95 (Geroyannis and Valvi 2012 [P1]; modified Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg code of fourth and fifth order for solving initial value problems in the complex plane). Such a complex-plane treatment removes the syndromes appearing in this particular family of IVPs (see e.g. P1, Sec. 3) and allows continuation of the numerical integrations beyond the surface of the star. Thus all the required values of the Lane-Emden function(s) in the post-Newtonian approximation are calculated by interpolation (so avoiding any extrapolation). An interesting point is that, in our computations, we take into account the complete correction due to the gravitational term, and this issue is a remarkable difference compared to the classical PNA. We solve the generalized density as a function of the equatorial radius and find the critical rotational parameter. Our computations are extended to certain other physical characteristics (like mass, angular momentum, rotational kinetic energy, etc). We find that our method yields results comparable with those of other reliable methods. REFERENCE: V.S. Geroyannis and F.N. Valvi 2012, International Journal of Modern Physics C, 23, No 5, 1250038:1-15.
Generalized Functional Linear Models With Semiparametric Single-Index Interactions
Li, Yehua; Wang, Naisyin; Carroll, Raymond J.
2010-01-01
We introduce a new class of functional generalized linear models, where the response is a scalar and some of the covariates are functional. We assume that the response depends on multiple covariates, a finite number of latent features in the functional predictor, and interaction between the two. To achieve parsimony, the interaction between the multiple covariates and the functional predictor is modeled semiparametrically with a single-index structure. We propose a two step estimation procedure based on local estimating equations, and investigate two situations: (a) when the basis functions are pre-determined, e.g., Fourier or wavelet basis functions and the functional features of interest are known; and (b) when the basis functions are data driven, such as with functional principal components. Asymptotic properties are developed. Notably, we show that when the functional features are data driven, the parameter estimates have an increased asymptotic variance, due to the estimation error of the basis functions. Our methods are illustrated with a simulation study and applied to an empirical data set, where a previously unknown interaction is detected. Technical proofs of our theoretical results are provided in the online supplemental materials.
Prognostic cloud water in the Los Alamos general circulation model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kristjansson, J.E.; Kao, C.Y.J.
1993-01-01
Most of today's general circulation models (GCMS) have a greatly simplified treatment of condensation and clouds. Recent observational studies of the earth's radiation budget have suggested cloud-related feedback mechanisms to be of tremendous importance for the issue of global change. Thus, there has arisen an urgent need for improvements in the treatment of clouds in GCMS, especially as the clouds relate to radiation. In the present paper, we investigate the effects of introducing pregnostic cloud water into the Los Alamos GCM. The cloud water field, produced by both stratiform and convective condensation, is subject to 3-dimensional advection and vertical diffusion. The cloud water enters the radiation calculations through the long wave emissivity calculations. Results from several sensitivity simulations show that realistic cloud water and precipitation fields can be obtained with the applied method. Comparisons with observations show that the most realistic results are obtained when more sophisticated schemes for moist convection are introduced at the same time. The model's cold bias is reduced and the zonal winds become stronger, due to more realistic tropical convection
Prognostic cloud water in the Los Alamos general circulation model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kristjansson, J.E.; Kao, C.Y.J.
1994-01-01
Most of today's general circulation models (GCMs) have a greatly simplified treatment of condensation and clouds. Recent observational studies of the earth's radiation budget have suggested cloud-related feedback mechanisms to be of tremendous importance for the issue of global change. Thus, an urgent need for improvements in the treatment of clouds in GCMs has arisen, especially as the clouds relate to radiation. In this paper, we investigate the effects of introducing prognostic cloud water into the Los Alamos GCM. The cloud water field, produced by both stratiform and convective condensation, is subject to 3-dimensional advection and vertical diffusion. The cloud water enters the radiation calculations through the longwave emissivity calculations. Results from several sensitivity simulations show that realistic water and precipitation fields can be obtained with the applied method. Comparisons with observations show that the most realistic results are obtained when more sophisticated schemes for moist convection are introduced at the same time. The model's cold bias is reduced and the zonal winds becomes stronger because of more realistic tropical convection
Design and implementation of a generalized laboratory data model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nhan Mike
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigators in the biological sciences continue to exploit laboratory automation methods and have dramatically increased the rates at which they can generate data. In many environments, the methods themselves also evolve in a rapid and fluid manner. These observations point to the importance of robust information management systems in the modern laboratory. Designing and implementing such systems is non-trivial and it appears that in many cases a database project ultimately proves unserviceable. Results We describe a general modeling framework for laboratory data and its implementation as an information management system. The model utilizes several abstraction techniques, focusing especially on the concepts of inheritance and meta-data. Traditional approaches commingle event-oriented data with regular entity data in ad hoc ways. Instead, we define distinct regular entity and event schemas, but fully integrate these via a standardized interface. The design allows straightforward definition of a "processing pipeline" as a sequence of events, obviating the need for separate workflow management systems. A layer above the event-oriented schema integrates events into a workflow by defining "processing directives", which act as automated project managers of items in the system. Directives can be added or modified in an almost trivial fashion, i.e., without the need for schema modification or re-certification of applications. Association between regular entities and events is managed via simple "many-to-many" relationships. We describe the programming interface, as well as techniques for handling input/output, process control, and state transitions. Conclusion The implementation described here has served as the Washington University Genome Sequencing Center's primary information system for several years. It handles all transactions underlying a throughput rate of about 9 million sequencing reactions of various kinds per month and
Weather regimes in past climate atmospheric general circulation model simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kageyama, M.; Ramstein, G. [CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Lab. des Sci. du Climat et de l' Environnement; D' Andrea, F.; Vautard, R. [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris (France); Valdes, P.J. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading (United Kingdom)
1999-10-01
We investigate the climates of the present-day, inception of the last glaciation (115000 y ago) and last glacial maximum (21000 y ago) in the extratropical north Atlantic and Europe, as simulated by the laboratoire de Meteorologie dynamique atmospheric general circulation model. We use these simulations to investigate the low-frequency variability of the model in different climates. The aim is to evaluate whether changes in the intraseasonal variability, which we characterize using weather regimes, can help describe the impact of different boundary conditions on climate and give a better understanding of climate change processes. Weather regimes are defined as the most recurrent patterns in the 500 hPa geopotential height, using a clustering algorithm method. The regimes found in the climate simulations of the present-day and inception of the last glaciation are similar in their number and their structure. It is the regimes' populations which are found to be different for these climates, with an increase of the model's blocked regime and a decrease in the zonal regime at the inception of the last glaciation. This description reinforces the conclusions from a study of the differences between the climatological averages of the different runs and confirms the northeastward shift to the tail of the Atlantic storm-track, which would favour more precipitation over the site of growth of the Fennoscandian ice-sheet. On the other hand, the last glacial maximum results over this sector are not found to be classifiable, showing that the change in boundary conditions can be responsible for severe changes in the weather regime and low-frequency dynamics. The LGM Atlantic low-frequency variability appears to be dominated by a large-scale retrogressing wave with a period 40 to 50 days. (orig.)
Groundwater Flow Model of the General Separations Area Using PORFLOW
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
FLACH, GREGORY
2004-01-01
The E Area PA (McDowell-Boyer et al. 2000) includes a steady-state simulation of groundwater flow in the General Separations Area as a prerequisite for saturated zone contaminant transport analyses. The groundwater flow simulations are based on the FACT code (Hamm and Aleman2000). The FACT-based GSA model was selected during preparation of the original PA to take advantage of an existing model developed for environmental restoration applications at the SRS (Flach and Harris 1997, 1999; Flach 1999). The existing GSA/FACT model was then slightly modified for PA use, as described in the PA document. FACT is a finite-element code utilizing deformed brick elements. Material properties are defined at element centers, and state variables such as hydraulic head are located at element vertices. The PORFLOW code (Analytic and Computational Research, Inc. 2000) was selected for performing saturated zone transport simulations of source zone radionuclides and their progeny. PORFLOW utilizes control volume discretization and the nodal point integration method, with all properties and state variables being defined at the center of an interior grid cell. The groundwater flow calculation includes translating the Darcy velocity field computed by FACT into a form compatible for input to PORFLOW. The FACT velocity field is defined at element vertices, whereas PORFLOW requires flux across cell faces. For the present PA, PORFLOW cell face flux is computed in a two-step process. An initial face flux is computed from FACT as an average of the normal components of Darcy velocity at the four corners. The derived flux field approximately conserves mass, but not rigorously. Thus, the flux field is subsequently perturbed to force rigorous mass conservation on a cell-by-cell basis. The undocumented process used is non-unique and can introduce significant artifacts into the final flux field
Care Model Design for E-Health: Integration of Point-of-Care Testing at Dutch General Practices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bart Verhees
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Point-of-care testing (POCT—laboratory tests performed with new mobile devices and online technologies outside of the central laboratory—is rapidly outpacing the traditional laboratory test market, growing at a rate of 12 to 15% each year. POCT impacts the diagnostic process of care providers by yielding high efficiency benefits in terms of turnaround time and related quality improvements in the reduction of errors. However, the implementation of this disruptive eHealth technology requires the integration and transformation of diagnostic services across the boundaries of healthcare organizations. Research has revealed both advantages and barriers of POCT implementations, yet to date, there is no business model for the integration of POCT within general practice. The aim of this article is to contribute with a design for a care model that enables the integration of POCT in primary healthcare. In this research, we used a design modelling toolkit for data collection at five general practices. Through an iterative design process, we modelled the actors and value transactions, and designed an optimized care model for the dynamic integration of POCTs into the GP’s network of care delivery. The care model design will have a direct bearing on improving the integration of POCT through the connectivity and norm guidelines between the general practice, the POC technology, and the diagnostic centre.
Care Model Design for E-Health: Integration of Point-of-Care Testing at Dutch General Practices.
Verhees, Bart; van Kuijk, Kees; Simonse, Lianne
2017-12-21
Point-of-care testing (POCT)-laboratory tests performed with new mobile devices and online technologies outside of the central laboratory-is rapidly outpacing the traditional laboratory test market, growing at a rate of 12 to 15% each year. POCT impacts the diagnostic process of care providers by yielding high efficiency benefits in terms of turnaround time and related quality improvements in the reduction of errors. However, the implementation of this disruptive eHealth technology requires the integration and transformation of diagnostic services across the boundaries of healthcare organizations. Research has revealed both advantages and barriers of POCT implementations, yet to date, there is no business model for the integration of POCT within general practice. The aim of this article is to contribute with a design for a care model that enables the integration of POCT in primary healthcare. In this research, we used a design modelling toolkit for data collection at five general practices. Through an iterative design process, we modelled the actors and value transactions, and designed an optimized care model for the dynamic integration of POCTs into the GP's network of care delivery. The care model design will have a direct bearing on improving the integration of POCT through the connectivity and norm guidelines between the general practice, the POC technology, and the diagnostic centre.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kostoulas, Polychronis; Nielsen, Søren S.; Branscum, Adam J.
2017-01-01
of disease status (i.e., disease status is a latent variable). Statistical methods were introduced in this context by Hui and Walter and have been succesfully applied since then, with the majority of the work being carried out in a Bayesian framework. While STARD provides useful reporting guidelines...... for studies designed to estimate the accuracy of tests when disease status is known. The original STARD statement was initially published in seven journals, while an updated version — STARD2015 — has been recently released. More than 200 biomedical journals encourage its use in their instructions to authors...
Log-normal frailty models fitted as Poisson generalized linear mixed models.
Hirsch, Katharina; Wienke, Andreas; Kuss, Oliver
2016-12-01
The equivalence of a survival model with a piecewise constant baseline hazard function and a Poisson regression model has been known since decades. As shown in recent studies, this equivalence carries over to clustered survival data: A frailty model with a log-normal frailty term can be interpreted and estimated as a generalized linear mixed model with a binary response, a Poisson likelihood, and a specific offset. Proceeding this way, statistical theory and software for generalized linear mixed models are readily available for fitting frailty models. This gain in flexibility comes at the small price of (1) having to fix the number of pieces for the baseline hazard in advance and (2) having to "explode" the data set by the number of pieces. In this paper we extend the simulations of former studies by using a more realistic baseline hazard (Gompertz) and by comparing the model under consideration with competing models. Furthermore, the SAS macro %PCFrailty is introduced to apply the Poisson generalized linear mixed approach to frailty models. The simulations show good results for the shared frailty model. Our new %PCFrailty macro provides proper estimates, especially in case of 4 events per piece. The suggested Poisson generalized linear mixed approach for log-normal frailty models based on the %PCFrailty macro provides several advantages in the analysis of clustered survival data with respect to more flexible modelling of fixed and random effects, exact (in the sense of non-approximate) maximum likelihood estimation, and standard errors and different types of confidence intervals for all variance parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
General formulation of standard model the standard model is in need of new concepts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khodjaev, L.Sh.
2001-01-01
The phenomenological basis for formulation of the Standard Model has been reviewed. The Standard Model based on the fundamental postulates has been formulated. The concept of the fundamental symmetries has been introduced: To look for not fundamental particles but fundamental symmetries. By searching of more general theory it is natural to search first of all global symmetries and than to learn consequence connected with the localisation of this global symmetries like wise of the standard Model
Explicit prediction of ice clouds in general circulation models
Kohler, Martin
1999-11-01
Although clouds play extremely important roles in the radiation budget and hydrological cycle of the Earth, there are large quantitative uncertainties in our understanding of their generation, maintenance and decay mechanisms, representing major obstacles in the development of reliable prognostic cloud water schemes for General Circulation Models (GCMs). Recognizing their relative neglect in the past, both observationally and theoretically, this work places special focus on ice clouds. A recent version of the UCLA - University of Utah Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) that includes interactive radiation is used to perform idealized experiments to study ice cloud maintenance and decay mechanisms under various conditions in term of: (1) background static stability, (2) background relative humidity, (3) rate of cloud ice addition over a fixed initial time-period and (4) radiation: daytime, nighttime and no-radiation. Radiation is found to have major effects on the life-time of layer-clouds. Optically thick ice clouds decay significantly slower than expected from pure microphysical crystal fall-out (taucld = 0.9--1.4 h as opposed to no-motion taumicro = 0.5--0.7 h). This is explained by the upward turbulent fluxes of water induced by IR destabilization, which partially balance the downward transport of water by snowfall. Solar radiation further slows the ice-water decay by destruction of the inversion above cloud-top and the resulting upward transport of water. Optically thin ice clouds, on the other hand, may exhibit even longer life-times (>1 day) in the presence of radiational cooling. The resulting saturation mixing ratio reduction provides for a constant cloud ice source. These CRM results are used to develop a prognostic cloud water scheme for the UCLA-GCM. The framework is based on the bulk water phase model of Ose (1993). The model predicts cloud liquid water and cloud ice separately, and which is extended to split the ice phase into suspended cloud ice (predicted
Multi-year predictability in a coupled general circulation model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Power, Scott; Colman, Rob [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)
2006-02-01
Multi-year to decadal variability in a 100-year integration of a BMRC coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (CGCM) is examined. The fractional contribution made by the decadal component generally increases with depth and latitude away from surface waters in the equatorial Indo-Pacific Ocean. The relative importance of decadal variability is enhanced in off-equatorial ''wings'' in the subtropical eastern Pacific. The model and observations exhibit ''ENSO-like'' decadal patterns. Analytic results are derived, which show that the patterns can, in theory, occur in the absence of any predictability beyond ENSO time-scales. In practice, however, modification to this stochastic view is needed to account for robust differences between ENSO-like decadal patterns and their interannual counterparts. An analysis of variability in the CGCM, a wind-forced shallow water model, and a simple mixed layer model together with existing and new theoretical results are used to improve upon this stochastic paradigm and to provide a new theory for the origin of decadal ENSO-like patterns like the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation. In this theory, ENSO-driven wind-stress variability forces internal equatorially-trapped Kelvin waves that propagate towards the eastern boundary. Kelvin waves can excite reflected internal westward propagating equatorially-trapped Rossby waves (RWs) and coastally-trapped waves (CTWs). CTWs have no impact on the off-equatorial sub-surface ocean outside the coastal wave guide, whereas the RWs do. If the frequency of the incident wave is too high, then only CTWs are excited. At lower frequencies, both CTWs and RWs can be excited. The lower the frequency, the greater the fraction of energy transmitted to RWs. This lowers the characteristic frequency of variability off the equator relative to its equatorial counterpart. Both the eastern boundary interactions and the accumulation of
Generalized internal model robust control for active front steering intervention
Wu, Jian; Zhao, Youqun; Ji, Xuewu; Liu, Yahui; Zhang, Lipeng
2015-03-01
Because of the tire nonlinearity and vehicle's parameters' uncertainties, robust control methods based on the worst cases, such as H ∞, µ synthesis, have been widely used in active front steering control, however, in order to guarantee the stability of active front steering system (AFS) controller, the robust control is at the cost of performance so that the robust controller is a little conservative and has low performance for AFS control. In this paper, a generalized internal model robust control (GIMC) that can overcome the contradiction between performance and stability is used in the AFS control. In GIMC, the Youla parameterization is used in an improved way. And GIMC controller includes two sections: a high performance controller designed for the nominal vehicle model and a robust controller compensating the vehicle parameters' uncertainties and some external disturbances. Simulations of double lane change (DLC) maneuver and that of braking on split- µ road are conducted to compare the performance and stability of the GIMC control, the nominal performance PID controller and the H ∞ controller. Simulation results show that the high nominal performance PID controller will be unstable under some extreme situations because of large vehicle's parameters variations, H ∞ controller is conservative so that the performance is a little low, and only the GIMC controller overcomes the contradiction between performance and robustness, which can both ensure the stability of the AFS controller and guarantee the high performance of the AFS controller. Therefore, the GIMC method proposed for AFS can overcome some disadvantages of control methods used by current AFS system, that is, can solve the instability of PID or LQP control methods and the low performance of the standard H ∞ controller.
Information in general medical practices: the information processing model.
Crowe, Sarah; Tully, Mary P; Cantrill, Judith A
2010-04-01
The need for effective communication and handling of secondary care information in general practices is paramount. To explore practice processes on receiving secondary care correspondence in a way that integrates the information needs and perceptions of practice staff both clinical and administrative. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with a wide range of practice staff (n = 36) in nine practices in the Northwest of England. Analysis was based on the framework approach using N-Vivo software and involved transcription, familiarization, coding, charting, mapping and interpretation. The 'information processing model' was developed to describe the six stages involved in practice processing of secondary care information. These included the amendment or updating of practice records whilst simultaneously or separately actioning secondary care recommendations, using either a 'one-step' or 'two-step' approach, respectively. Many factors were found to influence each stage and impact on the continuum of patient care. The primary purpose of processing secondary care information is to support patient care; this study raises the profile of information flow and usage within practices as an issue requiring further consideration.
Statistical mechanics of learning orthogonal signals for general covariance models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoyle, David C
2010-01-01
Statistical mechanics techniques have proved to be useful tools in quantifying the accuracy with which signal vectors are extracted from experimental data. However, analysis has previously been limited to specific model forms for the population covariance C, which may be inappropriate for real world data sets. In this paper we obtain new statistical mechanical results for a general population covariance matrix C. For data sets consisting of p sample points in R N we use the replica method to study the accuracy of orthogonal signal vectors estimated from the sample data. In the asymptotic limit of N,p→∞ at fixed α = p/N, we derive analytical results for the signal direction learning curves. In the asymptotic limit the learning curves follow a single universal form, each displaying a retarded learning transition. An explicit formula for the location of the retarded learning transition is obtained and we find marked variation in the location of the retarded learning transition dependent on the distribution of population covariance eigenvalues. The results of the replica analysis are confirmed against simulation