WorldWideScience

Sample records for models gcms participating

  1. A performance weighting procedure for GCMs based on explicit probabilistic models and accounting for observation uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Benjamin; Vidal, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the climate modeling community has put a lot of effort into releasing the outputs of multimodel experiments for use by the wider scientific community. In such experiments, several structurally distinct GCMs are run using the same observed forcings (for the historical period) or the same projected forcings (for the future period). In addition, several members are produced for a single given model structure, by running each GCM with slightly different initial conditions. This multiplicity of GCM outputs offers many opportunities in terms of uncertainty quantification or GCM comparisons. In this presentation, we propose a new procedure to weight GCMs according to their ability to reproduce the observed climate. Such weights can be used to combine the outputs of several models in a way that rewards good-performing models and discards poorly-performing ones. The proposed procedure has the following main properties: 1. It is based on explicit probabilistic models describing the time series produced by the GCMs and the corresponding historical observations, 2. It can use several members whenever available, 3. It accounts for the uncertainty in observations, 4. It assigns a weight to each GCM (all weights summing up to one), 5. It can also assign a weight to the "H0 hypothesis" that all GCMs in the multimodel ensemble are not compatible with observations. The application of the weighting procedure is illustrated with several case studies including synthetic experiments, simple cases where the target GCM output is a simple univariate variable and more realistic cases where the target GCM output is a multivariate and/or a spatial variable. These case studies illustrate the generality of the procedure which can be applied in a wide range of situations, as long as the analyst is prepared to make an explicit probabilistic assumption on the target variable. Moreover, these case studies highlight several interesting properties of the weighting procedure. In

  2. Integrated cumulus ensemble and turbulence (ICET): An integrated parameterization system for general circulation models (GCMs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.L.; Frank, W.M.; Young, G.S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Successful simulations of the global circulation and climate require accurate representation of the properties of shallow and deep convective clouds, stable-layer clouds, and the interactions between various cloud types, the boundary layer, and the radiative fluxes. Each of these phenomena play an important role in the global energy balance, and each must be parameterized in a global climate model. These processes are highly interactive. One major problem limiting the accuracy of parameterizations of clouds and other processes in general circulation models (GCMs) is that most of the parameterization packages are not linked with a common physical basis. Further, these schemes have not, in general, been rigorously verified against observations adequate to the task of resolving subgrid-scale effects. To address these problems, we are designing a new Integrated Cumulus Ensemble and Turbulence (ICET) parameterization scheme, installing it in a climate model (CCM2), and evaluating the performance of the new scheme using data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites.

  3. Cloud feedback mechanisms and their representation in global climate models: Cloud feedback mechanisms and their representation in GCMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceppi, Paulo [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading UK; Brient, Florent [Centre National de Recherches M?t?orologiques, M?t?o-France/CNRS, Toulouse France; Zelinka, Mark D. [Cloud Processes Research Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA USA; Hartmann, Dennis L. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA

    2017-05-11

    Cloud feedback—the change in top-of-atmosphere radiative flux resulting from the cloud response to warming—constitutes by far the largest source of uncertainty in the climate response to CO2 forcing simulated by global climate models (GCMs). We review the main mechanisms for cloud feedbacks, and discuss their representation in climate models and the sources of intermodel spread. Global-mean cloud feedback in GCMs results from three main effects: (1) rising free-tropospheric clouds (a positive longwave effect); (2) decreasing tropical low cloud amount (a positive shortwave [SW] effect); (3) increasing high-latitude low cloud optical depth (a negative SW effect). These cloud responses simulated by GCMs are qualitatively supported by theory, high-resolution modeling, and observations. Rising high clouds are consistent with the fixed anvil temperature (FAT) hypothesis, whereby enhanced upper-tropospheric radiative cooling causes anvil cloud tops to remain at a nearly fixed temperature as the atmosphere warms. Tropical low cloud amount decreases are driven by a delicate balance between the effects of vertical turbulent fluxes, radiative cooling, large-scale subsidence, and lower-tropospheric stability on the boundary-layer moisture budget. High-latitude low cloud optical depth increases are dominated by phase changes in mixed-phase clouds. The causes of intermodel spread in cloud feedback are discussed, focusing particularly on the role of unresolved parameterized processes such as cloud microphysics, turbulence, and convection.

  4. Mathematical Model Developed for Environmental Samples: Prediction of GC/MS Dioxin TEQ from XDS-CALUX Bioassay Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David J.; Orelien, Jean; Gordon, John D.; Chu, Andrew C.; Chu, Michael D.; Nakamura, Masafumi; Handa, Hiroshi; Kayama, Fujio; Denison, Michael S.; Clark, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Remediation of hazardous waste sites requires efficient and cost-effective methods to assess the extent of contamination by toxic substances including dioxin-like chemicals. Traditionally, dioxin-like contamination has been assessed by gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis for specific polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyl congeners. Toxic equivalency factors for these congeners are then used to estimate the overall dioxin toxic equivalency (TEQ) of complex mixtures found in samples. The XDS-CALUX bioassay estimates contamination by dioxin-like chemicals in a sample extract by measuring expression of a sensitive reporter gene in genetically engineered cells. The output of the XDS-CALUX assay is a CALUX-TEQ value, calibrated based on TCDD standards. Soil samples taken from a variety of hazardous waste sites were measured using the XDS-CALUX bioassay and GC/MS. TEQ and CALUX-TEQ from these methods were compared, and a mathematical model was developed describing the relationship between these two data sets: log(TEQ) = 0.654 × log(CALUX-TEQ) + 0.058-(log(CALUX-TEQ))2. Applying this equation to these samples showed that predicted and GC/MS measured TEQ values strongly correlate (R2 = 0.876) and that TEQ values predicted from CALUX-TEQ were on average nearly identical to the GC/MS-TEQ. The ability of XDS-CALUX bioassay data to predict GC/MS-derived TEQ data should make this procedure useful in risk assessment and management decisions. PMID:17626436

  5. Testing cloud-radiation algorithms in GCMs and single-column models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, R. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Our poor understanding of cloud processes limits our ability to make realistic climate change predictions. Part of the problem is that we have too many cloud parameterizations and too few observations. Lack of contact between observationalists and modelers exacerbates this problem. The principle behind the single column model presented here is that the horizontal convergence of heat, momentum, and moisture is specified from observations. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Precipitation projections under GCMs perspective and Turkish Water Foundation (TWF) statistical downscaling model procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabanlı, İsmail; Şen, Zekai

    2017-02-01

    The statistical climate downscaling model by the Turkish Water Foundation (TWF) is further developed and applied to a set of monthly precipitation records. The model is structured by two phases as spatial (regional) and temporal downscaling of global circulation model (GCM) scenarios. The TWF model takes into consideration the regional dependence function (RDF) for spatial structure and Markov whitening process (MWP) for temporal characteristics of the records to set projections. The impact of climate change on monthly precipitations is studied by downscaling Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-Special Report on Emission Scenarios (IPCC-SRES) A2 and B2 emission scenarios from Max Plank Institute (EH40PYC) and Hadley Center (HadCM3). The main purposes are to explain the TWF statistical climate downscaling model procedures and to expose the validation tests, which are rewarded in same specifications as "very good" for all stations except one (Suhut) station in the Akarcay basin that is in the west central part of Turkey. Eventhough, the validation score is just a bit lower at the Suhut station, the results are "satisfactory." It is, therefore, possible to say that the TWF model has reasonably acceptable skill for highly accurate estimation regarding standard deviation ratio (SDR), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and percent bias (PBIAS) criteria. Based on the validated model, precipitation predictions are generated from 2011 to 2100 by using 30-year reference observation period (1981-2010). Precipitation arithmetic average and standard deviation have less than 5% error for EH40PYC and HadCM3 SRES (A2 and B2) scenarios.

  7. Improved ground hydrology calculations for global climate models (GCMs) - Soil water movement and evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramopoulos, F.; Rosenzweig, C.; Choudhury, B.

    1988-01-01

    A physically based ground hydrology model is presented that includes the processes of transpiration, evaporation from intercepted precipitation and dew, evaporation from bare soil, infiltration, soil water flow, and runoff. Data from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies GCM were used as inputs for off-line tests of the model in four 8 x 10 deg regions, including Brazil, Sahel, Sahara, and India. Soil and vegetation input parameters were caculated as area-weighted means over the 8 x 10 deg gridbox; the resulting hydrological quantities were compared to ground hydrology model calculations performed on the 1 x 1 deg cells which comprise the 8 x 10 deg gridbox. Results show that the compositing procedure worked well except in the Sahel, where low soil water levels and a heterogeneous land surface produce high variability in hydrological quantities; for that region, a resolution better than 8 x 10 deg is needed.

  8. Applying an economical scale-aware PDF-based turbulence closure model in NOAA NCEP GCMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, S. K.; Belochitski, A.; Moorthi, S.; Bogenschutz, P.; Pincus, R.

    2015-12-01

    A novel unified representation of sub-grid scale (SGS) turbulence, cloudiness, and shallow convection is being implemented into the NOAA NCEP Global Forecasting System (GFS) general circulation model. The approach, known as Simplified High Order Closure (SHOC), is based on predicting a joint PDF of SGS thermodynamic variables and vertical velocity and using it to diagnose turbulent diffusion coefficients, SGS fluxes, condensation and cloudiness. Unlike other similar methods, only one new prognostic variable, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), needs to be intoduced, making the technique computationally efficient.SHOC code was adopted for a global model environment from its origins in a cloud resolving model, and incorporated into NCEP GFS. SHOC was first tested in a non-interactive mode, a configuration where SHOC receives inputs from the host model, but its outputs are not returned to the GFS. In this configuration: a) SGS TKE values produced by GFS SHOC are consistent with those produced by SHOC in a CRM, b) SGS TKE in GFS SHOC exhibits a well defined diurnal cycle, c) there's enhanced boundary layer turbulence in the subtropical stratocumulus and tropical transition-to-cumulus areas d) buoyancy flux diagnosed from the assumed PDF is consistent with independently calculated Brunt-Vaisala frequency in identifying stable and unstable regions.Next, SHOC was coupled to GFS, namely turbulent diffusion coefficients computed by SHOC are now used in place of those currently produced by the GFS boundary layer and shallow convection schemes (Han and Pan, 2011), as well as condensation and cloud fraction diagnosed from the SGS PDF replace those calculated in the current large-scale cloudines scheme (Zhao and Carr, 1997). Ongoing activities consist of debugging the fully coupled GFS/SHOC.Future work will consist of evaluating model performance and tuning the physics if necessary, by performing medium-range NWP forecasts with prescribed initial conditions, and AMIP-type climate

  9. PARTICIPATION BASED MODEL OF SHIP CREW MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Bielić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 This paper analyse the participation - based model on board the ship as possibly optimal leadership model existing in the shipping industry with accent on decision - making process. In the paper authors have tried to define master’s behaviour model and management style identifying drawbacks and disadvantages of vertical, pyramidal organization with master on the top. Paper describes efficiency of decision making within team organization and optimization of a ship’s organisation by introducing teamwork on board the ship. Three examples of the ship’s accidents are studied and evaluated through “Leader - participation” model. The model of participation based management as a model of the teamwork has been applied in studying the cause - and - effect of accidents with the critical review of the communication and managing the human resources on a ship. The results have showed that the cause of all three accidents is the autocratic behaviour of the leaders and lack of communication within teams. Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  10. Participation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-08-02

    Aug 2, 2011 ... there is still little theorising about those on the other side of the policy equation. ... The concept of participation designates human beings – their priorities, knowledge .... Thus, a person's mode of participation in the enterprise.

  11. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4011 - Model Participant Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model Participant Notice A Appendix A to Part 4011 Labor... DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS DISCLOSURE TO PARTICIPANTS Pt. 4011, App. A Appendix A to Part 4011—Model Participant..., the Internal Revenue Service may grant a funding waiver that permits the company to...

  12. A theoretical model for the associative nature of conference participation

    CERN Document Server

    Smiljanić, Jelena; Kauppinen, Tomi; Dankulov, Marija Mitrović

    2015-01-01

    Participation in conferences is an important part of every scientific career. Conferences provide an opportunity for a fast dissemination of latest results, discussion and exchange of ideas, and broadening of scientists' collaboration network. The decision to participate in a conference depends on several factors like the location, cost, popularity of keynote speakers, and the scientists' association with the community. Here we discuss and formulate the problem of discovering how a scientists' previous participation affects her/his future participations in the same conference series. We develop a stochastic model to examine scientists' participation patterns in conferences and compare our model with data from six conferences across various scientific fields and communities. Our model shows that the probability for a scientist to participate in a given conference series strongly depends on the balance between the number of participations and non-participations during his/her early connections with the communit...

  13. The Aalborg Model and participant directed learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    2009-01-01

    students. Teaching democracy should be promoted in lessons and curricula. Creating democratic learning systems in institutions of higher education could be the answer to reaching the aim related to democracy. The Aalborg Model practised at Aalborg University is a learning system which has collaborative...... democratic elements built into the model. This paper brings results from an online quantitative, questionnaire survey between nearly 200 engineering and science students in their second semester at Aalborg University. The main findings are: Nearly 85 percent of the respondent’s state that their group uses...

  14. The Aalborg Model and participant directed learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    2009-01-01

    Preparing students for a life as active citizens in a democratic society is one of the aims within the Bologna process. The Council of Europe has also stressed the importance of focus on democracy in Higher Education. Higher Education is seen as important to develop a democratic culture among...... students. Teaching democracy should be promoted in lessons and curricula. Creating democratic learning systems in institutions of higher education could be the answer to reaching the aim related to democracy. The Aalborg Model practised at Aalborg University is a learning system which has collaborative...

  15. A simulation model for forecasting downhill ski participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Stynes; Daniel M. Spotts

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe progress in the development of a general computer simulation model to forecast future levels of outdoor recreation participation. The model is applied and tested for downhill skiing in Michigan.

  16. A Theoretical Model for the Associative Nature of Conference Participation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Smiljanić

    Full Text Available Participation in conferences is an important part of every scientific career. Conferences provide an opportunity for a fast dissemination of latest results, discussion and exchange of ideas, and broadening of scientists' collaboration network. The decision to participate in a conference depends on several factors like the location, cost, popularity of keynote speakers, and the scientist's association with the community. Here we discuss and formulate the problem of discovering how a scientist's previous participation affects her/his future participations in the same conference series. We develop a stochastic model to examine scientists' participation patterns in conferences and compare our model with data from six conferences across various scientific fields and communities. Our model shows that the probability for a scientist to participate in a given conference series strongly depends on the balance between the number of participations and non-participations during his/her early connections with the community. An active participation in a conference series strengthens the scientist's association with that particular conference community and thus increases the probability of future participations.

  17. Exposure Modeling of Residential Air Exchange Rates for NEXUS Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, air pollution health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect personal exposures, we developed the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) to improv...

  18. Model studies on the oxygen-induced formation of benzaldehyde from phenylacetaldehyde using pyrolysis GC-MS and FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fong Lam; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2008-11-26

    Benzaldehyde, a potent aroma chemical of bitter almond, can also be formed thermally from phenylalanine and may contribute to the formation of off-aroma. To identify the precursors involved in its generation during Maillard reaction, various model systems containing phenylalanine, phenylpyruvic acid, phenethylamine, or phenylacetaldehyde were studied in the presence and absence of moisture using oxidative and nonoxidative Py-GC-MS. Analysis of the data indicated that phenylacetaldehyde, the Strecker aldehyde of phenylalanine, is the most effective precursor and that both air and water significantly enhanced the rate of benzaldehyde formation from phenylacetaldehyde. Phenylpyruvic acid was the most efficient precursor under nonoxidative conditions. Phenethylamine, on the other hand, needed the presence of a carbonyl compound to generate benzaldehyde only under oxidative conditions. On the basis of the results obtained, a free radical initiated oxidative cleavage of the carbon-carbon double bond of the enolized phenylacetaldehyde was proposed as a possible major mechanism for benzaldehyde formation, and supporting evidence was provided through monitoring of the evolution of the benzaldehyde band from heated phenylacetaldehyde in the presence and absence of 1,1'-azobis(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) on the ATR crystal of an FTIR spectrophotometer. In the presence of the free radical initiator, the enol band of the phenylacetaldehyde centered at 1684 cm(-1) formed and increased over time, and after 18 min of heating time the benzaldehyde band centered at 1697 cm(-1) formed and increased at the expense of the enol band of phenylacetaldehyde, indicating a precursor product relationship.

  19. Pricing Participating Products under a Generalized Jump-Diffusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Kuen Siu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a model for valuing participating life insurance products under a generalized jump-diffusion model with a Markov-switching compensator. It also nests a number of important and popular models in finance, including the classes of jump-diffusion models and Markovian regime-switching models. The Esscher transform is employed to determine an equivalent martingale measure. Simulation experiments are conducted to illustrate the practical implementation of the model and to highlight some features that can be obtained from our model.

  20. The HAWK Highway: A Vertical Model for Student IEP Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quann, Monica; Lyman, Jennifer; Crumlish, Jamie; Hines, Sally; Williams, Lynn; Pleet-Odle, Amy; Eisenman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Special educators at an inclusive career-technical high school created a model to support annually increasing expectations for self-determination and levels of student participation in Individualized Education Program (IEP) planning and implementation. The grade-specific components of the model and supporting context are described. Students were…

  1. Effects of Scenario Planning on Participant Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Margaret B.; Chermack, Thomas J.; Luckel, Henry; Gauck, Brian Q.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of scenario planning on participant mental model styles. Design/methodology/approach: The scenario planning literature is consistent with claims that scenario planning can change individual mental models. These claims are supported by anecdotal evidence and stories from the practical…

  2. The HAWK Highway: A Vertical Model for Student IEP Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quann, Monica; Lyman, Jennifer; Crumlish, Jamie; Hines, Sally; Williams, Lynn; Pleet-Odle, Amy; Eisenman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Special educators at an inclusive career-technical high school created a model to support annually increasing expectations for self-determination and levels of student participation in Individualized Education Program (IEP) planning and implementation. The grade-specific components of the model and supporting context are described. Students were…

  3. Bridging the gap between GCMs and CRMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Levi; Stevens, Bjorn; Hohenegger, Cathy

    2014-05-01

    Bridging the gap between GCMs and CRMs Radiative Convective Equilibrium (RCE) has proven to be a useful framework for process studies. In the past there has been little direct overlap of the studies made using General Circulation Models (GCMs), and Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs). GCMs use global or near global domain sizes with resolutions ranging from 300 km to 20 km, while CRMs normally use domains roughly equivalent to a single GCM grid cell and resolutions ranging from 5km to 0.1km. Here we study the atmosphere of a General Circulation Model (GCM) with boundary conditions that approximate Radiative Convective Equilibrium (RCE) across a range of domain sizes (from 45 % of the surface of the Earth to 500x500 km^2) and resolutions of 20 km and 10 km. To that aim we use the newly developed nonhydrostatic, primitive equation model named ICON with horizontally uniform insolation and ozone, no rotation, and a prescribed surface temperature. Comparison of the simulations leads to a better understanding of the mechanisms and assumptions that underlay the parameterizations of GCMs. Climate sensitivity and convective organization are the two physical processes we focus on with this study. Both of these processes are important components of a physical understanding of the Earth system. Convective organization strongly influences the mean state of the atmosphere and the various feedback responses to radiative perturbations. We compare changes in the TOA radiative imbalance which result from prescribed changes in the surface temperature across our simulations. This provides a direct calculation of the various feedback mechanisms. The magnitude of the influence these feedbacks have on a system is commonly diagnosed through the climate sensitivity. We examine the dependence on domain size and parameterization schemes of the convective organization and climate sensitivity. Initial results with two physics parameterization packages indicate that ICON provides a convenient

  4. Reducing Fear of the Laboratory Rat: A Participant Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nigel

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the use of participant modeling in a study of 56 college-level students to reduce fear of laboratory rats. Discovers that even mild exposure reduced fear significantly. Finds that women were more fearful initially but that their fear reduction was equal to that of men. (CFR)

  5. Multilevel Modeling of Science Achievement in the Timss Participating Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza; Kalantarrashidi, Shojae Aldin

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to investigate the variability in science achievement as a function of student-, school- and country-level factors. Achievement scores of 134,123 eighth-grade students from 4,511 schools of 29 countries who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study were analyzed. Multilevel modeling results…

  6. Recruiting Transcultural Qualitative Research Participants: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Eide

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Working with diverse populations poses many challenges to the qualitative researcher who is a member of the dominant culture. Traditional methods of recruitment and selection (such as flyers and advertisements are often unproductive, leading to missed contributions from potential participants who were not recruited and researcher frustration. In this article, the authors explore recruitment issues related to the concept of personal knowing based on experiences with Aboriginal Hawai'ian and Micronesian populations, wherein knowing and being known are crucial to successful recruitment of participants. They present a conceptual model that incorporates key concepts of knowing the other, cultural context, and trust to guide other qualitative transcultural researchers. They also describe challenges, implications, and concrete suggestions for recruitment of participants.

  7. Environmental Management Model for Road Maintenance Operation Involving Community Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyono, A. R. H.; Setyawan, A.; Sobriyah; Setiono, P.

    2017-07-01

    Public expectations of Central Java, which is very high on demand fulfillment, especially road infrastructure as outlined in the number of complaints and community expectations tweeter, Short Mail Massage (SMS), e-mail and public reports from various media, Highways Department of Central Java province requires development model of environmental management in the implementation of a routine way by involving the community in order to fulfill the conditions of a representative, may serve road users safely and comfortably. This study used survey method with SEM analysis and SWOT with Latent Independent Variable (X), namely; Public Participation in the regulation, development, construction and supervision of road (PSM); Public behavior in the utilization of the road (PMJ) Provincial Road Service (PJP); Safety in the Provincial Road (KJP); Integrated Management System (SMT) and latent dependent variable (Y) routine maintenance of the provincial road that is integrated with the environmental management system and involve the participation of the community (MML). The result showed the implementation of routine maintenance of road conditions in Central Java province has yet to implement an environmental management by involving the community; Therefore developed environmental management model with the results of H1: Community Participation (PSM) has positive influence on the Model of Environmental Management (MML); H2: Behavior Society in Jalan Utilization (PMJ) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H3: Provincial Road Service (PJP) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H4: Safety in the Provincial Road (KJP) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H5: Integrated Management System (SMT) has positive influence on the Model of Environmental Management (MML). From the analysis obtained formulation model describing the relationship / influence of the independent variables PSM, PMJ, PJP, KJP, and SMT on the dependent variable

  8. A Decision Model for Selecting Participants in Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to satisfy the rapid changing requirements of customers, enterprises must cooperate with each other to form supply chain. The first and the most important stage in the forming of supply chain is the selection of participants. The article proposes a two-staged decision model to select partners. The first stage is the inter company comparison in each business process to select highefficiency candidate based on inside variables. The next stage is to analyse the combination of different candidates in order to select the most perfect partners according to a goal-programming model.

  9. Who Participates and Why: Building a Process Model of Citizen Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Fishman, Pennie G.; Pierce, Steven J.; Van Egeren, Laurie A.

    2009-01-01

    Initiating and sustaining sufficient levels of participation among residents in low-income and urban neighborhoods have become significant focuses of many initiatives that strive to develop healthy communities. This study examines the factors associated with citizen participation levels in resident leaders and followers in seven low-income…

  10. Modelling consensus building in Delphi practices for participated transport planning

    CERN Document Server

    Pira, Michela Le; Ignaccolo, Matteo; Pluchino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In this study a consensus building process based on a combination of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Delphi method is presented and applied to the decision-making process about alternative policy measures to promote cycling mobility. An agent-based model is here used to reproduce the same process of convergence of opinions, with the aim to understand the role of network topology, stakeholder influence and other sensitive variables on the emergence of consensus. It can be a useful tool for decision-makers to guide them in planning effective participation processes.

  11. MOMA GC-MS coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A.; Pinnick, V. T.; Grand, N.; Szopa, C.; Danell, R.; Lustrement, B.; Freissinet, C.; van Amerom, F. H.; Raulin, F.; Glavin, D. P.; Stalport, F.; Coll, P. J.; Arevalo, R. D.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Goesmann, F.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The joint ESA-Roscosmos Exo-Mars-2018 rover mission seeks the signs of past or present life on Mars. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) aboard the ExoMars rover will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular) information from the solid samples, with particular focus on the characterization of organic content. Central to MOMA instrumentation is a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) which provides the unique ability to characterize a broad range of compounds allowing chemical analyses of volatile and non-volatile species. The Gas chromatograph and the oven have been built at LATMOS/LISA (France) and at MPS (Germany) respectively whereas the mass spectrometer has been built at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (USA). Both instruments have been tested separately first and have been coupled in order to test the efficiency of the future MOMA GC-MS instrument. The main objective of the second step has been to test the quantitative response of both instruments while they are coupled and to characterize the combined instrument detection limit for several compounds. A final experiment has been done in order to test the feasibility of the separation and detection of a mixture contained in a soil sample introduced in the MOMA oven.

  12. Monks' Health: Holistic Health Care Model by Community Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decha Buates

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Monks’ health tended to be a continuous increased problem. They were groups who had limitations to access health services due to their monastic disciplines and their most importance for Buddhist institution. Without urgent solution, their normal way of life would have been affected. Approach: This research aimed to study current conditions and to develop monks’ holistic health care models by community participation in central region of Thailand. The study was a qualitative research conducted in 9 temples; 3 temples in urban area, 3 in semi-urban area and 3 in rural area. Samples were 224 persons; consisted of monks, public health officers from Department of Religious Affairs, local administrative organizations and people; selected by purposive sampling method. Observation form, survey form, interview form, focus group discussion and workshop were used as research tools while data was analyzed by descriptive research. Results: The result founded that in former time culture of monks’ health care was leaned on community, social, culture and tradition. People spoke in style of central Thai language and were in agricultural sector as well as had their belief in merit, sin and elder respect. Relation in communities was in form of generosity and living as similar as relatives. When some monk got sick, they would visit, take care and give foods and medicines. Most of medicines were household remedy and Thai herbal medicine that bought from drug stores in local market or grocery stores in village and monks were sent to hospital in case of severe illness. Temple was a part of community, so they had close relation. Nowadays people increasingly worked in manufactories that caused conflicts and alienations among them. Monks leaned on local markets for receiving foods offering and most of foods were cooked from flour, sugar, coconut milk and fat. These caused three-fourth of monks having chronic disease as diabetes

  13. A Management Model for International Participation in Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Patrick J.; Pease, Gary M.; Tyburski, Timothy E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an engineering management model for NASA's future space exploration missions based on past experiences working with the International Partners of the International Space Station. The authors have over 25 years of combined experience working with the European Space Agency, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Canadian Space Agency, Italian Space Agency, Russian Space Agency, and their respective contractors in the design, manufacturing, verification, and integration of their elements electric power system into the United States on-orbit segment. The perspective presented is one from a specific sub-system integration role and is offered so that the lessons learned from solving issues of technical and cultural nature may be taken into account during the formulation of international partnerships. Descriptions of the types of unique problems encountered relative to interactions between international partnerships are reviewed. Solutions to the problems are offered, taking into consideration the technical implications. Through the process of investigating each solution, the important and significant issues associated with working with international engineers and managers are outlined. Potential solutions are then characterized by proposing a set of specific methodologies to jointly develop spacecraft configurations that benefits all international participants, maximizes mission success and vehicle interoperability while minimizing cost.

  14. Does it work everywhere? Group Model Building as participative method in intercultural perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arensbergen, P. van; Lansu, M.E.M.; Bleijenbergh, I.L.

    2016-01-01

    Group Model Building (GMB) is a type of facilitated modeling, in which the input of the participants to structuring a complex problem is crucial. There is a high level of participant interaction and involvement. The method focuses on open communication between participants to gain insight in complex

  15. Same-Day Surgery Preparation: Reduction of Pediatric Patient Arousal and Distress through Participant Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Jan; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Children (n=26) were exposed to one of three surgery preparatory conditions: participant modeling alone, participant modeling with mother, and standard procedure control. Children exposed to modeling alone had significant reductions in physiological arousal after treatment compared to other groups. Both modeling groups exhibited significantly…

  16. Integrative modelling for One Health: pattern, process and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoones, I; Jones, K; Lo Iacono, G; Redding, D W; Wilkinson, A; Wood, J L N

    2017-07-19

    This paper argues for an integrative modelling approach for understanding zoonoses disease dynamics, combining process, pattern and participatory models. Each type of modelling provides important insights, but all are limited. Combining these in a '3P' approach offers the opportunity for a productive conversation between modelling efforts, contributing to a 'One Health' agenda. The aim is not to come up with a composite model, but seek synergies between perspectives, encouraging cross-disciplinary interactions. We illustrate our argument with cases from Africa, and in particular from our work on Ebola virus and Lassa fever virus. Combining process-based compartmental models with macroecological data offers a spatial perspective on potential disease impacts. However, without insights from the ground, the 'black box' of transmission dynamics, so crucial to model assumptions, may not be fully understood. We show how participatory modelling and ethnographic research of Ebola and Lassa fever can reveal social roles, unsafe practices, mobility and movement and temporal changes in livelihoods. Together with longer-term dynamics of change in societies and ecologies, all can be important in explaining disease transmission, and provide important complementary insights to other modelling efforts. An integrative modelling approach therefore can offer help to improve disease control efforts and public health responses.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Test-day models for South African dairy cattle for participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test-day models for South African dairy cattle for participation in international ... Multitrait evaluations were done for the production traits (milk, butterfat and protein) ... Genetic correlations between South Africa and other participating countries, ...

  18. ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole mode in three coupled GCMs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yongqiang; LIU Xiying

    2004-01-01

    The simulated ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) mode events from three coupled GCMs with the same oceanic component model, CPM0, CPM1 and FGCM0, are compared. The only difference between the CPM0 and the CPM1 comes from the coupling scheme at the air-sea interface, e.g., flux anomaly coupling scheme for the former and direct coupling scheme for the latter. The FGCM0 is also a directly coupled GCM, but its atmospheric component model is the NCAR CCM3 rather than the NCC T63AGCM as in the other two coupled GCMs CPM0 and CPM1.All three coupled models show El Nino-like interannual variability in the tropic Pacific, but the FGCM0 shows a bit stronger amplitude of El Nino events and both the CPM0 and the CPM1 show much weaker amplitude than the observed one. In the meanwhile, the quasi-biennial variability dominates in the FGCM0 simulations, and 4 a and longer periods are significant in both the CPM0 and CPM1 models. As the El Nino events simulated by the three coupled GCMs, the simulated Indian Ocean dipole mode events are stronger from the coupled model FGCM0 and weaker from both the CPM0 and CPM1 models than those from observation.

  19. High flows in the 21st Century: analysis with a simple conceptual hydrological models using the input of 3 GCMs (A2 scenario)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanen, H.A.J.; Wanders, N.

    2011-01-01

    The study on high flows with a conceptual hydrological model leads to the following conclusions for about 1500 randomly selected land points across the world that have an intermediate soil water supply capacity and an intermediary responding groundwater system: · the probability distributions of Q10

  20. Sport Education and Extracurricular Sport Participation: An Examination Using the Trans-Contextual Model of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallhead, Tristan L.; Hagger, Martin; Smith, Derek T.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we used the trans-contextual model of motivation (TCM) to examine the effect of Sport Education (SE) on students' participation in a voluntary lunch recess sport club. A total of 192 participants (ages 9-14 years) completed measures of the TCM constructs before and after a 12-week SE intervention period. Participants had the…

  1. Sport Education and Extracurricular Sport Participation: An Examination Using the Trans-Contextual Model of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallhead, Tristan L.; Hagger, Martin; Smith, Derek T.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we used the trans-contextual model of motivation (TCM) to examine the effect of Sport Education (SE) on students' participation in a voluntary lunch recess sport club. A total of 192 participants (ages 9-14 years) completed measures of the TCM constructs before and after a 12-week SE intervention period. Participants had the…

  2. Measurement of isoprene nitrates by GCMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Graham P.; Hiatt-Gipson, Glyn D.; Bew, Sean P.; Reeves, Claire E.

    2016-09-01

    According to atmospheric chemistry models, isoprene nitrates play an important role in determining the ozone production efficiency of isoprene; however this is very poorly constrained through observations as isoprene nitrates have not been widely measured. Measurements have been severely restricted largely due to a limited ability to measure individual isoprene nitrate isomers. An instrument based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) and the associated calibration methods are described for the speciated measurements of individual isoprene nitrate isomers. Five of the primary isoprene nitrates which formed in the presence of NOx by reaction of isoprene with the hydroxyl radical (OH) in the Master Chemical Mechanism are identified using known isomers on two column phases and are fully separated on the Rtx-200 column. Three primary isoprene nitrates from the reaction of isoprene with the nitrate radical (NO3) are identified after synthesis from the already identified analogous hydroxy nitrate. A Tenax adsorbent-based trapping system allows the analysis of the majority of the known hydroxy and carbonyl primary isoprene nitrates, although not the (1,2)-IN isomer, under field-like levels of humidity and showed no impact from typical ambient concentrations of NOx and ozone.

  3. Community Participation Tourism Management Model of Tapee Plain Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Srisuwan

    2011-01-01

    management. (3 The form of managing cultural tourism focusing on/providing the Taa-Pee River Basin community people with a great extent of full participation. The actual/significant elements of managing the community’s participation-based cultural tourism. The focal factors of management included vision, mission, strategy, tour activities, objectives/goals and the conditions of achievement which accounted for tourism being managed to meet the tourists’ needs on the principal basis of maintaining and keeping up with the natural resources and environment. The crucial point to be aware of was the strong determination to further inherit/pass on the Taa-Pee River Basin’s folks’ wisdom and ways of living Consequently, every part/person in the community was required to share a cooperative task. Conclusion: As part of the encouragement of cultural tourism there should be a proctoring measure to help control, look after and supervise the tourism resources and as well partially share all of its benefits. Last but not least, precisely determine to keep up with their sustainable advantages.

  4. A Participation-Based Trust Model for Mobile P2P Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile peer-to-peer (P2P networks have become increasingly popular, but the attacks and selfness of peers make it vulnerable. In this paper, a trust model based on participation is proposed for mobile P2P networks (called ParticipationTrust. It could deal with the egoistic and malicious behaviors. And the level of peer’s participation could be calculated through the transaction participation and recommendation participation. A set of experiments show that the model is rational and effective

  5. Innovation Network Development Model in Telemedicine: A Change in Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Maryam; Torabi, Mashallah; Safdari, Reza; Dargahi, Hossein; Naeimi, Sara

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a telemedicine innovation network and reports its implementation in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The required conditions for the development of future projects in the field of telemedicine are also discussed; such projects should be based on the common needs and opportunities in the areas of healthcare, education, and technology. The development of the telemedicine innovation network in Tehran University of Medical Sciences was carried out in two phases: identifying the beneficiaries of telemedicine, and codification of the innovation network memorandum; and brainstorming of three workgroup members, and completion and clustering ideas. The present study employed a qualitative survey by using brain storming method. Thus, the ideas of the innovation network members were gathered, and by using Freeplane software, all of them were clustered and innovation projects were defined. In the services workgroup, 87 and 25 ideas were confirmed in phase 1 and phase 2, respectively. In the education workgroup, 8 new programs in the areas of telemedicine, tele-education and teleconsultation were codified. In the technology workgroup, 101 and 11 ideas were registered in phase 1 and phase 2, respectively. Today, innovation is considered a major infrastructural element of any change or progress. Thus, the successful implementation of a telemedicine project not only needs funding, human resources, and full equipment. It also requires the use of innovation models to cover several different aspects of change and progress. The results of the study can provide a basis for the implementation of future telemedicine projects using new participatory, creative, and innovative models.

  6. A partnership model for a reflective narrative for researcher and participant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gill; Peters, Kath; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2016-09-01

    Background Conceptual frameworks are important to ensure a clear underpinning research philosophy. Further, the use of conceptual frameworks can support structured research processes. Aim To present a partnership model for a reflective narrative for researcher and participant. Discussion This paper positions the underpinning philosophical framework of the model in social constructionism (the idea that jointly constructed understandings form the basis for shared assumptions) and narrative enquiry. The model has five stages - study design, invitation to share a research space and partnership, a metaphorical research space, building a community story, and reading the community story to others. Core principles of the partnership model are continual reflection by the researcher, potential reflections by participants, reciprocal sharing, and partnership in research. Conclusion A 'trajectory of self' for both participants and researchers can be enhanced within reflective partnerships. Implications for practice This model can be applied to studies that use narrative enquiry and are seeking a humanistic approach with participant engagement.

  7. Critical Thinking and Political Participation: Development and Assessment of a Casual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith M.

    1988-01-01

    This study assessed a model of the relationship between critical thinking and political participation. Findings indicated that critical thinking has indirect positive effects on orientations toward political participation, that critical thinking positively affects personal control, political efficacy, and democratic attitude, and that personal…

  8. Critical Thinking and Political Participation: Development and Assessment of a Casual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith M.

    1988-01-01

    This study assessed a model of the relationship between critical thinking and political participation. Findings indicated that critical thinking has indirect positive effects on orientations toward political participation, that critical thinking positively affects personal control, political efficacy, and democratic attitude, and that personal…

  9. Towards a Model for Mapping Participation: Exploring Factors Affecting Participation in a Telecollaborative Learning Scenario in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Airong; Deutschmann, Mats; Steinvall, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine factors affecting participation in telecollaborative language courses conducted in virtual world environments. From recordings of a course in sociolinguistics conducted in Second Life (SL), we determine degrees of linguistic participation (voice and chat), and triangulate these data with questionnaire…

  10. A model of union participation: the impact of perceived union support, union instrumentality, and union loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrick, Lois E; Shore, Lynn M; McClurg, Lucy Newton; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2007-05-01

    Perceived union support and union instrumentality have been shown to uniquely predict union loyalty. This study was the first to explicitly examine the relation between perceived union support and union instrumentality. Surveys were completed by 273 union members and 29 union stewards. A comparison of 2 models, 1 based on organizational support theory and 1 based on union participation theories, found that the model based on organizational support theory, in which union instrumentality was an antecedent to perceived union support and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, best fit the data. The model based on union participation theories, in which perceived union support was an antecedent of union instrumentality and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, was not supported. Union instrumentality was related to union commitment, but the relation was completely mediated by perceived union support.

  11. GC-MS Based Plasma Metabolomics for Identification of Candidate Biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Egyptian Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R Nezami Ranjbar

    Full Text Available This study evaluates changes in metabolite levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cases vs. patients with liver cirrhosis by analysis of human blood plasma using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Untargeted metabolomic analysis of plasma samples from participants recruited in Egypt was performed using two GC-MS platforms: a GC coupled to single quadruple mass spectrometer (GC-qMS and a GC coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC-TOFMS. Analytes that showed statistically significant changes in ion intensities were selected using ANOVA models. These analytes and other candidates selected from related studies were further evaluated by targeted analysis in plasma samples from the same participants as in the untargeted metabolomic analysis. The targeted analysis was performed using the GC-qMS in selected ion monitoring (SIM mode. The method confirmed significant changes in the levels of glutamic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, valine, isoleucine, leucine, alpha tocopherol, cholesterol, and sorbose in HCC cases vs. patients with liver cirrhosis. Specifically, our findings indicate up-regulation of metabolites involved in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA metabolism. Although BCAAs are increasingly used as a treatment for cancer cachexia, others have shown that BCAA supplementation caused significant enhancement of tumor growth via activation of mTOR/AKT pathway, which is consistent with our results that BCAAs are up-regulated in HCC.

  12. Harmonised Principles for Public Participation in Quality Assurance of Integrated Water Resources Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksen, H.J.; Refsgaard, J.C.; Højberg, A.L.; Ferrand, N.; Gijsbers, P.; Scholten, H.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of public participation in integrated water resources modelling is to improve decision-making by ensuring that decisions are soundly based on shared knowledge, experience and scientific evidence. The present paper describes stakeholder involvement in the modelling process. The point

  13. Critical Thinking and Political Participation: The Development and Assessment of a Causal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith M.

    An assessment of a four-stage conceptual model reveals that critical thinking has indirect positive effects on political participation through its direct effects on personal control, political efficacy, and democratic attitudes. The model establishes causal relationships among selected personality variables (self-esteem, personal control, and…

  14. Health librarians: developing professional competence through a 'legitimate peripheral participation' model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sara; Thomas, Zoe

    2011-12-01

    This feature considers the legitimate peripheral participation model in developing professional competencies in health librarianship. It is described how this model was used in the development of a framework for mapping and recognising the competencies gained by new health librarians at the Royal Free Hospital Medical Library. HS.

  15. Critical Thinking and Political Participation: The Development and Assessment of a Causal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith M.

    An assessment of a four-stage conceptual model reveals that critical thinking has indirect positive effects on political participation through its direct effects on personal control, political efficacy, and democratic attitudes. The model establishes causal relationships among selected personality variables (self-esteem, personal control, and…

  16. Metabolomics and Trace Element Analysis of Camel Tear by GC-MS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Syed Rizwan; Raish, Mohammad; Yaqoob, Syed Hilal; Khan, Altaf; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2017-06-01

    Camel tear metabolomics and elemental analysis are useful in getting the information regarding the components responsible for maintaining the protective system that allows living in the desert and dry regions. The aim of this study was to correlate that the camel tears can be used as artificial tears for the evaluation of dryness in the eye. Eye biomarkers of camel tears were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The major compounds detected in camel tears by GC-MS were alanine, valine, leucine, norvaline, glycine, cadaverine, urea, ribitol, sugars, and higher fatty acids like octadecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid. GC-MS analysis of camel tears also finds several products of metabolites and its associated metabolic participants. ICP-MS analysis showed the presence of different concentration of elemental composition in the camel tears.

  17. Promoting Social Inclusion through Sport for Refugee-Background Youth in Australia: Analysing Different Participation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Block

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sports participation can confer a range of physical and psychosocial benefits and, for refugee and migrant youth, may even act as a critical mediator for achieving positive settlement and engaging meaningfully in Australian society. This group has low participation rates however, with identified barriers including costs; discrimination and a lack of cultural sensitivity in sporting environments; lack of knowledge of mainstream sports services on the part of refugee-background settlers; inadequate access to transport; culturally determined gender norms; and family attitudes. Organisations in various sectors have devised programs and strategies for addressing these participation barriers. In many cases however, these responses appear to be ad hoc and under-theorised. This article reports findings from a qualitative exploratory study conducted in a range of settings to examine the benefits, challenges and shortcomings associated with different participation models. Interview participants were drawn from non-government organisations, local governments, schools, and sports clubs. Three distinct models of participation were identified, including short term programs for refugee-background children; ongoing programs for refugee-background children and youth; and integration into mainstream clubs. These models are discussed in terms of their relative challenges and benefits and their capacity to promote sustainable engagement and social inclusion for this population group.

  18. Participation and occupation in occupational therapy models of practice: A discussion of possibilities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson-Lund, Maria; Nyman, Anneli

    2017-11-01

    Occupation has been the focus in occupational therapy practice to greater or lesser degrees from a historical viewpoint. This evokes a need to discuss whether concepts that are added to our field will enhance or blur our focus on occupation. To explore how the concept of participation in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is related to the concept of occupation by reviewing and comparing its use in three models of practice within occupational therapy. The aim was also to generate discussion on possibilities and challenges concerning the relationship of participation and occupation. The models reviewed were The Model of Human Occupation (MOHO), the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement (CMOP-E) and the Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM). The concept of participation was related to occupation in different ways in these models. Based on the review some challenges and considerations for occupational therapy were generated. Relating the concept of participation from the ICF to the concept of occupation in models of practice can be challenging. At the same time, relating the concepts can be a resource to develop occupational therapy and the understanding of occupational issues in society.

  19. Modelling regional labour market dynamics: Participation, employment and migration decisions in a spatial CGE model for the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiaan Persyn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines how regional labour market adjustments to macroeconomic and policy shocks are modelled in RHOMOLO through participation, employment and migration decisions of workers. RHOMOLO, being a multisectoral, inter-regional general equilibrium model, is complex both in terms of its dimensionality and the modelling of spatial interactions through trade flows and factor mobility. The modelling of the labour market is therefore constrained by the tractability and computational solvability of the model. The labour market module consists of individual labour participation decisions, including the extensive margin (to participate or not and the intensive margin (hours of work. Unemployment is determined through a wage curve and inter-regional labour migration decisions are modelled in a discrete-choice framework, with backward-looking expectations.

  20. Public participation and rural management of Brazilian waters: an alternative to the deficit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Luís Piolli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge deficit model with regard to the public has been severely criticized in the sociology of the public perception of science. However, when dealing with public decisions regarding scientific matters, political and scientific institutions insist on defending the deficit model. The idea that only certified experts, or those with vast experience, should have the right to participate in decisions can bring about problems for the future of democracies. Through a type of "topography of ideas", in which some concepts from the social studies of science are used in order to think about these problems, and through the case study of public participation in the elaboration of the proposal of discounts in the fees charged for rural water use in Brazil, we will try to point out an alternative to the deficit model. This alternative includes a "minimum comprehension" of the scientific matters involved in the decision on the part of the participants, using criteria judged by the public itself.

  1. The psychological influences on participation in Wheelchair Rugby: a social relational model of disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Haslett

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport and exercise psychology research in disability sport seldom engages with social models of disability. As a result, the socio-historical landscape of disability is underrepresented in sport psychology research. The aim of this study is to interpret influences on participation in disability sport through the conceptual lens of the social relational model (SRM of disability (Thomas, 1999, 2004, 2007. Ten Irish adult male athletes with physical disabilities participated in semi-structured interviews exploring the barriers and facilitators that influence participation in Wheelchair Rugby. Deductive thematic analysis produced four themes influenced by the social relational model: impairment effects; societal attitudes and discourse; opportunities and access; and psychological well-being. Links were made to the experience of embodied impairment, classification, oppression, inequality, media, independence, and self-efficacy. The analysis illustrates how cultural constructions of disability are inextricably linked to individual influences on participation in Wheelchair Rugby. The results indicate that in disability sport participation, the experience of social oppression, inequality and cultural stereotypes of disability can be synonymous with the personal experience of physical impairment. The implication of this research is that there is a value in sport and exercise psychology practitioners utilising the social relational model as a tool to conceptualise the lived experience of physical disability.

  2. Fit model between participation statement of exhibitors and visitors to improve the exhibition performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina García Magro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aims of the paper is offers a model of analysis which allows to measure the impact on the performance of fairs, as well as the knowledge or not of the motives of participation of the visitors on the part of the exhibitors. Design/methodology: A review of the literature is established concerning two of the principal interested agents, exhibitors and visitors, focusing. The study is focused on the line of investigation referred to the motives of participation or not in a trade show. According to the information thrown by each perspectives of study, a comparative analysis is carried out in order to determine the degree of existing understanding between both. Findings: The trade shows allow to be studied from an integrated strategic marketing approach. The fit model between the reasons for participation of exhibitors and visitors offer information on the lack of an understanding between exhibitors and visitors, leading to dissatisfaction with the participation, a fact that is reflected in the fair success. The model identified shows that a strategic plan must be designed in which the reason for participation of visitor was incorporated as moderating variable of the reason for participation of exhibitors. The article concludes with the contribution of a series of proposals for the improvement of fairground results. Social implications: The fit model that improve the performance of trade shows, implicitly leads to successful achievement of targets for multiple stakeholders beyond the consideration of visitors and exhibitors. Originality/value: The integrated perspective of stakeholders allows the study of the existing relationships between the principal groups of interest, in such a way that, having knowledge on the condition of the question of the trade shows facilitates the task of the investigator in future academic works and allows that the interested groups obtain a better performance to the participation in fairs, as visitor or as

  3. The 2 × 2 Model of Perfectionism and School--And Community-Based Sport Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Sarah H.; Hill, Andrew P.; Hall, Howard K.; Gotwals, John K.

    2014-01-01

    The authors adopted the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism to examine the unique and interactive effects of two dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards perfectionism [PSP] and evaluative concerns perfectionism [ECP]) on personal and interpersonal indicators of participant experience in youth sport (enjoyment, physical self-worth, and friendship…

  4. The 2 × 2 Model of Perfectionism and School--And Community-Based Sport Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Sarah H.; Hill, Andrew P.; Hall, Howard K.; Gotwals, John K.

    2014-01-01

    The authors adopted the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism to examine the unique and interactive effects of two dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards perfectionism [PSP] and evaluative concerns perfectionism [ECP]) on personal and interpersonal indicators of participant experience in youth sport (enjoyment, physical self-worth, and friendship…

  5. Participant-Centered Education: Building a New WIC Nutrition Education Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deehy, Karen; Hoger, Fatima S.; Kallio, Jan; Klumpyan, Kay; Samoa, Siniva; Sell, Karen; Yee, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the readiness of the Western Region Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) states to implement participant-centered nutrition education (PCE) and to develop a PCE model for WIC service delivery. Design: Formative research including on-line survey, qualitative in-depth interviews, focus…

  6. Travelling models of participation: Global ideas and local translations of water management in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schnegg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, water management in Namibia has profoundly changed. Beginning in the 1990s the Namibian state has incrementally turned ownership of and the responsibility for its rural water supply to local user groups. While the state withdrew from managing resources directly, it continued to circumscribe the ways in which local communities should govern them. In so doing, a “new commons” was created. Inclusive participation became the leitmotif of the new management scheme and in particular the participation of women was a major political and societal goal. In this article, we use the notion of travelling models as a theoretical guide to explore how the idea of participation emerged in international development discourses and how it was then translated through national legislation into the local context. The results of the analysis show that more than 20 years after the formulation of international conventions the average participation of women in local water committees remains low. However, older women do manage the funds associated with water and thus occupy one of the most important functions. Our explanation takes the wider social and cultural field into account and shows that gender and generational roles provide elder women with autonomy and authority which prepare their ways into these new official roles. We conclude by considering whether and how the travelling model of participation has been changing local social structures in general and the role of elder women in particular.

  7. Why a Train Set Helps Participants Co-Construct Meaning in Business Model Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuthel, Maria Rosa; Buur, Jacob

    In this position paper we show how participants in an innovation workshop employ tangible material – a toy train set – to co-construct understandings of a new business model. In multidisciplinary teams the process of developing new terms and concepts together is crucial for work to progress. Every...... to understand how they construct a concept. We observe that the final result of the workshop is indeed innovative and is co-constructed by all group members. We discuss why the toy train works: It keeps both hands and mind busy, it allows silent participation, and it expands the vocabulary of the discussion....

  8. Why a Train Set Helps Participants Co-Construct Meaning in Business Model Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuthel, Maria Rosa; Buur, Jacob

    to understand how they construct a concept. We observe that the final result of the workshop is indeed innovative and is co-constructed by all group members. We discuss why the toy train works: It keeps both hands and mind busy, it allows silent participation, and it expands the vocabulary of the discussion.......In this position paper we show how participants in an innovation workshop employ tangible material – a toy train set – to co-construct understandings of a new business model. In multidisciplinary teams the process of developing new terms and concepts together is crucial for work to progress. Every...

  9. Multilevel models for multiple-baseline data: modeling across-participant variation in autocorrelation and residual variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Eun Kyeng; Ferron, John M

    2013-03-01

    Multilevel models (MLM) have been used as a method for analyzing multiple-baseline single-case data. However, some concerns can be raised because the models that have been used assume that the Level-1 error covariance matrix is the same for all participants. The purpose of this study was to extend the application of MLM of single-case data in order to accommodate across-participant variation in the Level-1 residual variance and autocorrelation. This more general model was then used in the analysis of single-case data sets to illustrate the method, to estimate the degree to which the autocorrelation and residual variances differed across participants, and to examine whether inferences about treatment effects were sensitive to whether or not the Level-1 error covariance matrix was allowed to vary across participants. The results from the analyses of five published studies showed that when the Level-1 error covariance matrix was allowed to vary across participants, some relatively large differences in autocorrelation estimates and error variance estimates emerged. The changes in modeling the variance structure did not change the conclusions about which fixed effects were statistically significant in most of the studies, but there was one exception. The fit indices did not consistently support selecting either the more complex covariance structure, which allowed the covariance parameters to vary across participants, or the simpler covariance structure. Given the uncertainty in model specification that may arise when modeling single-case data, researchers should consider conducting sensitivity analyses to examine the degree to which their conclusions are sensitive to modeling choices.

  10. Enhancing stakeholder participation in river basin management using mental mapping and causality models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, D.

    2009-04-01

    Participation processes play a crucial role in implementing adaptive management in river basins. A range of different participative methods is being applied, however, little is known on their effectiveness in addressing the specific question or policy process at stake and their performance in different socio-economic and cultural settings. To shed light on the role of cultural settings on the outcomes of a participative process we carried out a comparative study of participation processes using group model building (GMB) in a European, a Central Asian, and an African river basin. We use an analytical framework which covers the goals, the role of science and stakeholders, the initiation and methods of the processes framed by very different cultural, socio-economic and biophysical conditions. Across all three basins, the GMB processes produced a shared understanding among all participants of the major water management issues in the respective river basin and common approaches to address them. The "ownership of the ideas" by the stakeholders, i.e. the topic to be addressed in a GMB process, is important for their willingness to contribute to such a participatory process. Differences, however, exist in so far that cultural and contextual constraints of the basin drive the way the GMB processes have been designed and how their results contribute to policy development.

  11. Modelling nonlinear behavior of labor force participation rate by STAR: An application for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cengiz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the behavior of participation rates in terms of gender differences. We employed smooth autoregressive transition models for the quarterly Turkish labor force participation rates (LFPR data between 2000: Q1 - 2011: Q4 to present an asymmetric participation behavior. The smoothness parameter indicates a gradual transition from low to high regimes. It is higher for female workers compared to the male workers. Participation rates diminish during a recession but they increase smoothly during the periods of expansion. The estimation results of Enders et al. (1998 also verified the asymmetry and nonlinearity in participation rates. During periods of economic expansion, they are higher than the threshold but the low regime indicator function takes the value zero. The results of the paper have economic implications for policy makers. Due to the discouraged worker and added worker effects, LFPR should be observed with the unemployment rates while evaluating the tightness of the labor market.

  12. An Efficient Code-Based Threshold Ring Signature Scheme with a Leader-Participant Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guomin Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital signature schemes with additional properties have broad applications, such as in protecting the identity of signers allowing a signer to anonymously sign a message in a group of signers (also known as a ring. While these number-theoretic problems are still secure at the time of this research, the situation could change with advances in quantum computing. There is a pressing need to design PKC schemes that are secure against quantum attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel code-based threshold ring signature scheme with a leader-participant model. A leader is appointed, who chooses some shared parameters for other signers to participate in the signing process. This leader-participant model enhances the performance because every participant including the leader could execute the decoding algorithm (as a part of signing process upon receiving the shared parameters from the leader. The time complexity of our scheme is close to Courtois et al.’s (2001 scheme. The latter is often used as a basis to construct other types of code-based signature schemes. Moreover, as a threshold ring signature scheme, our scheme is as efficient as the normal code-based ring signature.

  13. Modeling participation duration, with application to the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, William; Sauer, John

    2014-01-01

    We consider “participation histories,” binary sequences consisting of alternating finite sequences of 1s and 0s, ending with an infinite sequence of 0s. Our work is motivated by a study of observer tenure in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). In our analysis, j indexes an observer’s years of service and Xj is an indicator of participation in the survey; 0s interspersed among 1s correspond to years when observers did not participate, but subsequently returned to service. Of interest is the observer’s duration D = max {j: Xj = 1}. Because observed records X = (X1, X2,..., Xn)1 are of finite length, all that we can directly infer about duration is that D ⩾ max {j ⩽n: Xj = 1}; model-based analysis is required for inference about D. We propose models in which lengths of 0s and 1s sequences have distributions determined by the index j at which they begin; 0s sequences are infinite with positive probability, an estimable parameter. We found that BBS observers’ lengths of service vary greatly, with 25.3% participating for only a single year, 49.5% serving for 4 or fewer years, and an average duration of 8.7 years, producing an average of 7.7 counts.

  14. Employee participation in the private sector in Malaysia: The Applicability of Favourable Conjunctures Model

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    Balakrishnan Parasuraman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available EP is one crucial aspect of the employment relationship in both private and public organisations in many countries. In 2001, Poole, Lansbury and Wiles developed a model for comparative EP, which they named the Favourable Conjunctures Model. So far, this model has only been applied in developed countries such as the United States of America, United Kingdom, Australia and Europe. There it was applied in order to examine worker participation from the national perspective. No extensive study has been conducted using this model to explain worker participation practices at the company level. In parallel with this aspect, this model also has never been used to explain the nature of EP in the Asian developing countries. This current research will use the Favourable Conjunctures Model to examine the nature of EP in private enterprises based on empirical study carried out in Malaysia. The argument of this paper is that the Favourable Conjunctures Model of Industrial Democracy (Poole et al. 2001 is inadequate to elucidate the characteristics of EP in Malaysia. Based on empirical findings from three private companies in Malaysia, the paper argues that there are many contextual factors that influence the nature of EP in Malaysian private companies that are not taken into account by the model. They are:multi-ethnic (cultural influences, the repressive role of state in the Malaysian industrial relations, the New Economic Policy and industrialisation plan, Islamic working ethics, the influence of a British colonial history, lack of training among non-managerial employees in EP, the impact of foreign direct investment on industrial relations, to identify a few. Based on this study, it is proposed that the present Favourable Conjunctures Model of Industrial Democracy (Poole et al. 2001 be modified based on the contextual factors discussed above. The paper concludes that the western model of EP could not be directly applied in Malaysia without some adjustment of

  15. Enhancing Users' Participation in Business Process Modeling through Ontology-Based Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macris, A.; Malamateniou, F.; Vassilacopoulos, G.

    Successful business process design requires active participation of users who are familiar with organizational activities and business process modelling concepts. Hence, there is a need to provide users with reusable, flexible, agile and adaptable training material in order to enable them instil their knowledge and expertise in business process design and automation activities. Knowledge reusability is of paramount importance in designing training material on process modelling since it enables users participate actively in process design/redesign activities stimulated by the changing business environment. This paper presents a prototype approach for the design and use of training material that provides significant advantages to both the designer (knowledge - content reusability and semantic web enabling) and the user (semantic search, knowledge navigation and knowledge dissemination). The approach is based on externalizing domain knowledge in the form of ontology-based knowledge networks (i.e. training scenarios serving specific training needs) so that it is made reusable.

  16. ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF EDUCATION PARTICIPATION INDEX (EPI IN INDONESIA FROM 2003-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustofa Usman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research is to reveal the characteristics of the Education Participation Index (EPI in Indonesia based on the level of students’ age (7-12, 13-15, 16-18, and 19-24 which shows the participation index of the citizens at Elementary School, Junior High School, Senior High School and University. The data was taken from Central Bureau Statistics of Indonesia (BPS from the year 2003 to 2008. The data is analyzed to see the difference between the level of ages at difference regions and difference years. And the data was analyzed by using analysis nested design. The second analysis is to find the EPI model for each regions and years. The modeling is used the multiple linear regression with dummy variable for the regions and years.

  17. Empowerment model for nurse leaders' participation in health policy development: an east African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Nilufa Jivraj

    2015-01-01

    Nurses comprise the largest portion of the health care workforce in most countries; they interact closely with patients and communities, they work throughout the day and within all sectors of health care. Their breath of practice gives them a broad understanding of requirements of the health care system, of how factors in the environment affect the health outcomes of clients and communities. Nurses' involvement in health policy development ensures that health services are: safe, effective, available and inexpensive. A Delphi survey was utilized and included the following criteria: expert panelists, three iterative rounds, qualitative and quantitative analysis, and building consensus. The overall aim of the study was to develop "An Empowerment Model for Nurse Leaders' participation in Health Policy Development". The study included purposively selected sample of national nurse leaders from the three East African countries of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The study was conducted in three iterative rounds. Data collection tools were questionnaires. Data analysis was done by examining the data for the most commonly occurring concepts in the first round and descriptive statistics in the second and third rounds. The findings of the study support the development of the "Empowerment Model for Nurse Leaders' Participation in Health Policy Development". Further the study identified that there was a significant gap in and barriers to participation in health policy activity and that an opportunity seems to exist to enable and develop nurse leaders' role and involvement in this respect. There was consensus on factors considered to be facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders' involvement in health policy development. Furthermore, consensus was achieved on essential leadership attributes that enhance nurse leaders' participation in health policy development. The model was validated a small sample of the nurse leaders' who participated in the study. The model provides a framework

  18. Multi-criteria evaluation of CMIP5 GCMs for climate change impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Rana, Arun; Moradkhani, Hamid; Sharma, Ashish

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have severe impacts on global hydrological cycle along with food-water-energy nexus. Currently, there are many climate models used in predicting important climatic variables. Though there have been advances in the field, there are still many problems to be resolved related to reliability, uncertainty, and computing needs, among many others. In the present work, we have analyzed performance of 20 different global climate models (GCMs) from Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) dataset over the Columbia River Basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest USA. We demonstrate a statistical multicriteria approach, using univariate and multivariate techniques, for selecting suitable GCMs to be used for climate change impact analysis in the region. Univariate methods includes mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, relative change (variability), Mann-Kendall test, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS-test); whereas multivariate methods used were principal component analysis (PCA), singular value decomposition (SVD), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), and cluster analysis. The analysis is performed on raw GCM data, i.e., before bias correction, for precipitation and temperature climatic variables for all the 20 models to capture the reliability and nature of the particular model at regional scale. The analysis is based on spatially averaged datasets of GCMs and observation for the period of 1970 to 2000. Ranking is provided to each of the GCMs based on the performance evaluated against gridded observational data on various temporal scales (daily, monthly, and seasonal). Results have provided insight into each of the methods and various statistical properties addressed by them employed in ranking GCMs. Further; evaluation was also performed for raw GCM simulations against different sets of gridded observational dataset in the area.

  19. Intermodel spread of the double-ITCZ bias in coupled GCMs tied to land surface temperature in AMIP GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenyu; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2017-08-01

    Global climate models (GCMs) have long suffered from biases of excessive tropical precipitation in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). The severity of the double-Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) bias, defined here as the interhemispheric difference in zonal mean tropical precipitation, varies strongly among models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble. Models with a more severe double-ITCZ bias feature warmer tropical sea surface temperature (SST) in the SH, coupled with weaker southeast trades. While previous studies focus on coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions, here we show that the intermodel spread in the severity of the double-ITCZ bias is closely related to land surface temperature biases, which can be further traced back to those in the Atmosphere Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations. By perturbing land temperature in models, we demonstrate that cooler land can indeed lead to a more severe double-ITCZ bias by inducing the above coupled SST-trade wind pattern in the tropics. The response to land temperature can be consistently explained from both the dynamic and energetic perspectives. Although this intermodel spread from the land temperature variation does not account for the ensemble model mean double-ITCZ bias, identifying the land temperature effect provides insights into simulating a realistic ITCZ for the right reasons.

  20. [American participation in the creation of a nurse model in Brazilian society in the 1920's].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Barreira, Ieda de Alencar; da Fonte, Aline Silva; de Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this historical-social study are: to describe the circumstances that determined the participation of North American nurses in the formation of the Brazilian nurse; and analyse the process of implementing institutional rituals as a strategy of symbolic fight, to confer visibility to the nurse profession and discuss the symbolic effects of institutional rituals for the consecration of a nurse model for Brazilian society at the time. The primary sources are constituted of pertaining written and photographic documents relative to the studied theme. By reading the documentary corpus an analysis was made of the symbols that had distinguished and established the hierarchies of the actions, as well as the strategies undertaken for the North American nurses, towards implementing a new model of nurses in Brazilian society, coherent with the model of the North American schools of nursing. Institutional rituals, conducted or testified by prestigious figures of the history of Brazil and nursing, were fundamental for the construction of professional identity.

  1. Evaluating historical simulations of CMIP5 GCMs for key climatic variables in Zhejiang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Weidong; Ma, Chong; Kang, Lili; Gu, Haiting; Pan, Suli; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the regional impact of climate change on agriculture, hydrology, and forests is vital for sustainable management. Trustworthy projections of climate change are needed to support these assessments. In this paper, 18 global climate models (GCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are evaluated for their ability to simulate regional climate change in Zhejiang Province, Southeast China. Simple graphical approaches and three indices are used to evaluate the performance of six key climatic variables during simulations from 1971 to 2000. These variables include maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, solar radiation, and relative humidity. These variables are of great importance to researchers and decision makers in climate change impact studies and developing adaptation strategies. This study found that most GCMs failed to reproduce the observed spatial patterns, due to insufficient resolution. However, the seasonal variations of the six variables are simulated well by most GCMs. Maximum and minimum air temperatures are simulated well on monthly, seasonal, and yearly scales. Solar radiation is reasonably simulated on monthly, seasonal, and yearly scales. Compared to air temperature and solar radiation, it was found that precipitation, wind speed, and relative humidity can only be simulated well at seasonal and yearly scales. Wind speed was the variable with the poorest simulation results across all GCMs.

  2. Conceptualizing Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Bruun Jensen, Bjarne

    Although participation is not a new issue, it would be fair to say that consequential participation, which implies young people engaging in meaningful dialogue with adults and institutions and influencing decision-making processes in matters that concern them, is still in its infancy. This document...... and society. It then describes different forms, modes or qualities of participation and proposes a specific model of facilitating participatory work with young people - the IVAC approach (Investigation-Vision-Action-Change). The concept of action, types of actions aimed at initiating change and corresponding...... aims to set the scene for discussing young people's participation in different domains that have an impact on their lives. It outlines the meaning and different interpretations of the concept of "participation" before reviewing why participation is an important issue in relation to young people...

  3. Stages of Change Model for Participation in Physical Activity during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Annette Hagen Haakstad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The transtheoretical model (TTM has been successful in promoting health behavioral change in the general population. However, there is a scant knowledge about physical activity in relation to the TTM during pregnancy. Hence, the aims of the present study were (1 to assess readiness to become or stay physically active according to the TTM and (2 to compare background and health variables across the TTM. Methods. Healthy pregnant women (n=467 were allocated to the study from Oslo University Hospital, Norway. The participants filled in a validated self-administered questionnaire, physical activity pregnancy questionnaire (PAPQ in gestation, weeks 32–36. The questionnaire contained 53 questions with one particular question addressing the TTM and the five stages: (1 precontemplation stage, (2 contemplation stage, (3 preparation stage, (4 action stage, and (5 maintenance stage. Results. More than half of the participants (53% were involved in regular exercise (stages 4-5; however, only six specified that they had recently started an exercise program (stage 4. About 33% reported engaging in some physical activity, but not regularly (stage 3. The results showed that receiving advice from health professionals to exercise during pregnancy increased the likeliness of being in stages 4-5, while higher age, multiparity, pregravid overweight, unhealthy eating habits, pelvic girdle pain, and urinary incontinence were more prevalent with low readiness to change exercise habits (stages 1–3. Conclusion. According to the TTM, more than half of the participants reported to be physically active. Moreover, most of the participants classified as inactive showed a high motivational readiness or intention to increase their physical activity level. Hence, pregnancy may be a window of opportunity for the establishment of long-term physical activity habits.

  4. How participation is practiced? –Extension of Participatory Design Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Kamihira, Takahito

    2016-01-01

    Last few years, we have witnessed of an increased value of stakeholder participation on service design. In spite of the attention to the participation on design, we have only a limited common ground what participation means. Participants, definition, process, purpose and expectation...... advancement of service design community, this paper introduces one way of identifying participation with a conceptual diagram. Our diagram is to provide a springboard for constructive discussion among service design researchers, practitioners as well as participants themselves, by identifying and clarifying...

  5. How participation is practiced? –Extension of Participatory Design Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Kamihira, Takahito

    2016-01-01

    Last few years, we have witnessed of an increased value of stakeholder participation on service design. In spite of the attention to the participation on design, we have only a limited common ground what participation means. Participants, definition, process, purpose and expectation...... advancement of service design community, this paper introduces one way of identifying participation with a conceptual diagram. Our diagram is to provide a springboard for constructive discussion among service design researchers, practitioners as well as participants themselves, by identifying and clarifying...

  6. Do quantitative decadal forecasts from GCMs provide decision relevant skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, E. B.; Smith, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    It is widely held that only physics-based simulation models can capture the dynamics required to provide decision-relevant probabilistic climate predictions. This fact in itself provides no evidence that predictions from today's GCMs are fit for purpose. Empirical (data-based) models are employed to make probability forecasts on decadal timescales, where it is argued that these 'physics free' forecasts provide a quantitative 'zero skill' target for the evaluation of forecasts based on more complicated models. It is demonstrated that these zero skill models are competitive with GCMs on decadal scales for probability forecasts evaluated over the last 50 years. Complications of statistical interpretation due to the 'hindcast' nature of this experiment, and the likely relevance of arguments that the lack of hindcast skill is irrelevant as the signal will soon 'come out of the noise' are discussed. A lack of decision relevant quantiative skill does not bring the science-based insights of anthropogenic warming into doubt, but it does call for a clear quantification of limits, as a function of lead time, for spatial and temporal scales on which decisions based on such model output are expected to prove maladaptive. Failing to do so may risk the credibility of science in support of policy in the long term. The performance amongst a collection of simulation models is evaluated, having transformed ensembles of point forecasts into probability distributions through the kernel dressing procedure [1], according to a selection of proper skill scores [2] and contrasted with purely data-based empirical models. Data-based models are unlikely to yield realistic forecasts for future climate change if the Earth system moves away from the conditions observed in the past, upon which the models are constructed; in this sense the empirical model defines zero skill. When should a decision relevant simulation model be expected to significantly outperform such empirical models? Probability

  7. Project Sugar: a recruitment model for successful African-American participation in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruill, Ida

    2004-12-01

    Attempts to increase the number of African-Americans participating in clinical trials, regardless of age, have been hampered by a lack of published data regarding successful recruitment and retention strategies. Successful strategies can be used as a guide for future researchers in the design of studies to recruit African-Americans, regardless of age, into clinical as well as qualitative studies to promote health among this vulnerable population. The goal of the primary study was to recruit 400 families with 2 or more family members affected with diabetes, totaling 800 participants. Project Sugar utilized the coordinated research principals known as CPR (Community, Plan, Reward) to recruit 615 African-American families totalling 1,230 people known as the Sea Island people (Gullahs) in the first five years of the study. The intention of the study was to identify markers for diabetes among these Sea Island natives who tended to be genetically homogenous. In so doing, specific strategies were identified as serendipitous findings for this study. Nonetheless, these serendipitous findings were thought to be so integral to success in the recruitment of African-Americans, mainly because of their success among this fairly close-knit, historically isolated, and significantly genetically homogenous Sea Islanders (Gullah). In recognizing the success of this model, an alternate aim was examined to devise rigorous scientific strategies to promote methods for recruitment of African-Americans into clinical trials aimed at reducing health disparities among this vulnerable population. This projects success can be attributed to the involvement of a local citizen advisory committee and rewards in the form of services, benefits, and incentives to the community. Findings from this alternative aim, which was scientifically built on the CPR model, suggest that when services are provided to the community, coupled with the use of local community advisory committees, the possibilities of

  8. A participative model for undertaking and evaluating scientific communication in Earth Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Astorina, Alba; Tomasoni, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Public communication of Science and Technology (PCST) is an integral part of the mission of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) and widely carried out among the scientific community. Recently it has also become a research field investigating practices, channels, tools and models of public engagement and their impact on the relation between Science and Society. Understanding such aspects is increasingly considered relevant for an effective and aware outreach. Within this context, CNR has adopted some innovative communication approaches addressed to different publics, such as stakeholders, users, media, young people and the general public, using participative methodologies. Besides being practices of communication promoting the scientific culture, such initiatives aim at understanding the models at the basis of the relationship between the scientific community and the public. To what extent do scientists put their communication and involvement strategies in discussion? Do they use to have a real exchange with their publics in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the participatory techniques they adopt in communicating and disseminating their activities? In this paper we present a case study of a communication and educational proposal recently developed by CNR in order to promote a mutual exchange between Education/School and Research, that are the most important actors in the production and the revision of the scientific knowledge. The proposal brings an ongoing CNR research project (its steps, subjects, tools, activities, costs etc) in classrooms, making use of interactive Earth Sciences workshops conducted directly by researchers. The ongoing CNR project shared with students studies Innovative Methodologies of Earth Observation supporting the Agricultural sector in Lombardy. It aims at exploiting the Aerospace Earth Observation (EO) tools to develop dedicated agricultural downstream services that will bring added economic value and benefits for Lombardy

  9. Fertility behavior and labor force participation: a model of lexicographic choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnacion, J J

    1982-01-01

    Evidence exists that a smaller family size is usually associated with female employment and that fertility rises with family income and the wife's education at relatively low levels of income and education. Only at higher levels is there the generally expected relationship that fertility declines with more education or income. Due to the fact that a woman's labor force participation and her fertility are aspects of behavior of the same person (or couple), they should be explained by a model of choice. Such a model is presented, and empirical evidence is cited. In particular, the model allows for a fertility decline even before a decline in mortality during the demographic transition. The model of choice involves threshold values of education and income, such that the marginal effects of these variables on fertility and labor supply are qualitatively different below and above the threshold. The model is in conformity with cross-section regressions using Philippine data and appears to explain why various studies give positive, zero, or negative regression coefficients relating fertility to education and income when standard linear regression specifications are used. Such results would depend on the proportions of families falling below and above the thresholds in the sample of observations. The model also implies that the fertility effects of a child mortality decline on those proportions, meaning that one could have lower mortality without affecting fertility levels. From a policy perspective, the broad implications of the model are distrubing. Development that raises very low income and education levels would increase fertility and so would a more egalitarian distribution of the same low aggregate income. It is necessary to shift the underlying functions so that the thresholds become as low as possible, but general economic development may be too slow for this purpose.

  10. How do GCMs represent daily maximum and minimum temperatures in La Plata Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettolli, M. L.; Penalba, O. C.; Krieger, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    This work focuses on southern La Plata Basin region which is one of the most important agriculture and hydropower producing regions worldwide. Extreme climate events such as cold and heat waves and frost events have a significant socio-economic impact. It is a big challenge for global climate models (GCMs) to simulate regional patterns, temporal variations and distribution of temperature in a daily basis. Taking into account the present and future relevance of the region for the economy of the countries involved, it is very important to analyze maximum and minimum temperatures for model evaluation and development. This kind of study is aslo the basis for a great deal of the statistical downscaling methods in a climate change context. The aim of this study is to analyze the ability of the GCMs to reproduce the observed daily maximum and minimum temperatures in the southern La Plata Basin region. To this end, daily fields of maximum and minimum temperatures from a set of 15 GCMs were used. The outputs corresponding to the historical experiment for the reference period 1979-1999 were obtained from the WCRP CMIP5 (World Climate Research Programme Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). In order to compare daily temperature values in the southern La Plata Basin region as generated by GCMs to those derived from observations, daily maximum and minimum temperatures were used from the gridded dataset generated by the Claris LPB Project ("A Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies in La Plata Basin"). Additionally, reference station data was included in the study. The analysis was focused on austral winter (June, July, August) and summer (December, January, February). The study was carried out by analyzing the performance of the 15 GCMs , as well as their ensemble mean, in simulating the probability distribution function (pdf) of maximum and minimum temperatures which include mean values, variability, skewness, et c, and regional

  11. Toward equity through participation in Modeling Instruction in introductory university physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Brewe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a five year evaluation of the reform of introductory calculus-based physics by implementation of Modeling Instruction (MI at Florida International University (FIU, a Hispanic-serving institution. MI is described in the context of FIU’s overall effort to enhance student participation in physics and science broadly. Our analysis of MI from a “participationist” perspective on learning identifies aspects of MI including conceptually based instruction, culturally sensitive instruction, and cooperative group learning, which are consistent with research on supporting equitable learning and participation by students historically under-represented in physics (i.e., Black, Hispanic, women. This study uses markers of conceptual understanding as measured by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI and odds of success as measured by the ratio of students completing introductory physics and earning a passing grade (i.e., C− or better by students historically under-represented in physics to reflect equity and participation in introductory physics. FCI pre and post scores for students in MI are compared with lecture-format taught students. Modeling Instruction students outperform students taught in lecture-format classes on post instruction FCI (61.9% vs 47.9%, p<0.001, where these benefits are seen across both ethnic and gender comparisons. In addition, we report that the odds of success in MI are 6.73 times greater than in lecture instruction. Both odds of success and FCI scores within Modeling Instruction are further disaggregated by ethnicity and by gender to address the question of equity within the treatment. The results of this disaggregation indicate that although ethnically under-represented students enter with lower overall conceptual understanding scores, the gap is not widened during introductory physics but instead is maintained, and the odds of success for under-represented students is not different from majority students

  12. Modelling relationships between cognitive variables during and following public speaking in participants with social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M; Abbott, Maree J

    2007-12-01

    Cognitive models of social phobia predict that several cognitive processes will mediate the relationship between trait levels of social anxiety and the extent of anxiety experienced in a specific social-evaluative situation. The current study aimed to provide a test of these relationships. Over 200 clinical participants with social phobia completed measures of their general social anxiety and a week later performed a brief impromptu speech. They completed a measure of state anxiety in response to the speech as well as questionnaires assessing several cognitive constructs including focus of perceived attention, perceived performance, and probability and cost of negative evaluation. A week later, they completed measures of negative rumination experienced over the week, as well as a measure of the recollection of their perceived performance. Path analysis provided support for a model in which the cognitive factors mediated between general social anxiety and the degree of anxiety experienced in response to the speech. A second model supported the theory that negative rumination mediated between characteristic social anxiety and negative bias in the recollection of performance.

  13. Model Development for Health Promotion in the Elderly Participating in Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supat Jampawai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The problem of the research derives from a lack of research study to develop the suitable model for health promotion in the elderly and examine factors concerning the health promotion in the elderly. This research aimed to study and develop suitable health promotion model for elderly participating in communities and examine factors related to the health promotion of the elderly. Approach: The samples were 654 older people. This study was participatory action research including many stages which were situation analysis, action and assessment. The explored location was the area of Nonsa-ad Sub-District, Nong Ruea District, Khon Kaen Province. Results: The results of the study led to the process of health promotion for the elderly participating in the communities in the action stage including the participation of the communities, local administrative organizations and government agencies consisting of health service centers and department of social development and human security to drive the thinking of the elderly and push it into real practice. The activities for the health promotion were health check-up, home visit of volunteers and public health staff, exercise, having suitable food, stress management, adequate sleep, avoidance to alcohol, steroids, smoking, accidents and resistance to hard work. After a year of these activities, the health condition of the aged people was better while several health problems decreased such as the rate of sickness, risk group of chronic diseases, join and muscular pain. Besides, diabetes and blood pressure were at the same level. The patients with diabetes and blood pressure were able to better control glucose level and blood pressure at the safe rate without any complications. The whole quality of life of the elderly on physical and mental health, daily routine, society and finance were also increased by 63.15%. Furthermore, sex and age were significantly related to the health promotion for

  14. Remembering the news: Modeling retention data from a study with 14,000 participants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Murre, J.M.J.; Janssen, S.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A retention study is presented in which participants answered questions about news events, with a retention interval that varied within participants between 1 day and 2 years. The study involved more than 14,000 participants and around 500,000 data points. The data were analyzed separately for parti

  15. Interactive, open source, travel time scenario modelling: tools to facilitate participation in health service access analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Rohan; Lassa, Jonatan

    2017-04-18

    Modelling travel time to services has become a common public health tool for planning service provision but the usefulness of these analyses is constrained by the availability of accurate input data and limitations inherent in the assumptions and parameterisation. This is particularly an issue in the developing world where access to basic data is limited and travel is often complex and multi-modal. Improving the accuracy and relevance in this context requires greater accessibility to, and flexibility in, travel time modelling tools to facilitate the incorporation of local knowledge and the rapid exploration of multiple travel scenarios. The aim of this work was to develop simple open source, adaptable, interactive travel time modelling tools to allow greater access to and participation in service access analysis. Described are three interconnected applications designed to reduce some of the barriers to the more wide-spread use of GIS analysis of service access and allow for complex spatial and temporal variations in service availability. These applications are an open source GIS tool-kit and two geo-simulation models. The development of these tools was guided by health service issues from a developing world context but they present a general approach to enabling greater access to and flexibility in health access modelling. The tools demonstrate a method that substantially simplifies the process for conducting travel time assessments and demonstrate a dynamic, interactive approach in an open source GIS format. In addition this paper provides examples from empirical experience where these tools have informed better policy and planning. Travel and health service access is complex and cannot be reduced to a few static modeled outputs. The approaches described in this paper use a unique set of tools to explore this complexity, promote discussion and build understanding with the goal of producing better planning outcomes. The accessible, flexible, interactive and

  16. A code reviewer assignment model incorporating the competence differences and participant preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanqing

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A good assignment of code reviewers can effectively utilize the intellectual resources, assure code quality and improve programmers’ skills in software development. However, little research on reviewer assignment of code review has been found. In this study, a code reviewer assignment model is created based on participants’ preference to reviewing assignment. With a constraint of the smallest size of a review group, the model is optimized to maximize review outcomes and avoid the negative impact of “mutual admiration society”. This study shows that the reviewer assignment strategies incorporating either the reviewers’ preferences or the authors’ preferences get much improvement than a random assignment. The strategy incorporating authors’ preference makes higher improvement than that incorporating reviewers’ preference. However, when the reviewers’ and authors’ preference matrixes are merged, the improvement becomes moderate. The study indicates that the majority of the participants have a strong wish to work with reviewers and authors having highest competence. If we want to satisfy the preference of both reviewers and authors at the same time, the overall improvement of learning outcomes may be not the best.

  17. Factors associated with leisure time physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants: Ecological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Aquino, Estela M L

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of the study was identify the prevalence and factors associated with leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in adult participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The LTPA was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), long version. A hierarchical ecological model was built with the possible factors associated with LTPA distributed across blocks. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using logistic regression. In men, being more educated, having a high family income, living in environments with conditions and opportunities for PA, being retired and being overweight were positively associated, while current smoking, obesity and abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. Among women, being over 60years old, being more educated, having a high family income, living in an environment with conditions and opportunities for PA practice and being retired were positively associated, while being overweight, obese and having abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. The proposed ecological model explains the LTPA through the social, physical and personal environment and highlights gender differences in physical activity.

  18. Modeling seroadaptation and sexual behavior among HIV+ study participants with a simultaneously multilevel and multivariate longitudinal count model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuda; Weiss, Robert E

    2013-03-01

    Longitudinal behavioral intervention trials to reduce HIV transmission risk collect complex multilevel and multivariate data longitudinally for each subject with important correlation structures across time, level, and variables. Accurately assessing the effects of these trials are critical for determining which interventions are effective. Both numbers of partners and numbers of sex acts with each partner are reported at each time point. Sex acts with each partner are further differentiated into protected and unprotected acts with correspondingly differing risks of HIV/STD transmission. These trials generally also have eligibility criteria limiting enrollment to participants with some minimal level of risky sexual behavior tied directly to the outcome of interest. The combination of these factors makes it difficult to quantify sexual behaviors and the effects of intervention. We propose a multivariate multilevel count model that simultaneously models the number of partners, acts within partners, and accounts for recruitment eligibility. Our methods are useful in the evaluation of intervention trials and provide a more accurate and complete model for sexual behavior. We illustrate the contributions of our model by examining seroadaptive behavior defined as risk reducing behavior that depends on the serostatus of the partner. Several forms of seroadaptive risk reducing behavior are quantified and distinguished from nonseroadaptive risk reducing behavior. Copyright © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  19. Assessment of Climate Projections Using Ensembles of CMIP5 GCMs and Developing a Probable Future Scenario for Evaluation of Possible Future Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, A.; Rana, A.; Moradkhani, H.

    2014-12-01

    Global climatic change is expected to have severe effects on natural systems along with various socio-economic aspects of human life. Global Climate Models (GCMs) are widely used to study the impacts in future, with varied projections/simulations from the entire participating member GCMs. This has urged scientific communities across the world try to improve the understandings of future climate conditions, and reduce the uncertainties associated with them. In the present study, we have used various multi-modelling methods, both deterministic and probabilistic, to reduce the model uncertainties, in historical time period of 1970-2000. The analysis is performed for uncertainty bounds of precipitation and temperature using 10 selected Global Climate Models (GCMs) from Climate Model Inter-comparison project Phase 5 (CMIP5) dataset over 10 sub-basins of Columbia River Basin (CRB). All the multi-modelling methods are applied and evaluated in accordance to their performance indicator using Taylor diagrams on simulating past climate for all 10 sub-basins. The best performing multi-model method, on basis of performance of all the climatic parameters, is chosen for a particular sub-basin and same is used to develop a probable future scenario for the period of 2010-2099. All the analysis and computations are performed on statistically downscaled GCM data to increase the accuracy and better capture the uncertainty bounds on sub-basin scale, as well as enhancing the ability of multi-modeling techniques. All the future time series are used to assess the uncertainties of climatic parameters for climate change analysis. Results have brought insight into each of the multi-modelling techniques i.e. highlighting the pros and cons of all the applied methods. It was also inferred that multi-modelling techniques varied from basin to basin and with different variables, as per their capabilities to capture the observation spread/uncertainty. Eventually, the different ensemble time series

  20. Using the Health Belief Model to Explain Mothers' and Fathers' Intention to Participate in Universal Parenting Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Filus, Ania

    2017-01-01

    Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, we studied factors related to parental intention to participate in parenting programs and examined the moderating effects of parent gender on these factors. Participants were a community sample of 290 mothers and 290 fathers of 5- to 10-year-old children. Parents completed a set of questionnaires assessing child emotional and behavioral difficulties and the HBM constructs concerning perceived program benefits and barriers, perceived child problem susceptibility and severity, and perceived self-efficacy. The hypothesized model was evaluated using structural equation modeling. The results showed that, for both mothers and fathers, perceived program benefits were associated with higher intention to participate in parenting programs. In addition, higher intention to participate was associated with lower perceived barriers only in the sample of mothers and with higher perceived self-efficacy only in the sample of fathers. No significant relations were found between intention to participate and perceived child problem susceptibility and severity. Mediation analyses indicated that, for both mothers and fathers, child emotional and behavioral problems had an indirect effect on parents' intention to participate by increasing the level of perceived benefits of the program. As a whole, the proposed model explained about 45 % of the variance in parental intention to participate. The current study suggests that mothers and fathers may be motivated by different factors when making their decision to participate in a parenting program. This finding can inform future parent engagement strategies intended to increase both mothers' and fathers' participation rates in parenting programs.

  1. Harmonic Instability Assessment Using State-Space Modeling and Participation Analysis in Inverter-Fed Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a harmonic instability analysis method using state-space modeling and participation analysis in the inverter-fed ac power systems. A full-order state-space model for the droop-controlled Distributed Generation (DG) inverter is built first, including the time delay of the digit...

  2. Linear mixed-effects models for within-participant psychology experiments: an introductory tutorial and free, graphical user interface (LMMgui)

    OpenAIRE

    Magezi, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Linear mixed-effects models (LMMs) are increasingly being used for data analysis in cognitive neuroscience and experimental psychology, where within-participant designs are common. The current article provides an introductory review of the use of LMMs for within-participant data analysis and describes a free, simple, graphical user interface (LMMgui). LMMgui uses the package lme4 (Bates et al., 2014a,b) in the statistical environment R (R Core Team).

  3. Linear mixed-effects models for within-participant psychology experiments: an introductory tutorial and free, graphical user interface (LMMgui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magezi, David A

    2015-01-01

    Linear mixed-effects models (LMMs) are increasingly being used for data analysis in cognitive neuroscience and experimental psychology, where within-participant designs are common. The current article provides an introductory review of the use of LMMs for within-participant data analysis and describes a free, simple, graphical user interface (LMMgui). LMMgui uses the package lme4 (Bates et al., 2014a,b) in the statistical environment R (R Core Team).

  4. Public participation and rural management of Brazilian waters: an alternative to the deficit model (Portuguese original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Luís Piolli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge deficit model with regard to the public has been severely criticized in the sociology of the public perception of science. However, when dealing with public decisions regarding scientific matters, political and scientific institutions insist on defending the deficit model. The idea that only certified experts, or those with vast experience, should have the right to participate in decisions can bring about problems for the future of democracies. Through a type of "topography of ideas", in which some concepts from the social studies of science are used in order to think about these problems, and through the case study of public participation in the elaboration of the proposal of discounts in the fees charged for rural water use in Brazil, we will try to point out an alternative to the deficit model. This alternative includes a "minimum comprehension" of the scientific matters involved in the decision on the part of the participants, using criteria judged by the public itself.

  5. An evaluation of orthopaedic nurses’ participation in an educational intervention promoting research utilization – A triangulation convergence model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2016-01-01

    is the lack of participation. A previous survey identified 32 orthopaedic nurses as interested in participating in nursing research. An educational intervention was conducted to increase the orthopaedic nurses' research knowledge and competencies. However, only an average of six nurses participated. Design...... A triangulation convergence model was applied through a mixed methods design to combine quantitative results and qualitative findings for evaluation. Methods Data were collected from 2013–2014 from 32 orthopaedic nurses in a Danish regional hospital through a newly developed 21-item questionnaire and two focus......Aims and objectives To describe the orthopaedic nurses' experiences regarding the relevance of an educational intervention and their personal and contextual barriers to participation in the intervention. Background One of the largest barriers against nurses' research usage in clinical practice...

  6. Drought regimes in Southern Africa and how well GCMs simulate them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujeneza, Eva L.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the spatial and temporal structures of drought regimes in Southern Africa and evaluates the capability of ten global climate models (GCMs) in simulating the regimes. The study uses a multi-scaled standardized index (called standardized precipitation evapo-transpiration index, SPEI) in characterizing droughts over Southern Africa at 3- and 12-month scales. The spatial patterns of the drought regimes are identified using the rotated principal component analysis (PCA) on the SPEI, while the temporal characteristics of the drought regimes are studied using wavelet analysis. The relationship between each drought regime and global SSTs (and climate indices) is quantified using correlation analysis and wavelet coherence analysis. The study also quantifies the capability of the GCMs in simulating the drought regimes. The PCA results show four main drought regimes that jointly explain about 50 % SPEI variance over South Africa. The drought regimes (hereafter PF1, PF2, PF3 and PF4) centre over the south-western part of Southern Africa (i.e. South Africa, Botswana and Namibia common border), Zimbabwe, Tanzania, and Angola, respectively. PF1, PF2 and PF4 are strongly correlated with SST over the South Atlantic, Tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans, while PF3 is strongly correlated with the SST over the Tropical Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The drought regimes (except PF4) have significant coherence with some atmospheric teleconnection, but the strength, duration, and phase of the coherence vary with time. All the GCMs simulate the drought regimes better at a 3-month scale than at a 12-month scale. At a 3-month scale, 70 % of the GCMs simulate all the drought regimes with a high correlation coefficient (r > 0.6), but at a 12-month scale only 60 % of the models simulate at least three of the drought regimes with a high correlation coefficient (r > 0.6). The results of this study have applications in using GCMs to study the underlying atmospheric

  7. Decrease in heart rate after longitudinal participation in the Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) recreational sports programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Johan; Lemmink, Koen; Scherder, Erik; Stewart, Roy; King, Abby; Stevens, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement desi

  8. Impact of Participating in a Short-Term Intervention Model of Sports Education Camps for Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Mahon, John M.

    2013-01-01

    This three-paper format dissertation explores three topics relevant to participating in a short-term model Sports Education Camp for youth with vision impairments. The three papers are independent studies, yet build upon each other by first measuring physical performance in certain skills, then exploring their levels of self-perception, body mass…

  9. Decrease in heart rate after longitudinal participation in the Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) recreational sports programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Johan; Lemmink, Koen; Scherder, Erik; Stewart, Roy; King, Abby; Stevens, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement

  10. Longitudinal changes in heart rate after participating in the Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) recreational sports programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erik Scherder; Abby King; Roy Stewart; Dr. Johan de Jong; Koen A.P.M. Lemmink

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement

  11. The Albufera Initiative for Biodiversity: a cost effective model for integrating science and volunteer participation in coastal protected area management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riddiford, N.J.; Veraart, J.A.; Férriz, I.; Owens, N.W.; Royo, L.; Honey, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward a multi-disciplinary field project, set up in 1989 at the Parc Natural de s’Albufera in Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain, as an example of a cost effective model for integrating science and volunteer participation in a coastal protected area. Outcomes include the provision

  12. Multivariate meta-analysis of individual participant data helped externally validate the performance and implementation of a prediction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.I.E. Snell (Kym I.E.); H. Hua (Harry); T.P. Debray (Thomas P.A.); J. Ensor (Joie); M.P. Look (Maxime); K.G.M. Moons (Karel G.M.); R.D. Riley (Richard D.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Our aim was to improve meta-analysis methods for summarizing a prediction model's performance when individual participant data are available from multiple studies for external validation. Study Design and Setting We suggest multivariate meta-analysis for jointly synthesizing c

  13. Optimism Reborn. Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution, the Citizen Power Development Model and the Construction of "21st Century Socialism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution and the Citizen Power national development model in the construction of socialism in the 21st century in Latin America and the Caribbean through the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America--Peoples' Trade Agreement. Centred around the notion of "revolutionary…

  14. Analysis of perception and community participation in forest management at KPHP model unit VII-Hulu Sarolangun, Jambi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, B.; Anggoro, S.; Izzati, M.

    2017-06-01

    The concept of forest management at the site level in the form of forest management units (KPH) implemented by the government in an effort to improve forest governance in Indonesia. Forest management must ensure fairness for all stakeholders, especially indigenous and local communities that have been the most marginalized groups. Local communities have become an important part in the efforts to achieve sustainable forest management. Public perception as one of the stakeholders in forest management need to be analyzed to determine their perspectives on the forest. This study aimed to analyze the perception and the level of community participation in forest management activities in KPHP Model Unit VII-Hulu Sarolangun, as well as examine the relationship between these two variables. Perception variables are divided into three categories: good, moderate and bad, while the participation variable is also divided into three categories: high, medium, and low. Data was obtained through semi-structured interviews with the key informants and questionnaires to randomly selected respondents. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine whether there are differences of perception and participation between the two villages and the relationship between perceptions of participation or not. The results showed 90,16 % of people have a good perception and the remaining 9,84% have a moderate perception. In general, community participation is at a low level that is as much as 76,17 % and only 1,55% had a high participation rate. The analysis showed differences in levels of participation between the two villages and there is no relationship between the perception and the level of community participation in forest management. The results of this study can be taken into consideration for KPHP and other stakeholders in forest management policy in the region KPHP.

  15. Exploring survey participation, data combination, and research validity in a substance use study: an application of hierarchical linear modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Rebecca; Chapman, Phillip L; Edwards, Ruth W

    2010-01-01

    A sound decision regarding combination of datasets is critical for research validity. Data were collected between 1996 and 2000 via a 99-item survey of substance use behaviors. Two groups of 7th-12th grade students in predominately White communities are compared: 166,578 students from 193 communities with high survey participation and 41,259 students from 65 communities with lower participation. Hierarchical logistic models are used to explore whether the two datasets may be combined for further study of community-level substance use effects. "Scenario analysis" is introduced. Results suggest the datasets may reasonably be combined. Limitations and further research are discussed.

  16. GC/MS DETERMINATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Priya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the bioactive components of Pleurotus ostreatus have been evaluated using GC/MS. The chemical compositions of the hydroalcholic extract of Pleurotus ostreatus were investigated using Perkin-Elmer Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract was matched with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST library. GC/MS analysis of hydroalcholic extract of Pleurotus ostreatus revealed the existence of Cholestane-3,7,1,25-tetrol tetraacetate,(3a,5a,7a,12 a-55.20, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid,methyl ester(E,E-18.55,14,17- Octadecadienoic acid,methyl ester(E,E-5.59,Pentadecanoic acid, ethyl ester-3.84.. The results of this study offer a platform for using Pleurotus ostreatus as herbal alternative for the current synthetic antimicrobial agents.

  17. Phytochemical studies on Allamanda cathartica L. using GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhadevi V; Sahaya Sathish S; Johnson M; Venkatramani B; Janakiraman N

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the phytochemical constituents present in Allamanda cathartica (A. cathartica) L. using GC-MS. Methods: 20 g of the powdered leaf and stem sample of A. cathartica was equilibrated with 200 d/m of A. cathartica ethanol for 24 h, separately. The volume of the supernatant was later reduced by heating to 2 d/m. The concentrated ethanolic extracts were further subjected to GC-MS analysis. Results: The GC-MS analyses determined the presence of 28 different phytochemical compounds in the ethanolic leaf extract of A. cathartica. The major phytoconstituents were 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (Z,Z,Z)- (16.39%), n-hexadecanoic acid (14.08%), 3-O-methyl-d-glucose (11.03%) and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid ethyl ester (Z,Z,Z)-(10.58%). The ethanolic stem extract of A. cathartica showed the presence of 26 different bioactive compounds. The major ones are 3-O-methyl-d-glucose (29.86%), 2-furancarboxaldehyde 5-(hydroxymethyl)- (14.87%), n-hexadecanoic acid (9.13%) and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (Z,Z,Z)- (7.34%). Conclusions: This study helps to predict the formula and structure of biomolecules which can be used as drugs and further investigation may lead to the development of drug formulation.

  18. Detection of the Spermicide Nonoxynol-9 Via GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musah, Rabi A.; Vuong, Angela L.; Henck, Colin; Shepard, Jason R. E.

    2012-05-01

    The spermicide nonoxynol-9 is actually a complex mixture of dozens of closely related amphiphilic compounds, and the chemical properties of this assortment significantly hamper its characterization by GC-MS. The inability to perform routine GC-MS testing on nonoxynol-9 has limited its evidentiary value in forensic casework, which relies heavily on this technique for analysis. A disturbing trend in sexual assault is the use of condoms by assailants, to avoid leaving behind DNA evidence that can connect a perpetrator to a victim. This observation necessitates the development of alternative methods for the analysis of trace evidence that can show causal links between a victim and a suspect. Detection of lubricants associated with sexual assault is one such way to establish this connection. The development of GC-MS methods that permit facile detection of both nonoxynol-9 alone and nonoxynol-9 extracted from other complex matrices that have potential as trace evidence in sexual assault is reported. A detection limit of 2.14 μg of nonoxynol-9 is demonstrated, and a detailed mass spectral profile that elaborates on what is known of its structure is provided.

  19. Dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing: comparison of model to human participant results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we extend a model of transdermal uptake of phthalates to include a layer of clothing. When compared with experimental results, this model better estimates dermal uptake of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) than a previous model. It also demonstrates that upta...... the cotton-phthalate system will be challenging until data on partition coefficients are quantified for other combinations of SVOCs, fabric materials and environmental conditions....

  20. Development of a Conceptual Model to Predict Physical Activity Participation in Adults with Brain Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to examine psychosocial factors that influence the physical activity behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Two differing models, based on Harter's model of self-worth, were proposed to examine the relationship between perceived competence, social support, physical self-worth, affect, and motivation. Adults numbering 384 with…

  1. Practice Makes Perfect? The Role of Participant Modeling in Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assigned 26 kindergarten children to either a sexual abuse prevention program which taught self-protective skills through modeling and active rehearsal (PM) or a program which taught the same skills by having children watch skills modeled by experimenter (SM). Results provide support for greater efficacy of PM relative to SM for learning of…

  2. Modeling external events in the three-level analysis of multiple-baseline across-participants designs: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we focus on a three-level meta-analysis for combining data from studies using multiple-baseline across-participants designs. A complicating factor in such designs is that results might be biased if the dependent variable is affected by not explicitly modeled external events, such as the illness of a teacher, an exciting class activity, or the presence of a foreign observer. In multiple-baseline designs, external effects can become apparent if they simultaneously have an effect on the outcome score(s) of the participants within a study. This study presents a method for adjusting the three-level model to external events and evaluates the appropriateness of the modified model. Therefore, we use a simulation study, and we illustrate the new approach with real data sets. The results indicate that ignoring an external event effect results in biased estimates of the treatment effects, especially when there is only a small number of studies and measurement occasions involved. The mean squared error, as well as the standard error and coverage proportion of the effect estimates, is improved with the modified model. Moreover, the adjusted model results in less biased variance estimates. If there is no external event effect, we find no differences in results between the modified and unmodified models.

  3. Regional soil erosion assessment in Slovakia using modelling and farmer's participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenderessy, Pavol; Veihe, Anita

    There has been an increasing interest by decision makers to obtain regional assessments of soil erosion risk, whereas many existing models require substantial amounts of high quality input data with high spatial resolution and they are often only validated at the plot level. Operational models...... for regional assessments should be based on simple data requirements, must consider spatial and temporal variability in hydrological and soil erosion processes, and must be applicable to a variety of regions with a minimum of calibration. This study aims to assess the applicability of the Erosion3D model...... with cereals, sunflowers and corn and is characterised by poor cultivation practices and use of fertilizers leading to land degradation. As a first step, the initial raster-based modelling of soil loss and deposition has provided acceptable and realistic values. The predicted spatial patterns of erosion...

  4. Multistep Model of Cervical Cancer: Participation of miRNAs and Coding Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Judith Granados López

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant miRNA expression is well recognized as an important step in the development of cancer. Close to 70 microRNAs (miRNAs have been implicated in cervical cancer up to now, nevertheless it is unknown if aberrant miRNA expression causes the onset of cervical cancer. One of the best ways to address this issue is through a multistep model of carcinogenesis. In the progression of cervical cancer there are three well-established steps to reach cancer that we used in the model proposed here. The first step of the model comprises the gene changes that occur in normal cells to be transformed into immortal cells (CIN 1, the second comprises immortal cell changes to tumorigenic cells (CIN 2, the third step includes cell changes to increase tumorigenic capacity (CIN 3, and the final step covers tumorigenic changes to carcinogenic cells. Altered miRNAs and their target genes are located in each one of the four steps of the multistep model of carcinogenesis. miRNA expression has shown discrepancies in different works; therefore, in this model we include miRNAs recording similar results in at least two studies. The present model is a useful insight into studying potential prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic miRNAs.

  5. Multistep Model of Cervical Cancer: Participation of miRNAs and Coding Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Angelica Judith Granados; López, Jesús Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant miRNA expression is well recognized as an important step in the development of cancer. Close to 70 microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in cervical cancer up to now, nevertheless it is unknown if aberrant miRNA expression causes the onset of cervical cancer. One of the best ways to address this issue is through a multistep model of carcinogenesis. In the progression of cervical cancer there are three well-established steps to reach cancer that we used in the model proposed here. The first step of the model comprises the gene changes that occur in normal cells to be transformed into immortal cells (CIN 1), the second comprises immortal cell changes to tumorigenic cells (CIN 2), the third step includes cell changes to increase tumorigenic capacity (CIN 3), and the final step covers tumorigenic changes to carcinogenic cells. Altered miRNAs and their target genes are located in each one of the four steps of the multistep model of carcinogenesis. miRNA expression has shown discrepancies in different works; therefore, in this model we include miRNAs recording similar results in at least two studies. The present model is a useful insight into studying potential prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic miRNAs. PMID:25192291

  6. An evaluation of orthopaedic nurses' participation in an educational intervention promoting research usage--a triangulation convergence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2016-03-01

    To describe the orthopaedic nurses' experiences regarding the relevance of an educational intervention and their personal and contextual barriers to participation in the intervention. One of the largest barriers against nurses' research usage in clinical practice is the lack of participation. A previous survey identified 32 orthopaedic nurses as interested in participating in nursing research. An educational intervention was conducted to increase the orthopaedic nurses' research knowledge and competencies. However, only an average of six nurses participated. A triangulation convergence model was applied through a mixed methods design to combine quantitative results and qualitative findings for evaluation. Data were collected from 2013-2014 from 32 orthopaedic nurses in a Danish regional hospital through a newly developed 21-item questionnaire and two focus group sessions. Data were first analysed using descriptive statistics (stata 12.0) and qualitative manifest content analysis. Second, the results were compared, contrasted and interpreted using international literature. The nurses experienced the intervention as a new way to focus on nursing research in practice. However, some nurses were not able to see the relevance of research usage in clinical practice. Nursing research was not a top priority for the nurses and their personal barriers for research usage during their working day were prioritising patients' and colleagues' well-being. Their colleagues' and head section nurses' lack of acceptance regarding participation in the teaching session was a contextual barrier for the nurses. The nurses were interested in participating in the intervention. However, some felt restricted by the research-practice gap and by diverse personal and contextual barriers. The knowledge derived from this study has high clinical and practical relevance and is currently used to facilitate the nurses' research usage in the orthopaedic department setting, by working around the

  7. Benchmarks and models for 1-D radiation transport in stochastic participating media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D S

    2000-08-21

    Benchmark calculations for radiation transport coupled to a material temperature equation in a 1-D slab and 1-D spherical geometry binary random media are presented. The mixing statistics are taken to be homogeneous Markov statistics in the 1-D slab but only approximately Markov statistics in the 1-D sphere. The material chunk sizes are described by Poisson distribution functions. The material opacities are first taken to be constant and then allowed to vary as a strong function of material temperature. Benchmark values and variances for time evolution of the ensemble average of material temperature energy density and radiation transmission are computed via a Monte Carlo type method. These benchmarks are used as a basis for comparison with three other approximate methods of solution. One of these approximate methods is simple atomic mix. The second approximate model is an adaptation of what is commonly called the Levermore-Pomraning model and which is referred to here as the standard model. It is shown that recasting the temperature coupling as a type of effective scattering can be useful in formulating the third approximate model, an adaptation of a model due to Su and Pomraning which attempts to account for the effects of scattering in a stochastic context. This last adaptation shows consistent improvement over both the atomic mix and standard models when used in the 1-D slab geometry but shows limited improvement in the 1-D spherical geometry. Benchmark values are also computed for radiation transmission from the 1-D sphere without material heating present. This is to evaluate the performance of the standard model on this geometry--something which has never been done before. All of the various tests demonstrate the importance of stochastic structure on the solution. Also demonstrated are the range of usefulness and limitations of a simple atomic mix formulation.

  8. A Field Study of Participant Reactions to a Developmental Assessment Centre: Testing an organisational justice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Harris

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although assessment centres are being increasingly employed for developmental purposes, there has been a dearth of research regarding them. We investigated an organisational justice theory model suggested by Cohen-Charash and Spector (2001 in this relatively novel context. The model included antecedents (e.g., perceived validity, organisational justice perceptions (i.e., distributive justice and procedural justice, and one outcome (i.e., feedback utility perceptions. Most of our hypotheses were supported, suggesting much evidence for this model. The predicted effect for perceived fakability was not supported. Contrary to our hypothesis, distributive justice perceptions were at least as important as procedural justice perceptions in predicting feedback utility perceptions. A direct test of the effect of context on organisational justice theory is recommended.

  9. A Bilevel Model for Participation of a Storage System in Energy and Reserve Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Kazempour, Jalal; Zareipour, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    We develop a decision-making tool based on a bilevel complementarity model for a merchant price-maker energy storage system to determine the most beneficial trading actions in pool-based markets, including day-ahead (as joint energy and reserve markets) and balancing settlements. The uncertainty...... of net load deviation in real-time is incorporated into the model using a set of scenarios generated from the available forecast in the day-ahead. The objective of this energy storage system is to maximize its expected profit. The day-ahead products of energy storage system include energy as well...... as reserve commitment (as one of the ancillary services), whereas its balancing product is the energy deployed from the committed reserve. The proposed model captures the interactions of different markets and their impacts on the functioning of the storage system. It also provides an insight for storage...

  10. Radiative and Dynamical Feedbacks Over the Equatorial Cold-Tongue: Results from Seven Atmospheric GCMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, D; Zhang, T; Covey, C; Klein, S; Collins, W; Kiehl, J; Meehl, J; Held, I; Suarez, M

    2005-01-04

    The equatorial Pacific is a region with strong negative feedbacks. Yet coupled GCMs have exhibited a propensity to develop a significant SST bias in that region, suggesting an unrealistic sensitivity in the coupled models to small energy flux errors that inevitably occur in the individual model components. Could this 'hypersensitivity' exhibited in a coupled model be due to an underestimate of the strength of the negative feedbacks in this region? With this suspicion, the feedbacks in the equatorial Pacific in seven atmospheric GCMs (AGCMs) have been quantified using the interannual variations in that region and compared with the corresponding calculations from the observations. The seven AGCMs are: the NCAR CAM1, the NCAR CAM2,the NCAR CAM3, the NASA/NSIPP Atmospheric Model, the Hadley Center Model, the GFDL AM2p10, and the GFDL AM2p12. All the corresponding coupled runs of these seven AGCMs have an excessive cold-tongue in the equatorial Pacific. The net atmospheric feedback over the equatorial Pacific in the two GFDL models is found to be comparable to the observed value. All other models are found to have a weaker negative net feedback from the atmosphere--a weaker regulating effect on the underlying SST than the real atmosphere. A weaker negative feedback from the cloud albedo and a weaker negative feedback from the atmospheric transport are the two leading contributors to the weaker regulating effect from the model atmosphere. All models overestimate somewhat the positive feedback from water vapor. These results confirm the suspicion that an underestimate of negative feedbacks from the atmosphere over the equatorial Pacific region is a prevalent problem. The results also suggest, however, that a weaker regulatory effect from the atmosphere is unlikely solely responsible for the 'hypersensitivity' in all models. The need to validate the feedbacks from the ocean transport is therefore highlighted.

  11. Mathematical modeling of an exothermic leaching reaction system: pressure oxidation of wide size arsenopyrite participates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papangelakis, V. G.; Berk, D.; Demopoulos, G. P.

    1990-10-01

    In the design of processes involving exothermic reactions, as is the case of several sulfide leaching systems, it is desirable to utilize the energy liberated by the reaction to drive the reactor toward autogenous operation. For optimal reactor design, models which couple leaching kinetics and heat effects are needed. In this paper, the principles of modeling exothermic leaching reactions are outlined. The system investigated is the high-temperature (160 °C to 200 °C) pressure (O2) oxidation of arsenopyrite (FeAsS). The reaction system is characterized by three consecutive reactions: (1) heterogeneous dissolution of arsenopyrite particles, (2) homogeneous oxidation of iron(II) to iron(III), and (3) precipitation of scorodite (FeAsO4-2H2O). The overall kinetics is controlled by the arsenopyrite surface reaction. There was good agreement between laboratory-scale batch tests and model predictions. The model was expanded to simulate the performance of large-scale batch and single-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the same rate-limiting regime. Emphasis is given to the identification of steady-state temperatures for autogenous processing. The effects of operating variables, such as feed temperature, slurry density, and retention time, on reactor operation and yield of leaching products are discussed.

  12. Adult Participation in Children's Word Searches: On the Use of Prompting, Hinting, and Supplying a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Although word searching in children is very common, very little is known about how adults support children in the turns following the child's search behaviours, an important topic because of the social, educational, and clinical implications. This study characterizes, in detail, teachers' use of prompting, hinting, and supplying a model. From a…

  13. Assessing risk prediction models using individual participant data from multiple studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Jespersen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    -reactive protein and conventional risk factors for coronary heart disease in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, a collation of individual data from multiple prospective studies with an average follow-up duration of 9.8 years (dates varied). We derive risk prediction models using Cox proportional hazards...

  14. Collective Academic Supervision: A Model for Participation and Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Thomsen, Rie; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Supervision of graduate students is a core activity in higher education. Previous research on graduate supervision focuses on individual and relational aspects of the supervisory relationship rather than collective, pedagogical and methodological aspects of the supervision process. In presenting a collective model we have developed for academic…

  15. Worldwide Diversity in Funded Pension Plans : Four Role Models on Choice and Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Huitron, Manuel; Ponds, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth comparison of funded pension savings plans around the world. The large variety in plan designs is a reflection of historical, cultural and institutional diversity. We postulate a new classification of four role models of funded pension plans, primarily based on choice

  16. Arresting Decline in Shared Governance: Towards a Flexible Model for Academic Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers tensions between corporate models of governance focused on the governing body and more traditional, consensual academic approaches. It argues that despite these tensions, a decline in the role of the academic community in matters of institutional governance (shared governance) is neither desirable nor inevitable, and that…

  17. Evaluating Snyder's Hope Theory as a Motivational Model of Participation and Life Satisfaction for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Chan, Fong; Ditchman, Nicole; Phillips, Brian; Chou, Chih-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate Snyder's (2002) hope theory as a motivational model of community participation and life satisfaction. Setting: Manitoba chapter of the Canadian Paraplegic Association. Participants: One-hundred and sixteen participants with spinal cord injuries who were members of the Manitoba chapter of the Canadian Paraplegic Association.…

  18. Participation of the dentate-rubral pathway in the kindling model of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cerón, Miguel; Martínez-Lazcano, Juan Carlos; Rubio, Carmen; Custodio, Verónica; González-Guevara, Edith; Castillo-Pérez, Carlos; Paz, Carlos

    2016-10-18

    Lesions of the cerebellar dentate nucleus (DN) reduce the after-discharge duration induced by repetitive kindling stimulation and decrease seizures to a lower rank according to Racine's scale. The DN sends cholinergic and glutamatergic fibers to the red nucleus (RN), which is composed of glutamatergic and GABAergic cells. To test the participation of these neurotransmitters in seizures, we compared the levels of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the RN in a control condition, a kindled stage, and a kindled stage followed by DN lesions. We found that the kindled stage was associated with significant reductions in glutamate and GABA in the RN and that the lesions of the DN in kindled rats reversed the severity of seizures and restored the GABA levels. GAD65 , a GABA-synthesizing enzyme, was increased in kindled rats and decreased after DN lesions. GAD65 commonly appears localized at nerve terminals and synapses, and it is only activated when GABA neurotransmission occurs. Thus, it is possible that the increased expression of GAD65 found in kindled rats could be due to an exacerbated demand for GABA due to kindled seizures. It is known that GABA maintains the inhibitory tone that counterbalances neuronal excitation. The decreased expression of GAD65 found after the DN lesions indicated that the GABA-synthesizing enzyme was no longer required once it eliminated the excitatory glutamate input to the RN. We thus conclude that DN lesions and their consequent biochemical changes are capable of decreasing the generalized seizures induced by kindling stimulation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A bilevel model for electricity retailers' participation in a demand response market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    (followers) in a dynamic price environment. Both players in the game solve an economic optimisation problem subject to stochasticity in prices, weather-related variables and must-serve load. The model allows the determination of the dynamic price-signal delivering maximum retailer profit, and the optimal...... consumers are believed to have significant potential for peak-shaving and load-shifting, thus relieving the power system while reducing costs and risk for energy retailers. This paper proposes a game theoretical model accounting for the Stackelberg relationship between retailers (leaders) and consumers...... load pattern for consumers under this pricing. The bilevel programme is reformulated as a single-level MILP, which can be solved using commercial off-the-shelf optimisation software. In an illustrative example, we simulate and compare the dynamic pricing scheme with fixed and time-of-use pricing. We...

  20. A Case Study of the Accounting Models for the Participants in an Emissions Trading Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Deac

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As emissions trading schemes are becoming more popular across the world, accounting has to keep up with these new economic developments. The absence of guidance regarding the accounting for greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions generated by the withdrawal of IFRIC 3- Emission Rights - is the main reason why there is a diversity of accounting practices. This diversity of accounting methods makes the financial statements of companies that are taking part in emissions trading schemes like EU ETS, difficult to compare. The present paper uses a case study that assumes the existence of three entities that have chosen three different accounting methods: the IFRIC 3 cost model, the IFRIC 3 revaluation model and the “off balance sheet” approach. This illustrates how the choice of an accounting method regarding GHGs emissions influences their interim and annual reports through the chances in the companies’ balance sheet and financial results.

  1. A participative evaluation model to refine academic support for first year Indigenous higher education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Rossingh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluative approach designed to provide a cycle of continuous improvement to retain Indigenous students during their first year of higher education.   The evaluation model operates in conjunction with a student academic enrichment program that is premised on valuing and respecting each student's background and life experience whilst building capability for learning success.  Data collected will be used for continual improvement of a newly developed innovative academic enrichment program that caters to the needs of Indigenous students.  The defining mechanisms of the model for measuring the first year experience are particularly meaningful for the Australian Centre For Indigenous Knowledges and Education as it moves into its inaugural year of operation in 2012. This preeminent time requires a flexible model to receive timely feedback in a reflexive environment where students guide the process as they continue their journey of accumulating knowledge and leave behind their contribution in shaping the landscape for future first year Indigenous students.  

  2. Multivariate meta-analysis of individual participant data helped externally validate the performance and implementation of a prediction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Kym I E; Hua, Harry; Debray, Thomas P A; Ensor, Joie; Look, Maxime P; Moons, Karel G M; Riley, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to improve meta-analysis methods for summarizing a prediction model's performance when individual participant data are available from multiple studies for external validation. We suggest multivariate meta-analysis for jointly synthesizing calibration and discrimination performance, while accounting for their correlation. The approach estimates a prediction model's average performance, the heterogeneity in performance across populations, and the probability of "good" performance in new populations. This allows different implementation strategies (e.g., recalibration) to be compared. Application is made to a diagnostic model for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and a prognostic model for breast cancer mortality. In both examples, multivariate meta-analysis reveals that calibration performance is excellent on average but highly heterogeneous across populations unless the model's intercept (baseline hazard) is recalibrated. For the cancer model, the probability of "good" performance (defined by C statistic ≥0.7 and calibration slope between 0.9 and 1.1) in a new population was 0.67 with recalibration but 0.22 without recalibration. For the DVT model, even with recalibration, there was only a 0.03 probability of "good" performance. Multivariate meta-analysis can be used to externally validate a prediction model's calibration and discrimination performance across multiple populations and to evaluate different implementation strategies. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A new type of GC-MS with advanced capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Alexander B.; Steiner, Urs; Jones, Larry; Amirav, Aviv

    2006-03-01

    We have combined the benefits of supersonic molecular beam interface and its related fly-through electron ionization (EI) ion source with the advanced features of the Varian 1200L gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (MS-MS), resulting in a new and powerful GC-MS platform with record setting performance. Electron ionization of vibrationally cold molecules in the supersonic molecular beams (SMB) (cold EI) provided mass spectra with enhanced molecular ion, yet with good library search results and superior identification probabilities. We found that high GC column flow rates lower the elution temperature for any given compounds. This allows much larger molecules to elute at the maximum temperature of standard columns. We analyzed a mixture of heavy linear chain hydrocarbons all the way to C84H170 with a molecular weight of 1179.3 amu, using a 4 m 0.25 mm i.d. column and 32 ml/min He flow rate. Furthermore, we obtained a dominant molecular ion to all these compounds. The lower elution temperatures also greatly enhance the ability to analyze very thermally labile compounds such as carbamate pesticides. The experimental 1200 system is capable of triple quadrupole based MS-MS. We found that MS-MS on the molecular ion is much more effective than on fragment ions, and thus, the enhancement of the molecular ion directly improves the MS-MS sensitivity. Fast GC-MS analysis was also explored, based on very high column flow rate for fast splitless injections without affecting the sensitivity, and on the high system selectivity due to the combination of enhanced molecular ion and MS-MS. We demonstrate a few seconds long GC-MS-MS analysis of diazinon, spiked at 10 ng/g in a mixed fruit and vegetable extract. The feature of enhanced molecular ion provides significant enhancement in the detection sensitivity via SIM and RSIM on the molecular ion. While octafluoronaphthalene (OFN) detection limit of below 1 fg in SIM mode is shown, the

  4. Private enterprise and digital participation: business model and the right to petition on Change.org

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Calvo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to approach the role of Change.org as an electronic petition platform in Spain, where there are no alternatives managed by public authorities. By a qualitative content analysis and a semi-structured interview, we research the business model of the page, in order to examine its data protection policy, its user verification system and, in a broader perspective, the legal framework in which it works. Results show the project is not related to Spanish law, it has a weak authentication system and its benefits are based on cost per acquisition.

  5. A Preliminary Model of Motivation for Pornography Consumption Among Men Participating in Zoophilic Virtual Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Aranha E Silva, Renata Almeida; Baltieri, Danilo Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Although zoophilic blogs and websites attract the attention of zoophiles and others who are curious about this sexual activity, the motivations for consuming this type of pornography are not clear. This study aimed to confirm the factorial validity of the Pornography Consumption Inventory in an online sample of men with sexual interest in animals, and to construct an association model between motivations for pornography consumption and the following psychological variables: depression, sexual impulsiveness, and strength of sexual interest in animals. In this cross-sectional study, we located a website that catered to a network of people with a sexual interest in animals. Subsequently, a questionnaire was made available online to members of this network. Results support the 4-factor model of the Pornography Consumption Inventory. Depression and strength of sexual interest in animals were negatively and positively correlated with the sexual curiosity factor, respectively. Sexual impulsiveness was positively associated with the emotional avoidance, excitement seeking, and sexual pleasure factors. Depression and sexual impulsiveness were positively correlated. Psychological factors can differently motivate the consumption of pornography among men who visit zoophilic blogs and websites. With these preliminary data, we can identify some characteristics of this population.

  6. Subgrid-scale model for radiative transfer in turbulent participating media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucasse, L.; Rivière, Ph.; Soufiani, A.

    2014-01-01

    The simulation of turbulent flows of radiating gases, taking into account all turbulence length scales with an accurate radiation transport solver, is computationally prohibitive for high Reynolds or Rayleigh numbers. This is particularly the case when the small structures are not optically thin. We develop in this paper a radiative transfer subgrid model suitable for the coupling with direct numerical simulations of turbulent radiating fluid flows. Owing to the linearity of the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE), the emission source term is spatially filtered to define large-scale and subgrid-scale radiation intensities. The large-scale or filtered intensity is computed with a standard ray tracing method on a coarse grid, and the subgrid intensity is obtained analytically (in Fourier space) from the Fourier transform of the subgrid emission source term. A huge saving of computational time is obtained in comparison with direct ray tracing applied on the fine mesh. Model accuracy is checked for three 3D fluctuating temperature fields. The first field is stochastically generated and allows us to discuss the effects of the filtering level and of the optical thicknesses of the whole medium, of the integral length scale, and of the cutoff wave length. The second and third cases correspond respectively to turbulent natural convection of humid air in a cubical box, and to the flow of hot combustion products inside a channel. In all cases, the achieved accuracy on radiative powers and wall fluxes is about a few percents.

  7. A Model of Pulpit Conservation and Revitalization Using Community Participation of Phu-Thai People in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunkoet Laomi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This thesis aimed to examine the following issues of the pulpits: (1 background of the model and structure, (2 current conditions and problems of pulpit construction using participation of Phu-thai people in northeast Thailand and (3 model of conservation of revitalization of pulpits by participation of Phu-thai people. Approach: Data were collected from documents and field study in the provinces of Sakon Nakhon, Nakhon Phanom, Mukdahan, Kalasin and Amnat Charoen by survey, observation, interview, focused group discussion and workshop. Results: The results of thesis were presented by means of Phu-thai people in northeast Thailand, their ancestors moved from the left bank of the Mekhong River. Most of them came from Mueang Bok and Mueang Wang towns. The model and structure of the pulpits are from beliefs in village pillar spirits in harmony with faith in Buddhism. The pulpits were constructed for use in performing religious affairs as the architectural symbol. They are single-pillar pulpits to be used in conventional and traditional festivals in each of the twelve lunar months. The current conditions and problems of single-pillar pulpit construction include must of the raw materials for pulpit construction are wood which is damage, lack of taking care of, wood diseases from mold and breaking, expansion, bending, lack of pulpit repairers and builders lacking transferring knowledge to next generation. The preaching hall shape has changed from wood to be high-shaped wood. For models of conservation and revitalization, all sectors must participate in conserving and revitalizing pulpits. These sectors are community leaders, informants, state sector, constructors, provincial sector and the community for pulpit conservation and revitalization according to the elements. The model of single-pillar pulpit structure has these structures: base or pillar is 140 cm from the floor. There are base to support or 4 nagas to support. Each naga is

  8. Ambivalent participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Participation in young peoples' sexual cultures in Maputo, Mozambique led to reflections about the field dynamics of power, participation, desire, and discomfort. Structural inequalities of race, gender, and educational status resulted in informants seeing me as a morally righteous person to whom...... they could not give open accounts about sexual practice. Attempting to overcome these barriers, I participated in excessive nightlife activities, and as a consequence they began viewing me as a more accepting and reliable person. Although breaking down these barriers provided invaluable insight......' continued participation. I show how negotiating the risks of participation may simultaneously satisfy the desire for knowledge and curb erotic desires....

  9. Unfolding Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...... the concept itself), while at the same time, 2) reflecting on the way that participation unfolds across different participatory configurations. We invite researchers and practitioners from PD and HCI and fields in which information technology mediated participation is embedded (e.g. in political studies......, urban planning, participatory arts, business, science and technology studies) to bring a plurality of perspectives and expertise related to participation....

  10. Unfolding Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding......, urban planning, participatory arts, business, science and technology studies) to bring a plurality of perspectives and expertise related to participation.......The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...... the concept itself), while at the same time, 2) reflecting on the way that participation unfolds across different participatory configurations. We invite researchers and practitioners from PD and HCI and fields in which information technology mediated participation is embedded (e.g. in political studies...

  11. The Effectiveness of Matrix Model in Relapse Prevention and Coping Skills Enhancement in Participants with Substance Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Farnam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Matrix model in relapse prevention and enhancement of coping skills in participants with opiate substance dependency. Method: In a semi-experimental study, 23 participants with diagnosis of opiate dependency who successfully detoxified, selected by cluster random sampling and they were divided into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group received 32 sessions of Matrix model training and the control group did not receive any treatment. All subjects were assessed by alcohol abuse coping response inventory (AACRI and Morphine test before treatment, randomly during treatment, after treatment, and after 3-months follow up stage. Results: The results showed that experimental and control groups had a significant differed in relapse rates. In addition, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA showed a significant difference between two groups in coping skills enhancement at periods of post test and follow up. Conclusion: With consideration of the results of the present study indicated that matrix model is effective in relapse prevention and coping skills enhancement in people with opiate substance dependency.

  12. Soft-systems thinking for community-development decision making: A participative, computer-based modeling methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The normative-rational models used to ensure logical decision processes do not capture the complex nature of planning situations, and alternative methodologies that can improve the collection and use of qualitative data are scarce. The intent of this thesis is to design and apply a methodology that may help planners incorporate such data into policy analysis. To guide the application and allow for its evaluation, criteria are gleaned from the literature on computer modeling, human cognition, and group process. From this, a series of individual and group ideation techniques along with two computer-modeling procedures are combined to aid participant understanding and provide computation capabilities. The methodology is applied in the form of a case study in Door County, Wisconsin. The process and its results were evaluated by workshop participants and by three planners who were intent on using this information to help update a county master plan. Based on established criteria, their evaluations indicate that the soft-systems methodology devised in this thesis has potential for improving the collection and use of qualitative data for public-policy purposes.

  13. Sepsis Induced by Staphylococcus aureus: Participation of Biomarkers in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Thiago Henrique Caldeira; Amorin, Aline Teixeira; Rezende, Izadora Souza; Barbosa, Maysa Santos; Martins, Hellen Braga; Brito, Anne Karoline Pereira; Andrade, Ewerton Ferraz; Gonçalves, Gleisy Kelly Neves; Campos, Guilherme Barreto; Silva, Robson Amaro Augusto; Timenetsky, Jorge; Marques, Lucas Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the role of biomarkers in the pathophysiological process induced by a Staphylococcus aureus strain obtained in a hospital environment. For this, we intraperitoneally inoculated groups of male BALB/c mice with S. aureus, using a clinical isolate (CI) of S. aureus. Material/Methods Mice were divided into groups according to time of euthanasia (24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 hours of infection). After being euthanized, blood samples were collected for quantification of microorganisms and leukocytes, as well as measurement of biomarkers of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and Procalcitonin (PCT) by ELISA. Heart, kidneys, and lungs were removed for histopathological analysis, assessment of biomarkers of tissue expression by RT-PCR (polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcriptase), and quantification of microorganisms by real-time quantitative PCR (real-time PCR). Results The animals infected at between 120 hours and 168 hours had the highest blood levels of S. aureus. We observed that infection promoted increases in the levels of circulating neutrophils and monocytes. However, there was a reduction of circulating neutrophils and monocytes after 96 hours of infection. The infected mice also had increased levels of blood lymphocytes. In this model of infection with S. aureus, IL-6, CRP, and PCT demonstrated greater fidelity as markers of infection, since serum levels were elevated and lowered along with the number of circulating neutrophils and monocytes after resolution of the infection. The lungs showed hyperemia, with enlargement of the alveolar septa. On the other hand, infection with S. aureus did not promote visible change in histological tissue in the heart and kidneys. Conclusions In this model of infection with S. aureus, IL-6, CRP, and PCT demonstrated greater fidelity as markers of infection, since serum levels were elevated and lowered along with the number of

  14. IL-1RI participates in normal growth plate development and bone modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsa-Maziel, Stav; Zaretsky, Janna; Reich, Adi; Koren, Yoav; Shahar, Ron; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat

    2013-07-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) signals through IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) and induces osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption mainly during pathological conditions. Little is known about the effect of excess or absence of IL-1 signaling on the physiological development of the growth plate and bone. In this study, we examine growth plate morphology, bone structure, and mechanical properties as well as osteoclast number in IL-1RI knockout mice to evaluate the role of IL-1RI in the normal development of the growth plate and bone. We show for the first time that IL-1RI knockout mice have narrower growth plates due to a smaller hypertrophic zone, suggesting a role for this cytokine in hypertrophic differentiation, together with higher proteoglycan content. The bones of theses mice exhibit higher trabecular and cortical mass, increased mineral density, and superior mechanical properties. In addition, IL-1RI knockout mice have significantly reduced osteoclast numbers in the chondro-osseous junction, trabecular bone, and cortical bone. These results suggest that IL-1RI is involved in normal growth plate development and ECM homeostasis and that it is significant in the physiological process of bone modeling.

  15. Game Theory Model of Traffic Participants within Amber Time at Signalized Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The traffic light scheme is composed of red, green, and amber lights, and it has been defined clearly for the traffic access of red and green lights; however, the definition of that for the amber light is indistinct, which leads to the appearance of uncertainty factors and serious traffic conflicts during the amber light. At present, the traffic administrations are faced with the decision of whether to forbid passing or not during the amber light in the cities of China. On one hand, it will go against the purpose of setting amber lights if forbidding passing; on the other hand, it may lead to a mess of traffic flow running if not. And meanwhile the drivers are faced with the decision of passing the intersection or stopping during the amber light as well. So the decision-making behavior of traffic administrations and drivers can be converted into a double game model. And through quantification of their earnings in different choice conditions, the optimum decision-making plan under specific conditions could be solved via the Nash equilibrium solution concept. Thus the results will provide a basis for the formulation of the traffic management strategy.

  16. Feline atopic dermatitis. A model for Langerhans cell participation in disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosje, P J; Whitaker-Menezes, D; Goldschmidt, M H; Moore, P F; Willemse, T; Murphy, G F

    1997-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a disorder characterized by cutaneous exanthemata as a consequence of exaggerated eczematous reactions to topical and systemic allergens. Langerhans cells, expressing CD1a and HLA-DR, and dermal dendritic cells, expressing HLA-DR, are known to be potent antigen-presenting cells and are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. The immunophenotype of lesional skin in atopic dermatitis in humans involves increased numbers of CD1a+/MHC class II+ dendritic cells in addition to activated T cells, mast cells, and macrophages. To establish feline skin as a model for the study of human atopic dermatitis, and to elucidate the role of dendritic cells in feline atopic dermatitis, we investigated the presence of CD1a+ cells and MHC class II+ cells in the epidermis and dermis of lesional feline skin and in skin of healthy control animals. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MHC class II+ epidermal dendritic cells were CD1a+ in normal feline skin and significantly increased numbers of CD1a+ cells and MHC class II+ cells were present in the epidermis and dermis of lesional skin. These data provide the first correlative documentation of CD1a expression by feline dendritic cells containing Birbeck granules, and indicate the utility of feline skin in the study of human cutaneous atopy.

  17. Game theory model of traffic participants within amber time at signalized intersection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiwei; Wen, Huiying; Fu, Chuanyun; Song, Mo

    2014-01-01

    The traffic light scheme is composed of red, green, and amber lights, and it has been defined clearly for the traffic access of red and green lights; however, the definition of that for the amber light is indistinct, which leads to the appearance of uncertainty factors and serious traffic conflicts during the amber light. At present, the traffic administrations are faced with the decision of whether to forbid passing or not during the amber light in the cities of China. On one hand, it will go against the purpose of setting amber lights if forbidding passing; on the other hand, it may lead to a mess of traffic flow running if not. And meanwhile the drivers are faced with the decision of passing the intersection or stopping during the amber light as well. So the decision-making behavior of traffic administrations and drivers can be converted into a double game model. And through quantification of their earnings in different choice conditions, the optimum decision-making plan under specific conditions could be solved via the Nash equilibrium solution concept. Thus the results will provide a basis for the formulation of the traffic management strategy.

  18. IDENTIFIKASI KANDUNGAN EKSTRAK KAYU JATI MENGGUNAKAN PY-GCMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fendi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teak wood (Tectona grandis Lf. in the form of sawdust a byproduct/waste from the furniture industry has a considerable amount and has not been utilized optimally. This study aims to determine the content of extractive teak wood (Tectona grandis Lf.. The method used is the hot water solubility. Muna's teak wood powder weighing 4,076 g soaked in distilled water as much as 100 ml glass flask, then heated in a water bath at a temperature of 100 oC for 3 hours. The content of extractive dissolved in a liquid further characterized using Py-GCMS. Results of the analysis of Py-GCMS to extract teak wood showed concentrations of some substances, such as Carbamic acid (70,70%, mono ammonium salt (CAS Ammonium carbamate (70,70%, Acetic acid (CAS Ethylic acid (10,52%, Acetic acid (CAS Ethylic acid (2,35%, Acetic acid (CAS Ethylic acid (3,26%, and Phenol (CAS Izal (13,17%

  19. GC-MS study of Nigella sativa (seeds fatty oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta, B. K.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The GC-MS study of N. sativa (seeds fatty oil revealed the presence of 26 compounds which were identified as methyl hept-6-enoate,1-phenylhepta-2,4-dione, pentadecane, hexadec-1-ene, 1-phenyldecan-2-one, octadec-1-ene, octadecane, methyl pentadecanoate, bis(3-chlorophenyl ketone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl octadec-7-enoate, methyl octadecanoate, tricos-9-ene, octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, methyl hexadecanoate, methyl octadec-15-enoate, henicosan-10-one, 2-methyl octadecanoic acid, docos-1-ene, ethyl octadecanoate, methyl octadecanoate, pentacos-5-ene,12-methyltricosane, dibutyl phthalate and 2-methyltetracosane.El estudio por GC-MS del aceite de la semilla de Nigella sativa reveló la presencia de 26 compuestos los cuales fueron identificados como: hept-6-enoato de metilo, 1-fenilhepta-2,4-diona, pentadecano, hexadec-1-eno, 1-fenildecan-2-ona, octadec-1-eno, octadecano, pentadecanoato de metilo, bis(3-clorofenil cetona, ftalato de dietilo, octadec-7-enoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, tricos-9-eno, ácido octadeca-9,12-dienoico, ácido hexadecanoico, hexadecanoato de metilo, octadec-15-enoato de metilo, henicosan-10-ona, ácido 2-metil octadecanoico, docos-1-eno, octadecanoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, pentacos-5-eno, 12-metiltricosano, ftalato de dibutilo y 2-metiltetracosano.

  20. Quantitative analysis of differences in the humidity among GCMs and propagation of uncertainty into irrigational water withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Y.; Hanasaki, N.; Takahashi, K.; Hijioka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Future water availability is one of key social issues under ongoing climate change. Since 70% of human water abstraction is for irrigational use, accurate evaluation of irrigational water is highly desirable for reliable estimation of water demand. However, recent studies on future hydrological environments projected by different impact models showed that there are substantial differences in their results between the models. A large part of the differences is considered to be attributable to different calculation schemes implemented by different impact models and input data driving the models. To obtain more reliable future projections, it is crucial to identify possible sources of these differences in both meteorological data sets and the impact models.We investigated possible sources of uncertainty in quantitative evaluation of irrigational water with a global hydrological model, H08. Since irrigational water is primarily lost from croplands via evapotranspiration, we focus on uncertainties in data of the atmospheric humidity, a major determinant of evapotranspiration, generated by general circulation models (GCMs). In fact, although great attention has been paid for GCM biases in the temperature and precipitation in most climate impact studies, less attention has been paid for GCM biases in the humidity. To evaluate propagation of uncertainty in humidity data into irrigational water withdrawal, we used bias-corrected meteorological data, for all meteorological elements but for the humidity, of five GCMs (GFDL-ESM2M, HadGEM2-ES, IPSL-CM5A-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM and NorESM1-M). We detected differences of over 10%RH between the GCMs in monthly humidity data averaged over irrigated croplands over the world. Estimation of annual global irrigational water withdrawal from the five GCMs ranges 1,218-1,341 km3/yr. We made sensitivity analysis by adding hypothetical humidity biases of 5%RH to the GCM humidity data; annual global irrigational water withdrawal would be changed

  1. Defining social inclusion of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities: an ecological model of social networks and community participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simplican, Stacy Clifford; Leader, Geraldine; Kosciulek, John; Leahy, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Social inclusion is an important goal for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, families, service providers, and policymakers; however, the concept of social inclusion remains unclear, largely due to multiple and conflicting definitions in research and policy. We define social inclusion as the interaction between two major life domains: interpersonal relationships and community participation. We then propose an ecological model of social inclusion that includes individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and socio-political factors. We identify four areas of research that our ecological model of social inclusion can move forward: (1) organizational implementation of social inclusion; (2) social inclusion of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities living with their families, (3) social inclusion of people along a broader spectrum of disability, and (4) the potential role of self-advocacy organizations in promoting social inclusion.

  2. A Model of Open Innovation with Multi-participators%多主体参与的开放式创新模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦铁; 鲁若愚

    2011-01-01

    针对我国企业由于创新封闭,造成研发经费投入重复浪费等问题,探讨一种更能充分有效地利用企业内外部资源进行创新的多主体参与的开放式创新模式.运用博弈论方法,构建一个基于企业、供应商、顾客三方参与的开放式创新模型,分析在不同开放程度下,各参与主体的福利变化情况.研究表明,随着创新模式的开放,将更多参与者吸引到企业创新中,是有利于提高各方及整体福利的.%Many Chinese enterprises have wasted resources in innovation investment because they often conduct researches in a closed manner. Open innovation models are more effective and become more important because they involve multiple stakeholders, including managers, employees, customers, suppliers and others. To help understand the effectiveness of open innovation models, we propose an ecometric model to explore the welfare of all participants affected by different conditions in an open innovation model.This paper uses the game theory to create a game model with three different participants, including company, supplier and customer. A supplier needs to develop necessary parts of a new product via self-innovation or sources parts from the market. A supplier will share profit if it participates buyer' s innovation. The welfare of buyer and suppliers can be measured using profit and consumer surplus. We also assume that buyer and supplier will work effectively together to participate buyers' innovation.The paper is organized as follows. First, we explore the closed innovation model without supplier and customer participation. In this closed innovation model, the company decides the inputs and outputs of each innovation according the rule of profit maximization. The supplier decides part price and innovation inputs according to a company' s output and profit maximization. The welfare of company, supplier, customer and the entire system is analyzed. Second, the paper explores the

  3. Broadening participation in Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) programs: an evaluation of the team research model for undergraduate research experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelote, A. R.; Geraghty Ward, E. M.; Dalbotten, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The REU site on sustainable land and water resources has a goal of broadening participation in the geosciences by underrepresented groups and particularly Native American students. We are evaluating modifications to the traditional REU model in order to better support these students. First, we review a team research model for REU students, where students are placed on teams and work together in peer groups supported by a team of mentors. Second, the REU takes place in locations that have high populations of Native American students to remove barriers to participation for non-traditional students. Finally, the teams do research on issues related to local concerns with cultural focus. Traditional REU models (1 faculty to 1 student/on campus) have been shown to be effective in supporting student movement into graduate programs but often fail to attract a diverse group of candidates. In addition, they rely for success on the relationship between faculty and student, which can often be undermined by unrealistic expectations on the part of the student about the mentor relationship, and can be exacerbated by cultural misunderstanding, conflicting discourse, or students' personal or family issues. At this REU site, peer mentorship and support plays a large role. Students work together to select their research question, follow the project to completion and present the results. Students from both native and non-native backgrounds learn about the culture of the partner reservations and work on a project that is of immediate local concern. The REU also teaches students protocols for working on Native American lands that support good relations between reservation and University. Analysis of participant data gathered from surveys and interview over the course of our 3-year program indicates that the team approach is successful. Students noted that collaborating with other teams was rewarding and mentors reported positively about their roles in providing guidance for the student

  4. Authoring Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazu, Irina

    2016-01-01

    . By turning to material participation, a concept inspired by Noortje Marres and Jennifer Gabrys, the efforts put into Samsø’s energy transformation by the islanders are given specificity. While much literature on public participation foregrounds public meetings and other spaces for deliberation and debate...

  5. Unique ion filter: a data reduction tool for GC/MS data preprocessing prior to chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adutwum, L A; Harynuk, J J

    2014-08-01

    Using raw GC/MS data as the X-block for chemometric modeling has the potential to provide better classification models for complex samples when compared to using the total ion current (TIC), extracted ion chromatograms/profiles (EIC/EIP), or integrated peak tables. However, the abundance of raw GC/MS data necessitates some form of data reduction/feature selection to remove the variables containing primarily noise from the data set. Several algorithms for feature selection exist; however, due to the extreme number of variables (10(6)-10(8) variables per chromatogram), the feature selection time can be prolonged and computationally expensive. Herein, we present a new prefilter for automated data reduction of GC/MS data prior to feature selection. This tool, termed unique ion filter (UIF), is a module that can be added after chromatographic alignment and prior to any subsequent feature selection algorithm. The UIF objectively reduces the number of irrelevant or redundant variables in raw GC/MS data, while preserving potentially relevant analytical information. In the m/z dimension, data are reduced from a full spectrum to a handful of unique ions for each chromatographic peak. In the time dimension, data are reduced to only a handful of scans around each peak apex. UIF was applied to a data set of GC/MS data for a variety of gasoline samples to be classified using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) according to octane rating. It was also applied to a series of chromatograms from casework fire debris analysis to be classified on the basis of whether or not signatures of gasoline were detected. By reducing the overall population of candidate variables subjected to subsequent variable selection, the UIF reduced the total feature selection time for which a perfect classification of all validation data was achieved from 373 to 9 min (98% reduction in computing time). Additionally, the significant reduction in included variables resulted in a concomitant

  6. GC/MS Analysis of the Aromatic Composition of Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecka, Keith S.; Rabah, Ashraf; Palmer, Charles F., Jr.

    1995-09-01

    The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of three brands of regular unleaded gasoline was conducted as part of the independent project of an undergraduate journalism major. In his work, samples of each gasoline were diluted down to part per million (ppm) levels with dichloromethane and then one microliter injections were made onto a Hewlett-Packard GC (5890 Series II unit). Mass spectra were also obtained on each sample through use of a 5971A mass selective detector (MSD). Subsequent characterization was consequently effected through utilization of the standard mass spectra available in a 49,000 compound National Bureau of Standards reference library. Comparison of the obtained and standard spectra revealed that the same aromatic hydrocarbons (including, in part: benzene, the xylenes, naphthalene, and methylated naphthalenes) were present in all three samples. Percentage values for these and other aromatic hydrocarbons were then generated and tabulated.

  7. Derivatization of carbohydrates for GC and GC-MS analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Matute, A I; Hernández-Hernández, O; Rodríguez-Sánchez, S; Sanz, M L; Martínez-Castro, I

    2011-05-15

    GC and GC-MS are excellent techniques for the analysis of carbohydrates; nevertheless the preparation of adequate derivatives is necessary. The different functional groups that can be found and the diversity of samples require specific methods. This review aims to collect the most important methodologies currently used, either published as new procedures or as new applications, for the analysis of carbohydrates. A high diversity of compounds with diverse functionalities has been selected: neutral carbohydrates (saccharides and polyalcohols), sugar acids, amino and iminosugars, polysaccharides, glycosides, glycoconjugates, anhydrosugars, difructose anhydrides and products resulting of Maillard reaction (osuloses, Amadori compounds). Chiral analysis has also been considered, describing the use of diastereomers and derivatives to be eluted on chiral stationary phases.

  8. GCMS analysis and antimicrobial action of latex of Euphorbia caducifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Goyal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia caducifolia is conspicuously and regularly represented in the flora of the Rajasthan state. Latex of E. caducifolia is used to cure skin infections, cutaneous eruption, leucoderma and applied to cuts and wounds for speedy healing. The GCMS analysis of fraction isolated from latex showed presence of methyl palmitate, 5,9-heptadecadienoate, methyl 11 octadecenoate, methyl octadecenoate and 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl- 2-hexadecene-l-ol. Isolated fraction of E. caducifolia (IFEC and latex of E. caducifolia (ECL were tested against S. aureus, M. luteus, B. subtilis, E. coli, S. typhi, A. niger and C. albicans. IFEC was found to be more effective against fungal species, and MIC was found to be 150 and micro;g/ml against A. niger. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 119-123

  9. Influence of the wet chemistry on the SAM GCMS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A.; Freissinet, C.; Szopa, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Miller, K.; Eigendbrode, J.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Stern, J. C.; Pinnick, V. T.; Coll, P. J.; François, P.; Cabane, M.; Teinturier, S.; Coscia, D.; Dworkin, J. P.; Summons, R. E.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The SAM GC-MS instrument on the Curiosity rover allows to analyze volatile compounds from the atmosphere or volatile compounds from the Martian regolith and refractory compounds in the regolith after sample treatment using wet chemistry. One portion of the wet chemistry experiment is composed of MTBSTFA (N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide) / DMF (dimethylformamide). Indeed, chemical derivatization of polar molecular compounds is achieved by the MTBSTFA silylation reaction in order to transform refractory polar compounds into a more volatile form that can be analyzed and detected by GC-MS. Results obtained on Rocknest (Leshin et al. 2013; Glavin et al. 2013) and John Klein showed the presence of MTBSTFA reaction products in the system. This means that MTBSTFA is part of the background signal under its gaseous phase and is derived from at least one of the seven MTBSTFA/DMF filled derivatization cups in SAM. Since MTBSTFA is able to react in the gaseous phase, its detection implies the possibility to have some MTBSTFA reactions with all the labile compounds possibly present in the Martian soil, in the sampling system and/or inside the SAM instrument. As such, in order to better understand the portion of products detected coming from internal reactions, we have performed several lab experiments to mimic the SAM pyrolysis and gas processing system. Specifically, we have investigated possible MTBSTFA reactions with organics at high temperatures (100°C up to 600°C) from the SAM trap (Tenax) and with oxychlorine compounds present on Mars (Glavin et al. 2013). References: Leshin et al. Science, in press; Glavin et al. JGR-Planets, accepted.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTEGRATED MODEL OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION STRUCTURE ON THE PUBLIC PARTICIPATING NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tien Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main body of social stratification structure in Taiwan is transformed with social mobility. By transforming the social stratification structure, the function of non-profit organizations is operating steadily. How does people’s awareness of social strata directly or indirectly influence the operation of non-profit organizations? How do non-profit organizations and governments respond to the transformation of social stratum compositions? And how promotion and policy marketing could guide the general public to be attentive and participate in the operations of non-profit organizations? These questions require in-depth investigation. This study bases on the experiments and concepts of fairness measurement in information integration theory to comprehend the integrated model of social stratification in the public. By means of analyzing the awareness and orientation of the public to the constitution of social stratification which lead the public to identify themselves with the visions of non-profit organizations and the motion of participating non-profit matters to provide the interrelated recommendations of proceeding non-profit matters to non-profit organizations and the government. Comparing the cognitive algebraic functions of input information and outcome information of various groups in the social strata, the only difference is that if the input information is education background and the outcome information profession prestige. Empirically, non-profit organizations promoting and encouraging people to engage in occupational aid related activities could find different methods available.

  11. Trend in frequency of extreme precipitation events over Ontario from ensembles of multiple GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ziwang; Qiu, Xin; Liu, Jinliang; Madras, Neal; Wang, Xiaogang; Zhu, Huaiping

    2016-05-01

    As one of the most important extreme weather event types, extreme precipitation events have significant impacts on human and natural environment. This study assesses the projected long term trends in frequency of occurrence of extreme precipitation events represented by heavy precipitation days, very heavy precipitation days, very wet days and extreme wet days over Ontario, based on results of 21 CMIP3 GCM runs. To achieve this goal, first, all model data are linearly interpolated onto 682 grid points (0.45° × 0.45°) in Ontario; Next, biases in model daily precipitation amount are corrected with a local intensity scaling method to make the total wet days and total wet day precipitation from each of the GCMs are consistent with that from the climate forecast system reanalysis data, and then the four indices are estimated for each of the 21 GCM runs for 1968-2000, 2046-2065 and 2081-2100. After that, with the assumption that the rate parameter of the Poisson process for the occurrence of extreme precipitation events may vary with time as climate changes, the Poisson regression model which expresses the log rate as a linear function of time is used to detect the trend in frequency of extreme events in the GCMs simulations; Finally, the trends and their uncertainty are estimated. The result shows that in the twenty-first century annual heavy precipitation days, very heavy precipitation days and very wet days and extreme wet days are likely to significantly increase over major parts of Ontario and particularly heavy precipitation days, very wet days are very likely to significantly increase in some sub-regions in eastern Ontario. However, trends of seasonal indices are not significant.

  12. Individual Differences in Participations of a Brand Community: A Validation of the Goal-Directed Behavior Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Munir Sukoco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have been neglected the behavior of the owners who are non-members when discussing brand community (BC, even though they are substantially larger. This study purposely discuss what are the differences between the two by using model of goal directed behavior (MGB and uses the findings as a way to recruit non-members in BC activities. This study also proposes some refinements to the original concept of MGB. This survey-based study, conducted with 201 active members and 226 non-members of a motor club in Indonesia, employs structural equation modeling methodology which supports the proposed model. The findings suggest that non-members have a stronger effect of positive anticipated emotions on attitude and desire to participate, which could be the starting point for marketers to recruit them. While for non-members, the perceived behavioral control and attitude toward BC activities have greater effects. The findings and discussion lead to some managerial and research implications.

  13. A model for community representation and participation in HIV prevention trials among women who engage in transactional sex in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagi, Charles; Vallely, Andrew; Kasindi, Stella; Chiduo, Betty; Desmond, Nicola; Soteli, Selephina; Kavit, Natujwa; Vallely, Lisa; Lees, Shelley; Hayes, Richard; Ross, David

    2008-10-01

    Actively engaging communities in effective partnerships for the design and implementation of HIV prevention research is vital to the successful conduct of ethically robust, locally-appropriate clinical trials in developing countries. This is especially true in vulnerable at-risk sub-populations, where definitions of "community", "participation" and "representation" can be difficult to apply. This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of a participatory model of community liaison among an occupational cohort of women at high-risk of HIV and sexually-transmitted infections in Mwanza City, northwest Tanzania in preparation for a Phase III vaginal microbicide trial. This approach was rooted in participatory action-orientated research and used tools adapted from participatory learning and action techniques. During the feasibility study, a mobile community-based sexual and reproductive health service for women working as informal food vendors or in traditional and modern bars, restaurants, hotels and guesthouses was established in 10 city wards. Participatory mapping was carried out by project fieldworkers and wards divided into 78 geographical clusters of facilities in consultation with community members and study participants. Representatives at cluster and ward level were elected in a process facilitated by the site Community Liaison Officer and a site-level Community Advisory Committee established. A logical framework was used to guide the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the community liaison system (CLS) within the broader feasibility study. The CLS was essential to the successful conduct of the feasibility study and has now been consolidated and expanded as part of the on-going MDP301 Phase III microbicide trial in Mwanza. The participatory model presented in this paper is likely to be generalisable to other vulnerable, stigmatised, at-risk study populations in resource-limited settings.

  14. Phytochemical screening and GC-MS determination of bioactive constituents from methanol leaf extract of Senna occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Mohammad Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the active ingredients presented in methanol extract of Senna occidentalis (S. occidentalis. Methods: Dried powdered leaves of S. occidentalis were extracted with methanol by Soxhlet extraction and the extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening by using standard procedure and methods. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS analysis was performed by comprising a GC-MS (model: QP2010 Plus Shimadzu, Japan comprising an AOC-20i auto-sampler and gas-chromatograph interfaced to a mass spectrometer. Results: The phytochemical study revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycoside, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, anthraquinones and phlobatannins while cardiac glycoside was not detected. GC-MS chromatogram showed nine peaks. A total of 31 compounds were identified when the mass spectra of the constituents was compared with the National Institute Standard and Technology library. The first compounds identified with less retention time (15.929 s were n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and pentadecanoic acid while decanoic acid, decyl ester, ether, octadecyl vinyl, oleic acid, hexyl ester, stearic acid, octadecyl ester and decyl fluoride took the longest retention time (20.600 s for identification. Conclusions: The presence of these compounds in the plant extract may at least be responsible for one of the pharmacological properties of S. occidentalis and thus could be of considerable interest to the development of new drugs.

  15. Profiling the anaerobic response of C. elegans using GC-MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Butler

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism that has seen extensive use over the last four decades in multiple areas of investigation. In this study we explore the response of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to acute anoxia using gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS. We focus on the readily-accessible worm exometabolome to show that C. elegans are mixed acid fermenters that utilize several metabolic pathways in unconventional ways to remove reducing equivalents - including partial reversal of branched-chain amino acid catabolism and a potentially novel use of the glyoxylate pathway. In doing so, we provide detailed methods for the collection and analysis of excreted metabolites that, with minimal adjustment, should be applicable to many other species. We also describe a procedure for collecting highly volatile compounds from C. elegans. We are distributing our mass spectral library in an effort to facilitate wider use of metabolomics.

  16. DETERMINATION OF 16 LARGEST PEAKS IN COMMERCIAL TECHNICAL TOXAPHENE BY GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under typical temperature and high vacuum associated with GC/MS technique, Toxaphene decomposes and produces countless fragments which are impractical to quantify. A GC/MS method has been developed using the lowest possible temperature to resolve more peaks and lower the interfer...

  17. Evaluating the performance of CMIP5 GCMs in Northern Eurasia and constructing optimal ensemble projection: analysis of regional precipitation patterns (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorev, V.; Anisimov, O. A.

    2013-12-01

    Despite significant improvements in the complexity and quality of the global climate models, even the most recent CMIP-5 GCMs differ in results at regional scale. Several studies have tried to assess and quantify the uncertainties of temperature and atmospheric pressure parameters, while the evaluation of precipitation parameters at regional scale is yet to be done. The goal of this study is to perform comprehensive analysis of precipitation uncertainty for Northern Eurasia. To accomplish this goal we contrast selected precipitation parameters from two generations of CMIP5 and CMIP3 GCMs with observations at regional level and suggest the methodology for constructing the optimal ensemble projection. We used data from 744 Russian weather stations to identify 14 regions in Northern Eurasia characterized by coherent changes of temperature characteristics and precipitation. In each region we identified the tipping point, which divide timeseries into baseline period and period of contemporary climate change, and tested the ability of GCMs to simulate precipitation patterns and trends in each region. Ultimately, we ranked GCMs according to their performance in representing regional precipitation parameters. We used this ranking to construct several regional ensembles consisting of different number of high-ranked models and compared results from these optimized ensembles with observations and with the ensemble of all models. The ultimate conclusion of our study is that the methodology based on pre-selection of top ranked models allows narrowing the range of uncertainty in climate projection at regional level. With latest generation of GCMs this methodology could be applied not only to air temperature but also to precipitation parameters. We also found that models from CMIP5 generation demonstrate much higher performance than CMIP3 models in replicating precipitation parameters in the period of contemporary climate change. Acknowledgement. This study is supported by the

  18. Toll-like receptor 2 participates in the response to lung injury in a murine model of pulmonary contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoth, J Jason; Hudson, William P; Brownlee, Noel A; Yoza, Barbara K; Hiltbold, Elizabeth M; Meredith, J Wayne; McCall, Charles E

    2007-10-01

    Blunt chest trauma resulting in pulmonary contusion with an accompanying acute inflammatory response is a common but poorly understood injury. We report that Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 participates in the inflammatory response to lung injury. To show this, we use a model of pulmonary contusion in the mouse that is similar to that observed clinically in humans based on histologic, morphologic, and biochemical criteria of acute lung injury. The inflammatory response to pulmonary contusion in our mouse model is characterized by pulmonary edema, neutrophil transepithelial migration, and increased expression of the innate immunity proinflammatory cytokines IL 1beta and IL 6, the adhesion intracellular adhesion molecule 1, and chemokine (CXC motif) ligand 1. Compared with wild-type animals, contused Tlr2(-/-) mice have significantly reduced pulmonary edema and neutrophilia. These findings are associated with decreased levels of circulating chemokine (CXC motif) ligand 1. In contrast, systemic IL 6 levels remain elevated in the TLR2-deficient phenotype. These results show that TLR2 has a primary role in the neutrophil response to acute lung injury. We suggest that an unidentified noninfectious ligand generated by pulmonary contusion acts via TLR2 to generate inflammatory responses.

  19. Four categories of patient participation in treatment and their linkage to decision-making in a structure of 81 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv-Helen Heggland

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We clarify patient participation by developing a systematic structure of 34=81 models spanned out by three subcategories for each of four categories. Choosing a qualitative descriptive research design, and applying purposive sampling, four doctors, seven nurses, and seven patients were selected to ensure a broad representative sample with experts of varying ages and sexes from medicine and nursing. The preferences of these were mapped onto the theoretical structure. Applying content analysis, meaning units were identified, condensed and coded. The four categories information dissemination, formulation of options, integration of information and control were shown to be exhaustive, and mutually exclusive through time causing a topdown process where one occurs before the other through four stages. The three subcategories specify how patients, healthcare professionals, or both, operate within each category. That is, either patients are active in some sense that is specified, or healthcare professionals are active in some sense, or both are active. Delineating a structure of 34=81 models, based on four categories and three subcategories, gives a richer structure than what has earlier been available. This almost all-embracing structure enables pinpointing the exact nature of any culture involved in care of patients, which illuminates how the culture reflects or can potentially be altered to reflect values of patient care that we respect.

  20. Claiming Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabian, Louise; Samson, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    with participation are currently strong influential factors in Danish planning. The article explores the use of participatory DIY urban design in two cases: the relocation of beer drinkers in Enghave Square and the Carlsberg City development in Copenhagen, Denmark. Carlsberg City is the most thorough Danish example...

  1. GC/MS analysis of piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile (PCC) smoking products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, L.P.; Scimeca, J.A.; Thomas, B.F.; Martin, B.R.

    1986-03-05

    Piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile (PCC), an intermediate in phencyclidine (PCP) synthesis, is a major contaminant of illicit PCP. Due to the frequent abuse of PCP by smoking, this study was conducted to determine the PCC pyrolysis products delivered in smoke. Marihuana placebo cigarettes were impregnated with /sup 3/H-piperidino-/sup 14/C-cyano-PCC (synthesized in the lab and recrystallized twice, m.p. 67/sup 0/C) and burned under conditions which simulated smoking. Mainstream smoke was passed through glass wool filters and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and NaOH traps. Tritium and /sup 14/C were recovered as 83%, and 56%, respectively, of the starting material. Seventy-six percent of the recovered tritium was found in the glass wool trap followed by 13, 7 and 4% in the acid trap, base trap and in the ash/unburned butt, respectively. Seventy-three percent of the recovered /sup 14/C was found in the glass wool filter and 16 and 8% were found in the acid and base traps, respectively. GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of 1-piperidinocyclohexene (30%), PCC (24%), piperidine (7%), and 1-acetyl-piperidine (5%).

  2. GC/MS ANALYSIS OF RHEUM RIBES RHIZOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. RAGHAD DH ABDUL JALILL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rheum ribes is a species of perennial and stout herbs that are distributed in southwest of Asia. Crude extracts of their rhizomes have different medicinal activities. Their pharmacological activity may due to their chemical compositions. Methods: This study was carrying out to determine the qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical components of Rheum ribes rhizomes using two methods by GC-MS. The level of some elements and total protein was also determined. Result: The results of phytochemical screening showed the presence of sugar, flavonoids, glycosides and alkaloids. Nine compounds were identified using methods (1 while there were six different compounds when method (2 was used. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry determined the levels of Cu, Cd, Mn, K, Fe, Co and Ti. Nitrogen was determined by Macro Kjeldahl method. The amounts of them were (2.584, 3.513, 35.03, 0.0388, 126.85, 1, 0.02 and 0.59 percentage respectively. There were not neither phosphors nor Zinc in rhizomes of this plant. The level of total proteins were 3.688 %. Conclusion: The rhizomes R. ribes contain sixteen different components with different levels of more than eight elements.

  3. DETERMINATION OF PHTHALATES FROM BOTTLED WATER BY GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA DUMITRAȘCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of phthalates from bottled water by GC-MS. Phthalates are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, due to their widespread use in the last years. These compounds are used principally as plasticizers, to impact flexibility, workability and durability to polymers but they can also be found in products such as paints, adhesives, inks and cosmetics. Phthalates are not chemically bounded to polymers; hence they are easily released and migrate into foods, beverages and drinking water from the packaging or bottling materials or manufacturing processes. This process accelerates as plastic products age and break down. With respect to their endocrine disrupting potential, phthalates such as benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, di-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP have been found to elicit estrogenic responses in in vitro assays. It is possible that phthalates are a contributory factor to endocrine-mediated adverse effects observed in wildlife and humans over the past few decades. In this experiment we have analyzed the phthalates from different bottled waters purchased from the market. Determination by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS in electronic ionization mode (EI with selected-ion monitoring (SIM acquisition method (GC–MS (EI–SIM has been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of phthalates. The base peak (m/z = 149 of all the phthalates was selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions of each compound were chosen for quantitative studies.

  4. SAM Gcms Chromatography Performed at Mars : Elements of Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, C.; Coll, P. J.; Buch, A.; François, P.; Cabane, M.; Coscia, D.; Teinturier, S.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Glavin, D. P.; Freissinet, C.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The characterisation of the chemical and mineralogical composition of regolith samples collected with the Curiosity rover is a primary objective of the SAM experiment. These data should provide essential clues on the past habitability of Gale crater. Interpretation of the data collected after SAM pyrolysis evolved gas analysis (EGA) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) experiments on the first soil samples collected by MSL at the Rocknest Aeolian Deposit in Gale Crater has been challenging due to the concomitant presence in the ovens of an oxychlorine phase present in the samples, and a derivatization agent coming from the SAM wet chemistry experiment (Glavin et al., 2013). Moreover, accurate identification and quantification, in the SAM EGA mode, of volatiles released from the heated sample, or generated by reactions occurring in the SAM pyrolysis oven, is also difficult for a few compounds due to evolution over similar temperature ranges and overlap of their MS signatures. Hence, the GC analyses, coupled with MS, enabled the separation and identification and quantification of most of the volatile compounds detected. These results can have been obtained through tests and calibration done with GC individual spare components and with the SAM testbed. This paper will present a view of the interpretation of the chromatograms obtained when analyzing the Rocknest and John Klein solid samples delivered to SAM, on sols 96 and 199 respectively, supported by laboratory calibrations.

  5. Untargeted Metabolomic Analysis of Capsicum spp. by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranha, Bianca Camargo; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Barbieri, Rosa Lia; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Chaves, Fábio Clasen

    2017-09-01

    In order to conserve the biodiversity of Capsicum species and find genotypes with potential to be utilised commercially, Embrapa Clima Temperado maintains an active germplasm collection (AGC) that requires characterisation, enabling genotype selection and support for breeding programmes. The objective of this study was to characterise pepper accessions from the Embrapa Clima Temperado AGC and differentiate species based on their metabolic profile using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Cold (-20°C) methanol extraction residue of freeze-dried fruit samples was partitioned into water/methanol (A) and chloroform (B) fractions. The polar fraction (A) was derivatised and both fractions (A and B) were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Data from each fraction was analysed using a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) with XCMS software. Amino acids, sugars, organic acids, capsaicinoids, and hydrocarbons were identified. Outlying accessions including P116 (C. chinense), P46, and P76 (C. annuum) were observed in a PCA plot mainly due to their high sucrose and fructose contents. PCA also indicated a separation of P221 (C. annuum) and P200 (C. chinense), because of their high dihydrocapsaicin content. Although the metabolic profiling did not allow for grouping by species, it permitted the simultaneous identification and quantification of several compounds complementing and expanding the metabolic database of the studied Capsicum spp. in the AGC. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Isotope Ratio Monitoring Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (IRM-GCMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, K. H.; Ricci, S. A.; Studley, A.; Hayes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    On Earth, the C-13 content of organic compounds is depleted by roughly 13 to 23 permil from atmospheric carbon dioxide. This difference is largely due to isotope effects associated with the fixation of inorganic carbon by photosynthetic organisms. If life once existed on Mars, then it is reasonable to expect to observe a similar fractionation. Although the strongly oxidizing conditions on the surface of Mars make preservation of ancient organic material unlikely, carbon-isotope evidence for the existence of life on Mars may still be preserved. Carbon depleted in C-13 could be preserved either in organic compounds within buried sediments, or in carbonate minerals produced by the oxidation of organic material. A technique is introduced for rapid and precise measurement of the C-13 contents of individual organic compounds. A gas chromatograph is coupled to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer through a combustion interface, enabling on-line isotopic analysis of isolated compounds. The isotope ratios are determined by integration of ion currents over the course of each chromatographic peak. Software incorporates automatic peak determination, corrections for background, and deconvolution of overlapped peaks. Overall performance of the instrument was evaluated by the analysis of a mixture of high purity n-alkanes of know isotopic composition. Isotopic values measured via IRM-GCMS averaged withing 0.55 permil of their conventionally measured values.

  7. Consumer participation in co-creation: An enlightening model of causes and effects based on ethical values and transcendent motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eMartinez Cañas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the highly interconnected modern world, the role of consumers has changed substantially due to their collaboration with companies in generating ideas, products, and services, as well as their increasing engagement with social values. Specifically, consumer participation has become key to the development of successful products and services. With an integrative review of research into value co-creation and ethics, this article proposes a conceptual model in which consumers’ ethical values and transcendent motivations encourage their engagement in co-creation activities. In this new paradigm, the co-creation process can be a means to emphasize the social and moral aspects of co-creating. This article identifies important value benefits attained by both companies and consumers after consumers engage in co-creation activities, and highlights that these benefits increase when ethical products are the object of these co-creation activities. It also notes the important, supportive role of the Marketing 3.0 paradigm and Web 3.0 tools to initiate the co-creating process. All these insights have notable implications for both research and managerial practice.

  8. The Role of Acting Participants, Definitions, and the Determining Factors of Adherence to Treatment from Two Perspectives: The Biomedical Model and the Chronic Care Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LUPU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Management of chronic illness implies significant changing the lifestyle, taking medication, watching the diet, introducing and maintaining exercise in daily life, etc. These actions represent elements of adherence to treatment and they reflect the responsibility of patient’s participation to healthcare. The increase in adherence to treatment and in the quality of care, implicitly, may depend on allotting the resources necessary within therapeutic effort and on the effectiveness of the partnership between patient and doctor. Assuming the medical decision as a team may lead to solving the issue of non-adherence (Armstrong, 2014. Whereas the values of the functional parameters of the body represent an objective measurement of treatment efficiency and to some extent of adherence to it, implicitly, assessing the patient’s lifestyle involves understanding his experience, which is governed by subjectivity. This article has the following objectives: (1 to analyze the definitions of adherence to treatment from a biomedical perspective and from the perspective of Chronic Care Model (CCM; (2 to identify the characteristics specific to the roles of acting participants to healthcare and to analyze the modifications of roles by the choice of theoretical model and (3 to identify the determining factors of adherence to treatment.

  9. Comparison of three methods for the optimal allocation of hydrological model participation in an Ensemble Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochero, D.; Anctil, F.; Gagné, C.

    2012-04-01

    Today, the availability of the Meteorological Ensemble Prediction Systems (MEPS) and its subsequent coupling with multiple hydrological models offer the possibility of building Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems (HEPS) consisting of a large number of members. However, this task is complex both in terms of the coupling of information and of the computational time, which may create an operational barrier. The evaluation of the prominence of each hydrological members can be seen as a non-parametric post-processing stage that seeks finding the optimal participation of the hydrological models (in a fashion similar to the Bayesian model averaging technique), maintaining or improving the quality of a probabilistic forecasts based on only x members drawn from a super ensemble of d members, thus allowing the reduction of the task required to issue the probabilistic forecast. The main objective of the current work consists in assessing the degree of simplification (reduction of the number of hydrological members) that can be achieved with a HEPS configured using 16 lumped hydrological models driven by the 50 weather ensemble forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), i.e. an 800-member HEPS. In a previous work (Brochero et al., 2011a, b), we demonstrated that the proportion of members allocated to each hydrological model is a sufficient criterion to reduce the number of hydrological members while improving the balance of the scores, taking into account interchangeability of the ECMWF MEPS. Here, we compare the proportion of members allocated to each hydrological model derived from three non-parametric techniques: correlation analysis of hydrological members, Backward Greedy Selection (BGS) and Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA II). The last two techniques allude to techniques developed in machine learning, in a multicriteria framework exploiting the relationship between bias, reliability, and the number of members of the

  10. Exploring How Factors Impact the Activities and Participation of Persons with Disability: Constructing a Model through Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Joy; Paterson, Margo

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a conceptualization of how factors impact activities of daily living (ADL) and participation from the perspective of persons with disability. This study identified what, and how, factors perceived by participants affect their daily activities, to better inform reporting of scores obtained on measures of ADLs and participation…

  11. Putting Participation into Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: participatory action research, primary care, mutual participation ... a mutual participatory doctor-patient relationship model, and to apply this ..... Leuner JD, Webster A. Social support, ... Personality and exercise as buffers in the.

  12. PALAEOTRIP: the Palaeoclimate and Terrestrial Exoplanet Radiative Transfer Intercomparison Project, a Call for Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, L.; Goldblatt, C.

    2016-12-01

    Palaeoclimate and terrestrial exoplanet studies require calculation of radiative transfer through a wide range atmospheric conditions. Accurate representation of this process is the basis of all climate modelling. Here, following in the footsteps and methodology of many radiative transfer intercomparison projects aimed at anthropogenic change and other problems, we propose a comparison which will cover the diverse and exotic compositions expected in the deep past as well as for other planets. We invite participation from teams running fast codes used in GCMs, semi-fast codes used in specialist 1D modelling, line-by-line codes, and any other relevant models. We describe the test profiles which should be run, as well as planned protocols and analyses for the project.

  13. Free radicals in biological energy conversion: EPR studies of model systems. Final report. [Mechanism of chlorophyll participation in photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollin, G.

    1976-08-31

    Energy conversion in photosynthesis is known to proceed via light-induced one-electron transfer reactions involving chlorophyll and electron donors and acceptors. Although the chemical identities of all of the components have not as yet been elucidated, considerable evidence has been accumulated which points to quinones (Q) as primary electron acceptors in both green plants and bacterial photosynthesis. Furthermore, it has been established that the initial photoprocess leads to the formation of a chlorophyll cation radical (C./sup +/). The research described in this report has as its goal the elucidation of the molecular-electronic mechanism of chlorophyll participation in photosynthesis. The following reactions have been observed: (a) Photoproduction of C./sup +/ in solution in the absence of added electron acceptors. This is a low quantum yield reaction which proceeds via the lowest excited singlet state. Bacteriochlorophyll also undergoes this reaction, whereas pheophytin does not. (b) One-electron phototransfer between the chlorophyll lowest triplet state and quinones to yield a radical pair (C./sup +/ - Q./sup +/). This may either recombine or separate. The C./sup +/ formed upon separation is unstable and reacts with hydroxylic compounds to regenerate chlorophyll. The Q./sup -/ species partly reacts with oxidized solvent and partly disproportionates. Both bacteriochlorophyll and pheophytin are also able to react with quinones in this manner. The quenching of the chlorophyll lowest singlet state by quinones does not, however, lead to detectable radical formation. These reactions seem to provide acceptable models for certain aspects of photosynthetic energy conversion, and thus elucidation of their detailed mechanisms should lead to useful insights into the nature of the biological process.

  14. Projecting Global Decadal Change in Water Supply for Strategic Planning: Window Size Sensitivity in CMIP5 GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, M.; Landis, M.; Gassert, F.; Luo, T.; Reig, P.

    2013-12-01

    Climate adaptation and strategic planning by states, corporations, and long-term investors require reliable information on the range of possible climatic changes. However, most decision makers are incapable of planning over the century-scale time horizons for which global climate models (GCMs) are developed. Even the most forward-looking actors rarely consider scenarios more than several decades into the future. The mismatch in model design and practical demands poses a challenge in extracting useful information on the decadal scale from global climate change models. Here, we explore options and limitations in generating decadal water supply change projections, as evaluated for the World Resources Institute's Aqueduct project's estimates of future change in water stress. Our approach uses an ensemble of six CMIP5 GCMs, selected to represent a broad lineage of models that best reproduce the mean and standard deviation of recent streamflow records in 18 large river basins, bias corrected to GLDAS-2.0 runoff. We examine sensitivity of point estimates of climate normal supply and water supply variability (interannual and seasonal) at the years 2020, 2030, and 2040, with a focus on using temporal windows of different lengths (11-, 21-, and 31-years) to generate the point estimates. With the aim of creating practical information for non-expert audiences, we will discuss the persistent question of 'how can we balance uncertainty and usability in designing scientific data products?'

  15. Solar and planetary oscillation control on climate change: hind-cast, forecast and a comparison with the CMIP5 GCMs

    CERN Document Server

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Global surface temperature records (e.g. HadCRUT4) since 1850 are characterized by climatic oscillations synchronous with specific solar, planetary and lunar harmonics superimposed on a background warming modulation. The latter is related to a long millennial solar oscillation and to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere (e.g. aerosol and greenhouse gases). However, current general circulation climate models, e.g. the CMIP5 GCMs, to be used in the AR5 IPCC Report in 2013, fail to reconstruct the observed climatic oscillations. As an alternate, an empirical model is proposed that uses: (1) a specific set of decadal, multidecadal, secular and millennial astronomic harmonics to simulate the observed climatic oscillations; (2) a 0.45 attenuation of the GCM ensemble mean simulations to model the anthropogenic and volcano forcing effects. The proposed empirical model outperforms the GCMs by better hind-casting the observed 1850-2012 climatic patterns. It is found that: (1) about 50-60% of the warmin...

  16. Participation of liver progenitor cells in liver regeneration: lack of evidence in the AAF/PH rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusabineza, Ange-Clarisse; Van Hul, Noémi K; Abarca-Quinones, Jorge; Starkel, Peter; Najimi, Mustapha; Leclercq, Isabelle A

    2012-01-01

    When hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, liver progenitor cells (LPC) are activated to participate in liver regeneration. We used the 2-acetaminofluorene/partial hepatectomy (AAF/PH) model to evaluate the contribution of LPC to liver cell replacement and function restoration. Fischer rats subjected to AAF/PH (or PH alone) were investigated 7, 10 and 14 days post-hepatectomy. Liver mass recovery (LMR) was estimated, and the liver mass to body weight ratio calculated. We used serum albumin and bilirubin levels, and liver albumin mRNA levels to assess the liver function. LPC expansion was analyzed by cytokeratin 19 (CK19), glutathione S-transferase protein (GSTp) immunohistochemistry and by CK19, CD133, transforming growth factor-β1 and hepatocyte growth factor mRNA expression in livers. Cell proliferation was evaluated by Ki67 and BrdU immunostaining. Compared with PH alone where LMR was ∼100% 14 days post-PH, LMR was defective in AAF/PH rats (64.1±15.5%, P=0.0004). LPC expansion was scarce in PH livers (0.5±0.4% of CK19(+) area), but significant in AAF/PH livers (8.5±7.2% of CK19(+)), and inversely correlated to LMR (r(2)=0.63, PPH animals presented liver failure (low serum albumin and high serum bilirubin) 14 days post-PH. Compared with animals with preserved function, this was associated with a lower LMR (50±6.8 vs 74.6±9.4%, P=0.0005), a decreased liver to body weight ratio (2±0.3 vs 3.5±0.6%, P=0.001), and a larger LPC expansion such as proliferating Ki67(+) LPC covered 17.4±4.2% of the liver parenchyma vs 3.1±1.5%, (Plivers with preserved function. These observations suggest that, in this model, the efficient recovery of the liver function was ensured rather by the proliferation of mature hepatocytes than by the LPC expansion and differentiation into hepatocytes.

  17. Using participative inquiry in usability analysis to align a development team's mental model with its users' needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneifel, A. A.; Guerrero, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this web site usability case study, two methods of participative inquiry are used to align a development team's objectives with their users' needs and to promote the team awareness of the benefit of qualitative usability analysis.

  18. Ecological observations and GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of Sacoglossan Elysia bangtawaensis (Swennen)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenai-Tirodkar, P.S.; Desai, N.M.; Jagtap, T.G.

    respective peak areas to TIC areas from the GC-MS. Significant variations of ecological parameters were investigated by correlation matrix. Difference were considered statistically significant when p<0.05. RESULTS In postmonsoon (November, 2007-January, 2008...

  19. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds by GC-MS in Rural Alabama during the 2013 SOAS Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, A.; Olson, K. F.; De Gouw, J. A.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a large class of chemicals that are emitted into the atmosphere by both human and natural biological activity. VOCs are comprised of both precursor compounds that drive oxidation chemistry and oxidation products. Extensive measurements of VOCs can help determine the relationships between precursor and secondary compounds, and the relative effects of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on climate and air quality. The Southeastern US is a region of particular research interest, as it is strongly affected by both anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs. As part of the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol intensive study (SOAS), an in-situ gas-chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS) was deployed at a forested site in rural Alabama. This site was dominated by biogenic emissions, but was also subject to anthropogenic influence. The GC-MS measured a large number of primary and secondary anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs in the C2 to C11 range, with a time resolution of 30 minutes. Measured compounds of particular interest include isoprene, speciated monoterpenes, methylvinylketone (MVK), methacrolein, C2 to C11 alkanes, lightweight unsaturated hydrocarbons including ethene, propene, and acetylene, C6 to C9 aromatics, C1 to C7 oxygenated VOCS (alcohols, ketones, aldehydes), halogenated VOCs, acetonitrile, and several sulfur-containing compounds. A summary of these measurements will be presented. This summary will include characterization of various anthropogenic and biogenic sources sampled at the site, relationships of the most important VOCs to basic meteorological conditions, and diurnal profiles that illustrate shifts in photochemistry and emissions. These GCMS measurements will provide key information for constraints in models and to aid in the interpretation of data from other instruments.

  20. A GC-MS Based Metabonomics Study of Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Interventional Effects of the Simiaowan in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuming Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Simiaowan (SMW is a famous Chinese prescription widely used in clinical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The aim of the present study is to determine novel biomarkers to increase the current understanding of RA mechanisms, as well as the underlying therapeutic mechanism of SMW, in RA-model rats. Plasma extracts from control, RA model, and SMW-treated rats were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. An orthogonal partial least-square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA model was created to detect metabolites that were expressed in significantly different amounts between the RA model and the control rats and investigate the therapeutic effect of SMW. Metabonomics may prove to be a valuable tool for determining the efficacy of complex traditional prescriptions.

  1. Public Participation in Urban Environmental Management: A Model for Promoting Community-Based Environmental Management in Peri-Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoob, May; Brantly, Eugene; Whiteford, Linda

    In October 1992, the Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH) Project held a workshop to explore how the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) could incorporate community participation as a core element in projects to improve water supply, sanitation, and other environmental conditions of peri-urban areas in developing countries. The…

  2. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for adults: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R

    2013-12-07

    The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the cross

  3. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for adults: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is

  4. Clinical trial management of participant recruitment, enrollment, engagement, and retention in the SMART study using a Marketing and Information Technology (MARKIT) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anjali; Calfas, Karen J; Marshall, Simon J; Robinson, Thomas N; Rock, Cheryl L; Huang, Jeannie S; Epstein-Corbin, Melanie; Servetas, Christina; Donohue, Michael C; Norman, Gregory J; Raab, Fredric; Merchant, Gina; Fowler, James H; Griswold, William G; Fogg, B J; Patrick, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Advances in information technology and near ubiquity of the Internet have spawned novel modes of communication and unprecedented insights into human behavior via the digital footprint. Health behavior randomized controlled trials (RCTs), especially technology-based, can leverage these advances to improve the overall clinical trials management process and benefit from improvements at every stage, from recruitment and enrollment to engagement and retention. In this paper, we report the results for recruitment and retention of participants in the SMART study and introduce a new model for clinical trials management that is a result of interdisciplinary team science. The MARKIT model brings together best practices from information technology, marketing, and clinical research into a single framework to maximize efforts for recruitment, enrollment, engagement, and retention of participants into a RCT. These practices may have contributed to the study's on-time recruitment that was within budget, 86% retention at 24 months, and a minimum of 57% engagement with the intervention over the 2-year RCT. Use of technology in combination with marketing practices may enable investigators to reach a larger and more diverse community of participants to take part in technology-based clinical trials, help maximize limited resources, and lead to more cost-effective and efficient clinical trial management of study participants as modes of communication evolve among the target population of participants. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mentors' experiences of using the Active Mentoring model to support older adults with intellectual disability to participate in community groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J; Bigby, Christine; Stancliffe, Roger J; Balandin, Susan; Craig, Diane; Anderson, Kate

    2013-12-01

    Social inclusion is a widely acknowledged goal; who is best positioned to provide support and how support is delivered are key questions. Using Active Mentoring training, members of community groups mentored a person with intellectual disability and supported their inclusion in that group. Interviews with 14 mentors explored their experiences of supporting a previously unknown person with intellectual disability to participate in their community group. The core theme was No Different From Us. Mentors saw beyond the disability, they valued others, were community leaders, and had intrinsic qualities. With some basic orientation to the task, mentors were able to support the inclusion of their mentee in the group. Community members are willing to support people with intellectual disability to join their community groups. The Active Mentoring training is one way of harnessing the goodwill of community groups and their members to include people with intellectual disability to participate on an individual basis in community groups.

  6. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R

    2013-08-15

    There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a form of leisure time PA for children

  7. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. Conclusion It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a

  8. Using the Deficit Model, Public Debate Model and Co-Production of Knowledge Models to Interpret Points of View of Students Concerning Citizens' Participation in Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    In the first part of this article I propose a conceptual framework--based on the deficit, public debate and co-production of knowledge models articulated by (Callon, 1999)--with which to examine students' appropriation of de socioscientific issues (SSI). The second part of this article presents the way a group of three…

  9. Determinants of participation in colorectal cancer screening among community-dwelling Chinese older people: Testing a comprehensive model using a descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Doris Y P; Wong, Eliza M L; Chan, Carmen W H

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) among older people is high. Screening for CRC presents a cost-effective secondary prevention and control strategy which results in a significant reduction in mortality. This study aims to describe the prevalence of CRC screening and examine its risk factors among Chinese community-dwelling older people guided by a comprehensive model combining Health Belief Model and Extended Parallel Processing Model. A descriptive correlational study was conducted. A convenience sample of 240 community-dwelling adults aged ≥60 was recruited in May-July in 2012 in Hong Kong. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire which collected information on demographic variables, CRC-related psychosocial variables and whether they had a CRC screening in the past 10 years. Among the participants, 25.4% reported having a CRC screening test. Results of logistic regression analyses indicated that participants with a higher level in cue to action, and lower perceived knowledge barriers and severity-fear were significantly associated with participation in CRC screening. But there were no significant associations between fatalism and cancer fear with screening. The prevalence of CRC screening was low in Hong Kong Chinese community-dwelling elders. A number of modifiable factors associated with CRC screening were identified which provides specific targets for interventions. This study also adds to the knowledge regarding the associations between fatalism and fear with CRC screening behaviors among Chinese older people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alkaloid metabolite profiles by GC/MS and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities with binding-mode predictions of five Amaryllidaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Natalie; Alvarez, Rafael; Osorio, Edison H; Alzate, Fernando; Berkov, Strahil; Osorio, Edison

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymatic inhibition is an important target for the management of Alzheimer disease (AD) and AChE inhibitors are the mainstay drugs for its treatment. In order to discover new sources of potent AChE inhibitors, a combined strategy is presented based on AChE-inhibitory activity and chemical profiles by GC/MS, together with in silico studies. The combined strategy was applied on alkaloid extracts of five Amaryllidaceae species that grow in Colombia. Fifty-seven alkaloids were detected using GC/MS, and 21 of them were identified by comparing their mass-spectral fragmentation patterns with standard reference spectra in commercial and private library databases. The alkaloid extracts of Zephyranthes carinata exhibited a high level of inhibitory activity (IC50 = 5.97 ± 0.24 μg/mL). Molecular modeling, which was performed using the structures of some of the alkaloids present in this extract and the three-dimensional crystal structures of AChE derived from Torpedo californica, disclosed their binding configuration in the active site of this AChE. The results suggested that the alkaloids 3-epimacronine and lycoramine might be of interest for AChE inhibition. Although the galanthamine group is known for its potential utility in treating AD, the tazettine-type alkaloids should be evaluated to find more selective compounds of potential benefit for AD.

  11. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and GC-MS Studies on Castanospermum australe A. Cunn. & C. Fraser ex Hook.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thankarajan Sajeesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Castanospermum australe and to profile phytochemicals by GC-MS. The ethanolic extracts were prepared by successive solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus. The analgesic activity was analyzed by hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing test whereas anti-inflammatory study was done by carrageenan induced paw oedema model. The acute toxicity study revealed that ethanol extracts of leaf and bark of C. australe were safe even at a higher dose of 2000 mg/kg whereas ethanol extract of seed was toxic at the same dose. In both hot plate method (5.85 s and acetic acid-induced writhing test (57%, the leaf ethanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity (P<0.001 at a dose of 400 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract was exhibited by the reduction in paw linear diameter by 64.76% at 400 mg/kg in carrageenan induced paw oedema. The GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract of leaf revealed sixteen major compounds of which 1,7-dimethyl-4,10-dioxa-1,7-diazacyclododecane, (+-N-methylephedrine, and permethylspermine were found to be pharmaceutically and the most important. These findings justify that C. australe can be a valuable natural analgesic and anti-inflammatory source which seemed to provide potential phytotherapeutics against various ailments.

  12. Political participation of older adults in Scandinavia - the civic voluntarism model revisited? A multi-level analysis of three types of political participatio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Nygård

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines political participation among older adults in Österbotten, Finland, and Västerbotten, Sweden. Two specific hypotheses are tested. First, we anticipate that older adults are loyal voters but less avid in engaging in politics between elections. Second, we expect individuallevel resources to explain why older people participate in politics. The article offers two contributions to the literature on political participation of older adults. First, it corroborates earlier findings by showing that older adults indeed have a higher inclination to vote than to engage in political activities between elections, but it also shows that the latter engagement is more diversified than one could expect. Second, although the findings largely support the resource model, they suggest that we need to consider also other factors such as the overall attitude towards older people.

  13. Urinary metabolomics of pregnant women at term: a combined GC/MS and NMR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Meloni, Alessandra; Lussu, Milena; Carta, Emanuela; Barberini, Luigi; Noto, Antonio; Deiana, Sara Francesca; Mereu, Rossella; Ragusa, Antonio; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Fanos, Vassilios; Atzori, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Physiological changes leading to parturition are not completely understood while clinical diagnosis of labour is still retrospective. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) represent two of the main analytical platforms used in clinical metabolomics. Metabolomics might help us to improve our knowledge about the biochemical mechanisms underlying labour. Urine samples (n = 59), collected from pregnant women at term of gestation before and/or after the onset of labour, were analysed by GC/MS and NMR techniques in order to identify the metabolic profile. Both GC/MS and NMR data matrices containing the identified metabolites were analysed by multivariate statistical techniques in order to characterise the discriminant variables between labour (L) and not labour (NL) status. 18 potential metabolites (11 with (1)H-NMR, eight with GC-MS: glycine was relevant in both) were found discriminant in urine of women during labour. Taken together, the identified metabolites produced a composite biomarker pattern, a sort of barcode, capable of differentiating between labour and not labour conditions. Major discriminant metabolites for NMR and GC/MS analysis were: alanine, glycine, acetone, 3-hydroxybutiyric acid, 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid and succinic acid, giving a urine metabolite signature on the late phase of labour. The metabolomics analysis evidenced clusters of metabolites involved in labour condition able to discriminate between urine samples collected before the onset and during labour, potentially offering the promise of a robust screening test.

  14. Dynamic Stock Market Participation of Households with Heterogeneous Participation Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of stock market participation, where consumers’ decisions regarding stock market participation are influenced by participation costs. The practical significance of the participation costs is considered as being a channel through which financial...... education programs can affect consumers’ investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market participation cost is about 5% of labor...... income; however, it varies substantially over consumers’ life. The model successfully predicts the level of the observed participation rate and the increasing pattern of stock market participation over the consumers’ life cycle....

  15. So different, yet so similar: meta-analysis and policy modeling of willingness to participate in clinical trials among Brazilians and Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammar, Guilherme; Meister, Henrique; Shah, Jatin; Phadtare, Amruta; Cofiel, Luciana; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2010-12-16

    With the global expansion of clinical trials and the expectations of the rise of the emerging economies known as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India and China), the understanding of factors that affect the willingness to participate in clinical trials of patients from those countries assumes a central role in the future of health research. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (SRMA) of willingness to participate in clinical trials among Brazilian patients and then we compared it with Indian patients (with results of another SRMA previously conducted by our group) through a system dynamics model. Five studies were included in the SRMA of Brazilian patients. Our main findings are 1) the major motivation for Brazilian patients to participate in clinical trials is altruism, 2) monetary reimbursement is the least important factor motivating Brazilian patients, 3) the major barrier for Brazilian patients to not participate in clinical trials is the fear of side effects, and 4) Brazilian patients are more likely willing to participate in clinical trials than Indians. Our study provides important insights for investigators and sponsors for planning trials in Brazil (and India) in the future. Ignoring these results may lead to unnecessary fund/time spending. More studies are needed to validate our results and for better understanding of this poorly studied theme.

  16. Participation outcomes in a randomized trial of 2 models of upper-limb rehabilitation for children with congenital hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakzewski, Leanne; Ziviani, Jenny; Abbott, David F; Macdonell, Richard A; Jackson, Graeme D; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2011-04-01

    To determine if constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is more effective than bimanual training to improve occupational performance and participation in children with congenital hemiplegia. Single-blind randomized comparison trial with evaluations at baseline, 3, and 26 weeks. Community facilities in 2 Australian states. Referred sample of children (N=64; mean age ± SD, 10.2±2.7y, 52% boys) were matched for age, sex, side of hemiplegia, and upper-limb function and were randomized to CIMT or bimanual training. After random allocation, 100% of CIMT and 94% of the bimanual training group completed the intervention. Each intervention was delivered in day camps (total 60 h over 10d) using a circus theme with goal-directed training. Children receiving CIMT wore a tailor-made glove during the camp. The primary outcome was the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Secondary measures included the Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-H), Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment, and School Function Assessment. There were no between-group differences at baseline. Both groups made significant changes for COPM performance at 3 weeks (estimated mean difference =2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-3.6; PRehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High-Ability Students' Participation in Specialized Instructional Delivery Models: Variations by Aptitude, Grade, Gender, and Content Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Susan G.; Colangelo, Nicholas; Heo, Nanseol; Dockery, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Established in the early 1970s, the talent search model has garnered strong theoretical and programming support for addressing the academic needs of highly able students. The two main components of the talent search model are discovery (identification) and development (programming) of academic talent. Discovery of academically talented elementary…

  18. Communication Games: Participant's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, Karen R.

    Using a series of communicational games, the author leads the participant through self-awareness, verbal and nonverbal communication, decision-making, problem-solving, and skills in perception, listening, and small group, organizational, and cultural communications. The thesis behind the book is that model-making, role-playing, or other forms of…

  19. Classification of vegetable oils according to their botanical origin using n-alkane profiles established by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troya, F; Lerma-García, M J; Herrero-Martínez, J M; Simó-Alfonso, E F

    2015-01-15

    n-Alkane profiles established by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to classify vegetable oils according to their botanical origin. The n-alkanes present in corn, grapeseed, hazelnut, olive, peanut and sunflower oils were isolated by means of alkaline hydrolysis followed by silica gel column chromatography of the unsaponifiable fractions. The n-alkane fraction was constituted mainly of n-alkanes in the range C8-C35, although only those most abundant (15 n-alkanes, from 21 to 35 carbon No.) were used as original variables to construct linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models. Ratios of the peak areas selected by pairs were used as predictors. All the oils were correctly classified according to their botanical origin, with assignment probabilities higher than 95%, using an LDA model.

  20. First Results From the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) Experiment on the Cassini-Huygens Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Hasso B.; Demick, J.; Haberman, J.; Harpold, D.; Kasprzak, W.; Raaen, E.; Way, S.; Atreya, S.; Carignan, G.; Bauer, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Huygens Probe of the Cassini Huygens Mission entered the atmosphere of the moon Titan on January 14,2005. The GCMS was part of the instrument complement on the Probe to measure in situ the chemical composition of the atmosphere during the probe descent and to support the Aerosol Collector Pyrolyser (ACP) experiment by serving as detector for the pyrolization products. The GCMS employed a quadrupole mass filter with a secondary electron multiplier detection system and a gas sampling system providing continuous direct atmospheric composition measurements and batch sampling through three gas chromatographic (GC) columns. The mass spectrometer employed five electron impact ion sources with available electron energies of either 70 or 25 eV. Three ion sources served as detectors for the GC columns and two were dedicated to direct atmosphere sampling and ACP gas sampling, respectively. The GCMS gas inlet was heated to prevent condensation, and served to evaporate surface constituents after impact.

  1. GC-MS determination of isoflavonoids in seven red Cuban propolis samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo Fernández, Mercedes; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Rosado Perez, Arístides; Montes De Oca Porto, Rodny; Márquez Hernández, Ingrid; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2008-11-12

    In the present study, the phenolic composition analysis of seven red varieties of propolis, collected in different regions of Cuba, was evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Seventeen compounds were identified in all samples by the interpretation of their mass spectra. This appears to be the first report on the GC-MS analysis of isoflavonoids in the propolis. The results confirmed the presence of the main isoflavonoids isolated previously and suggested the general structure for the other five isoflavonoids. Vestitol, 7-O-methylvestitol, and medicarpin were present in high amounts in all propolis samples analyzed. This result indicates that propolis samples rich in isoflavonoids are not exclusively found in Pinar del Rio province and proves that GC-MS technique is a useful and alternative tool for the chemical analysis of tropical red propolis.

  2. The feasibility of using a peer-guided model to enhance participation in community-based physical activity for youth with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Viviene A; Stanish, Heidi I

    2011-09-01

    We examined the feasibility of a using a peer-guided model to foster participation of youth with intellectual disability in community-based exercise. The intervention was designed to address personal barriers to exercise commonly faced by individuals with intellectual disability. Twenty adolescents with mild-moderate intellectual disability and 14 typically developing peers exercised in groups of two or three, 2 days per week for 15 weeks at YMCAs. Each dyad or triad provided reciprocal support during structured, individualized exercise sessions led by certified fitness trainers. Adherence to the program was high and youth with intellectual disability showed a significant reduction in personal barriers. They also felt they had learned new skills and made new friends. Typically developing youth were also positive about their experience as a volunteer. Our findings suggest that a peer-guided exercise model is useful for enhancing participation in community-based exercise.

  3. Study on the Effectiveness of College Classroom Teaching by Participation-Model%高校参与式课堂教学模式有效性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超玲

    2012-01-01

    Participation-model didactics is the approach to improve effectiveness of high school classroom teaching.To design this model should pay attention to four aspects,namely,the dominant position of the students,the cultivation of ability,the students' full,full participation,and the comprehensive use of various kinds of styles on student evaluation.%参与式教学模式是提高高校课堂教学有效性的重要途径,在设计时须注意四个方面的问题,即,确立学生的主体地位,注重能力的培养,应重视让学生全程、全方位参与,综合运用多种方式对学生考评。

  4. Granger causality in integrated GC-MS and LC-MS metabolomics data reveals the interface of primary and secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, Hannes; Lyon, David; Nägele, Thomas; Sun, Xiaoliang; Fragner, Lena; Hadacek, Franz; Egelhofer, Volker; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2013-06-01

    Metabolomics has emerged as a key technique of modern life sciences in recent years. Two major techniques for metabolomics in the last 10 years are gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Each platform has a specific performance detecting subsets of metabolites. GC-MS in combination with derivatisation has a preference for small polar metabolites covering primary metabolism. In contrast, reversed phase LC-MS covers large hydrophobic metabolites predominant in secondary metabolism. Here, we present an integrative metabolomics platform providing a mean to reveal the interaction of primary and secondary metabolism in plants and other organisms. The strategy combines GC-MS and LC-MS analysis of the same sample, a novel alignment tool MetMAX and a statistical toolbox COVAIN for data integration and linkage of Granger Causality with metabolic modelling. For metabolic modelling we have implemented the combined GC-LC-MS metabolomics data covariance matrix and a stoichiometric matrix of the underlying biochemical reaction network. The changes in biochemical regulation are expressed as differential Jacobian matrices. Applying the Granger causality, a subset of secondary metabolites was detected with significant correlations to primary metabolites such as sugars and amino acids. These metabolic subsets were compiled into a stoichiometric matrix N. Using N the inverse calculation of a differential Jacobian J from metabolomics data was possible. Key points of regulation at the interface of primary and secondary metabolism were identified.

  5. Quality evaluation of terpinen-4-ol-type Australian tea tree oils and commercial products: an integrated approach using conventional and chiral GC/MS combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Parcher, Jon F; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-03-18

    GC/MS, chiral GC/MS, and chemometric techniques were used to evaluate a large set (n=104) of tea tree oils (TTO) and commercial products purported to contain TTO. Twenty terpenoids were determined in each sample and compared with the standards specified by ISO-4730-2004. Several of the oil samples that were ISO compliant when distilled did not meet the ISO standards in this study primarily due to the presence of excessive p-cymene and/or depletion of terpinenes. Forty-nine percent of the commercial products did not meet the ISO specifications. Four terpenes, viz., α-pinene, limonene, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol, present in TTOs with the (+)-isomer predominant were measured by chiral GC/MS. The results clearly indicated that 28 commercial products contained excessive (+)-isomer or contained the (+)-isomer in concentrations below the norm. Of the 28 outliers, 7 met the ISO standards. There was a substantial subset of commercial products that met ISO standards but displayed unusual enantiomeric+/-ratios. A class predictive model based on the oils that met ISO standards was constructed. The outliers identified by the class predictive model coincided with the samples that displayed an abnormal chiral ratio. Thus, chiral and chemometric analyses could be used to confirm the identification of abnormal commercial products including those that met all of the ISO standards.

  6. The effect of unpaid caregiving intensity on labour force participation: results from a multinomial endogenous treatment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Trong; Connelly, Luke Brian

    2014-01-01

    It is well acknowledged that the intensity of caregiving affects the labour force participation of caregivers. The literature so far has not, however, been able to control effectively for the endogeneity of caregiving intensity. This paper contributes by dealing with the endogeneity of unpaid caregiving intensity when examining its impact on the labour force participation of caregivers. We distinguish between care provided to people who cohabit with the care recipient and care provided to recipients who reside elsewhere, as well as between primary and secondary caring roles. We address the endogeneity of selection in various care intensity roles via an instrumental variables approach, using the health status of potential care recipients as instruments. Data from wave 8 of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey which was undertaken in 2008 are used. We focus on a sample of 7845 working age males and females. Ruling out the endogeneity of any caregiving intensity role, we find that caregiving has a significant deterrent effect on caregivers' employment. This deterrent effect however is concentrated among those who identify as the main caregiver and the result appears to be the same irrespective of gender. Providing care as the main caregiver reduces the probability of employment by approximately 12 percentage points for both males and females, regardless of whether or not the caregivers cohabit with the care recipients. By contrast, we find no statistically significant impact of providing care as a secondary caregiver on the employment probabilities of either males or females. These results are germane to the development of policies that may affect informal caregiving and, thereby, the labour force decisions of carers.

  7. Extraction of pure components from overlapped signals in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likić Vladimir A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS is a widely used analytical technique for the identification and quantification of trace chemicals in complex mixtures. When complex samples are analyzed by GC-MS it is common to observe co-elution of two or more components, resulting in an overlap of signal peaks observed in the total ion chromatogram. In such situations manual signal analysis is often the most reliable means for the extraction of pure component signals; however, a systematic manual analysis over a number of samples is both tedious and prone to error. In the past 30 years a number of computational approaches were proposed to assist in the process of the extraction of pure signals from co-eluting GC-MS components. This includes empirical methods, comparison with library spectra, eigenvalue analysis, regression and others. However, to date no approach has been recognized as best, nor accepted as standard. This situation hampers general GC-MS capabilities, and in particular has implications for the development of robust, high-throughput GC-MS analytical protocols required in metabolic profiling and biomarker discovery. Here we first discuss the nature of GC-MS data, and then review some of the approaches proposed for the extraction of pure signals from co-eluting components. We summarize and classify different approaches to this problem, and examine why so many approaches proposed in the past have failed to live up to their full promise. Finally, we give some thoughts on the future developments in this field, and suggest that the progress in general computing capabilities attained in the past two decades has opened new horizons for tackling this important problem.

  8. Active and realistic passive marijuana exposure tested by three immunoassays and GC/MS in urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mule, S.J.; Lomax, P.; Gross, S.J.

    1988-05-01

    Human urine samples obtained before and after active and passive exposure to marijuana were analyzed by immune kits (Roche, Amersham, and Syva) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seven of eight subjects were positive for the entire five-day test period with one immune kit. The latter correlated with GC/MS in 98% of the samples. Passive inhalation experiments under conditions likely to reflect realistic exposure resulted consistently in less than 10 ng/mL of cannabinoids. The 10-100-ng/mL cannabinoid concentration range essential for detection of occasional and moderate marijuana users is thus unaffected by realistic passive inhalation.

  9. Improving heart healthy lifestyles among participants in a Salud para su Corazón promotores model: the Mexican pilot study, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar, Héctor; Fernández-Gaxiola, Ana Cecilia; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha; Peyron, Rosa Adriana; Ayala, Carma

    2015-03-12

    In Mexico, cardiovascular disease and its risk factors are growing problems and major public health concerns. The objective of this study was to implement cardiovascular health promotion and disease prevention activities of the Salud para su Corazón model in a high-risk, impoverished, urban community in Mexico City. We used a pretest-posttest (baseline to 12-week follow-up) design without a control group. Material from Salud para su Corazón was validated and delivered by promotores (community health workers) to community members from 6 geographic areas. Two validated, self-administered questionnaires that assessed participants' knowledge and behaviors relating to heart health were administered. We used t tests and χ(2) tests to evaluate pretest and posttest differences, by age group (≤60 and >60 years), for participants' 3 heart-healthy habits, 3 types of physical activity, performance skills, and anthropometric and clinical measurements. A total of 452 (82%) adult participants completed the program. Heart-healthy habits from pretest to posttest varied by age group. "Taking action" to modify lifestyle behaviors increased among adults aged 60 or younger from 31.5% to 63.0% (P < .001) and among adults older than 60 from 30.0% to 45.0% (P < .001). Positive responses for cholesterol and fat consumption reduction were seen among participants 60 or younger (P = .03). Among those older than 60, salt reduction and weight control increased (P = .008). Mean blood glucose concentration among adults older than 60 decreased postintervention (P = .03). Significant improvements in some heart-healthy habits were seen among adult participants. The model has potential to improve heart-healthy habits and facilitate behavioral change among high-risk adults.

  10. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical...

  11. The Effects of Mother Participation in Relationship Education on Coparenting, Parenting, and Child Social Competence: Modeling Spillover Effects for Low-Income Minority Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Garneau, Chelsea; Vaughn, Brian; McGill, Julianne; Harcourt, Kate Taylor; Ketring, Scott; Smith, Thomas

    2016-11-14

    Although suggestions are that benefits of relationship and marriage education (RME) participation extend from the interparental relationship with parenting and child outcomes, few evaluation studies of RME test these assumptions and the relationship among changes in these areas. This quasi-experimental study focuses on a parallel process growth model that tests a spillover hypothesis of program effects and finds, in a sample of low-income minority mothers with a child attending a Head Start program, that increases in mother reports of coparenting agreement for RME participants predict decreases in their reports of punitive parenting behaviors. Although improvements in parenting behaviors did not predict increases in teacher reports of children's social competence, improvements in coparenting agreement were associated with increases in children's social competence over time. In addition, comparative tests of outcomes between parents in the program and parents in a comparison group reveal that RME program participants (n = 171) demonstrate significant improvements compared to nonparticipants (n = 143) on coparenting agreement, parenting practices, and teachers' reports of preschool children's social competence over a 1 year period. The findings are offered as a step forward in better understanding the experiences of low-resource participants in RME. Implications for future research are discussed.

  12. The Effects of the Behavior Analysis Model of Follow Through on Native American Participation in the Educational Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, T. F.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Adoption of the Behavior Analysis Model by the Northern Cheyenne Tribe led to dramatic gains for Native Americans in (1) frequency and percent of decision making at Policy Advisory Committee meetings and (2) school board membership. The effect of this involvement is discussed in terms of quality control. (DS)

  13. What can we gain by using Bayesian methods to combine information from a multi-model ensemble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonko, A. K.; Urban, N. M.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-model ensembles are used extensively to study both future climate projections and properties of the climate system such as climate sensitivity and feedbacks. Individual climate model projections generally disagree with one another, can be biased and are not independent. How to combine results from various models to assess their projections and the uncertainties associated with them is a difficult, but important question. Many different approaches, ranging from giving each model one vote, to model weighting and Bayesian methods, have been used to date. Here we evaluate the utility of a Bayesian reduced model framework relative to a simple pooling of global climate model (GCM) projections. Rather than focusing on the discrete projections made by individual GCMs, this approach allows us to generate probabilistic projections that smoothly interpolate between the dynamics of the multi-model ensemble. The simple model is an idealized ocean atmosphere energy balance model (EBM), fit to surface temperatures of GCMs participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5 (CMIP5) by tuning several parameters, including equilibrium climate sensitivity, forcing and feedback. We derive probability distributions of the reduced model parameters for each GCM individually as well as jointly for all GCMs in a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework, using CMIP5 abrupt CO2 quadrupling simulations. We then compare climate sensitivity and feedback estimates as well as temperature projections for historical and RCP8.5 scenarios generated using these two approaches to results obtained from the multi-model ensemble alone.

  14. Development and Validation of a 10-Year Mortality Prediction Model: Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data From Five Cohorts of Older Adults in Developed and Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suemoto, Claudia Kimie; Ueda, Peter; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Lebrão, Maria Lucia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida; Wong, Rebeca; Danaei, Goodarz

    2017-03-01

    Existing mortality prediction models for older adults have been each developed using a single study from the United States or Western Europe. We aimed to develop and validate a 10-year mortality prediction model for older adults using data from developed and developing countries. We used data from five cohorts, including data from 16 developed and developing countries: ELSA (English Longitudinal Study of Aging), HRS (Health and Retirement Study), MHAS (Mexican Health and Aging Study), SABE-Sao Paulo (The Health, Well-being and Aging), and SHARE (Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe). 35,367 older adults were split into training (two thirds) and test (one third) data sets. Baseline predictors included age, sex, comorbidities, and functional and cognitive measures. We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis using a sex-stratified Cox proportional hazards model, with time to death as the time scale. We validated the model using Harrell's C statistic (discrimination) and the estimated slope between observed and predicted 10-year mortality risk across deciles of risk (calibration). During a median of 8.6 years, 8,325 participants died. The final model included age, sex, diabetes, heart disease, lung disease, cancer, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, physical activity, self-reported health, difficulty with bathing, walking several blocks, and reporting date correctly. The model showed good discrimination (Harrell's C = 0.76) and calibration (slope = 1.005). Models for developed versus developing country cohorts performed equally well when applied to data from developing countries. A parsimonious mortality prediction model using data from multiple cohorts in developed and developing countries can be used to predict mortality in older adults in both settings.

  15. Consumer Participation in Co-creation: An Enlightening Model of Causes and Effects Based on Ethical Values and Transcendent Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cañas, Ricardo; Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo; Linuesa-Langreo, Jorge; Blázquez-Resino, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    In the current highly interconnected modern world, the role of consumers has changed substantially due to their active collaboration with companies in product and process innovation. Specifically, consumer participation has become key to the development of successful products and services, as companies have come to rely more and more on consumers' opinion as a source of innovative ideas and brand value. However, whereas existing research has focused on identifying the different elements involved in consumers' co-creation, there is still the need to comprehend better this complex mechanism by integrating distinct dimensional insights. With an integrative review of research into three important perspectives, one nurturing from the Service-Dominant logic, another one based on the information and communication technologies (ICTs) platforms, and (the ethical values-driven) Marketing 3.0 paradigm, this article proposes a conceptual framework in which consumers' ethical values and transcendent motivations play an important role in encouraging their engagement in co-creation activities. In this connection, and with consumers increasingly embracing the need to fulfill a social and ethical function in society, the co-creation process is here comprehended as a means to emphasize the social and moral aspects of co-creation. This article also identifies the important, supportive role of the Marketing 3.0 paradigm and Web 3.0 tools to initiate the co-creation process, as well as the important valuable benefits attained by both companies and consumers after consumers engage in this process. Importantly, these benefits are highlighted to increase when ethical products are the object of these co-creation activities. All these insights have notable implications for both research and managerial practice.

  16. Consumer Participation in Co-creation: An Enlightening Model of Causes and Effects Based on Ethical Values and Transcendent Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cañas, Ricardo; Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo; Linuesa-Langreo, Jorge; Blázquez-Resino, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    In the current highly interconnected modern world, the role of consumers has changed substantially due to their active collaboration with companies in product and process innovation. Specifically, consumer participation has become key to the development of successful products and services, as companies have come to rely more and more on consumers' opinion as a source of innovative ideas and brand value. However, whereas existing research has focused on identifying the different elements involved in consumers' co-creation, there is still the need to comprehend better this complex mechanism by integrating distinct dimensional insights. With an integrative review of research into three important perspectives, one nurturing from the Service-Dominant logic, another one based on the information and communication technologies (ICTs) platforms, and (the ethical values-driven) Marketing 3.0 paradigm, this article proposes a conceptual framework in which consumers' ethical values and transcendent motivations play an important role in encouraging their engagement in co-creation activities. In this connection, and with consumers increasingly embracing the need to fulfill a social and ethical function in society, the co-creation process is here comprehended as a means to emphasize the social and moral aspects of co-creation. This article also identifies the important, supportive role of the Marketing 3.0 paradigm and Web 3.0 tools to initiate the co-creation process, as well as the important valuable benefits attained by both companies and consumers after consumers engage in this process. Importantly, these benefits are highlighted to increase when ethical products are the object of these co-creation activities. All these insights have notable implications for both research and managerial practice. PMID:27303349

  17. Evaluation of Aerosol Properties in GCMs using Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Jiang, J. H.; Su, H.; Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols from natural or anthropogenic sources have profound impacts on the regional and global climate. Currently the radiative forcing of aerosols predicted by global climate models remains highly uncertain, representing the largest uncertainty in climate predictions. The uncertainty mainly arises from the complicated aerosol chemical and physical properties, coarse emission inventories for pre-cursor gases as well as unrealistic representations of aerosol activation and cloud processing in global climate models. In this study, we will utilize multiple satellite measurements including MODIS, MISR and CALIPSO to quantitatively evaluate aerosol simulations from climate models. Our analyses show that the global means in AOD climatology from NCAR CAM5 and GFDL AM3 simulations are comparable with satellite measurements. However, the overall correlation coefficient between the AOD spatial patterns from CAM5 and satellite is only 0.4. Moreover, at finer scales, the magnitude of AOD in CAM5 is much lower than satellite measurements for most of the non-dust regions, especially over East Asia. GFDL AM3 shows better AOD simulations over East Asia. The underestimated AOD over remote maritime areas in CAM5 was attributed to the unrealistic wet removal processes in convective clouds of CAM5. Over continents, biases on AOD could stem from underestimations in the emissions inventory and unresolved sub-grid variations of relative humidity due to the model's coarse resolution. Uncertainty from emission inventory over developing countries in East Asia will be assessed using the newly updated Regional Emission inventory in Asia (REAS) and Multi-resolution Emission Inventory in China (MEIC) in the model simulations.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis on aroma characteristics of ginseng at different ages using E-nose and GC-MS combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shaoqing; Wang, Jun; Yang, Liangcheng; Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Xinlei

    2015-01-01

    Aroma profiles of ginseng samples at different ages were investigated using electronic nose (E-nose) and GC-MS techniques combined with chemometrics analysis. The bioactive ginsenoside and volatile oil content increased with age. E-nose performed well in the qualitative analyses. Both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Functions Analysis (DFA) performed well when used to analyze ginseng samples, with the first two principal components (PCs) explaining 85.51% and the first two factors explaining 95.51% of the variations. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) successfully clustered the different types of ginsengs into four groups. A total of 91 volatile constituents were identified. 50 of them were calculated and compared using GC-MS. The main fragrance ingredients were terpenes and alcohols, followed by aromatics and ester. The changes in terpenes, alcohols, aromatics, esters, and acids during the growth year once again confirmed the dominant role of terpenes. The Partial Least Squares (PLS) loading plot of gas sensors and aroma ingredients indicated that particular sensors were closely related to terpenes. The scores plot indicated that terpenes and its corresponding sensors contributed the most in grouping. As regards to quantitative analyze, 7 constituent of terpenes could be accurately explained and predicted by using gas sensors in PLS models. In predicting ginseng age using Back Propagation-Artificial Neural Networks (BP-ANN), E-nose data was found to predict more accurately than GC-MS data. E-nose measurement may be a potential method for determining ginseng age. The combination of GC-MS can help explain the hidden correlation between sensors and fragrance ingredients from two different viewpoints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Does Skin in the Game Matter if You Aren't Playing? Examining Participation in Oregon's Public Employee Health Engagement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bill J; Dulacki, Kristen; Rissi, Jill; McBride, Leslie; Tran, Sarah; Royal, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    Employers are increasingly exploring health benefits that incentivize lifestyle change for employees. We used early data from an ongoing study of one such model-the Health Engagement Model (HEM), which Oregon implemented for all public employees in 2012-to analyze variation in employee participation and engagement. A survey was designed to assess program engagement, opinions of the program, and self-reported lifestyle changes. Data were collected in 2012, about 9 months after HEM launched. A representative random sample of 4500 state employees served as the study subjects. Primary measures included whether employees signed up for the program, completed its required activities, and reported making lifestyle changes. Logistic regression was used to analyze survey results. Most employees (86%) chose to participate, but there were important socioeconomic differences: some key target populations, including smokers and obese employees, were the least likely to sign up; less educated employees were also less likely to complete program activities. Despite mostly negative opinions of the program, almost half of participants reported making lifestyle changes. Oregon's HEM launch was largely unpopular with employees, but many reported making the desired lifestyle changes. However, some of those the program is most interested in enrolling were the least likely to engage. People involved with implementing similar programs will need to think carefully about how to cultivate broad interest among employees.

  20. Conceptual Models for Ecosystem Management through the Participation of Local Social Actors: the Río Cruces Wetland Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa E. Delgado

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the emigration and death of black-necked swans (Cygnus melancoryphus from the Río Cruces wetland (Valdivia, Chile triggered one of the largest ecosocial conflicts in Chilean history. The main local social actors of this still unsolved conflict are the Chilean government, a pulp-mill company, and a local nongovernmental organization. The central issues of the conflict are disagreement over the reason for the swans' migration, the need to restore the black-necked swan population in the wetland, and the relationship between economic development and wetland conservation. We applied a physical, ecological, and social system approach to generate conceptual or qualitative ecosystem models representing the perceptions of all social actors. Our results showed that each actor group perceived the ecosystem in a different and, in some cases, divergent way. Furthermore, all of them carried only partial representations of the wetland and the conflict. We linked all the models to generate an integrated view of the Río Cruces wetland ecosystem. We propose that this approach can be replicated as a tool for generating synthetic, integrated conceptual models of ecosystems, even in the presence of strong divergence and a lack of consensus among social actors.

  1. Application of GC-FID and GC-MS for assessing PAHs in suspended dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglarz, A; Skrok, R

    2000-07-01

    The social concern about polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is due to the awareness that several of them are carcinogens and are present in polluted air. Several epidemiological investigations have tried to assess the influence of air pollution on the incidence in the population (1). Some authors have suggest that 1-10% of the incidence of lung cancer is caused by air pollution (2, 3). Several sources, e.g. traffic, oil heating, wood stoves, industry may contribute PAHs to the air pollution. Therefore continuous air pollution control applying selective and precise analytical procedures is needed. The submitted work presents results of examination of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, dibenzo(a, h)anthracene, benzo(ghi)perylene] settled on particles of 10 microns fractions of ashes, emitted from industrial and communication sources. Samples of suspended dust were collected at twelve measuring points, from May to June 1998, in 24-hour cycles, in accordance with US EPA methodology. PAHs were extracted from suspended dust in a Soxhlet apparatus and then exposed to extraction in a liquid-solid system (solid extraction-SPE) to eliminate redundant pollution, which may interfere with compounds by determined analysis. Samples were then analyzed using by capillary gas chromatographs "Varian" model 3400 with FID and MS detectors. Results of analysis make it possible to determine the influence of industry and traffic on atmospheric pollution, to compare results of two analytical methods (GC-FID and GC-MS).

  2. Hypoglycemic Potential of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaf and In Vivo GC-MS Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washim Khan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. (family; Moringaceae, commonly known as drumstick, have been used for centuries as a part of the Ayurvedic system for several diseases without having any scientific data. Demineralized water was used to prepare aqueous extract by maceration for 24 h and complete metabolic profiling was performed using GC-MS and HPLC. Hypoglycemic properties of extract have been tested on carbohydrate digesting enzyme activity, yeast cell uptake, muscle glucose uptake, and intestinal glucose absorption. Type 2 diabetes was induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD for 8 weeks and a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally was used for the induction of type 1 diabetes. Aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaf was given orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg to STZ-induced rats and 200 mg/kg in HFD mice for 3 weeks after diabetes induction. Aqueous extract remarkably inhibited the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase and it displayed improved antioxidant capacity, glucose tolerance and rate of glucose uptake in yeast cell. In STZ-induced diabetic rats, it produces a maximum fall up to 47.86% in acute effect whereas, in chronic effect, it was 44.5% as compared to control. The fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, liver marker enzyme level were significantly (p < 0.05 restored in both HFD and STZ experimental model. Multivariate principal component analysis on polar and lipophilic metabolites revealed clear distinctions in the metabolite pattern in extract and in blood after its oral administration. Thus, the aqueous extract can be used as phytopharmaceuticals for the management of diabetes by using as adjuvants or alone.

  3. Can Voter Identification Laws Increase Electoral Participation in the United States? Probably Not—A Simple Model of the Voting Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Weaver

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of voter photographic identification (ID laws in the United States have argued that such measures can increase overall voter turnout. The implications of this proposition contradict classic models of voting behavior, which state that voting costs and electoral participation are inversely related. The present article/research note explores this tension in the context of some fundamental economic concepts. Namely, after identifying characteristics of a voting “market” that might facilitate the outcome in question, a simple model of that market is developed and used to simulate changes in turnout due to changes in voter ID rules for a hypothetical polity. Counter to proponents’ claims, the findings suggest that voter ID laws tend to decrease turnout, even when most voters place positive value on stricter (i.e., fraud preventing voting regulations. That being said, the model is intentionally simplistic, and it is put forward primarily as a tool for thinking critically about the relationship between voter ID laws and electoral participation. Because data that are suited to empirical analyses of this relationship are lacking, complementary techniques, such as modeling and simulation, are useful for testing unverified hypotheses about voter ID rules from the political discourse. The simple exercises in this research note begin to fill this gap, though they function most readily as points of departure for future research.

  4. Multilevel mixed effects parametric survival models using adaptive Gauss-Hermite quadrature with application to recurrent events and individual participant data meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Michael J; Look, Maxime P; Riley, Richard D

    2014-09-28

    Multilevel mixed effects survival models are used in the analysis of clustered survival data, such as repeated events, multicenter clinical trials, and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses, to investigate heterogeneity in baseline risk and covariate effects. In this paper, we extend parametric frailty models including the exponential, Weibull and Gompertz proportional hazards (PH) models and the log logistic, log normal, and generalized gamma accelerated failure time models to allow any number of normally distributed random effects. Furthermore, we extend the flexible parametric survival model of Royston and Parmar, modeled on the log-cumulative hazard scale using restricted cubic splines, to include random effects while also allowing for non-PH (time-dependent effects). Maximum likelihood is used to estimate the models utilizing adaptive or nonadaptive Gauss-Hermite quadrature. The methods are evaluated through simulation studies representing clinically plausible scenarios of a multicenter trial and IPD meta-analysis, showing good performance of the estimation method. The flexible parametric mixed effects model is illustrated using a dataset of patients with kidney disease and repeated times to infection and an IPD meta-analysis of prognostic factor studies in patients with breast cancer. User-friendly Stata software is provided to implement the methods. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritipadma Panda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clerodendrum viscosum is commonly found in India and Bangladesh. Previously, various parts of this plant were reported for treatment of different types of diseases and there was no report on GC-Ms analysis. Objective: To analyze and characterize the phytochemical compounds of methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum using GC-MS. Materials and Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening of methanol extract was carried out according to standard procedures described in WHO guidelines. Various bioactive compounds of the extract were determined by GC-MS technique. Results: The presence of steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and carbohydrate was found on phytochemical screening of methanol extract of the leaves. The GC-MS analysis showed 16 peaks of different phytoconstituents namely acetamide,N,N-carbonylbis-, 4-Pyranone,2,3-dihydro-, alpha-D-Galactofuranoside, methyl 2,3,5,6-tetra-O-methyl-, Glycerin, Xylitol, N,N-Dimethylglycine, 4H-Pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-, Benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, 2(1HPyrimidinone,1-methyl-, 2,4-Dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylpyrimidine, 3-Deoxy-d-mannoic lactone, 1,3-Methylene-d-arabitol, Orcinol, n-Hexadecanoic acid and Phenol,4,4′-(1-methyl ethylidene bis etc. Conclusion: The bioactive compounds present in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum suggest the application of this extract for the treatment of various diseases by the aborigine tribes.

  6. [Study on supercritical CO2 extraction of xiaoyaosan and its GC-MS fingerprint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ya-Mei; Tian, Jun-Sheng; Guo, Xiao-Qing; Zhou, Yu-Zhi; Gao, Xiao-Xia; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2014-02-01

    To determine the optimum conditions of supercritical CO2 extraction of Xiaoyaosan, and establish its fingerprint by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the yield of extract were investigated, an orthogonal test was used to quantify the effects of extraction temperature, pressure, CO2 flow rate and time, and fingerprint analysis of different batches of extracts were by GC-MS. The optimal extraction conditions were determined as follows: extraction pressure 20 MPa, extraction temperature 50 degrees C, CO2 flow rate 25 kg x h(-1), extraction time 3 h, and average yield 2.2%. The GC-MS fingerprint was established and 27 common peaks were found, whose contents add up to 81.89% of the total peak area. Among them, 21 compounds were identified, accounting for 53.20% of the total extract. The extraction process is reasonable and favorable for industrial production. The GC-MS method is accurate, reliable, reproducible, and can be used for quality control of supercritical CO2 extract from Xiaoyaosan.

  7. Identification and Determination of Nicorandil and its Degradation Products by HPLC and GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Zhou CHENG; Ze Hui JIA; Yan CHEN; Li Ying CHEN; Hua LI

    2006-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive HPLC-DAD method is developed for simultaneous determination of nicorandil and its degradation products, N-(2-hydroxyethyl) nicotinamide, nitrate ion and nicotinic acid, using nicotinamide (NT) as internal standard, at wavelength 204 nm. Nicotinic acid is identified by HPLC and GC/MS. The method can also be applied to study kinetic of degradation processes of nicorandil in storage.

  8. Identification and quantification of isoquinoline alkaloids in the genus Sarcocapnos by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suau, R; Cabezudo, B; Valpuesta, M; Posadas, N; Diaz, A; Torres, G

    2005-01-01

    Six cularine alkaloids, cularicine, O-methylcularicine, celtisine, cularidine, cularine and celtine, three isocularine alkaloids, sarcophylline, sarcocapnine and sarcocapnidine, and five non-cularine alkaloids, glaucine, protopine, ribasine, dihydrosanguinarine and chelidonine, were identified and quantified by GC-MS in nine taxa of the genus Sarcocapnos (Fumariaceae). The chemotaxonomic significance of the results is discussed.

  9. Synchronized Analysis of FTIR Spectra and GCMS Chromatograms for Evaluation of the Thermally Degraded Vegetable Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Irwan Lu, Nurul Aida Lu; Samling, Benedict

    2014-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) are two common instruments used for analysis of edible oils. The output signal is often analysed on the software attached to the workstations. The processing software is usually individualised for a specific source. The output of GCMS cannot be analysed on the FTIR hence analysts often need to juggle between instruments when multiple techniques are employed. This could become exhaustive when a large dataset is involved. This paper reports a synchronised approach for analysis of signal from FTIR and GCMS. The algorithm is demonstrated on a dataset of edible oils to investigate the thermal degradation of seven types of edible oils treated at 100°C and 150°C. The synchronised routines identify peaks present in FTIR and GCMS spectra/chromatograms where the information is subsequently extracted onto peak tables for further analysis. In this study, it is found that palm based products and corn oils were relatively more stable with higher content of antioxidants tocopherols and squalene. As a conclusion, this approach allows simultaneous analysis of signal from multiple sources and samples enhancing the efficiency of the signal processing process. PMID:24563804

  10. GC-MS Analysis of [gamma]-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogs: A Forensic Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henck, Colin; Nally, Luke

    2007-01-01

    An upper-division forensic chemistry experiment is described. It involves using glycolic acid and sodium glycolate as analogs of [gamma]-hydroxybutyric acid and its sodium salt. The experiment shows the use of silylation in GC-MS analysis and gives students the opportunity to work with a commonly used silylating reagent,…

  11. Comparison of GC-MS and FTIR methods for quantifying naphthenic acids in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Angela C; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2008-11-01

    The extraction of bitumen from the oil sands in Canada releases toxic naphthenic acids into the process-affected waters. The development of an ideal analytical method for quantifying naphthenic acids (general formula C(n)H(2n+Z)O(2)) has been impeded by the complexity of these mixtures and the challenges of differentiating naphthenic acids from other naturally-occurring organic acids. The oil sands industry standard FTIR method was compared with a newly-developed GC-MS method. Naphthenic acids concentrations were measured in extracts of surface and ground waters from locations within the vicinity of and away from the oil sands deposits and in extracts of process-affected waters. In all but one case, FTIR measurements of naphthenic acids concentrations were greater than those determined by GC-MS. The detection limit of the GC-MS method was 0.01 mg L(-1) compared to 1 mg L(-1) for the FTIR method. The results indicated that the GC-MS method is more selective for naphthenic acids, and that the FTIR method overestimates their concentrations.

  12. GC-MS Quantitation and Identification of Bisphenol-A Isolated from Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Ralph N.; Seaton, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    Isolation and identification of organic compounds is a necessary skill chemistry students must be able to do with proficiency. In this upper-level undergraduate laboratory, students isolate bisphenol-A (BPA; 4-4'-isopropylidenediphenol) from water using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by derivatization with analysis by GC-MS. The students…

  13. GC-MS Analysis of [gamma]-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogs: A Forensic Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henck, Colin; Nally, Luke

    2007-01-01

    An upper-division forensic chemistry experiment is described. It involves using glycolic acid and sodium glycolate as analogs of [gamma]-hydroxybutyric acid and its sodium salt. The experiment shows the use of silylation in GC-MS analysis and gives students the opportunity to work with a commonly used silylating reagent,…

  14. A bioequivalency study of two trifluoperazine tablet formulations using RIA and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midha, K K; Hawes, E M; Korchinski, E D; Hubbard, J W; McKay, G; Cooper, J K; Roscoe, R M

    1984-01-01

    Two sensitive analytical procedures, a radioimmunoassay (RIA) and a mass fragmentographic (GC-MS) method, were used to quantitate plasma trifluoperazine concentrations over 24 h in five healthy male volunteers following single 5 mg doses of two trifluoperazine tablet formulations (A and B) in a two-way cross-over design. Bioavailability in terms of area under the plasma concentration versus time curve to 24h or extrapolated to infinity, maximum plasma concentration and time to maximum plasma concentration using either RIA or GC-MS was not statistically significantly different from one formulation to the other. Also, there were no statistically significant differences between GC-MS and RIA values for AUC24(0) and Cmax for each of the two formulations examined. However, the mean AUC24(0) RIA/GC-MS ratios for formulations A and B were 3.1 and 3.4, respectively, while the mean Cmax RIA/GC-MS ratios were 1.7 and 2.1, respectively. These differences in AUC and Cmax are probably mainly due to the relative non-specificity of the RIA antiserum. Thus, where GC-MS is preferred for pharmacokinetic studies, both analytical procedures can be used for comparative single-dose bioequivalence studies of trifluoperazine. However, both the methods should be tested in patients in order to establish the suitability of one procedure over the other for the study of plasma level versus clinical response correlations.

  15. Fast, high temperature and thermolabile GC--MS in supersonic molecular beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Shai; Amirav, Aviv

    1994-05-01

    This work describes and evaluates the coupling of a fast gas chromatograph (GC) based on a short column and high carrier gas flow rate to a supersonic molecular beam mass spectrometer (MS). A 50 cm long megabore column serves for fast GC separation and connects the injector to the supersonic nozzle source. Sampling is achieved with a conventional syringe based splitless sample injection. The injector contains no septum and is open to the atmosphere. The linear velocity of the carrier gas is controlled by a by-pass (make-up) gas flow introduced after the column and prior to the supersonic nozzle. The supersonic expansion serves as a jet separator and the skimmed supersonic molecular beam (SMB) is highly enriched with the heavier organic molecules. The supersonic molecular beam constituents are ionized either by electron impact (EI) or hyperthermal surface ionization (HSI) and mass analyzed. A 1 s fast GC--MS of four aromatic molecules in methanol is demonstrated and some fundamental aspects of fast GC--MS with time limit constraints are outlined. The flow control (programming) of the speed of analysis is shown and the analysis of thermolabile and relatively non-volatile molecules is demonstrated and discussed. The tail-free, fast GC--MS of several mixtures is shown and peak tailing of caffeine is compared with that of conventional GC--MS. The improvement of the peak shapes with the SMB--MS is analyzed with the respect to the elimination of thermal vacuum chamber background. The extrapolated minimum detected amount was about 400 ag of anthracence-d10, with an elution time which was shorter than 2s. Repetitive injections could be performed within less than 10 s. The fast GC--MS in SMB seems to be ideal for fast target compound analysis even in real world, complex mixtures. The few seconds GC--MS separation and quantification of lead (as tetraethyllead) in gasoline, caffeine in coffee, and codeine in a drug is demonstrated. Controlled HSI selectivity is demonstrated in

  16. Representation of the Alpine snowpack in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzago, Silvia; Palazzi, Elisa; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-04-01

    Global Climate Models (GCMs) still have too coarse spatial resolution to adequately reproduce the small-scale variability of precipitation and snowpack in orographically complex areas but increasingly higher resolutions are currently being introduced for the next generation of models. As a preliminary step a comparative assessment of the performances of the current, state-of-art GCMs in the representation of the snowpack characteristics is needed. Our study investigates how the GCMs participating in the Coupled Models Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) represent the snow water equivalent and snow depth climatology over the Greater Alpine Region (4-19°E, 43-49°N) during the historical period 1980-2005. We compare the CMIP5 model outputs to the available satellite and reanalysis products, including Global Monthly EASE-Grid Snow Water Equivalent Climatology, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, Modern Era-Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, ERA-Interim/Land and 20th Century reanalyses, highlighting common features and discrepancies. We also explore the models spread in the representation of the snow seasonal cycle and its projected changes for the XXI century in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, discussing the results in the frame of the latest literature studies. The present analysis aims at providing a comprehensive picture of the current uncertainties in the representation of snowpack by the major gridded snow datasets derived from remote sensing, reanalyses and model simulations, in condition of complex orography.

  17. Semi-automated non-target processing in GC × GC-MS metabolomics analysis: Applicability for biomedical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, M.M.; Kloet, F.M. van der; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Verheij, E.R.; Hankemeier, T.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the complexity of typical metabolomics samples and the many steps required to obtain quantitative data in GC × GC-MS consisting of deconvolution, peak picking, peak merging, and integration, the unbiased non-target quantification of GC × GC-MS data still poses a major challenge in metabolomic

  18. GCMs and MDGs: can climate science reduce poverty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. C.; Connor, S. J.

    2004-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa, the birthplace of humankind, is seen by many, both as the least developed region of the world, and the region where the processes of globalization and sustainable development are most difficult to set in motion. Sub-Saharan African countries invariably appear en masse at the bottom of the annual UNDP Human Development Report rankings with development indicators such as life expectancy and basic nutrition levels in decline. The poorer communities are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of climate fluctuations and seen as the least able to cope with current climate variability. Sub-Saharan Africa has a population of approximately 625 million, with more than two thirds of the people dependant on rain-fed agriculture. The vast majority of the population lack access to clean water and sanitation and sub-Saharan Africa currently bears the highest burden of infectious diseases such as HIV-AIDS, TB and Malaria to be found anywhere in the world. With almost half of the region's population living on less than US$1 per day, sub-Saharan Africa accounts for one quarter of the world's poor. The rural poor are often considered to have no voice and therefore form a very weak political constituency. International development targets such as the recently articulated UN Millennium Development Goals are seen as one means of giving voice to this large but disenfranchised population. Improved management of climate sensitive sectors is essential to achieving a number of the MDgs: Poverty-Hunger, Disease, Water and sanitation. Climate information is also essential to measuring that achievement, as climate often acts as a confounder in any analysis of interventions. Here we present work on how climate science, including state of the art - multi-model ensemble seasonal climate forecasting models, are being used in support of achieving the MDGs in Africa.

  19. Determinants of the process and outcomes of household participation in collaborative forest management in Ghana: a quantitative test of a community resilience model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamani, Kofi; Hall, Troy Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a proposed community resilience model by investigating the role of institutions, capital assets, community and socio-demographic variables as determinants of households' participation in Ghana's collaborative forest management (CFM) program and outcomes of the program. Quantitative survey data were gathered from 209 randomly selected households from two forest-dependent communities. Regression analysis shows that households' participation in the CFM program was predicted by community location, past connections with institutions, and past bonding social capital. Community location and past capitals were the strongest predictors of the outcomes of the CFM program as judged by current levels of capitals. Participation in the CFM program also had a positive effect on human capital but had minimal impact on the other capitals influencing household well-being and resilience, suggesting that the impact of co-management on household resilience may be modest. In all, the findings highlight the need for co-management policies to pay attention to the historical context of community interaction processes influencing access to capital assets and local institutions to successfully promote equitable resilience.

  20. Social media and internet driven study recruitment: evaluating a new model for promoting collaborator engagement and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Chetan; Chapman, Stephen J; Glasbey, James; Kelly, Michael; Nepogodiev, Dmitri; Bhangu, Aneel; Fitzgerald, J Edward

    2015-01-01

    A substantial challenge facing multicentre audit and research projects is timely recruitment of collaborators and their study centres. Cost-effective strategies are required and fee-free social media has previously been identified as a potential conduit. We investigated and evaluated the effectiveness of a novel multi-format social media and Internet strategy for targeted recruitment to a national multicentre cohort study. Interventions involved a new Twitter account, including weekly live question-and-answer sessions, a new Facebook group page, online YouTube presentations and an information page on a national association website. Link tracking analysis was undertaken using Google Analytics, which was then related to subsequent registration. Social influence was calculated using the proprietary Klout score. Internet traffic analysis identified a total of 1562 unique registration site views, of which 285 originated from social media (18.2%). Some 528 unique registrations were received, with 96 via social media platforms (18.2%). Traffic source analysis identified a separate national association webpage as resulting in the majority of registration page views (15.8%), followed by Facebook (11.9%), Twitter (4.8%) and YouTube (1.5%). A combination of publicity through Facebook, Twitter and the dedicated national association webpage contributed to the greatest rise in registration traffic and accounted for 312 (48%) of the total registrations within a 2-week period. A Twitter 'social influence' (Klout) score of 42/100 was obtained during this period. Targeted social media substantially aided study dissemination and collaborator recruitment. It acted as an adjunct to traditional methods, accounting for 18.2% of collaborator registration in a short time period with no associated financial costs. We provide a practical model for designing future recruitment campaigns, and recommend Facebook, Twitter and targeted websites as the most effective adjuncts for maximising cost

  1. Social media and internet driven study recruitment: evaluating a new model for promoting collaborator engagement and participation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Khatri

    Full Text Available A substantial challenge facing multicentre audit and research projects is timely recruitment of collaborators and their study centres. Cost-effective strategies are required and fee-free social media has previously been identified as a potential conduit. We investigated and evaluated the effectiveness of a novel multi-format social media and Internet strategy for targeted recruitment to a national multicentre cohort study.Interventions involved a new Twitter account, including weekly live question-and-answer sessions, a new Facebook group page, online YouTube presentations and an information page on a national association website. Link tracking analysis was undertaken using Google Analytics, which was then related to subsequent registration. Social influence was calculated using the proprietary Klout score.Internet traffic analysis identified a total of 1562 unique registration site views, of which 285 originated from social media (18.2%. Some 528 unique registrations were received, with 96 via social media platforms (18.2%. Traffic source analysis identified a separate national association webpage as resulting in the majority of registration page views (15.8%, followed by Facebook (11.9%, Twitter (4.8% and YouTube (1.5%. A combination of publicity through Facebook, Twitter and the dedicated national association webpage contributed to the greatest rise in registration traffic and accounted for 312 (48% of the total registrations within a 2-week period. A Twitter 'social influence' (Klout score of 42/100 was obtained during this period.Targeted social media substantially aided study dissemination and collaborator recruitment. It acted as an adjunct to traditional methods, accounting for 18.2% of collaborator registration in a short time period with no associated financial costs. We provide a practical model for designing future recruitment campaigns, and recommend Facebook, Twitter and targeted websites as the most effective adjuncts for

  2. Impact of air-sea interaction on simulation of East Asian summer monsoon in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soheon; Cha, Dong-Hyun

    2017-04-01

    In the western North Pacific (WNP), it is well known that there is a negative correlation between sea surface temperature (SST) and precipitation indicating that the atmosphere may force the ocean. If global climate models (GCMs) cannot capture the air-sea interaction over the WNP, it leads to the failure in simulating regional climate over East Asia. The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is an intrinsic atmospheric phenomenon in East Asia, which significantly affect the surrounding countries. In this study, therefore, we investigate the impact of the air-sea interaction on simulating the EASM in multi-GCMs. The GCMs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) have large errors in cross correlation between SST and precipitation over the WNP, which means that the models could not capture the negative correlation realistically. On the contrary, the GCMs participating in CMIP5 improve the air-sea interaction compared to CMIP3 models. They have smaller errors in cross correlation between SST and precipitation. Among CMIP5 models, the models which have the smaller errors in cross correlation showed realistic simulation of the EASM in terms of its evolution and associated principal mode. However, GCMs with larger errors tend to simulate the EASM unreasonably. This indicates that the realistic air-sea interaction over the WNP is required to improve the EASM simulation. Acknowledgements The research was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development program under grant KMIPA 2015-2083 and the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning of Korea (NRF-2016M3C4A7952637) for its support and assistant in completion of the study.

  3. Mothers, Fathers, and Parental Systems: A Conceptual Model of Parental Engagement in Programmes for Child Mental Health-Connect, Attend, Participate, Enact (CAPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Patrycja J; Tully, L A; Lenroot, R; Kimonis, E; Hawes, D; Moul, C; Frick, P J; Anderson, V; Dadds, M R

    2016-12-02

    Parenting programmes are one of the best researched and most effective interventions for reducing child mental health problems. The success of such programmes, however, is largely dependent on their reach and parental engagement. Rates of parental enrolment and attendance are highly variable, and in many cases very low; this is especially true of father involvement in parenting programmes. This paper proposes a conceptual model of parental engagement in parenting programmes-the CAPE model (Connect, Attend, Participate, Enact) that builds on recent models by elaborating on the interdependent stages of engagement, and its interparental or systemic context. That is, we argue that a comprehensive model of parental engagement will best entail a process from connection to enactment of learned strategies in the child's environment, and involve consideration of individual parents (both mothers and fathers) as well as the dynamics of the parenting team. The model provides a framework for considering parent engagement as well as associated facilitators and mechanisms of parenting change such as parenting skills, self-efficacy, attributions, and the implementation context. Empirical investigation of the CAPE model could be used to further our understanding of parental engagement, its importance for programme outcomes, and mechanisms of change. This will guide future intervention refinement and developments as well as change in clinical practice.

  4. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell could participate in angiogenesis in a mouse model of acute hindlimb ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy Thi-Thanh Dao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs transplantation for the treatment of acute hindlimb ischemia is recently attracting the attention of many scientists. Identifying the role of donor cells in the host is a crucial factor for improving the efficiency of treatment. This study evaluated the injury repair role of xenogeneic adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC transplantation in acute hindlimb ischemia mouse model. Methods: Human ADSCs were transplanted into the limb of ischemic mouse. The survival rate of grafted cells and expression of human VEGF-R2 and CD31 positive cells were assessed in the mouse. In addition, the morphological and functional recovery of ischemic hindlimb was also assessed. Results: The results showed that one-day post cell transplantation, the survival percentage of grafted cells was 3.62% +/- 2.06% at the injection site and 15.71% +/- 12.29% around the injection site. The rate of VEGFR2-positive cells had highest expression at 4 days post transplantation, 5.46% +/- 2.13% at the injection site; 9.12% +/- 7.17% at the opposite of injection site, and 7.22% +/- 4.59% at the lateral gastrocnemius. The percentage of CD31 positive cells increased on day 4 at the injection site to 0.8% +/- 1.60%, and further increased on day 8 at the lateral gastrocnemius site and the opposite injection site to 1.56% +/- 0.44% and 1.17% +/- 1.69%, respectively. After 14 days, the cell presentation and the angiogenesis marker expression were decreased to zero, except for CD31 expression at the opposite of injection site (0.72% +/- 1.03%. Histological structure of the cell-injected muscle tissue remained stable as that of the normal muscle. New small blood vessels were found growing in hindlimb. On the other hand, approximately 66.67% of mice were fully recovered from ischemic hindlimb at grade 0 and I after cell injection. Conclusion: Thus, xenotransplantation of human ADSCs might play a significant role in the formation of new blood vessel and can

  5. Participation under Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudourides, Moses A. [Univ. of Patras, Rio-Patras (Greece). Dept. of Mathematics

    2003-10-01

    This essay reviews a number of theoretical perspectives about uncertainty and participation in the present-day knowledge-based society. After discussing the on-going reconfigurations of science, technology and society, we examine how appropriate for policy studies are various theories of social complexity. Post-normal science is such an example of a complexity-motivated approach, which justifies civic participation as a policy response to an increasing uncertainty. But there are different categories and models of uncertainties implying a variety of configurations of policy processes. A particular role in all of them is played by expertise whose democratization is an often-claimed imperative nowadays. Moreover, we discuss how different participatory arrangements are shaped into instruments of policy-making and framing regulatory processes. As participation necessitates and triggers deliberation, we proceed to examine the role and the barriers of deliberativeness. Finally, we conclude by referring to some critical views about the ultimate assumptions of recent European policy frameworks and the conceptions of civic participation and politicization that they invoke.

  6. Determining the degradation efficiency and mechanisms of ethyl violet using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Wen-Hsin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discharge of wastewater that contains high concentrations of reactive dyes is a well-known problem associated with dyestuff activities. In recent years, semiconductor photocatalysis has become more and more attractive and important since it has a great potential to contribute to such environmental problems. One of the most important aspects of environmental photocatalysis is in the selection of semiconductor materials like ZnO and TiO2, which are close to being two of the ideal photocatalysts in several respects. For example, they are relatively inexpensive, and they provide photo-generated holes with high oxidizing power due to their wide band gap energy. In this work, nanostructural ZnO film on the Zn foil of the Alkaline-Manganese Dioxide-Zinc Cell was fabricated to degrade EV dye. The major innovation of this paper is to obtain the degradation mechanism of ethyl violet dyes resulting from the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS analyses. Results The fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on zinc foils with a simple solution-based corrosion strategy and the synthesis, characterization, application, and implication of Zn would be reported in this study. Other objectives of this research are to identify the reaction intermediates and to understand the detailed degradation mechanism of EV dye, as model compound of triphenylmethane dye, with active Zn metal, by HPLC-ESI-MS and GC-MS. Conclusions ZnO nanostructure/Zn-foils had an excellent potential for future applications on the photocatalytic degradation of the organic dye in the environmental remediation. The intermediates of the degradation process were separated and characterized by the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS, and twenty-six intermediates were characterized in this study. Based on the variation of the amount of intermediates, possible degradation pathways for the decolorization of dyes are also proposed and discussed.

  7. An extended linear scaling method for downscaling temperature and its implication in the Jhelum River basin, Pakistan, and India, using CMIP5 GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Rashid; JIA, Shaofeng

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the linear scaling method used for the downscaling of temperature was extended from monthly scaling factors to daily scaling factors (SFs) to improve the daily variations in the corrected temperature. In the original linear scaling (OLS), mean monthly SFs are used to correct the future data, but mean daily SFs are used to correct the future data in the extended linear scaling (ELS) method. The proposed method was evaluated in the Jhelum River basin for the period 1986-2000, using the observed maximum temperature (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin) of 18 climate stations and the simulated Tmax and Tmin of five global climate models (GCMs) (GFDL-ESM2G, NorESM1-ME, HadGEM2-ES, MIROC5, and CanESM2), and the method was also compared with OLS to observe the improvement. Before the evaluation of ELS, these GCMs were also evaluated using their raw data against the observed data for the same period (1986-2000). Four statistical indicators, i.e., error in mean, error in standard deviation, root mean square error, and correlation coefficient, were used for the evaluation process. The evaluation results with GCMs' raw data showed that GFDL-ESM2G and MIROC5 performed better than other GCMs according to all the indicators but with unsatisfactory results that confine their direct application in the basin. Nevertheless, after the correction with ELS, a noticeable improvement was observed in all the indicators except correlation coefficient because this method only adjusts (corrects) the magnitude. It was also noticed that the daily variations of the observed data were better captured by the corrected data with ELS than OLS. Finally, the ELS method was applied for the downscaling of five GCMs' Tmax and Tmin for the period of 2041-2070 under RCP8.5 in the Jhelum basin. The results showed that the basin would face hotter climate in the future relative to the present climate, which may result in increasing water requirements in public, industrial, and agriculture

  8. a Radical Collaborative Approach: Developing a Model for Learning Theory, Human-Based Computation and Participant Motivation in a Rock-Art Heritage Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubt, R.

    2016-06-01

    This paper explores a Radical Collaborative Approach in the global and centralized Rock-Art Database project to find new ways to look at rock-art by making information more accessible and more visible through public contributions. It looks at rock-art through the Key Performance Indicator (KPI), identified with the latest Australian State of the Environment Reports to help develop a better understanding of rock-art within a broader Cultural and Indigenous Heritage context. Using a practice-led approach the project develops a conceptual collaborative model that is deployed within the RADB Management System. Exploring learning theory, human-based computation and participant motivation the paper develops a procedure for deploying collaborative functions within the interface design of the RADB Management System. The paper presents the results of the collaborative model implementation and discusses considerations for the next iteration of the RADB Universe within an Agile Development Approach.

  9. J/$\\psi$ suppression in Au+Au collisions at RHIC colour screening scenario in the bag model at variable participant numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, M; Menon, V J; Dubey, Ritesh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    We have modified the theory of Chu and Matsui by properly incorporating bag model equation of state for quark gluon plasma (QGP). We have also chosen the pressure parametrization rather than parametrizing energy density in the transverse plane. We assume that the QGP dense medium is expanding in the longitudinal direction obeying Bjorken boost invariant scaling law. Sequential melting of $\\chi_c$, $\\psi^{'}$ and $J/\\psi$ is also considered in this scenario. We have applied above formulation to the recent PHENIX experimental data of $J/\\psi$ suppression in Au+Au collisions at RHIC. We find that the model gives a good description of data at mid-rapidity in terms of survival probability versus number of participants without any necessity of implementing (3+1)-dimensional expansion of the deconfined medium.

  10. Political participation of registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhouten, Christine L; Malakar, Crystalmichelle L; Kubsch, Sylvia; Block, Derryl E; Gallagher-Lepak, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Level of political participation and factors contributing to participation were measured among Midwest RNs (n = 468) via an online survey (Cronbach's α = .95). Respondents reported engaging in primarily "low cost" activities (e.g., voting, discussing politics, and contacting elected officials), with fewer reporting speaking at public gatherings, participating in demonstrations, and membership in nursing organizations. Psychological engagement was most predictive (p nursing organizations need to model and cultivate greater psychological engagement among students and nurses.

  11. Student Participation - Simulation or Reality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the concept of student participation in learning processes within the health promoting schools approach. A model that distinguishes between token and genuine participation, which has been conceptualised on the basis of experience gained from the Macedonian Network of Health...

  12. Microwave-assisted Extraction and GC-MS Analysis of Zanthoxylum Oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for microwave-assisted extracting oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum seeds were studied and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. The effects of extract medium, microwave power, time and ratio of liquid to solid on extraction yield of Zanthoxylum bungeanum oil were investigated, using an orthogonal array design. The experimental results showed that using petroleum ether as extract medium, microwave power 350 w, solid-to-solvent ratio 1:5 (g/mL, 60 sec, can obtained 7.85% of Zanthoxylum bungeanum oil. Thirty-three substances in Zanthoxylum bungeanum oil were authenticated by GC-MS, of which 33 were identified for the first time and its chemical composition was analyzed. Accounting for 97.82% of the total volatile compounds.

  13. Analysis of Valproic Acid, Salicylic Acid and Ibuprofen in Whole Blood by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Jon B; Flater, Melanie L; Bain, Lisa T

    2016-10-01

    The Georgia Bureau of Investigation utilized a silylation method of analysis for low molecular weight carboxylic acids in the past. Due to the negative impact such derivatizations can have on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) systems an alternative means of analysis was investigated. The described method is a whole blood solid phase extraction of valproic acid, salicylic acid and ibuprofen utilizing butylation for sensitivity and improved chromatography by GC-MS. The method produced a limit of detection and limit of quantitation at 1 mg/L for valproic acid, 2 mg/L for salicylic acid and 0.25 mg/L for ibuprofen. The variability based upon the middle of the calibration curve estimated to be 7% for valproic acid, 8% for salicylic acid and 11% for ibuprofen established upon a 95% confidence interval, with the highest percent coefficient of variation being 5.3% for ibuprofen.

  14. Preliminary phytochemical screening, Antibacterial potential and GC-MS analysis of two medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaram, Seerangaraj; Kannan, Suruli; Saravanan, Konda Mani; Vasantharaj, Seerangaraj; Sathiyavimal, Selvam; P, Palanisamy Senthilkumar

    2016-05-01

    The presence study was aimed to catalyze the primary metabolites and their confirmation by using GC-MS analysis and antibacterial potential of leaf extract of two important medicinal plant viz., Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica. The antibacterial potential of the methanol leaf extract of the studied species was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiellap neumoniae, Streptococcus pyogens, Staphylococcus aureus using by agar well diffusion method. The higher zone of inhibition (16mm) was observed against the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 100μl concentration of methanol leaf extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of studied species shows that presence of phytochemical compounds like steroids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. GC-MS analysis confirms the occurrence of 20 different compounds in the methanol leaf extract of the both studied species.

  15. GC-MS and spectrophotometric analysis of biodegradation of new disazo dye by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, H Ardag; Demircali, A; Aydemir, C; Pazarlioglu, N; Karci, F

    2011-01-01

    In this study; sub-tropical white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor was investigated for its ability to degrade 4-(3'-methyl-4'-(4"-nitrophenyl)azo- 1'H-pyrazol-5'-ylazo)-3-methyl- H-pyrazol-5-on in the mediums containing glucose and different concentrations of degrade dye in batch systems. This dye was synthetized at Pamukkale Universtiy of Organic Chemistry research laboratory. Samples were collected on 10 days, and was detected by Shimadzu UV-1600A spectrophotometry. Decolorization study showed that this disazo dye was removed by more than 70% in 10 days. Laccase enzyme activity was detected in samples and then last sample was analyzed by GC-MS. Metabolites weren't showed in GC-MS result. It was concluded that T. versicolor could achieve the biodegradation of this new disazo dye.

  16. Use of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) in Nonscience Major Course Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecka, Keith S.; Lerman, Zafra M.; Angelos, Sanford A.

    1996-06-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been utilized with nonscience majors in the courses: "Modern Methods in Science: Discovering Molecular Secrets"; "The Extraordinary Chemistry of Ordinary Things"; "From Ozone to Oil Spills: Chemistry, the Environment and You"; and "Crime Lab Chemistry: Solving Crime through Analytical Chemistry". Our efforts have centered on introducing prospective science communicators (film, video, radio, television, and journalism majors) to science relative to their majors and personal interests. Quality lecture-discussion topics, "mystery"-based laboratory activities have assisted in introducing and/or explaining specific areas of chemistry that attempt to reduce fear of subject matter. Students have also used GC-MS, as a form of alternative assessment, in course projects that have been based on their majors, personal interests, and cultural backgrounds. Students have also conducted advanced independent work in different areas of chemistry, including the analysis of nail polishes and lacquers and eleven aromatic compounds present in three different brands of gasoline.

  17. GCMS analysis of Cannabis sativa L. from four different areas of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tayyab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is the most frequently used drug of abuse not only in Pakistan but also in the whole world. Its use is increasing drastically every year. GCMS allows for the analysis of Cannabis sativa which shows the differences of the constituents of this plant. Prevalence of this plant can be identified through knowledge of its constituents. In this way we can obstruct the production if we know the region in which it is produced. GCMS is a useful technique for the comparison of constituents of this drug of abuse which will assist the investigator concerning the origin of plant. Comparison also aids in the understanding and acquaintance of similarities of different samples of cannabinoids.

  18. Phytochemical investigation GC-MS analysis and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Coleus forskohlii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamoorthy Rajkumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis and antimicrobial activity of Coleus forskohlii. The different solvents such as ethanol, chloroform, acetone and aqueous extracts were identified pharmacologically as important bioactive compounds and their antimicrobial properties were studied. In the phytochemical investigation almost all the ethanol extract of leaf, stem and root having secondary metabolites like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, and steroids. The active constituents of the ethanol extract of C. forskohlii root was studied by GC-MS analysis. According to the antimicrobial results ethanol extract of C. froshkolii root showed highest antibacterial activity compared with stem and leaf. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed against Klebsiella pneumonia (19 mm and Candida albicans (16 mm in ethanol extract of root. Among the above extracts of leaf, stem and root, ethanol extract of root having antimicrobial activities due to the presence of phytoconstituents.

  19. First detection of an NSAID, flunixin, in sheep's wool using GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Ngaio; Hall, Sarah; Scott, Karen; Harrison, Nancy

    2011-05-01

    Exposure to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac resulted in the near extinction of three species of Gyps vultures on the Indian subcontinent. Other NSAIDs present in the environment, including flunixin, may pose a similar risk. In the course of a study to determine the feasibility of detecting NSAIDs in keratinous matrices (i.e., hair, nails and feathers) using GC-MS, wool opportunistically collected from a sheep treated with flunixin was analysed for residues. Flunixin was detected qualitatively in external wool wash and extract samples. While residues of veterinary agents and pesticides have previously been found in sheep's wool, our preliminary investigation provides the first instance of an NSAID being detected in this matrix. Here we provide the sample preparation methods and GC-MS parameters used to enable further refinement as part of ongoing conservation and consumer quality control measures.

  20. Identification of the main phenolic compounds in wood of Ceratonia siliqua by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Mualla

    2004-01-01

    The tannin composition of wood of Ceratonia siliqua (carob) was studied using GC-MS and classical chemical assays. Aqueous methanolic extracts of carob heartwood and sapwood were fractionated using organic solvents of increasing polarity, and GC-MS analyses were performed before and after hydrolysis. Prior to hydrolysis, gallic acid, catechin and its derivatives, methyl inositol and chalcone were determined as the major compounds found in the free form. Aqueous fractions of both wood types were hydrolysed with hydrochloric acid in methanol and extracted with organic solvents and water. These fractions were rich in methyl inositol, gallic acid, glucose and other monosaccharides. The results show that carob wood contains predominantly gallotannins and proanthocyanidins. The technique employed is shown to be a valuable tool and an alternative method to HPLC determination of hydrolysable tannin composition.

  1. [Determination of diphenyl and o-phenylphenol in agricultural products by GC/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kunihiko; Horie, Masakazu; Hirose, Yoshihumi

    2008-01-01

    A simple determination method of diphenyl (DP) and o-phenylphenol (OPP) in agricultural products by GC/MS was examined. DP and OPP were extracted with ethyl acetate in the presence of anh. sodium sulfate. After addition of n-butanol, the extract solution was concentrated. Clean-up was achieved by shaking with graphitized bulk carbon (Supelclean ENVI-Carb). Addition of polyethylene glycol sharpened the OPP peak on GC/MS analysis. The recoveries from 9 kinds of agricultural products spiked at 0.01 and 0.5 microg/g each were mostly in the range of 70 to 120%, except for 50% recovery of OPP from barley spiked at 0.01 microg/g. The quantification limits (S/N > or =10) of DP and OPP were 0.0013 and 0.005 microg/g (0.0025 and 0.01 microg/g in barley and soybean), respectively.

  2. Methanol ice VUV photoprocessing: GC-MS analysis of volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Mrad, Ninette; Duvernay, Fabrice; Chiavassa, Thierry; Danger, Grégoire

    2016-05-01

    Next to water, methanol is one of the most abundant molecules in astrophysical ices. A new experimental approach is presented here for the direct monitoring via gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of a sublimating photoprocessed pure methanol ice. Unprecedentedly, in a same analysis, compelling evidences for the formation of 33 volatile organic compounds are provided. The latter are C1-C6 products including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, ethers and carboxylic acids. Few C3 and all C4 detected compounds have been identified for the first time. Tentative detections of few C5 and C6 compounds are also presented. GC-MS allows for the first time the direct quantification of C2-C4 photoproducts and shows that their abundances decrease with the increase of their carbon chain length. These qualitative and quantitative measurements provide important complementary results to previous experiments, and present interesting similarities with observations of sources rich in methanol.

  3. GC-MS analysis of off-odor volatiles from irradiated pork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The main compounds of off-odor volatiles from irradiated refrigerated vacuum-packaged pork were analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The analytical results showed that the main compounds of off-odor volatiles were dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, S-methyl thioacetate, and methanethiol. It was proved that the off-odor volatile came from irradiated S-containing amino acid and thiamin.

  4. Identification and determination of (+)-sesamin in Semen Cuscutae by capillary GC and GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    (+)-Sesamin was found in Semen Cuscutae for the first time. A rapid and simple approach for the analysis of (+)-sesamin in different sources of Semen Cuscutae is proposed, which used GC-FID for the determination of (+)-sesamin and GC-MS for its identification. The result suggested that this approach could be used to identify Semen Cuscutae from various sources based on the different content of (+)-sesamin in them.

  5. GC-MS Characterisation of Sapogenins from Sisal Waste and a Method to Isolate Pure Hecogenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jener David G. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five steroidal sapogenins (tigogenin, neotigogenina, hecogenin, gloriogenin, and dehydrohecogenin were characterised by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS from a hydrolysed extract of sisal waste. In addition, pure hecogenin, an important raw material for the pharmaceutical industry, was obtained from this waste by selective liquid-liquid extraction of saponins with only hecogenin as aglycone, followed by acid hydrolysis. The yield of pure hecogenin was 460 mg.Kg-1 of sisal waste.

  6. Phytochemical Analysis and GC-MS profiling in the leaves of Sauropus Androgynus (l) MERR

    OpenAIRE

    Senthamarai Selvi. V; Anusha Basker

    2012-01-01

    In the present the phytochemical analysis of Sauropus androgynus was carried out. Phytochemical analysis of the leaves of this plant is reported for the first time. The leaves indicated the presence of proteins, resins, steroids, tannins, glycosides, reducing sugar, carbohydrates, saponins, sterols, terpenoids, acidic compounds, cardiac glycosides, catechol, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids. In the GC-MS analysis the Sauropus androgynus extract result shows the presence of bioactive compounds w...

  7. In vitro characterization of borneol metabolites by GC-MS upon incubation with rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Liu, Chang-hui; Huang, Tian-lai; Wang, Ning-sheng; Mi, Sui-qing

    2008-01-01

    The metabolism of borneol is studied by the analysis of incubations of in vitro-prepared rat liver microsomes. A sensitive gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) method is developed for the identification of borneol and its metabolites. Four novel metabolites, which have not previously been reported, are isolated and confirmed by comparison of the GC-MS method. The biotransformation pathway of borneol in rat liver microsomes is proposed based on the in vitro results.

  8. Results of the GCMS Effluent Gas Analysis for the Brine Processing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance; Lee, Jeffrey; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Harris, Linden

    2015-01-01

    The effluent gas for the Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) were analyzed using Headspace GCMS Analysis in the recent AES FY14 Brine Processing Test. The results from the analysis describe the number and general chemical species of the chemicals produced. Comparisons were also made between the different chromatograms for each system, and an explanation of the differences in the results is reported.

  9. THE STUDY OF PHTHALATES MIGRATION IN WINE PRODUCTS BY GC-MS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Duca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown phthalates’ potential impact on human health due to their carcinogenic and endocrinedisrupting effects. More than 2000 analyses for determination of phthalates’ rests in alcoholic beverages were done in the laboratory of National Center for Quality Testing of the Alcoholic Beverages (Republic of Moldova using modern method of analysis like GC-MS. This article is an extended abstract of a communication presented at the Conference Ecological Chemistry 2012

  10. GC-MS ANALYSIS OF THE FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER IN JAPANESE QUAIL FAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dragalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated as production waste fat from Faraon quail breeds has been investigated for the first time by using GC-MS technique, preventively converting it via methanolysis to fatty acid methyl esters. The test results, regarding the content of unsaturated fatty acids having a favorable to human body cis-configuration (77.8%, confirm their nutritional value and the possibility of using this fat in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries.

  11. Efficiency of GC-MS method in detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin

    OpenAIRE

    Waś Ewa; Szczęsna Teresa; Rybak-Chmielewska Helena

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of the gas chromatography - mass detector (GC-MS) technique for the detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin, was evaluated. For this purpose, beeswax samples with paraffin additions (3, 5, 10, 30, 50%) were analysed. Since not enough is known about paraffin compositions, and since it is difficult to detect paraffin in beeswax, the aim of our research was also to compare the hydrocarbon composition of different types of paraffin. The analysis showed that the types of para...

  12. Clandestine laboratory scene investigation and processing using portable GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejczyk, Raymond J.

    1997-02-01

    This presentation describes the use of portable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for on-scene investigation and processing of clandestine laboratories. Clandestine laboratory investigations present special problems to forensic investigators. These crime scenes contain many chemical hazards that must be detected, identified and collected as evidence. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry performed on-scene with a rugged, portable unit is capable of analyzing a variety of matrices for drugs and chemicals used in the manufacture of illicit drugs, such as methamphetamine. Technologies used to detect various materials at a scene have particular applications but do not address the wide range of samples, chemicals, matrices and mixtures that exist in clan labs. Typical analyses performed by GC/MS are for the purpose of positively establishing the identity of starting materials, chemicals and end-product collected from clandestine laboratories. Concerns for the public and investigator safety and the environment are also important factors for rapid on-scene data generation. Here is described the implementation of a portable multiple-inlet GC/MS system designed for rapid deployment to a scene to perform forensic investigations of clandestine drug manufacturing laboratories. GC/MS has long been held as the 'gold standard' in performing forensic chemical analyses. With the capability of GC/MS to separate and produce a 'chemical fingerprint' of compounds, it is utilized as an essential technique for detecting and positively identifying chemical evidence. Rapid and conclusive on-scene analysis of evidence will assist the forensic investigators in collecting only pertinent evidence thereby reducing the amount of evidence to be transported, reducing chain of custody concerns, reducing costs and hazards, maintaining sample integrity and speeding the completion of the investigative process.

  13. Incorporating vegetation feedbacks in regional climate modeling over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanian, A.; Wang, G.; Yu, M.; Ahmed, K. F.; Anyah, R. O.

    2015-12-01

    Despite major advancements in modeling of the climate system, incorporating vegetation dynamics into climate models is still at the initial stages making it an ongoing research topic. Only few of GCMs participating in CMIP5 simulations included the vegetation dynamics component. Consideration for vegetation dynamics is even less common in RCMs. In this study, RegCM4.3.4-CLM4-CN-DV, a regional climate model synchronously coupled with a land surface component that includes both Carbon-Nitrogen (CN) and Dynamic-Vegetation (DV) processes is used to simulate and project regional climate over West Africa. Due to its unique regional features, West Africa climate is known for being susceptible to land-atmosphere interactions, enhancing the importance of including vegetation dynamics in modeling climate over this region. In this study the model is integrated for two scenarios (present-day and future) using outputs from four GCMs participating in CMIP5 (MIROC, CESM, GFDL and CCSM4) as lateral boundary conditions, which form the basis of a multi-model ensemble. Results of model validation indicates that ensemble of all models outperforms each of individual models in simulating present-day temperature and precipitation. Therefore, the ensemble set is used to analyze the impact of including vegetation dynamics in the RCM on future projection of West Africa's climate. Results from the ensemble analysis will be presented, together with comparison among individual models.

  14. An integrated approach utilising chemometrics and GC/MS for classification of chamomile flowers, essential oils and commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zhao, Jianping; Avonto, Cristina; Parcher, Jon F; Raman, Vijayasankar; Zweigenbaum, Jerry A; Wylie, Philip L; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-01-01

    As part of an ongoing research program on authentication, safety and biological evaluation of phytochemicals and dietary supplements, an in-depth chemical investigation of different types of chamomile was performed. A collection of chamomile samples including authenticated plants, commercial products and essential oils was analysed by GC/MS. Twenty-seven authenticated plant samples representing three types of chamomile, viz. German chamomile, Roman chamomile and Juhua were analysed. This set of data was employed to construct a sample class prediction (SCP) model based on stepwise reduction of data dimensionality followed by principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The model was cross-validated with samples including authenticated plants and commercial products. The model demonstrated 100.0% accuracy for both recognition and prediction abilities. In addition, 35 commercial products and 11 essential oils purported to contain chamomile were subsequently predicted by the validated PLS-DA model. Furthermore, tentative identification of the marker compounds correlated with different types of chamomile was explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simultaneous analysis of synthetic cannabinoids in the materials seized during drug trafficking using GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeyoung; Heo, Sewoong; Choe, Sanggil; Yang, Wonkyung; Park, Yuran; Kim, Eunmi; Chung, Heesun; Lee, Jaesin

    2013-05-01

    A rapid and simple gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed and validated to identify and quantify synthetic cannabinoids in the materials seized during drug trafficking. Accuracy and reproducibility of the method were improved by using deuterated JWH-018 and JWH-073 as internal standards. Validation results of the GC-MS method showed that it was suitable for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analyses of synthetic cannabinoids, and we analyzed synthetic cannabinoids in seized materials using the validated GC-MS method. As a result of the analysis, ten species of synthetic cannabinoids were identified in dried leaves (n = 40), bulk powders (n = 6), and tablets (n = 14) seized in Korea during 2009-2012, as a single ingredient or as a mixture with other active co-ingredients. JWH-018 and JWH-073 were the most frequently identified compounds in the seized materials. Synthetic cannabinoids in the dried leaves showed broad concentration ranges, which may cause unexpected toxicity to abusers. The bulk powders were considered as raw materials used to prepare legal highs, and they contained single ingredient of JWH-073, JWH-019, or JWH-250 with the purity over 70 %. In contrast, JWH-018 and JWH-073 contents in the tablets were 7.1-13.8 and 3.0-10.2 mg/g, respectively. Relatively low contents in the tablets suggest that the synthetic cannabinoids may have been added to the tablets as supplements to other active co-ingredients.

  16. GC-MS analysis of allergens in plant oils meant to cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaloustian Jacques

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous allergy occurs mainly as a result of the use of domestic products and cosmetics. Some fragrances, present in these products, may contain compounds that are responsible for allergy (allergens. The European Council offered a Directive limiting the level of 26 allergens found in cosmetics. GC-MS technique was used to determine the retention times of 25 allergens, determine detection and quantification limits and make calibration with standard solution of each allergen in concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 mgL–1 (21 allergens and 50 to 200 mgL–1 (4 allergens. Quantification was performed by the use of 2 internal standards (tetradecane and hexadecane. Seven oils issued from plants were studied by GC-MS. For all of them, the concentration of potential allergens was lower than their minimum detectable level. The alcoholic solution of extracts issued from different samples of oil did not demonstrate the presence of any quantifiable allergen, even when was concentrated 25 times. GC-MS could be a useful technique in the identification and, if necessary, quantification of allergen in ingredients meant to cosmetics.

  17. Comparison of Two Species of Notopterygium by GC-MS and HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix (Qianghuo, including Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H. T. Chang (NI and Notopterygium franchetii H. de Boiss (NF, is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Of these two plants, NI, is more commonly used and has a much higher price in the marketplace. To compare these two plants, a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was carried out, thus obtaining an overall characterization for both volatile and none-volatile compounds. Combined with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal component analysis, GC-MS was successfully applied to distinguish NF and NI. The chemical constitutes of volatile oil in NI and NF were firstly compared in detail, and 1R-alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and 4-isopropyl-1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene had great contribution to the discrimination. Fingerprints of 14 batches of Qinghuo samples were also established based on HPLC, and an obvious difference was found between the two species. The chromatographic fingerprints were further analyzed by similarity analysis and HCA. The present study is the first reported evaluation of two origins of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix by GC-MS and HPLC, which will facilitate quality control and its clinical application.

  18. Recently developed GC/MS and LC/MS methods for determining NSAIDs in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, M; Petrovic, M; Barceló, D

    2007-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals have become major targets in environmental chemistry due to their presence in aquatic environments (following incomplete removal in wastewater treatment or point-source contaminations), threat to drinking water sources and concern about their possible effects to wildlife and humans. Recently several methods have been developed for the determination of drugs and their metabolites in the lower nanogram per litre range, most of them using solid-phase extraction (SPE) or solid-phase microextraction (SPME), derivatisation and finally gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES/MS/MS). Due to the elevated polarity of non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs), analytical techniques based on either liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after a previous derivatisation step are essential. The most advanced aspects of current GC-MS, GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS methodologies for NSAID analysis are presented.

  19. GC/MS based identification of skunk spray maliciously deployed as "biological weapon" to harm civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennig, Robert; Schneider, Serge; Meys, François

    2010-05-15

    Our laboratory has been asked to elucidate the origin of a strong "toxic smell" present in a prominent politician's office, private house and motorcar. This stinky and pungent atmosphere has caused serious nausea and vomiting to several individuals. Urine samples were collected from the persons presenting symptoms of nausea for toxicological analysis. Drops, paper and cotton swabs of an oily liquid found at the implicated places were submitted by police to our laboratory for investigation. Methanol extracts of the drops were acetylated for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis in the electron impact mode; the cotton and paper swabs were analysed using headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS). The GC/MS analysis of the acetylated methanol extracts revealed that the major peaks of the chromatogram could be attributed to 2-methylquinoline, to 2-quinolinemethanethiol, to S-2-quinolinemethyl thioacetate, to 2-phenylethanethiol, to bis(E)-2-butenyl disulphide and to bis(3-methylbutyl) disulphide. Several volatile sulphur-containing compounds have been identified with the HS-GC/MS system. Detailed examination of the spectra as well as GC/MS analysis of commercially available skunk secret allowed us to relate the identified compounds to those present in the defence spray of skunks. No health sequels were observed for any of the persons implicated in this case.

  20. Pyrolysis-GCMS Analysis of Solid Organic Products from Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic synthesis of complex organic compounds in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system is hypothesized to occur via a Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) synthesis involving the reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases over metal and metal oxide catalysts. In general, at low temperatures (less than 200 C), FTT synthesis is expected to form abundant alkane compounds while at higher temperatures (greater than 200 C) it is expected to product lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater amounts of alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experiments utilizing a closed-gas circulation system to study the effects of FTT reaction temperature, catalysts, and number of experimental cycles on the resulting solid insoluble organic products are being performed in the laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These experiments aim to determine whether or not FTT reactions on grain surfaces in the protosolar nebula could be the source of the insoluble organic matter observed in meteorites. The resulting solid organic products are being analyzed at NASA Johnson Space Center by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PY-GCMS). PY-GCMS yields the types and distribution of organic compounds released from the insoluble organic matter generated from the FTT reactions. Previously, exploratory work utilizing PY-GCMS to characterize the deposited organic materials from these reactions has been reported. Presented here are new organic analyses using magnetite catalyst to produce solid insoluble organic FTT products with varying reaction temperatures and number of experimental cycles.

  1. First detection of an NSAID, flunixin, in sheep's wool using GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Ngaio, E-mail: ngaio.richards@anglia.ac.uk [Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 1PT (United Kingdom); Hall, Sarah [Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 1PT (United Kingdom); Scott, Karen [Forensic Medicine and Science, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Harrison, Nancy [Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 1PT (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Exposure to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac resulted in the near extinction of three species of Gyps vultures on the Indian subcontinent. Other NSAIDs present in the environment, including flunixin, may pose a similar risk. In the course of a study to determine the feasibility of detecting NSAIDs in keratinous matrices (i.e., hair, nails and feathers) using GC-MS, wool opportunistically collected from a sheep treated with flunixin was analysed for residues. Flunixin was detected qualitatively in external wool wash and extract samples. While residues of veterinary agents and pesticides have previously been found in sheep's wool, our preliminary investigation provides the first instance of an NSAID being detected in this matrix. Here we provide the sample preparation methods and GC-MS parameters used to enable further refinement as part of ongoing conservation and consumer quality control measures. - Highlights: > In this study we qualitatively detected the NSAID flunixin in sheep's wool using GC-MS. > Potential applications of this technique to the conservation of avian scavengers are outlined. > The quantitative and confirmatory steps required to fully validate the method are also provided. - This is the first time that an NSAID has been investigated or detected in sheep's wool. As such, it details a novel exposure pathway for scavenging species in the environment and offers a potential tool for future monitoring effort in vulture conservation.

  2. Minimum Cost Estimation of a Baseline Survey for a Molecular Epidemiology Cohort Study: Collecting Participants in a Model Region in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Ohashi, Kayo; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Some recent molecular epidemiology studies of the effects of genetic and environmental factors on human health have required the enrollment of more than 100 000 participants and the involvement of regional study offices across the country. Although regional study office investigators play a critical role in these studies, including the acquisition of funds, this role is rarely discussed. Methods We first differentiated the functions of the regional and central study offices. We then investigated the minimum number of items required and approximate cost of a molecular epidemiology study enrolling 7400 participants from a model region with a population of 100 000 for a 4-year baseline survey using a standard protocol developed based on the protocol of Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation. Results The functions of the regional study office were identified, and individual expenses were itemized. The total cost of the 4-year baseline survey was 153 million yen, excluding consumption tax. Accounting difficulties in conducting the survey were clarified. Conclusions We investigated a standardized example of the tasks and total actual costs of a regional study office. Our approach is easy to utilize and will help improve the management of regional study offices in future molecular epidemiology studies. PMID:27001116

  3. Time, Attitude, and User Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Lene

    2008-01-01

    , equivocation, resistance and rejection depending on three things: (1) the dynamic between user and consultants, (2) the dynamic between different user groups, and (3) the understanding of technical, organizational and socio-technical options. When relating the empirical findings to existing theory on user...... be that the perception of usefulness of the system in any given phase of the implementation is heavily dependent on preceding events—the process. A process model analysis identifies eight episodes and nine encounters in the case showing that the user’s attitude towards the ERP system changes between acceptance...... participation, it is argued that the changes could be explained as a slide from influential user participation toward pseudo participation and back to influential participation, and that user participation in the context of ERP implementations raises new issues regarding user participation. Thus further...

  4. Use of On-Site GC/MS Analysis to Distinguish between Vapor Intrusion and Indoor Sources of VOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    ER-201119) Use of On-Site GC/MS Analysis to Distinguish between Vapor Intrusion and Indoor Sources of VOC December 2013 This document...SUBTITLE Use of On-Site GC/MS Analysis to Distinguish between Vapor Intrusion and Indoor Sources of VOC 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE VAPOR INTRUSION ........................ 21 6.3.1 Site-by-Site Analysis of Results: Building VI Classifications ................. 21

  5. The psychology of participation and interest in smart energy systems : Comparing the value-belief-norm theory and the value-identity-personal norm model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Ellen; Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems can be reduced if people would participate in smart energy systems. Little is known about which factors motivate people to actually participate in smart energy systems. We tested the factors that influence individuals’ interest and actual participation in smart energy systems.

  6. The psychology of participation and interest in smart energy systems : Comparing the value-belief-norm theory and the value-identity-personal norm model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Ellen; Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems can be reduced if people would participate in smart energy systems. Little is known about which factors motivate people to actually participate in smart energy systems. We tested the factors that influence individuals’ interest and actual participation in smart energy systems.

  7. MODEL OF FORMATION OF SOCIAL AND PEDAGOGICAL COMPETENCE OF FUTURE TEACHER FOR WORK WITH PUPILS – PARTICIPANTS OF INFORMAL YOUTH ASSOCIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergej Sergejevich Kukulin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The model of formation of social and pedagogical competence of future teacher for work with pupils – participants informal youth association is presented in article. Opening this perspective, authors are guided by the analysis of conditions of realization of this model, namely the following: the developed cultural and educational environment of university which due to use of the principle of democratization of intergroup interaction can be transformed to such form as actions on which interaction with informal youth associations is carried out; flexibility and innovation educational system of university allows to integrate the formal, informal and accompanying education; existence in university of the flexible multicultural educational system functioning according to the principles of variability, cooperation, tolerance. As methodical tools of formation of social and pedagogical competence of future teacher authors consider the methods focused on realization of the principles of variability, freedom and activity in self-determination by the identity of the choice and independent decision-making; maintenances of educational process; partnership, cooperations, cooperation; tolerances, dialogue and understanding.

  8. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation

  9. Structure prediction of methyoxy-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) through GC-MS analysis of their corresponding PBDEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Liu, Jiyan; Wang, Thanh; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Zhou, Qunfang; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-05-15

    It is hard to quantify the trace pollutants in the environment without the corresponding reference standards. Structure identifications of unknown organic pollutants are thus of great importance in environmental analysis. As for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) with one substituent of methoxyl group, there are 837 congeners, but only 32 standards are commercially available. In this work, an effective method based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was proposed to predict the potential structures of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs). The mass fragmentation pattern using SIM mode not only provided the useful information on the substitution position of methoxyl group, the number of Br atoms, but also guaranteed the high sensitivity for trace analysis. Br distribution patterns of the unknown MeO-PBDEs were revealed by a linear regression model with dummy variables which described the retention time relationship between MeO-PBDEs and the corresponding PBDEs on different types of GC columns. This method was successfully used to identify three new MeO-PBDEs metabolites of BDE-28 as 4-MeO-BDE-22, 4'-MeO-BDE-25 and 4-MeO-BDE-31 in the pumpkins. Therefore, the newly developed structure prediction model based on GC-MS behavior is helpful in the evaluation of unknown PBDE metabolites in the environment.

  10. 城市居民社区参与模式、有效性及未来发展趋势分析%An analysis on the urban community participation model, effectiveness and future development trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂松

    2013-01-01

    Urban Community participation is an important factor in the Community development the research of Mobilization participation mode is a new field under the low awareness, narrow scope, and insignificance of community participation. The thesis divides urban community participation models into four models according to mobilization subject:formal community organizations mobilization participation model, Informal community organization mobilization participation model,formal community elite leading participation model and informal community elites leading participation model. The four models have different characteristics through field research.%城市居民社区参与直接影响到社区的发展建设。在我国居民社区参与总体意识不高、参与范围较窄、参与不足等现实情况下,动员型参与模式的研究成为社区参与研究的一个新的领域。根据动员主体的不同,将动员型参与模式分为四种类型:社区正式组织动员型、社区非正式组织动员型、社区正式精英动员型与社区非正式精英组织动员型。在实地调查研究中发现,这四种类型在形式、特点及有效性与未来发展趋势中各不相同。

  11. Health and Labor Force Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Monroe; Johnson, William G.

    1974-01-01

    Analytic labor force participation models which exclude information on worker health care lack explanatory power. If costs of disability can be separated through better information into costs reducible through delivery of health care, and costs more appropriately dealt with through labor market policies, the models will be improved. (KP)

  12. A simplified method for the analysis of urinary cotinine by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos da Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine and, being very stable and having a long biological half-life, it can be used as a biomarker for tobacco exposure. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical GC-MS technique to measure levels of cotinine in the urine of active and passive smokers and to compare the results with reference values. The extraction of cotinine to generate the calibration curve was performed by mixing urine (250 µL with 50 µL of a cotinine standard, 50 µL of an internal standard of deuterated cotinine (15 µg∙mL-1 and 50 µL of 10% NH4 OH solution. Next, 2 mL of a mixture of MTBE:dichloromethane:ethyl acetate (30:30:40 by volume was added and the whole was vortexed, then centrifuged at 3000 rpm. Finally, 1.6 mL of the organic layer was evaporated under a stream of dry air at 50 °C. The resulting extract was dissolved in methanol and injected into the GC-MS system. The LOQ and LOD for cotinine were 100 and 20 ng∙mL-1, respectively. The curve was linear over the whole tested range of 100 - 5000 ng∙mL-1 and the method achieved 50% recovery. The intra and inter-day precisions were 1.62 – 7.28% and 0.86 – 2.68%, respectively. Accuracy was determined at three concentrations (low, medium and high, with six replicates (95.24 – 97.67%. The validation of this cotinine assay by GC-MS showed that it exhibited satisfactory limits and the assay could be performed with a one-step liquid-liquid extraction. The technique presented here can thus be used for the quantitation of cotinine levels in the urine of passive and active smokers.

  13. Rapid analysis for 567 pesticides and endocrine disrupters by GC/MS using deconvolution reporting software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylie, P.; Szelewski, M.; Meng, Chin-Kai [Agilent Technologies, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2004-09-15

    More than 700 pesticides are approved for use around the world, many of which are suspected endocrine disrupters. Other pesticides, though no longer used, persist in the environment where they bioaccumulate in the flora and fauna. Analytical methods target only a subset of the possible compounds. The analysis of food and environmental samples for pesticides is usually complicated by the presence of co-extracted natural products. Food or tissue extracts can be exceedingly complex matrices that require several stages of sample cleanup prior to analysis. Even then, it can be difficult to detect trace levels of contaminants in the presence of the remaining matrix. For efficiency, multi-residue methods (MRMs) must be used to analyze for most pesticides. Traditionally, these methods have relied upon gas chromatography (GC) with a constellation of element-selective detectors to locate pesticides in the midst of a variable matrix. GC with mass spectral detection (GC/MS) has been widely used for confirmation of hits. Liquid chromatography (LC) has been used for those compounds that are not amenable to GC. Today, more and more pesticide laboratories are relying upon LC with mass spectral detection (LC/MS) and GC/MS as their primary analytical tools. Still, most MRMs are target compound methods that look for a small subset of the possible pesticides. Any compound not on the target list is likely to be missed by these methods. Using the techniques of retention time locking (RTL) and RTL database searching together with spectral deconvolution, a method has been developed to screen for 567 pesticides and suspected endocrine disrupters in a single GC/MS analysis. Spectral deconvolution helps to identify pesticides even when they co-elute with matrix compounds while RTL helps to eliminate false positives and gives greater confidence in the results.

  14. Identification of natural indigo in historical textiles by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Laura; Riedo, Chiara; Chiantore, Oscar

    2015-02-01

    The possibility of successfully applying a common GC-MS procedure for identification in one step of all types of dyes from plants of unknown origin and from historical objects is particularly attractive due to the high separation efficiency of the capillary columns, the MS detection sensitivity and the reproducibility of results. In this work, GC-MS analysis, previously and successfully used for the characterization of anthraquinones, flavonoids and tannins from plant extracts and historical samples, has been tested on indigoid dyestuffs. An analytical procedure based on the silylating agent N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) was applied to pure molecules of indigotin and indirubin and to plant extracts of Indigofera tinctoria L. and Isatis tinctoria L. Preliminary tests have been done to establish the chromatographic conditions and the derivatization amounts most suitable for the simultaneous detection of indigoid molecules and of the other natural compounds, such as fatty acids, carboxylic acids and sugars, contained within the plant extracts. In order to assess the capacity and the sensitivity of the analytical procedure in typical archaeometric applications, wool samples dyed in the laboratory with indigo were analysed by mimicking the sample amounts typically available with historical objects. The electron ionization (EI) spectra of the main silylated derivatives of indigoid molecules obtained in this way constitute the necessary data set for the characterization of natural extracts and historical works of art. Subsequently, the procedure has been applied to historical samples for the detection of indigo and of other dyestuffs eventually contained in samples. Additional information, useful for restoration and preservation of works of art, could be also obtained on the nature of stains and smudges present on the sampled textile material. The GC-MS method turns out to be an efficient and fast analytical tool

  15. A potential tool for diagnosis of male infertility: Plasma metabolomics based on GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyi; Wang, Yang; Yun, Yonghuan; Xia, Zian; Lu, Hongmei; Luo, Jiekun; Liang, Yizeng

    2016-01-15

    Male infertility has become an important public health problem worldwide. Nowadays the diagnosis of male infertility frequently depends on the results of semen quality or requires more invasive surgical intervention. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel approach for early diagnosis of male infertility. According to the presence or absence of normal sexual function, the male infertility is classified into two phenotypes, erectile dysfunction (ED) and semen abnormalities (SA). The aim of this study was to investigate the GC-MS plasma profiles of infertile male having erectile dysfunction (ED) and having semen abnormalities (SA) and discover the potential biomarkers. The plasma samples from healthy controls (HC) (n=61) and infertility patients with ED (n=26) or with SA (n=44) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for discrimination and screening potential biomarkers. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed on GC-MS dataset. The results showed that HC could be discriminated from infertile cases having SA (AUC=86.96%, sensitivity=78.69%, specificity=84.09%, accuracy=80.95%) and infertile cases having ED (AUC=94.33%, sensitivity=80.33%, specificity=100%, accuracy=87.36%). Some potential biomarkers were successfully discovered by two commonly used variable selection methods, variable importance on projection (VIP) and original coefficients of PLS-DA (β). 1,5-Anhydro-sorbitol and α-hydroxyisovaleric acid were identified as the potential biomarkers for distinguishing HC from the male infertility patients. Meanwhile, lactate, glutamate and cholesterol were the found to be the important variables to distinguish between patients with erectile dysfunction from those with semen abnormalities. The plasma metabolomics may be developed as a novel approach for fast, noninvasive, and acceptable diagnosis and characterization of male infertility.

  16. The Transformation of Employee Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni; Knudsen, Herman; Lind, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on the relationship between employee participation, influence and the work environment. The main part of the literature points to a positive connection in line with how it has been almost institutionalised in Karasek and Theorell´s demand control......-model. However, more recent research into psychosocial work environment problems questions the model’s assumption of high job control compensating for high job demands. Taking its point of departure in a `deconstruction´ of the concept of participation based on research on employee participation from the past...... few decades, the article discuss what factors and changes have resulted in that increased employee participation does not seem to result in a healthy work environment. The article concludes on the limitations of the demand control-model in modern working life given contextual changes in the employer-employee...

  17. Using a semi distributed model to enhance communication with stakeholders and participation for designing nitrogen-efficient cropping systems in a catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupas, Rémi; Parnaudeau, Virginie; Reau, Raymond; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Durand, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Context Catchment scale fully distributed agro-hydrological models are often advocated to evaluate the effect of N mitigation plans on water quality. This type of model is well suited to predict nitrate concentration in rivers under different scenarios, thanks to the variety of processes considered (e.g. groundwater table fluctuations, retention by landscape structures). The role of stakeholders is often limited to providing input data for the modeling; participation only takes place when defining the scenarios to be tested (e.g. implementation of a regulation). In most cases, characterization of the cropping systems and their evolution is carried out by scientists alone based on data from surveys and external expert knowledge. For instance, crop succession on each field plot is determined using complex statistical methods or remote sensing data, generating a complex system description that is not always adapted to the stakeholder's issues. However, modeling with stakeholders at local scale enables increasing and sharing knowledge by collaborative learning. We assume that involving stakeholders in the characterization of the cropping systems to be modeled, and simplifying system description, helps performing modeling studies that answer their questions on design of N efficient cropping systems. The model Syst'N is a tool designed to increase knowledge on nitrogen losses in cropping systems, at the plot scale. This tool, beyond a mere simulation model, was developed in order to meet requirements and constraints of non scientific users such as local stakeholders involved in water quality actions. They are referred to as 'stakeholders' hereafter. In this simulation study, N losses at the outlet of the catchment result from an aggregation of losses simulated in 63 homogenous simulation units (HSU), representing cropping systems present in the catchment. Learnings from field experience with stakeholders The field experience described here is from a 80km² catchment

  18. GC-MS investigation of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids in Galanthus xvalentinei nothosubsp. subplicatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Buket Bozkurt; Berkov, Strahil; Bastida, Jaume; Kaya, Gulen Irem; Onur, Mustafa Ali; Somer, Nehir Unver

    2013-03-01

    A GC-MS analysis of alkaloids in the aerial parts and bulbs of Galanthus xvalentinei nothosubsp. subplicatus was performed for the first time. Totally, twenty-six alkaloids were identified, of which tazettine and galanthindole were the major ones. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the alkaloidal extracts was determined using modified in vitro Ellman's method. Significant anticholinesterase activity was observed in the tested samples (bulbs: IC50 = 21.3 microg/mL, aerial parts: IC50 = 16.3 microg/mL).

  19. GC-MS investigation and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Galanthus rizehensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Buket Bozkurt; Somer, Nehir Unver; Kaya, Gulen Irem; Onur, Mustafa Ali; Bastida, Jaume; Berkov, Strahil

    2013-01-01

    GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analyses of alkaloids in the aerial parts and bulbs of Galanthus rizehensis Stern (Amaryllidaceae), collected during two different vegetation periods, was performed. Twenty three alkaloids were identified in four different alkaloid extracts. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities of the alkaloid extracts were tested. Both the highest alkaloid diversity and the most potent inhibitory activity (IC50 12.94 microg/ml) were obtained in extracts from the bulbs of G. rizehensis collected during the fruiting period.

  20. [THC-carbonic acid determination in serum with fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA, TDX) and GCMS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, H W

    1989-01-01

    The Urine-Immuno-Assay (Abbot, TDX) for Cannabis you may also use for the investigation of blood or serum. First the protein is precipitated by Metanol. The solvent is removed by a gentle stream of nitrogen and the solution reconstituted with Phosphat-Buffer. You may handle this solution like urine. Confirmation analysis is made by GCMS after extraction using C-18-extraction tubes and derivation with a proper reagent. Detection limit is about 10 ng/ml. You need only 0.3 ml Serum.

  1. [Analysis of essential oil extracted from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Haji, Akber Aisa

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang. The components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 62 components were identified from 71 separated peaks,amounting to total mass fraction 95.07%. The dominant compounds were n-Hexanol (36.31%), n-Hexanal (13.71%), trans-2-Octen-l-ol (8.09%) and 2-n-Pentylfuran (4.41%). The research provides a theoretical basis for the exploitation and use of Lactuca sativa seeds resource.

  2. GC/MS Analysis of Organic Compounds in Hot Water-Extractable Fraction from Shenfu Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bao-min; YUAN Cheng; ZONG Zhi-min; CAO Jing-pei; LIU Guang-feng; WEI Xian-yong

    2007-01-01

    Shenfu Coal was extracted with hot pure water and slurry was isolated. The concentrated benzene-soluble fraction (CBSF) was analyzed with GC/MS and four types of organic compounds (OCs) were detected: HACOCs, DTEs, DMDT and LCAs. The amount of benzyl benzoate which is the most abundant OC was calculated by an internal standard method with an indicated amount of BP. The broken hydrogen bonds and ether bonds were responsible for the extraction of OCs from the coal .DTEs, DMDT and LCAs are essentially insoluble in water, whereas they are soluble, probably owing to intermolecular interaction of OCs with HACOCs.

  3. LC/MS and SFC/MS: will they replace GC/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.

    1987-07-01

    Will LC/MS and SFC/MS eventually replace GC/MS as the method of choice for organic trace analysis. This question was addressed at a symposium organized by Richard Browner of the Georgia Institute of Technology at this year's Pittsburgh Conference in Atlantic City, NJ. The symposium, one of the best-attended technical sessions at this year's meeting, featured presentations by Browner, Ron Hites of Indiana University, Jack Henion of Cornell University, Dick Smith of Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Marvin Vestal of The University of Houston.

  4. Analysis of Turkish lignite tar by coupled LC/GC, GC/MS, and capillary SFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, I.L.; Raynor, M.W.; Urwin, D.J.; Bartle, K.D.; Tolay, M.; Ekinci, E.; Schwartz, H.E.

    1988-11-01

    This work describes the analysis of a pyrolysis product of a lignite sample obtained from the Turkish Goynuk reserve. The aliphatic, aromatic and polar compounds present in the tar are separated and identified by various chromatographic techniques: capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), on-line high performance microbore liquid chromatography/capillary gas chromatography (LC/GC) and capillary supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The suitability of each technique for this particular application is discussed, and semi-quantitative results are presented for the major components detected. 35 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Determination of the Juglone Content of Juglans regia Leaves by GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matławska, Irena; Bylka, Wiesława; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa; Stanisz, Beata

    2015-07-01

    The constituents of walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves are represented by tannins, phenolics, and naphthoquinones, the characteristic compound being juglone. The content of juglone in the methanolic extract of the leaves determined by the GC/MS method was 9.9 ± 0.2 mg/100 g; small amounts (1.3 ± 0.02 mg/100 g) were recorded in the infusion, whereas in the decoction it was not detected. As some studies indicate toxicity of juglone, only decoctions should be recommended for therapeutic use.

  6. [Volatile Oil Analysis of Piper hongkongense form Different Hatbitats by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Xie, Feng-feng; Yan, Ping-hua; Gan, Ri-cheng; Zhu, Hua

    2015-02-01

    To analyze the volatile oil in Piper hongkongense from five different habitats. The volatile oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The volatile components oil of each sample varied significantly. Caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene and nerolidol 2 were common constituents of five samples. The volatile oil and chemical constituent contents of fresh sample were higher than that of the old sample. The volatile oil and chemical constituent contents of Piper hongkongense from different habitats have sig- nificant differences, which are affected by habitats, harvest season, storage time and so on.

  7. Quantitative analysis of IBP-C/sub 20/ fraction of oil by GC/MS coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castex, H.; Boulet, R.; Juguin, J.; Lepinasse, A. (Institut Francais du Petrole 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France))

    A quantitative analysis method has been developed by coupling GC/MS with a packed column. It operates at medium resolution, sorting out the exact masses of saturated, aromatic and sulfur-containing hydrocarbons. Based on the obtaining of an average spectrum of well-defined carbon fractions, this method uses coefficient matrices available in the literature and plots a detailed hydrocarbon distribution for which the applications described are interesting. The method fulfills several aims. It makes a distillation and separation by liquid chromatography unnecessary. It can be used with very small quantities of product, with a reduced operating cost.

  8. Identification of Synthesis Routes of "Ecstasy" by GC-MS Coupled Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogies%气相色谱-质谱联用结合软独立建模分类法识别摇头丸的合成途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国萍; 蔡锡兰; 相秉仁

    2005-01-01

    @@ 摇头丸的合成原料以及合成途径很多,对缴获的摇头丸进行检测时发现,几乎每一粒片剂中都存在与合成途径相关的各种杂质,且不同合成途径产生的杂质体系大致相同.根据杂质情况推断其合成途径有较大的模糊性.本文应用模式识别中软独立建模分类法(soft independent modeling of class analogies,SIMCA)对杂质与合成途径的关系进行了研究,建立了一种较为理想的用于推断摇头丸合成途径的方法,为实战缉毒工作提供了依据.

  9. User participation in implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Benedicte; Rasmussen, Rasmus; Simonsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Systems development has been claimed to benefit from user participation, yet user participation in implementation activities may be more common and is a growing focus of participatory-design work. We investigate the effect of the extensive user participation in the implementation of a clinical...... system by empirically analyzing how management, participating staff, and non-participating staff view the implementation process with respect to areas that have previously been linked to user participation such as system quality, emergent interactions, and psychological buy-in. The participating staff...... experienced more uncertainty and frustration than management and non-participating staff, especially concerning how to run an implementation process and how to understand and utilize the configuration possibilities of the system. This suggests that user participation in implementation introduces a need...

  10. Connecting Participant Observation Positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCurdy, Patrick; Uldam, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we argue for the importance of considering participant observation roles in relation to both insider/outsider and overt/covert roles. Through combining key academic debates on participant observation, which have separately considered insider/outsider and overt/covert participant...... observation, we develop a reflexive framework to assist researchers in (1) locating the type of participant observation research; (2) identifying implications of participant observation for both the research and the subjects under study; and (3) reflecting on how one’s role as participant observer shifts over...

  11. Deriving percentage study weights in multi-parameter meta-analysis models: with application to meta-regression, network meta-analysis and one-stage individual participant data models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Richard D; Ensor, Joie; Jackson, Dan; Burke, Danielle L

    2017-01-01

    Many meta-analysis models contain multiple parameters, for example due to multiple outcomes, multiple treatments or multiple regression coefficients. In particular, meta-regression models may contain multiple study-level covariates, and one-stage individual participant data meta-analysis models may contain multiple patient-level covariates and interactions. Here, we propose how to derive percentage study weights for such situations, in order to reveal the (otherwise hidden) contribution of each study toward the parameter estimates of interest. We assume that studies are independent, and utilise a decomposition of Fisher's information matrix to decompose the total variance matrix of parameter estimates into study-specific contributions, from which percentage weights are derived. This approach generalises how percentage weights are calculated in a traditional, single parameter meta-analysis model. Application is made to one- and two-stage individual participant data meta-analyses, meta-regression and network (multivariate) meta-analysis of multiple treatments. These reveal percentage study weights toward clinically important estimates, such as summary treatment effects and treatment-covariate interactions, and are especially useful when some studies are potential outliers or at high risk of bias. We also derive percentage study weights toward methodologically interesting measures, such as the magnitude of ecological bias (difference between within-study and across-study associations) and the amount of inconsistency (difference between direct and indirect evidence in a network meta-analysis).

  12. Comparative GC/MS and LC/MS detection of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in soil and water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, M.; Hamm, S. [Eurofins, Hamburg (Germany)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Arbeitswissenschaft e.V. (GfA), Dortmund (Germany); Schaefer, A. [Eurofins Analytik GmbH, Wiertz - Eggert - Joerissen, Hamburg (Germany); Esser, U. [GfA Constult GmbH, Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a crucial additive flame retardant (FR) for FR Polystyrene insulation foams (both expandable (EPS) as well as extrudable polystyrene (XPS)), polystyrene masterbatches and textile FR coatings. The total consumption of HBCD within the European Union (EU) is estimated to be about 10,000 tons out of 16,700 worldwide per year. The technical HBCD product usually is a mixture of the three diastereoisomers {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-HBCD with the {gamma}- isomer as main component. Compared to other flame retardants only few data on HBCD levels in the environment have been published. Within this study a series of soil and water samples from HBCD processing plants was analysed by GC/MS (LRMS-EI). Besides GC/MS, also liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is often used for HBCD detection in environmental samples. Whilst GC/MS only provides information about the total of the three HBCD isomers, LC/MS is able to selectively monitor and quantify the three components. On the other hand GC/MS usually has the advantage of a higher sensitivity. In order to verify the GC/MS results and to check the comparability to LC/MS analytical data, five soil and five water samples showing a wide range of HBCD concentrations were analysed by using both techniques. The comparative analyses by means of LC/MS confirmed the HBCD identification and quantification of the GC/MS. The differences between the total HBCD results of the GC/MS and the LC/MS analyses were less than 24%. The {gamma}- isomer proved to be the main HBCD diastereoisomer in the soil and water samples tested.

  13. Scaling of particle production with number of participants in high-energy A + A collisions in the parton-cascade model

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, D K; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar; Geiger, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    In view of the recent WA98 data of $\\pi^0$ spectra from central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS, we analyze the production of neutral pions for A+A collisions across the periodic table at $\\sqrt{s}=17$ AGeV and 200 AGeV within the framework of the parton-cascade model for relativistic heavy ion collisions. The multiplicity of the pions (having $p_T > 0.5$ GeV) in the central rapidity region, is seen to scale as $\\sim (N_{part})^{\\alpha}$, where $N_{part}$ is the number of participating nucleons, which we have approximated as 2A for central collisions of identical nuclei. We argue that the deviation of $\\alpha$ ($\\simeq 1.2$) from unity may have its origin in the multiple scattering suffered by the partons. We also find that the constant of proportionality in the above scaling relation increases substantially in going from SPS to RHIC energies. This would imply that the (semi)hard partonic activity becomes a much cleaner signal above the soft particle production at the higher energy of RHIC, and thus much les...

  14. Scaling of particle production with number of participants in high-energy A + A collisions in the parton-cascade model

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, D K; Srivastava, Dinesh K.; Geiger, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    In view of the recent WA98 data of pi0 spectra from central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS, we analyze the production of neutral pions for A+$ collisions across the periodic table at sqrt(s)=17 AGeV and 200 AGeV within the framework of the parton-cascade model for relativistic heavy ion collisions. The multiplicity of the pions (having pT > 0.5 GeV/c) in the central rapidity region, is seen to scale as \\sim (N_part)^alpha, where N_part$ is the number of participating nucleons, which we have approximated as 2A for central collisions of identical nuclei. We argue that the deviation of \\alpha (\\simeq 1.2) from unity may have its origin in the multiple scattering suffered by the partons. We also find that the constant of proportionality in the above scaling relation increases substantially in going from SPS to RHIC energies. This would imply that the (semi)hard partonic activity becomes a much cleaner signal above the soft particle production at the higher energy of RHIC, and thus much less dependent on the (la...

  15. Scaling of particle production with number of participants in high-energy A+A collisions in the parton-cascade model

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, D K

    1999-01-01

    In view of the recent WA98 data of pi /sup 0/ spectra from central Pb +Pb collisions at the CERN SPS, we analyze the production of neutral pions for A+A collisions across the periodic table at square root (s) =17 AGeV and 200 AGeV within the framework of the parton-cascade model for relativistic heavy ion collisions. The multiplicity of the pions (having p/sub T/ > 0.5 GeV) in the central rapidity region, is seen to scale as ~(N/sub part/)/sup alpha /, where N/sub part/ is the number of participating nucleons, which we have approximated as 2 A for central collisions of identical nuclei. We argue that the deviation of alpha ( equivalent to 1.2) from unity may have its origin in the multiple scattering suffered by the partons. We also find that the constant of proportionality in the above scaling relation increases substantially in going from SPS to RHIC energies. This would imply that the (semi)hard partonic activity becomes a much cleaner signal above the soft particle production at the higher energy of RHIC,...

  16. Evaluation of a CMIP5 derived dynamical global wind wave climate model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemer, Mark A.; Trenham, Claire E.

    2016-07-01

    Much effort has gone into evaluating the skill of General Circulation Models (GCMs) for 'standard' climate variables such as surface (air and/or sea) temperature, or precipitation. Whether climate model skill to simulate standard variables translates to the performance of dynamical GCM forced wind-wave simulations is yet to be established. We assess an ensemble of historical dynamical wave climate simulations whereby surface winds taken from GCMs participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) are used to force a spectral wave model. The GCMs used include 8 CMIP5 models and two dynamically downscaled CMIP3 models. The climatological properties of key integrated wave parameters (significant wave height, maximum wave height, mean wave period and direction) are evaluated, using two independent methods, relative to three historical wave hindcast/reanalysis datasets over 13 areas of the global ocean. We identify that high performance of GCMs for 'standard' climate variables does not imply high performance for GCM forced wave simulations. We also identify there is little to no benefit in choosing a higher resolution CMIP5 GCM (with resolution of ∼1.4°) over a lower resolution GCM (∼2.8°) to improve skill of GCM forced dynamical wave simulations. With the conscious push towards developing projections of waves and storm surges to aid assessments of possible climate driven impacts to coastal communities, we stress the need to evaluate the performance of a GCM for the marine meteorological climate independently of the performance of the GCM for the 'standard' climate variables.

  17. Phytochemical screening and GC-MS determination of bioactive constituents from methanol leaf extract ofSenna occidentalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aisha Mohammad Ibrahim; Bashir Lawal; Ndababru Amos Tsado; Abubakar Awwal Yusuf; Adisa Mohammed Jimoh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To identify the active ingredients presented in methanol extract ofSenna occidentalis(S. occidentalis). Methods: Dried powdered leaves ofS. occidentalis were extracted with methanol by Soxhlet extraction and the extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening by using standard procedure and methods. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis was performed by comprising aGC-MS (model: QP2010 Plus Shimadzu, Japan) comprising an AOC-20i auto-sampler and gas-chromatograph interfaced to a mass spectrometer. Results: The phytochemical study revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycoside, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, anthraquinones and phlobatannins while cardiac glycoside was not detected.GC-MS chromatogram showed nine peaks. A total of 31 compounds were identified when the mass spectra of the constituents was compared with the National Institute Standard and Technology library. The first compounds identified with less retention time (15.929 s) were n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and pentadecanoic acid while decanoic acid, decyl ester, ether, octadecyl vinyl, oleic acid, hexyl ester, stearic acid, octadecyl ester and decyl fluoride took the longest retention time (20.600 s) for identification. Conclusions:The presence of these compounds in the plant extract may at least be responsible for one of the pharmacological properties ofS. occidentalis and thus could be of considerable interest to the development of new drugs.

  18. Classification of Coffee Beans by GC-C-IRMS, GC-MS, and 1H-NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Andrea Arana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous work using 1H-NMR we reported encouraging steps towards the construction of a robust expert system for the discrimination of coffees from Colombia versus nearby countries (Brazil and Peru, to assist the recent protected geographical indication granted to Colombian coffee in 2007. This system relies on fingerprints acquired on a 400 MHz magnet and is thus well suited for small scale random screening of samples obtained at resellers or coffee shops. However, this approach cannot easily be implemented at harbour’s installations, due to the elevated operational costs of cryogenic magnets. This limitation implies shipping the samples to the NMR laboratory, making the overall approach slower and thereby more expensive and less attractive for large scale screening at harbours. In this work, we report on our attempt to obtain comparable classification results using alternative techniques that have been reported promising as an alternative to NMR: GC-MS and GC-C-IRMS. Although statistically significant information could be obtained by all three methods, the results show that the quality of the classifiers depends mainly on the number of variables included in the analysis; hence NMR provides an advantage since more molecules are detected to obtain a model with better predictions.

  19. Participation and agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The article adresses the gap between the rhetoric and practice of participation in urban environmental planning in Europe.......The article adresses the gap between the rhetoric and practice of participation in urban environmental planning in Europe....

  20. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  1. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z > Participating in Clinical Trials: About Clinical Trials In This Topic About Clinical Trials Risks and Benefits ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Participating in Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials A Research Study ...

  2. Participation and agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The article adresses the gap between the rhetoric and practice of participation in urban environmental planning in Europe.......The article adresses the gap between the rhetoric and practice of participation in urban environmental planning in Europe....

  3. GC-MS studies of the chemical composition of two inedible mushrooms of the genus Agaricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjosheva Melania

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushrooms in the genus Agaricus have worldwide distribution and include the economically important species A. bisporus. Some Agaricus species are inedible, including A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, which are similar in appearance to certain edible species, yet are known to possess unpleasant odours and induce gastrointestinal problems if consumed. We have studied the chemical composition of these mushrooms using GC-MS. Results Our GC-MS studies on the volatile fractions and butanol extracts resulted in the identification of 44 and 34 compounds for A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, respectively, including fatty acids and their esters, amino acids, and sugar alcohols. The most abundant constituent in the volatiles and butanol were phenol and urea respectively. We also identified the presence of ergosterol and two Δ7-sterols. In addition, 5α,8α-Epidioxi-24(ξ-methylcholesta-6,22-diene-3β-ol was isolated for the first time from both mushrooms. Our study is therefore the first report on the chemical composition of these two species. Conclusion The results obtained contribute to the knowledge of the chemical composition of mushrooms belonging to the Agaricus genus, and provide some explanation for the reported mild toxicity of A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, a phenonomenon that can be explained by a high phenol content, similar to that found in other Xanthodermatei species.

  4. [Screening and identification of stimulant and psychedelic drugs as acetyl-derivatives by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkutová, M; Balíková, M

    2006-10-01

    With the increasing number of abused stimulant and psychedelic drugs, along with so called "dance drugs" and "new synthetic drugs" available on the Czech illegal market, there is a need to update methods in toxicological laboratories and therefore it is necessary to develop and optimalize screening and identification procedures for new toxic substances appearing in the laboratory practice. It is well known that relatively popular commercial screening immunoassays have some limits: for instance restricted amount of detectable substances, specificity and sensitivity of detection. Therefore, it is mandatory to combine or complete them with more specific methods based on a different principle. In this paper we have focused on collecting useful analytical data to introduce or complete the system of detection and identification of unknown drugs and their metabolites which can appear in biological samples by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after preparation of relevant acetylated derivatives. The collection of experimental data involves retention indexes and mass spectra of acetylated phenylalkylamines, tryptamines and piperazines and some of their metabolites. These data are fundamental for laboratory diagnostics of drugs of abuse or intoxication and they can be useful for practical application in a number of toxicological laboratories. The mean limit of detection 0.1 ng analyte injected to GC-MS is low enough to allow the method to be successfully applied to real toxicological samples.

  5. A comparison of direct infusion MS and GC-MS for metabolic footprinting of yeast mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mass, S.; Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg;

    2007-01-01

    Recent technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have propelled this technology to the forefront of methods employed in metabolome analysis. Here, we compare two distinct analytical approaches based on MS for their potential in revealing specific metabolic footprints of yeast single-deletion m......Recent technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have propelled this technology to the forefront of methods employed in metabolome analysis. Here, we compare two distinct analytical approaches based on MS for their potential in revealing specific metabolic footprints of yeast single......-deletion mutants. Filtered fermentation broth samples were analyzed by GC-MS and direct infusion ESI-MS. The potential of both methods in producing specific and, therefore, discriminant metabolite profiles was evaluated using samples from several yeast deletion mutants grown in batch-culture conditions....... Thus, the GC-MS method is good for classification of mutants with altered nitrogen regulation as it primarily measures amino acids, whereas this method cannot classify mutants involved in regulation of phospholipids metabolism as well as the direct infusion MS (DI-MS) method. From the analysis, we find...

  6. Determination of tramadol by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibollahi, Saeed; Tavakkoli, Nahid; Nasirian, Vahid; Khani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for preconcentration and determination of tramadol, ((±)-cis-2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexanol-HCl), in aqueous and biological samples (urine, blood). DLLME is a simple, rapid and efficient method for determination of drugs in aqueous samples. Efficient factors on the DLLME process has defined and optimized for extraction of tramadol including type of extraction and disperser solvents and their volumes, pH of donor phase, time of extraction and ionic strength of donor phase. Based on the results of this study, under optimal conditions and by using 2-nitro phenol as internal standard, tramadol was determined by GC-MS, and the figures of merit of this work were evaluated. The enrichment factor, relative recovery and limit of detection were obtained 420, 99.2% and 0.08 µg L(-1), respectively. The linear range was between 0.26 and 220.00 µg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9970). The relative standard deviation for 50.00 µg L(-1) of tramadol in aqueous samples by using 2-nitro phenol as IS was 3.6% (n = 7). Finally, the performance of DLLME was evaluated for analysis of tramadol in urine and blood.

  7. GC/MS Analysis of Fractional Extraction of Fusain from Tongting Bituminous Coal in CS2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fusain from Tongting (Huaibei, Anhui Province) bituminous (FTTB) coal was fractionally extracted using Soxhlet extractor with CS2. Then the extracts were analyzed with GC/MS. Comparison of experimental data between FTTB coal and clarain from Tongting bituminous (CTTB) coal was carried out. The results show that the kinds of small molecule components detected by GC/MS of FTTB are less than those of CTTB. Long-chain alkanes exist mostly in the extracts of fusain. Macromolecular networks are predominant in the FTTB coal mainly composed of inertinite in the coal petrography. The size of micropores in the FTTB coal is relatively small, and the development of micropores is relatively low. Thus the content of aromatic compounds with affinity for micropores is relative low in FTTB, while the content of long-chain alkanes with affinity for macromolecule networks is relatively high. Sub-components in exinite determine the distribution of long-chain alkanes extracted in the last stage. Odd-numbered carbon distribution appears when resin is most in exinite, while high carbon alkane distribution appears when exinite is dominant in cutinite. Small aromatic molecules are firstly packed in micropores, and exist in a free state after micropores are saturated.

  8. GC-MS analysis of fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine in human urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münevver Açıkkol

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS method was developed for detection of fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine in urine. Liquid and solid phase extraction were applied to urine samples using maprotiline as an internal standard (IS. The GC-MS analysis were carried out using HP-5MS capillary column. The linearity ranges of the method were 5-75 ng mL-1 for fluoxetine and 6-125 ng mL-1 for norfluoxetine by solid phase extraction (SPE, and 10-80 ng mL-1 for fluoxetine and also norfluoxetine by liquid- liquid extraction (LLE. Also the range of detection limits were between 1-10 ng mL-1, the range of quantification limits were between 5-10 ng mL-1 for fluoxetine and norfluoxetine by both SPE and LLE. The range of recoveries were between 87 -109 % by both SPE and LLE for analytes. The developed method allowed clinical and toxicological analysis of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in urine samples.

  9. SPME GC/MS determination of organochlorine pesticides in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerbolat Sailaukhanuly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME in combination with gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC/MS was studied for analysis of water samples. The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE were collected and analyzed by GC/MS. To select of effective fiber coatings four types of SPME fibers were examined and compared. The parameters effecting the efficiency of HS-SPME such as extraction and pre-incubation time and extraction temperature, effect of solvent nature, ionic strength were studied to obtain optimal parameters. The method was developed using spiked water samples in a concentration range  10 - 500 ng/L. The calibration curve was linear over the studied concentration range with r≥0.9925. The detection limits varied from 1.57 to 2.08 ng/L. An authentic water samples from contaminated lake with OCPs were analyzed by developed method.

  10. Analysis of organic micropollutants in drinking water using SPME and GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, M.; Ravaioli, G. [Presidio Multizonale di Prevenzione, Rieti (Italy). Settore Ambiente

    1999-12-01

    In this work the purpose was to develop accurate and reproducible methods for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of pesticides/herbicides, phthalates, chlorinated solvents, trihalomethanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and chlorophenols in drinking waters, using solid-phase micro extraction and GC-MS techniques. The SPME developed by J. Pawliszyn and co-workers, consists of an fused silica fibre, coated with an appropriate absorbent phase, hosted inside the needle of a holder that looks like a GC-syringe; the needle pierces the septum of a sealed vial and the fibre is lowered, by depressing the plunger of the holder, into the liquid (or in the headspace, if that is the case) that contains the analytes of interest. After a set period of time, necessary to reach the partitioning equilibrium, the fibre is retracted inside the needle, the needle is inserted into the GC injector port and the fibre pushed in the heated injector. Here the compounds of interest (that have adsorbed onto the fibre) are thermally desorbed and analysed by GC-MS. After three minutes the fibre is extracted and is ready for a new analysis. The SPME technique has already found many applications in food and environmental analysis. Many of the analytes investigated in this research are listed Italian legislation as possible pollutants of drinking waters and their presence and concentrations require monitoring. The list of compounds included in this work is reported in Table 1.

  11. ANALISIS KOMPONEN KIMIA EKSTRAK METANOL FRAKSI PETROLEUM ETER DAUN EUPATORIUM ODORATUM DENGAN GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwati

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to analize the organic compounds of Eupatorium odoratum leaf and identification of the compounds using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The sample was soaked in metanol. The extract of metanol was partitioned using petroleum ether. The extracts obtained were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. The results showed that in the extract of petroleum ether contained the organic compounds: germacrene, isocaryophyllene, 2,6,6,9-tetramethyl-1,4,8-cycloundecatriene, 1-methyl-5-methylene-8-(1-methylethyl-1,7-cyclodecadiene, 1,2,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-4,7-dimethyl-1-(1-methylethyl naphthalene, 1,12- dodecanediol, octahydro-1-(2-octyldecyl pentalene, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol, methyl (12-acetyloxy-9-octadecanoic, bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalat, farnesol, 4,22-cholestadien-3-one and 1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,4-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethenyl azulene. In the extract of ethyl acetate contained the organic compounds: methyl heptadecanoic, hexadecanoic acid, methyl 13-octadecenoic, 14,16-octadecadienal and octadecanoic acid.

  12. Potential Health Benefits and Metabolomics of Camel Milk by GC-MS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Syed Rizwan; Raish, Mohammad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2017-02-01

    None of the research reports reveals the metabolomics and elemental studies on camel milk. Recent studies showed that camel milk possesses anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. Metabolomics and elemental studies were carried out in camel milk which showed us the pathways and composition that are responsible for the key biological role of camel milk. Camel milk was dissolved in methanol and chloroform fraction and then vortexed and centrifuged. Both the fractions were derivatized by N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and TMCS after nitrogen purging and analyzed by GC-MS. Camel milk was also analyzed by ICP-MS after microwave digestion. We found that higher alkanes and fatty acids are present in the chloroform fraction and amino acids, sugars and fatty acid derivatives are present in aqueous fractions. All the heavy metals like As, Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, and Ni were in the safe limits in terms of maximum daily intake of these elements. Na, K, Mg, and Ca were also present in the safe limits in terms of maximum daily intake of these elements. These results suggested that the camel milk drinking is safe and there is no health hazard. The present data of GC-MS and ICP-MS correlate the activities related to camel milk.

  13. Distinguishing Foeniculum vulgare fruit from two adulterants by combination of microscopy and GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Dong; Mao, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare fruit (FVF) is a widely used traditional medicine. However, two adulterants, namely Anethum graveolens fruit (AGF) and Cuminum cyminum fruit (CCF), have been found in use as FVF in China owing to similar appearance and odor. For the purpose of accurate differentiation of the three herbal medicines, extensive anatomical examination and chemical profiling were conducted. Using light microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the macroscopic and microscopic features of the three species were compared. It was found that some microscopic characteristics, including transverse shape of mericarp, presence or absence of reticulate cells and non-glandular hairs, as well as fluorescence of endocarp, were of diagnostic significance. Moreover, essential oils were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed using GC-MS. The analytical results indicated significant chemical variations in different species: in FVF, trans-anethole (83.20%) was the predominant volatile compound followed by estragole (5.03%) and limonene (3.45%), while in AGF, the first, second and third compounds with highest content were carvone (42.58%), apiol (20.76%) and limonene (20.32%), and in CCF were cuminlaldehyde (36.00%), 2-caren-10-al (23.25%) and γ-terpinene (9.65%), respectively. In conclusion, the proposed light microscopy coupled with fluorescence microscopy and/or GC-MS analysis allowed successful distinguishing FVF from AGF and CCF.

  14. Determination of phthalates in polymer materials - comparison of GC/MS and GC/ECD methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jaworek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two methods for determination of phthalates in polymer materials. The methods compared were gas chromatography combined with the mass spectrometry (GC/MS and gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC/ECD. The GC/ECD technique was chosen for this comparison, because the ECD detector was one of few capable of detecting phthalates. In both cases the same procedure of sample preparation with ultrasonic extraction was applied. Overall recoveries were 76-100 % with relative of standard deviation (R.S.D. values in the range 0.6-19 %. The values of limit of detection (LOD for GC/MS method ranged from 3.46 µg mL- 1 to 10.10 µg mL- 1, depending on the determined phthalate, while in case of the GC/ECD method they were in the range from 2.97 µg mL- 1 to 4.29 µg mL- 1. The methods were applied for determination of: dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisoocyl phthalate in polymer material. The seventeen kinds of samples were analyzed. Most of the materials selected for the analyses were made from polyethylene (PE, polyvinyl chloride (PVC and polystyrene (PS.

  15. Analysis of acrylamide by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS in processed Japanese foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, H; Chuda, Y; Ohnishi-Kameyama, M; Yada, H; Ishizaka, M; Kobayashi, H; Yoshida, M

    2003-03-01

    Acrylamide concentrations in processed foods (63 samples covering 31 product types) from Japan were analysed by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS methods. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of acrylamide were 0.2 ng x ml(-1) (6 fmol) and 0.8 ng x ml(-1) (22 fmol), respectively, by LC-MS/MS, and those of 2,3-dibromopropionamide derived from acrylamide were 12 ng x ml(-1) (52 fmol) and 40 ng x ml(-1) (170 fmol), respectively, by GC-MS. Repeatability given as RSD was 1000 microg x kg(-1). The concentrations in non-whole potato-based snacks, rice crackers processed by grilling or frying, and candied sweet potatoes were lower compared with those in the potato crisps and the whole potato-based fried snacks. One of the whole potato-based fried snacks, however, showed low acrylamide concentration (instant precooked noodles and won-tons were <100 microg x kg(-1) with only one exception. Roasted barley grains for 'Mugi-cha' tea contained 200-600 microg x kg(-1) acrylamide.

  16. Efficiency of GC-MS method in detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the gas chromatography - mass detector (GC-MS technique for the detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin, was evaluated. For this purpose, beeswax samples with paraffin additions (3, 5, 10, 30, 50% were analysed. Since not enough is known about paraffin compositions, and since it is difficult to detect paraffin in beeswax, the aim of our research was also to compare the hydrocarbon composition of different types of paraffin. The analysis showed that the types of paraffin available on the market, differ qualitatively and quantitatively as far as their hydrocarbon compositions are concerned. In all kinds of paraffin, we found homologous series of n-alkanes that were much longer than those in beeswax. In beeswax, the amount of added paraffin that is possible to detect, differs and depends on the kind of paraffin used for adulteration. In this study, the minimum estimated percent that was detected using the GC-MS technique, was 3%. The adulteration is indicated by the presence of hydrocarbons containing over 35 carbon atoms in the molecule, and by the higher contents of n-alkanes (C20H42 - C35H72, in comparison to the concentration of these compounds determined in pure beeswax. We also presented the results of the quality control of commercial beeswax. Based on our results, it can be stated that beeswax adulteration is currently a problem.

  17. Simulation evaluation and future prediction of the IPCC-AR4 GCMs on the extreme temperatures in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji; JIANG Zhihong; SONG Jie; LOU Dejun

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of the temperature observations during 1961-2000 in China, seven coupled general circulation models' (GCMs) extreme temperature products are evaluated supplied by the Intergovemmental Panel on Climate Change's 4th Assessment Report (IPCC-AR4). The extreme temperature indices in use are frost days (FD), growing season length (GSL), extreme tempera-ture range (ETR), warm nights (TN90), and heat wave duration index (HWDI). Results indicate that all the seven models are capable of simulating spatial and temporal variations in temperature characteristics, and their ensemble acts more reliable than any single one. Among the seven models, GFDL-CM2.0 and MIROC3.2 performances are much better. Besides, most of the mod-els are able to present linear trends of the same positive/negative signs as the observations but for weaker intensities. The simula-tion effects are different on a nationwide basis, with 110°N as the division, east (west) of which the effects are better (worse) and the poorer over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China. The predictions for the 21st century on emissions scenarios show that except decreases in the FD and ETR, other indices display significant increasing trend, especially for the indices of HWDI and TN90, which represent the notable extreme climate. This indicates that the temperature-related climate is moving towards the ex-treme. In the late 21st century, the GSL and TN90 (HWDI) increase most notably in southwest China (the Qinghai--Tibetan Plateau), and the FD decrease most remarkably in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, northwest and northeast of China. Apart from South China, the yearly change range of the extreme temperature is reduced in most of China.

  18. A Win-Win Model for Outreach and Graduate Education: Research Findings on Professional Development Outcomes for STEM Graduate Students Participating in K-12 Classroom Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, S.; Thiry, H.; Liston, C.

    2006-12-01

    National attention has recently focused on the failures of STEM graduate education in preparing Ph.D. graduates to think broadly, communicate effectively, work in interdisciplinary settings, and succeed in a variety of careers beyond tenure-track academic positions at research universities. We will report findings on a study of a school outreach program that also enhances the graduate education and career preparation of a group of STEM graduate students interested in science education. The Science Squad at the University of Colorado at Boulder is a group of university STEM graduate students who develop and present hands-on, inquiry-based science sessions in local K-12 schools. Squad members hold the position as an alternative to a standard teaching assistantship, typically spending two days a week in the schools. Our ethnographic interview study examines the benefits and costs to the K-12 students, teachers, and graduate students who participate. The program provides significant benefits to the K-12 students and teachers that it serves, but even more importantly offers significant professional development in teaching and learning to a group of STEM graduate students who seek to develop their science careers as communicators and educators. Findings elucidate how the design of the program enables the graduate Squad members to develop teaching, communication, and organizational skills; deepen their understanding of K-12 education and diversity issues; grow in professional confidence; and apply these gains to their career development. In addition, over 80% of the Squad members interviewed reported that participation in the Squad influenced their careers in one of two ways. Members who were pursuing academic positions emphasizing teachers found the Squad experience to confirm their interest in this career and enhance their ability to earn a suitable academic position. Members who were reconsidering their career options and rejecting their initial plans to pursue

  19. Participation in adult learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This entry presents an internationally comparative overview of adult learning patterns. Emphasis is placed on who is participating in adult learning and the observed unequal chances to participate. The entry covers three overarching questions that are central to participation research: a) What...

  20. Displacement Through Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Citizen participation is often regarded as a means to increase local democracy. Seldom is participation viewed as a means to legitimate disruptive practices of states. However, participation can become a tool for the effective implementation of policy rather than a means to enhance justice, if no po

  1. Type I Error Inflation in the Traditional By-Participant Analysis to Metamemory Accuracy: A Generalized Mixed-Effects Model Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Sakaki, Michiko; Yan, Veronica X.; Smith, Garry M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to examine metacognitive accuracy (i.e., the relationship between metacognitive judgment and memory performance), researchers often rely on by-participant analysis, where metacognitive accuracy (e.g., resolution, as measured by the gamma coefficient or signal detection measures) is computed for each participant and the computed values are…

  2. GC-MS Analysis: In Vivo Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. Growing in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour S. Al-Said

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver disease is a worldwide problem. It represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. Achillea biebersteinii is used as herbal remedy for various ailments including liver diseases. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use remains unknown. Thus, this research was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of A. biebersteinii essential oil (ABEO (0.2 mL/kg in the amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodent model. Moreover, the chemical content of the oil was investigated using GC and GC-MS. The following biochemical parameters were evaluated: serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT, gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and total bilirubin. Furthermore, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA, nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH, and total protein (TP contents in liver tissue were estimated. 44 components (92.0% of the total oil have been identified by GC-MS analysis where α-terpinene and p-cymene were the most abundant. The high serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, GGT, and ALP and bilirubin concentrations as well as the level of MDA, NP-SH, and TP contents in liver tissues were significantly reinstated towards normalization by the ABEO. Histopathological study further confirmed these findings. In addition, ABEO showed mild antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays.

  3. Determination of IGF-1-Producing CHO-K1 Growth Phases Using GCMS-Based Global Metabolite Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. M. SABERI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian cell lines, in particular CHO-K1 is vital for the multibillion dollar biotechnology industry. The majority of large scale bioprocessing of commercially valuable protein biopharmaceuticals is produced using this type of cell. An ideal mammalian cell system as host for biologics production should retain efficient use of energy sources in order to boost productivity at minimum cost. Various analyses such as cell counting and monitoring of specific biochemical responses are used to provide data to enable bioprocess control in order to achieve the ideal system. Our study aimed to see whether global metabolite analysis using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS would be a potential alternative approach in providing data for bioprocess control. In this study, we analyzed metabolites of CHO-K1 cells at different growth phases using GCMS. CHO-K1 cells producing insulin like growth factor-I (IGF1 were obtained from ATCC. Cells were grown in T-flask and incubated at 37°C/ 5% CO2 until 70-80% confluent in RPMI 1640 media. Samples (cells and spent/conditioned media were taken at designated intervals for routine cell counting (Trypan Blue dye exclusion method; glucose, glutamine and lactate determination (YSI 2700; IGF-1 production (ELISA kit R&D Sstems, Inc; and global metabolite analysis (GCMS. Conditioned media from each time point were spun down before subjecting into GCMS. Data from GCMS was then transferred to SIMCA P+12.0 for chemometric evaluation using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The first component, PC1 results was able to explain 36% of the variation of the data with clear separation between exponential phase and other phases (initial and death phase. This suggests that GCMS-based global metabolite analysis has the ability to capture cell growth behaviour and offered insights of factors that may influence the biological system.ABSTRAK: Produk yang berupa sel kekal mamalia, terutamnya CHO-K1 adalah penting dan menguntungkan

  4. Mapping eParticipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sanford, Clive Carlton

    2007-01-01

    The emerging research area of eParticipation can be characterized as the study of technology-facilitated citizen participation in (democratic) deliberation and decision-making. Using conventional literature study techniques, we identify 105 articles that are considered to be highly relevant to eParticipation......, and methods. We extend the analysis to define four central research challenges for the field: understanding technology and participation; the strategic challenge; the design challenge; and the evaluation challenge. This article thus contributes to a developing account of eParticipation, which will help future...

  5. Metabolomic and elemental analysis of camel and bovine urine by GC-MS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Syed Rizwan; Alhaider, Abdul Qader; Raish, Mohammad; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies from the author's laboratory indicated that camel urine possesses antiplatelet activity and anti-cancer activity which is not present in bovine urine. The objective of this study is to compare the volatile and elemental components of bovine and camel urine using GC-MS and ICP-MS analysis. We are interested to know the component that performs these biological activities. The freeze dried urine was dissolved in dichloromethane and then derivatization process followed by using BSTFA for GC-MS analysis. Thirty different compounds were analyzed by the derivatization process in full scan mode. For ICP-MS analysis twenty eight important elements were analyzed in both bovine and camel urine. The results of GC-MS and ICP-MS analysis showed marked difference in the urinary metabolites. GC-MS evaluation of camel urine finds a lot of products of metabolism like benzene propanoic acid derivatives, fatty acid derivatives, amino acid derivatives, sugars, prostaglandins and canavanine. Several research reports reveal the metabolomics studies on camel urine but none of them completely reported the pharmacology related metabolomics. The present data of GC-MS suggest and support the previous studies and activities related to camel urine.

  6. Characterization of kerogens from Ishikari-group coal-bearing formations by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; Ishikari sogun kyutanso kerojien no netsubunkai GC/MS ni yoru kyarakutarizeshon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuzuki, N.; Takano, O. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-30

    In order to construct a model on expulsion of hydrocarbons from kerogen, it is necessary to have knowledge on composition of generated hydrocarbons. Characterization of the hydrocarbons from kerogens of Eocene Ishikari-group coal-bearing formations was carried out by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS). Kerogen type classification by microscopic method was also carried out. Aliphatic hydrocarbons contents by Py-GCMS correlates to herbaceous kerogen contents by the microscopic method. Both of phenols content and aromatics content correlate to woody kerogen content. Therefore, coals and coaly shales deposited in transgression periods, which were recognized by depositional phase analysis, are richer in aliphatic-hydrocarbons content than those in regression period. This may be a reflection of environmental changes in paleoclimate and paleobotany. (author)

  7. Results of the First Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) GC-MS Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Arnaud; Pinnick, Veronica; Szopa, Cyril; Danell, Ryan; Grand, Noel; Van Amerom, Friso; Glavin, Daniel; Freissinet, Caroline; Humeau, Olivier; Coll, Patrice; Arevalo, Ricardo; Stalport, Fabien; Brinckerhoff, William; Steininger, Harald; Goesmann, Fred; Mahaffy, Paul; Raulin, Francois

    2014-11-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) aboard the ExoMars rover will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular) information from the solid samples collected by the rover, with a particular focus on the char-acterization of the organic content. The core of the MOMA instrument is a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) which provides the unique capability to characterize a broad range of compounds, including both of volatile and non-volatile species. Samples will be crushed and deposited into sample cups seated in a rotating carousel. Soil samples will be analyzed either by UV laser desorption / ionization (LDI) or pyrolysis gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry (pyr-GC-ITMS).The French GC brassboard was coupled to the US ion trap mass spectrometer brassboard in a flight-like con-figuration for several coupling campains. The MOMA GC setup is based on the SAM heritage design with a He reservoir and 4 separate analytical modules including traps, columns and Thermal Conductivity Detectors. Solid samples are sealed and heated in this setup using a manual tapping station, designed and built at MPS in Germany, for GC-MS analysis. The gaseous species eluting from the GC are then ionized by an electron impact ionization source in the MS chamber and analyzed by the linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Volatile and non-volatile compounds were injected in the MOMA instrumental suite. Both of these compounds classes were detected by the TCD and by the MS. MS signal (total ion current) and single mass spectra by comparison with the NIST library, gave us an unambiguous confirmation of these identifications. The mass spectra arise from an average of 10 mass spectra averaged around a given time point in the total ion chromatogram.Based on commercial instrument, the MOMA requirement for sensitivity in the GC-MS mode for organic molecules is 1 pmol. In this test, sensitivity was determined for the GC TCD and MS response to a dilution

  8. GC-MS and FT-IR analysis of a coastal medicinal plant-Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselin Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the bioactive components of a coastal medicinal plant, Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit. (H. suaveolens leaves using fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS. Methods: The chemical compositions of the ethanol extract of whole plant of H. suaveolens was investigated using PerkinElmer GC-MS, while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract was matched with the National Institute of Standard and Technology library. Results: The results of fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of secondary alcohols, phenols, alkanes, alkynes, aromatics, nitro compounds and aliphatic compounds. GC-MS analysis of the ethanolic extract revealed the existence of 30 phytochemical compounds. 5,5-Dimethylimidazolidin-2,4-diamine (20.35% was found to be the major compound. Conclusions: The results of this study offer a platform to use H. suaveolens leaves as herbal alternative for various diseases.

  9. The body participating:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Hanne; Lund, Lone Blak; Jensen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The literature on participation in rehabilitation by those with the most severe acquired brain injury is very sparse. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore how physiotherapists promote the participation of patients with severe brain injury in therapeutic and daily-...... and low level of consciousness in terms of their participation and functioning in everyday life.......-based analyses. The results were theoretically stated and supported. Results: In an effort to achieve patient participation, the following four themes seemed to be significant: 1) consciously encountering the patient in the moment, 2) the employment of concepts surrounding the interaction between body...

  10. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  11. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  12. [Naphtha analysis of different processed products of Rhizoma Curcumae from Guangxi by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Qin, Bao; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Bao, Chuan-Hong

    2009-03-01

    To approach the naphtha analysis of different processed products of Rhizoma Curcumae from Guangxi. The naphtha was extracted by steam distillation. The relative content of every compound was determined with area normalization method and the structures were elucidated by GC-MS technique. 33 kinds of chemical compositions were identified in the naphtha of the six samples,the main contents were Cyclohexane, 1-ethenyl-1-methyl-2,4-bis (1-methylethenyl)-, 5-Benzofuranacetic acid, 6-ethenyl-4,5,6,7-terahydro-3, 6-dimethyl-alpha. -methylene-,methyl ester, and so on. Six samples of Rhizoma Curcumae are significantly different in quality,and the naphtha's content of the sample processing with vinegar is the highest.

  13. Characterization of volatiles from cultured dairy spreads during storage by dynamic headspace GC/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    2001-01-01

    The effect of storage time and storage temperature on the formation of volatile compounds in dairy spreads was investigated. Dairy spreads were stored for 10 weeks at -18, 5 and 20 degreesC, respectively, and analyzed after 0, 38, 54 and 67 days of storage. By means of a dynamic headspace GC....../MS method using Tenax traps the dairy spreads were analyzed for volatile aromatic compounds. 61 components were identified and their relative content was followed during the storage period. Among these were four alcohols, 17 aldehydes, four esters, ten alkanes, 11 ketones and six lactones. A general...... increase in the concentration of most of the volatile compounds during storage was found. The content of volatile compounds in dairy spreads stored at -18 OC was nearly constant or showed a rather low increase in the content during the storage period. Storage at higher temperatures (5 and 20 degrees...

  14. Qualitative and quantitative studies of chemical composition of sandarac resin by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononenko, I; de Viguerie, L; Rochut, S; Walter, Ph

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition of sandarac resin was investigated qualitatively and quantitatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Six compounds with labdane and pimarane skeletons were identified in the resin. The obtained mass spectra were interpreted and the mass spectrometric behaviour of these diterpenoids under EI conditions was described. Quantitative analysis by the method of internal standard revealed that identified diterpenoids represent only 10-30% of the analysed sample. The sandarac resin from different suppliers was analysed (from Kremer, Okhra, Color Rare, La Marchande de Couleurs, L'Atelier Montessori, Hevea). The analysis of different lumps of resins showed that the chemical composition differs from one lump to another, varying mainly in the relative distributions of the components.

  15. GC-MS ANALYSIS OF STICKY CONTAMINANTS IN A DEINKING PULPING LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulps were sampled from three major points of a deinking pulping line and classified as fibers fraction, fines fraction, and aqueous phase, respectively, then extracted with tetrahydrofuran (THF or methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE. Sticky contaminants in the extractives were examined by GC-MS analysis. The results showed that the contaminants can be grouped as adhesive substances, wood extractives, lignin-derivatives, and other organic acids, of which the adhesive substances were accounted as the major component. Contents of sticky components in each group and their removal were further evaluated according to the related unit operation. Adhesives remaining in fibers and fines fractions were removed by the post-flotation. Wood extractives and degraded residual lignins were also released to some extent from pulp fibers during heat-dispersing, and then removed during the post-flotation.

  16. GC-MS ANALYSIS OF SOME BIOACTIVE CONSTITUENTS OF THE LEAVES OF DESMODIUM GYRANS DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Gopalakrishnan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Desmodium gyrans DC is one of the medicinally valuable plants belonging to the family Fabaceae, commonly known as “Thozhukanni” in Tamil and ‘ Namaskari’ in Sanskrit. Traditionally leaves are used as antidote, cardiac-tonic and for wound healing. In the present study the ethanolic extract of Desmodium gyrans has been subjected to GC-MS analysis. Eighteen chemical constituents have been identified, The major chemical constituents are: 4,5-Dihydro-2-amino-4-(2,4-dichlorophenyl-7-methyl-5-oxo- pyrano[3,2-c]pyran-3-carbonitrile (59.07%, Pentaborane (13.86%, Pentanedinitrile (6.63% and 3-Chloro-1-butyne, (4.82%.

  17. Analysis of bioactive Amaryllidaceae alkaloid profiles in Lycoris species by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Pigni, Natalia B; Zheng, Yuhong; de Andrade, Jean Paulo; Torras-Claveria, Laura; Borges, Warley de Souza; Viladomat, Frances; Codina, Carles; Bastida, Jaume

    2014-08-01

    The genus Lycoris, a group of Amaryllidaceae plants distributed in temperate regions of Eastern Asia, is already known for containing representative alkaloids typical of this botanical family with a wide range of biological activities (for example, lycorine and galanthamine). In the present work, the alkaloid profiles of nine species, L. albiflora, L. aurea, L. chinensis, L. haywardii, L. incarnata, L. longituba, L. radiata, L. sprengeri, and L. squamigera, and one variety (L. radiata var. pumila) have been evaluated by GC-MS. Structures belonging to the lycorine-, homolycorine-, haemanthamine-, narciclasine-, tazettine-, montanine- and galanthamine-series were identified and quantified, with galanthamine- and lycorine-type alkaloids predominating and usually showing a high relative abundance in comparison with other alkaloids of the extracts. Interestingly, L. longituba revealed itself to be a potential commercial source of bioactive alkaloids. In general terms, our results are consistent with the alkaloid profiles reported in the literature for previously studied species.

  18. Analysis on fat-soluble components of sinapis semina from different habitats by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Peng; Tao Zhang; Gang Zhao; Sicen Wang

    2013-01-01

    A simple and rapid gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis method was developed for the determination of fat-soluble parts of sinapis semina. Four major compounds were chosen as marker compounds to evaluate the method. Various extraction techniques were evaluated and the greatest efficiency was observed with sonication extraction using diethyl ether. The method was valuated as follows:acceptable apparatus suitability was obtained by testing the resolutions, tailing factors and theoretical plate number of the marker compounds; the precision and reproducibility, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), fell within the prescribed limits. Eight samples of sinapis semina collected from markets in Xi’an were monitored by using the method. The fingerprints of those samples were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) similarity analysis. The result indicated that the combination of fingerprint and HCA could be used to analyze sinapis semina from different habitats.

  19. Determination of toxaphene residues in fish foodstuff by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbini, D Attard; Stefanelli, P; Girolimetti, S; Di Muccio, A; Dommarco, R

    2007-08-01

    A method for the determination of toxaphene residues in fish and fish-based baby foods has been developed. The cleanup of the fatty matrices was performed using an acid treatment on an Extrelut-NT3 and ENVI-Florisil SPE cartridges system, using light petroleum as eluent. Instrumental analysis was carried out by gaschromatography with mass spectrometry detector (GC/MS) in SIM mode. Recoveries from spiked samples were tested at 0.005 and 0.01 mg/kg per single congener and were in the range 82-104% while relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range 3.7-10.9%. Nineteen samples of both frozen fish food and fish-based baby foods representative of the Italian market were collected from local dealers and analysed.

  20. A robust GC-MS method for the quantitation of fatty acids in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Nirupama Samanmalie; Dias, Daniel Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are involved in a wide range of functions in biological systems. It is important to measure the exact amount of fatty acids in biological matrices in order to determine the level of fatty acids and understand the role they play. The ability to quantify fatty acids in various systems, especially plant species and microbes has recently paved the way to the mass production of pharmaceuticals and energy substitutes including biodiesel. This chapter describes an efficient method to quantify the total fatty acids (TFAs) in biological systems using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a commercially available standard mix of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) using a step-by-step methodology to setup a quantitation method using the Agilent Chemstation software.

  1. Analysis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora by GC/MS and their cholinesterase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cahlíková

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Amaryllidaceae are known as ornamental plants, furthermore some species of this family contain galanthamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and other alkaloids with interesting pharmacological activity. The chemical composition of alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora Lindl. was analyzed by GC/MS. Seven known compounds, belonging to five structural types of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, were identified. The alkaloid extract from the bulbs showed promising cholinesterase inhibitory activities against human blood acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE; IC50 39.2±3.0 µg/mL and human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE; IC50 356±9.3 µg/mL.

  2. A validated GC/MS method for the determination of amisulpride in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsis, Ioannis; Rizopoulou, Anna; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Pistos, Constantinos; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotiris

    2014-02-01

    A sensitive GC/MS method for the determination of amisulpride in whole blood was developed, optimized and validated. Sample preparation included solid-phase extraction using HF Bond Elut C18 cartridges and further derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA). The limits of detection and quantification were 3.00 and 10.0 μg/L, respectively. The calibration curves were linear up to 1000 μg/L (R(2)≥0.991). Absolute recovery ranged from 94.2 to 101%. Accuracy was found to be between -8.7 and 1.9% and imprecision was less than 10.0%. The developed method covers the generally accepted therapeutic range but it can also cover levels above them. This makes our method suitable for the determination of amisulpride not only for clinical purposes on psychiatric patients, but also during the investigation of forensic cases where amisulpride is involved.

  3. [Study on the chemical compositions of VOCs emitted by cooking oils based on GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Tian, Gang; Li, Jing; Shao, Xia; Wang, Min-Yan

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are key precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosols in air, and the differences in the compositions of VOCs lead to their different contribution to atmospheric reaction. Cooking oil fume is one of the important sources of atmospheric VOCs, and its chemical compositions are distinct under different conditions of oil types, food types, cooking methods and heating temperatures etc. In this study, the production of cooking oil fume was simulated by heating typical pure vegetable oils (peanut oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, olive oil and blend oil) at different temperatures in beakers to investigate the chemical compositions of VOCs. The emitted VOCs were sampled with a Tenax adsorption tube and analyzed using GC-MS after thermal desorption. According to spectral library search and map analysis, using area normalized semi-quantitative method, preliminary qualitative and quantitative tests were conducted for the specific components of VOCs under different conditions.

  4. Identification and measurement of pesticide contaminants in food products by electron impact GC/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusa, Florina; Moldovan, Zaharie [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Vlassa, Mircea, E-mail: zaharie.moldovan@itim-cj.r [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes Bolyai University, 11 Arany Janos, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    The paper concern is determination of eight pesticides in food products samples. The target compounds are: Lindane, Heptachlor, Aldrin, o,p-DDE, Dieldrin, Endrin, p,p'-DDT, and Methoxychlor. The compounds quantities were performed from chromatographic area obtained in full scan GC/MS mode after baseline separation and by comparation with surrogate internal standard area (Diphenylamine). The samples were concentrated by extraction with organic solvents (acetone) by Solid-Liquid Extraction (SLE) procedures the recovery factors being better than 80% except for Heptachlors. The coefficient of correlation of detector response function was better than 0.913 and LOQ under 0.015 {mu}g/g. The method enables to determine pesticides at low {mu}g/g in food supplements.

  5. Structural Estimation of Stock Market Participation Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of stock market participation, where consumers' decisions regarding stock market participation are influenced by participation costs. The practical significance of the participation costs is considered as being a channel through which financial...... education programs can affect consumers' investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market participation cost is about 4–6% of labor...... income; however, it varies substantially over consumers' life. The model successfully predicts the level of the observed participation rate and the increasing pattern of stock market participation over the consumers' life cycle....

  6. GC/GCMS analysis of the petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaheen Faizi; Saima Sumbul; Muhammed Ali Versiani; Rubeena Saleem; Aisha Sana; Hira Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the phytochemical constituents from petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) roots using GC/GC-MS. Methods: A total of 5.11 kg fresh and undried crushed root of M. oleifera were cut into small pieces and extracted with petroleum ether and dichloromethane (20 L each) at room temperature for 2 d. The concentrated extracts were subjected to their GC-MS analysis. Results:The GC-MS analysis of the petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of M. oleifera roots, which showed promising biological activities, has resulted in the identification 102 compounds. These constituents belong to 15 classes of compounds including hydrocarbons, fatty acids, esters, alcohols, isothiocyanate, thiocyanate, pyrazine, aromatics, alkamides, cyanides, steroids, halocompounds, urea and N-hydroxyimine derivatives, unsaturated alkenamides, alkyne and indole. GC/GC-MS studies on petroleum ether extract of the roots revealed that it contained 39 compounds, belonging to nine classes. Cyclooctasulfur S8 has been isolated as a pure compound from the extract. The major compounds identified from petroleum ether extract were trans-13-docosene (37.9%), nonacosane (32.6%), cycloartenol (28.6%) nonadecanoic acid (13.9%) and cyclooctasulfur S8 (13.9%). Dichloromethane extract of the roots was composed of 63 compounds of which nasimizinol (58.8%) along with oleic acid (46.5%), N-benzyl-N-(7-cyanato heptanamide (38.3%), N-benzyl-N-(1-chlorononyl) amide (30.3%), bis [3-benzyl prop-2-ene]-1-one (19.5%) and N, N-dibenzyl-2-ene pent 1, 5-diamide (11.6%) were the main constituents. Conclusions:This study helps to predict the formula and structure of active molecules which can be used as drugs. This result also enhances the traditional usage of M. oleifera which possesses a number of bioactive compounds.

  7. Fully Automated Trimethylsilyl (TMS Derivatisation Protocol for Metabolite Profiling by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Zarate

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS has long been used for metabolite profiling of a wide range of biological samples. Many derivatisation protocols are already available and among these, trimethylsilyl (TMS derivatisation is one of the most widely used in metabolomics. However, most TMS methods rely on off-line derivatisation prior to GC-MS analysis. In the case of manual off-line TMS derivatisation, the derivative created is unstable, so reduction in recoveries occurs over time. Thus, derivatisation is carried out in small batches. Here, we present a fully automated TMS derivatisation protocol using robotic autosamplers and we also evaluate a commercial software, Maestro available from Gerstel GmbH. Because of automation, there was no waiting time of derivatised samples on the autosamplers, thus reducing degradation of unstable metabolites. Moreover, this method allowed us to overlap samples and improved throughputs. We compared data obtained from both manual and automated TMS methods performed on three different matrices, including standard mix, wine, and plasma samples. The automated TMS method showed better reproducibility and higher peak intensity for most of the identified metabolites than the manual derivatisation method. We also validated the automated method using 114 quality control plasma samples. Additionally, we showed that this online method was highly reproducible for most of the metabolites detected and identified (RSD < 20 and specifically achieved excellent results for sugars, sugar alcohols, and some organic acids. To the very best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the automated TMS method has been applied to analyse a large number of complex plasma samples. Furthermore, we found that this method was highly applicable for routine metabolite profiling (both targeted and untargeted in any metabolomics laboratory.

  8. Rapid GC-MS confirmation of amphetamines in urine by extractive acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Adriaan A S; Laurens, Johannes B

    2009-01-10

    Amphetamine and related derivatives are widely abused central- and psychostimulants. Detection of certain derivatives, such as methcathinone, by commonly available immunoassay screening techniques is insufficient. Multi-analyte confirmations for amphetamine type stimulants are therefore required, but traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods necessitate lengthy analytical procedures with prolonged sample turn-around times. A validated rapid GC-MS assay for urinary confirmation of amphetamine, methamphetamine, methcathinone, ephedrine, norephedrine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine and N-methyl-1-(3,4 methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine is reported. The method entailed in situ derivatization of urine specimens by extractive acylation with pentafluoropropionic anhydride, followed by rapid chromatography on a microbore capillary column. Analytes were separated in less than 3 min and quantified simultaneously by selected-ion monitoring using stable isotope substituted internal standards. The total instrument cycle-time was 6 min per sample. The limits of detection were between 1.5 ng/mL and 6.25 ng/mL for the various analytes. Intermediate precision and accuracy were in the range of 6.3-13.8% and 90.5-107.3% for the respective analytes at the lower limit of quantitation, and between 5.8-12.6% and 95.4-103.1% for the high control. Long-term storage of methcathinone positive specimens at -20 degrees C proved insufficient stability of this analyte. The proposed assay is precise and accurate for confirmation of amphetamine and derivatives in urine. The complementary approach of extractive-derivatization and fast GC-MS analysis is especially applicable in routine clinical settings where reduced sample turn-around times are required. Further investigation of cathinone as a possible metabolite of methcathinone is warranted, based on results from analyzed authentic urine samples.

  9. Diethylstilbestrol in fish tissue determined through subcritical fluid extraction and with GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qinghui; Shi, Nianrong; Feng, Xiaomei; Lu, Jie; Han, Yuqian; Xue, Changhu

    2016-06-01

    As the key point in sex hormone analysis, sample pre-treatment technology has attracted scientists' attention all over the world, and the development trend of sample preparation forwarded to faster and more efficient technologies. Taking economic and environmental concerns into account, subcritical fluid extraction as a faster and more efficient method has stood out as a sample pre-treatment technology. This new extraction technology can overcome the shortcomings of supercritical fluid and achieve higher extraction efficiency at relatively low pressures and temperatures. In this experiment, a simple, sensitive and efficient method has been developed for the determination of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in fish tissue using subcritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) extraction in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After extraction, freezing-lipid filtration was utilized to remove fatty co-extract. Further purification steps were performed with C18 and NH2 solid phase extraction (SPE). Finally, the analyte was derived by heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA), followed by GC-MS analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimizing the extraction condition, and the optimized was as follows: extraction pressure, 4.3 MPa; extraction temperature, 26°C; amount of co-solvent volume, 4.7 mL. Under this condition, at a spiked level of 1, 5, 10 μg kg-1, the mean recovery of DES was more than 90% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10%. Finally, the developed method has been successfully used to analyzing the real samples.

  10. GC-MS analysis of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) bud essential oil from Java and Manado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, B.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U.; Sulistyoningrum, A. S.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    The largest clove production contributors in Indonesia are mostly coming from Java and Manado. Different flavor among clove origins is caused by chemical constituents in clove oil. Unfortunately, scientific research and publications about flavor in clove from Indonesia's origin are still limited. The objective of this research is to determine significant differences of constituents in terms of flavor in clove oil originated from Java and Manado. The essential oils were isolated from cut clove bud samples by steam distillation method. The chemical constituents of clove bud oil were analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Constituents were then identified by comparing the results of the chromatogram and reference retention time using Wiley mass spectra library (Wiley W9N11). Thirty-six and thirty-four chemical constituents were identified based on GC-MS from clove oil collected from Java and Manado, respectively. Major classes of compounds are sesquiterpenes, phenyl propanoid, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and esters. Different compositions in major constituents were found between both origins. Clove Java contained eugenol (55.60 %), eugenyl acetate (20.54 %), caryophyllene (14.84 %), and α-humulene (2.75 %). While, in clove Manado, the composition were eugenol (74.64 %), caryophyllene (12.79 %), eugenyl acetate (8.70 %), and α-humulene (1.53 %). Moreover, minor constituents β-elemene (0.04 %), α-cadinene (0.05 %) and ledol (0.06 %) were existed only in clove Java, while clove Manado had some unique minor constituents which were not found in clove Java, i.e. β-gurjunene (0.04 %), γ-cadinene %), and humulene oxide (0.05 %). In conclusion, both clove oils from Java and Manado contained same major chemical constituents but different in their composition. In addition, some minor constituents existed only in specific origin.

  11. Sense of participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohorques Montemayor, L.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the sense of participation of a spatially distributed individual—in the intersections of physical and mediated networks. This sense is fundamental to an individuals’ experience as a participant in systems designed to this purpose including today’s social media and new media gener

  12. Outdoor recreation participation trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; Barbara L. McDonald; R. Jeff Teasley; John C. Bergstrom; Jack Martin; Jim Bason; Vernon R. Leeworthy

    1999-01-01

    As part of the national assessment of outdoor recreation trends, the authors have taken a look at participation patterns and levels of participation across activities and across segments of our society. The primary source of data is the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE). The NSRE is the latest in the continuing series of National Recreation...

  13. Sense of participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohorques Montemayor, L.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the sense of participation of a spatially distributed individual—in the intersections of physical and mediated networks. This sense is fundamental to an individuals’ experience as a participant in systems designed to this purpose including today’s social media and new media

  14. Participation beyond observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    , however, the researchers typically uphold the notion that all they methodically engage in is participant observation. The paper argues that important aspects of children’s living and understanding may be lost when considering them mere objects of one’s visual and verbal research practices. First I delve...... on investigating children’s perspectives through participant observation, but also ontological and political ones....

  15. Model of E-government Citizen Participation in Government Decision-making Process%政府决策过程中电子政务公民参与模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈氢; 刑美洁

    2015-01-01

    通过文献梳理分析电子政务公民参与的过程,对电子政务背景下公民参与的程度进行研究,阐述电子政务背景下公民参与模型的演进过程,总结了国内外优秀的公民参与及电子政务公民参与模型,基于政府决策构建电子政务公民参与模型并加以阐述。%The paper analyzed the process of citizen participation in eGgovernment based on the litG erature review,studying the level of citizen participation in eGgovernment,describing eGgovernG ment citizen participation in the evolution of the model ,summarizing the excellent citizen particiG pation and eGgovernment citizen participation model at home and abroad.It then built and elaboraG ted a new eGgovernment citizen participation model based on government decisionGmaking.

  16. Depression and Political Participation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument—whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group. PMID:26924857

  17. Depression and Political Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument-whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group.

  18. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... a participant and, as such, co-producer of the observed phenomenon. There is no such thing as a neutral or objective description. As observation deals with differences and process meaning, all descriptions are reconstructions and interpretations of the observed. Hence, the idea of neutral descriptions as well...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  19. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... a participant and, as such, co-producer of the observed phenomenon. There is no such thing as a neutral or objective description. As observation deals with differences and process meaning, all descriptions are re-constructions and interpretations of the observed. Hence, the idea of neutral descriptions as well...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  20. Anthropogenic carbon estimates in the North Atlantic in CMIP5 GCMs using reconstructed transient tracers (CFC-11, CFC-12, SF6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudino, Tobia; Messias, Marie-Jose; Schuster, Ute; Watson, Andrew J.

    2015-04-01

    Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has raised from 280 ppm to nearly 400 ppm. The Global Ocean has limited the consequent greenhouse effect on the climate system by taking up around 26% (2.3 ± 0.7 PgC/yr) of the carbon produced by human activities (anthropogenic carbon, Cant), mostly in key areas, such as the North Atlantic. Estimating anthropogenic carbon in the ocean is challenging because Cant cannot be measured directly, it is difficult to separate from the biggest unknown natural fraction (DIC), it is influenced by the biogeochemical cycles and the circulation in the ocean. Therefore, Cant is estimated with different methods (ΔC*, φCTO, TTD) based on carbon parameters (DIC, alkalinity, silicate, phosphate) or transient tracers observations. Here, we used CFC-11, CFC-12 and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) measured along the subtropical North Atlantic (26° N) in 2010 as proxies for the Cantestimates. However, these transient tracer observations are sparse and few GCMs (e.g.: OCMIP project) have reported them in the outputs. Therefore, oxygen and potential temperature observations registered on 1992, 1998, 2004 and 2010 along the 26° N transect have been used, with a combined CFC-12/SF6 water masses ages trend and the CMIP5 GCM (MPI-ESM, IPSL-CM5) outputs to reconstruct transient tracers concentrations using regression models. Overall, the 2010 residual analyses confirm the validity of the statistical approach and derived values show a consistency with the tracer observations (averaged R2 > 0.9). These regression models have been used to derive Cant from 1992 to 2014, in CMIP5 GCMs (MPI-ESM, IPSL-CM5), using the reconstructed transient tracers fields with the transit-time distribution (TTD) method. Results are, finally, compared to the Cant distributions and budgets calculated, in the same area, with other methods (ΔC*, φCTO) and the Cant directly estimated from the GCMs as the difference between the

  1. The Citizen Participation Model in the Policy Process:Case by Yueqing City,Zhejiang Province%政策过程中的公民参与模式——以浙江省乐清市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢安民

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,Under the context of expanding citizen orderly political participation,the significance and value of citizen participating the policy process has been gained a larger consensus in the circle of academic,while the problems of what specific form were and how it constitute the kind of overall participation model for citizen participating the policy process still needed to be discussed further.Based on reviewing existing research,introducing Arne Stein's theory of citizen participation ladder,the paper constructed nine kinds of overall model of citizen participating policy process,put forward the model selecting strategy of citizen participating policy process and through two typical cases studied and discussed the effectiveness of the analysis framework.%近年来,在扩大公民有序政治参与的背景下,公民参与政策过程的价值和意义已获得学界较大共识,但是公民参与政策过程有哪些具体形式,它们又构成怎样的整体参与模式等问题,仍然需要进一步探讨。在回顾已有研究的基础上,引入阿恩斯坦的公民参与阶梯理论,建构九类公民参与政策过程的整体模式,提出公民参与政策过程模式选择策略,并通过两个典型案例研究讨论分析框架的有效性。

  2. The ambiguity of the concept of participation in measurement instruments: Operationalization of participation influences research outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stallinga, Hillegonda; Dijkstra, Pieter; Bos, Isaac; Heerkens, Yvonne; Roodbol, Petrie

    2014-01-01

    This study explores, based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, the consequences of different operationalizations of participation in regression models predicting participation in one sample of patients.

  3. Identification of volatile and semivolatile compounds in chemical ionization GC-MS using a mass-to-structure (MTS) Search Engine with integral isotope pattern ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenta; Draper, William M

    2013-02-21

    The mass-to-structure or MTS Search Engine is an Access 2010 database containing theoretical molecular mass information for 19,438 compounds assembled from common sources such as the Merck Index, pesticide and pharmaceutical compilations, and chemical catalogues. This database, which contains no experimental mass spectral data, was developed as an aid to identification of compounds in atmospheric pressure ionization (API)-LC-MS. This paper describes a powerful upgrade to this database, a fully integrated utility for filtering or ranking candidates based on isotope ratios and patterns. The new MTS Search Engine is applied here to the identification of volatile and semivolatile compounds including pesticides, nitrosoamines and other pollutants. Methane and isobutane chemical ionization (CI) GC-MS spectra were obtained from unit mass resolution mass spectrometers to determine MH(+) masses and isotope ratios. Isotopes were measured accurately with errors of Search Engine and details performance testing with over 50 model compounds.

  4. Use of a Dynamic Headspace GC-MS Method for the Study of Volatile Organic Compounds in Polyethylene Packaging. An Undergraduate Experiment in Polymer Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Steven C.; Casey, R. John; Orbell, John D.; Bigger, Stephen W.

    2000-12-01

    A novel experiment is described for introducing senior undergraduate physical chemistry and food science students to a technique commonly used to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted from polymers at ambient temperatures. The VOCs in food-grade low-density polyethylene (LDPE) pellets are purged with nitrogen and trapped at ambient temperature on a Tenax-GC (2,6-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide polymer) sorbent. The VOCs are liberated using dynamic headspace desorption and are separated and identified using the technique of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The relationship between the chromatographic peak area of a given VOC and the temperature of desorption, as well as the relationship between the total chromatographic area and the temperature of desorption, are quantitatively modeled using a modified form of the van't Hoff isochore.

  5. From spectator to participant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Kofoed, Jens

    The book collects experiences and methods for citizens’ participation in order to strengthen the local Agenda 21 process. 5 different types of methods is presented: Methods of analyses and evaluation, methods of dialogue, methods for action, methods for networking, and finely methods for involvin...... local institutions. In the opening part the book deals with fundamental themes in participation processes such as planning of changes and changes and conflicts.......The book collects experiences and methods for citizens’ participation in order to strengthen the local Agenda 21 process. 5 different types of methods is presented: Methods of analyses and evaluation, methods of dialogue, methods for action, methods for networking, and finely methods for involving...

  6. Contact Quality in Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Jensen, Olav Storm

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the concept of participation from the perspective of quality of the contact in the communicative interactions between participants. We argue for the need for an academic-personal competence that qualifies the human contact central in all Participatory Design (PD) activities as a way...... to contribute to “an era of participation.” We describe a contact perspective in PD developed through a collaboration with body-oriented psychotherapeutic research that have specialized experiences in investigating open-minded contact and authentic meetings as body-related experiences....

  7. Headspace GC-MS Analysis of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Aqueous Samples: An Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John W.; Fabbri, Cindy E.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) by GC-MS demonstrates the use of instrumentation in the environmental analysis of pollutant molecules and enhances student understanding of stable isotopes in nature. In this experiment, students separated and identified several HVOCs that have been implicated as industrial groundwater…

  8. Soil organic matter chemistry changes upon secondary succession in Imperata Grasslands , Indonesia: A pyrolysis - GC/MS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassir, I.; Buurman, P.

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition of soil organic matter (SOM) following secondary succession in Imperata grassland was investigated by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). We studied 46 samples from different stages of succession using plots that last burned 3 and 9 years previously,

  9. Technical Note: Fast two-dimensional GC-MS with thermal extraction for anhydro-sugars in fine aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fast two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC-MS) method that uses heart-cutting and thermal extraction (TE) and requires no chemical derivatization is developed for the determination of anhydro-sugars in fine aerosols. Evaluation of the TE-GC-GC-MS method shows high average rela...

  10. [Multiresidue method for determination of pesticides in fruits and vegetables by GC/MS (SCAN) and LC/MS (SIM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Yoshihisa; Naetoko, Yoshitaka; Iwasaki, Yoshinari; Nakamura, Shigeru; Tatsuguchi, Hisako

    2005-08-01

    A rapid multiresidue method has been developed for determination of many pesticides in fruits and vegetables using GC/MS and LC/MS. The method of analysis was the same as that reported by Kakimoto et al. in 2003 except for the use of LC/MS. Good recoveries in the range of 70-120% were obtained for 70 (32 by GC/MS, 38 by LC/MS) of 113 pesticides spiked at 0.1 microg/g into fruits and vegetables. For screening purposes, the method could be appiled to 82 pesticides. Considering the report by Kakimoto et al. in 2004, 177 pesticides were suitable for screening by this method. The limits of detection were 0.001-0.015 microg/g (by GC/MS) and < 0.001-0.010 microg/g (by LC/MS). The calibration curves were linear for most pesticides, with correlation coefficients of 0.976-1.000 (by GC/MS) and 0.968-1.000 (by LC/MS). The values obtained for fruits and vegetables naturally contaminated with pesticides by this method were nearly equal to those by the official method.

  11. Got a Match? Ion Extraction GC-MS Characterization of Accelerants Adsorbed in Charcoal Using Negative Pressure Dynamic Headspace Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzivino, Barbara; Tilley, Leon J.; Ingalls, Laura R.; Hall, Adam B.; Drugan, John E.

    2009-01-01

    An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment demonstrating real-life application of GC-MS to arson accelerant identification is described. Students are given the task of comparing a sample recovered from a "crime scene" to that from a "suspect's clothing". Accelerants subjected to different conditions are recovered using a quick and simple…

  12. Investigation into some aspects of EMIT d.a.u., TLC, and GC-MS urinalysis of bromazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haj, B M; Al-Amri, A M; Hassan, M H; Bin-Khadem, R K

    2001-01-01

    Among the different 1,4-benzodiazepine urinary metabolites, those of bromazepam possess distinctive chemical features that may be used in their selective isolation and detection. The detection of bromazepam metabolites in urine was carried out using EMIT d.a.u., thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The positive EMIT d.a.u. benzodiazepine assay for bromazepam was found to be due to the 3-hydroxybromazepam (3HOB) metabolite. The detection by TLC and GC-MS was carried out after enzyme or acid hydrolysis of the glucuronide conjugates. Both the 2-amino-3-hydroxy5-bromobenzoylpyridine (AHBBP) metabolite and the acid hydrolysis product of 3-HOB, 2-amino-5-bromobenzoylpyridine (ABBP), were selectively detected by TLC. The bromazepam metabolites in urine could be both isolated and detected selectively by GC-MS in the presence of the metabolites of other 1,4-benzodiazepines that were sometimes used in combination with bromazepam. Both 3-HOB and AHBBP were detected by GC-MS only after trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatization and not as the free compounds or the acetyl derivatives. Only ABBP was detected in three forms: ABBP, the TMS derivative, and the acetyl derivative. Evidence has been obtained from the enzyme hydrolysis and the TLC studies for the formation of the glucuronide conjugate of AHBBP at the 3-OH group rather than at the 2-NH2 group. All the results have been validated using reference 3-HOB and AHBBP.

  13. Bromination of Aromatic Compounds by Residual Bromide in Sodium Chloride Matrix Modifier Salt During Heated Headspace GC/MS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical artifacts attributed to the bromination of toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes were found during the heated headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of aqueous samples. The aqueous samples were produced from Fenton-like chemical oxidation rea...

  14. Molecular analysis of intact preen waxes of Calidris Canutus (Aves: Scolopacidae) by GC/MS and GC/MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Dekker, M.H.A.; Piersma, T.

    2000-01-01

    The intact preen wax esters of the red knot Calidris canutus were studied with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/MS/MS. In this latter technique, transitions from the molecular ion to fragment ions representing the fatty acid moiety of the wax esters were measured, providing additi

  15. Metabolic profiling for studying chemotype variations in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal fruits using GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Anil; Bharti, Santosh K; Tewari, Shri K; Sidhu, Om P; Roy, Raja

    2013-09-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae), commonly known as Ashwagandha, is one of the most valued Indian medicinal plant with several pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications. Metabolic profiling was performed by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy on the fruits obtained from four chemotypes of W. somnifera. A combination of (1)H NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS identified 82 chemically diverse metabolites consisting of organic acids, fatty acids, aliphatic and aromatic amino acids, polyols, sugars, sterols, tocopherols, phenolic acids and withanamides in the fruits of W. somnifera. The range of metabolites identified by GC-MS and NMR of W. somnifera fruits showed various known and unknown metabolites. The primary and secondary metabolites observed in this study represent MVA, DOXP, shikimic acid and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic metabolic pathways. Squalene and tocopherol have been rated as the most potent naturally occurring compounds with antioxidant properties. These compounds have been identified by us for the first time in the fruits of W. somnifera. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) on GC-MS and NMR data revealed clear distinctions in the primary and secondary metabolites among the chemotypes. The variation in the metabolite concentration among different chemotypes of the fruits of W. somnifera suggest that specific chemovars can be used to obtain substantial amounts of bioactive ingredients for use as potential pharmacological and nutraceuticals agents.

  16. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Participating in Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials A Research Study With Human Subjects A clinical ... to treat or cure a disease. Phases of Clinical Trials Clinical trials of drugs are usually described based ...

  17. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Usually, trial participants must show signs of the disease or condition before they can join this type of trial. Prevention Trials Click for more information In prevention trials, ...

  18. Limited Denial of Participation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Limited Denial of Participation (LDP) is an action taken by a HUD Field Office or the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Single Family (DASSF) or Multifamily (DASMF)...

  19. Trends in educational participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuhry

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Trends in onderwijsdeelname. This study looks at the design, outcomes and administrative manageability of educational forecasts. Historical trends in educational participation and the phenomenon of 'educational expansion' (in which more and more young people follow secondary

  20. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... new tests that could identify a disease in its early stages. Usually, trial participants must show signs ... often healthy people (20 to 80), to judge its safety and side effects, and to find the ...

  1. From spectator to participant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Kofoed, Jens

    The book collects experiences and methods for citizens’ participation in order to strengthen the local Agenda 21 process. 5 different types of methods is presented: Methods of analyses and evaluation, methods of dialogue, methods for action, methods for networking, and finely methods for involving...... local institutions. In the opening part the book deals with fundamental themes in participation processes such as planning of changes and changes and conflicts....

  2. Size and Political Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritzlew, Søren

    This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size.......This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size....

  3. Size and Political Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritzlew, Søren

    This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size.......This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size....

  4. Quality evaluation of Terpinen-4-ol type Australian Tea Tree oils and commercial products: An integrated approach using conventional and chiral GC/MS combined with chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional GC/MS, chiral GC/MS and chemometric techniques were used to evaluate a large set of tea tree oils (TTO) and commercial products purported to contain tea tree oils. Fifty-seven known provenance pure Australian tea tree oils and forty-seven commercial TTO products were investigated. Twent...

  5. Serum and urine concentrations of flunitrazepam and metabolites, after a single oral dose, by immunoassay and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, H; Schwenzer, K S; Pearlman, R; McNally, A J; Tsilimidos, M; Salamone, S J; Brenneisen, R; ElSohly, M A; Feng, S

    2001-01-01

    A clinical study was conducted to assess the ability of commercially available immunoassays to detect flunitrazepam (FNP) in plasma and urine samples and to compare the results with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The clinical study consisted of four individuals (two male and two female) who had taken a single 2-mg dose of FNP. Serum was collected over a 48-h period and urine was collected over a 72-h period. The serum and urine samples were analyzed by the COBAS INTEGRA Serum Benzodiazepines assay (SBENZ), the TDx serum and urine Benzodiazepines assay, and GC-MS. The GC-MS procedure was developed for analysis of FNP and metabolites in plasma and urine using an acid hydrolysis step resulting in the formation of specific benzophenones corresponding to FNP and its metabolites. The relative sensitivities of the assays for the detection of FNP and metabolites in serum and urine were GC-MS > SBENZ > TDx. The immunoassay results for serum samples showed peak concentrations of FNP metabolites at 8 h after FNP ingestion for three individuals and at about 1 h for the fourth individual. The GC-MS, SBENZ, and TDx urine immunoassays detected drug above the stated limit of detection (LOD) in 44, 41, and 35 serial FNP urine samples, respectively. FNP metabolites were detected in urine samples with all three assays for up to 72 h after a 2-mg dose. The improved detection rate with the SBENZ assay as compared to the TDx assay is likely explained by its higher cross-reactivity with the major metabolite, 7-amino-flunitrazepam (7-amino-FNP), and its lower LOD.

  6. Characterization and Determination of 2-(2-Phenylethylchromones in Agarwood by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Fu Dai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agarwood is the fragrant resinous heartwood obtained from certain trees in the genus Aquilaria belonging to the family Thymelaeaceae. 2-(2-Phenylethylchromones and characteristic sesquiterpenes are the main classes of aromatic compounds isolated from agarwood. Although there are many sesquiterpenes, relatively few 2-(2-phenylethylchromones have been determined in agarwood by GC-MS. After analysis of the MS spectra of eighteen 2-(2-phenylethylchromone derivatives isolated from agarwood and identified by NMR spectroscopy, together with the reported MS data and characteristic of structures of 2-(2-phenylethylchromones, the MS characterization, fragmentation patterns and characteristic fragment peaks for the compounds were deduced and a table summarizing MS characterization of 2-(2-phenylethylchromones in agarwood is presented. All the 2-(2-phenylethylchromones previously reported in agarwood are substituted by methoxy or/and hydroxy groups, except for one compound. Due to the fact they all possess the same basic skeleton (molecular weight: 250 and similar substituent groups (methoxy or hydroxy groups, a formula (30m + 16n = MW − 250 is provided to calculate the number of methoxy (m or hydroxy (n groups according to molecular ion peak or molecular weight (MW. We deduced that the characteristic fragmentation behaviors of the 2-(2-phenylethylchromones are the cleavages of the CH2-CH2 bond between chromone moiety and phenyl moiety. Thus, characteristic fragment ions, such as m/z 91 [C7H7], 107 [C7H6+OH], 121 [C7H6+OCH3], 137 [C7H5+OH+OCH3] are formed by different substituted benzyl moieties, while characteristic fragment ions such as m/z 160 [C10H8O2], 176 [C10H7O2+OH], 190 [C10H7O2+OCH3], 220 [C10H6O2+OCH3×2] are formed by different substituted chromone moieties. Furthermore, rules regarding to the relationship between the positions of hydroxy or methoxy groups and the relative abundances of benzyl and chromone fragment ions have been deduced

  7. Characterization and determination of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in agarwood by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Wen-Li; Yang, De-Lan; Wang, Hao; Yang, Jin-Ling; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Dong, Wen-Hua; Li, Wei; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2013-10-08

    Agarwood is the fragrant resinous heartwood obtained from certain trees in the genus Aquilaria belonging to the family Thymelaeaceae. 2-(2-Phenylethyl)chromones and characteristic sesquiterpenes are the main classes of aromatic compounds isolated from agarwood. Although there are many sesquiterpenes, relatively few 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones have been determined in agarwood by GC-MS. After analysis of the MS spectra of eighteen 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivatives isolated from agarwood and identified by NMR spectroscopy, together with the reported MS data and characteristic of structures of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, the MS characterization, fragmentation patterns and characteristic fragment peaks for the compounds were deduced and a table summarizing MS characterization of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in agarwood is presented. All the 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones previously reported in agarwood are substituted by methoxy or/and hydroxy groups, except for one compound. Due to the fact they all possess the same basic skeleton (molecular weight: 250) and similar substituent groups (methoxy or hydroxy groups), a formula (30m + 16n = MW - 250) is provided to calculate the number of methoxy (m) or hydroxy (n) groups according to molecular ion peak or molecular weight (MW). We deduced that the characteristic fragmentation behaviors of the 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones are the cleavages of the CH₂-CH₂ bond between chromone moiety and phenyl moiety. Thus, characteristic fragment ions, such as m/z 91 [C₇H₇], 107 [C₇H₆+OH], 121 [C₇H₆+OCH₃], 137 [C₇H5+OH+OCH₃] are formed by different substituted benzyl moieties, while characteristic fragment ions such as m/z 160 [C₁₀H₈O₂], 176 [C₁₀H₇O₂+OH], 190 [C₁₀H₇O₂+OCH₃], 220 [C₁₀H₆O₂+OCH₃×2] are formed by different substituted chromone moieties. Furthermore, rules regarding to the relationship between the positions of hydroxy or methoxy groups and the relative abundances of benzyl

  8. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport

    OpenAIRE

    Eime, Rochelle M.; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J.; Payne, Warren R.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by childr...

  9. Characterizing Vaccinium berry Standard Reference Materials by GC-MS using NIST spectral libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Mark S; Andriamaharavo, Nirina R; Stein, Stephen E; Phinney, Karen W

    2013-05-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based method was developed for qualitative characterization of metabolites found in Vaccinium fruit (berry) dietary supplement Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). Definitive identifications are provided for 98 unique metabolites determined among six Vaccinium-related SRMs. Metabolites were enriched using an organic liquid/liquid extraction, and derivatized prior to GC-MS analysis. Electron ionization (EI) fragmentation spectra were searched against EI spectra of authentic standards compiled in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's mass spectral libraries, as well as spectra selected from the literature. Metabolite identifications were further validated using a retention index match along with prior probabilities and were compared with results obtained in a previous effort using collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS/MS datasets from liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry experiments. This manuscript describes a nontargeted metabolite profile of Vaccinium materials, compares results among related materials and from orthogonal experimental platforms, and discusses the feasibility and development of using mass spectral library matching for nontargeted metabolite identification.

  10. [GC-MS analysis of essential oil from Curcuma aromatica rhizome of different growth periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Xu, Ming-ming; Huang, Xiu-lan; Liu, Hua-gang; Lai, Mao-xiang; Wei, Meng-han

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the essential oil from the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica of different growth periods, and to provide the scientific reference for reasonable cultivation and quality control of this plant. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed with GC-MS. The relative contents were determined with area normalization method. The main volatile constituents in the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica were basically the same. Among these volatile constituents, curdione was the major. The relative content of curdione was 16.35% in the rhizome of wild plant in Hengxian county, and 15.81% in the rhizome of one-year-old plant in Mingyang farm, Nanning city. The relative content of eucalyptol in the 2-year-old cultivated rhizome in Hengxian county was 15.40%, and 14.59% in the rhizome of wild plant in Hengxian county. beta-Elemene, beta-caryophyllene,eugenol and germacrone were also the main constituents in the rhizome essential oil. Volatile constituents in the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica are similar to each other,but the relative content of each component is different. This result can provide the scientific foundation for the cultivation of Curcuma aromatica.

  11. In Vitro Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Cytotoxicity and GC-MS Analysis of Mazus goodenifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Mazus goodenifolius (Hornem. Pennell essential oil, methanol extract and some solvent-extracted subfractions of the latter were appraised. A qualitative, quantitative analysis of the classes of phytochemicals in the various fractions and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil was carried out. The activity of the plant extract and various subfractions against selected bacterial (Pasturella multocida, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and fungal strains (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Rhizopus solani was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assayed using the DPPH radical scavenging and % inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation tests. In the DPPH radical scavenging test the IC50 values ranged from 7.21 to 91.79 µg/mL, and in the latter the range of % peroxidation inhibition was 35.42–93.48%. Protective effects of the absolute methanol extract, which had the highest content of phenolics and flavonoids, against H2O2 induced oxidative damage in plasmid pBR322 DNA was also evaluated, and it was found to offer some protection at the highest tested dose (1,000 µg/mL. Finally the cytotoxicity of the plant extract, fractions and essential oil was analyzed by examining haemolytic activity against human blood erythrocytes (RBCs, whereby the % lysis of RBCs was found to be in the range of 1.65 to 4.01%.

  12. GC-MS Analysis of Insecticidal Essential Oil of Flowering Aerial Parts of Saussurea Nivea Turcz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Several species from Saussurea have been used in the traditional medicine, such as S. lappa, S. involucrate, and S. obvallata. There is no report on medicinal use of S. nivea. The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of S. nivea Turcz (Asteraceae aerial parts against maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky for the first time.Results:Essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 43 components of the essential oil of S. nivea were identified. The principal compounds in the essential oil were (+-limonene (15.46%, caryophyllene oxide (7.62%, linalool (7.20%, alpha-pinene (6.43%, beta-pinene (5.66% and spathulenol (5.02% followed by beta-eudesmoll (4.64% and eudesma-4,11-dien-2-ol (3.76%. The essential oil of S. nivea exhibited strong contact toxicity against S. zeamais with an LD50 value of 10.56 mug/adult. The essential oil also possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais with an LC50 value of 8.89 mg/L.Conclusion: The study indicates that the essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts has a potential for development into a natural insecticide/fumigant for control of insects in stored grains.

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Pesticide Emulsifiable Concentrate by Headspace GC-MS

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    Lidong Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxic inert ingredients in pesticide formulations are strictly regulated in many countries. In this paper, a simple and efficient headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSGC-MS method using fluorobenzene as an internal standard (IS for rapid simultaneous determination of benzene and toluene in pesticide emulsifiable concentrate (EC was established. The headspace and GC-MS conditions were investigated and developed. A nonpolar fused silica Rtx-5 capillary column (30 m×0.20 mm i.d. and 0.25 μm film thickness with temperature programming was used. Under optimized headspace conditions, equilibration temperature of 120°C, equilibration time of 5 min, and sample size of 50 μL, the regression of the peak area ratios of benzene and toluene to IS on the concentrations of analytes fitted a linear relationship well at the concentration levels ranging from 3.2 g/L to 16.0 g/L. Standard additions of benzene and toluene to blank different matrix solutions 1ead to recoveries of 100.1%–109.5% with a relative standard deviation (RSD of 0.3%–8.1%. The method presented here stands out as simple and easily applicable, which provides a way for the determination of toxic volatile adjuvant in liquid pesticide formulations.

  14. Hyphenated GC-FTIR and GC-MS techniques applied in the analysis of bioactive compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosav, Steluta; Paduraru, Nicoleta; Praisler, Mirela

    2014-08-01

    The drugs of abuse, which affect human nature and cause numerous crimes, have become a serious problem throughout the world. There are hundreds of amphetamine analogues on the black market. They consist of various alterations of the basic amphetamine molecular structure, which are yet not yet included in the lists of forbidden compounds although they retain or slightly modify the hallucinogenic effects of their parent compound. It is their important variety that makes their identification quite a challenge. A number of analytical procedures for the identification of amphetamines and their analogues have recently been reported. We are presenting the profile of the main hallucinogenic amphetamines obtained with the hyphenated techniques that are recommended for the identification of illicit amphetamines, i. e. gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (GC-FTIR). The infrared spectra of the analyzed hallucinogenic amphetamines present some absorption bands (1490 cm-1, 1440 cm-1, 1245 cm-1, 1050 cm-1 and 940 cm-1) that are very stable as position and shape, while their intensity depends of the side-chain substitution. The specific ionic fragment of the studied hallucinogenic compounds is the 3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl cation (m/e = 135) which has a small relative abundance (lesser than 20%). The complementarity of the above mentioned techniques for the identification of hallucinogenic compounds is discussed.

  15. GC-MS Analysis on Volatile Oil from Branches of Picrasma quassioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Lin-fang; WANG; Zeng-hui; CHEN; Shi-lin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the volatile oil from the branches of Picrasma quassioides. Methods Volatile oil was extracted from the branches of P. quassioides by steam distillation. GC-MS method was used to analyze the components. Results A total of 49 compounds were isolated, and 46 compounds were successfully identified, which represented over 98% of the total oil composition. The major components of the volatile oil in the branches of P. quassioides included caryophyllene (12.83%), 12-oxabicyclo[9.1.0]dodeca-3,7-diene,1,5,5,8-tetramethyl-[1R-(1R*,3E,7E,11-R*)] (12.29%), 1-hexanol (9.96%), naphthalene, 1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,8a-dimethyl-7-(1-methyletheyl)-[1S-(1a,7a,8aa)] (7.32%), aromadendrene oxide-(2) (6.69%), and α-caryophyllene (3.88%). Conclusion The major components in volatile oil are terpenoids, hydroxy compounds, and other acyclic alkane compounds.

  16. GC-MS analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagula, Mary C.; Vartak, Marissa; Tallmadge, Weslene

    2012-06-01

    Lake Erie is one of the five great lakes of North America. It is the shallowest, the warmest, and the most biologically productive of the Great Lakes producing more fish than all of the other four lakes combined. It is also a source of drinking water for 11 million people and a recreational asset. On the flipside, it is also very vulnerable and troubled with environmental challenges because it has the smallest water volume, but the greatest pressures from the human settlement. One of the many issues faced by the Lake is pollution. It receives larger loads of many pollutants than any other Great Lake. Even with the best pollution controls many pesticides and organohalogens continue to enter the lake. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame-retardants that have been used in a variety of consumer products since the 1970s. They are added to many commercial and household products such as computers, foam mattresses, carpets, etc. Being largely non-polar and chemically stable, these chemicals are extremely lipophilic and resist degradation in the environment, thus giving them a high affinity for their bioaccumulation. Due to these properties PBDEs have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. These compounds are reported to be endocrine disruptors and could cause oxidative damage. This report presents the sample preparation protocol, the GC-MS analysis of PBDEs in Lake Erie sediment samples.

  17. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis

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    Zhisheng Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, and solvent extraction (SE. A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD, 56 (HS-SPME, and 48 (SE compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81% were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level.

  18. Detection and quantification of gas-phase oxidized mercury compounds by GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Colleen P.; Lyman, Seth N.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Allen, Tanner; O'Neil, Trevor L.

    2016-05-01

    Most mercury pollution is emitted to the atmosphere, and the location and bioavailability of deposited mercury largely depends on poorly understood atmospheric chemical reactions that convert elemental mercury into oxidized mercury compounds. Current measurement methods do not speciate oxidized mercury, leading to uncertainty about which mercury compounds exist in the atmosphere and how oxidized mercury is formed. We have developed a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based system for identification and quantification of atmospheric oxidized mercury compounds. The system consists of an ambient air collection device, a thermal desorption module, a cryofocusing system, a gas chromatograph, and an ultra-sensitive mass spectrometer. It was able to separate and identify mercury halides with detection limits low enough for ambient air collection (90 pg), but an improved ambient air collection device is needed. The GC/MS system was unable to quantify HgO or Hg(NO3)2, and data collected cast doubt upon the existence of HgO in the gas phase.

  19. Determination of Menthol in Plasma and Urine by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Judy; Frazee, Clint; Kearns, Gregory; Garg, Uttam

    2016-01-01

    Menthol, a monoterpene, is a principal component of peppermint oil and is used extensively in consumer products as a flavoring aid. It is also commonly used medicinally as a topical skin coolant; to treat inflammation of the mucous membranes, digestive problems, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); and in preventing spasms during endoscopy and for its spasmolytic effect on the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Menthol has a half life of 3-6 h and is rapidly metabolized to menthol glucuronide which is detectable in urine and serum following menthol use. We describe a method for the determination of total menthol in human plasma and urine using liquid/liquid extraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring mode and menthol-d4 as the internal standard. Controls are prepared with menthol glucuronide and all samples undergo enzymatic hydrolysis for the quantification of total menthol. The method has a linear range of 5-1000 ng/mL, and coefficient of variation <10%.

  20. HPTLC and GC/MS Study of Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids of Two Narcissus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawky, Eman; Abou-Donia, Amina H; Darwish, Fikria A; Toaima, Soad M; Takla, Sarah S; Pigni, Natalia B; Bastida, Jaume

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we report on the alkaloid profile and dynamic of alkaloid content and diversity in two Narcissus plants at different stages of development. The alkaloid profile of the two Narcissus species was investigated by GC/MS and HPTLC. Fifty eight Amaryllidaceae alkaloids were detected, and 25 of them were identified in the different organs of N. tazetta and N. papyraceus. The alkaloid 3-O-methyl-9-O-demethylmaritidine is tentatively identified here for the first time from the Amaryllidaceae family, and four alkaloids (tazettamide, sternbergine, 1-O-acetyllycorine, 2,11-didehydro-2-dehydroxylycorine) are tentatively identified for the first time in the genus Narcissus. The different organs of the two species analyzed showed remarkable differences in their alkaloid pattern, type of biosynthesis, main alkaloid and number of alkaloids. Lycorine-type alkaloids dominated the alkaloid, metabolism in N. papyraceus, while alkaloids of narciclasine-, galanthamine- and homolycorine-types were found only in the species N. tazetta L.

  1. Characterization of Fatty Acids in Crenarchaeota by GC-MS and NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerly, Timothy; Tripet, Brian; Wurch, Louie; Hettich, Robert L; Podar, Mircea; Bothner, Brian; Copié, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Lipids composed of condensed isoprenyl units connected to glycerol backbones by ether linkages are a distinguishing feature of Archaea. Data suggesting that fatty acids with linear hydrocarbon chains are present in some Archaea have been available for decades. However, lack of genomic and biochemical evidence for the metabolic machinery required to synthesize and degrade fatty acids has left the field unclear on this potentially significant biochemical aspect. Because lipids are energy currency and cell signaling molecules, their presence in Archaea is significant for understanding archaeal biology. A recent large-scale bioinformatics analysis reignited the debate as to the importance of fatty acids in Archaea by presenting genetic evidence for the presence of enzymes required for anabolic and catabolic fatty acid metabolism across the archaeal domain. Here, we present direct biochemical evidence from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for the presence of fatty acids in two members of the Crenarchaeota, Sulfolobus solfataricus and Ignicoccus hospitalis. This is the first report providing biochemical data for the existence of fatty acids in these Crenarchaeota, opening new discussions on energy balance and the potential for the discovery of new thermostable enzymes for industry.

  2. GC-MS metabolomics analysis of mesenchymal stem cells treated with copper oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Antonio; Mancuso, Luisa; Manis, Cristina; Caboni, Pierluigi; Cao, Giacomo

    2016-10-01

    Human exposure to copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) is rapidly increasing and for this reason reliable toxicity test systems are urgently needed. Recently, the acute cytotoxicity of CuO NPs using the new toxicity test based on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) has been evaluated. It was shown that CuO NPs are much more toxic when compared to CuO microparticles (MPs). Several studies associate CuO toxicity to a possible alteration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) system. Unluckily, the mechanism that causes the toxicity is still not clear. In this work, the polar metabolite pool of treated cells, at the corresponding IC50 value, for CuO micro and NPs has been studied by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and multivariate statistical data analysis. By the same means, differences due to different treatments, on samples, were investigated. Results of discriminant analysis were considered with the aim of finding the relevant metabolites unique for each class. Serine, glyceric acid, and succinic acid were upregulated on samples treated with CuO microparticles, while glutamine was the only discriminant metabolite for the class of samples treated with nanoparticles.

  3. "Detection of Morphine in Opioid Abusers Hair by GC/MS "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosrou Abdi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty hair samples were collected from the male opioid abusers in which the presence of morphine in their urine samples was confirmed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC analyses. The hair samples were washed, cut into small pieces and extracted in a mixture of methanol-triflouroacetic acid (9:1. The methanolic phase was evaporated to dryness under nitrogen stream and derivitized by addition of N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl triflouroacetamide (MSTFA and 1% trimethyl iodosilane (TMIS with sonication. One micro liter of each derivitized sample was injected into a Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS system consisting of a capillary column and finnigan MS with selective ion monitoring (SIM mode. The selected mass for ions codeine and morphine were 370 and 429, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD was set at 0.03ng/mg of the hair. By using the above procedure, morphine was detectable in all of the examined samples and this method is capable to detec low levels of morphine in hair for a long period of time following the last intake of the drug

  4. Differentiation of partial acylglycerols derived from different animal fats by EA-IRMS and GCMS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nina Naquiah, A.N.; Marikkar, J.M.N.; Shuhaimi, M.

    2016-07-01

    A study was carried out to compare partial acylglycerols of lard with those of chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Elemental Analysis–Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS). Mono- (MAG) and di-(DAG) acylglycerols of animal fats were prepared according to a chemical glycerolysis method and isolated using column chromatography. The fatty acid composition and δ13C carbon isotope ratio of MAG and DAG derived from individual animal fat were determined separately to establish their identity characteristics. The results showed that the δ13C values of MAG and DAG of lard were significantly different from those of MAG and DAG derived from chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat. According to the loading plots based on a principle component analysis (PCA), fatty acids namely stearic, oleic and linoleic were the most discriminating parameters to distinctly identify MAG and DAG derived from different animal fats. This demonstrated that the EA-IRMS and the PCA of fatty acid data have considerable potential for discriminating MAG and DAG derived from lard from other animal fats for Halal authentication purposes. (Author)

  5. A novel GC-MS method in urinary estrogen analysis from postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Kwang Joon; Moon, Myeong Hee; Chung, Bong Chul; Choi, Man Ho

    2011-08-01

    Estrogen metabolites play important roles in the development of female-related disorders and homeostasis of the bone. To improve detectability, a validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was conducted with two-phase extractive ethoxycarbonlyation (EOC) and subsequent pentafluoropropionyl (PFP) derivatization was introduced. The resulting samples were separated through a high-temperature MXT-1 column within an 8 min run and were detected in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The optimized analytical conditions led to good separation with a symmetric peak shape for 19 estrogens as their EOC-PFP derivatives. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was from 0.02 to ∼0.1 ng/ml for most estrogens analyzed, except for 2-hydroxyestriol (0.5 ng/ml). The devised method was found to be linear (r² > 0.995) in the range from the LOQ to 40 ng/ml, whereas the precision (% CV) and accuracy (% bias) ranged from 1.4 to 10.5% and from 91.4 to 108.5%, respectively. The good sensitivity and selectivity of this method even allowed quantification of the estrogen metabolites in urine samples obtained from the postmenopausal female patients with osteoporosis. The present technique can be useful for clinical diagnosis as well as to better understand the pathogenesis of estrogen-related disorders in low-level quantification.

  6. Cyclone life cycle characteristics over the Northern Hemisphere in coupled GCMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeptien, Ulrike; Latif, Mojib [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); Zolina, Olga [P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Bonn, Meteorological Institute, Bonn (Germany); Gulev, Sergey [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Soloviov, Vladimir [P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-10-15

    Cyclone activity and life cycle are analysed in the coupled GCMs ECHAM5/OM and ECHAM4/OPYC3. First, the results for the present climate (1978-1999) are compared with ERA-40 and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses, showing a drastic improvement in the representation of cyclone activity in ECHAM5/OM compared to ECHAM4/OPYC3. The total number of cyclones, cyclone intensity, propagation velocity and deepening rates are found to be much more realistic in ECHAM5/OM relative to ECHAM4/OPYC3. Then, changes in extra tropical cyclone characteristics are compared between present day climate and future climate under the emission-scenario A1B using ECHAM5/OM. This comparison is performed using the 20-year time slices 1978-1999, 2070-2090 and 2170-2190, which were considered to be representative for the various climate conditions. The total number of cyclones does not undergo significant changes in a warmer climate. However, regional changes in cyclone numbers and frequencies are evident. One example is the Mediterranean region where the number of cyclones in summer increases almost by factor 2. Some noticeable changes are also found in cyclone life cycle characteristics (deepening rate and propagation velocity). Cyclones in the future climate scenario tend to move slower and their deepening rate becomes stronger, while cyclone intensity does not undergo significant change in a warmer climate. Generally, our results do not support the hypothesis of enhanced storminess under future climate conditions. (orig.)

  7. Analysis on Volatile Constituents in Leaves and Fruits of Ficus carica by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; TIAN Yu-zeng; SUN Bao-ya; YANG Dan; CHEN Ji-ping; MEN Qi-ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify and analyze the volatile constituents in the leaves and fruits ofFicus carica.Methods Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used.Results The major components detected in volatile oil of the leaves were psoralen (10.12%),β-damascenone (10.17%),benzyl alcohol (4.56%),behenic acid (4.79%),and bergapten (1.99%),etc.The major components detected in volatile oil of the fruits were furfural (10.55%),5-methyl-2-furaldehyde (10.1%),and benzeneacetaldehyde (6.59%),etc.Conclusion A total of 121 volatile constituents are identified in the leaves and 108 in the fruits ofF.carica,among which 103 constituents are identified for the first time in the leaves and 100 in the fruits.Eighteen volatile constituents are identified in both leaves and fruits.

  8. GC-MS analysis of insecticidal essential oil of flowering aerial parts of Saussurea nivea Turcz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Sha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several species from Saussurea have been used in the traditional medicine, such as S. lappa, S. involucrate, and S. obvallata. There is no report on medicinal use of S. nivea. The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of S. nivea Turcz (Asteraceae aerial parts against maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky for the first time. Results Essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 43 components of the essential oil of S. nivea were identified. The principal compounds in the essential oil were (+-limonene (15.46%, caryophyllene oxide (7.62%, linalool (7.20%, α-pinene (6.43%, β-pinene (5.66% and spathulenol (5.02% followed by β-eudesmoll (4.64% and eudesma-4,11-dien-2-ol (3.76%. The essential oil of S. nivea exhibited strong contact toxicity against S. zeamais with an LD50 value of 10.56 μg/adult. The essential oil also possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais with an LC50 value of 8.89 mg/L. Conclusion The study indicates that the essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts has a potential for development into a natural insecticide/fumigant for control of insects in stored grains.

  9. GC-MS Analysis of Insecticidal Essential Oil of Aerial Parts of Echinops latifolius Tausch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The roots of Echinops latifolius Tausch (Asteraceae have been used in the traditional medicine. However, no report on chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of this plant exists. The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of E. latifolius aerial parts against maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky for the first time. Essential oil of E. latifolius aerial parts at flowering stage was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 35 components of the essential oil of E. latifolius aerial parts were identified. The major compounds in the essential oil were 1,8-cineole (19.63%, (Z-β-ocimene (18.44%, and β-pinene (15.56% followed by β-myrcene (4.75% and carvone (4.39%. The essential oil of E. latifolius possessed contact toxicity against S. zeamais with an LD50 value of 36.40 µg/adult. The essential oil also exhibited fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais with an LC50 value of 9.98 mg/L. The study indicates that the essential oil of E. latifolius aerial parts has a potential for development into a natural insecticide/fumigant for control of insects in stored grains.

  10. Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf Extract of Abutilon hirtum (Lam. Sweet by GC-MS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivekraj P.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abutilon hirtum (Lam. Sweet (Malvaceae commonly known as Vadathuthi. It is used as one of the most important drugs in traditional system of medicine to treat various ailments. The plant is used for to its various properties as demulcent, diuretics, anti-diabetics, anthelmintic, laxative, wound healing properties, antibacterial and antifungal properties. The present study revealed the presence of phytochemicals like Diethyl Phthalate (19.171%,Benzaldehyde 4-propyl (5.219%,Methoxyacetic acid 3-tridecyl ester (5.196%,Sulfurous acid dodecyl 2-propyl ester (0.455%,Sulfurous acid, butyl dodecyl ester (0.442%etc., from the chloroform extracts of leaves in A. hirtum. In the present study an attempt was made to investigate the phytochemical present in the extracts in the preliminary level by using Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The study will provide information for the correct identification of the crude drug. This will be further considered for pharmacological activities and isolation of individual components would however, help to find new drugs.The results are reported for the first time in A. hirtum.

  11. GC--MS analysis reveals production of 2--Phenylethanol from Aspergillus niger endophytic in rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Masood Ahmed; Sanjana, Kaul; Kumar, Dhar Manoj; Lal, Dhar Kanahya

    2010-02-01

    Endophytes include all organisms that during a variable period of their life, colonize the living internal tissues of their hosts without causing detectable symptoms. Several fungal endophytes have been isolated from a variety of plant species which have proved themselves as a rich source of secondary metabolites. The reported natural products from endophytes include antibiotics, immunosuppresants, anticancer compounds, antioxidant agents, etc. For the first time Rosa damacaena (rose) has been explored for its endophytes. The rose oil industry is the major identified deligence for its application in perfumery, flavouring, ointments, and pharmaceuticals including various herbal products. During the present investigation fungal endophytes were isolated from Rosa damacaena. A total of fifty four isolates were isolated out of which sixteen isolates were screened for the production of secondary metabolites. GCMS analysis reveals the production of 2-phenylethanol by one of the isolates JUBT 3M which was identified as Aspergillus niger. This is the first report of production of 2-phenylethanol from endophytic A. niger. 2-phenylethanol is an important constituent of rose oil constituting about 4.06% of rose oil. Presence of 2-phenylethanol indicates that the endophyte of rose may duplicate the biosynthesis of phenyl propanoids by rose plant. Besides this, the other commercial applications of phenylethanol include its use in antiseptics, disinfectants, anti-microbials and preservative in pharmaceuticals.

  12. GC-MS analysis and ecotoxicological risk assessment of triclosan, carbamazepine and parabens in Indian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Shanmugam, Govindaraj; Velu, Geetha; Rengarajan, Bhuvaneshwari; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2011-02-28

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products are used extensively worldwide and their residues are frequently reported in aquatic environments. In this study, antiepileptic, antimicrobial and preservative compounds were analyzed in surface water and sediment from the Kaveri, Vellar and Tamiraparani rivers, and in the Pichavaram mangrove in India by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The mean concentration of carbamazepine recorded in the Kaveri River water (28.3 ng/L) was higher than in the other rivers and the mangrove. Because carbamazepine is used only in human drugs, this may reflect the relative contributions of human excretions/sewage in these rivers. The mean triclosan level in the Tamiraparani River (944 ng/L) was an order of magnitude greater than in the other water systems, and the concentrations at two of the sites reported here (3800-5160 ng/L) are, to our best knowledge, among the highest detected in surface waters. Sediment levels were, however, comparable with other sites. We conclude that industrial releases are likely major contributors of triclosan into this river system. Among parabens, ethyl paraben was predominantly observed. Hazard Quotients suggest greater environmental risks for triclosan than for carbamazepine and parabens. This is the first study on antiepileptic, antimicrobial and preservatives in rivers and mangroves from India.

  13. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  14. Simultaneous GC-MS determination of seven phthalates in total and migrated portions of paper cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Na; Choi, Min Sun; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Gye, Myung Chan; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Phthalate acid esters are widely used as plasticizers to impart plastic flexibility in various industrial applications. In this study, the content of seven phthalates, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), and di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) were determined in paper cups using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the potential migration of these seven phthalates from paper cups into various food stimulants under different conditions was evaluated. The levels of DBP, DEHA, DEHP, and DNOP were in the ranges of 0.07-3.14, 0.16-42.69, 0.45-58.56, and 0.3-2.4 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, BBP, DINP, and DIDP were not detected in most of the tested samples. In the migration test, DEHA was released to 50 % ethanol and n-heptane in a time-dependent manner and the maximum migration levels were 65.62 ± 3.61 and 95.56 ± 19.76 μg/L, respectively. The release of other phthalates was very low or negligible. These results demonstrated that paper cups are not a significant source of phthalate exposure; however, DEHA could be released from paper cups into alcoholic beverages or oily liquid beverages in the human diet.

  15. Determination of Alprazolam in Rabbit Plasma by GC-MS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Yilmaz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS method for determination of alprazolam in rabbit plasma. Alprazolam and internal standard (IS medazepam were extracted from plasma by using liquid-liquid extraction method. The samples were separated by GC on a DB-5MS analytical column and determined by a quadrupole mass spectrometer detector operated under selected ion monitoring mode (SIM. Excellent linearity was found between 50 and 1000 ng/mL r=0.998 for plasma samples. Intra-day and inter-day precisions expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD for the method were 1.07-2.69% and 2.42-3.98%, respectively. The mean recovery of alprazolam samples was 98.82%. The limits of detection and uantification of alprazolam were 15 and 50 ng/mL, respectively. Also, the method was successfully applied to three New Zealand white abbits which had been given an oral tablet of 1.0 mg alprazolam.

  16. Homogenity of oil and sugar components of flour amaranth investigated by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psodorov Đorđe B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used for performing a qualitative analysis of liposoluble and hydrosoluble flour extracts of three genotypes of Amaranthus sp. All three samples were first defatted with hexane. Hexane extracts were used for the analysis of fatty acids of lipid components. TMSH (Trimethylsulfonium hydroxide, 0.2M in methanol was used as the transesterification reagent. With transesterification reaction, fatty acids were esterified from acilglycerol to methyl-esters. Defatted flour samples were dried in the air and then extracted with ethanol. Ethanol extracts were used for the analysis of soluble carbohydrates. TMSI (trimethylsilylimidazole was used as a reagent for the derivatization of carbohydrates into trimethylsilylethers. The results show that the dominant methyl-esters of fatty acids are very similar in all the three samples. Such a similarity was not detected in the analysis of soluble sugars. The following test cluster analysis was used for the comparison of liposoluble and hydrosoluble flour extracts of three genotypes of Amaranthus sp.

  17. TLC and GC-MS Analyses of Essential Oil Isolated from Macedonian Foeniculi fructus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menče Najdoska

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Foeniculi fructus, the ripe fruit from the plant Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare var. dulce Batt. and Trab. (sweet fennel, македонски анасон was isolated and the main components were identified and quantified using thin-layer chromatography (TLC and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The Aetherloeum Foeniculi had pale yellow color and characteristic pleasant odor and was obtained in 3.2% yield (by weight from the plant fruits. The main components of the oil were: trans-anethole, 1, (70%, p-anisaldehyde, 2, (19% estragole, 3, (6% and anisacetone, 4, (2%. The identity of the components was determined by matching the mass spectra to the library spectra. The identity of the main component, trans-anethole, was confirmed directly by isolation using column chromatography and indirectly by potassium permanganate oxidation of the essential oil. The oxidation product from this reaction, pmethoxybenzoic acid, 16, was isolated and characterized. The potential products of autooxidation of trans-anethole (epoxy anethole, anethole glycol and 16 were not detected in the freshly obtained essential oils.

  18. GC-MS Analysis and Preliminary Antimicrobial Activity of Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach and Pterocarpus angolensis (DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha N. Abubakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-polar components of two leguminoceae species Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach, and Pterocarpus angolensis (DC were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the crude n-hexane and chloroform extracts together with several chromatographic separation techniques led to the identification and characterization (using NMR of sixteen known compounds from the heartwood and stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia and Pterocarpus angolensis respectively. These constituents include, n-hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid 1, oleic acid 2, chondrillasterol 3, stigmasterol 4, 24S 5α-stigmast-7-en-3β-ol 5, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z-, methyl ester 6, trans-13-octadecanoic acid, methyl ester 7, tetradecanoic acid 8, hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester 9, octadecanoic acid 10, tetratriacontane 11, 7-dehydrodiosgenin 12, lupeol 13, stigmasta-3,5-diene-7-one 14, friedelan-3-one (friedelin 15, and 1-octacosanol 16. Using agar over lay method, the preliminary antimicrobial assay for the extracts was carried out against bacterial (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aueus and a fungus/yeast (C. albicans strains. The n-hexane and chloroform extracts of A. adianthifolia showed the best activity against E. coli with minimum inhibition quantity (MIQ of 1 µg each while the remaining exhibited moderate-to-weak activity against the test microorganisms.

  19. Bioactive Compound Evaluation of Ethanol Extract from Geodorum densiflorum (Lam. Schltr. by GC-MS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthiga Manohar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical constituents are responsible for medicinal value of the plant species. The present investigation was carried out to analyze the bioactive components from the whole plant of Geodorum densiflorum (Lam. Schltr using GC-MS technique. The chemical compositions of the ethanolic extract of G. densiflorum were investigated using Perkin - Elmer Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry and about twenty one bioactive phytochemical compounds were identified. The prevailing compounds where Hexadecanoic acid, Ethyl ester (38.884 %, Ionone (7.125 %, 3-Deoxy-d-mannoic lactone (7.4441 %, 2,3-Butanediol (4.725 % and 2-Piperidinone, N-[4-bromo-n-butyl]- (4.004 %, (E-9-Octadeconoic acid ethyl ester (3.891 %, 1H-Pyrrole-2-Carbonitrile (3.778 %, Pyridinium, 1-amino-, chloride (3.305 %, 4H- Pyran-4-one, 3,5-dihydroxy-2-methyl- (3.274 and having various biological activities. This was the first report on the identification of bioactive compounds from ethanol extract of G. densiflorum.

  20. Characterization of Fatty Acids in Crenarchaeota by GC-MS and NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Hamerly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids composed of condensed isoprenyl units connected to glycerol backbones by ether linkages are a distinguishing feature of Archaea. Data suggesting that fatty acids with linear hydrocarbon chains are present in some Archaea have been available for decades. However, lack of genomic and biochemical evidence for the metabolic machinery required to synthesize and degrade fatty acids has left the field unclear on this potentially significant biochemical aspect. Because lipids are energy currency and cell signaling molecules, their presence in Archaea is significant for understanding archaeal biology. A recent large-scale bioinformatics analysis reignited the debate as to the importance of fatty acids in Archaea by presenting genetic evidence for the presence of enzymes required for anabolic and catabolic fatty acid metabolism across the archaeal domain. Here, we present direct biochemical evidence from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy for the presence of fatty acids in two members of the Crenarchaeota, Sulfolobus solfataricus and Ignicoccus hospitalis. This is the first report providing biochemical data for the existence of fatty acids in these Crenarchaeota, opening new discussions on energy balance and the potential for the discovery of new thermostable enzymes for industry.

  1. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Industrial Harbor Sediments by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Wen Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs of the US Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutant list was carried out in sediment samples of an industrial port in the southern Kaohsiung Harbor of Taiwan which is supposed to be extensively polluted by industrial wastewater discharges. The determination and quantification of PAHs in sediment samples were performed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS with the aid of deuterated PAH internal standards and surrogate standards. The total concentrations of the 16 PAHs varied from 4,425 to 51,261 ng/g dw, with a mean concentration of 13,196 ng/g dw. The PAHs concentration is relatively high in the river mouth region, and gradually diminishes toward the harbor region. Diagnostic ratios showed that the possible source of PAHs in the industrial port area could be coal combustion. As compared with the US Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs, the various observed levels of PAHs exceeded the effects range median (ERM, and could thus cause acute biological damages. The results can be used for regular monitoring, and future pollution prevention and management should target the various industries in this region for reducing pollution.

  2. Analysis of PVC plasticizers in medical devices and infused solutions by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeaux, Daniel; Yessaad, Mouloud; Chennell, Philip; Larbre, Virginie; Eljezi, Teuta; Bernard, Lise; Sautou, Valerie

    2016-01-25

    In 2008, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), was categorized as CMR 1B under the CLP regulations and its use in PVC medical devices (MD) was called into question by the European authorities. This resulted in the commercialization of PVC MDs plasticized with the DEHP alternative plasticizers tri-octyl trimellitate (TOTM), di-(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT), di-isononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), di-(2-ethylhexy) adipate (DEHA), and Acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC). The data available on the migration of these plasticizers from the MDs are too limited to ensure their safe use. We therefore developed a versatile GC-MS method to identify and quantify both these newly used plasticizers and DEHP in MDs and to assess their migration abilities in simulant solution. The use of cubic calibration curves and the optimization of the analytical method by an experimental plan allowed us to lower the limit of plasticizer quantification. It also allowed wide calibration curves to be established that were adapted to this quantification in MDs during migration tests, irrespective of the amount present, and while maintaining good precision and accuracy. We then tested the developed method on 32 PVC MDs used in our hospital and evaluated the plasticizer release from a PVC MD into a simulant solution during a 24h migration test. The results showed a predominance of TOTM in PVC MDs accompanied by DEHP (plasticizers and a non-linear kinetic release.

  3. GC-MS Analysis and Preliminary Antimicrobial Activity of Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach) and Pterocarpus angolensis (DC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Mustapha N; Majinda, Runner R T

    2016-01-28

    The non-polar components of two leguminoceae species Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach), and Pterocarpus angolensis (DC) were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the crude n-hexane and chloroform extracts together with several chromatographic separation techniques led to the identification and characterization (using NMR) of sixteen known compounds from the heartwood and stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia and Pterocarpus angolensis respectively. These constituents include, n-hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid) 1, oleic acid 2, chondrillasterol 3, stigmasterol 4, 24S 5α-stigmast-7-en-3β-ol 5, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester 6, trans-13-octadecanoic acid, methyl ester 7, tetradecanoic acid 8, hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester 9, octadecanoic acid 10, tetratriacontane 11, 7-dehydrodiosgenin 12, lupeol 13, stigmasta-3,5-diene-7-one 14, friedelan-3-one (friedelin) 15, and 1-octacosanol 16. Using agar over lay method, the preliminary antimicrobial assay for the extracts was carried out against bacterial (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aueus) and a fungus/yeast (C. albicans) strains. The n-hexane and chloroform extracts of A. adianthifolia showed the best activity against E. coli with minimum inhibition quantity (MIQ) of 1 µg each while the remaining exhibited moderate-to-weak activity against the test microorganisms.

  4. Bacteria-based polythene degradation products: GC-MS analysis and toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnawaz, Mohd; Sangale, Manisha K; Ade, Avinash B

    2016-06-01

    Polythene degradation leads to the production of various by-products depending upon the type of degradation process. The polythene degradation products (PEDP) in the culture supernatant of the two bacteria (Lysinibacillus fusiformis strain VASB14/WL and Bacillus cereus strain VASB1/TS) were analyzed with GC-MS technique. The major by-products in the PEDP in the culture supernatant of L. fusiformis strain VASB14/WL (1,2,3,4 tetra methyl benzene) and B. cereus strain VASB1/TS (1,2,3 trimethyl benzene, 1 ethyl 3,5-dimethyl benzene, 1,4 di methyl 2 ethyl benzene, and dibutyl phthalate) dissolved in diethyl ether were recorded. To assess the environmental applicability of polythene degradation using L. fusiformis strain VASB14/WL and B. cereus strain VASB1/TS at in vitro level. The effect of PEDP produced after 2 months of regular shaking at room temperature on both plants and animal system was studied. No significant decrease in the percent seed germination was recorded with the PEDP of both the bacteria. PEDP produced by L. fusiformis strain VASB14/WL did not report any significant change in germination index (GI) at 10 and 25 %, but least GI (39.66 ± 13.94) was documented at 50 % concentration of PEDP. Highest elongation inhibition rate (53.83 ± 15.71) of Sorghum was also recorded with L. fusiformis and at the same concentration.

  5. Children's participation in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Danholt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Teledialogue is a combined research and design project aimed at improving communications between social workers and children under their custody living in foster care or youth institutions. While social workers are responsible for the welfare of placed children they are under heavy workload...... and often only communicate with children at biannual meetings - the minimum required by law. The purpose of Teledialogue is to use participatory methods to develop an IT-enabled concept for children and social workers to maintain communication between the biannual meetings. Social workers and children...... are thus the primary participants in this design process. This presentation describes the inclusion and participation of the placed children in Teledialogue. With an outset in Actor-Network Theory (ANT) two points are made: 1) that children were participating in shaping the design long before they were...

  6. The participating researcher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise Ejgod

    2014-01-01

    and abilities. The cases will be analyzed with focus on the strategy of participation and the value implications of this for each of them. The second part of the paper will address the role of the researcher as a part of each of these participatory cultural projects as designer, applied researcher, consultant......My paper will focus on the self-reflection of my role as participating researcher in three different art projects all of which have participation as a key element. The paper will begin with a presentation of the three cases: Theatre Talks (Teatersamtaler), Stepping Stones (Trædesten) and Art...... or evaluator. The role of me as a researcher with regard to the development and evaluation of the projects will be analyzed, trying to answer the question: What are the methodological differences between the approaches and how does that affect the research process and results. These differences...

  7. eParticipation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony

    2012-01-01

    Research on the use of information technology to support democratic decision-making (eParticipation) is experiencing ongoing growth, stimulated by an increasing attention from both practitioner and research communities. This study provides the first longitudinal analysis of the development of the e......Participation field based on a shared framework, capturing the directions that the research field of eParticipation is taking in recent developments. Drawing on a literature search covering the period from April 2006 to March 2011, this study identifies, analyzes, and classifies 122 research articles within...... also suggests new analytical categories of research. Drawing on the analysis, inputs for a research agenda are suggested. These include the need to move beyond a technological perspective, encouraging the ongoing shift of research focus from government to citizens and other stakeholders, and the need...

  8. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation...... by Tim Brown can be compared to considerations by László Moholy-Nagy and Walter Gropuis on the training and education of active and capable citizens. This opens, though, some dilemmas to discuss: To what extend is the capability of creativity then a (pre)condition to be a citizen of the society wished...... for? To which degree should everyone be educated in ’design literacy’ to participate? Total design of participation is an artistic intervention in society and must be discussed in this utopian tradition....

  9. Participation and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    We would like to welcome you to a series of dialogues within the framework of action research (AR) and participatory research (PR), which will be focused on the relationship between participation and power. The basic question in this anthology is ‘What are the possibilities and barriers to partic......We would like to welcome you to a series of dialogues within the framework of action research (AR) and participatory research (PR), which will be focused on the relationship between participation and power. The basic question in this anthology is ‘What are the possibilities and barriers...... to participation conceptualised as various degrees of codetermination in organisations and in research processes?’ The anthology is part of a follow-up on an initiative taken in 2010 by Professor Werner Fricke, editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Action Research for many years. His vision was to create...

  10. European Patterns of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas Fehmerling; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    of dissatisfaction with the government and feelings of being member of a discriminated group affect the level of extra-parliamentary participation, and second, how different welfare regimes condition the extend to which these groups chose to act. In a comparative multilevel design, using data from the European...... Social Survey (ESS) Round 4 (2008), the article finds that satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the government is an important predictor alongside the institutional macro-level variable. The article combines a critical tradition, which suggests that political participation is motivated by a feeling...... of dissatisfaction with an institutional perspective in which certain institutional conditions are seen as enablers for citizens to actively participate in political life. Our results show that the overall level of extra-parliamentary activity in the Scandinavian countries is higher than in the other European...

  11. Research on the Model of Service-oriented Manufacturing System under Customer Participation%客户参与下的服务型制造系统模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建强; 朱腾飞; 赵艳萍

    2014-01-01

    客户参与的产品服务系统是服务型制造的一个显著特征。针对客户参与度对实施服务型制造的企业产品服务系统绩效难以度量的难题,以客户参与度为变量,构建了客户参与度与客户满意度、市场需求和企业利润的模型。通过分析表明:客户参与产品服务系统能在一定条件下提升客户满意度,实现市场需求和企业利润的增长;并可用平衡积分卡理论诠释四者之间相互支撑的逻辑关系,最后算例验证了上述模型和理论分析的科学与有效性。%One of the characteristics of service-oriented manufacturing is that the product service system involves customer participation .For a service-oriented manufacturing enterprise facing the problems of cus-tomer participation , it is difficult to measure the performance of product service system .With customer participation as a variable , models covering customer participation , customer satisfaction , market demand , and firm profit are constructed .Analysis shows that the customer participation can achieve customer satis-faction under certain conditions , leading to the improvement of market demand and firm profit .The logical relationship among customer participation , customer satisfaction , market demand , and corporate profit are interpreted by using the theory of the balanced scorecard .Finally , an example shows the validity and ef-fectiveness of the proposed model and theory .

  12. Participation in physical planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Ploštajner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical planning is also a political activity. Therefore participation is a necessary form of democratic actions undertaken by individuals and groups that strive for democratisation of civil society and strengthening of democratic social values. Public participation of citizens, legal subjects, interest groups and others in physical planning is essential even from the aspect of ensuring success and efficiency of planning documents, if the idea is to devise a plan, which the people would be ready and capable of implementing. Thus the role of the physical planner is changing from technical expert to mediator or anchor-person, who nevertheless has to operate within a normative framework.

  13. eParticipation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an update of the existing eParticipation research state of the art, and a longitudinal analysis of the development of the eParticipation field based on a shared framework of analysis. Drawing on a literature search covering the period from April 2006 to March 2011 included, 123......, sometimes in counterintuitive directions. Drawing on the analysis, the conclusion section provides inputs for a research agenda. These include the need to move beyond a technological perspective, and encouraging the ongoing shift of research focus from government to citizens and other stakeholders....

  14. USING THE EVENT-PARTICIPANT DESIGN PATTERN IN THE PROCESS OF ERP’S DYNAMIC ENTERPRISE MODELING%ERP中应用事件参与模型的动态企业建模构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜宏; 寇纪淞; 李敏强

    2001-01-01

    The dynamic enterprise modeling is a critical technique used in the developing process of ERP systems.It realizes the separation and adaptation of the enterprise model with the ERP system model.The event-participant design pattern classifies enterprise resources into many kinds of members and events,and then information processing is performed under the cooperation of these members in those events.This article provides a systematical method of dynamic enterprise modeling using the event-participant design pattern.%动态企业建模是ERP开发中的关键技术,是实现企业模型与ERP系统模型相分离、相适应的保证,“事件参与模型”(Event-Participant)通过把企业资源分类为各种成员和事件,通过这些成员的分工、合作于各种事件之中,来完成ERP中的信息处理工作,本文介绍了“事件参与模型”,及其应用于ERP中进行动态企业建模的方法.

  15. Performances of the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) GC-MS suite aboard ExoMars Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A.; Grand, N.; Pinnick, V. T.; Szopa, C.; Humeau, O.; Danell, R.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Belmahdi, I.; Coll, P. J.; Lustrement, B.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Stalport, F.; Steininger, H.; Goesmann, F.; Raulin, F.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) aboard the ExoMars rover (Pasteur) will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular) information from the solid samples collected by the rover, with a particular focus on the characterization of the organic content. Samples will be extracted as deep as 2 meters below the martian surface to minimize effects of radiation and oxidation on organic materials. The core of the MOMA instrument is a dual source UV laser desorption / ionization (LDI) and pyrolysis gas chromatography (pyr-GC) ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) which provides the unique capability to characterize a broad range of compounds, including both of volatile and non-volatile species. Samples which undergo GC-ITMS analysis may be submitted to a derivatization process, consisting of the reaction of the sample components with specific reactants (MTBSTFA [1], DMF-DMA [2] or TMAH [3]) which increase the volatility of complex organic species. With the goal to optimize this instrumentation, and especially the GC-ITMS coupling, a series of tests is currently being carried out with prototypes of MOMA instrumentation and with the ETU models wich is similar to the flight model. The MOMA oven and tapping station are also part of these end-to-end experiments. Qualitative and quantitative tests has been done on gas, liquid and solid samples. The results obtained demonstrate the current status of the end-to-end performance of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry mode of operation. Both prototypes individually meet the performance requirements, but this work particularly demonstrates the capabilities of the critical GC-MS interface. References: [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Freissinet et al. (2011) J Chrom A, 1306, 59-71. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459. Acknowledgements: Funding provided by the Mars Exploration Program (point of contact, George Tahu, NASA/HQ). MOMA is a collaboration between NASA and ESA (PI

  16. Walking. Sensing. Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses three meditations to contemplate walking, sensing and participation as three ways with which we can extend the notion of ‘experiential computing’ proposed by Yoo (2010). By using the form of meditations, loosely associated concepts that are part introspective and part ‘causative’, i...

  17. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...

  18. Public Participation GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten

    2004-01-01

    information in environmental planning and gives an overview over the various approaches to public participation. The current advances in Web-based GIS in many countries contain great possibilities for supporting good governance based on information and knowledge on the one hand and active involvement...

  19. From understanding to participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2013-01-01

    , multimodal process in which language together with bodily senses (vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste) and a sense of place contribute to a phenomenon being recognized (as shared). Participation can result in inclusion or exclusion, a claim which is discussed with the help of a pilot study from...

  20. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available skip navigation Help Search home health topics A-Z Videos A-Z about us Customer Support NIH SeniorHealth Built with You in Mind Resize Text: A A A Change Contrast print sign up Share Home > Health topics A-Z > Participating in Clinical Trials: About ...

  1. Lifelong learning and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Jan Jaap; Molpeceres, Mariangeles; Hansen, Helle Krogh

    2014-01-01

    and an assumed desire of generativity. Action learning seems to be an appropriate learning concept in relation to keeping older people engaged in the community. The authors thus point at participating and lifelong learning as part of the answers to the demographic challenges, and they suggest what you might call...

  2. Personas, people and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Christiansen, Ellen Tove; Nyvang, Tom

    2012-01-01

    use, and personas have been introduced for this purpose. The paper uses research on user participation and research-based personas from the eGov+ project to discuss whether personas help designers engage with users. In this project, design was carried out in the domain of municipal services through...

  3. Sport participation styles revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steven Vos; Erik Thibaut; Bart Vanreusel; Julie Borgers; Hanne Vandermeerschen; Jeroen Scheerder

    2013-01-01

    Social changes have been influencing determinants for sports participation since the introduction of the Sport for All ideology in the early 1970s. Consistent with Crum’s sportisation theory, today’s modes of sports practices, as well as the network of sport services, have diversified and

  4. Participation som organisatorisk praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Hans Jeppe; Jønsson, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Hensigten med artiklen er at give et bidrag til forståelsen af begrebet organisatorisk participation både teoretisk og ud fra praksis. Det gøres ud fra analyser og tematiseringer af participationens mangfoldighed, participationssystemers konstituering, participationens substans og finalitet samt...

  5. Participation in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EG Valoyi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which employees would like to participate in decision making concerning various organisational issues, especially those concerning: the work itself, working conditions, human resources issues, and corporate policy and planning. The sample consisted of 146 participants, including managers, middle managers, and junior officials from a South African development corporation. A questionnaire to measure employees' desire to participate in decision making was specially constructed for this investigation. It has found that employees with higher academic qualifications were more desirous to participate in decision-making at all levels than employees with lower academic qualifications. This was also true for employees in higher job grades than in lower job grades. Men were more desirous to participate in decision making than women. The implications of the findings are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van die huidige studie was om vas te stel in watter mate werknemers sal wil deelneem aan die besluit- nameproses van organisasies, veral rakende die volgende sake: die werk self, werksomstandighede, menslike hulpbronaangeleenthede en korporatiewe beleid en beplanning. Die steekproef het uit 146 deelnemers, insluitende bestuurders, middelvlakbestuurders en junior amptenare van'n Suid Afrikaanse ontwikkelingskorporasie, bestaan. nVraelys wat die begeerte van werknemers meet om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem, is spesiaal vir die doel van hierdie ondersoek, ontwerp. Dit is bevind dat werknemers met hoer akademiese kwalifikasies meer begerig is om aan die besluitnameproses op alle vlakke deel te neem as werknemers met laer akademiese kwalifikasies. Dit was ook waar vir werknemers in hoervlakposte vergeleke met werknemers in laervlakposte. Mans was ook meer begerig om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem as vroue. Die implikasies van die studie word bespreek.

  6. Student Participation: A Democratic Education perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2004-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of student participation from the perspective of the health promoting schools initiative. It draws on experience from the Macedonian Network of Health Promoting Schools, and its collaboration with the Danish as well as other country networks within the European Network...... of Health Promoting Schools. Student participation is viewed as one of the main focal points of the conceptual framework and model of a health promoting school developed within the Macedonian context. This model, as well as the model distinguishing between two different qualities of participation - genuine...

  7. [A case of carbamate poisoning in which GCMS was useful to identify causal substance and to decide the appropriate treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, H; Hirose, Y; Tanaka, T; Hori, Y; Nakajima, M; Fujisawa, M; Oseki, M

    2001-10-01

    We often have cases of insecticide poisoning where the patient is unconscious and the causal substances are unknown. We report an 83-year-old unconscious man who had apparently ingested several agricultural chemicals, possibly organophosphate or carbamate. According to his family, there were three kinds of containers of agricultural chemicals with their caps opened around him. When he was transferred to our hospital, he presented hypertension, hypersalivation, and muscle fasciculation. His pupils were markedly miotic. In order to identify the substances ingested we used a gas chromatographymass spectrometer (GCMS) using his gastric content. Within 30 minutes we were able to identify the causal substance as methomyl, one of the popular carbamates, thereby eliminating the need to use pralidoxime (PAM). GCMS makes it possible to identify unknown substances quickly and accurately and is therefore extremely useful in deciding the appropriate treatment.

  8. THE SULFONATION STUDY OF REACTION MECHANISM ON PAPAVERINE ALKALOID BY GC-MS AND FT-IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sudarma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to prove theoretical mechanism reaction on the sulfonation of papaverine alkaloid and the result could be used as a reference on the transformation of these alkaloid to the other derivatives. Theoriticaly sulfonation of papaverine (1 by HO-SO2Cl could produced papaverine sulfonyl chloride (1a. The formation of this product was analyzed by analytical thin layer chromatography GC-MS, and FT-IR. These analysis showed the formation of product (1a more favorable than the other. Tlc showed product (1a less polar than papaverine, and supported by GC-MS and infrared which showed molecular ion at m/z 412 due to the presence of -SO2Cl and vibration at 1153,4 dan 1265,2 Cm-1 due to absorption of sulfonyl group.   Keywords: reaction mechanism, sulfonation, papaverine alkaloid.

  9. Enantioselective GC-MS analysis of volatile components from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oils and hydrosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomi, Kenichi; Kitao, Makiko; Konishi, Norihiro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Yasuki; Hayashi, Takahiro

    2016-05-01

    Essential oils and hydrosols were extracted from rosemary harvested in different seasons, and the chemical compositions of volatile components in the two fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Enantiomers of some volatile components were also analyzed by enantioselective GC-MS. Classification of aroma components based on chemical groups revealed that essential oils contained high levels of monoterpene hydrocarbons but hydrosols did not. Furthermore, the enantiomeric ratios within some volatile components were different from each other; for example, only the (S)-form was observed for limonene and the (R)-form was dominant for verbenone. These indicate the importance of determining the enantiomer composition of volatile components for investigating the physiological and psychological effects on humans. Overall, enantiomeric ratios were determined by volatile components, with no difference between essential oils and hydrosols or between seasons.

  10. Quantitative determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in milk by multiple dynamic headspace extraction and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccioli, Paolo; Brancaleoni, Enzo; Frattoni, Massimiliano; Fedele, Vincenzo; Claps, Salvatore; Signorelli, Federica

    2004-01-01

    A method for the accurate determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in milk samples has been developed and tested. It combines multiple dynamic headspace extraction with GC-MS. Absolute amounts of VOC in the liquid phase are obtained by determining the first order kinetic dependence of the stepwise extraction of the analytes and internal standards from the liquid matrix. Compounds released from milk were collected on a train of traps filled with different solid sorbents to cover all components having a number of carbon atoms ranging from 4 to 15. They were analysed by GC-MS after thermal desorption of VOC from the collecting traps. Quantification of VOC in milk was performed using deuterated compounds as internal standards. The method was used to follow seasonal variations of monoterpenes in goat milk and to detect the impact of air pollution on the quality of milk.

  11. Analysis of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum Using GC-MS coupled with chemometric resolution methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Ling-Yun; Shen, Mei; Ma, An-De; Yang, Xue-Mei; Zou, Fei

    2011-01-01

    The essential oils extracted from Coriandrum sativum L. were analyzed by GC-MS coupled with chemometric resolution methods. Through the chemometric resolution methods, peak clusters were uniquely resolved into the pure chromatographic profiles and mass spectra of each component. Qualitative analysis was performed by comparing the pure mass spectra with those in the NIST 05 mass spectral library. Quantitative analysis was performed using the total volume integration method. A total of 118 constituents were detected, of which 104 were identified, accounting for 97.27% of the total content. The results indicate that GC-MS combined with chemometric resolution methods can greatly enhance the capability of separation and the reliability of qualitative and quantitative results. The combined method is an economical and accurate approach for the rapid analysis of the complex essential oil samples in Coriandrum sativum L.

  12. Personality, Negativity, and Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Weinschenk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have recently started to integrate personality traits into models of political participation. In this paper, we present the results of a survey experiment (N = 724 designed to test whether negative political messages differentially impact people with different personality traits. We found evidence that individuals with high scores on agreeableness were less likely, and individuals with high scores on extraversion were more likely, to report intending to participate in politics than their counterparts after being exposed to negative political messages. Agreeableness and extraversion also interacted with negative messages to influence specific intentions to make a political donation, attend a meeting, rally, or event, and volunteer for a political campaign. We also found suggestive evidence that agreeableness interacted with negativity to influence turnout intentions. The results of this study have important implications for the study of political engagement, the ways in which people interact with political information, and the practice of democratic politics.

  13. Determination of acrylamide in Thai-conventional snacks from Nong Mon market, Chonburi using GC-MS technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komthong, P; Suriyaphan, O; Charoenpanich, J

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide in Thai-conventional snacks was analysed by GC/MS with a linear response ranged of 5-50 µg and r² > 0.99. The limit of detection (s/n = 3) and limit of quantification (s/n = 10) were 4 and 15 µg kg⁻¹, respectively, and RSD snacks possessed low concentrations (habits by 400 tourists indicate a daily intake of acrylamide <150 ng, well below a toxic dose.

  14. The MetabolomeExpress Project: enabling web-based processing, analysis and transparent dissemination of GC/MS metabolomics datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Adam J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standardization of analytical approaches and reporting methods via community-wide collaboration can work synergistically with web-tool development to result in rapid community-driven expansion of online data repositories suitable for data mining and meta-analysis. In metabolomics, the inter-laboratory reproducibility of gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GC/MS makes it an obvious target for such development. While a number of web-tools offer access to datasets and/or tools for raw data processing and statistical analysis, none of these systems are currently set up to act as a public repository by easily accepting, processing and presenting publicly submitted GC/MS metabolomics datasets for public re-analysis. Description Here, we present MetabolomeExpress, a new File Transfer Protocol (FTP server and web-tool for the online storage, processing, visualisation and statistical re-analysis of publicly submitted GC/MS metabolomics datasets. Users may search a quality-controlled database of metabolite response statistics from publicly submitted datasets by a number of parameters (eg. metabolite, species, organ/biofluid etc.. Users may also perform meta-analysis comparisons of multiple independent experiments or re-analyse public primary datasets via user-friendly tools for t-test, principal components analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and correlation analysis. They may interact with chromatograms, mass spectra and peak detection results via an integrated raw data viewer. Researchers who register for a free account may upload (via FTP their own data to the server for online processing via a novel raw data processing pipeline. Conclusions MetabolomeExpress https://www.metabolome-express.org provides a new opportunity for the general metabolomics community to transparently present online the raw and processed GC/MS data underlying their metabolomics publications. Transparent sharing of these data will allow researchers to

  15. Effect of Genetics, Environment, and Phenotype on the Metabolome of Maize Hybrids Using GC/MS and LC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weijuan; Hazebroek, Jan; Zhong, Cathy; Harp, Teresa; Vlahakis, Chris; Baumhover, Brian; Asiago, Vincent

    2017-06-28

    We evaluated the variability of metabolites in various maize hybrids due to the effect of environment, genotype, phenotype as well as the interaction of the first two factors. We analyzed 480 forage and the same number of grain samples from 21 genetically diverse non-GM Pioneer brand maize hybrids, including some with drought tolerance and viral resistance phenotypes, grown at eight North American locations. As complementary platforms, both GC/MS and LC/MS were utilized to detect a wide diversity of metabolites. GC/MS revealed 166 and 137 metabolites in forage and grain samples, respectively, while LC/MS captured 1341 and 635 metabolites in forage and grain samples, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilized to investigate the response of the maize metabolome to the environment, genotype, phenotype, and their interaction. Based on combined percentages from GC/MS and LC/MS datasets, the environment affected 36% to 84% of forage metabolites, while less than 7% were affected by genotype. The environment affected 12% to 90% of grain metabolites, whereas less than 27% were affected by genotype. Less than 10% and 11% of the metabolites were affected by phenotype in forage and grain, respectively. Unsupervised PCA and HCA analyses revealed similar trends, i.e., environmental effect was much stronger than genotype or phenotype effects. On the basis of comparisons of disease tolerant and disease susceptible hybrids, neither forage nor grain samples originating from different locations showed obvious phenotype effects. Our findings demonstrate that the combination of GC/MS and LC/MS based metabolite profiling followed by broad statistical analysis is an effective approach to identify the relative impact of environmental, genetic and phenotypic effects on the forage and grain composition of maize hybrids.

  16. GC-MS in the analysis of organic compounds in meteorites. [Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, J. G.; Romiez, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    The application of an analytical approach combining gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has shown that the amino acid composition of meteorite extracts is quite complex. A computer was used in the evaluation of the data obtained in the investigations. The computer programs developed have been concerned solely with the mass spectra of amino acids. Specialized programs have been written to determine the number of carbon atoms in an amino acid which is a member of any of three subclasses.

  17. Application of Gas Chromatography with the Mass Detector (GC-MS) Technique for Detection of Beeswax Adulteration with Paraffin

    OpenAIRE

    Waś Ewa; Szczęsna Teresa; Rybak-Chmielewska Helena

    2015-01-01

    To detect beeswax adulteration with hydrocarbons of alien origin (e.g. paraffin), gas chromatography with mass detector (GC-MS) technique was used. The method has been verified here on beeswax samples with different addition (3, 5, 10, 30, and 50%) of paraffin and validated under the conditions of repeatability and within - laboratory reproducibility. The addition of paraffin to beeswax can already be detected on the basis of an analysis of the chromatograms. The intensity of individual alkan...

  18. Change of New Generation Migrant Workers' Institutionalized Political Participation Model%论新生代农民工制度化政治参与模式变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢大伟; 孙玉娟

    2012-01-01

    研究了新生代农民工政治参与的不断深入及非制度化政治参与扩大的趋势,认为这主要是受物质基础薄弱、制度保障不利、自身素质偏低、利益诉求渠道缺失等因素影响。为解决非制度化政治参与带来的弊端,提出了制度化政治参与模式的选择路径。从参与动机、参与效果、参与过程、参与结果等方面分析和探寻新生代农民工制度化政治参与的新模式。这对推进社会主义民主政治建设,构建社会主义和谐社会具有重大现实意义。%The trend of the deepening of political participation and the expansion of non- institutionalized political participation of new generation of migrant workers is analyzed, which is mainly affected by the weak material foundation, the adverse system protection, and low quality of themselves, lack of interest demands channels, and other factors. To solve the defects of non-institutionalized political participation, the path of institutionalized political participation patterns is put forward. A new model of the institutionalization of political participation of the new generation of migrant workers is explored by the analysis on the motivation, effect, process, and the outcome of the participation. This is of great practical significance for promoting the construction of socialist democratic politics and building socialist in harmonious society.

  19. GC-MS metabolomic differentiation of selected citrus varieties with different sensitivity to citrus huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; Futch, David B; Shilts, Turksen; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Reyes-De-Corcuera, José I

    2012-04-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. The rapid identification of tolerant varieties is considered a critical step towards controlling HLB. GC-MS metabolite profiles were used to differentiate HLB-tolerant citrus varieties 'Poncirus trifoliata' (TR) and 'Carrizo citrange' (CAR) from HLB-sensitive varieties 'Madam Vinous sweet orange' (MV) and 'Duncan' grapefruit (DG). PCR analyses revealed that MV was the most sensitive variety followed by DG and the tolerant varieties CAR and TR. Metabolomic multivariate analysis allowed classification of the cultivars in apparent agreement with PCR results. Higher levels of the amino acids l-proline, l-serine, and l-aspartic acid, as well as the organic acids butanedioic and tetradecanoic acid, and accumulation of galactose in healthy plants were characteristic of the most sensitive variety MV when compared to all other varieties. Only galactose was significantly higher in DG when compared to the tolerant varieties TR and CAR. The tolerant varieties showed higher levels of l-glycine and mannose when compared to sensitive varieties MV and DG. Profiling of the sensitive varieties MV and DG over a 20-week period after inoculation of those with the HLB-containing material revealed strong responses of metabolites to HLB infection that differed from the response of the tolerant varieties. Significant changes of l-threonine level in the leaves from old mature flushes and l-serine, l-threonine, scyllo-inositol, hexadecanoic acid, and mannose in the leaves from young developing flushes were observed in MV. Significant changes in myo-inositol in old flushes and l-proline, indole, and xylose in new flushes were observed in DG. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlation of thermal analysis and pyrolysis coupled to GC-MS in the characterization of tacrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böer, Tania Maria; Procópio, José Valdilânio Virgulino; Nascimento, Ticiano Gomes do; Macêdo, Rui Oliveira

    2013-01-25

    In recent years, thermal analysis has assumed major role in the pharmaceutical industry because it can be used to evaluate the stability both in the control of raw materials and the finished product, having employment potential in the development and characterization of new products and assessment processes. Tacrolimus (TCR) is a macrolide lactone with potent immunosuppressive activity. The purpose of this study was to characterize tacrolimus raw material using Thermal analysis and Pyrolysis coupled to Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (Pyr-GC-MS). It was analyzed four samples of tacrolimus named TCR A, B, C and D. Thermal analysis experiments was performed in Shimadzu equipment, under nitrogen and synthetic air atmosphere in different heating rate. Pyrolysis analysis was conducted in isothermal conditions of 300°C and 400°C coupled to GC-MS, in which the mass spectrometer was operated in scan mode to detect ions in the range of mass of m/z 25-900. The thermal studies by DSC, DTA and DSC-Photovisual showed desolvation process for all tacrolimus raw materials and TG-dynamical demonstrated two pseudo-polymorphic forms (monohydrate and sesquihydrate) of tacrolimus. It was observed good correlation between the stoichiometric mass losses of the TG-dynamical and identification of product ion in Pyr-GC/MS technique. It was possible to correlate the five pyrolytic product ions with the Ozawa kinetic analysis from the thermal decomposition of TG-dynamical. The thermal studies (DSC, DSC-Photovisual, DTA and TG-dynamical) were applied in the thermal characterization of the raw materials of tacrolimus which showed pseudo-polymorphic forms, which must be monitored by pharmaceutical industry, avoiding future problems in pharmaceutical process, chemical stability and bioavailability of the tacrolimus product.