Sample records for models force interactions

  1. Finite element modeling of intermuscular interactions and myofascial force transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, C.A.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.; Grootenboer, H.J.


    A finite element muscle model to study the principles of intermuscular myofascial force transmission is developed. The results obtained explain force differences at the distal and proximal tendons of muscles that have mechanical interaction. This is in agreement with experimental findings in other

  2. Interactions between internal forces, body stiffness, and fluid environment in a neuromechanical model of lamprey swimming. (United States)

    Tytell, Eric D; Hsu, Chia-Yu; Williams, Thelma L; Cohen, Avis H; Fauci, Lisa J


    Animal movements result from a complex balance of many different forces. Muscles produce force to move the body; the body has inertial, elastic, and damping properties that may aid or oppose the muscle force; and the environment produces reaction forces back on the body. The actual motion is an emergent property of these interactions. To examine the roles of body stiffness, muscle activation, and fluid environment for swimming animals, a computational model of a lamprey was developed. The model uses an immersed boundary framework that fully couples the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics with an actuated, elastic body model. This is the first model at a Reynolds number appropriate for a swimming fish that captures the complete fluid-structure interaction, in which the body deforms according to both internal muscular forces and external fluid forces. Results indicate that identical muscle activation patterns can produce different kinematics depending on body stiffness, and the optimal value of stiffness for maximum acceleration is different from that for maximum steady swimming speed. Additionally, negative muscle work, observed in many fishes, emerges at higher tail beat frequencies without sensory input and may contribute to energy efficiency. Swimming fishes that can tune their body stiffness by appropriately timed muscle contractions may therefore be able to optimize the passive dynamics of their bodies to maximize peak acceleration or swimming speed.

  3. Analytical modeling of soliton interactions in a nonlocal nonlinear medium analogous to gravitational force (United States)

    Zeng, Shihao; Chen, Manna; Zhang, Ting; Hu, Wei; Guo, Qi; Lu, Daquan


    We illuminate an analytical model of soliton interactions in lead glass by analogizing to a gravitational force system. The orbits of spiraling solitons under a long-range interaction are given explicitly and demonstrated to follow Newton's second law of motion and the Binet equation by numerical simulations. The condition for circular orbits is obtained and the oscillating orbits are proved not to be closed. We prove the analogy between the nonlocal nonlinear optical system and gravitational system and specify the quantitative relation of the quantity between the two models.

  4. Concurrent Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Interaction Forces Improves Particle Deposition Predictions. (United States)

    Jin, Chao; Ren, Carolyn L; Emelko, Monica B


    It is widely believed that media surface roughness enhances particle deposition-numerous, but inconsistent, examples of this effect have been reported. Here, a new mathematical framework describing the effects of hydrodynamics and interaction forces on particle deposition on rough spherical collectors in absence of an energy barrier was developed and validated. In addition to quantifying DLVO force, the model includes improved descriptions of flow field profiles and hydrodynamic retardation functions. This work demonstrates that hydrodynamic effects can significantly alter particle deposition relative to expectations when only the DLVO force is considered. Moreover, the combined effects of hydrodynamics and interaction forces on particle deposition on rough, spherical media are not additive, but synergistic. Notably, the developed model's particle deposition predictions are in closer agreement with experimental observations than those from current models, demonstrating the importance of inclusion of roughness impacts in particle deposition description/simulation. Consideration of hydrodynamic contributions to particle deposition may help to explain discrepancies between model-based expectations and experimental outcomes and improve descriptions of particle deposition during physicochemical filtration in systems with nonsmooth collector surfaces.

  5. Modeling of the interaction between grip force and vibration transmissibility of a finger. (United States)

    Wu, John Z; Welcome, Daniel E; McDowell, Thomas W; Xu, Xueyan S; Dong, Ren G


    It is known that the vibration characteristics of the fingers and hand and the level of grip action interacts when operating a power tool. In the current study, we developed a hybrid finger model to simulate the vibrations of the hand-finger system when gripping a vibrating handle covered with soft materials. The hybrid finger model combines the characteristics of conventional finite element (FE) models, multi-body musculoskeletal models, and lumped mass models. The distal, middle, and proximal finger segments were constructed using FE models, the finger segments were connected via three flexible joint linkages (i.e., distal interphalangeal joint (DIP), proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP), and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint), and the MCP joint was connected to the ground and handle via lumped parameter elements. The effects of the active muscle forces were accounted for via the joint moments. The bone, nail, and hard connective tissues were assumed to be linearly elastic whereas the soft tissues, which include the skin and subcutaneous tissues, were considered as hyperelastic and viscoelastic. The general trends of the model predictions agree well with the previous experimental measurements in that the resonant frequency increased from proximal to the middle and to the distal finger segments for the same grip force, that the resonant frequency tends to increase with increasing grip force for the same finger segment, especially for the distal segment, and that the magnitude of vibration transmissibility tends to increase with increasing grip force, especially for the proximal segment. The advantage of the proposed model over the traditional vibration models is that it can predict the local vibration behavior of the finger to a tissue level, while taking into account the effects of the active musculoskeletal force, the effects of the contact conditions on vibrations, the global vibration characteristics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Atomic Force Microscopy Study of the Interactions of Indolicidin with Model Membranes and DNA. (United States)

    Fojan, Peter; Gurevich, Leonid


    The cell membrane is the first barrier and quite often the primary target that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have to destroy or penetrate to fulfill their mission. Upon penetrating through the membrane, the peptides can further attack intracellular targets, in particular DNA. Studying the interaction of an antimicrobial peptide with a cell membrane and DNA holds keys to understanding its killing mechanisms. Commonly, these interactions are studied by using optical or scanning electron microscopy and appropriately labeled peptides. However, labeling can significantly affect the hydrophobicity, conformation, and size of the peptide, hence altering the interaction significantly. Here, we describe the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for a label-free study of the interactions of peptides with model membranes under physiological conditions and DNA as a possible intracellular target.

  7. Analysis of bit-rock interaction during stick-slip vibrations using PDC cutting force model

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    Patil, P.A.; Teodoriu, C. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE


    Drillstring vibration is one of the limiting factors maximizing the drilling performance and also causes premature failure of drillstring components. Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit enhances the overall drilling performance giving the best rate of penetrations with less cost per foot but the PDC bits are more susceptible to the stick slip phenomena which results in high fluctuations of bit rotational speed. Based on the torsional drillstring model developed using Matlab/Simulink for analyzing the parametric influence on stick-slip vibrations due to drilling parameters and drillstring properties, the study of relations between weight on bit, torque on bit, bit speed, rate of penetration and friction coefficient have been analyzed. While drilling with the PDC bits, the bit-rock interaction has been characterized by cutting forces and the frictional forces. The torque on bit and the weight on bit have both the cutting component and the frictional component when resolved in horizontal and vertical direction. The paper considers that the bit is undergoing stick-slip vibrations while analyzing the bit-rock interaction of the PDC bit. The Matlab/Simulink bit-rock interaction model has been developed which gives the average cutting torque, T{sub c}, and friction torque, T{sub f}, values on cutters as well as corresponding average weight transferred by the cutting face, W{sub c}, and the wear flat face, W{sub f}, of the cutters value due to friction.

  8. Modeling the mean interaction forces between powder particles. Application to silica gel-magnesium stearate mixtures

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    Thomas, G., E-mail: [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint Etienne, Centre SPIN-LPMG, UMR CNRS 5148, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 02 (France); Ouabbas, Y. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint Etienne, Centre SPIN-LPMG, UMR CNRS 5148, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 02 (France); Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Industrielles et des Mines d' Albi-Carmaux, Centre RAPSODEE, UMR CNRS 2392, Campus Jarlard-81013 Albi (France); Grosseau, P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint Etienne, Centre SPIN-LPMG, UMR CNRS 5148, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 02 (France); Baron, M.; Chamayou, A.; Galet, L. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Industrielles et des Mines d' Albi-Carmaux, Centre RAPSODEE, UMR CNRS 2392, Campus Jarlard-81013 Albi (France)


    Dry coating experiments were performed by using the Hybridizer (Nara). Large host silica gel (SG) particles (d{sub 50} = 55 {mu}m) were coated with fine invited particles of magnesium stearate (MS, d{sub 50} = 4.6 {mu}m) for different contents of MS in the mixture. The real MS mass fraction w{sub I} obtained after mechanical treatment has been determined thanks to calibration from TGA measurements. The surface structure and morphology of MS coatings were observed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) [Y. Ouabbas, A. Chamayou, L. Galet, M. Baron, J. Dodds, A.M. Danna, G. Thomas, B. Guilhot, P. Grosseau, Modification of powders properties by dry coating: some examples of process and products characteristics, Proceedings of CHISA2008, Prague, August 2008, submitted for publication; L. Galet, Y. Ouabbas, A.M. Danna, G. Thomas, P. Grosseau, M. Baron, A. Chamayou, Surface morphology analysis and AFM study of silica gel particles after mechanical dry coating with magnesium stearate, Proceedings of PSA2008, UK, September 2008, submitted for publication]. AFM has been also used to measure the adhesion forces between particles. Interaction forces between the material attached to the cantilever (magnesium stearate MS) and the surface of the composite material (silica gel SG or magnesium stearate MS) have been determined at different surface locations. For different compositions w{sub I} of the mixture MS-SG, the numeric distribution and the mean value f of the forces f{sub H} obtained for MS-SG interactions or f{sub I} for MS-MS interactions have been established and the experimental curve showing the evolution of f versus w{sub I} has been derived. Models of ordered structures have been developed, implying morphological hypotheses concerning large spherical or cylindrical host particles H and small invited spherical I. Different types of distribution of I materials onto the surface of H have been considered: for examples a

  9. Modeling the mean interaction forces between powder particles. Application to silica gel-magnesium stearate mixtures (United States)

    Thomas, G.; Ouabbas, Y.; Grosseau, P.; Baron, M.; Chamayou, A.; Galet, L.


    Dry coating experiments were performed by using the Hybridizer (Nara). Large host silica gel (SG) particles ( d50 = 55 μm) were coated with fine invited particles of magnesium stearate (MS, d50 = 4.6 μm) for different contents of MS in the mixture. The real MS mass fraction w obtained after mechanical treatment has been determined thanks to calibration from TGA measurements. The surface structure and morphology of MS coatings were observed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) [Y. Ouabbas, A. Chamayou, L. Galet, M. Baron, J. Dodds, A.M. Danna, G. Thomas, B. Guilhot, P. Grosseau, Modification of powders properties by dry coating: some examples of process and products characteristics, Proceedings of CHISA2008, Prague, August 2008, submitted for publication; L. Galet, Y. Ouabbas, A.M. Danna, G. Thomas, P. Grosseau, M. Baron, A. Chamayou, Surface morphology analysis and AFM study of silica gel particles after mechanical dry coating with magnesium stearate, Proceedings of PSA2008, UK, September 2008, submitted for publication]. AFM has been also used to measure the adhesion forces between particles. Interaction forces between the material attached to the cantilever (magnesium stearate MS) and the surface of the composite material (silica gel SG or magnesium stearate MS) have been determined at different surface locations. For different compositions w of the mixture MS-SG, the numeric distribution and the mean value f of the forces fH obtained for MS-SG interactions or fI for MS-MS interactions have been established and the experimental curve showing the evolution of f versus w has been derived. Models of ordered structures have been developed, implying morphological hypotheses concerning large spherical or cylindrical host particles H and small invited spherical I. Different types of distribution of I materials onto the surface of H have been considered: for examples a discrete monolayer - or multilayers - of

  10. Analytical Model of the Nonlinear Dynamics of Cantilever Tip-Sample Surface Interactions for Various Acoustic-Atomic Force Microscopies (United States)

    Cantrell, John H., Jr.; Cantrell, Sean A.


    A comprehensive analytical model of the interaction of the cantilever tip of the atomic force microscope (AFM) with the sample surface is developed that accounts for the nonlinearity of the tip-surface interaction force. The interaction is modeled as a nonlinear spring coupled at opposite ends to linear springs representing cantilever and sample surface oscillators. The model leads to a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations that are solved analytically using a standard iteration procedure. Solutions are obtained for the phase and amplitude signals generated by various acoustic-atomic force microscope (A-AFM) techniques including force modulation microscopy, atomic force acoustic microscopy, ultrasonic force microscopy, heterodyne force microscopy, resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), and the commonly used intermittent contact mode (TappingMode) generally available on AFMs. The solutions are used to obtain a quantitative measure of image contrast resulting from variations in the Young modulus of the sample for the amplitude and phase images generated by the A-AFM techniques. Application of the model to RDF-AFUM and intermittent soft contact phase images of LaRC-cp2 polyimide polymer is discussed. The model predicts variations in the Young modulus of the material of 24 percent from the RDF-AFUM image and 18 percent from the intermittent soft contact image. Both predictions are in good agreement with the literature value of 21 percent obtained from independent, macroscopic measurements of sheet polymer material.

  11. Quantitative modeling assesses the contribution of bond strengthening, rebinding and force sharing to the avidity of biomolecule interactions.

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    Valentina Lo Schiavo

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion is mediated by numerous membrane receptors. It is desirable to derive the outcome of a cell-surface encounter from the molecular properties of interacting receptors and ligands. However, conventional parameters such as affinity or kinetic constants are often insufficient to account for receptor efficiency. Avidity is a qualitative concept frequently used to describe biomolecule interactions: this includes incompletely defined properties such as the capacity to form multivalent attachments. The aim of this study is to produce a working description of monovalent attachments formed by a model system, then to measure and interpret the behavior of divalent attachments under force. We investigated attachments between antibody-coated microspheres and surfaces coated with sparse monomeric or dimeric ligands. When bonds were subjected to a pulling force, they exhibited both a force-dependent dissociation consistent with Bell's empirical formula and a force- and time-dependent strengthening well described by a single parameter. Divalent attachments were stronger and less dependent on forces than monovalent ones. The proportion of divalent attachments resisting a force of 30 piconewtons for at least 5 s was 3.7 fold higher than that of monovalent attachments. Quantitative modeling showed that this required rebinding, i.e. additional bond formation between surfaces linked by divalent receptors forming only one bond. Further, experimental data were compatible with but did not require stress sharing between bonds within divalent attachments. Thus many ligand-receptor interactions do not behave as single-step reactions in the millisecond to second timescale. Rather, they exhibit progressive stabilization. This explains the high efficiency of multimerized or clustered receptors even when bonds are only subjected to moderate forces. Our approach provides a quantitative way of relating binding avidity to measurable parameters including bond

  12. Asymptotic stability of a fluid-particles interaction model with external forces (United States)

    Jiang, Zaihong; Geng, Jinbo; Li, Li; Zhong, Ning


    We consider the Cauchy problem of the Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation for the dispersed phase coupled to the incompressible Euler equations with external forces deriving from a potential. Global existence and uniqueness of solution are established using classical energy estimate combined with macro-micro decomposition. With external forces, the asymptotic profile is inhomogeneous, and we estimate the decay rate of the solution to the background profile. The decay is optimal in the sense that it equals the decay rate for the corresponding system without forces {See: Carrillo, J. A., Duan, R. J., and Moussa, A. ["Global classical solutions close to equilibrium to the Vlasov-Euler-Fokker-Planck system," Kinet. Relat. Models 4, 227-258 (2011)]}.

  13. Investigation of the Interaction between Patulin and Human Serum Albumin by a Spectroscopic Method, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Molecular Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuqin


    Full Text Available The interaction of patulin with human serum albumin (HSA was studied in vitro under normal physiological conditions. The study was performed using fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, circular dichroism (CD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and molecular modeling techniques. The quenching mechanism was investigated using the association constants, the number of binding sites, and basic thermodynamic parameters. A dynamic quenching mechanism occurred between HSA and patulin, and the binding constants (K were 2.60 × 104, 4.59 × 104, and 7.01 × 104 M−1 at 288, 300, and 310 K, respectively. Based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer, the distance between the HSA and patulin was determined to be 2.847 nm. The ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 values across various temperatures indicated that hydrophobic interaction was the predominant binding force. The UV-Vis and CD results confirmed that the secondary structure of HSA was altered in the presence of patulin. The AFM results revealed that the individual HSA molecule dimensions were larger after interaction with patulin. In addition, molecular modeling showed that the patulin-HSA complex was stabilized by hydrophobic and hydrogen bond forces. The study results suggested that a weak intermolecular interaction occurred between patulin and HSA. Overall, the results are potentially useful for elucidating the toxigenicity of patulin when it is combined with the biomolecular function effect, transmembrane transport, toxicological, testing and other experiments.

  14. The interaction of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole with human serum albumin as determined by spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and molecular modeling. (United States)

    Li, Yuqin; Jia, Baoxiu; Wang, Hao; Li, Nana; Chen, Gaopan; Lin, Yuejuan; Gao, Wenhua


    The interaction of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (MBI) with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied in vitro by equilibrium dialysis under normal physiological conditions. This study used fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), circular dichroism (CD) and Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling techniques. Association constants, the number of binding sites and basic thermodynamic parameters were used to investigate the quenching mechanism. Based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer, the distance between the HSA and MBI was 2.495 nm. The ΔG(0), ΔH(0), and ΔS(0) values across temperature indicated that the hydrophobic interaction was the predominant binding Force. The UV, FT-IR, CD and Raman spectra confirmed that the HSA secondary structure was altered in the presence of MBI. In addition, the molecular modeling showed that the MBI-HSA complex was stabilized by hydrophobic forces, which resulted from amino acid residues. The AFM results revealed that the individual HSA molecule dimensions were larger after interaction with MBI. Overall, this study suggested a method for characterizing the weak intermolecular interaction. In addition, this method is potentially useful for elucidating the toxigenicity of MBI when it is combined with the biomolecular function effect, transmembrane transport, toxicological testing and other experiments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of interactions between metal ions and protein model compounds by energy decomposition analyses and the AMOEBA force field (United States)

    Jing, Zhifeng; Qi, Rui; Liu, Chengwen; Ren, Pengyu


    The interactions between metal ions and proteins are ubiquitous in biology. The selective binding of metal ions has a variety of regulatory functions. Therefore, there is a need to understand the mechanism of protein-ion binding. The interactions involving metal ions are complicated in nature, where short-range charge-penetration, charge transfer, polarization, and many-body effects all contribute significantly, and a quantitative description of all these interactions is lacking. In addition, it is unclear how well current polarizable force fields can capture these energy terms and whether these polarization models are good enough to describe the many-body effects. In this work, two energy decomposition methods, absolutely localized molecular orbitals and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory, were utilized to study the interactions between Mg2+/Ca2+ and model compounds for amino acids. Comparison of individual interaction components revealed that while there are significant charge-penetration and charge-transfer effects in Ca complexes, these effects can be captured by the van der Waals (vdW) term in the AMOEBA force field. The electrostatic interaction in Mg complexes is well described by AMOEBA since the charge penetration is small, but the distance-dependent polarization energy is problematic. Many-body effects were shown to be important for protein-ion binding. In the absence of many-body effects, highly charged binding pockets will be over-stabilized, and the pockets will always favor Mg and thus lose selectivity. Therefore, many-body effects must be incorporated in the force field in order to predict the structure and energetics of metalloproteins. Also, the many-body effects of charge transfer in Ca complexes were found to be non-negligible. The absorption of charge-transfer energy into the additive vdW term was a main source of error for the AMOEBA many-body interaction energies.

  16. Assessing the relative importance of parameter and forcing uncertainty and their interactions in conceptual hydrological model simulations (United States)

    Mockler, E. M.; Chun, K. P.; Sapriza-Azuri, G.; Bruen, M.; Wheater, H. S.


    Predictions of river flow dynamics provide vital information for many aspects of water management including water resource planning, climate adaptation, and flood and drought assessments. Many of the subjective choices that modellers make including model and criteria selection can have a significant impact on the magnitude and distribution of the output uncertainty. Hydrological modellers are tasked with understanding and minimising the uncertainty surrounding streamflow predictions before communicating the overall uncertainty to decision makers. Parameter uncertainty in conceptual rainfall-runoff models has been widely investigated, and model structural uncertainty and forcing data have been receiving increasing attention. This study aimed to assess uncertainties in streamflow predictions due to forcing data and the identification of behavioural parameter sets in 31 Irish catchments. By combining stochastic rainfall ensembles and multiple parameter sets for three conceptual rainfall-runoff models, an analysis of variance model was used to decompose the total uncertainty in streamflow simulations into contributions from (i) forcing data, (ii) identification of model parameters and (iii) interactions between the two. The analysis illustrates that, for our subjective choices, hydrological model selection had a greater contribution to overall uncertainty, while performance criteria selection influenced the relative intra-annual uncertainties in streamflow predictions. Uncertainties in streamflow predictions due to the method of determining parameters were relatively lower for wetter catchments, and more evenly distributed throughout the year when the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency of logarithmic values of flow (lnNSE) was the evaluation criterion.

  17. Fluid–Structure Interaction Analysis of Papillary Muscle Forces Using a Comprehensive Mitral Valve Model with 3D Chordal Structure

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    Toma, Milan; Jensen, Morten Ø.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.; Cochran, Richard P.; Kunzelman, Karyn S.


    Numerical models of native heart valves are being used to study valve biomechanics to aid design and development of repair procedures and replacement devices. These models have evolved from simple two-dimensional approximations to complex three-dimensional, fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) systems. Such simulations are useful for predicting the mechanical and hemodynamic loading on implanted valve devices. A current challenge for improving the accuracy of these predictions is choosing and implementing modeling boundary conditions. In order to address this challenge, we are utilizing an advanced in-vitro system to validate FSI conditions for the mitral valve system. Explanted ovine mitral valves were mounted in an in vitro setup, and structural data for the mitral valve was acquired with *CT. Experimental data from the in-vitro ovine mitral valve system were used to validate the computational model. As the valve closes, the hemodynamic data, high speed lea et dynamics, and force vectors from the in-vitro system were compared to the results of the FSI simulation computational model. The total force of 2.6 N per papillary muscle is matched by the computational model. In vitro and in vivo force measurements are important in validating and adjusting material parameters in computational models. The simulations can then be used to answer questions that are otherwise not possible to investigate experimentally. This work is important to maximize the validity of computational models of not just the mitral valve, but any biomechanical aspect using computational simulation in designing medical devices.

  18. Forcings and feedbacks on convection in the 2010 Pakistan flood: Modeling extreme precipitation with interactive large-scale ascent (United States)

    Nie, Ji; Shaevitz, Daniel A.; Sobel, Adam H.


    Extratropical extreme precipitation events are usually associated with large-scale flow disturbances, strong ascent, and large latent heat release. The causal relationships between these factors are often not obvious, however, the roles of different physical processes in producing the extreme precipitation event can be difficult to disentangle. Here we examine the large-scale forcings and convective heating feedback in the precipitation events, which caused the 2010 Pakistan flood within the Column Quasi-Geostrophic framework. A cloud-revolving model (CRM) is forced with large-scale forcings (other than large-scale vertical motion) computed from the quasi-geostrophic omega equation using input data from a reanalysis data set, and the large-scale vertical motion is diagnosed interactively with the simulated convection. Numerical results show that the positive feedback of convective heating to large-scale dynamics is essential in amplifying the precipitation intensity to the observed values. Orographic lifting is the most important dynamic forcing in both events, while differential potential vorticity advection also contributes to the triggering of the first event. Horizontal moisture advection modulates the extreme events mainly by setting the environmental humidity, which modulates the amplitude of the convection's response to the dynamic forcings. When the CRM is replaced by either a single-column model (SCM) with parameterized convection or a dry model with a reduced effective static stability, the model results show substantial discrepancies compared with reanalysis data. The reasons for these discrepancies are examined, and the implications for global models and theoretical models are discussed.

  19. Experimental and numerical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and pollution interactions under tidal forcing (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Schaefer, Florian; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Nanou-Giannarou, Aikaterini; Stamou, Anastasios; Falconer, Roger


    Surface water and groundwater are integral components of the hydrologic continuum and the interaction between them affects both their quantity and quality. However, surface water and groundwater are often considered as two separate systems and are analysed independently. This separation is partly due to the different time scales, which apply in surface water and groundwater flows and partly due to the difficulties in measuring and modelling their interactions (Winter et al., 1998). Coastal areas in particular are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes. Accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands, for example, requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades a large number of mathematical models and field methods have been developed in order to quantify the interaction between groundwater and hydraulically connected surface water bodies. Field studies may provide the best data (Hughes, 1995) but are usually expensive and involve too many parameters. In addition, the interpretation of field measurements and linking with modelling tools often proves to be difficult. In contrast, experimental studies are less expensive and provide controlled data. However, experimental studies of surface water-groundwater interaction are less frequently encountered in the literature than filed studies (e.g. Ebrahimi et al., 2007; Kuan et al., 2012; Sparks et al., 2013). To this end, an experimental model has been constructed at the Hyder Hydraulics Laboratory at Cardiff University to enable measurements to be made of groundwater transport through a sand embankment between a tidal water body such as an estuary and a non-tidal water body such as a wetland. The transport behaviour of a conservative tracer was studied for a constant water level on the wetland side of the embankment, while running a

  20. Viewing dynamic interactions of proteins and a model lipid membrane with atomic force microscopy. (United States)

    Quinn, Anthony S; Rand, Jacob H; Wu, Xiao-Xuan; Taatjes, Douglas J


    The information covered in this chapter will present a model homogenous membrane preparation technique and dynamic imaging procedure that can be successfully applied to more than one type of lipid study and atomic force microscope (AFM) instrument setup. The basic procedural steps have been used with an Asylum Research MFP-3D BIO and the Bruker (formerly, Veeco) BioScope. The AFM imaging protocol has been supplemented by procedures (not to be presented in this chapter) of ellipsometry, standardized western blotting, and dot-blots to verify appropriate purity and activity of all experimental molecular components; excellent purity and activity level of the lipids, proteins, and drug(s) greatly influence the success of imaging experiments in the scanning probe microscopy field. The major goal of the chapter is to provide detailed procedures for sample preparation and operation of the Asylum Research MFP-3D BIO AFM. In addition, one should be cognizant that our comprehensive description in the use of the MFP-3D BIO's functions for successful image acquisitions and analyses is greatly enhanced by Asylum Research's (AR's) accompanying extensive manual(s), technical notes, and AR's users forum. Ultimately, the stepwise protocol and information will allow novice personnel to begin acquiring quality images for processing and analysis with minimal supervision.

  1. Interaction of cement model systems with superplasticizers investigated by atomic force microscopy, zeta potential, and adsorption measurements. (United States)

    Ferrari, Lucia; Kaufmann, Josef; Winnefeld, Frank; Plank, Johann


    Polyelectrolyte-based dispersants are commonly used in a wide range of industrial applications to provide specific workability to colloidal suspensions. Their working mechanism is based on adsorption onto the surfaces of the suspended particles. The adsorbed polymer layer can exercise an electrostatic and/or a steric effect which is responsible for achieving dispersion. This study is focused on the dispersion forces induced by polycarboxylate ether-based superplasticizers (PCEs) commonly used in concrete. They are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) applying standard silicon nitride tips exposed to solutions with different ionic compositions in a wet cell. Adsorption isotherms and zeta potential analysis were performed to characterize polymer displacement in the AFM system on nonreactive model substrates (quartz, mica, calcite, and magnesium oxide) in order to avoid the complexity of cement hydration products. The results show that PCE is strongly adsorbed by positively charged materials. This fact reveals that, being silicon nitride naturally positively charged, in most cases the superplasticizer adsorbs preferably on the silicon nitride tip than on the AFM substrate. However, the force-distance curves displayed repulsive interactions between tip and substrates even when polymer was poorly adsorbed on both. These observations allow us to conclude that the dispersion due to PCE strongly depends on the particle charge. It differs between colloids adsorbing and not adsorbing PCE, and leads to different forces acting between the particles. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A numerical modeling study of the interaction between the tides and the circulation forced by high-latitude plasma convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, I.S.; Larsen, M.F.


    A spectral, time-varying thermospheric general circulation model has been used to study the nonlinear interaction at high latitudes between the tides propagating into the thermosphere from below and the circulation induced by magnetospheric forcing and in situ solar heating. The model is discrete in the vertical with 27 layers spaced by half a scale height. In the horizontal, the fields are expanded in a series of spherical harmonics using a triangular truncation at wave number 31, equivalent to a homogeneous global resolution with a minimum wavelength of 1,270 km. A hypothetical uniform grid point model would require a horizontal spacing of 417 km to describe the same minimum wavelength. In the high-latitude F region the tides affect the dusk vortex of the neutral flow very little, but the dawn vortex is either suppressed or amplified dependent upon the universal time and tidal phase. In the E region neutral flow, both the dusk and dawn vortices are shifted in local time by the tides, again as a function of universal time and tidal phase. At dusk a nonlinear amplification of the sunward winds occurs for certain combination of parameters, and at dawn the winds may be completely suppressed. Below 120 km altitude the magnetospheric forcing creates a single cyclonic vortex which is also sensitive to the high-latitude tidal structure

  3. Nanoscale investigation of the interaction of colistin with model phospholipid membranes by Langmuir technique, and combined infrared and force spectroscopies. (United States)

    Freudenthal, Oona; Quilès, Fabienne; Francius, Grégory; Wojszko, Kamila; Gorczyca, Marcelina; Korchowiec, Beata; Rogalska, Ewa


    Colistin (Polymyxin E), an antimicrobial peptide, is increasingly put forward as salvage for severe multidrug-resistant infections. Unfortunately, colistin is potentially toxic to mammalian cells. A better understanding of the interaction with specific components of the cell membranes may be helpful in controlling the factors that may enhance toxicity. Here, we report a physico-chemical study of model phospholipid (PL) mono- and bilayers exposed to colistin at different concentrations by Langmuir technique, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The effect of colistin on chosen PL monolayers was examined. Insights into the topographical and elastic changes in the PL bilayers within time after peptide injection are presented via AFM imaging and force spectra. Finally, changes in the PL bilayers' ATR-FTIR spectra as a function of time within three bilayer compositions, and the influence of colistin on their spectral fingerprint are examined together with the time-evolution of the Amide II and νCO band integrated intensity ratios. Our study reveals a great importance in the role of the PL composition as well as the peptide concentration on the action of colistin on PL model membranes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Distribution and direct radiative forcing of carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols in an interactive size-resolving aerosol-climate model (United States)

    Kim, Dongchul; Wang, Chien; Ekman, Annica M. L.; Barth, Mary C.; Rasch, Phil J.


    A multimode, two-moment aerosol model has been incorporated in the NCAR CAM3 to develop an interactive aerosol-climate model and to study the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on the global climate system. Currently, seven aerosol modes, namely three for external sulfate and one each for external black carbon (BC), external organic carbon (OC), sulfate/BC mixture (MBS; with BC core coated by sulfate shell), and sulfate/OC mixture (MOS; a uniform mixture of OC and sulfate) are included in the model. Both mass and number concentrations of each aerosol mode, as well as the mass of carbonaceous species in the mixed modes, are predicted by the model so that the chemical, physical, and radiative processes of various aerosols can be formulated depending on aerosol's size, chemical composition, and mixing state. Comparisons of modeled surface and vertical aerosol concentrations, as well as the optical depth of aerosols with available observations and previous model estimates, are in general agreement. However, some discrepancies do exist, likely caused by the coarse model resolution or the constant rates of anthropogenic emissions used to test the model. Comparing to the widely used mass-only method with prescribed geometric size of particles (one-moment scheme), the use of prognostic size distributions of aerosols based on a two-moment scheme in our model leads to a significant reduction in optical depth and thus the radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) of particularly external sulfate aerosols. The inclusion of two types of mixed aerosols alters the mass partitioning of carbonaceous and sulfate aerosol constituents: about 35.5%, 48.5%, and 32.2% of BC, OC, and sulfate mass, respectively, are found in the mixed aerosols. This also brings in competing effects in aerosol radiative forcing including a reduction in atmospheric abundance of BC and OC due to the shorter lifetime of internal mixtures (cooling), a mass loss of external sulfate to mixtures (warming

  5. Interaction Force Estimation During Manipulation of Microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Metz, R.M.P.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak


    This work investigates the utilization of microparticles for the wireless sensing of interaction forces in magneticbased manipulation systems. The proposed force estimation approach allows for using microparticles in sensing the interaction forces at hard-to-reach regions to avoid the mechanical and

  6. Analysis of the forced vibration test of the Hualien large scale soil-structure interaction model using a flexible volume substructuring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Nakamura, N.


    A 1/4-scale cylindrical reactor containment model was constructed in Hualien, Taiwan for foil-structure interaction (SSI) effect evaluation and SSI analysis procedure verification. Forced vibration tests were executed before backfill (FVT-1) and after backfill (FVT-2) to characterize soil-structure system characteristics under low excitations. A number of organizations participated in the pre-test blind prediction and post-test correlation analyses of the forced vibration test using various industry familiar methods. In the current study, correlation analyses were performed using a three-dimensional flexible volume substructuring method. The results are reported and soil property sensitivities are evaluated in the paper. (J.P.N.)

  7. Numerical modelling of an electric arc and its interaction with the anode: part II. The three-dimensional model-influence of external forces on the arc column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J J; Lago, F; Freton, P; Masquere, M; Franceries, X [CPAT, UMR CNRS 5002, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France)


    This paper reports the second part of the study of an electric arc and its interaction with the anode material. First, a three-dimensional model is presented and validated in a natural symmetric configuration for which many experimental results exist. In the three-dimensional model, two situations are considered for the anode surface: the classical zero heat flux condition and the use of the anode model. In the second case, the specific properties of the anode material are taken into account and play a role in the current conservation between the plasma and the anode, and therefore, affect the arc behaviour near the electrode. The results for the two approaches are similar in two dimensions, but differences exist in real three-dimensional cases when external forces such as cross flow or magnetic field tend to bend the arc. Second, we present a comparison between the two methods in the case where the arc is deviated by an external magnetic field. For this comparison, we adopt a configuration used at Odeillo during the 1970s and compare the results obtained by our code with the experimental ones. We find that it is essential to consider the complete anode model if the arc deflection is to be predicted correctly. Once our developments are validated, the computational code is applied in a free-burning arc configuration, where the plasma column is deflected by an external cross flow.

  8. Numerical modelling of an electric arc and its interaction with the anode: part II. The three-dimensional model-influence of external forces on the arc column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J J; Lago, F; Freton, P; Masquere, M; Franceries, X


    This paper reports the second part of the study of an electric arc and its interaction with the anode material. First, a three-dimensional model is presented and validated in a natural symmetric configuration for which many experimental results exist. In the three-dimensional model, two situations are considered for the anode surface: the classical zero heat flux condition and the use of the anode model. In the second case, the specific properties of the anode material are taken into account and play a role in the current conservation between the plasma and the anode, and therefore, affect the arc behaviour near the electrode. The results for the two approaches are similar in two dimensions, but differences exist in real three-dimensional cases when external forces such as cross flow or magnetic field tend to bend the arc. Second, we present a comparison between the two methods in the case where the arc is deviated by an external magnetic field. For this comparison, we adopt a configuration used at Odeillo during the 1970s and compare the results obtained by our code with the experimental ones. We find that it is essential to consider the complete anode model if the arc deflection is to be predicted correctly. Once our developments are validated, the computational code is applied in a free-burning arc configuration, where the plasma column is deflected by an external cross flow

  9. Numerical modelling of an electric arc and its interaction with the anode: part II. The three-dimensional model—influence of external forces on the arc column (United States)

    Gonzalez, J. J.; Lago, F.; Freton, P.; Masquère, M.; Franceries, X.


    This paper reports the second part of the study of an electric arc and its interaction with the anode material. First, a three-dimensional model is presented and validated in a natural symmetric configuration for which many experimental results exist. In the three-dimensional model, two situations are considered for the anode surface: the classical zero heat flux condition and the use of the anode model. In the second case, the specific properties of the anode material are taken into account and play a role in the current conservation between the plasma and the anode, and therefore, affect the arc behaviour near the electrode. The results for the two approaches are similar in two dimensions, but differences exist in real three-dimensional cases when external forces such as cross flow or magnetic field tend to bend the arc. Second, we present a comparison between the two methods in the case where the arc is deviated by an external magnetic field. For this comparison, we adopt a configuration used at Odeillo during the 1970s and compare the results obtained by our code with the experimental ones. We find that it is essential to consider the complete anode model if the arc deflection is to be predicted correctly. Once our developments are validated, the computational code is applied in a free-burning arc configuration, where the plasma column is deflected by an external cross flow.

  10. Chemical Force Microscopy of Chemical and Biological Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noy, A


    Interactions between chemical functionalities define outcomes of the vast majority of important events in chemistry, biology and materials science. Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM)--a technique that uses direct chemical functionalization of AFM probes with specific functionalities--allows researchers to investigate these important interactions directly. We review the basic principles of CFM, some examples of its application, and theoretical models that provide the basis for understanding the experimental results. We also emphasize application of modern kinetic theory of non-covalent interactions strength to the analysis of CFM data.

  11. Model FORC diagrams for hybrid magnetic elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaganov, M.V.; Linke, J.; Odenbach, S.; Raikher, Yu.L.


    We propose a model of hybrid magnetic elastomers filled with a mixture of magnetically soft and magnetically hard microparticles. The magnetically hard particles are described by the Stoner–Wohlfarth model, the magnetically soft phase obeys the Fröhlich–Kennelly equation. The interaction between the two types of particles is described by the mean-field approach. First-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams were calculated for different values of the elastomer matrix elasticity. We demonstrate that the diagrams display specific new features, which identify the presence of both a deformable matrix and the two types of magnetic particles. - Highlights: • A model of hybrid magnetic elastomers is proposed. • The magnetically hard particles are described by the Stoner–Wohlfarth model. • The magnetically soft phase obeys the Fröhlich–Kennelly equation. The interaction between the phases is described by the mean-field approach. • FORC diagrams are calculated for different values of the elastomer matrix elasticity.

  12. On the Transition from Bulk to Ordered Form of Water: A Theoretical Model to Calculate Adhesion Force Due to Capillary and van der Waals Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaqoob, M.A.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Schipper, Dirk J.


    The adhesion force due to capillary interaction between two hydrophilic surfaces is strongly dependent on the partial pressure of water and is often calculated using the Kelvin equation. The validity of the Kelvin equation is questionable at low relative humidity (RH) of water, like in high vacuum

  13. Force 2025 and Beyond Strategic Force Design Analytic Model (United States)


    the methodology used to construct force design models. The Summary section provides a summary of our findings. Background By 2025, a leaner ...designs. We describe a data development methodology that characterizes the data required to construct a force design model using our approach. We...from a model constructed using this methodology in a case study. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Force design, mixed integer programming, optimization, value

  14. Nanoscale effects in the characterization of viscoelastic materials with atomic force microscopy: coupling of a quasi-three-dimensional standard linear solid model with in-plane surface interactions. (United States)

    Solares, Santiago D


    Significant progress has been accomplished in the development of experimental contact-mode and dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods designed to measure surface material properties. However, current methods are based on one-dimensional (1D) descriptions of the tip-sample interaction forces, thus neglecting the intricacies involved in the material behavior of complex samples (such as soft viscoelastic materials) as well as the differences in material response between the surface and the bulk. In order to begin to address this gap, a computational study is presented where the sample is simulated using an enhanced version of a recently introduced model that treats the surface as a collection of standard-linear-solid viscoelastic elements. The enhanced model introduces in-plane surface elastic forces that can be approximately related to a two-dimensional (2D) Young's modulus. Relevant cases are discussed for single- and multifrequency intermittent-contact AFM imaging, with focus on the calculated surface indentation profiles and tip-sample interaction force curves, as well as their implications with regards to experimental interpretation. A variety of phenomena are examined in detail, which highlight the need for further development of more physically accurate sample models that are specifically designed for AFM simulation. A multifrequency AFM simulation tool based on the above sample model is provided as supporting information.

  15. Modeling Fluid Structure Interaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benaroya, Haym


    The principal goal of this program is on integrating experiments with analytical modeling to develop physics-based reduced-order analytical models of nonlinear fluid-structure interactions in articulated naval platforms...

  16. Cloud forcing: A modeling perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, G.L.; Mobely, R.L.; Drach, R.S.; Corsetti, T.G.; Williams, D.N.; Slingo, J.M.


    Radiation fields from a perpetual July integration of a T106 version of the ECMWF operational model are used as surrogate observations of the radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere to illustrate various difficulties that modellers might face when trying to reconcile cloud radiation forcings derived from satellite observations with model-generated ones. Differences between the so-called Methods 1 and 2 of Cess and Potter (1987) and a variant Method 3 are addressed. Method 1 is shown to be the least robust of all methods, due to potential uncertainties related to persistent cloudiness, length of the period over which clear-sky conditions are looked for, biases in retrieved clear-sky quantities due to an insufficient sampling of the diurnal cycle. We advocate the use of Method 2 as the only unambiguous one to produce consistent radiative diagnostics for intercomparing model results. Impact of the three methods on the derived sensitivities and cloud feedbacks following an imposed change in sea surface temperature (used as a surrogate climate change) is discussed. 17 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  17. A Skyrme model approach to the spin-orbit force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halcrow, C.J.; Manton, N.S. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics,University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)


    The spin-orbit force is a vital tool in describing finite nuclei and nucleon interactions; however its microscopic origin is not fully understood. In this paper we study a model inspired by Skyrmions which provides a classical explanation of the force. To simplify the calculations the Skyrmions are approximated as two-dimensional rigid discs which behave like quantum cogwheels.

  18. An atomic force microscopy study of the interactions between indolicidin and supported planar bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askou, Hans Jakob; Jakobsen, Rasmus Neergaard; Fojan, Peter


    Indolicidin, a tryptophane-rich antimicrobial peptide , was used to investigate the interactions with a zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine as a model membrane system. In situ atomic force microscopy in liquid medium and phosphatidylcholine supported planar bilayers enabled the study...

  19. Probing anisotropic surface properties and interaction forces of chrysotile rods by atomic force microscopy and rheology. (United States)

    Yang, Dingzheng; Xie, Lei; Bobicki, Erin; Xu, Zhenghe; Liu, Qingxia; Zeng, Hongbo


    Understanding the surface properties and interactions of nonspherical particles is of both fundamental and practical importance in the rheology of complex fluids in various engineering applications. In this work, natural chrysotile, a phyllosilicate composed of 1:1 stacked silica and brucite layers which coil into cylindrical structure, was chosen as a model rod-shaped particle. The interactions of chrysotile brucite-like basal or bilayered edge planes and a silicon nitride tip were measured using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The force-distance profiles were fitted using the classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, which demonstrates anisotropic and pH-dependent surface charge properties of brucite-like basal plane and bilayered edge surface. The points of zero charge (PZC) of the basal and edge planes were estimated to be around pH 10-11 and 6-7, respectively. Rheology measurements of 7 vol % chrysotile (with an aspect ratio of 14.5) in 10 mM NaCl solution showed pH-dependent yield stress with a local maximum around pH 7-9, which falls between the two PZC values of the edge and basal planes of the rod particles. On the basis of the surface potentials of the edge and basal planes obtained from AFM measurements, theoretical analysis of the surface interactions of edge-edge, basal-edge, and basal-basal planes of the chrysotile rods suggests the yield stress maximum observed could be mainly attributed to the basal-edge attractions. Our results indicate that the anisotropic surface properties (e.g., charges) of chrysotile rods play an important role in the particle-particle interaction and rheological behavior, which also provides insight into the basic understanding of the colloidal interactions and rheology of nonspherical particles.

  20. Predicting wind farm wake interaction with RANS: an investigation of the Coriolis force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Paul; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Sørensen, Niels N.


    A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code is used to simulate the interaction of two neighboring wind farms. The influence of the Coriolis force is investigated by modeling the atmospheric surface/boundary layer with three different methodologies. The results show that the Coriolis force is negligible...

  1. Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Olsen, Petur; Pedersen, Thomas


    This paper presents an offline approach to analyzing feature interactions in embedded systems. The approach consists of a systematic process to gather the necessary information about system components and their models. The model is first specified in terms of predicates, before being refined to t...... to timed automata. The consistency of the model is verified at different development stages, and the correct linkage between the predicates and their semantic model is checked. The approach is illustrated on a use case from home automation....

  2. Force interactions between magnetite, silica, and bentonite studied with atomic force microscopy (United States)

    Dobryden, I.; Potapova, E.; Holmgren, A.; Weber, H.; Hedlund, J.; Almqvist, N.


    Iron ore pellets consist of variety of mineral particles and are an important refined product used in steel manufacturing. Production of high-quality pellets requires good understanding of interactions between different constituents, such as magnetite, gangue residues, bentonite, and additives. Much research has been reported on magnetite, silica, and bentonite surface properties and their effect on pellet strength but more scant with a focus on a fundamental particle-particle interaction. To probe such particle interaction, atomic force microscopy (AFM) using colloidal probe technique has proven to be a suitable tool. In this work, the measurements were performed between magnetite-magnetite, bentonite-magnetite, silica-bentonite, and silica-magnetite particles in 1 mM CaCl2 solution at various pH values. The interaction character, i.e., repulsion or attraction, was determined by measuring and analyzing AFM force curves. The observed quantitative changes in interaction forces were in good agreement with the measured zeta-potentials for the particles at the same experimental conditions. Particle aggregation was studied by measuring the adhesion force. Absolute values of adhesion forces for different systems could not be compared due to the difference in particle size and contact geometry. Therefore, the relative change of adhesion force between pH 6 and 10 was used for comparison. The adhesion force decreased for the magnetite-magnetite and bentonite-silica systems and slightly increased for the magnetite-bentonite system at pH 10 as compared to pH 6, whereas a pronounced decrease in adhesion force was observed in the magnetite-silica system. Thus, the presence of silica particles on the magnetite surface could have a negative impact on the interaction between magnetite and bentonite in balling due to the reduction of the adhesion force.

  3. The interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iachello, F.; Arima, A.


    The book gives an account of some of the properties of the interacting boson model. The model was introduced in 1974 to describe in a unified way the collective properties of nuclei. The book presents the mathematical techniques used to analyse the structure of the model. The mathematical framework of the model is discussed in detail. The book also contains all the formulae that have been developed throughout the years to account for collective properties of nuclei. These formulae can be used by experimentalists to compare their data with the predictions of the model. (U.K.)

  4. Investigation of specific interactions between T7 promoter and T7 RNA polymerase by force spectroscopy using atomic force microscope. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojuan; Yao, Zhixuan; Duan, Yanting; Zhang, Xiaomei; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong


    The specific recognition and binding of promoter and RNA polymerase is the first step of transcription initiation in bacteria and largely determines transcription activity. Therefore, direct analysis of the interaction between promoter and RNA polymerase in vitro may be a new strategy for promoter characterization, to avoid interference due to the cell's biophysical condition and other regulatory elements. In the present study, the specific interaction between T7 promoter and T7 RNA polymerase was studied as a model system using force spectroscopy based on atomic force microscope (AFM). The specific interaction between T7 promoter and T7 RNA polymerase was verified by control experiments, and the rupture force in this system was measured as 307.2 ± 6.7 pN. The binding between T7 promoter mutants with various promoter activities and T7 RNA polymerase was analyzed. Interaction information including rupture force, rupture distance and binding percentage were obtained in vitro , and reporter gene expression regulated by these promoters was also measured according to a traditional promoter activity characterization method in vivo Using correlation analysis, it was found that the promoter strength characterized by reporter gene expression was closely correlated with rupture force and the binding percentage by force spectroscopy. These results indicated that the analysis of the interaction between promoter and RNA polymerase using AFM-based force spectroscopy was an effective and valid approach for the quantitative characterization of promoters. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  5. Monitoring ligand-receptor interactions by photonic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeney, Sylvia; Mor, Flavio; Forro, Laszlo; Koszali, Roland; Moy, Vincent T


    We introduce a method for the acquisition of single molecule force measurements of ligand-receptor interactions using the photonic force microscope (PFM). Biotin-functionalized beads, manipulated with an optical trap, and a streptavidin-functionalized coverslip were used to measure the effect of different pulling forces on the lifetime of individual streptavidin-biotin complexes. By optimizing the design of the optical trap and selection of the appropriate bead size, pulling forces in excess of 50 pN were achieved. Based on the amplitude of three-dimensional (3D) thermal position fluctuations of the attached bead, we were able to select for a bead-coverslip interaction that was mediated by a single streptavidin-biotin complex. Moreover, the developed experimental system was greatly accelerated by automation of data acquisition and analysis. In force-dependent kinetic measurements carried out between streptavidin and biotin, we observed that the streptavidin-biotin complex exhibited properties of a catch bond, with the lifetime increasing tenfold when the pulling force increased from 10 to 20 pN. We also show that silica beads were more appropriate than polystyrene beads for the force measurements, as tethers, longer than 200 nm, could be extracted from polystyrene beads.

  6. Scalar self-interactions loosen constraints from fifth force searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubser, Steven S.; Khoury, Justin


    The mass of a scalar field mediating a fifth force is tightly constrained by experiments. We show, however, that adding a quartic self-interaction for such a scalar makes most tests much less constraining: the nonlinear equation of motion masks the coupling of the scalar to matter through the chameleon mechanism. We discuss consequences for fifth force experiments. In particular, we find that, with quartic coupling of order unity, a gravitational strength interaction with matter is allowed by current constraints. We show that our chameleon scalar field results in experimental signatures that could be detected through modest improvements of current laboratory set-ups

  7. Optical Near-field Interactions and Forces for Optoelectronic Devices (United States)

    Kohoutek, John Michael

    Throughout history, as a particle view of the universe began to take shape, scientists began to realize that these particles were attracted to each other and hence came up with theories, both analytical and empirical in nature, to explain their interaction. The interaction pair potential (empirical) and electromagnetics (analytical) theories, both help to explain not only the interaction between the basic constituents of matter, such as atoms and molecules, but also between macroscopic objects, such as two surfaces in close proximity. The electrostatic force, optical force, and Casimir force can be categorized as such forces. A surface plasmon (SP) is a collective motion of electrons generated by light at the interface between two mediums of opposite signs of dielectric susceptibility (e.g. metal and dielectric). Recently, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been exploited in many areas through the use of tiny antennas that work on similar principles as radio frequency (RF) antennas in optoelectronic devices. These antennas can produce a very high gradient in the electric field thereby leading to an optical force, similar in concept to the surface forces discussed above. The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) was introduced in the 1980s at IBM. Here we report on its uses in measuring these aforementioned forces and fields, as well as actively modulating and manipulating multiple optoelectronic devices. We have shown that it is possible to change the far field radiation pattern of an optical antenna-integrated device through modification of the near-field of the device. This modification is possible through change of the local refractive index or reflectivity of the "hot spot" of the device, either mechanically or optically. Finally, we have shown how a mechanically active device can be used to detect light with high gain and low noise at room temperature. It is the aim of several of these integrated and future devices to be used for applications in molecular sensing

  8. Interaction force measurement between E. coli cells and nanoparticles immobilized surfaces by using AFM. (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Stack, Andrew G; Chen, Yongsheng


    To better understand environmental behaviors of nanoparticles (NPs), we used the atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure interaction forces between E. coli cells and NPs immobilized on surfaces in an aqueous environment. The results showed that adhesion force strength was significantly influenced by particle size for both hematite (α-Fe(2)O(3)) and corundum (α-Al(2)O(3)) NPs whereas the effect on the repulsive force was not observed. The adhesion force decreased from 6.3±0.7nN to 0.8±0.4nN as hematite NPs increased from 26nm to 98nm in diameter. Corundum NPs exhibited a similar dependence of adhesion force on particle size. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model was employed to estimate the contact area between E. coli cells and NPs, and based on the JKR model a new model that considers local effective contact area was developed. The prediction of the new model matched the size dependence of adhesion force in experimental results. Size effects on adhesion forces may originate from the difference in local effective contact areas as supported by our model. These findings provide fundamental information for interpreting the environmental behaviors and biological interactions of NPs, which barely have been addressed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Distinguishing magnetic and electrostatic interactions by a Kelvin probe force microscopy-magnetic force microscopy combination. (United States)

    Jaafar, Miriam; Iglesias-Freire, Oscar; Serrano-Ramón, Luis; Ibarra, Manuel Ricardo; de Teresa, Jose Maria; Asenjo, Agustina


    The most outstanding feature of scanning force microscopy (SFM) is its capability to detect various different short and long range interactions. In particular, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is used to characterize the domain configuration in ferromagnetic materials such as thin films grown by physical techniques or ferromagnetic nanostructures. It is a usual procedure to separate the topography and the magnetic signal by scanning at a lift distance of 25-50 nm such that the long range tip-sample interactions dominate. Nowadays, MFM is becoming a valuable technique to detect weak magnetic fields arising from low dimensional complex systems such as organic nanomagnets, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, carbon-based materials, etc. In all these cases, the magnetic nanocomponents and the substrate supporting them present quite different electronic behavior, i.e., they exhibit large surface potential differences causing heterogeneous electrostatic interaction between the tip and the sample that could be interpreted as a magnetic interaction. To distinguish clearly the origin of the tip-sample forces we propose to use a combination of Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and MFM. The KPFM technique allows us to compensate in real time the electrostatic forces between the tip and the sample by minimizing the electrostatic contribution to the frequency shift signal. This is a great challenge in samples with low magnetic moment. In this work we studied an array of Co nanostructures that exhibit high electrostatic interaction with the MFM tip. Thanks to the use of the KPFM/MFM system we were able to separate the electric and magnetic interactions between the tip and the sample.

  10. Distinguishing magnetic and electrostatic interactions by a Kelvin probe force microscopy–magnetic force microscopy combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Jaafar


    Full Text Available The most outstanding feature of scanning force microscopy (SFM is its capability to detect various different short and long range interactions. In particular, magnetic force microscopy (MFM is used to characterize the domain configuration in ferromagnetic materials such as thin films grown by physical techniques or ferromagnetic nanostructures. It is a usual procedure to separate the topography and the magnetic signal by scanning at a lift distance of 25–50 nm such that the long range tip–sample interactions dominate. Nowadays, MFM is becoming a valuable technique to detect weak magnetic fields arising from low dimensional complex systems such as organic nanomagnets, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, carbon-based materials, etc. In all these cases, the magnetic nanocomponents and the substrate supporting them present quite different electronic behavior, i.e., they exhibit large surface potential differences causing heterogeneous electrostatic interaction between the tip and the sample that could be interpreted as a magnetic interaction. To distinguish clearly the origin of the tip–sample forces we propose to use a combination of Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM and MFM. The KPFM technique allows us to compensate in real time the electrostatic forces between the tip and the sample by minimizing the electrostatic contribution to the frequency shift signal. This is a great challenge in samples with low magnetic moment. In this work we studied an array of Co nanostructures that exhibit high electrostatic interaction with the MFM tip. Thanks to the use of the KPFM/MFM system we were able to separate the electric and magnetic interactions between the tip and the sample.

  11. The Canadian Forces Recruitment/Attrition Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wait, Tracey


    ...), as part of its mandate to provide analysis of potential impacts of trends and change on defense and defense related issues, has designed a prototype model of recruitment and attrition of the Canadian Forces (C F...

  12. Designing an experiment to measure cellular interaction forces (United States)

    McAlinden, Niall; Glass, David G.; Millington, Owain R.; Wright, Amanda J.


    Optical trapping is a powerful tool in Life Science research and is becoming common place in many microscopy laboratories and facilities. The force applied by the laser beam on the trapped object can be accurately determined allowing any external forces acting on the trapped object to be deduced. We aim to design a series of experiments that use an optical trap to measure and quantify the interaction force between immune cells. In order to cause minimum perturbation to the sample we plan to directly trap T cells and remove the need to introduce exogenous beads to the sample. This poses a series of challenges and raises questions that need to be answered in order to design a set of effect end-point experiments. A typical cell is large compared to the beads normally trapped and highly non-uniform - can we reliably trap such objects and prevent them from rolling and re-orientating? In this paper we show how a spatial light modulator can produce a triple-spot trap, as opposed to a single-spot trap, giving complete control over the object's orientation and preventing it from rolling due, for example, to Brownian motion. To use an optical trap as a force transducer to measure an external force you must first have a reliably calibrated system. The optical trapping force is typically measured using either the theory of equipartition and observing the Brownian motion of the trapped object or using an escape force method, e.g. the viscous drag force method. In this paper we examine the relationship between force and displacement, as well as measuring the maximum displacement from equilibrium position before an object falls out of the trap, hence determining the conditions under which the different calibration methods should be applied.

  13. Which forcing data errors matter most when modeling seasonal snowpacks? (United States)

    Raleigh, M. S.; Lundquist, J. D.; Clark, M. P.


    High quality forcing data are critical when modeling seasonal snowpacks and snowmelt, but their quality is often compromised due to measurement errors or deficiencies in gridded data products (e.g., spatio-temporal interpolation, empirical parameterizations, or numerical weather model outputs). To assess the relative impact of errors in different meteorological forcings, many studies have conducted sensitivity analyses where errors (e.g., bias) are imposed on one forcing at a time and changes in model output are compared. Although straightforward, this approach only considers simplistic error structures and cannot quantify interactions in different meteorological forcing errors (i.e., it assumes a linear system). Here we employ the Sobol' method of global sensitivity analysis, which allows us to test how co-existing errors in six meteorological forcings (i.e., air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, humidity, incoming shortwave and longwave radiation) impact specific modeled snow variables (i.e., peak snow water equivalent, snowmelt rates, and snow disappearance timing). Using the Sobol' framework across a large number of realizations (>100000 simulations annually at each site), we test how (1) the type (e.g., bias vs. random errors), (2) distribution (e.g., uniform vs. normal), and (3) magnitude (e.g., instrument uncertainty vs. field uncertainty) of forcing errors impact key outputs from a physically based snow model (the Utah Energy Balance). We also assess the role of climate by conducting the analysis at sites in maritime, intermountain, continental, and tundra snow zones. For all outputs considered, results show that (1) biases in forcing data are more important than random errors, (2) the choice of error distribution can enhance the importance of specific forcings, and (3) the level of uncertainty considered dictates the relative importance of forcings. While the relative importance of forcings varied with snow variable and climate, the results broadly

  14. Automated boundary interaction force control of micromanipulators with in situ applications to microsurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslami, Sohrab; Jalili, Nader


    Most recent works on miniature tasks are concentrated on developing tools to take advantage of the visual servoing feedback to control the ultra-small interaction forces. This paper spans an extensive platform for automatic controlling of boundary interaction forces with high precision in the level of micro/nano-Newton with extensive micro/nanoengineering applications such as the microsurgery. To this end, a comprehensive piezoresistive microcantilever (PMC) model considering the shear deformation and rotary inertia effects treating as the distributed-parameters model along with the Hertzian contact force is presented. The purpose of considering the Hertzian contact force model is to investigate the dynamic response of the interaction force between the microcantilever's tip and the specimen. Afterward, a control platform is introduced to automatically manipulate the PMC to follow an ideal micro/nano-interaction force. By using the integrated PMC with the micromanipulator and a digital signal processor, an intuitive programming code is written to incorporate the micromanipulator and the controller in a real-time framework. To calibrate and verify the induced voltage in the PMC, a self-sensing experiment on the piezoelectric microcantilever is carried out to warrant the calibration procedure. Some experiments are established to affirm the validity of the proposed control for the autonomous real-time tasks on the boundary interaction force control. Unlike the conventional research studies, the measured force here contributes as the feedback source in contrast to the vision feedback while force sensors possess more precision, productivity and small size. This technique has several potential applications listed but not limited to the micro/nanomanipulation, developing artificial biological systems (e.g., fabricating hydrogel for the scaffold), and medicine such as microsurgery. As a result, using the proposed platform, we are able to manipulate and control the

  15. Ridge Regression for Interactive Models. (United States)

    Tate, Richard L.


    An exploratory study of the value of ridge regression for interactive models is reported. Assuming that the linear terms in a simple interactive model are centered to eliminate non-essential multicollinearity, a variety of common models, representing both ordinal and disordinal interactions, are shown to have "orientations" that are…

  16. Seismic response of pile foundations and pile forces caused by kinematic and inertial interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.G.; Waas, G.


    The horizontal motion and pile forces of pile groups subjected to earthquake excitation are analysed. The piles are modelled as linear elastic beam elements embedded in a layered linear visco-elastic soil medium. Pile-soil-pile interaction is included. The earthquake excitation results from vertically propagating shear waves. Kinematic and inertial interaction effects on foundation motion and pile forces are studied for a single pile, a small pile group and a large pile group. Soft and stiff soil conditions are considered, and the effect of a flexible vs. a rigid halfspace below the soil layers is shown. (orig.)

  17. A novel three-filament model of force generation in eccentric contraction of skeletal muscles. (United States)

    Schappacher-Tilp, Gudrun; Leonard, Timothy; Desch, Gertrud; Herzog, Walter


    We propose and examine a three filament model of skeletal muscle force generation, thereby extending classical cross-bridge models by involving titin-actin interaction upon active force production. In regions with optimal actin-myosin overlap, the model does not alter energy and force predictions of cross-bridge models for isometric contractions. However, in contrast to cross-bridge models, the three filament model accurately predicts history-dependent force generation in half sarcomeres for eccentric and concentric contractions, and predicts the activation-dependent forces for stretches beyond actin-myosin filament overlap.

  18. A novel three-filament model of force generation in eccentric contraction of skeletal muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Schappacher-Tilp

    Full Text Available We propose and examine a three filament model of skeletal muscle force generation, thereby extending classical cross-bridge models by involving titin-actin interaction upon active force production. In regions with optimal actin-myosin overlap, the model does not alter energy and force predictions of cross-bridge models for isometric contractions. However, in contrast to cross-bridge models, the three filament model accurately predicts history-dependent force generation in half sarcomeres for eccentric and concentric contractions, and predicts the activation-dependent forces for stretches beyond actin-myosin filament overlap.

  19. A cutting force model for micromilling applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    In micro milling the maximum uncut chip thickness is often smaller than the cutting edge radius. This paper introduces a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge radius.......In micro milling the maximum uncut chip thickness is often smaller than the cutting edge radius. This paper introduces a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge radius....

  20. Phenomenological Model of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions (United States)

    Menshikov, L. I.; Menshikov, P. L.; Fedichev, P. O.


    Hydration forces acting between macroscopic bodies at distances L ≤ 3 nm in pure water are calculated based on the phenomenological model of polar liquids. It is shown that depending on the properties of the bodies, the interacting surfaces polarize the liquid differently, and wetting properties of the surfaces are completely characterized by two parameters. If the surfaces are hydrophilic, liquid molecules are polarized at right angles to the surfaces, and the interaction is the short-range repulsion (the forces of interaction decrease exponentially over the characteristic length λ ≈ 0.2 nm). The interaction between the hydrophobic surfaces is more diversified and has been studied less. For L ≤ 3 nm, the interaction exhibits universal properties, while for L ≤ 3 nm, it considerably depends on the properties of the surfaces and on the distances between them, as well as on the composition of the polar liquid. In full agreement with the available experimental results we find that if the interfaces are mostly hydrophobic, then the interaction is attractive and long-range (the interaction forces diminish exponentially with decay length 1.2 nm). In this case, the resultant polarization of water molecules is parallel to the surface. It is shown that hydration forces are determined by nonlinear effects of polarization of the liquid in the bulk or by analogous nonlinearity of the interaction of water with a submerged body. This means that the forces of interaction cannot be calculated correctly in the linear response approximation. The forces acting between hydrophobic or hydrophilic surfaces are of the entropy type or electrostatic, respectively. It is shown that hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces for L ≤ 3 nm repel each other. The calculated intensity of their interaction is in agreement with experimental data. We predict the existence of an intermediate regime in which a body cannot order liquid molecules, which results in a much weaker attraction that

  1. Modeling noncontact atomic force microscopy resolution on corrugated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. Burson


    Full Text Available Key developments in NC-AFM have generally involved atomically flat crystalline surfaces. However, many surfaces of technological interest are not atomically flat. We discuss the experimental difficulties in obtaining high-resolution images of rough surfaces, with amorphous SiO2 as a specific case. We develop a quasi-1-D minimal model for noncontact atomic force microscopy, based on van der Waals interactions between a spherical tip and the surface, explicitly accounting for the corrugated substrate (modeled as a sinusoid. The model results show an attenuation of the topographic contours by ~30% for tip distances within 5 Å of the surface. Results also indicate a deviation from the Hamaker force law for a sphere interacting with a flat surface.

  2. Forces between permanent magnets: experiments and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Manuel I


    This work describes a very simple, low-cost experimental setup designed for measuring the force between permanent magnets. The experiment consists of placing one of the magnets on a balance, attaching the other magnet to a vertical height gauge, aligning carefully both magnets and measuring the load on the balance as a function of the gauge reading. A theoretical model is proposed to compute the force, assuming uniform magnetisation and based on laws and techniques accessible to undergraduate students. A comparison between the model and the experimental results is made, and good agreement is found at all distances investigated. In particular, it is also found that the force behaves as r −4 at large distances, as expected. (paper)

  3. Forces between permanent magnets: experiments and model (United States)

    González, Manuel I.


    This work describes a very simple, low-cost experimental setup designed for measuring the force between permanent magnets. The experiment consists of placing one of the magnets on a balance, attaching the other magnet to a vertical height gauge, aligning carefully both magnets and measuring the load on the balance as a function of the gauge reading. A theoretical model is proposed to compute the force, assuming uniform magnetisation and based on laws and techniques accessible to undergraduate students. A comparison between the model and the experimental results is made, and good agreement is found at all distances investigated. In particular, it is also found that the force behaves as r -4 at large distances, as expected.

  4. Adhesion forces and mechanics in mannose-mediated acanthamoeba interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Huth

    Full Text Available The human pathogenic amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii (A. castellanii causes severe diseases, including acanthamoeba keratitis and encephalitis. Pathogenicity arises from the killing of target-cells by an extracellular killing mechanism, where the crucial first step is the formation of a close contact between A. castellanii and the target-cell. This process is mediated by the glycocalix of the target-cell and mannose has been identified as key mediator. The aim of the present study was to carry out a detailed biophysical investigation of mannose-mediated adhesion of A. castellanii using force spectroscopy on single trophozoites. In detail, we studied the interaction of a mannose-coated cantilever with an A. castellanii trophozoite, as mannose is the decisive part of the cellular glycocalix in mediating pathogenicity. We observed a clear increase of the force to initiate cantilever detachment from the trophozoite with increasing contact time. This increase is also associated with an increase in the work of detachment. Furthermore, we also analyzed single rupture events during the detachment process and found that single rupture processes are associated with membrane tether formation, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is not involved in mannose binding events during the first few seconds of contact. Our study provides an experimental and conceptual basis for measuring interactions between pathogens and target-cells at different levels of complexity and as a function of interaction time, thus leading to new insights into the biophysical mechanisms of parasite pathogenicity.

  5. Adhesion forces and mechanics in mannose-mediated acanthamoeba interactions (United States)

    Leippe, Matthias


    The human pathogenic amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii (A. castellanii) causes severe diseases, including acanthamoeba keratitis and encephalitis. Pathogenicity arises from the killing of target-cells by an extracellular killing mechanism, where the crucial first step is the formation of a close contact between A. castellanii and the target-cell. This process is mediated by the glycocalix of the target-cell and mannose has been identified as key mediator. The aim of the present study was to carry out a detailed biophysical investigation of mannose-mediated adhesion of A. castellanii using force spectroscopy on single trophozoites. In detail, we studied the interaction of a mannose-coated cantilever with an A. castellanii trophozoite, as mannose is the decisive part of the cellular glycocalix in mediating pathogenicity. We observed a clear increase of the force to initiate cantilever detachment from the trophozoite with increasing contact time. This increase is also associated with an increase in the work of detachment. Furthermore, we also analyzed single rupture events during the detachment process and found that single rupture processes are associated with membrane tether formation, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is not involved in mannose binding events during the first few seconds of contact. Our study provides an experimental and conceptual basis for measuring interactions between pathogens and target-cells at different levels of complexity and as a function of interaction time, thus leading to new insights into the biophysical mechanisms of parasite pathogenicity. PMID:28472161

  6. Modeling capillary forces for large displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrangeli, M.; Arutinov, G.; Smits, E.C.P.; Lambert, P.


    Originally applied to the accurate, passive positioning of submillimetric devices, recent works proved capillary self-alignment as effective also for larger components and relatively large initial offsets. In this paper, we describe an analytic quasi-static model of 1D capillary restoring forces

  7. Basset force in numerical models of saltation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukerchenko, Nikolay; Dolanský, Jindřich; Vlasák, Pavel


    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2012), s. 277-287 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/1718 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : basset force * bed load transport * numerical model * particle-bed collision Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.653, year: 2012

  8. Interacting Stochastic Processes: From Viciousness to Caging to Force Chains (United States)

    Xu, Shiliyang

    the heterogeneous force network present in amorphous solids near the onset of rigidity, or jamming. The onset of rigidity can, in some sense, be viewed an interacting stochastic process with added constraints to enforce force-balance on each particle, for example. Our analysis yields string-like correlations in the locally-large forces in the system. Such correlations are reminiscent of force chains. While force chains have been readily observed in experiments, it is the first time these correlations have been observed in conjugate gradient simulations of repulsive soft spheres. We also study the contact geometry of the force network and explore a link with spin systems, namely spin glasses, to search for signatures of chaos due to marginal stability, for instance. Connections between jamming systems and spin glass systems will hopefully open up new avenues of theoretical investigation for both systems. Finally, we explore the quantum version of an individual stochastic process, namely the fractional Schrodinger equation. We prove that previously claimed exact solutions for certain potentials are incorrect and determine a new exact solution for a Levy index of unity and the harmonic oscillator potential. While our results contribute to the realm of mathematical physics, a physical realization of the fractional Schrodinger equation will indeed launch a new subfield of quantum mechanics.

  9. Significance of force transfer in mitral valve-left ventricular interaction: in vivo assessment. (United States)

    Askov, Jesper B; Honge, Jesper L; Jensen, Morten O; Nygaard, Hans; Hasenkam, J Michael; Nielsen, Sten L


    The objective of this study was to assess the combined force transfer from the papillary muscle tips to the mitral valve through the chordae tendineae in vivo, and thereby quantify the force transmitted through the papillary-chordal complex to augment left ventricular ejection. In an acute porcine model (n = 8), force transfer between papillary muscles and the mitral valve was recorded on the anterior and posterior papillary muscle tip using dedicated force transducers. Ultrasound sonomicrometry was utilized to record and calculate left ventricular long-axis shortening and mitral annular geometry. The closing force acting on the mitral valve leaflets was calculated as mitral annular area multiplied by the transmitral pressure difference throughout systole. Mitral valve competence was verified before measurements with color Doppler ultrasound. Peak force in the anterior and posterior papillary muscle was 5.9 ± 0.6 N and 5.8 ± 0.7 N (mean ± standard error of the mean), respectively, and peak closing force was 6.8 ± 0.3 N all at a transmitral pressure of 90 mm Hg. Peak rate of left ventricular contraction coincided with peak papillary muscle force. This study is the first to assess the magnitude and time course of the longitudinal force transmitted through the papillary-chordal complex to the left ventricular wall during ejection. The study also demonstrates a significant force transfer to the closing force acting on the mitral valve leaflets that constitutes an essential component of valvular-ventricular interaction to enhance left ventricular systolic pump performance. The magnitude of the combined papillary muscle force component emphasizes the crucial role of preserving mitral valve-left ventricular continuity in mitral valve surgery. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Motivating forces of human actions. Neuroimaging reward and social interaction. (United States)

    Walter, Henrik; Abler, Birgit; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Erk, Susanne


    In neuroeconomics, reward and social interaction are central concepts to understand what motivates human behaviour. Both concepts are investigated in humans using neuroimaging methods. In this paper, we provide an overview about these results and discuss their relevance for economic behaviour. For reward it has been shown that a system exists in humans that is involved in predicting rewards and thus guides behaviour, involving a circuit including the striatum, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Recent studies on social interaction revealed a mentalizing system representing the mental states of others. A central part of this system is the medial prefrontal cortex, in particular the anterior paracingulate cortex. The reward as well as the mentalizing system is engaged in economic decision-making. We will discuss implications of this study for neuromarketing as well as general implications of these results that may help to provide deeper insights into the motivating forces of human behaviour.

  11. Using optical tweezers for measuring the interaction forces between human bone cells and implant surfaces: System design and force calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Martin; Madgavkar, Ashwin; Stjerndahl, Maria; Wu, Yanrong; Tan, Weihong; Duran, Randy; Niehren, Stefan; Mustafa, Kamal; Arvidson, Kristina; Wennerberg, Ann


    Optical tweezers were used to study the interaction and attachment of human bone cells to various types of medical implant materials. Ideally, the implant should facilitate cell attachment and promote migration of the progenitor cells in order to decrease the healing time. It is therefore of interest, in a controlled manner, to be able to monitor the cell adhesion process. Results from such studies would help foresee the clinical outcome of integrating medical implants. The interactions between two primary cell culture models, human gingival fibroblasts and bone forming human osteoblast cells, and three different implant materials, glass, titanium, and hydroxyapatite, were studied. A novel type of optical tweezers, which has a newly designed quadrant detector and a powerful 3 W laser was constructed and force calibrated using two different methods: one method in which the stiffness of the optical trap was obtained by monitoring the phase lag between the trap and the moved object when imposing a forced oscillation on the trapped object and another method in which the maximum trapping force was derived from the critical velocity at which the object escapes the trap. Polystyrene beads as well as cells were utilized for the calibrations. This is the first time that cells have been used directly for these types of force calibrations and, hence, direct measurements of forces exerted on cells can be performed, thus avoiding the difficulties often encountered when translating the results obtained from cell measurements to the calibrations obtained with reference materials. This more straightforward approach represents an advantage in comparison to established methods

  12. Parallel force assay for protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aschenbrenner

    Full Text Available Quantitative proteome research is greatly promoted by high-resolution parallel format assays. A characterization of protein complexes based on binding forces offers an unparalleled dynamic range and allows for the effective discrimination of non-specific interactions. Here we present a DNA-based Molecular Force Assay to quantify protein-protein interactions, namely the bond between different variants of GFP and GFP-binding nanobodies. We present different strategies to adjust the maximum sensitivity window of the assay by influencing the binding strength of the DNA reference duplexes. The binding of the nanobody Enhancer to the different GFP constructs is compared at high sensitivity of the assay. Whereas the binding strength to wild type and enhanced GFP are equal within experimental error, stronger binding to superfolder GFP is observed. This difference in binding strength is attributed to alterations in the amino acids that form contacts according to the crystal structure of the initial wild type GFP-Enhancer complex. Moreover, we outline the potential for large-scale parallelization of the assay.

  13. The Monash University Interactive Simple Climate Model (United States)

    Dommenget, D.


    The Monash university interactive simple climate model is a web-based interface that allows students and the general public to explore the physical simulation of the climate system with a real global climate model. It is based on the Globally Resolved Energy Balance (GREB) model, which is a climate model published by Dommenget and Floeter [2011] in the international peer review science journal Climate Dynamics. The model simulates most of the main physical processes in the climate system in a very simplistic way and therefore allows very fast and simple climate model simulations on a normal PC computer. Despite its simplicity the model simulates the climate response to external forcings, such as doubling of the CO2 concentrations very realistically (similar to state of the art climate models). The Monash simple climate model web-interface allows you to study the results of more than a 2000 different model experiments in an interactive way and it allows you to study a number of tutorials on the interactions of physical processes in the climate system and solve some puzzles. By switching OFF/ON physical processes you can deconstruct the climate and learn how all the different processes interact to generate the observed climate and how the processes interact to generate the IPCC predicted climate change for anthropogenic CO2 increase. The presentation will illustrate how this web-base tool works and what are the possibilities in teaching students with this tool are.

  14. Investigation of a mutual interaction force at different pressure amplitudes in sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaee, Nastaran; Sadighi-Bonabi, Rasoul; Mirheydari, Mona; Ebrahimi, Homa


    This paper investigates the secondary Bjerknes force for two oscillating bubbles in various pressure amplitudes in a concentration of 95% sulfuric acid. The equilibrium radii of the bubbles are assumed to be smaller than 10 μm at a frequency of 37 kHz in various strong driving acoustical fields around 2.0 bars (1 bar=10 5 Pa). The secondary Bjerknes force is investigated in uncoupled and coupled states between the bubbles, with regard to the quasi-adiabatic model for the bubble interior. It finds that the value of the secondary Bjerknes force depends on the driven pressure of sulfuric acid and its amount would be increased by liquid pressure amplitude enhancement. The results show that the repulsion area of the interaction force would be increased by increasing the driven pressure because of nonlinear oscillation of bubbles. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  15. Modeling Forces on the Human Body. (United States)

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Drake, Russel; Morgan, Michael; Peters, Todd; Riddle, Chris; Rollins, Karen


    Presents five models of the human body as a mechanical system which can be used in introductory physics courses: human arms as levers, humans falling from small heights, a model of the human back, collisions during football, and the rotating gymnast. Gives ideas for discussions and activities, including Interactive Physics (TM) simulations. (WRM)

  16. Interface bonding in silicon oxide nanocontacts: interaction potentials and force measurements (United States)

    Wierez-Kien, M.; Craciun, A. D.; Pinon, A. V.; Le Roux, S.; Gallani, J. L.; Rastei, M. V.


    The interface bonding between two silicon-oxide nanoscale surfaces has been studied as a function of atomic nature and size of contacting asperities. The binding forces obtained using various interaction potentials are compared with experimental force curves measured in vacuum with an atomic force microscope. In the limit of small nanocontacts (typically measured with sensitive probes the bonding is found to be influenced by thermal-induced fluctuations. Using interface interactions described by Morse, embedded atom model, or Lennard-Jones potential within reaction rate theory, we investigate three bonding types of covalent and van der Waals nature. The comparison of numerical and experimental results reveals that a Lennard-Jones-like potential originating from van der Waals interactions captures the binding characteristics of dry silicon oxide nanocontacts, and likely of other nanoscale materials adsorbed on silicon oxide surfaces. The analyses reveal the importance of the dispersive surface energy and of the effective contact area which is altered by stretching speeds. The mean unbinding force is found to decrease as the contact spends time in the attractive regime. This contact weakening is featured by a negative aging coefficient which broadens and shifts the thermal-induced force distribution at low stretching speeds.

  17. Nonlinear Dynamics of Cantilever-Sample Interactions in Atomic Force Microscopy (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.; Cantrell, Sean A.


    The interaction of the cantilever tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with the sample surface is obtained by treating the cantilever and sample as independent systems coupled by a nonlinear force acting between the cantilever tip and a volume element of the sample surface. The volume element is subjected to a restoring force from the remainder of the sample that provides dynamical equilibrium for the combined systems. The model accounts for the positions on the cantilever of the cantilever tip, laser probe, and excitation force (if any) via a basis set of set of orthogonal functions that may be generalized to account for arbitrary cantilever shapes. The basis set is extended to include nonlinear cantilever modes. The model leads to a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations that are solved analytically using a matrix iteration procedure. The effects of oscillatory excitation forces applied either to the cantilever or to the sample surface (or to both) are obtained from the solution set and applied to the to the assessment of phase and amplitude signals generated by various acoustic-atomic force microscope (A-AFM) modalities. The influence of bistable cantilever modes of on AFM signal generation is discussed. The effects on the cantilever-sample surface dynamics of subsurface features embedded in the sample that are perturbed by surface-generated oscillatory excitation forces and carried to the cantilever via wave propagation are accounted by the Bolef-Miller propagating wave model. Expressions pertaining to signal generation and image contrast in A-AFM are obtained and applied to amplitude modulation (intermittent contact) atomic force microscopy and resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM). The influence of phase accumulation in A-AFM on image contrast is discussed, as is the effect of hard contact and maximum nonlinearity regimes of A-AFM operation.

  18. Transverse force on a vortex in lattice models of superfluids


    Sonin, E. B.


    The paper derives the transverse forces (the Magnus and the Lorentz forces) in the lattice models of superfluids in the continuous approximation. The continuous approximation restores translational invariance absent in the original lattice model, but the theory is not Galilean invariant. As a result, calculation of the two transverse forces on the vortex, Magnus force and Lorentz force, requires the analysis of two balances, for the true momentum of particles in the lattice (Magnus force) and...

  19. Posterior Parietal Cortex Encoding of Dynamic Hand Force Underlying Hand-Object Interaction. (United States)

    Ferrari-Toniolo, Simone; Visco-Comandini, Federica; Papazachariadis, Odysseas; Caminiti, Roberto; Battaglia-Mayer, Alexandra


    Major achievements of primate evolution are skilled hand-object interaction and tool use, both in part dependent on parietal cortex expansion. We recorded spiking activity from macaque inferior parietal cortex during directional manipulation of an isometric tool, which required the application of hand forces to control a cursor's motion on a screen. In areas PFG/PF, the activity of ∼ 70% neurons was modulated by the hand force necessary to implement the desired target motion, reflecting an inverse model, rather than by the intended motion of the visual cursor (forward model). The population vector matched the direction and amplitude of the instantaneous force increments over time. When exposed to a new force condition, that obliged the monkey to change the force output to successfully bring the cursor to the final target, the activity of a consistent subpopulation of neurons changed in an orderly fashion and, at the end of a "Wash-out" session, retained memory of the new learned association, at the service of predictive control of force. Our findings suggest that areas PFG/PF represent a crucial node of the distributed control of hand force, by encoding instantaneous force variations and serving as a memory reservoir of hand dynamics required for object manipulation and tool use. This is coherent with previous studies in humans showing the following: (1) impaired adaptation to a new force field under TMS parietal perturbation; (2) defective control of direction of hand force after parietal lesion; and (3) fMRI activation of parietal cortex during object manipulation requiring control of fine hand forces. Skilled object manipulation and tool use are major achievements of primate evolution, both largely dependent on posterior parietal cortex (PPC) expansion. Neurophysiological and fMRI studies in macaque and humans had documented a crucial role of PPC in encoding the hand kinematics underlying these functions, leaving to premotor and motor areas the role of

  20. Unlocking higher harmonics in atomic force microscopy with gentle interactions. (United States)

    Santos, Sergio; Barcons, Victor; Font, Josep; Verdaguer, Albert


    In dynamic atomic force microscopy, nanoscale properties are encoded in the higher harmonics. Nevertheless, when gentle interactions and minimal invasiveness are required, these harmonics are typically undetectable. Here, we propose to externally drive an arbitrary number of exact higher harmonics above the noise level. In this way, multiple contrast channels that are sensitive to compositional variations are made accessible. Numerical integration of the equation of motion shows that the external introduction of exact harmonic frequencies does not compromise the fundamental frequency. Thermal fluctuations are also considered within the detection bandwidth of interest and discussed in terms of higher-harmonic phase contrast in the presence and absence of an external excitation of higher harmonics. Higher harmonic phase shifts further provide the means to directly decouple the true topography from that induced by compositional heterogeneity.

  1. Theoretical Models for Surface Forces and Adhesion and Their Measurement Using Atomic Force Microscopy (United States)

    Leite, Fabio L.; Bueno, Carolina C.; Da Róz, Alessandra L.; Ziemath, Ervino C.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.


    The increasing importance of studies on soft matter and their impact on new technologies, including those associated with nanotechnology, has brought intermolecular and surface forces to the forefront of physics and materials science, for these are the prevailing forces in micro and nanosystems. With experimental methods such as the atomic force spectroscopy (AFS), it is now possible to measure these forces accurately, in addition to providing information on local material properties such as elasticity, hardness and adhesion. This review provides the theoretical and experimental background of AFS, adhesion forces, intermolecular interactions and surface forces in air, vacuum and in solution. PMID:23202925

  2. Theoretical models for surface forces and adhesion and their measurement using atomic force microscopy. (United States)

    Leite, Fabio L; Bueno, Carolina C; Da Róz, Alessandra L; Ziemath, Ervino C; Oliveira, Osvaldo N


    The increasing importance of studies on soft matter and their impact on new technologies, including those associated with nanotechnology, has brought intermolecular and surface forces to the forefront of physics and materials science, for these are the prevailing forces in micro and nanosystems. With experimental methods such as the atomic force spectroscopy (AFS), it is now possible to measure these forces accurately, in addition to providing information on local material properties such as elasticity, hardness and adhesion. This review provides the theoretical and experimental background of afs, adhesion forces, intermolecular interactions and surface forces in air, vacuum and in solution.

  3. Interactive Dimensioning of Parametric Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, T.


    We propose a solution for the dimensioning of parametric and procedural models. Dimensioning has long been a staple of technical drawings, and we present the first solution for interactive dimensioning: A dimension line positioning system that adapts to the view direction, given behavioral properties. After proposing a set of design principles for interactive dimensioning, we describe our solution consisting of the following major components. First, we describe how an author can specify the desired interactive behavior of a dimension line. Second, we propose a novel algorithm to place dimension lines at interactive speeds. Third, we introduce multiple extensions, including chained dimension lines, controls for different parameter types (e.g. discrete choices, angles), and the use of dimension lines for interactive editing. Our results show the use of dimension lines in an interactive parametric modeling environment for architectural, botanical, and mechanical models.

  4. Modelling land surface - atmosphere interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Højmark

    The study is investigates modelling of land surface – atmosphere interactions in context of fully coupled climatehydrological model. With a special focus of under what condition a fully coupled model system is needed. Regional climate model inter-comparison projects as ENSEMBLES have shown bias...

  5. Vortex network community based reduced-order force model (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan Meena, Muralikrishnan; Nair, Aditya; Taira, Kunihiko


    We characterize the vortical wake interactions by utilizing network theory and cluster-based approaches, and develop a data-inspired unsteady force model. In the present work, the vortical interaction network is defined by nodes representing vortical elements and the edges quantified by induced velocity measures amongst the vortices. The full vorticity field is reduced to a finite number of vortical clusters based on network community detection algorithm, which serves as a basis for a skeleton network that captures the essence of the wake dynamics. We use this reduced representation of the wake to develop a data-inspired reduced-order force model that can predict unsteady fluid forces on the body. The overall formulation is demonstrated for laminar flows around canonical bluff body wake and stalled flow over an airfoil. We also show the robustness of the present network-based model against noisy data, which motivates applications towards turbulent flows and experimental measurements. Supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant 1632003).

  6. Force Modelling in Orthogonal Cutting Considering Flank Wear Effect (United States)

    Rathod, Kanti Bhikhubhai; Lalwani, Devdas I.


    In the present work, an attempt has been made to provide a predictive cutting force model during orthogonal cutting by combining two different force models, that is, a force model for a perfectly sharp tool plus considering the effect of edge radius and a force model for a worn tool. The first force model is for a perfectly sharp tool that is based on Oxley's predictive machining theory for orthogonal cutting as the Oxley's model is for perfectly sharp tool, the effect of cutting edge radius (hone radius) is added and improve model is presented. The second force model is based on worn tool (flank wear) that was proposed by Waldorf. Further, the developed combined force model is also used to predict flank wear width using inverse approach. The performance of the developed combined total force model is compared with the previously published results for AISI 1045 and AISI 4142 materials and found reasonably good agreement.

  7. Strong interactions - quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, M.; Ferreira, P.L.


    The variational method is used for the PSI and upsilon family spectra reproduction from the quark model, through several phenomenological potentials, viz.: linear, linear plus coulomb term and logarithmic. (L.C.) [pt

  8. Resonance and continuum Gamow shell model with realistic nuclear forces (United States)

    Sun, Z. H.; Wu, Q.; Zhao, Z. H.; Hu, B. S.; Dai, S. J.; Xu, F. R.


    Starting from realistic nuclear forces, we have developed a core Gamow shell model which can describe resonance and continuum properties of loosely-bound or unbound nuclear systems. To describe properly resonance and continuum, the Berggren representation has been employed, which treats bound, resonant and continuum states on equal footing in a complex-momentum (complex-k) plane. To derive the model-space effective interaction based on realistic forces, the full Q ˆ -box folded-diagram renormalization has been, for the first time, extended to the nondegenerate complex-k space. The CD-Bonn potential is softened by using the Vlow-k method. Choosing 16O as the inert core, we have calculated sd-shell neutron-rich oxygen isotopes, giving good descriptions of both bound and resonant states. The isotopes 25,26O are calculated to be resonant even in their ground states.

  9. Webb Model of Nuclear Structure and Forces (United States)

    Webb, Bill


    String theory has established that neutrons and protons consist of threesomes of string-like quarks. These threesomes nucleosynthesize to build larger nuclei. This Webb Model differs by postulating that the larger nuclei are also threesomes: threesomes of string-like ring shaped Jumbo Quarks. A threesome of Jumbo Quarks make up every larger nucleus. From this starting point, the Webb Model uses only the forces of gravity and electromagnetics to accurately calculate a large variety of nuclear properties including - fundamental structural shapes and charge arrangements - the size, shape, internal forces and relativistic mass energies of the neutron, proton, deuteron, triton, alpha particle and oxygen - the details of all types of beta decay - the correct slope of the lower end of the nuclear chart - the calculated stability of the 45 smallest stable nuclei and their 59 naturally occurring unstable isotopes - and mathematical confirmation of the magic number 2,8 and 20. This Webb model satisfies the empirical tests of the Scientific Method. The mathematics is simple enough to be confirmed by any scientist without bias.

  10. Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models (United States)

    Köster, Gerta; Treml, Franz; Gödel, Marion


    The social force model of Helbing and Molnár is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution.

  11. Modeling Interactive Intelligences (United States)


    New York: Basic Books, 1999. P. 207-10. [5] Piaget , Jean . Play, Dreams, and Imitation in Childhood. New York: Norton, 1962. [6] Dillard, Annie. Living...concepts of reentry and binding. Next, I rely on Jean Piaget’s model of adaptation in order to examine the function of imitation and play in an...rather than metrics should be used. 2. ADAPTATION, SELECTION, IMITATION, AND PLAY Piaget presented adaptive behavior as a combination of accommodation and

  12. An interacting multielectron Anderson model

    CERN Document Server

    Zenk, H


    This article is a first tiny step towards a rigorous description of an interacting multielectron system in a random potential of Anderson type. Deterministic spectrum and a Wegner estimate for this model are proven.

  13. Modelling critical Casimir force induced self-assembly experiments on patchy colloidal dumbbells. (United States)

    Newton, Arthur C; Nguyen, T Anh; Veen, Sandra J; Kraft, Daniela J; Schall, Peter; Bolhuis, Peter G


    Colloidal particles suspended in a binary liquid mixture can interact via solvent mediated interactions, known as critical Casimir forces. For anisotropic colloids this interaction becomes directional, which leads to rich phase behavior. While experimental imaging and particle tracking techniques allow determination of isotropic effective potentials via Boltzmann inversion, the modeling of effective interaction in anisotropic systems is non-trivial precisely because of this directionality. Here we extract effective interaction potentials for non-spherical dumbbell particles from observed radial and angular distributions, by employing reference interaction site model (RISM) theory and direct Monte Carlo simulations. For colloidal dumbbell particles dispersed in a binary liquid mixture and interacting via induced critical Casimir forces, we determine the effective site-site potentials for a range of experimental temperatures. Using these potentials to simulate the system for strong Casimir forces, we reproduce the experimentally observed collapse, and provide a qualitative explanation for this behavior.

  14. A modeling perspective on cloud radiative forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, G.L.; Corsetti, L.; Slingo, J.M.


    Radiation fields from a perpetual July integration of a T106 version of the ECM-WF operational model are used to identify the most appropriate way to diagnose cloud radiative forcing in a general circulation model, for the purposes of intercomparison between models. Differences between the Methods I and II of Cess and Potter (1987) and a variant method are addressed. Method I is shown to be the least robust of all methods, due to the potential uncertainties related to persistent cloudiness, length of the sampling period and biases in retrieved clear-sky quantities due to insufficient sampling of the diurnal cycle. Method II is proposed as an unambiguous way to produce consistent radiative diagnostics for intercomparing model results. The impact of the three methods on the derived sensitivities and cloud feedbacks following an imposed change in sea surface temperature is discussed. The sensitivity of the results to horizontal resolution is considered by using the diagnostics from parallel integrations with T21 version of the model

  15. Do Responses to Different Anthropogenic Forcings Add Linearly in Climate Models? (United States)

    Marvel, Kate; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew; Bonfils, Celine; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tsigaridis, Kostas


    Many detection and attribution and pattern scaling studies assume that the global climate response to multiple forcings is additive: that the response over the historical period is statistically indistinguishable from the sum of the responses to individual forcings. Here, we use the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model (CCSM) simulations from the CMIP5 archive to test this assumption for multi-year trends in global-average, annual-average temperature and precipitation at multiple timescales. We find that responses in models forced by pre-computed aerosol and ozone concentrations are generally additive across forcings; however, we demonstrate that there are significant nonlinearities in precipitation responses to di?erent forcings in a configuration of the GISS model that interactively computes these concentrations from precursor emissions. We attribute these to di?erences in ozone forcing arising from interactions between forcing agents. Our results suggest that attribution to specific forcings may be complicated in a model with fully interactive chemistry and may provide motivation for other modeling groups to conduct further single-forcing experiments.

  16. Modelling land surface - atmosphere interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Højmark

    related to inaccurate land surface modelling, e.g. enhanced warm bias in warm dry summer months. Coupling the regional climate model to a hydrological model shows the potential of improving the surface flux simulations in dry periods and the 2 m air temperature in general. In the dry periods......The study is investigates modelling of land surface – atmosphere interactions in context of fully coupled climatehydrological model. With a special focus of under what condition a fully coupled model system is needed. Regional climate model inter-comparison projects as ENSEMBLES have shown bias...

  17. Numerical models as interactive art (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; van de Pas, B.; Joling, A.


    We capture our understanding of the environment in advanced computer models. We use these numerical models to simulate the growth of deltas, meandering rivers, dune erosion, river floodings, effects of interventions. If presented with care, models can help understand the complexity of our environment and show the beautiful patterns of nature. While the topics are relevant and appealing to the general public the use of numerical models has been limited to technical users. Not many people have appreciations for the pluriform of options, esoteric user interfaces, manual editing of configuration files and extensive jargon. The models are static, you can start them, but then you have to wait, usually hours or more, for the results to become available, not something that you could imagine resulting in an immersive, interactive experience for the general public. How can we go beyond just using results? How can we adapt existing numerical models so they can be used in an interactive environment? How can we touch them and feel them? Here we show how we adapted existing models (Delft3D, Lisflood, XBeach) and reused them in as the basis for interactive exhibitions in museums with an educative goal. We present our structured approach which consists of combining a story, inspiration, a canvas, colors, shapes and interactive elements. We show how the progression from simple presentation forms to interactive art installations.

  18. Atomic force microscopy of model lipid membranes. (United States)

    Morandat, Sandrine; Azouzi, Slim; Beauvais, Estelle; Mastouri, Amira; El Kirat, Karim


    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are biomimetic model systems that are now widely used to address the biophysical and biochemical properties of biological membranes. Two main methods are usually employed to form SLBs: the transfer of two successive monolayers by Langmuir-Blodgett or Langmuir-Schaefer techniques, and the fusion of preformed lipid vesicles. The transfer of lipid films on flat solid substrates offers the possibility to apply a wide range of surface analytical techniques that are very sensitive. Among them, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has opened new opportunities for determining the nanoscale organization of SLBs under physiological conditions. In this review, we first focus on the different protocols generally employed to prepare SLBs. Then, we describe AFM studies on the nanoscale lateral organization and mechanical properties of SLBs. Lastly, we survey recent developments in the AFM monitoring of bilayer alteration, remodeling, or digestion, by incubation with exogenous agents such as drugs, proteins, peptides, and nanoparticles.

  19. Experimental force modeling for deformation machining stretching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    magnitude of forces rises significantly. The average resul- tant force rises to 768 N for 1.0 mm incremental step size from 327 N for 0.25 mm step size, keeping other parameters constant. It can be seen that the average resultant force is directly proportional to the incremental step size and fits well with the linear trend (Eq. 5) ...

  20. Analysis of experimental data: The average shape of extreme wave forces on monopile foundations and the NewForce model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schløer, Signe; Bredmose, Henrik; Ghadirian, Amin


    ’ on top of the smoother underlying force curve. The force shapes are numerically reproduced using a design force model, NewForce, which is introduced here for the first time to both first and second order in wave steepness. For force shapes which are not asymmetric, the NewForce model compares well...

  1. Simplified TiO2 force fields for studies of its interaction with biomolecules (United States)

    Luan, Binquan; Huynh, Tien; Zhou, Ruhong


    Engineered TiO2 nanoparticles have been routinely applied in nanotechnology, as well as in cosmetics and food industries. Despite active experimental studies intended to clarify TiO2's biological effects, including potential toxicity, the relation between experimentally inferred nanotoxicity and industry standards for safely applying nanoparticles remains somewhat ambiguous with justified concerns. Supplemental to experiments, molecular dynamics simulations have proven to be efficacious in investigating the molecular mechanism of a biological process occurring at nanoscale. In this article, to facilitate the nanotoxicity and nanomedicine research related to this important metal oxide, we provide a simplified force field, based on the original Matsui-Akaogi force field but compatible to the Lennard-Jones potentials normally used in modeling biomolecules, for simulating TiO2 nanoparticles interacting with biomolecules. The force field parameters were tested in simulating the bulk structure of TiO2, TiO2 nanoparticle-water interaction, as well as the adsorption of proteins on the TiO2 nanoparticle. We demonstrate that these simulation results are consistent with experimental data/observations. We expect that simulations will help to better understand the interaction between TiO2 and molecules.

  2. The joy of interactive modeling (United States)

    Donchyts, Gennadii; Baart, Fedor; van Dam, Arthur; Jagers, Bert


    The conventional way of working with hydrodynamical models usually consists of the following steps: 1) define a schematization (e.g., in a graphical user interface, or by editing input files) 2) run model from start to end 3) visualize results 4) repeat any of the previous steps. This cycle commonly takes up from hours to several days. What if we can make this happen instantly? As most of the research done using numerical models is in fact qualitative and exploratory (Oreskes et al., 1994), why not use these models as such? How can we adapt models so that we can edit model input, run and visualize results at the same time? More and more, interactive models become available as online apps, mainly for demonstration and educational purposes. These models often simplify the physics behind flows and run on simplified model geometries, particularly when compared with state-of-the-art scientific simulation packages. Here we show how the aforementioned conventional standalone models ("static, run once") can be transformed into interactive models. The basic concepts behind turning existing (conventional) model engines into interactive engines are the following. The engine does not run the model from start to end, but is always available in memory, and can be fed by new boundary conditions, or state changes at any time. The model can be run continuously, per step, or up to a specified time. The Hollywood principle dictates how the model engine is instructed from 'outside', instead of the model engine taking all necessary actions on its own initiative. The underlying techniques that facilitate these concepts are introspection of the computation engine, which exposes its state variables, and control functions, e.g. for time stepping, via a standardized interface, such as BMI (Peckam et. al., 2012). In this work we have used a shallow water flow model engine D-Flow Flexible Mesh. The model was converted from executable to a library, and coupled to the graphical modelling

  3. A Unified Theory of Interaction: Gravitation, Electrodynamics and the Strong Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagener P.


    Full Text Available A unified model of gravitation and electromagnetism is extended to derive the Yukawa potential for the strong force. The model satisfies the fundamental characteristics of the strong force and calculates the mass of the pion.

  4. Bimanual Lifting: Do Fingertip Forces Work Independently or Interactively? (United States)

    Dimitriou, Pan; Buckingham, Gavin


    Bimanual coordination is a commonplace activity, but the consequences of using both hands simultaneously are not well understood. The authors examined fingertip forces across 4 experiments in which participants undertook a range of bimanual tasks. They first measured fingertip forces during simultaneous lifts of 2 identical objects, noting that individuals held the objects with more force bimanually than unimanually. They then varied the mass of the objects held by each hand, noting that when both hands lifted together performance was equivalent to unimanual lifts. The authors next measured one hand's static grip force while the other hand lifted an object. They found a gradual reduction of grip force throughout the trial, but once again no evidence of one hand influencing the other. In the final experiment the authors tested whether tapping with one hand could influence the static grip force of its counterpart. Although the authors found no changes in static grip force as a direct consequence of the other hand's actions, they found clear differences from one task to the other, suggesting an effect of task instruction. Overall, these results suggest that fingertip forces are largely independent between hands in a bimanual lifting context, but are sensitive to different task requirements.

  5. Interactions between topographically and thermally forced stationary waves: implications for ice-sheet evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Liakka


    Full Text Available This study examines mutual interactions between stationary waves and ice sheets using a dry atmospheric primitive-equation model coupled to a three-dimensional thermomechanical ice-sheet model. The emphasis is on how non-linear interactions between thermal and topographical forcing of the stationary waves influence the ice-sheet evolution by changing the ablation. Simulations are conducted in which a small ice cap, on an idealised Northern Hemisphere continent, evolves to an equilibrium continental-scale ice sheet. In the absence of stationary waves, the equilibrium ice sheet arrives at symmetric shape with a zonal equatorward margin. In isolation, the topographically induced stationary waves have essentially no impact on the equilibrium features of the ice sheet. The reason is that the temperature anomalies are located far from the equatorward ice margin. When forcing due to thermal cooling is added to the topographical forcing, thermally induced perturbation winds amplify the topographically induced stationary-wave response, which that serves to increase both the equatorward extent and the volume of the ice sheet. Roughly, a 10% increase in the ice volume is reported here. Hence, the present study suggests that the topographically induced stationary-wave response can be substantially enhanced by the high albedo of ice sheets.

  6. Porter S Five Forces Model Scott Morton S Five Forces Model Bakos Treacy Model Analyzes Strategic Information Systems Management


    Gamayanto, Indra


    Wollongong City Council (WCC) is one of the most progressive and innovative local government organizations in Australia. Wollongong City Council use Information Technology to gain the competitive advantage and to face a global economy in the future. Porter's Five Force model is one of the models that can be using at Wollongong City Council because porter's five Forces model has strength in relationship between buyer and suppliers (Bargaining power of suppliers and bargaining power of buyers)....

  7. Interactive differential equations modeling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, B.W.; Mankin, J.B.


    Due to the recent emphasis on mathematical modeling, many ecologists are using mathematics and computers more than ever, and engineers, mathematicians and physical scientists are now included in ecological projects. However, the individual ecologist, with intuitive knowledge of the system, still requires the means to critically examine and adjust system models. An interactive program was developed with the primary goal of allowing an ecologist with minimal experience in either mathematics or computers to develop a system model. It has also been used successfully by systems ecologists, engineers, and mathematicians. This program was written in FORTRAN for the DEC PDP-10, a remote terminal system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, with relatively minor modifications, it can be implemented on any remote terminal system with a FORTRAN IV compiler, or equivalent. This program may be used to simulate any phenomenon which can be described as a system of ordinary differential equations. The program allows the user to interactively change system parameters and/or initial conditions, to interactively select a set of variables to be plotted, and to model discontinuities in the state variables and/or their derivatives. One of the most useful features to the non-computer specialist is the ability to interactively address the system parameters by name and to interactively adjust their values between simulations. These and other features are described in greater detail

  8. Hydrodynamic interactions between two forced objects of arbitrary shape. I. Effect on alignment (United States)

    Goldfriend, Tomer; Diamant, Haim; Witten, Thomas A.


    We study the properties and symmetries governing the hydrodynamic interaction between two identical, arbitrarily shaped objects, driven through a viscous fluid. We treat analytically the leading (dipolar) terms of the pair-mobility matrix, affecting the instantaneous relative linear and angular velocities of the two objects at large separation. We prove that the instantaneous hydrodynamic interaction linearly degrades the alignment of asymmetric objects by an external time-dependent drive [B. Moths and T. A. Witten, "Full alignment of colloidal objects by programed forcing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 028301 (2013)]. The time-dependent effects of hydrodynamic interactions are explicitly demonstrated through numerically calculated trajectories of model alignable objects composed of four stokeslets. In addition to the orientational effect, we find that the two objects usually repel each other. In this case, the mutual degradation weakens as the two objects move away from each other, and full alignment is restored at long times.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Gamayanto


    Full Text Available Wollongong City Council (WCC is one of the most progressive and innovative local government organizations in Australia. Wollongong City Council use Information Technology to gain the competitive advantage and to face a global economy in the future. Porter's Five Force model is one of the models that can be using at Wollongong City Council because porter's five Forces model has strength in relationship between buyer and suppliers (Bargaining power of suppliers and bargaining power of buyers. Other model such as Scott Morton's Five Forces model has strength to analyze the social impact factor, so to gain competitive advantage in the future and have a good IT/IS strategic planning; this model can be use also. Bakos & Treacy model almost the same as Porter's model but Bakos & Treacy model can also be applying into Wollongong City Council to improve the capability in Transforming organization, efficiency, and effectiveness.

  10. Introduction to interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, D.


    A very simple presentation of the interacting boson model is first given. The two computerized models which are presented allow, with few parameters, to reproduce an impressive quantity of data characterizing the deformed nuclei. Their excitation spectra, the reduced transition probabilities, the quadrupolar moments, the two nucleon transfer experiment results, ... Then a specific application of the model is given: radial extension reproduction of nuclear functions. It is shown first how the electron inelastic scattering allows to measure observables related to these radial functions, the transition charge densities, then, on some examples, how the model allows to reproduce them [fr

  11. The interaction of two collinear cracks in a rectangular superconductor slab under an electromagnetic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhiwen; Zhou Youhe; Lee, Kang Yong


    The interaction of two collinear cracks is obtained for a type-II superconducting under electromagnetic force. Fracture analysis is performed by means of finite element method and the magnetic behavior of superconductor is described by the critical-state Bean model. The stress intensity factors at the crack tips can be obtained and discussed for decreasing field after zero-field cooling. It is revealed that the stress intensity factor decreases as applied field increases. The crack-tip stress intensity factors decrease when the distance between the two collinear cracks increases and the superconductors with smaller crack has more remarkable shielding effect than those with larger cracks.

  12. Force modeling for incision surgery into tissue with haptic application (United States)

    Kim, Pyunghwa; Kim, Soomin; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok


    This paper presents a novel force modeling for an incision surgery into tissue and its haptic application for a surgeon. During the robot-assisted incision surgery, it is highly urgent to develop the haptic system for realizing sense of touch in the surgical area because surgeons cannot sense sensations. To achieve this goal, the force modeling related to reaction force of biological tissue is proposed in the perspective on energy. The force model describes reaction force focused on the elastic feature of tissue during the incision surgery. Furthermore, the force is realized using calculated information from the model by haptic device using magnetorheological fluid (MRF). The performance of realized force that is controlled by PID controller with open loop control is evaluated.

  13. Soil Parameter Identification and Driving Force Prediction for Wheel-Terrain Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suksun Hutangkabodee


    Full Text Available This paper considers wheeled vehicles traversing unknown terrain, and proposes an approach for identifying the unknown soil parameters required for vehicle driving force prediction (drawbar pull prediction. The predicted drawbar pull can potentially be employed for traversability prediction, traction control, and trajectory following which, in turn, improve overall performance of off-road wheeled vehicles. The proposed algorithm uses an approximated form of the wheel-terrain interaction model and the Generalized Newton Raphson method to identify terrain parameters in real-time. With few measurements of wheel slip, i, vehicle sinkage, z, and drawbar pull, DP, samples, the algorithm is capable of identifying all the soil parameters required to predict vehicle driving forces over an entire range of wheel slip. The algorithm is validated with experimental data from a wheel-terrain interaction test rig. The identified soil parameters are used to predict the drawbar pull with good accuracy. The technique presented in this paper can be applied to any vehicle with rigid wheels or deformable wheels with relatively high inflation pressure, to predict driving forces in unknown environments.

  14. Transverse forces on a vortex in lattice models of superfluids (United States)

    Sonin, E. B.


    The paper derives the transverse forces (the Magnus and the Lorentz forces) in the lattice models of superfluids in the continuous approximation. The continuous approximation restores translational invariance absent in the original lattice model, but the theory is not Galilean invariant. As a result, calculation of the two transverse forces on the vortex, Magnus force and Lorentz force, requires the analysis of two balances, for the true momentum of particles in the lattice (Magnus force) and for the quasimomentum (Lorentz force) known from the Bloch theory of particles in the periodic potential. While the developed theory yields the same Lorentz force, which was well known before, a new general expression for the Magnus force was obtained. The theory demonstrates how a small Magnus force emerges in the Josephson-junction array if the particle-hole symmetry is broken. The continuous approximation for the Bose-Hubbard model close to the superfluid-insulator transition was developed, which was used for calculation of the Magnus force. The theory shows that there is an area in the phase diagram for the Bose-Hubbard model, where the Magnus force has an inverse sign with respect to that which is expected from the sign of velocity circulation.

  15. Casimir force in noncommutative Randall-Sundrum models revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, L. P.


    We propose another method to compute the Casimir force in noncommutative Randall-Sundrum braneworld model considered by K. Nouicer and Y. Sabri, Phys. Rev. D 80, 086013 (2009). recently. Our method can be used to compute the Casimir force to any order in the noncommutative parameter. Contrary to the claim made by K. Nouicer and Y. Sabri that repulsive Casimir force can appear in the first order approximation, we show that the Casimir force is always attractive at any order of approximation.

  16. Inductively Modeling Parallel, Normal, and Frictional Forces (United States)

    Wyrembeck, Edward P.


    This year, instead of resolving the weight mg of an object resting on an incline into force components parallel and perpendicular to the surface of the incline, I asked my students to actually measure these forces at various angles of inclination and graph the data. I wanted my students to inductively discover mg sin θ and mg cos θ, and to use these graphs to confront the passive nature of the static frictional force. I believe the graphs themselves are very powerful conceptual tools that are often never discovered and used by students who only learn to use equations at specific angles to solve specific quantitative problems.

  17. The forces on a single interacting Bose-Einstein condensate (United States)

    Thu, Nguyen Van


    Using double parabola approximation for a single Bose-Einstein condensate confined between double slabs we proved that in grand canonical ensemble (GCE) the ground state with Robin boundary condition (BC) is favored, whereas in canonical ensemble (CE) our system undergoes from ground state with Robin BC to the one with Dirichlet BC in small-L region and vice versa for large-L region and phase transition in space of the ground state is the first order. The surface tension force and Casimir force are also considered in both CE and GCE in detail.

  18. Force model for laparoscopic graspers: implications for virtual simulator design. (United States)

    Susmitha Wils, K; Devasahayam, Suresh R; Manivannan, M; Mathew, George


    Laparoscopic graspers limit haptic perception, which in turn leads to tissue damage. Using virtual simulators to train surgeons in handling these instruments would ensure safer grasp. The design of a laparoscopic virtual simulator with force feedback depends on effective implementation of the grasper force model. To develop a laparoscopic grasper tip force model theoretically from grasper mechanics and validate the same experimentally during laparoscopic pinching. We developed a force model for double and single jaw action graspers using grasper mechanics. For experimental validation, the handle angle and the forces at the tip and the handle of the instrumented graspers during laparoscopic pinching of porcine abdominal tissues were measured. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) between experimental and calculated tip force was calculated. Excellent ICC (ICC ≥0.8, pvirtual simulator with force feedback and also for better ergonomic design of laparoscopic graspers.

  19. Reverse engineering of an affinity-switchable molecular interaction characterized by atomic force microscopy single-molecule force spectroscopy. (United States)

    Anselmetti, Dario; Bartels, Frank Wilco; Becker, Anke; Decker, Björn; Eckel, Rainer; McIntosh, Matthew; Mattay, Jochen; Plattner, Patrik; Ros, Robert; Schäfer, Christian; Sewald, Norbert


    Tunable and switchable interaction between molecules is a key for regulation and control of cellular processes. The translation of the underlying physicochemical principles to synthetic and switchable functional entities and molecules that can mimic the corresponding molecular functions is called reverse molecular engineering. We quantitatively investigated autoinducer-regulated DNA-protein interaction in bacterial gene regulation processes with single atomic force microscopy (AFM) molecule force spectroscopy in vitro, and developed an artificial bistable molecular host-guest system that can be controlled and regulated by external signals (UV light exposure and thermal energy). The intermolecular binding functionality (affinity) and its reproducible and reversible switching has been proven by AFM force spectroscopy at the single-molecule level. This affinity-tunable optomechanical switch will allow novel applications with respect to molecular manipulation, nanoscale rewritable molecular memories, and/or artificial ion channels, which will serve for the controlled transport and release of ions and neutral compounds in the future.

  20. Modeling of Dynamic Fluid Forces in Fast Switching Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen


    history term. For general valve geometries there are no simple solution to either of these terms. During development and design of such switching valves, it is therefore, common practice to use simple models to describe the opposing fluid forces, neglecting all but the viscous term which is determined...... force, but these models are computationally expensive and are not suitable for evaluating large numbers of different operation conditions or even design optimization. In the present paper, an effort is done to describe these fluid forces and their origin. An example of the total opposing fluid force...... the opposing fluid force well and gives accurate predictions under certain conditions. The proposed model is suitable for valve designers who need a computationally inexpensive fluid force model suitable for optimization routines or efficient dynamic models....

  1. Stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library (United States)

    Zacate, Matthew O.; Evenson, William E.


    The stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library (SHIML) provides a set of routines to assist in the development and application of stochastic models of hyperfine interactions. The library provides routines written in the C programming language that (1) read a text description of a model for fluctuating hyperfine fields, (2) set up the Blume matrix, upon which the evolution operator of the system depends, and (3) find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Blume matrix so that theoretical spectra of experimental techniques that measure hyperfine interactions can be calculated. The optimized vector and matrix operations of the BLAS and LAPACK libraries are utilized; however, there was a need to develop supplementary code to find an orthonormal set of (left and right) eigenvectors of complex, non-Hermitian matrices. In addition, example code is provided to illustrate the use of SHIML to generate perturbed angular correlation spectra for the special case of polycrystalline samples when anisotropy terms of higher order than A can be neglected. Program summaryProgram title: SHIML Catalogue identifier: AEIF_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8224 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 312 348 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: Any Operating system: LINUX, OS X RAM: Varies Classification: 7.4 External routines: TAPP [1], BLAS [2], a C-interface to BLAS [3], and LAPACK [4] Nature of problem: In condensed matter systems, hyperfine methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Mössbauer effect (ME), muon spin rotation (μSR), and perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy (PAC) measure electronic and magnetic structure within Angstroms of nuclear probes through the hyperfine interaction. When

  2. Magnetostatic interactions and forces between cylindrical permanent magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, M.; Heller, Luděk; Šittner, Petr


    Roč. 321, č. 22 (2009), s. 3758-3763 ISSN 0304-8853 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 46559 - CERINKA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : cylinder * force measurement * magnet ostatic * permanent magnet Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism Impact factor: 1.204, year: 2009

  3. Interaction between force production and cognitive performance in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; van Duinen, Hiske; Zielman, R; Lorist, MM

    Objective: A dual task paradigm was used to examine the effects of the generation of force on cognitive performance. Methods: Subjects (n = 22) were asked to respond to auditory stimuli with their left middle or index finger and concurrently maintain a sub-maximal contraction with their right index

  4. Drug-model membrane interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniz, Usha K.


    In the present day world, drugs play a very important role in medicine and it is necessary to understand their mode of action at the molecular level, in order to optimise their use. Studies of drug-biomembrane interactions are essential for gaining such as understanding. However, it would be prohibitively difficult to carry out such studies, since biomembranes are highly complex systems. Hence, model membranes (made up of these lipids which are important components of biomembranes) of varying degrees of complexity are used to investigate drug-membrane interactions. Bio- as well as model-membranes undergo a chain melting transition when heated, the chains being in a disordered state above the transition point, T CM . This transition is of physiological importance since biomembranes select their components such that T CM is less than the ambient temperature but not very much so, so that membrane flexibility is ensured and porosity, avoided. The influence of drugs on the transition gives valuable clues about various parameters such as the location of the drug in the membrane. Deep insights into drug-membrane interactions are obtained by observing the effect of drugs on membrane structure and the mobilities of the various groups in lipids, near T CM . Investigation of such changes have been carried out with several drugs, using techniques such as DSC, XRD and NMR. The results indicate that the drug-membrane interaction not only depends on the nature of drug and lipids but also on the form of the model membrane - stacked bilayer or vesicles. The light that these results shed on the nature of drug-membrane interactions is discussed. (author). 13 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  5. Robot Physical Interaction through the combination of Vision, Tactile and Force Feedback Applications to Assistive Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Prats, Mario; Sanz, Pedro J


    Robot manipulation is a great challenge; it encompasses versatility -adaptation to different situations-, autonomy -independent robot operation-, and dependability -for success under modeling or sensing errors. A complete manipulation task involves, first, a suitable grasp or contact configuration, and the subsequent motion required by the task. This monograph presents a unified framework by introducing task-related aspects into the knowledge-based grasp concept, leading to task-oriented grasps. Similarly, grasp-related issues are also considered during the execution of a task, leading to grasp-oriented tasks which is called framework for physical interaction (FPI). The book presents the theoretical framework for the versatile specification of physical interaction tasks, as well as the problem of autonomous planning of these tasks. A further focus is on sensor-based dependable execution combining three different types of sensors: force, vision and tactile. The FPI approach allows to perform a wide range of ro...

  6. Protein-Ligand Informatics Force Field (PLIff): Toward a Fully Knowledge Driven "Force Field" for Biomolecular Interactions. (United States)

    Verdonk, Marcel L; Ludlow, R Frederick; Giangreco, Ilenia; Rathi, Prakash Chandra


    The Protein Data Bank (PDB) contains a wealth of data on nonbonded biomolecular interactions. If this information could be distilled down to nonbonded interaction potentials, these would have some key advantages over standard force fields. However, there are some important outstanding issues to address in order to do this successfully. This paper introduces the protein-ligand informatics "force field", PLIff, which begins to address these key challenges ( ). As a result of their knowledge-based nature, the next-generation nonbonded potentials that make up PLIff automatically capture a wide range of interaction types, including special interactions that are often poorly described by standard force fields. We illustrate how PLIff may be used in structure-based design applications, including interaction fields, fragment mapping, and protein-ligand docking. PLIff performs at least as well as state-of-the art scoring functions in terms of pose predictions and ranking compounds in a virtual screening context.

  7. Application of the nuclear field theory to monopole interactions which include all the vertices of a general force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bes, D.R.; Dussel, G.G.; Liotta, R.J.; Sofia, H.M.; Broglia, R.A.


    The field treatment is applied to the monopole pairing and monopole particle-hole interactions in a two-level model. All the vertices of realistic interactions appear, and the problems treated here have most of the complexities of real nuclei. Yet, the model remains sufficiently simple, so that a close comparison with the results of a (conventional) treatment in which only the fermion degrees of freedom are considered is possible. The applicability to actual physical situations appears to be feasible, both for schematic or realistic forces. The advantage of including the exchange components of the interaction in the construction of the phonon is discussed. (Auth.)

  8. The Röntgen interaction and forces on dipoles in time-modulated optical fields (United States)

    Sonnleitner, Matthias; Barnett, Stephen M.


    The Röntgen term is an often neglected contribution to the interaction between an atom and an electromagnetic field in the electric dipole approximation. In this work we discuss how this interaction term leads to a difference between the kinetic and canonical momentum of an atom which, in turn, leads to surprising radiation forces acting on the atom. We use a number of examples to explore the main features of this interaction, namely forces acting against the expected dipole force or accelerations perpendicular to the beam propagation axis.

  9. Asperity Interaction and Substrate Deformation in Statistical Summation Models of Contact Between Rough Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakis, Antonis I.

    A method is proposed to account for asperity interaction and bulk substrate deformation in models that utilize statistical summation of asperity forces to characterize contact between rough surfaces. Interaction deformations of noncontacting asperities are calculated based on the probability that

  10. Atomic forces for geometry-dependent point multipole and gaussian multipole models. (United States)

    Elking, Dennis M; Perera, Lalith; Duke, Robert; Darden, Thomas; Pedersen, Lee G


    In standard treatments of atomic multipole models, interaction energies, total molecular forces, and total molecular torques are given for multipolar interactions between rigid molecules. However, if the molecules are assumed to be flexible, two additional multipolar atomic forces arise because of (1) the transfer of torque between neighboring atoms and (2) the dependence of multipole moment on internal geometry (bond lengths, bond angles, etc.) for geometry-dependent multipole models. In this study, atomic force expressions for geometry-dependent multipoles are presented for use in simulations of flexible molecules. The atomic forces are derived by first proposing a new general expression for Wigner function derivatives partial derivative D(m'm)(l)/partial derivative Omega. The force equations can be applied to electrostatic models based on atomic point multipoles or gaussian multipole charge density. Hydrogen-bonded dimers are used to test the intermolecular electrostatic energies and atomic forces calculated by geometry-dependent multipoles fit to the ab initio electrostatic potential. The electrostatic energies and forces are compared with their reference ab initio values. It is shown that both static and geometry-dependent multipole models are able to reproduce total molecular forces and torques with respect to ab initio, whereas geometry-dependent multipoles are needed to reproduce ab initio atomic forces. The expressions for atomic force can be used in simulations of flexible molecules with atomic multipoles. In addition, the results presented in this work should lead to further development of next generation force fields composed of geometry-dependent multipole models. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Direct measurement of interaction forces between a platinum dichloride complex and DNA molecules. (United States)

    Muramatsu, Hiroshi; Shimada, Shogo; Okada, Tomoko


    The interaction forces between a platinum dichloride complex and DNA molecules have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The platinum dichloride complex, di-dimethylsulfoxide-dichloroplatinum (II) (Pt(DMSO) 2 Cl 2 ), was immobilized on an AFM probe by coordinating the platinum to two amino groups to form a complex similar to Pt(en)Cl 2 , which is structurally similar to cisplatin. The retraction forces were measured between the platinum complex and DNA molecules immobilized on mica plates using force curve measurements. The histogram of the retraction force for λ-DNA showed several peaks; the unit retraction force was estimated to be 130 pN for a pulling rate of 60 nm/s. The retraction forces were also measured separately for four single-base DNA oligomers (adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine). Retraction forces were frequently observed in the force curves for the DNA oligomers of guanine and adenine. For the guanine DNA oligomer, the most frequent retraction force was slightly lower than but very similar to the retraction force for λ-DNA. A higher retraction force was obtained for the adenine DNA oligomer than for the guanine oligomer. This result is consistent with a higher retraction activation energy of adenine with the Pt complex being than that of guanine because the kinetic rate constant for retraction correlates to exp(FΔx - ΔE) where ΔE is an activation energy, F is an applied force, and Δx is a displacement of distance.

  12. Numerical modelling of forces, stresses and breakages of concrete armour units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latham, John Paul; Xiang, Jiansheng; Anastasaki, Eleni; Guo, Liwei; Karantzoulis, Nikolaos; Viré, A.C.; Pain, Christopher


    Numerical modelling has the potential to probe the complexity of the interacting physics of rubble mound armour systems. Through forward modelling of armour unit packs, stochastic variables such as unit displacement and maximum contact force per unit during an external oscillatory disturbance can

  13. Normal and friction stabilization techniques for interactive rigid body constraint-based contact force computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silcowitz-Hansen, Morten; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny


    We present a novel, yet simple, method for stabilization of normal forces. A normal stabilization term, carefully designed from hypotheses about interactive usability, is added to the contact force problem. Further, we propose friction stabilization as a completely new stabilization paradigm in i...

  14. The Use of Force Notation to Detect Students' Misconceptions: Mutual Interactions Case (United States)

    Serhane, Ahcene; Zeghdaoui, Abdelhamid; Debiache, Mehdi


    Using a conventional notation for representing forces on diagrams, students were presented with questions on the interaction between two objects. The results show that complete understanding of Newton's Third Law of Motion is quite rare, and that some problems relate to misunderstanding which force acts on each body. The use of the terms…

  15. System for measurement of interaction forces between wheel and rail for railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manea Ion


    Full Text Available Determination of the interaction forces between wheel and rail of railway vehicles is essential for assessment of the vehicle dynamic characteristics from point of view of running safety and rail loading as well as for approval the vehicle and alignment them to the Technical Specification for Interoperability. The direct measurement of transverse and vertical interaction forces using the existing full-disk wheel is practical impossible due to the impossibility of separating the two types of forces. To avoid this impediment it was realized a measuring wheelset fitted with 12 spokes achieved as force transducers for measurement of the vertical forces and 12 spokes achieved as force transducers for measurement of the transverse forces. The measuring wheelset was calibrated as a force transducer and was used to determine the wheel and rail interaction forces for LE-MA 6000kW electric locomotive made by Softronic Craiova. The article presents the measuring wheelset, the calibration principle and the calibration characteristics as well as some time history of the main parameters which characterize the running safety and rail loading, determined in the on-track tests.

  16. Drag Forces in a Coupled Wave-Ice Model: Implementation and Testing (United States)

    Orzech, M.; Shi, F.; Veeramony, J.


    We are developing a system for modeling the interactions between ocean surface waves and polar ice floes, which consists of a nonhydrostatic, finite-volume wave model (NHWAVE) coupled to a discrete element, particle-tracking ice model (LIGGGHTS). The effects of drag forces between fluid and ice were recently implemented in the coupled system. The drag formulations assume that the fluid velocity profile at the interface is logarithmic, leading to a drag coefficient that is a function of both grid size and a configurable roughness height. Net forcing vectors acting on the ice in each fluid cell are computed in the wave model and passed to the ice model at each time step. The vectors combine forces due to drag with additional forces due to dynamic pressure (buoyancy effects are computed separately in LIGGGHTS). This presentation will provide further details on these new features and summarize the results of several tests conducted to validate them.

  17. Effect of particle-particle interactions on the acoustic radiation force in an ultrasonic standing wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipkens, Bart, E-mail: [Mechanical Engineering, Western New England University, Springfield, Massachusetts, 01119 (United States); Ilinskii, Yurii A., E-mail:; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A., E-mail: [Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78713–8029 (United States)


    Ultrasonic standing waves are widely used for separation applications. In MEMS applications, a half wavelength standing wave field is generated perpendicular to a laminar flow. The acoustic radiation force exerted on the particle drives the particle to the center of the MEMS channel, where concentrated particles are harvested. In macro-scale applications, the ultrasonic standing wave spans multiple wavelengths. Examples of such applications are oil/water emulsion splitting [1], and blood/lipid separation [2]. In macro-scale applications, particles are typically trapped in the standing wave, resulting in clumping or coalescence of particles/droplets. Subsequent gravitational settling results in separation of the secondary phase. An often used expression for the radiation force on a particle is that derived by Gorkov [3]. The assumptions are that the particle size is small relative to the wavelength, and therefore, only monopole and dipole scattering contributions are used to calculate the radiation force. This framework seems satisfactory for MEMS scale applications where each particle is treated separately by the standing wave, and concentrations are typically low. In macro-scale applications, particle concentration is high, and particle clumping or droplet coalescence results in particle sizes not necessarily small relative to the wavelength. Ilinskii et al. developed a framework for calculation of the acoustic radiation force valid for any size particle [4]. However, this model does not take into account particle to particle effects, which can become important as particle concentration increases. It is known that an acoustic radiation force on a particle or a droplet is determined by the local field. An acoustic radiation force expression is developed that includes the effect of particle to particle interaction. The case of two neighboring particles is considered. The approach is based on sound scattering by the particles. The acoustic field at the location of

  18. Evaluation of Chemical Interactions between Small Molecules in the Gas Phase Using Chemical Force Microscopy. (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Ju, Soomi; Kim, In Tae; Jung, Sun-Hwa; Min, Sun-Joon; Kim, Chulki; Sim, Sang Jun; Kim, Sang Kyung


    Chemical force microscopy analyzes the interactions between various chemical/biochemical moieties in situ. In this work we examined force-distance curves and lateral force to measure the interaction between modified AFM tips and differently functionalized molecular monolayers. Especially for the measurements in gas phase, we investigated the effect of humidity on the analysis of force-distance curves and the images in lateral force mode. Flat chemical patterns composed of different functional groups were made through micro-contact printing and lateral force mode provided more resolved analysis of the chemical patterns. From the images of 1-octadecanethiol/11-mercapto-1-undecanoic acid patterns, the amine group functionalized tip brought out higher contrast of the patterns than an intact silicon nitride tip owing to the additional chemical interaction between carboxyl and amine groups. For more complex chemical interactions, relative chemical affinities toward specific peptides were assessed on the pattern of 1-octadecanethiol/phenyl-terminated alkanethiol. The lateral image of chemical force microscopy reflected specific preference of a peptide to phenyl group as well as the hydrophobic interaction.

  19. Definition of interaction force between car wheel and rough road while driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov V.M.


    Full Text Available For the calculation of indicators of operational properties of a car moving on a rough road, in most cases it is necessary to know the support reactions on the wheels of the vehicle and changing depending on mode of motion. In this connection, there arises an interest in determining strength of the central plane of rotation of the car wheel while driving over uneven at different speeds its movement. A mathematical model for definition of force in the central plane of rotation wheel at uniform rectilinear movements of the car on the support surface with single sinusoidal roughness, was developed. Parameters of mass and geometric parameters of the car and asperity, elastic and dissipative properties of the suspension and tires are taken into account. Results of investigation of interaction of car wheel and single sinusoidal roughness at uniform rectilinear movements Renault 15TS with different speeds, was presented. The plots to assess the influence of vehicle speed on rough roads on the strength of interaction force between car wheel and rough road are presented.

  20. Surface mediated cooperative interactions of drugs enhance mechanical forces for antibiotic action (United States)

    Ndieyira, Joseph W.; Bailey, Joe; Patil, Samadhan B.; Vögtli, Manuel; Cooper, Matthew A.; Abell, Chris; McKendry, Rachel A.; Aeppli, Gabriel


    The alarming increase of pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics is now recognized as a major health issue fuelling demand for new drugs. Bacterial resistance is often caused by molecular changes at the bacterial surface, which alter the nature of specific drug-target interactions. Here, we identify a novel mechanism by which drug-target interactions in resistant bacteria can be enhanced. We examined the surface forces generated by four antibiotics; vancomycin, ristomycin, chloroeremomycin and oritavancin against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant targets on a cantilever and demonstrated significant differences in mechanical response when drug-resistant targets are challenged with different antibiotics although no significant differences were observed when using susceptible targets. Remarkably, the binding affinity for oritavancin against drug-resistant targets (70 nM) was found to be 11,000 times stronger than for vancomycin (800 μM), a powerful antibiotic used as the last resort treatment for streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Using an exactly solvable model, which takes into account the solvent and membrane effects, we demonstrate that drug-target interactions are strengthened by pronounced polyvalent interactions catalyzed by the surface itself. These findings further enhance our understanding of antibiotic mode of action and will enable development of more effective therapies.

  1. Quantification of the Force of Nanoparticle-Cell Membrane Interactions and Its Influence on Intracellular Trafficking of Nanoparticles (United States)

    Vasir, Jaspreet K.; Labhasetwar, Vinod


    Understanding the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with the cell membrane and their trafficking through cells is imperative to fully explore the use of NPs for efficient intracellular delivery of therapeutics. Here, we report a novel method of measuring the force of NP-cell membrane interactions using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Poly(dl-lactide co-glycolide, PLGA) NPs functionalized with poly-l-lysine were used as a model system, to demonstrate that this force determines the adhesive interaction of NPs with the cell membrane and in turn the extent of cellular uptake of NPs, and hence that of the encapsulated therapeutic. Cellular uptake of NPs was monitored using AFM imaging, and the dynamics of their intracellular distribution was quantified using confocal microscopy. Results demonstrated that the functionalized NPs have a five-fold greater force of adhesion with the cell membrane and the time-lapse AFM images show their rapid internalization than unmodified NPs. The intracellular trafficking study showed that the functionalized NPs escape more rapidly and efficiently from late endosomes than unmodified NPs and result in 10-fold higher intracellular delivery of the encapsulated model protein. The findings described herein enhance our basic understanding of the NP-cell membrane interaction on the basis of physical phenomena that could have wider applications in developing efficient nanocarrier systems for intracellular delivery of therapeutics. PMID:18692238

  2. Foot force models of crowd dynamics on a wobbly bridge. (United States)

    Belykh, Igor; Jeter, Russell; Belykh, Vladimir


    Modern pedestrian and suspension bridges are designed using industry standard packages, yet disastrous resonant vibrations are observed, necessitating multimillion dollar repairs. Recent examples include pedestrian-induced vibrations during the opening of the Solférino Bridge in Paris in 1999 and the increased bouncing of the Squibb Park Bridge in Brooklyn in 2014. The most prominent example of an unstable lively bridge is the London Millennium Bridge, which started wobbling as a result of pedestrian-bridge interactions. Pedestrian phase locking due to footstep phase adjustment is suspected to be the main cause of its large lateral vibrations; however, its role in the initiation of wobbling was debated. We develop foot force models of pedestrians' response to bridge motion and detailed, yet analytically tractable, models of crowd phase locking. We use biomechanically inspired models of crowd lateral movement to investigate to what degree pedestrian synchrony must be present for a bridge to wobble significantly and what is a critical crowd size. Our results can be used as a safety guideline for designing pedestrian bridges or limiting the maximum occupancy of an existing bridge. The pedestrian models can be used as "crash test dummies" when numerically probing a specific bridge design. This is particularly important because the U.S. code for designing pedestrian bridges does not contain explicit guidelines that account for the collective pedestrian behavior.

  3. Extending Bell's model: how force transducer stiffness alters measured unbinding forces and kinetics of molecular complexes. (United States)

    Walton, Emily B; Lee, Sunyoung; Van Vliet, Krystyn J


    Forced unbinding of complementary macromolecules such as ligand-receptor complexes can reveal energetic and kinetic details governing physiological processes ranging from cellular adhesion to drug metabolism. Although molecular-level experiments have enabled sampling of individual ligand-receptor complex dissociation events, disparities in measured unbinding force F(R) among these methods lead to marked variation in inferred binding energetics and kinetics at equilibrium. These discrepancies are documented for even the ubiquitous ligand-receptor pair, biotin-streptavidin. We investigated these disparities and examined atomic-level unbinding trajectories via steered molecular dynamics simulations, as well as via molecular force spectroscopy experiments on biotin-streptavidin. In addition to the well-known loading rate dependence of F(R) predicted by Bell's model, we find that experimentally accessible parameters such as the effective stiffness of the force transducer k can significantly perturb the energy landscape and the apparent unbinding force of the complex for sufficiently stiff force transducers. Additionally, at least 20% variation in unbinding force can be attributed to minute differences in initial atomic positions among energetically and structurally comparable complexes. For force transducers typical of molecular force spectroscopy experiments and atomistic simulations, this energy barrier perturbation results in extrapolated energetic and kinetic parameters of the complex that depend strongly on k. We present a model that explicitly includes the effect of k on apparent unbinding force of the ligand-receptor complex, and demonstrate that this correction enables prediction of unbinding distances and dissociation rates that are decoupled from the stiffness of actual or simulated molecular linkers.

  4. Intermolecular Forces in Introductory Chemistry Studied by Gas Chromatography, Computer Models, and Viscometry (United States)

    Wedvik, Jonathan C.; McManaman, Charity; Anderson, Janet S.; Carroll, Mary K.


    An experiment on intermolecular forces for first-term introductory college chemistry is presented. The experiment integrates traditional viscometry-based measurements with modern chromatographic analysis and use of computer-based molecular models. Students performing gas chromatographic (GC) analyses of mixtures of n-alkanes and samples that simulate crime scene evidence discover that liquid mixtures can be separated rapidly into their components based upon intermolecular forces. Each group of students is given a liquid sample that simulates one collected at an arson scene, and the group is required to determine the identity of the accelerant. Students also examine computer models to better visualize how molecular structure affects intermolecular forces: London forces, dipole-dipole interactions, and hydrogen bonding. The relative viscosities of organic liquids are also measured to relate physical properties to intermolecular forces.

  5. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George


    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  6. Optimum force magnitude for orthodontic tooth movement: a mathematic model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.; Maltha, J.C.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.


    The aim of this study was to develop a mathematic model to describe the relationship between magnitude of applied force and rate of orthodontic tooth movement. Initially, data were extracted from experimental studies in dogs (beagles), in which controlled, standardized forces were used to move

  7. Experimental Investigation of the Wake-Mediated Interaction Forces Between Dust Particles in a Flowing Plasma (United States)

    Petrov, Oleg; Lisin, Evgeny; Statsenko, Konstantin; Hyde, Truell; Carmona, Jorge


    An anisotropic spatial dependence of the wake-mediated interaction forces between dust particles in a plasma flow was studied experimentally. The measurements were performed at CASPER for the vertically aligned chain self-organized from 11 microparticles inside a glass box placed on the lower electrode of a RF gas discharge chamber. The experiment was conducted in argon plasma at 137 mTorr and monodisperse MF particles having diameters of 8.93 microns were used. To recover the wake-mediated interaction forces we improved the method based on solving the inverse Langevin problem of the dynamics of many interacting particles. To determine 3D trajectories of the particles we used a stereoscopic video surveillance system. Spatial profiles of the forces with which upstream particles act on downstream ones and vice versa were obtained. The difference between the interparticle interaction forces in the opposite directions indicates its non-reciprocal nature and can be associated with the wake. The peak position of the wake-field and the space charge concentrated in it were evaluated by the force profile analysis. The data analysis and interaction force recovering in this work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (O.F. Petrov, K.B. Stacenko, E.?.Lisin) through Grant No. 14-12-01440).

  8. Force on Force Modeling with Formal Task Structures and Dynamic Geometry (United States)


    that are nested from Division to Corps to Joint Force Land Component (Operational level of war) and all the way to the Combined Joint Task Force...entities followed during specific phases of the operation. This allowed for filtering of the TOEL to depict only those entities we were concerned with as...provide another way to filter information as the model was being developed from the TOEL. Secondly, for each phase of the operation, the events were

  9. Three-Body Nuclear Forces from a Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Koji


    We compute three-body nuclear forces at short distances by using the nuclear matrix model of holographic QCD proposed in our previous paper with P. Yi. We find that the three-body forces at short distances are repulsive for (a) aligned three neutrons with averaged spins, and (b) aligned proton-proton-neutron / proton-neutron-neutron. These indicate that in dense states of neutrons such as cores of neutron stars, or in Helium-3 / tritium nucleus, the repulsive forces are larger than the ones estimated from two-body forces only.

  10. A Heuristic Force Model for Haptic Simulation of Nasogastric Tube Insertion Using Fuzzy Logic. (United States)

    Choi, Kup-Sze; He, Xue-Jian; Chiang, Vico C L; Deng, Zhaohong; Qin, Jing


    Nasogastric tube (NGT) placement is an essential clinical skill. The training is conventionally performed on rubber mannequins albeit practical limitations. Computer simulation with haptic feedback can potentially offer a more realistic and accessible training method. However, the complex interactions between the tube and the nasogastric passage make it difficult to model the haptic feedback during NGT placement. In this paper, a fuzzy-logic-based approach is proposed to directly transfer the experience of clinicians in NGT placement into the simulation system. Based on their perception of the varying tactile sensation and the conditions during NGT placement, the membership functions and fuzzy rules are defined to develop the force model. Forces created using the model are then combined with friction forces to drive the haptic device and render the insertion forces in real time. A prototype simulator is developed based on the proposed force model and the implementation details are presented. The usability of the prototype is also evaluated by clinical teachers. The proposed methodology has the potential for developing computerized NGT placement training methods for clinical education. It is also applicable for simulation systems involving complicated force interactions or computation-expensive models.

  11. an online interactive an online interactive competition model for e

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    AN ONLINE INTERACTIVE COMPETITION MODEL FOR E-LEARNING SYSTEM. P. C. Ezenkwu , et al. Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 34 No. 3, July 2015. 549. Interactive Competition Model for E-learning System .The thrust of the research is the integration of a competition strategy into a social e-learning system in.

  12. Direct Visualization of Dynamic Protein-DNA Interactions with a Dedicated Atomic Force Microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, S.J.T.; van der Werf, Kees; Eker, Andre P.M.; Wyman, Claire; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan


    Photolyase DNA interactions and the annealing of restriction fragment ends are directly visualized with the atomic force microscope (AFM). To be able to interact with proteins, DNA must be loosely bound to the surface. When MgCl2 is used to immobilize DNA to mica, DNA is attached to the surface at

  13. Students' Understanding on Newton's Third Law in Identifying the Reaction Force in Gravity Interactions (United States)

    Zhou, Shaona; Zhang, Chunbin; Xiao, Hua


    In the past three decades, previous researches showed that students had various misconceptions of Newton's Third Law. The present study focused on students' difficulties in identifying the third-law force pair in gravity interaction situations. An instrument involving contexts with gravity and non-gravity associated interactions was designed and…

  14. Colloid-probe AFM studies of the interaction forces of proteins adsorbed on colloidal crystals. (United States)

    Singh, Gurvinder; Bremmell, Kristen E; Griesser, Hans J; Kingshott, Peter


    In recent years, colloid-probe AFM has been used to measure the direct interaction forces between colloidal particles of different size or surface functionality in aqueous media, as one can study different forces in symmerical systems (i.e., sphere-sphere geometry). The present study investigates the interaction between protein coatings on colloid probes and hydrophilic surfaces decorated with hexagonally close packed single particle layers that are either uncoated or coated with proteins. Controlled solvent evaporation from aqueous suspensions of colloidal particles (coated with or without lysozyme and albumin) produces single layers of close-packed colloidal crystals over large areas on a solid support. The measurements have been carried out in an aqueous medium at different salt concentrations and pH values. The results show changes in the interaction forces as the surface charge of the unmodified or modified particles, and ionic strength or pH of the solution is altered. At high ionic strength or pH, electrostatic interactions are screened, and a strong repulsive force at short separation below 5 nm dominates, suggesting structural changes in the absorbed protein layer on the particles. We also study the force of adhesion, which decreases with an increment in the salt concentration, and the interaction between two different proteins indicating a repulsive interaction on approach and adhesion on retraction.

  15. Dependency of micro particle adhesion of dispersive and nondispersive interactions analyzed by atomic force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kawal, A; Andoh, E


    The adhesion behaviour of a micro semi-sphere tip (radius of curvature of 18 nm) after making contact with various inorganic solid surfaces is analyzed. Measurement force by the AFM tip corresponds to the interactive force estimated $9 using surface energy components, dispersion and nondispersion, based on van der Waal's interaction. These components can be obtained by measuring the contact angle of standard liquids on a material surface. By using two kinds of tip $9 with different component values, analysis of the interactive mechanism and prediction of macro tip (particle) adhesion can be made. (6 refs).

  16. Novel mathematical model to estimate ball impact force in soccer. (United States)

    Iga, Takahito; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Sano, Shinya; Sato, Nahoko; Ikegami, Yasuo


    To assess ball impact force during soccer kicking is important to quantify from both performance and chronic injury prevention perspectives. We aimed to verify the appropriateness of previous models used to estimate ball impact force and to propose an improved model to better capture the time history of ball impact force. A soccer ball was fired directly onto a force platform (10 kHz) at five realistic kicking ball velocities and ball behaviour was captured by a high-speed camera (5,000 Hz). The time history of ball impact force was estimated using three existing models and two new models. A new mathematical model that took into account a rapid change in ball surface area and heterogeneous ball deformation showed a distinctive advantage to estimate the peak forces and its occurrence times and to reproduce time history of ball impact forces more precisely, thereby reinforcing the possible mechanics of 'footballer's ankle'. Ball impact time was also systematically shortened when ball velocity increases in contrast to practical understanding for producing faster ball velocity, however, the aspect of ball contact time must be considered carefully from practical point of view.

  17. Measurement error models with interactions (United States)

    Midthune, Douglas; Carroll, Raymond J.; Freedman, Laurence S.; Kipnis, Victor


    An important use of measurement error models is to correct regression models for bias due to covariate measurement error. Most measurement error models assume that the observed error-prone covariate (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$W$\\end{document}) is a linear function of the unobserved true covariate (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$X$\\end{document}) plus other covariates (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$Z$\\end{document}) in the regression model. In this paper, we consider models for \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$W$\\end{document} that include interactions between \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$X$\\end{document} and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$Z$\\end{document}. We derive the conditional distribution of

  18. Pattern formation of a nonlocal, anisotropic interaction model

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin


    We consider a class of interacting particle models with anisotropic, repulsive–attractive interaction forces whose orientations depend on an underlying tensor field. An example of this class of models is the so-called Kücken–Champod model describing the formation of fingerprint patterns. This class of models can be regarded as a generalization of a gradient flow of a nonlocal interaction potential which has a local repulsion and a long-range attraction structure. In contrast to isotropic interaction models the anisotropic forces in our class of models cannot be derived from a potential. The underlying tensor field introduces an anisotropy leading to complex patterns which do not occur in isotropic models. This anisotropy is characterized by one parameter in the model. We study the variation of this parameter, describing the transition between the isotropic and the anisotropic model, analytically and numerically. We analyze the equilibria of the corresponding mean-field partial differential equation and investigate pattern formation numerically in two dimensions by studying the dependence of the parameters in the model on the resulting patterns.

  19. Exploiting impedance shaping approaches to overcome force overshoots in delicate interaction tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loris Roveda


    Full Text Available The aim of the presented article is to overcome the force overshoot issue in impedance based force tracking applications. Nowadays, light-weight manipulators are involved in high-accurate force control applications (such as polishing tasks, where the force overshoot issue is critical (i.e. damaging the component causing a production waste, exploiting the impedance control. Two main force tracking impedance control approaches are described in literature: (a set-point deformation and (b variable stiffness approaches. However, no contributions are directly related to the force overshoot issue. The presented article extends both such methodologies to analytically achieve the force overshoots avoidance in interaction tasks based on the on-line estimation of the interacting environment stiffness (available through an EKF. Both the proposed control algorithms allow to achieve a linear closed-loop dynamics for the coupled robot-environment system. Therefore, control gains can be analytically on-line calculated to achieve an over-damped closed-loop dynamics of the controlled coupled system. Control strategies have been validated in experiments, involving a KUKA LWR 4+. A probing task has been performed, representative of many industrial tasks (e.g. assembly tasks, in which a main force task direction is defined.

  20. Study on 16O in the alpha particle model using three-body forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrello, D.A.


    A study of the ground state of 16 O is made using an alpha particle model, all without internal structure, interacting through two-and three-body forces. Some nuclear properties of 16 O, such as binding energy and gaps, are also studied. (L.C.) [pt

  1. Interacting trophic forcing and the population dynamics of herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Ostman, Orjan; Gardmark, Anna


    . Using a statistical, age-structured modeling approach, we demonstrate the relative importance and influence of bottom-up (e.g., climate, zooplankton availability) and top-down (i.e., fishing and predation) factors on the population dynamics of Bothnian Sea herring (Clupea harengus) throughout its life......Small pelagic fish occupy a central position in marine ecosystems worldwide, largely by determining the energy transfer from lower trophic levels to predators at the top of the food web, including humans. Population dynamics of small pelagic fish may therefore be regulated neither strictly bottom......-up nor top-down, but rather through multiple external and internal drivers. While in many studies single drivers have been identified, potential synergies of multiple factors, as well as their relative importance in regulating population dynamics of small pelagic fish, is a largely unresolved issue...

  2. Gauge unification of basic forces, particularly of gravitation with strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.


    An attempt is made to present a case for the use of both the Einstein--Weyl spin-two and the Yang--Mills spin-one gauge structures for describing strong interactions. By emphasizing both spin-one and -two aspects of this force, it is hoped that a unification of this force, on the one hand, with gravity theory and, on the other, with the electromagnetic and weak interactions can be achieved. A Puppi type of tetrahedral interralation of fundamental forces, with the strong force playing a pivotal role due to its mediation through both spin-one and -two quanta, is proposed. It is claimed that the gauge invariance of gravity theory permits the use of ambuguity-free nonpolynomial techniques and thereby the securing of relistic regularization in gravity-modified field theories with the Newtonian constant G/sub N/ providing a relistic cutoff. 37 references

  3. Modeling nonspecific interactions at biological interfaces (United States)

    White, Andrew D.

    Difficulties in applied biomaterials often arise from the complexities of interactions in biological environments. These interactions can be broadly broken into two categories: those which are important to function (strong binding to a single target) and those which are detrimental to function (weak binding to many targets). These will be referred to as specific and nonspecific interactions, respectively. Nonspecific interactions have been central to failures of biomaterials, sensors, and surface coatings in harsh biological environments. There is little modeling work on studying nonspecific interactions. Modeling all possible nonspecific interactions within a biological system is difficult, yet there are ways to both indirectly model nonspecific interactions and directly model many interactions using machine-learning. This research utilizes bioinformatics, phenomenological modeling, molecular simulations, experiments, and stochastic modeling to study nonspecific interactions. These techniques are used to study the hydration molecules which resist nonspecific interactions, the formation of salt bridges, the chemistry of protein surfaces, nonspecific stabilization of proteins in molecular chaperones, and analysis of high-throughput screening experiments. The common aspect for these systems is that nonspecific interactions are more important than specific interactions. Studying these disparate systems has created a set of principles for resisting nonspecific interactions which have been experimentally demonstrated with the creation and testing of novel materials which resist nonspecific interactions.

  4. Plasma versus Drude Modeling of the Casimir Force: Beyond the Proximity Force Approximation (United States)

    Hartmann, Michael; Ingold, Gert-Ludwig; Neto, Paulo A. Maia


    We calculate the Casimir force and its gradient between a spherical and a planar gold surface. Significant numerical improvements allow us to extend the range of accessible parameters into the experimental regime. We compare our numerically exact results with those obtained within the proximity force approximation (PFA) employed in the analysis of all Casimir force experiments reported in the literature so far. Special attention is paid to the difference between the Drude model and the dissipationless plasma model at zero frequency. It is found that the correction to PFA is too small to explain the discrepancy between the experimental data and the PFA result based on the Drude model. However, it turns out that for the plasma model, the corrections to PFA lie well outside the experimental bound obtained by probing the variation of the force gradient with the sphere radius [D. E. Krause et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 050403 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.050403]. The corresponding corrections based on the Drude model are significantly smaller but still in violation of the experimental bound for small distances between plane and sphere.

  5. Modelling of damping forces occuring in simple MEMS systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Urbanowicz


    Full Text Available A certain damping force occurs in the micro-mechanical systems referred as MEMS. At the design stage of such systems, these forces must be accurately estimated. As shown in this work, in all systems operating at low frequencies, most important force is the one associated with the flotation of air film from the volume between two parallel operating movable MEMS plates. This force can be accurately estimated by analytical methods known from the literature. The paper presents analytical solutions that are frequently used in practice for simple plates. Also some simple simulations, using all described analytical solutions compared with the results of specialized program called Comsol Multyphysics, are shown. Presented research demonstrate the effectiveness of numerical software.[b]Keywords[/b]: MEMS, damping forces, Reynolds equation, modelling, simulation

  6. Matrix models with Penner interaction inspired by interacting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the presence of the double peak only for genus 0 structures, the higher genii behave normally with. N. Comparable behaviour is found in studies involving interactions of RNA with osmolytes and monovalent cations in unfolding experiments. Keywords. Ribonucleic acid; random matrix model; Penner interaction; database.

  7. Higher order terms of the nonlinear forces in plasmas with collisions at laser interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentwell, G.W.; Hora, H.


    The evaluation of the general expression of the nonlinear force of laser-plasma interaction showed discrepancies depending on the assumptions of the phase and collisions in the expressions used for E and H. While the first order terms of the derivations are remaining unchanged, new third order terms are found for the case of perpendicular incidence without collisions. With collisions, the additional non-pondermotive terms are derived to be more general than known before. It is then possible to evaluate the forces for oblique incidence with collisions and find an absorption caused force in the plane of the plasma surface. (author)

  8. Force/position control of a robot manipulator for human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neranon Paramin


    Full Text Available With regard to both human and robot capabilities, human-robot interaction provides several benefits, and this will be significantly developed and implemented. This work focuses on the development of real-time external force/position control used for human-robot interaction. The force-controlled robotic system integrated with proportional integral control was performed and evaluated to ensure its reliably and timely operational characteristics, in which appropriate proportional integral gains were experimentally adopted using a set of virtual crank-turning tests. The designed robotic system is made up of a robot manipulator arm, an ATI Gamma multi-axis force/torque sensor and a real-time external PC based control system. A proportional integral controller has been developed to provide stable and robust force control on unknown environmental stiffness and motion. To quantify its effectiveness, the robotic system has been verified through a comprehensive set of experiments, in which force measurement and ALTER real-time path control systems were evaluated. In summary, the results indicated satisfactorily stable performance of the robot force/position control system. The gain tuning for proportional plus integral control algorithm was successfully implemented. It can be reported that the best performance as specified by the error root mean square method of the radial force is observed with proportional and integral gains of 0.10 and 0.005 respectively.

  9. Novel approach for modeling separation forces between deformable bodies. (United States)

    Mahvash, Mohsen


    Many minimally invasive surgeries (MISs) involve removing whole organs or tumors that are connected to other organs. Development of haptic simulators that reproduce separation forces between organs can help surgeons learn MIS procedures. Powerful computational approaches such as finite-element methods generally cannot simulate separation in real time. This paper presents a novel approach for real-time computation of separation forces between deformable bodies. Separation occurs either due to fracture when a tool applies extensive forces to the bodies or due to evaporation when a laser beam burns the connection between the bodies. The separation forces are generated online from precalculated force-displacement functions that depend on the local adhesion/separation states between bodies. The precalculated functions are accurately synthesized from a large number of force responses obtained through either offline simulation, measurement, or analytical approximation during the preprocessing step. The approach does not require online computation of force versus global deformation to obtain separation forces. Only online interpolation of precalculated responses is required. The state of adhesion/separation during fracture and evaporation are updated by computationally simple models, which are derived based on the law of conservation of energy. An implementation of the approach for the haptic simulation of the removal of a diseased organ is presented, showing the fidelity of the simulation.

  10. Discrete choice models for commuting interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouwendal, Jan; Mulalic, Ismir; Levkovich, Or

    An emerging quantitative spatial economics literature models commuting interactions by a gravity equation that is mathematically equivalent to a multinomial logit model. This model is widely viewed as restrictive because of the independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA) property that links...

  11. Evaluating Force-Field London Dispersion Coefficients Using the Exchange-Hole Dipole Moment Model. (United States)

    Mohebifar, Mohamad; Johnson, Erin R; Rowley, Christopher N


    London dispersion interactions play an integral role in materials science and biophysics. Force fields for atomistic molecular simulations typically represent dispersion interactions by the 12-6 Lennard-Jones potential using empirically determined parameters. These parameters are generally underdetermined, and there is no straightforward way to test if they are physically realistic. Alternatively, the exchange-hole dipole moment (XDM) model from density-functional theory predicts atomic and molecular London dispersion coefficients from first principles, providing an innovative strategy to validate the dispersion terms of molecular-mechanical force fields. In this work, the XDM model was used to obtain the London dispersion coefficients of 88 organic molecules relevant to biochemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry and the values compared with those derived from the Lennard-Jones parameters of the CGenFF, GAFF, OPLS, and Drude polarizable force fields. The molecular dispersion coefficients for the CGenFF, GAFF, and OPLS models are systematically higher than the XDM-calculated values by a factor of roughly 1.5, likely due to neglect of higher order dispersion terms and premature truncation of the dispersion-energy summation. The XDM dispersion coefficients span a large range for some molecular-mechanical atom types, suggesting an unrecognized source of error in force-field models, which assume that atoms of the same type have the same dispersion interactions. Agreement with the XDM dispersion coefficients is even poorer for the Drude polarizable force field. Popular water models were also examined, and TIP3P was found to have dispersion coefficients similar to the experimental and XDM references, although other models employ anomalously high values. Finally, XDM-derived dispersion coefficients were used to parametrize molecular-mechanical force fields for five liquids-benzene, toluene, cyclohexane, n-pentane, and n-hexane-which resulted in improved accuracy in the

  12. Unified Model of Dynamic Forced Barrier Crossing in Single Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friddle, R W


    Thermally activated barrier crossing in the presence of an increasing load can reveal kinetic rate constants and energy barrier parameters when repeated over a range of loading rates. Here we derive a model of the mean escape force for all relevant loading rates--the complete force spectrum. Two well-known approximations emerge as limiting cases; one of which confirms predictions that single-barrier spectra should converge to a phenomenological description in the slow loading limit.

  13. An analytical model for interactive failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yong; Ma Lin; Mathew, Joseph; Zhang Sheng


    In some systems, failures of certain components can interact with each other, and accelerate the failure rates of these components. These failures are defined as interactive failure. Interactive failure is a prevalent cause of failure associated with complex systems, particularly in mechanical systems. The failure risk of an asset will be underestimated if the interactive effect is ignored. When failure risk is assessed, interactive failures of an asset need to be considered. However, the literature is silent on previous research work in this field. This paper introduces the concepts of interactive failure, develops an analytical model to analyse this type of failure quantitatively, and verifies the model using case studies and experiments

  14. Screening fifth forces in k-essence and DBI models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA2306, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cédex (France); Burrage, Clare [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Davis, Anne-Christine, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)


    New fifth forces have not yet been detected in the laboratory or in the solar system, hence it is typically difficult to introduce new light scalar fields that would mediate such forces. In recent years it has been shown that a number of non-linear scalar field theories allow for a dynamical mechanism, such as the Vainshtein and chameleon ones, that suppresses the strength of the scalar fifth force in experimental environments. This is known as screening, however it is unclear how common screening is within non-linear scalar field theories. k-essence models are commonly studied examples of non-linear models, with DBI as the best motivated example, and so we ask whether these non-linearities are able to screen a scalar fifth force. We find that a Vainshtein-like screening mechanism exists for such models although with limited applicability. For instance, we cannot find a screening mechanism for DBI models. On the other hand, we construct a large class of k-essence models which lead to the acceleration of the Universe in the recent past for which the fifth force mediated by the scalar can be screened.

  15. A radial distribution function-based open boundary force model for multi-centered molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp


    We derive an expression for radial distribution function (RDF)-based open boundary forcing for molecules with multiple interaction sites. Due to the high-dimensionality of the molecule configuration space and missing rotational invariance, a computationally cheap, 1D approximation of the arising integral expressions as in the single-centered case is not possible anymore. We propose a simple, yet accurate model invoking standard molecule- and site-based RDFs to approximate the respective integral equation. The new open boundary force model is validated for ethane in different scenarios and shows very good agreement with data from periodic simulations. © World Scientific Publishing Company.

  16. Forced vibration test on large scale model on soft rock site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Toshio; Fukuoka, Atsunobu; Izumi, Masanori; Miyamoto, Yuji; Ohtsuka, Yasuhiro; Nasuda, Toshiaki.


    Forced vibration tests were conducted in order to investigate the embedment effect on dynamic soil-structure interaction. Two model structures were constructed on actual soil about 60 m apart, after excavating the ground to 5 m depth. For both models, the sinusoidal forced vibration tests were performed with the conditions of different embedment depth, namely non-embedment, half-embedment and full-embedment. As the test results, the increase in both natural frequency and damping factor due to the embedment effects can be observed, and the soil impedances calculated from test results are discussed. (author)

  17. Debye-Waller factors of fcc metals by the modified angular force model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharoo, H.L.; Gupta, O.P.; Hemkar, M.P.


    A modified form of the non-central force model which takes account of the electron-ion interaction term of the Kreb's model in the Clark, Gazis and Wallis type angular forces is condidered to calculate the Debye-Waller exponents at different temperatures for five fcc metals: copper, silver, gold, aluminium and nickel. The results are compared with the available X-ray measurements in terms of the temperature parameter Y of the Debye-Waller factor, the Debye characteristic temperature thetasub(M) and the mean square displacement of the atoms. The theoretical results are found to be in reasonably satisfactory agreement with the experimental values. (orig.) [de


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Polyakov


    Full Text Available Purpose. Traction force implementation (TFI by the motor of magnetic levitation train (MLT occurs in the process of electric-to-kinetic energy transformation at interaction of inductor and armature magnetic fields. Ac-cordingly, the aim of this study is to obtain a correct description of such energy transformation. Methodology. At the present stage, a mathematical and, in particular, computer simulation is the main and most universal tool for analysis and synthesis of processes and systems. At the same time, radical advantages of this tool make the precision of selection of a particular research methodology even more important. It is especially important for such a large and complex system as MLT. Therefore the special attention in the work is given to the rationale for choosing the research paradigm selective features. Findings. The analysis results of existing TFI process model versions indicate that each of them has both advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, one of the main results of this study was the creation of a mathematical model for such process that would preserve the advantages of previous versions, but would be free from their disadvantages. The work provides rationale for application (for the purposes of research of train motor TFI of the integrative holistic paradigm, which assimilates the advantages of the theory of electric circuit and magnetic field. Originality. The priority of creation of such paradigm and corresponding version of FI model constitute the originality of the research. Practical value. The main manifestation of practical value of this research in the opportunity, in case of use of its results, for significant increase in efficiency of MLT dynamic studies, on the condition that their generalized costs will not rise.

  19. Parity violating NN forcES in the quark compound bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonov, Yu.A.


    Parity violation (PV) in the interaction is considered as due to the Weinberg-Salam quark-quark interaction inside the six-quark bag. The initial and final strong interaction is described within the same quark compound bag (QCB) model, where the NN coupling to the six quark QCB is defined from the NN experimental data. The resulting PV amplitude contains no free parameters and allows therefore an unambiguous test of the QCB model. An estimate of the 1 S 0 → 3 P 0 contribution to the proton-proton asymmetry is in a rough agreement with experimental data [ru

  20. Interactions between Rotavirus and Suwannee River Organic Matter: Aggregation, Deposition, and Adhesion Force Measurement

    KAUST Repository

    Gutierrez, Leonardo


    Interactions between rotavirus and Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM) were studied by time-resolved dynamic light scattering, quartz crystal microbalance, and atomic force microscopy. In NOM-containing NaCl solutions of up to 600 mM, rotavirus suspension remained stable for over 4 h. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement for interaction force decay length at different ionic strengths showed that nonelectrostatic repulsive forces were mainly responsible for eliminating aggregation in NaCl solutions. Aggregation rates of rotavirus in solutions containing 20 mg C/L increased with divalent cation concentration until reaching a critical coagulation concentration of 30 mM CaCl2 or 70 mM MgCl2. Deposition kinetics of rotavirus on NOM-coated silica surface was studied using quartz crystal microbalance. Experimental attachment efficiencies for rotavirus adsorption to NOM-coated surface in MgCl2 solution were lower than in CaCl2 solution at a given divalent cation concentration. Stronger adhesion force was measured for virus-virus and virus-NOM interactions in CaCl2 solution compared to those in MgCl2 or NaCl solutions at the same ionic strength. This study suggested that divalent cation complexation with carboxylate groups in NOM and on virus surface was an important mechanism in the deposition and aggregation kinetics of rotavirus. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Force Limited Random Vibration Test of TESS Camera Mass Model (United States)

    Karlicek, Alexandra; Hwang, James Ho-Jin; Rey, Justin J.


    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a spaceborne instrument consisting of four wide field-of-view-CCD cameras dedicated to the discovery of exoplanets around the brightest stars. As part of the environmental testing campaign, force limiting was used to simulate a realistic random vibration launch environment. While the force limit vibration test method is a standard approach used at multiple institutions including Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), it is still difficult to find an actual implementation process in the literature. This paper describes the step-by-step process on how the force limit method was developed and applied on the TESS camera mass model. The process description includes the design of special fixtures to mount the test article for properly installing force transducers, development of the force spectral density using the semi-empirical method, estimation of the fuzzy factor (C2) based on the mass ratio between the supporting structure and the test article, subsequent validating of the C2 factor during the vibration test, and calculation of the C.G. accelerations using the Root Mean Square (RMS) reaction force in the spectral domain and the peak reaction force in the time domain.

  2. A conceptual ENSO model under realistic noise forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saynisch


    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of atmospheric noise on the generation of interannual El Niño variability. Therefore, we perturbed a conceptual ENSO delay model with surrogate windstress data generated from tropical windspeed measurements. The effect of the additional stochastic forcing was studied for various parameter sets including periodic and chaotic regimes. The evaluation was based on a spectrum and amplitude-period relation comparison between model and measured sea surface temperature data. The additional forcing turned out to increase the variability of the model output in general. The noise-free model was unable to reproduce the observed spectral bandwidth for any choice of parameters. On the contrary, the stochastically forced model is capable of producing a realistic spectrum. The weakly nonlinear regimes of the model exhibit a proportional relation between amplitude and period matching the relation derived from measurement data. The chaotic regime, however, shows an inversely proportional relation. A stability analysis of the different regimes revealed that the spectra of the weakly nonlinear regimes are robust against slight parameter changes representing disregarded physical mechanisms, whereas the chaotic regime exhibits a very unstable realistic spectrum. We conclude that the model including stochastic forcing in a parameter range of moderate nonlinearity best matches the real conditions. This suggests that atmospheric noise plays an important role in the coupled tropical pacific ocean-atmosphere system.

  3. A theoretical model for the Lorentz force particle analyzer (United States)

    Moreau, René; Tao, Zhen; Wang, Xiaodong


    In a previous paper [X. Wang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 120, 014903 (2016)], several experimental devices have been presented, which demonstrate the efficiency of electromagnetic techniques for detecting and sizing electrically insulating particles entrained in the flow of a molten metal. In each case, a non-uniform magnetic field is applied across the flow of the electrically conducting liquid, thereby generating a braking Lorentz force on this moving medium and a reaction force on the magnet, which tends to be entrained in the flow direction. The purpose of this letter is to derive scaling laws for this Lorentz force from an elementary theoretical model. For simplicity, as in the experiments, the flowing liquid is modeled as a solid body moving with a uniform velocity U. The eddy currents in the moving domain are derived from the classic induction equation and Ohm's law, and expressions for the Lorentz force density j ×B and for its integral over the entire moving domain follow. The insulating particles that are eventually present and entrained with this body are then treated as small disturbances in a classic perturbation analysis, thereby leading to scaling laws for the pulses they generate in the Lorentz force. The purpose of this letter is both to illustrate the eddy currents without and with insulating particles in the electrically conducting liquid and to derive a key relation between the pulses in the Lorentz force and the main parameters (particle volume and dimensions of the region subjected to the magnetic field).

  4. Matrix models with Penner interaction inspired by interacting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 29, 2015 ... Then the genus is calculated for every structure and plotted as a function of length. The genus distribution function is compared with the prediction from the nonlinear (NL) model. The specific heat and distribution of structure with temperature calculated from the NL model shows that the NL inter-action is ...

  5. Asymptotic Completeness for Relativistic Kinetic Equations with Short-range Interaction Forces


    Ha, Seung-Yeal; Kim, Yong Duck; Lee, Ho; Noh, Se Eun


    We present an $L^1$-asymptotic completeness results for relativistic kinetic equations with short range interaction forces. We show that the uniform phase space-time bound for nonlinear terms to the relativistic nonlinear kinetic equations yields the asymptotic completeness of the relativistic kinetic equations. For this space-time bound, we employ dispersive estimates and explicit construction of a Lyapunov functional.

  6. Interaction potential and repulsive force between atoms whose internuclear separations are small

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, Jacques


    The Thomas-Fermi equation is solved for the homonuclear diatomic molecule. The electronic density and electrostatic potential at each point are used to calculate energies and interaction potentials for very small internuclear separation distances. The repulsive force between atoms is derived by means of the virial theorem. (author) [fr

  7. Cation-Pi Interaction: A Key Force for Sorption of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics on Pyrogenic Carbonaceous Materials. (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Zhang, Siyu; Zhang, Xuejiao; Lei, Lei; Ma, Wei; Ma, Chuanxin; Song, Lei; Chen, Jingwen; Pan, Bo; Xing, Baoshan


    Cation-pi attraction is a major force that determines macromolecular structures and drug-receptor interactions. However, the role of the cation-pi interaction in sorption of fluoroquinolone antibiotics by pyrogenic carbonaceous materials (PCMs) has not been addressed. We studied sorption of ciprofloxacin (CIP) on graphite to quantify the contribution of the cation-pi interaction. Through competition experiments, the decreased amount of sorbed CIP by sequential treatment with hexadecane, phenanthrene and benzylamine represents the contribution of hydrophobic, pi-pi and cation-pi interactions, respectively. Benzylamine competed more strongly with CIP than n-hexadecane and phenanthrene, indicating that cation-pi is a major force. Cation-pi interactions accounted for up to 72.6% of the total sorption at an initial CIP concentration of 0.000015 mmol/L. Importantly, species transformation (CIP(0) captures H + from water to form CIP(+1)) induced by cation-pi interactions was verified both experimentally and theoretically and can be used to explain the environmental behavior of other fluoroquinolone antibiotics and biochemical processes of amino acids that interact with aromatic moieties. Because of the significant role of cation-pi interactions, CIP desorption increased up to 2.32 times when Na + increased from 0.01 mM to 0.45 mM, which is an environmentally relevant scenario at river estuaries. Hence, behaviors of fluoroquinolone antibiotics that are affected by ionic strength changes need to be carefully evaluated, especially in river estuaries.

  8. Nonsmooth Newton method for Fischer function reformulation of contact force problems for interactive rigid body simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silcowitz, Morten; Niebe, Sarah Maria; Erleben, Kenny


    contact response. In this paper, we present a new approach to contact force determination. We reformulate the contact force problem as a nonlinear root search problem, using a Fischer function. We solve this problem using a generalized Newton method. Our new Fischer - Newton method shows improved......n interactive physical simulation, contact forces are applied to prevent rigid bodies from penetrating each other. Accurate contact force determination is a computationally hard problem. Thus, in practice one trades accuracy for performance. The result is visual artifacts such as viscous or damped...... qualities for specific configurations where the most widespread alternative, the Projected Gauss-Seidel method, fails. Experiments show superior convergence properties of the exact Fischer - Newton method....

  9. Interaction of Volcanic Forcing and El Nino: Sensitivity to the Eruption Magnitude and El Nino Intensity

    KAUST Repository

    Predybaylo, Evgeniya


    Volcanic aerosols formed in the stratosphere after strong explosive eruptions influence Earth\\'s radiative balance, affecting atmospheric and oceanic temperatures and circulation. It was observed that the recent volcanic eruptions frequently occurred in El Nino years. Analysis of the paleo data confirms that the probability of a sequent El Nino occurrence after the eruption increases. To better understand the physical mechanism of this interaction we employed ocean-atmosphere coupled climate model CM2.1, developed in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, and conducted a series of numerical experiments using initial conditions with different El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) strengths forced by volcanic eruptions of different magnitudes, Pinatubo of June 1991 and Tambora of April 1815: (i) strong ENSO/Pinatubo, (ii) weak ENSO/Pinatubo, (iii) strong ENSO/Tambora. The amount of ejected material from the Tambora eruption was about three times greater than that of the Pinatubo eruption. The initial conditions with El Nino were sampled from the CM2.1 long control run. Our simulations show the enhancement of El Nino in the second year after an eruption. We found that the spatial-temporal structure of model responses is sensitive to both the magnitude of an eruption and the strength of El Nino. We analyzed the ocean dynamic in the tropical Pacific for all cases to uncover the physical mechanism, resulting in the enhanced and/or prolonged El Nino.

  10. Determination, by neutron diffraction, of basic interaction forces for flux pinning in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippmann, G.; Schelten, J.; Schmatz, W.


    A new method has been developed for the determination of the basic interaction force exerted on the flux lines in type II superconductors. From neutron diffraction by flux line lattices in the two-phase system Nb with Nb 2 N precipitates of a well defined metallurgical structure, it is observed that the flux lines are bent due to the presence of pinning centres. A measure for the bending is the width of the rocking curve which is rather directly related to the main basic interaction force (f 2 )sup(1/2). For four specimens with different number densities of precipitates from 1.3 x 10 17 to 1.3 x 10 18 m -3 the force (f 2 )sup(1/2) has been evaluated as a function of the flux density B from the angular widths of the measured rocking curves. These widths ranged from 6' to 4 0 . The basic interaction forces were independent of the number density; at B/Bsub(c2) = 0.5 a value (f 2 )sup(1/2) = 2 x 10 -10 N was obtained. The maximum interaction force K 0 obtained from the pinning force densities for one sample agreed well with (f 2 )sup(1/2). Reasonable agreements result from further comparisons of (f 2 )sup(1/2) with K 0 at B = 0 calculated from superconductivity parameters and also with K 0 S measured by Antesberger and Ullmaier (Antesberger, G. and Ullmaier, H.; 1974, Phil. Mag., vol. 29, 1101) on the alloy NbTa which has a precipitate structure similar to that of the Nb samples. (author)

  11. What is the impact of natural variability and aerosol-cloud interaction on the effective radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosol? (United States)

    Fiedler, S.; Stevens, B.; Mauritsen, T.


    State-of-the-art climate models have persistently shown a spread in estimates of the effective radiative forcing (ERF) associated with anthropogenic aerosol. Different reasons for the spread are known, but their relative importance is poorly understood. In this presentation we investigate the role of natural atmospheric variability, global patterns of aerosol radiative effects, and magnitudes of aerosol-cloud interaction in controlling the ERF of anthropogenic aerosol (Fiedler et al., 2017). We use the Earth system model MPI-ESM1.2 for conducting ensembles of atmosphere-only simulations and calculate the shortwave ERF of anthropogenic aerosol at the top of the atmosphere. The radiative effects are induced with the new parameterisation MACv2-SP (Stevens et al., 2017) that prescribes observationally constrained anthropogenic aerosol optical properties and an associated Twomey effect. Firstly, we compare the ERF of global patterns of anthropogenic aerosol from the mid-1970s and today. Our results suggest that such a substantial pattern difference has a negligible impact on the global mean ERF, when the natural variability of the atmosphere is considered. The clouds herein efficiently mask the clear-sky contributions to the forcing and reduce the detectability of significant anthropogenic aerosol radiative effects in all-sky conditions. Secondly, we strengthen the forcing magnitude through increasing the effect of aerosol-cloud interaction by prescribing an enhanced Twomey effect. In that case, the different spatial pattern of aerosol radiative effects from the mid-1970s and today causes a moderate change (15%) in the ERF of anthropogenic aerosol in our model. This finding lets us speculate that models with strong aerosol-cloud interactions would show a stronger ERF change with anthropogenic aerosol patterns. Testing whether the anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing is model-dependent under prescribed aerosol conditions is currently ongoing work using MACv2-SP in

  12. Modeling Enzymatic Transition States by Force Field Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Bo; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Jensen, Frank


    The SEAM method, which models a transition structure as a minimum on the seam of two diabatic surfaces represented by force field functions, has been used to generate 20 transition structures for the decarboxylation of orotidine by the orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase enzyme. The dependence...... by various electronic structure methods, where part of the enzyme is represented by a force field description and the effects of the solvent are represented by a continuum model. The relative energies vary by several hundreds of kJ/mol between the transition structures, and tests showed that a large part...

  13. Model based control of dynamic atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M.


    A model-based robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H ∞ control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments

  14. Model based control of dynamic atomic force microscope. (United States)

    Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M


    A model-based robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H(∞) control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments.

  15. Semantic models for adaptive interactive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Tim; Lukosch, Stephan; Ziegler, Jürgen; Calvary, Gaëlle


    Providing insights into methodologies for designing adaptive systems based on semantic data, and introducing semantic models that can be used for building interactive systems, this book showcases many of the applications made possible by the use of semantic models.Ontologies may enhance the functional coverage of an interactive system as well as its visualization and interaction capabilities in various ways. Semantic models can also contribute to bridging gaps; for example, between user models, context-aware interfaces, and model-driven UI generation. There is considerable potential for using

  16. Surface potential modeling and reconstruction in Kelvin probe force microscopy. (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Wu, Yangqing; Li, Wei; Xu, Jun


    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurement has been extensively applied in metallic, semiconductor and organic electronic or photovoltaic devices, to characterize the local contact potential difference or surface potential of the samples at the nanoscale. Here, a comprehensive modeling of surface potential in KPFM is established, from the well-known single capacitance model to a precise electrodynamic model, considering the long range property of the electrostatic force in KPFM. The limitations and relations of different models are also discussed. Besides, the feedback condition of the KPFM system is reconsidered and modified, showing that the influence of the cantilever has been overestimated by about 20% in previous reports. Afterwards, the surface potential of charged Si-nanocrystals is reconstructed based on the electrodynamic model, and the calculated surface charge density is very consistent with the macroscopic capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement. A deep understanding and correct reconstruction of surface potential is crucial to the quantitative analysis of KPFM results.

  17. Theoretical modelling, analysis and validation of the shaft motion and dynamic forces during rotor–stator contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar


    This paper deals with the theoretical study of a horizontal shaft, partially levitated by a passive magnetic bearing, impacting its stator. Rigid body dynamics are utilised in order to describe the governing nonlinear equations of motion of the shaft interacting with a passive magnetic bearing...... and stator. Expressions for the restoring magnetic forces are derived using Biot Savart law for uniformed magnetised bar magnets and the contact forces are derived by use of a compliant contact force model. The theoretical mathematical model is verified with experimental results, and shows good agreements....... However, the simulated contact forces are higher in magnitude compared to the experimental results. The cause of this disagreement is addressed and shows that the formulation of the theoretical contact force model slightly overestimates the forces acting during a full annular backward whirl motion....

  18. Modelling Multiple Mind-Matter Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.


    Relations between mental and physical aspects of an agent can be of various types. Sensing and acting are among the more commonly modelled types. In agent modelling approaches often this is the only interaction between the physical and mental; other possible types of interactions are abstracted

  19. Unraveling protein-protein interactions in clathrin assemblies via atomic force spectroscopy. (United States)

    Jin, Albert J; Lafer, Eileen M; Peng, Jennifer Q; Smith, Paul D; Nossal, Ralph


    Atomic force microscopy (AFM), single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS), and single particle force spectroscopy (SPFS) are used to characterize intermolecular interactions and domain structures of clathrin triskelia and clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). The latter are involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) and other trafficking pathways. Here, we subject individual triskelia, bovine-brain CCVs, and reconstituted clathrin-AP180 coats to AFM-SMFS and AFM-SPFS pulling experiments and apply novel analytics to extract force-extension relations from very large data sets. The spectroscopic fingerprints of these samples differ markedly, providing important new information about the mechanism of CCV uncoating. For individual triskelia, SMFS reveals a series of events associated with heavy chain alpha-helix hairpin unfolding, as well as cooperative unraveling of several hairpin domains. SPFS of clathrin assemblies exposes weaker clathrin-clathrin interactions that are indicative of inter-leg association essential for RME and intracellular trafficking. Clathrin-AP180 coats are energetically easier to unravel than the coats of CCVs, with a non-trivial dependence on force-loading rate. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Parabolized Stability Equations analysis of nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes to control subsonic jet instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itasse, Maxime; Brazier, Jean-Philippe; Léon, Olivier; Casalis, Grégoire


    Nonlinear evolution of disturbances in an axisymmetric, high subsonic, high Reynolds number hot jet with forced eigenmodes is studied using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) approach to understand how modes interact with one another. Both frequency and azimuthal harmonic interactions are analyzed by setting up one or two modes at higher initial amplitudes and various phases. While single mode excitation leads to harmonic growth and jet noise amplification, controlling the evolution of a specific mode has been made possible by forcing two modes (m 1 , n 1 ), (m 2 , n 2 ), such that the difference in azimuth and in frequency matches the desired “target” mode (m 1 − m 2 , n 1 − n 2 ). A careful setup of the initial amplitudes and phases of the forced modes, defined as the “killer” modes, has allowed the minimizing of the initially dominant instability in the near pressure field, as well as its estimated radiated noise with a 15 dB loss. Although an increase of the overall sound pressure has been found in the range of azimuth and frequency analyzed, the present paper reveals the possibility to make the initially dominant instability ineffective acoustically using nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes

  1. Parabolized Stability Equations analysis of nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes to control subsonic jet instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itasse, Maxime, E-mail:; Brazier, Jean-Philippe, E-mail:; Léon, Olivier, E-mail:; Casalis, Grégoire, E-mail: [Onera - The French Aerospace Lab, F-31055 Toulouse (France)


    Nonlinear evolution of disturbances in an axisymmetric, high subsonic, high Reynolds number hot jet with forced eigenmodes is studied using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) approach to understand how modes interact with one another. Both frequency and azimuthal harmonic interactions are analyzed by setting up one or two modes at higher initial amplitudes and various phases. While single mode excitation leads to harmonic growth and jet noise amplification, controlling the evolution of a specific mode has been made possible by forcing two modes (m{sub 1}, n{sub 1}), (m{sub 2}, n{sub 2}), such that the difference in azimuth and in frequency matches the desired “target” mode (m{sub 1} − m{sub 2}, n{sub 1} − n{sub 2}). A careful setup of the initial amplitudes and phases of the forced modes, defined as the “killer” modes, has allowed the minimizing of the initially dominant instability in the near pressure field, as well as its estimated radiated noise with a 15 dB loss. Although an increase of the overall sound pressure has been found in the range of azimuth and frequency analyzed, the present paper reveals the possibility to make the initially dominant instability ineffective acoustically using nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes.

  2. Nanophotonic force microscopy: characterizing particle-surface interactions using near-field photonics. (United States)

    Schein, Perry; Kang, Pilgyu; O'Dell, Dakota; Erickson, David


    Direct measurements of particle-surface interactions are important for characterizing the stability and behavior of colloidal and nanoparticle suspensions. Current techniques are limited in their ability to measure pico-Newton scale interaction forces on submicrometer particles due to signal detection limits and thermal noise. Here we present a new technique for making measurements in this regime, which we refer to as nanophotonic force microscopy. Using a photonic crystal resonator, we generate a strongly localized region of exponentially decaying, near-field light that allows us to confine small particles close to a surface. From the statistical distribution of the light intensity scattered by the particle we are able to map out the potential well of the trap and directly quantify the repulsive force between the nanoparticle and the surface. As shown in this Letter, our technique is not limited by thermal noise, and therefore, we are able to resolve interaction forces smaller than 1 pN on dielectric particles as small as 100 nm in diameter.

  3. Models and control for force/torque sensors in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Gert.


    One of the important problems in automatic assembly is the relative positioning accuracy between the parts in the assembly process. Inaccurate positions cause large insertion forces, wear and might damage the parts. They can also completely disable the assembly process. A solution to this problem is to detect the positioning error and to make a relevant adjustment of the position or path. This thesis presents a solution based on active feedback of force/torque data from a wrist mounted sensor. A task independent control algorithm has been realized through a sensor model concept. The sensor model includes an algorithm that transforms force/torque input to relevant motion of the end effector. The transformation is specified by a set of parameters e.g. desired forces, compliance and stopping criteria. The problem with gravity forces for varying end effector orientation is compensated by an algorithm, divided into three complexity levels. The compensation method includes a calibration sequence to ensure valid end effector properties to be used in the algorithm. A problem with available robot technology is bad integration possibilities for external sensors. To allow necessary modifications and expansions, an open and general control system architecture is proposed. The architecture is based in a computer workstation and transputers in pipeline for the robot specific operations. (au)

  4. Critique of a pion exchange model for interquark forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isgur, N.


    The author describes four serious defects of a widely discuss pion exchange model for interquark forces: it doesn't solve the ''spin-orbit problem'' as advertised, it fails to describe the internal structure of baryon resonances, it leads to disastrous conclusions when extended to mesons, and it is not reasonably connected to the physics of heavy-light systems

  5. Geometric Aspects of Force Controllability for a Swimming Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khapalov, A. Y.


    We study controllability properties (swimming capabilities) of a mathematical model of an abstract object which 'swims' in the 2-D Stokes fluid. Our goal is to investigate how the geometric shape of this object affects the forces acting upon it. Such problems are of interest in biology and engineering applications dealing with propulsion systems in fluids

  6. Binding Forces and Teachers' School Life: A Recursive Model. (United States)

    Pang, Nicolas Sun-Keung


    Formulates theoretical model of four binding forces in school organizations--bureaucratic linkage, cultural linkage, tight coupling, and loose coupling--and examines their effects on teachers' feelings about school life. Finds, for example, that loose coupling had a positive effect on teachers' sense of community, job satisfaction, and commitment.…

  7. Modelling equation of knee force during instep kicking using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the biomechanics analysis of the football players, to obtain the equation that relates with the variables and to get the force model equation when the kicking was made. The subjects delivered instep kicking by using the dominant's leg where one subjects using right and left leg. 2 Dimensional analysis ...

  8. Soil-blade orientation effect on tillage forces determined by 3D finite element models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayadi Ibrahmi


    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of the cutting parameters of a blade on the tillage force components using finite element modeling. A three-dimensional model was carried out with Abaqus Explicit in order to study the interaction between the tool and soil. The soil was modeled with linear forms of the Drucker-Pager model, while the tool was considered as a rigid body with a reference point taken at its tip. The effect of tillage depth and the width of a vertical blade were studied. It was found that the amounts of the draught and vertical forces increase linearly with a slope of 0.037 and 0.0143 respectively when the width increases. The narrow tool (width< 60mm has a greater effect on the specific draught force than a larger tool. Draught and specific draught force increase with polynomial and linear curve respectively versus the depth. However, this effect was reduced for the vertical force. These results were in a good agreement with previously published works. The second part of this paper is focused on the oblique position of the blade to evaluate the effect of the attack angles on both the tillage forces (draught, lateral and vertical and the cutting process of the soil during and after its failure. For all considered angles, the draught force presents the highest values compared to the vertical and lateral forces. Results showed that working with small cutting and an average rake angles (30° to 60° and 45° respectively can produce a good soil inversion.

  9. Modeling unsteady forces and pressures on a rapidly pitching airfoil (United States)

    Schiavone, Nicole K.; Dawson, Scott T. M.; Rowley, Clarence W.; Williams, David R.


    This work develops models to quantify and understand the unsteady aerodynamic forces arising from rapid pitching motion of a NACA0012 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 50 000. The system identification procedure applies a generalized DMD-type algorithm to time-resolved wind tunnel measurements of the lift and drag forces, as well as the pressure at six locations on the suction surface of the airfoil. Models are identified for 5-degree pitch-up and pitch-down maneuvers within the overall range of 0-20 degrees. The identified models can accurately capture the effects of flow separation and leading-edge vortex formation and convection. We demonstrate that switching between different linear models can give accurate prediction of the nonlinear behavior that is present in high-amplitude maneuvers. The models are accurate for a wide-range of motions, including pitch-and-hold, sinusoidal, and pseudo-random pitching maneuvers. Providing the models access to a subset of the measured data channels can allow for improved estimates of the remaining states via the use of a Kalman filter, suggesting that the modeling framework could be useful for aerodynamic control applications. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, under Award No. FA9550-12-1-0075.

  10. Mathematical models and methods of localized interaction theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bunimovich, AI


    The interaction of the environment with a moving body is called "localized" if it has been found or assumed that the force or/and thermal influence of the environment on each body surface point is independent and can be determined by the local geometrical and kinematical characteristics of this point as well as by the parameters of the environment and body-environment interactions which are the same for the whole surface of contact.Such models are widespread in aerodynamics and gas dynamics, covering supersonic and hypersonic flows, and rarefied gas flows. They describe the influence of light

  11. Forced versus coupled dynamics in Earth system modelling and prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Knopf


    Full Text Available We compare coupled nonlinear climate models and their simplified forced counterparts with respect to predictability and phase space topology. Various types of uncertainty plague climate change simulation, which is, in turn, a crucial element of Earth System modelling. Since the currently preferred strategy for simulating the climate system, or the Earth System at large, is the coupling of sub-system modules (representing, e.g. atmosphere, oceans, global vegetation, this paper explicitly addresses the errors and indeterminacies generated by the coupling procedure. The focus is on a comparison of forced dynamics as opposed to fully, i.e. intrinsically, coupled dynamics. The former represents a particular type of simulation, where the time behaviour of one complex systems component is prescribed by data or some other external information source. Such a simplifying technique is often employed in Earth System models in order to save computing resources, in particular when massive model inter-comparisons need to be carried out. Our contribution to the debate is based on the investigation of two representative model examples, namely (i a low-dimensional coupled atmosphere-ocean simulator, and (ii a replica-like simulator embracing corresponding components.Whereas in general the forced version (ii is able to mimic its fully coupled counterpart (i, we show in this paper that for a considerable fraction of parameter- and state-space, the two approaches qualitatively differ. Here we take up a phenomenon concerning the predictability of coupled versus forced models that was reported earlier in this journal: the observation that the time series of the forced version display artificial predictive skill. We present an explanation in terms of nonlinear dynamical theory. In particular we observe an intermittent version of artificial predictive skill, which we call on-off synchronization, and trace it back to the appearance of unstable periodic orbits. We also

  12. Improved Generalized Force Model considering the Comfortable Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Jie Xu


    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved generalized force model (IGFM that considers the driver’s comfortable driving behavior. Through theoretical analysis, we propose the calculation methods of comfortable driving distance and velocity. Then the stability condition of the model is obtained by the linear stability analysis. The problems of the unrealistic acceleration of the leading car existing in the previous models were solved. Furthermore, the simulation results show that IGFM can predict correct delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density, and it can exactly describe the driver’s behavior under an urgent case, where no collision occurs. The dynamic properties of IGFM also indicate that stability has improved compared to the generalized force model.

  13. Hermitian Matrix Model with Plaquette Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chekhov, L.; Kristjansen, C.


    We study a hermitian $(n+1)$-matrix model with plaquette interaction, $\\sum_{i=1}^n MA_iMA_i$. By means of a conformal transformation we rewrite the model as an $O(n)$ model on a random lattice with a non polynomial potential. This allows us to solve the model exactly. We investigate the critical...

  14. Modeling of soil-water-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Tian

    to dynamic ocean waves. The goal of this research project is to develop numerical soil models for computing realistic seabed response in the interacting offshore environment, where ocean waves, seabed and offshore structure highly interact with each other. The seabed soil models developed are based...... as the developed nonlinear soil displacements and stresses under monotonic and cyclic loading. With the FVM nonlinear coupled soil models as a basis, multiphysics modeling of wave-seabed-structure interaction is carried out. The computations are done in an open source code environment, OpenFOAM, where FVM models...... of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and structural mechanics are available. The interaction in the system is modeled in a 1-way manner: First detailed free surface CFD calculations are executed to obtain a realistic wave field around a given structure. Then the dynamic structural response, due to the motions...


    Huang, Lei; Roux, Benoît


    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on atomistic models are increasingly used to study a wide range of biological systems. A prerequisite for meaningful results from such simulations is an accurate molecular mechanical force field. Most biomolecular simulations are currently based on the widely used AMBER and CHARMM force fields, which were parameterized and optimized to cover a small set of basic compounds corresponding to the natural amino acids and nucleic acid bases. Atomic models of additional compounds are commonly generated by analogy to the parameter set of a given force field. While this procedure yields models that are internally consistent, the accuracy of the resulting models can be limited. In this work, we propose a method, General Automated Atomic Model Parameterization (GAAMP), for generating automatically the parameters of atomic models of small molecules using the results from ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) calculations as target data. Force fields that were previously developed for a wide range of model compounds serve as initial guess, although any of the final parameter can be optimized. The electrostatic parameters (partial charges, polarizabilities and shielding) are optimized on the basis of QM electrostatic potential (ESP) and, if applicable, the interaction energies between the compound and water molecules. The soft dihedrals are automatically identified and parameterized by targeting QM dihedral scans as well as the energies of stable conformers. To validate the approach, the solvation free energy is calculated for more than 200 small molecules and MD simulations of 3 different proteins are carried out.

  16. Model tests on overall forces on the SSG pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Morris, Alex

    This report presents the results on overall forces acting on the SSG structure in 3D wave conditions. This study was done according to the Co-operation agreement between WEVEnergy AS (Norway) and Aalborg University, Department of Civil Engineering of which the present report is part of Phase 5....... The tests have been realized at the Department of civil Engineering, AAU, in the 3D deep water tank with a scale model 1:60 to prototype and a reproduced bathymetry of the selected location at the time of the experiments. Overall forces and moments have been measured during the tests. The results are given...

  17. Effects of wave-induced forcing on a circulation model of the North Sea (United States)

    Staneva, Joanna; Alari, Victor; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian


    The effect of wind waves on water level and currents during two storms in the North Sea is investigated using a high-resolution Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) model forced with fluxes and fields from a high-resolution wave model. The additional terms accounting for wave-current interaction that are considered in this study are the Stokes-Coriolis force, the sea-state-dependent energy and momentum fluxes. The individual and collective role of these processes is quantified and the results are compared with a control run without wave effects as well as against current and water-level measurements from coastal stations. We find a better agreement with observations when the circulation model is forced by sea-state-dependent fluxes, especially in extreme events. The two extreme events, the storm Christian (25-27 October 2013), and about a month later, the storm Xaver (5-7 December 2013), induce different wave and surge conditions over the North Sea. Including the wave effects in the circulation model for the storm Xaver raises the modelled surge by more than 40 cm compared with the control run in the German Bight area. For the storm Christian, a difference of 20-30 cm in the surge level between the wave-forced and the stand-alone ocean model is found over the whole southern part of the North Sea. Moreover, the modelled vertical velocity profile fits the observations very well when the wave forcing is accounted for. The contribution of wave-induced forcing has been quantified indicating that this represents an important mechanism for improving water-level and current predictions.

  18. Interaction between local parameters of two-phase flow and random forces on a cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylviane Pascal-Ribot; Yves Blanchet; Franck Baj; Phillippe Piteau


    Full text of publication follows: In the frame of assessments of steam generator tube bundle vibrations, a study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of an air/water flow on turbulent buffeting forces induced on a cylinder. The main purpose is to relate the physical parameters characterizing an air/water two-phase crossflow with the structural loading of a fixed cylindrical tube. In this first approach, the experiments are carried out in a rectangular acrylic test section supplied with a vertical upward bubbly flow. This flow is transversally impeded by a fixed rigid 12,15 mm diameter cylinder. Different turbulence grids are used in order to modify two-phase characteristics such as bubble diameter, void fraction profile, fluctuation parameters. Preliminarily, a dimensional analysis of fluid-structure interaction under two-phase turbulent solicitations has enabled to identify a list of physically relevant variables which must be measured to evaluate the random forces. The meaning of these relevant parameters as well as the effect of flow patterns are discussed. Direct measurements of two-phase flow parameters are performed simultaneously with measurements of forces exerted on the cylinder. The main descriptive parameters of a two-phase flow are measured using a bi-optical probe, in particular void fraction profiles, interfacial velocities, bubble diameters, void fraction fluctuations. In the same time, the magnitude of random forces caused by two-phase flow is measured with a force transducer. A thorough analysis of the experimental data is then undertaken in order to correlate physical two-phase mechanisms with the random forces exerted on the cylinder. The hypotheses made while applying the dimensional analysis are verified and their pertinence is discussed. Finally, physical parameters involved in random buffeting forces applied on a transverse tube are proposed to scale the spectral magnitude of these forces and comparisons with other authors

  19. Reevaluating plate driving forces from 3-D models of subduction (United States)

    Stegman, D. R.; Freeman, J.; Schellart, W. P.; Moresi, L.; May, D.; Turnbull, R.


    Subducting lithospheric slabs mechanically attached to tectonic plates provide the main driving force for surface plate motion. Numerical models historically simulate slab dynamics as a 2-D process and further simplify the problem into either a density driven model (no heat transfer) or a corner-flow problem (thermal convection) [Christensen, 2001; Enns et al., (in revision); van Keken, 2003]. Recent 3-D global models of density driven flow incorporating a history of plate motion (Conrad and Lithgow-Bertelloni, 2002) have succussfully ruled out slab "suction" (basal shear traction induced by downward flow of the slabs) as a major driving force, but exact partitioning of the remaining forces acting on the slab remain unconstrained. A survey of trenches around the world reveals that over half of the slabs presently subducted in the upper mantle have a discontinuous edge (either a slab tip on a young slab, or the side edge of a slab with finite width) around which mantle can flow: prime examples being slabs in the Mediterranean and Carribean. However, even slabs with a wide lateral extent (and where a 2-D approximation may seem appropriate), show signs of having 3-D complexity. For example, on the surface Tonga appears relatively symmetric, but when the history of subduction is considered, the slab has a twisted, 3-D structure due to significant eastward retreat of just the northern part of an originally N-S oriented trench edge. Similarly the widest slabs, South American and Kamchatka, show seismic anisotropy attributed to trench parallel mantle flow (Russo and Silver, 1994; Peyton, et al., 2001, respectively), while the Aleutian trench has oblique subduction varying in magnitude from west to east, and medium width Central American slab likely has a slab window allowing 3-D flow (Johnston and Thorkelson, 1997). Recent laboratory experiments of subduction have demonstrated the full complexity of flow occuring in 3-D geometry (Kincaid and Griffiths, 2003; Schellart

  20. Use of Atomic Force Microscopy to Study the Multi-Modular Interaction of Bacterial Adhesins to Mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patrick Gunning


    Full Text Available The mucus layer covering the gastrointestinal (GI epithelium is critical in selecting and maintaining homeostatic interactions with our gut bacteria. However, the molecular details of these interactions are not well understood. Here, we provide mechanistic insights into the adhesion properties of the canonical mucus-binding protein (MUB, a large multi-repeat cell–surface adhesin found in Lactobacillus inhabiting the GI tract. We used atomic force microscopy to unravel the mechanism driving MUB-mediated adhesion to mucins. Using single-molecule force spectroscopy we showed that MUB displayed remarkable adhesive properties favouring a nanospring-like adhesion model between MUB and mucin mediated by unfolding of the multiple repeats constituting the adhesin. We obtained direct evidence for MUB self-interaction; MUB–MUB followed a similar binding pattern, confirming that MUB modular structure mediated such mechanism. This was in marked contrast with the mucin adhesion behaviour presented by Galectin-3 (Gal-3, a mammalian lectin characterised by a single carbohydrate binding domain (CRD. The binding mechanisms reported here perfectly match the particular structural organization of MUB, which maximizes interactions with the mucin glycan receptors through its long and linear multi-repeat structure, potentiating the retention of bacteria within the outer mucus layer.

  1. Polyphilic Interactions as Structural Driving Force Investigated by Molecular Dynamics Simulation (Project 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Peschel


    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of fluorinated molecules on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC bilayers by force-field molecular dynamics simulations. In the first step, we developed all-atom force-field parameters for additive molecules in membranes to enable an accurate description of those systems. On the basis of this force field, we performed extensive simulations of various bilayer systems containing different additives. The additive molecules were chosen to be of different size and shape, and they included small molecules such as perfluorinated alcohols, but also more complex molecules. From these simulations, we investigated the structural and dynamic effects of the additives on the membrane properties, as well as the behavior of the additive molecules themselves. Our results are in good agreement with other theoretical and experimental studies, and they contribute to a microscopic understanding of interactions, which might be used to specifically tune membrane properties by additives in the future.

  2. Model Engine Performance Measurement From Force Balance Instrumentation (United States)

    Jeracki, Robert J.


    A large scale model representative of a low-noise, high bypass ratio turbofan engine was tested for acoustics and performance in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. This test was part of NASA's continuing Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. The low tip speed fan, nacelle, and an un-powered core passage (with core inlet guide vanes) were simulated. The fan blades and hub are mounted on a rotating thrust and torque balance. The nacelle, bypass duct stators, and core passage are attached to a six component force balance. The two balance forces, when corrected for internal pressure tares, measure the total thrust-minus-drag of the engine simulator. Corrected for scaling and other effects, it is basically the same force that the engine supports would feel, operating at similar conditions. A control volume is shown and discussed, identifying the various force components of the engine simulator thrust and definitions of net thrust. Several wind tunnel runs with nearly the same hardware installed are compared, to identify the repeatability of the measured thrust-minus-drag. Other wind tunnel runs, with hardware changes that affected fan performance, are compared to the baseline configuration, and the thrust and torque effects are shown. Finally, a thrust comparison between the force balance and nozzle gross thrust methods is shown, and both yield very similar results.

  3. Empirical Modeling of Solar Radiation Pressure Forces Affecting GPS Satellites (United States)

    Sibthorpe, A.; Weiss, J. P.; Harvey, N.; Kuang, D.; Bar-Sever, Y.


    At an altitude of approximately 20,000km above the Earth, Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP) forces on Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites are second in magnitude only to the gravitational attractive forces exerted by the Earth, Sun and Moon. As GPS orbit processing strategies reach unprecedented levels of precision and accuracy, subtle effects from different GPS SRP models are beginning to emerge above the noise floor. We present an updated approach to the empirical modeling of SRP forces on GPS satellites using 14 years of data. We assess the models via orbit prediction and orbit determination using a suite of internal and external metrics. Our new model results in >10% average improvement of 8th-day orbit prediction differences (3D RMS) for block IIA and IIR satellites against our best final orbit solutions. Internal orbit overlaps from precise orbit determination improve by 7%. We additionally assess the impacts of the updated SRP models on satellite laser range residuals, carrier phase ambiguity resolution, and estimation of earth orientation parameters.

  4. Links between the charge model and bonded parameter force constants in biomolecular force fields (United States)

    Cerutti, David S.; Debiec, Karl T.; Case, David A.; Chong, Lillian T.


    The ff15ipq protein force field is a fixed charge model built by automated tools based on the two charge sets of the implicitly polarized charge method: one set (appropriate for vacuum) for deriving bonded parameters and the other (appropriate for aqueous solution) for running simulations. The duality is intended to treat water-induced electronic polarization with an understanding that fitting data for bonded parameters will come from quantum mechanical calculations in the gas phase. In this study, we compare ff15ipq to two alternatives produced with the same fitting software and a further expanded data set but following more conventional methods for tailoring bonded parameters (harmonic angle terms and torsion potentials) to the charge model. First, ff15ipq-Qsolv derives bonded parameters in the context of the ff15ipq solution phase charge set. Second, ff15ipq-Vac takes ff15ipq's bonded parameters and runs simulations with the vacuum phase charge set used to derive those parameters. The IPolQ charge model and associated protocol for deriving bonded parameters are shown to be an incremental improvement over protocols that do not account for the material phases of each source of their fitting data. Both force fields incorporating the polarized charge set depict stable globular proteins and have varying degrees of success modeling the metastability of short (5-19 residues) peptides. In this particular case, ff15ipq-Qsolv increases stability in a number of α -helices, correctly obtaining 70% helical character in the K19 system at 275 K and showing appropriately diminishing content up to 325 K, but overestimating the helical fraction of AAQAA3 by 50% or more, forming long-lived α -helices in simulations of a β -hairpin, and increasing the likelihood that the disordered p53 N-terminal peptide will also form a helix. This may indicate a systematic bias imparted by the ff15ipq-Qsolv parameter development strategy, which has the hallmarks of strategies used to develop

  5. A Method for Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Le Guilly, Thibaut; Ravn, Anders Peter


    This paper presents a method to check for feature interactions in a system assembled from independently developed concurrent processes as found in many reactive systems. The method combines and refines existing definitions and adds a set of activities. The activities describe how to populate the ...... the definitions with models to ensure that all interactions are captured. The method is illustrated on a home automation example with model checking as analysis tool. In particular, the modelling formalism is timed automata and the analysis uses UPPAAL to find interactions....

  6. Interactive Multimedia Software on Fundamental Particles and Forces. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jack Sculley


    Research in the SBIR Phase 2 grant number 95 ER 81944 centered on creating interactive multimedia software for teaching basic concepts in particle physics on fundamental particles and forces. The work was undertaken from February 1997 through July 1998. Overall the project has produced some very encouraging results in terms of product development, interest from the general public and interest from potential Phase 3 funders. Although the original Phase 3 publisher, McGraw Hill Home Interactive, was dissolved by its parent company, and other changes in the CD-ROM industry forced them to change their focus from CD-ROM to the Internet, there has been substantial interest from software publishers and online content providers in the content developed in the course of the Phase 2 research. Results are summarized

  7. Gauge unification of basic forces particularly of gravitation with strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.


    Corresponding to the two known types of gauge theories, Yang-Mills with spin-one mediating particles and Einstein Weyl with spin-two mediating particles, it is speculated that two distinct gauge unifications of the basic forces appear to be taking place. One is the familiar Yang-Mills unification of weak and electromagnetic forces with the strong. The second is the less familiar gauge unification of gravitation with spin-two tensor-dominated aspects of strong interactions. It is proposed that there are strongly interacting spin-two strong gravitons obeying Einstein's equations, and their existence gives a clue to an understanding of the (partial) confinement of quarks, as well as of the concept of hadronic temperature, through the use of Schwarzschild de-Sitter-like partially confining solitonic solutions of the strong gravity Einstein equation

  8. Two dimensional compass model with Heisenberg interactions (United States)

    Pires, A. S. T.


    We consider a two dimensional compass model with a next and a next near Heisenberg term. The interactions are of two types: frustrated near neighbor compass interactions of amplitudes Jx and Jy, and next and next near neighbor Heisenberg interactions with exchanges J1 and J2 respectively. The Heisenberg interactions are isotropic in spin space, but the compass interactions depend on the bond direction. The ground state of the pure compass model is degenerated with a complex phase diagram. This degeneracy is removed by the Heisenberg terms leading to the arising of a magnetically ordered phase with a preferred direction. We calculate the phase diagrams at zero temperature for the case where, for J2 = 0, we have an antiferromagnetic ground state. We show that varying the value of J2, a magnetically disordered phase can be reached for small values of the compass interactions. We also calculate the critical temperature for a specified value of parameters.

  9. Research on Evacuation Based on Social Force Model (United States)

    Liu, W.; Deng, Z.; Li, W.; Lin, J.


    Crowded centers always cause personnel casualties in evacuation operations. Stampede events often occur by hit, squeeze and crush due to panic. It is of vital important to alleviate such situation. With the deepening of personnel evacuation research, more and more researchers are committed to study individual behaviors and self-organization phenomenon in evacuation process. The study mainly includes: 1, enrich the social force model from different facets such as visual, psychological, external force to descript more realistic evacuation; 2, research on causes and effects of self - organization phenomenon. In this paper, we focus on disorder motion that occurs in the crowded indoor publics, especially the narrow channel and safety exits and other special arteries. We put forward the improved social force model to depict pedestrians' behaviors, an orderly speed-stratification evacuation method to solve disorder problem, and shape-changed export to alleviate congestion. The result of this work shows an improvement of evacuation efficiency by 19.5 %. Guiding pedestrians' direction to slow down the influence of social forces has a guidance function in improving the efficiency of indoor emergency evacuation.

  10. Finite element for rotor/stator interactive forces in general engine dynamic simulation. Part 1: Development of bearing damper element (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Padovan, J.; Fertis, D. G.


    A general purpose squeeze-film damper interactive force element was developed, coded into a software package (module) and debugged. This software package was applied to nonliner dynamic analyses of some simple rotor systems. Results for pressure distributions show that the long bearing (end sealed) is a stronger bearing as compared to the short bearing as expected. Results of the nonlinear dynamic analysis, using a four degree of freedom simulation model, showed that the orbit of the rotating shaft increases nonlinearity to fill the bearing clearance as the unbalanced weight increases.

  11. Using Interaction Scenarios to Model Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars; Bøgh Andersen, Peter

    The purpose of this paper is to define and discuss a set of interaction primitives that can be used to model the dynamics of socio-technical activity systems, including information systems, in a way that emphasizes structural aspects of the interaction that occurs in such systems. The primitives...

  12. Understanding Transient Forcing with Plasma Instability Model, Ionospheric Propagation Model and GNSS Observations (United States)

    Deshpande, K.; Zettergren, M. D.; Datta-Barua, S.


    Fluctuations in the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals observed as amplitude and phase scintillations are produced by plasma density structures in the ionosphere. Phase scintillation events in particular occur due to structures at Fresnel scales, typically about 250 meters at ionospheric heights and GNSS frequency. Likely processes contributing to small-scale density structuring in auroral and polar regions include ionospheric gradient-drift instability (GDI) and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI), which result, generally, from magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions (e.g. reconnection) associated with cusp and auroral zone regions. Scintillation signals, ostensibly from either GDI or KHI, are frequently observed in the high latitude ionosphere and are potentially useful diagnostics of how energy from the transient forcing in the cusp or polar cap region cascades, via instabilities, to small scales. However, extracting quantitative details of instabilities leading to scintillation using GNSS data drastically benefits from both a model of the irregularities and a model of GNSS signal propagation through irregular media. This work uses a physics-based model of the generation of plasma density irregularities (GEMINI - Geospace Environment Model of Ion-Neutral Interactions) coupled to an ionospheric radio wave propagation model (SIGMA - Satellite-beacon Ionospheric-scintillation Global Model of the upper Atmosphere) to explore the cascade of density structures from medium to small (sub-kilometer) scales. Specifically, GEMINI-SIGMA is used to simulate expected scintillation from different instabilities during various stages of evolution to determine features of the scintillation that may be useful to studying ionospheric density structures. Furthermore we relate the instabilities producing GNSS scintillations to the transient space and time-dependent magnetospheric phenomena and further predict characteristics of scintillation in different geophysical

  13. Stochastic Climate Forcing for Ice-Sheet Models (United States)

    Nuterman, Roman; Jochum, Markus


    Climate oscillations from glacial periods, with large parts of the continents covered with ice, to warm interglacials like the present one, are observed in various paleoclimatic records over the past few million years. According to Milankovitch theory, which is commonly assumed, these glacial cycles are linked to changes in insolation due to periodic changes of external earth-orbital forcing. However, this relationship is far from understood, because the insolation variations are so small that enhancing feedbacks must be at play. Moreover, there are several shortcomings in the Milankovitch theory: first, the duration of the glacial cycles changed at the so-called Mid-Pleistocene transition from 41,000 years to approximately 100,000 years and second, the interglacial of 400,000 years ago should not have happened. Thus, the current phasing and magnitude of the glacial cycles are far from being well understood and the external perturbation might only play a minor role in comparison to internal stochastic variations or internal oscillations. Although modern Ice-Sheet Models (ISM) are able to simulate evolution of ice-sheets at the entire glacial or interglacial time scales, the state-of-the-art Earth System Models (ESM) are too computationally expensive for such long integrations. Therefore, a constant climate forcing is usually used in the ice-sheet models. However, this approach does not take into account the stochastic nature of climate. At the same time, ESM models provide valuable information on natural climate variability, which then can be used for building stochastic climate models able to generate both continuous and discrete climate variables with stochastic atmospheric processes. In this study, we present a stochastic climate model, built from large sets of Community Earth System Model (CESM) integrations with both internal and external climate forcing, and able to generate synthetic climate forcing (such as temperature and precipitation fields) of any

  14. Syndetic model of fundamental interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ma


    Full Text Available The standard model of quarks and leptons is extended to connect three outstanding issues in particle physics and astrophysics: (1 the absence of strong CP nonconservation, (2 the existence of dark matter, and (3 the mechanism of nonzero neutrino masses, and that of the first family of quarks and leptons, all in the context of having only one Higgs boson in a renormalizable theory. Some phenomenological implications are discussed.

  15. Interaction Between Orbital and Millennial Forcing of the Australasian Monsoon Over the Last 40,000 Years (United States)

    Krause, C.; Gagan, M. K.; Dunbar, G.; Hellstrom, J.; Phipps, S. J.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.; Hantoro, W. S.; Abram, N.; Rifai, H.


    Orbital forcing of the global monsoon has been demonstrated on precessional timescales, however, the interactions between orbital and millennial-scale drivers of the monsoon are yet to be explored. Understanding these interactions, particularly across the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP), may help explain the varied monsoon response to Heinrich events in this region. Here we present a uranium-thorium dated speleothem δ18O record for southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia (5°S) that documents changes in Indo-Australian Summer Monsoon (IASM) rainfall over the last 40,000 years. We illustrate the spatial and temporal migration of the monsoon in response to precessional forcing through the development of a paleomonsoon map, which combines our new δ18O record with previously published speleothem δ18O records from the region. The paleomonsoon map characterizes rainfall patterns across the WPWP, and highlights the sensitivity of the periphery of the monsoon to threshold rainfall conditions caused by movement in the mean location of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in response to insolation forcing. In contrast, rainfall variability in the core of the monsoon system is consistently subdued. Together, the speleothem δ18O records show that the manifestation of Heinrich events within the monsoon domain is modulated by precession-scale changes in the hemispheric difference in summer insolation. For example, during maximum southern summer insolation, when the ITCZ is south of the equator, Heinrich events amplify the underlying climate state by pushing the ITCZ even further southward, thus leading to a strong monsoon response. Our findings are supported by paleoclimate model experiments run using the CSIRO Mk3L GCM, which show an amplification (dampening) of the model monsoon response to a simulated Heinrich event under maximum southern (northern) hemisphere summer insolation forcing.

  16. Integral bubble and jet models with pressure forces (United States)

    Vulfson, A. N.; Nikolaev, P. V.


    Modifications of integral bubble and jet models including the pressure force are proposed. Exact solutions are found for the modified model of a stationary convective jet from a point source of buoyancy and momentum. The exact solutions are compared against analytical solutions of the integral models for a stationary jet that are based on the approximation of the vertical boundary layer. It is found that the modified integral models of convective jets retain the power-law dependences on the altitude for the vertical velocity and buoyancy obtained in classical models. For a buoyant jet in a neutrally stratified atmosphere, the inclusion of the pressure force increases the amplitude of buoyancy and decreases the amplitude of vertical velocity. The total amplitude change is about 10%. It is shown that in this model there is a dynamic invariant expressing the law of a uniform distribution of the potential and kinetic energy along the jet axis. For a spontaneous jet rising in an unstably stratified atmosphere, the inclusion of the pressure force retains the amplitude of buoyancy and increases the amplitude of vertical velocity by about 15%. It is shown that in the model of a spontaneous jet there is a dynamic invariant expressing the law of a uniform distribution of the available potential and kinetic energy along the jet axis. The results are of interest for the problems of anthropogenic pollution diffusion in the air and water environments and the formulation of models for statistical and stochastic ensembles of thermals in a mass-flux parameterization of turbulent moments.

  17. Functional Modeling of Neural-Glia Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.E.; Brazhe, N.A.; Sosnovtseva, Olga


    Functional modeling is an approach that focuses on the representation of the qualitative dynamics of the individual components (e.g. cells) of a system and on the structure of the interaction network.......Functional modeling is an approach that focuses on the representation of the qualitative dynamics of the individual components (e.g. cells) of a system and on the structure of the interaction network....

  18. Simulation of Pedestrian Crossing Behaviors at Unmarked Roadways Based on Social Force Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Ningbo


    Full Text Available Limited pedestrian microcosmic simulation models focus on the interactions between pedestrians and vehicles at unmarked roadways. Pedestrians tend to head to the destinations directly through the shortest path. So, pedestrians have inclined trajectories pointing destinations. Few simulation models have been established to describe the mechanisms underlying the inclined trajectories when pedestrians cross unmarked roadways. To overcome these shortcomings, achieve solutions for optimal design features before implementation, and help to make the design more rational, the paper establishes a modified social force model for interactions between pedestrians and vehicles at unmarked roadways. To achieve this goal, stop/go decision-making model based on gap acceptance theory and conflict avoidance models were developed to make social force model more appropriate in simulating pedestrian crossing behaviors at unmarked roadways. The extended model enables the understanding and judgment ability of pedestrians about the traffic environment and guides pedestrians to take the best behavior to avoid conflict and keep themselves safe. The comparison results of observed pedestrians’ trajectories and simulated pedestrians’ trajectories at one unmarked roadway indicate that the proposed model can be used to simulate pedestrian crossing behaviors at unmarked roadways effectively. The proposed model can be used to explore pedestrians’ trajectories variation at unmarked roadways and improve pedestrian safety facilities.

  19. Force Fields and Point Charges for Crystal Structure Modeling


    Svärd, Michael; Rasmuson, Åke C.


    Molecular simulation is increasingly used by chemical engineers and industrial chemists in process and product development. In particular, the possibility to predict the structure and stability of potential polymorphs of a substance is of tremendous interest to the pharmaceutical and specialty chemicals industry. Molecular mechanics modeling relies on the use of parametrized force fields and methods of assigning point charges to the atoms in the molecules. In commercial molecular simulation s...

  20. Analysis of dynamic regimes in stochastically forced Kaldor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkirtseva, Irina; Ryazanova, Tatyana; Ryashko, Lev


    We consider the business cycle Kaldor model forced by random noise. Detailed parametric analysis of deterministic system is carried out and zones of coexisting stable equilibrium and stable limit cycle are found. Noise-induced transitions between these attractors are studied using stochastic sensitivity function technique and confidence domains method. Critical values of noise intensity corresponding to noise-induced transitions “equilibrium → cycle” and “cycle → equilibrium” are estimated. Dominants in combined stochastic regimes are discussed.

  1. Mathematical models for plant-herbivore interactions (United States)

    Feng, Zhilan; DeAngelis, Donald L.


    Mathematical Models of Plant-Herbivore Interactions addresses mathematical models in the study of practical questions in ecology, particularly factors that affect herbivory, including plant defense, herbivore natural enemies, and adaptive herbivory, as well as the effects of these on plant community dynamics. The result of extensive research on the use of mathematical modeling to investigate the effects of plant defenses on plant-herbivore dynamics, this book describes a toxin-determined functional response model (TDFRM) that helps explains field observations of these interactions. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in mathematical biology and ecology.

  2. Vector-Interaction-Enhanced Bag Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Cierniak


    Full Text Available A commonly applied quark matter model in astrophysics is the thermodynamic bag model (tdBAG. The original MIT bag model approximates the effect of quark confinement, but does not explicitly account for the breaking of chiral symmetry, an important property of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD. It further ignores vector repulsion. The vector-interaction-enhanced bag model (vBag improves the tdBAG approach by accounting for both dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and repulsive vector interactions. The latter is of particular importance to studies of dense matter in beta-equilibriumto explain the two solar mass maximum mass constraint for neutron stars. The model is motivated by analyses of QCD based Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSE, assuming a simple quark-quark contact interaction. Here, we focus on the study of hybrid neutron star properties resulting from the application of vBag and will discuss possible extensions.

  3. Vector-Interaction-Enhanced Bag Model (United States)

    Cierniak, Mateusz; Klähn, Thomas; Fischer, Tobias; Bastian, Niels-Uwe


    A commonly applied quark matter model in astrophysics is the thermodynamic bag model (tdBAG). The original MIT bag model approximates the effect of quark confinement, but does not explicitly account for the breaking of chiral symmetry, an important property of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). It further ignores vector repulsion. The vector-interaction-enhanced bag model (vBag) improves the tdBAG approach by accounting for both dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and repulsive vector interactions. The latter is of particular importance to studies of dense matter in beta-equilibriumto explain the two solar mass maximum mass constraint for neutron stars. The model is motivated by analyses of QCD based Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSE), assuming a simple quark-quark contact interaction. Here, we focus on the study of hybrid neutron star properties resulting from the application of vBag and will discuss possible extensions.

  4. Electroweak and Strong Interactions Phenomenology, Concepts, Models

    CERN Document Server

    Scheck, Florian


    Electroweak and Strong Interaction: Phenomenology, Concepts, Models, begins with relativistic quantum mechanics and some quantum field theory which lay the foundation for the rest of the text. The phenomenology and the physics of the fundamental interactions are emphasized through a detailed discussion of the empirical fundamentals of unified theories of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. The principles of local gauge theories are described both in a heuristic and a geometric framework. The minimal standard model of the fundamental interactions is developed in detail and characteristic applications are worked out. Possible signals of physics beyond that model, notably in the physics of neutrinos are also discussed. Among the applications scattering on nucleons and on nuclei provide salient examples. Numerous exercises with solutions make the text suitable for advanced courses or individual study. This completely updated revised new edition contains an enlarged chapter on quantum chromodynamics an...

  5. Mesoscopic models for DNA stretching under force: New results and comparison with experiments. (United States)

    Manghi, Manoel; Destainville, Nicolas; Palmeri, John


    -DNA force-extension curves with consistent parameter values; vi) a coherent picture, where S to ssDNA transitions are much more sensitive to base-pair sequence than the B to S one, emerges. This relatively simple model might allow one to further study quantitatively the influence of salt concentration and base-pairing interactions on DNA force-induced transitions.

  6. Modeling actuation forces and strains in nastic structures (United States)

    Matthews, Luke A.; Giurgiutiu, Victor


    Nastic structures are capable of three dimensional shape change using biological principles borrowed from plant motion. The plant motor cells increase or decrease in size through a change in osmotic pressure. When nonuniform cell swelling occurs, it causes the plant tissue to warp and change shape, resulting it net movement, known as nastic motion, which is the same phenomena that causes plants to angle their broad leaf and flower surfaces to face light sources. The nastic structures considered in this paper are composed of a bilayer of microactuator arrays with a fluid reservoir in between the two layers. The actuators are housed in a thin plate and expand when water from the fluid reservoir is pumped into the actuation chamber through a phospholipid bilayer with embedded active transport proteins, which move the water from the low pressure fluid reservoir into a high pressure actuation chamber. Increasing water pressure inside the actuator causes lateral expansion and axial bulging, and the non-uniform net volume change of actuators throughout the nastic structure results in twisting or bending shape change. Modifying the actuation displacement allows controlled volume change. This paper presents an analytical model of the driving and blocking forces involved in actuation, as well as stress and strain that occurs due to the pressure changes. Actuation is driven by increasing osmotic pressure, and blocking forces are taken into consideration to plan actuator response so that outside forces do not counteract the displacement of actuation. Nastic structures are designed with use in unmanned aerial vehicles in mind, so blocking forces are modeled to be similar to in-flight conditions. Stress in the system is modeled so that any residual strain or lasting deformation can be determined, as well as a lifespan before failure from repeated actuation. The long-term aim of our work is to determine the power and energy efficiency of nastic structures actuation mechanism.

  7. Interactions of benzoic acid and phosphates with iron oxide colloids using chemical force titration. (United States)

    Liang, Jana; Horton, J Hugh


    Colloidal iron oxides are an important component in soil systems and in water treatment processes. Humic-based organic compounds, containing both phenol and benzoate functional groups, are often present in these systems and compete strongly with phosphate species for binding sites on the iron oxide surfaces. Here, we examine the interaction of benzoate and phenolic groups with various iron oxide colloids using atomic force microscopy (AFM) chemical force titration measurements. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 4-(12-mercaptododecyloxy)benzoic acid and 4-(12-mercaptododecyloxy)phenol were used to prepare chemically modified Au-coated AFM tips, and these were used to probe the surface chemistry of a series of iron oxide colloids. The SAMs formed were also characterized using scanning tunneling microscopy, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface pK(a) of 4-(12- mercaptododecyloxy)benzoic acid has been determined to be 4.0 +/- 0.5, and the interaction between the tip and the sample coated with a SAM of this species is dominated by hydrogen bonding. The chemical force titraton profile for an AFM probe coated with 4-(12- mercaptododecyloxy)benzoic acid and a bare iron oxide colloid demonstrates that the benzoic acid function group interacts with all three types of iron oxide sites present on the colloid surface over a wide pH range. Similar experiments were carried out on colloids precipitated in the presence of phosphoric, gallic, and tannic acids. The results are discussed in the context of the competitive binding interactions of solution species present in soils or in water treatment processes.

  8. Forced thermal cycling of catalytic reactions: experiments and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Olsen, Jakob Lind; Thorsteinsson, Sune


    Recent studies of catalytic reactions subjected to fast forced temperature oscillations have revealed a rate enhancement increasing with temperature oscillation frequency. We present detailed studies of the rate enhancement up to frequencies of 2.5 Hz. A maximum in the rate enhancement is observed...... at about 1 Hz. A model for the rate enhancement that includes the surface kinetics and the dynamic partial pressure variations in the reactor is introduced. The model predicts a levelling off of the rate enhancement with frequency at about 1 Hz. The experimentally observed decrease above 1 Hz is explained...

  9. Interaction of von Willebrand factor domains with collagen investigated by single molecule force spectroscopy (United States)

    Posch, Sandra; Obser, Tobias; König, Gesa; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Tampé, Robert; Hinterdorfer, Peter


    von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a huge multimeric protein that plays a key role in primary hemostasis. Sites for collagen binding, an initial event of hemostasis, are located in the VWF-domains A1 and A3. In this study, we investigated single molecule interactions between collagen surfaces and wild type VWF A1A2A3 domain constructs, as well as clinically relevant VWF A3 domain point mutations, such as p.Ser1731Thr, p.Gln1734His, and p.His1786Arg. For this, we utilized atomic force microscopy based single molecular force spectroscopy. The p.Ser1731Thr mutant had no impact on the VWF-collagen type III and VI interactions, while the p.Gln1734His and p.His1786Arg mutants showed a slight increase in bond stability to collagen type III. This effect probably arises from additional hydrogen bonds that come along with the introduction of these mutations. Using the same mutants, but collagen type VI as a binding partner, resulted in a significant increase in bond stability. VWF domain A1 was reported to be essential for the interaction with collagen type VI and thus our findings strengthen the hypothesis that the VWF A1 domain can compensate for mutations in the VWF A3 domain. Additionally, our data suggest that the mutations could even stabilize the interaction between VWF and collagen without shear. VWF-collagen interactions seem to be an important system in which defective interactions between one VWF domain and one type of collagen can be compensated by alternative binding events.

  10. Modelling and simulation of particle-particle interaction in a magnetophoretic bio-separation chip (United States)

    Alam, Manjurul; Golozar, Matin; Darabi, Jeff


    A Lagrangian particle trajectory model is developed to predict the interaction between cell-bead particle complexes and to track their trajectories in a magnetophoretic bio-separation chip. Magnetic flux gradients are simulated in the OpenFOAM CFD software and imported into MATLAB to obtain the trapping lengths and trajectories of the particles. A connector vector is introduced to calculate the interaction force between cell-bead complexes as they flow through a microfluidic device. The interaction force calculations are performed for cases where the connector vector is parallel, perpendicular, and at an angle of 45° with the applied magnetic field. The trajectories of the particles are simulated by solving a system of eight ordinary differential equations using a fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The model is then used to study the effects of geometric positions and angles of the connector vector between the particles as well as the cell size, number of beads per cell, and flow rate on the interaction force and trajectories of the particles. The results show that the interaction forces may be attractive or repulsive, depending on the orientation of the connector vector distance between the particle complexes and the applied magnetic field. When the interaction force is attractive, the particles are observed to merge and trap sooner than a single particle, whereas a repulsive interaction force has little or no effect on the trapping length.

  11. Study of the interactions between endolysin and bacterial peptidoglycan on S. aureus by dynamic force spectroscopy (United States)

    Liu, Jianli; Zhang, Xuejie; Yang, Hang; Yuan, Jinghe; Wei, Hongping; Yu, Junping; Fang, Xiaohong


    The cell wall binding domain (CBD) of bacteriophage lysins can recognize target bacteria with extraordinary specificity through binding to bacterial peptidoglycan, thus it is a promising new probe to identify the corresponding bacterial pathogen. In this work, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single-molecule force spectroscopy to investigate the interaction between the CBD of lysin PlyV12 (PlyV12C) and pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The binding forces of PlyV12C with S. aureus have been measured, and the dissociation process of their binding complex has been characterized. Furthermore, we compared the interactions of PlyV12C-S. aureus and antibody-S. aureus. It is revealed that PlyV12C has a comparable affinity to bacterial peptidoglycans as that of the S. aureus antibody. The results provide new information on the binding properties of lysin CBD with bacterium, and the application of lysin CBD in bacterium detection.

  12. Hydrodynamic interactions between two forced objects of arbitrary shape. II. Relative translation (United States)

    Goldfriend, Tomer; Diamant, Haim; Witten, Thomas A.


    We study the relative translation of two arbitrarily shaped objects, caused by their hydrodynamic interaction as they are forced through a viscous fluid in the limit of zero Reynolds number. It is well known that in the case of two rigid spheres in an unbounded fluid, the hydrodynamic interaction does not produce relative translation. More generally, such an effective pair-interaction vanishes in configurations with spatial inversion symmetry; for example, an enantiomorphic pair in mirror image positions has no relative translation. We show that the breaking of inversion symmetry by boundaries of the system accounts for the interactions between two spheres in confined geometries, as observed in experiments. The same general principle also provides new predictions for interactions in other object configurations near obstacles. We examine the time-dependent relative translation of two self-aligning objects, extending the numerical analysis of our preceding publication [Goldfriend, Diamant, and Witten, Phys. Fluids 27, 123303 (2015)], 10.1063/1.4936894. The interplay between the orientational interaction and the translational one, in most cases, leads over time to repulsion between the two objects. The repulsion is qualitatively different for self-aligning objects compared to the more symmetric case of uniform prolate spheroids. The separation between the two objects increases with time t as t1 /3 in the former case, and more strongly, as t , in the latter.

  13. Experimental Validation of Flow Force Models for Fast Switching Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Niels Christian; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Nørgård, Christian


    This paper comprises a detailed study of the forces acting on a Fast Switching Valve (FSV) plunger. The objective is to investigate to what extend different models are valid to be used for design purposes. These models depend on the geometry of the moving plunger and the properties of the surroun......This paper comprises a detailed study of the forces acting on a Fast Switching Valve (FSV) plunger. The objective is to investigate to what extend different models are valid to be used for design purposes. These models depend on the geometry of the moving plunger and the properties...... velocity is non-zero. This is the case in FSVs, where it results in an additional dampening effect, which is of relevance when analyzing contact-impact. Experimental data from different tests cases of a FSV has been gathered, with the plunger moving through a medium of either oil or air. This data is used...... to compare and validate different models, where an effort is directed towards capturing the fluid squeeze effect just before material on material contact. The test data is compared with simulation data relying solely on analytic formulations. The general dynamics of the plunger is validated...

  14. Hydrodynamic forces on a wall-bound leukocyte due to interactions with flowing red cells (United States)

    Isfahani, Amir H. G.; Freund, Jonathan B.


    As part of both healthy and pathologically physiological mechanisms sphere-like white blood cells (leukocytes) adhere to the walls of small blood vessels. We use quantitative numerical simulations to compare the forces from flowing red blood cells on a wall-adhered leukocyte to a homogenized model of blood at the same flow conditions. We model the highly flexible red blood cells using a fast O (N log N) boundary integral formulation. These elastic membranes deform substantially but strongly resist surface dilatation. They enclose a higher than plasma viscosity hemoglobin solution. The no-slip condition is enforced on the stationary leukocyte as well as the vessel walls. Vessel diameters of 10 to 20 microns are studied. Different hematocrits, leukocyte shapes, and flow conditions are examined. In vessels comparable to the size of the cells, we show that the particulate character of blood significantly affects the magnitude of the forces that the leukocyte experiences, transiently increasing it well above the homogenized-blood prediction: for example, for a tube hematocrit of 25 % and a spherical protrusion with a diameter 0.75 that of the tube, the average forces are increased by about 40 % and the local forces by more than 100 % relative to those expected for a blood model homogenized by its effective viscosity.

  15. Modeling of hydrogen interactions with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    In this paper, improved mathematical models are developed for hydrogen interactions with beryllium. This includes the saturation effect observed for high-flux implantation of ions from plasmas and retention of tritium produced from neutronic transmutations in beryllium. Use of the models developed is justified by showing how they can replicated experimental data using the TMAP4 tritium transport code. (author)

  16. Stiffness Models of Novel Force/Displacement Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav HRICKO


    Full Text Available Miniaturization in field of robotics leads to use of elastic deformation where whole robotic device (precise positioning device, micro-gripper, etc. is build from one piece of material. The disadvantage of such specific robotic devices is complicated approach to measure of their movement and acting forces. Application of influence of electromagnetic field with parallel resonating circuit seems as suitable method for sensing small deflections. This paper describes mentioned method of wireless measurement of small deflections of compliant robotic structure. Two structures of one and two-component force/displacement sensor are presented as examples using this approach. In the paper we are focused to mathematical description of stiffness models which provide basic static and dynamical properties of such structures.

  17. Effects of composite and coordinated interactions between populations of particle-like individuals involving forces and internal states — A statistical-mechanical study (United States)

    Øien, Alf H.


    In this analogue modeling of interacting species we consider in particular interactions we refer to as composite interactions between particles called “daphnicles” and “food particles” that evolve on a third particle component in the background. Other force interactions are also taken account of but they play a smaller role in this study. The states of daphnicles and food particles are not only given by their position- and velocity-variables but also by variables of internal properties they have, which we shall call “saturation” for daphnicles and “nutrition” for food particles. The “laws” of variations of all these variables, where the rates of change of saturation and nutrition take place in the central region of the force interaction range where daphnicles and food particles come close together in their movements, are coupled in the composite interactions we consider. Due to this coupling of the “outer” force interaction to the “inner” saturation-nutrition interaction the inner interaction can be raised or diminished and in this way the distribution of say saturation of daphnicles may be regulated. From an extended Liouville equation for a system of a large number of particles where in particular interactions like these are baked in on the level of individual particles we aim to derive equations for daphnicle and food particle distribution functions on a kinetic level; this derivation constitutes the main part of the paper. Proper equations on a coarser grained level of description are then found quite easily: this “mixed” kinetic/moment level is in between the kinetic- and the full moment (macroscopic) levels such that distribution of saturation and nutrition still play a role and the equations still retain essential characteristics of the composite interactions taking place on the microscopic level, besides other force interactions. Though the terminology used suites modeling of biological systems and the results may throw some

  18. Computational model to investigate the relative contributions of different neuromuscular properties of tibialis anterior on force generated during ankle dorsiflexion. (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Poosapadi Arjunan, Sridhar; Kumar, Dinesh Kant


    This study describes a new model of the force generated by tibialis anterior muscle with three new features: single-fiber action potential, twitch force, and pennation angle. This model was used to investigate the relative effects and interaction of ten age-associated neuromuscular parameters. Regression analysis (significance level of 0.05) between the neuromuscular properties and corresponding simulated force produced at the footplate was performed. Standardized slope coefficients were computed to rank the effect of the parameters. The results show that reduction in the average firing rate is the reason for the sharp decline in the force and other factors, such as number of muscle fibers, specific force, pennation angle, and innervation ratio. The fast fiber ratio affects the simulated force through two significant interactions. This study has ranked the individual contributions of the neuromuscular factors to muscle strength decline of the TA and identified firing rate decline as the biggest cause followed by decrease in muscle fiber number and specific force. The strategy for strength preservation for the elderly should focus on improving firing rate. Graphical abstract Neuromuscular properties of Tibialis Anterior on force generated during ankle dorsiflexion.

  19. Cranking model and attenuation of Coriolis interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutorovich, N.A.


    Description of rotational bands of odd deformed nuclei in the self-consistent Cranking model (SCM) is given. Causes of attenuation of the Coriolis interaction in the nuclei investigated are studied, and account of bound of one-particle degrees of freedom with rotation of the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (HFB) self-consistent method is introduced additionally to SCM for qualitative agreement with experimental data. Merits and shortages of SCM in comparison with the quadruparticle-rotor (QR) model are discussed. All know ways for constructing the Hamiltonian QR model (or analog of such Hamiltonian) on the basis of the microscopic theory are shown to include two more approximations besides others: quasi-particle-rotational interaction leading to pair break is taken into account in the second order of the perturbation theory; some exchange diagrams are neglected among diagrams of the second order according to this interaction. If one makes the same approximations in SCM instead of HFB method, then the dependence of level energies on spin obtained in this case is turned out to be close to the results of the QR model. Besides, the problem on renormalization of matrix elements of quasi-rotational interaction occurs in such nonself-consistent approach as in the QR model. In so far as the similar problem does not occur in SCM, one can make the conclusion that the problem of attenuation of Coriolis interaction involves the approximations given above

  20. Interactive wood combustion for botanical tree models

    KAUST Repository

    Pirk, Sören


    We present a novel method for the combustion of botanical tree models. Tree models are represented as connected particles for the branching structure and a polygonal surface mesh for the combustion. Each particle stores biological and physical attributes that drive the kinetic behavior of a plant and the exothermic reaction of the combustion. Coupled with realistic physics for rods, the particles enable dynamic branch motions. We model material properties, such as moisture and charring behavior, and associate them with individual particles. The combustion is efficiently processed in the surface domain of the tree model on a polygonal mesh. A user can dynamically interact with the model by initiating fires and by inducing stress on branches. The flames realistically propagate through the tree model by consuming the available resources. Our method runs at interactive rates and supports multiple tree instances in parallel. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach through numerous examples and evaluate its plausibility against the combustion of real wood samples.

  1. Transferability of polarizable models for ion-water electrostatic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masia, Marco


    Studies of ion-water systems at condensed phase and at interfaces have pointed out that molecular and ionic polarization plays an important role for many phenomena ranging from hydrogen bond dynamics to water interfaces' structure. Classical and ab initio Molecular Dynamics simulations reveal that induced dipole moments at interfaces (e.g. air-water and water-protein) are usually high, hinting that polarizable models to be implemented in classical force fields should be very accurate in reproducing the electrostatic properties of the system. In this paper the electrostatic properties of three classical polarizable models for ion-water interaction are compared with ab initio results both at gas and condensed phase. For Li + - water and Cl - -water dimers the reproducibility of total dipole moments obtained with high level quantum chemical calculations is studied; for the same ions in liquid water, Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics simulations are used to compute the time evolution of ionic and molecular dipole moments, which are compared with the classical models. The PD2-H2O model developed by the author and coworkers [Masia et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2004, 121, 7362] together with the gaussian intermolecular damping for ion-water interaction [Masia et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2005, 123, 164505] showed to be the fittest in reproducing the ab initio results from gas to condensed phase, allowing for force field transferability.

  2. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.


    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were...... then successfully applied to activity recognition, activity simulation and multi-target tracking. Our method compares favourably with respect to previously reported results using Hidden Markov Models and Relational Particle Filtering....

  3. Stochastic modeling of mode interactions via linear parabolized stability equations (United States)

    Ran, Wei; Zare, Armin; Hack, M. J. Philipp; Jovanovic, Mihailo


    Low-complexity approximations of the Navier-Stokes equations have been widely used in the analysis of wall-bounded shear flows. In particular, the parabolized stability equations (PSE) and Floquet theory have been employed to capture the evolution of primary and secondary instabilities in spatially-evolving flows. We augment linear PSE with Floquet analysis to formally treat modal interactions and the evolution of secondary instabilities in the transitional boundary layer via a linear progression. To this end, we leverage Floquet theory by incorporating the primary instability into the base flow and accounting for different harmonics in the flow state. A stochastic forcing is introduced into the resulting linear dynamics to model the effect of nonlinear interactions on the evolution of modes. We examine the H-type transition scenario to demonstrate how our approach can be used to model nonlinear effects and capture the growth of the fundamental and subharmonic modes observed in direct numerical simulations and experiments.

  4. Modeling attacker-defender interactions in information networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Michael Joseph


    The simplest conceptual model of cybersecurity implicitly views attackers and defenders as acting in isolation from one another: an attacker seeks to penetrate or disrupt a system that has been protected to a given level, while a defender attempts to thwart particular attacks. Such a model also views all non-malicious parties as having the same goal of preventing all attacks. But in fact, attackers and defenders are interacting parts of the same system, and different defenders have their own individual interests: defenders may be willing to accept some risk of successful attack if the cost of defense is too high. We have used game theory to develop models of how non-cooperative but non-malicious players in a network interact when there is a substantial cost associated with effective defensive measures. Although game theory has been applied in this area before, we have introduced some novel aspects of player behavior in our work, including: (1) A model of how players attempt to avoid the costs of defense and force others to assume these costs; (2) A model of how players interact when the cost of defending one node can be shared by other nodes; and (3) A model of the incentives for a defender to choose less expensive, but less effective, defensive actions.

  5. Nanoscale imaging of the Candida-macrophage interaction using correlated fluorescence-atomic force microscopy. (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Dufrêne, Yves F


    Knowledge of the molecular bases underlying the interaction of fungal pathogens with immune cells is critical to our understanding of fungal infections and offers exciting perspectives for controlling immune responses for therapy. Although fluorescence microscopy is a valuable tool to visualize pathogen-host interactions, the spatial resolution is low, meaning the fine structural details of the interacting cells cannot be observed. Here, we demonstrate the ability of correlated fluorescence-atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image the various steps of the interaction between fungal pathogens and macrophages with nanoscale resolution. We focus on Candida albicans, known to grow as two morphological forms (yeast cells, filamentous hyphae) that play important roles in modulating the interaction with macrophages. We observe the main steps of macrophage infection, including initial intercellular contact, phagocytosis by internalization of yeast cells, intracellular hyphal growth leading to mechanical stretching, and piercing of the macrophage membrane resulting in pathogen escape. While fluorescence imaging clearly distinguishes fungal cells from macrophages during the various steps of the process, AFM captures nanoscale structural features of the macrophage surface that are of high biological relevance, including ruffles, lamellipodia, filopodia, membrane remnants, and phagocytic cups. As fungal pathogenesis is mainly controlled by the ability of fungi to escape from immune cells, the nanoimaging platform established here has great potential in nanomedicine for understanding and controlling fungal infections.

  6. Direct visualization of ligand-protein interactions using atomic force microscopy


    Neish, Calum S; Martin, Ian L; Henderson, Robert M; Edwardson, J Michael


    Streptavidin is a 60-kDa tetramer which binds four molecules of biotin with extremely high affinity (KA∼1014 M−1). We have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize this ligand-protein interaction directly.Biotin was tagged with a short (152-basepair; 50-nm) DNA rod and incubated with streptavidin. The resulting complexes were then imaged by AFM. The molecular volume of streptavidin calculated from the dimensions of the protein particles (105±3 nm3) was in close agreement with the value...

  7. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslow, J.N.


    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers

  8. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslow, J.N.


    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.

  9. Concurrent prediction of ground reaction forces and moments and tibiofemoral contact forces during walking using musculoskeletal modelling. (United States)

    Peng, Yinghu; Zhang, Zhifeng; Gao, Yongchang; Chen, Zhenxian; Xin, Hua; Zhang, Qida; Fan, Xunjian; Jin, Zhongmin


    Ground reaction forces and moments (GRFs and GRMs) measured from force plates in a gait laboratory are usually used as the input conditions to predict the knee joint forces and moments via musculoskeletal (MSK) multibody dynamics (MBD) model. However, the measurements of the GRFs and GRMs data rely on force plates and sometimes are limited by the difficulty in some patient's gait patterns (e.g. treadmill gait). In addition, the force plate calibration error may influence the prediction accuracy of the MSK model. In this study, a prediction method of the GRFs and GRMs based on elastic contact element was integrated into a subject-specific MSK MBD modelling framework of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and the GRFs and GRMs and knee contact forces (KCFs) during walking were predicted simultaneously with reasonable accuracy. The ground reaction forces and moments were predicted with an average root mean square errors (RMSEs) of 0.021 body weight (BW), 0.014 BW and 0.089 BW in the antero-posterior, medio-lateral and vertical directions and 0.005 BW•body height (BH), 0.011 BW•BH, 0.004 BW•BH in the sagittal, frontal and transverse planes, respectively. Meanwhile, the medial, lateral and total tibiofemoral (TF) contact forces were predicted by the developed MSK model with RMSEs of 0.025-0.032 BW, 0.018-0.022 BW, and 0.089-0.132 BW, respectively. The accuracy of the predicted medial TF contact force was improved by 12% using the present method. The proposed method can extend the application of the MSK model of TKA and is valuable for understanding the in vivo knee biomechanics and tribological conditions without the force plate data. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling of laminar forced convection in spherical- pebble packed beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadad, Yaser; Jafarpur, Khosrow


    There are many parameters that have significant effects on forced convection heat transfer in packed beds, including Reynolds and Prandtl numbers of flow, porosity, pebble geometry, local flow conditions, wall and end effects. In addition, there have been many experimental investigations on forced convection heat transfer in packed beds and each have studied the effect of some of these parameters. Yet, there is not a reliable correlation that includes the effect of main parameters: at the same time, the prediction of precise correct limits for very low and high Reynolds numbers is off hand. In this article a general well-known model of convection heat transfer from isothermal bodies, next to some previous reliable experimental data has been used as a basis for a more comprehensive and accurate correlation to calculate the laminar constant temperature pebble-fluid forced convection heat transfer in a homogeneous saturated bed with spherical pebbles. Finally, for corroboration, the present results are compared with previous works and show a very good agreement for laminar flows at any Prandtl number and all porosities

  11. Measurement strategy and analytic model to determine firing pin force (United States)

    Lesenciuc, Ioan; Suciu, Cornel


    As illustrated in literature, ballistics is a branch of theoretical mechanics, which studies the construction and working principles of firearms and ammunition, their effects, as well as the motions of projectiles and bullets1. Criminalistics identification, as part of judiciary identification represents an activity aimed at finding common traits of different objects, objectives, phenomena and beings, but more importantly, traits that differentiate each of them from similar ones2-4. In judicial ballistics, in the case of rifled firearms it is relatively simple for experts to identify the used weapon from traces left on the projectile, as the rifling of the barrel leaves imprints on the bullet, which remain approximately identical even after the respective weapon is fired 100 times with the same barrel. However, in the case of smoothbore firearms, their identification becomes much more complicated. As the firing cap suffers alterations from being hit by the firing pin, determination of the force generated during impact creates the premises for determining the type of firearm used to shoot the respective cartridge. The present paper proposes a simple impact model that can be used to evaluate the force generated by the firing pin during its impact with the firing cap. The present research clearly showed that each rifle, by the combination of the three investigated parameters (impact force maximum value, its variation diagram, and impact time) leave a unique trace. Application of such a method in ballistics can create the perspectives for formulating clear conclusions that eliminate possible judicial errors in this field.

  12. Multi-Finger Interaction and Synergies in Finger Flexion and Extension Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaebum Park


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to discover finger interaction indices during single-finger ramp tasks and multi-finger coordination during a steady state force production in two directions, flexion, and extension. Furthermore, the indices of anticipatory adjustment of elemental variables (i.e., finger forces prior to a quick pulse force production were quantified. It is currently unknown whether the organization and anticipatory modulation of stability properties are affected by force directions and strengths of in multi-finger actions. We expected to observe a smaller finger independency and larger indices of multi-finger coordination during extension than during flexion due to both neural and peripheral differences between the finger flexion and extension actions. We also examined the indices of the anticipatory adjustment between different force direction conditions. The anticipatory adjustment could be a neural process, which may be affected by the properties of the muscles and by the direction of the motions. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC force was larger for flexion than for extension, which confirmed the fact that the strength of finger flexor muscles (e.g., flexor digitorum profundus was larger than that of finger extensor (e.g., extensor digitorum. The analysis within the uncontrolled manifold (UCM hypothesis was used to quantify the motor synergy of elemental variables by decomposing two sources of variances across repetitive trials, which identifies the variances in the uncontrolled manifold (VUCM and that are orthogonal to the UCM (VORT. The presence of motor synergy and its strength were quantified by the relative amount of VUCM and VORT. The strength of motor synergies at the steady state was larger in the extension condition, which suggests that the stability property (i.e., multi-finger synergies may be a direction specific quantity. However, the results for the existence of anticipatory adjustment; however, no difference

  13. Analysis of the wind tunnel test of a tilt rotor power force model (United States)

    Marr, R. L.; Ford, D. G.; Ferguson, S. W.


    Two series of wind tunnel tests were made to determine performance, stability and control, and rotor wake interaction on the airframe, using a one-tenth scale powered force model of a tilt rotor aircraft. Testing covered hover (IGE/OCE), helicopter, conversion, and airplane flight configurations. Forces and moments were recorded for the model from predetermined trim attitudes. Control positions were adjusted to trim flight (one-g lift, pitching moment and drag zero) within the uncorrected test data balance accuracy. Pitch and yaw sweeps were made about the trim attitudes with the control held at the trimmed settings to determine the static stability characteristics. Tail on, tail off, rotors on, and rotors off configurations were testes to determine the rotor wake effects on the empennage. Results are presented and discussed.

  14. Polarizable water model for the coarse-grained MARTINI force field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semen O Yesylevskyy


    Full Text Available Coarse-grained (CG simulations have become an essential tool to study a large variety of biomolecular processes, exploring temporal and spatial scales inaccessible to traditional models of atomistic resolution. One of the major simplifications of CG models is the representation of the solvent, which is either implicit or modeled explicitly as a van der Waals particle. The effect of polarization, and thus a proper screening of interactions depending on the local environment, is absent. Given the important role of water as a ubiquitous solvent in biological systems, its treatment is crucial to the properties derived from simulation studies. Here, we parameterize a polarizable coarse-grained water model to be used in combination with the CG MARTINI force field. Using a three-bead model to represent four water molecules, we show that the orientational polarizability of real water can be effectively accounted for. This has the consequence that the dielectric screening of bulk water is reproduced. At the same time, we parameterized our new water model such that bulk water density and oil/water partitioning data remain at the same level of accuracy as for the standard MARTINI force field. We apply the new model to two cases for which current CG force fields are inadequate. First, we address the transport of ions across a lipid membrane. The computed potential of mean force shows that the ions now naturally feel the change in dielectric medium when moving from the high dielectric aqueous phase toward the low dielectric membrane interior. In the second application we consider the electroporation process of both an oil slab and a lipid bilayer. The electrostatic field drives the formation of water filled pores in both cases, following a similar mechanism as seen with atomistically detailed models.

  15. Experimental investigation of lateral forces induced by flow through model labyrinth glands (United States)

    Leong, Y. M. M. S.; Brown, R. D.


    The lateral forces induced by flow through model labyrinth glands were investigated. Circumferential pressure distributions, lateral forces and stiffness coefficients data obtained are discussed. The force system is represented as a negative spring and a tangential force orthogonal to eccentricity. The magnitude of these forces are dependent on eccentricity, entry swirl, rotor peripheral velocity and seal size. A pressure equalization chamber at midgland tests should in significantly reduced forces and stiffness coefficients.

  16. Application of atomic force microscopy to the study of natural and model soil particles. (United States)

    Cheng, S; Bryant, R; Doerr, S H; Rhodri Williams, P; Wright, C J


    The structure and surface chemistry of soil particles has extensive impact on many bulk scale properties and processes of soil systems and consequently the environments that they support. There are a number of physiochemical mechanisms that operate at the nanoscale which affect the soil's capability to maintain native vegetation and crops; this includes soil hydrophobicity and the soil's capacity to hold water and nutrients. The present study used atomic force microscopy in a novel approach to provide unique insight into the nanoscale properties of natural soil particles that control the physiochemical interaction of material within the soil column. There have been few atomic force microscopy studies of soil, perhaps a reflection of the heterogeneous nature of the system. The present study adopted an imaging and force measurement research strategy that accounted for the heterogeneity and used model systems to aid interpretation. The surface roughness of natural soil particles increased with depth in the soil column a consequence of the attachment of organic material within the crevices of the soil particles. The roughness root mean square calculated from ten 25 microm(2) images for five different soil particles from a Netherlands soil was 53.0 nm, 68.0 nm, 92.2 nm and 106.4 nm for the respective soil depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-40 cm. A novel analysis method of atomic force microscopy phase images based on phase angle distribution across a surface was used to interpret the nanoscale distribution of organic material attached to natural and model soil particles. Phase angle distributions obtained from phase images of model surfaces were found to be bimodal, indicating multiple layers of material, which changed with the concentration of adsorbed humic acid. Phase angle distributions obtained from phase images of natural soil particles indicated a trend of decreasing surface coverage with increasing depth in the soil column. This was consistent with

  17. NASA Air Force Cost Model (NAFCOM): Capabilities and Results (United States)

    McAfee, Julie; Culver, George; Naderi, Mahmoud


    NAFCOM is a parametric estimating tool for space hardware. Uses cost estimating relationships (CERs) which correlate historical costs to mission characteristics to predict new project costs. It is based on historical NASA and Air Force space projects. It is intended to be used in the very early phases of a development project. NAFCOM can be used at the subsystem or component levels and estimates development and production costs. NAFCOM is applicable to various types of missions (crewed spacecraft, uncrewed spacecraft, and launch vehicles). There are two versions of the model: a government version that is restricted and a contractor releasable version.

  18. Semantic Interaction for Sensemaking: Inferring Analytical Reasoning for Model Steering. (United States)

    Endert, A; Fiaux, P; North, C


    Visual analytic tools aim to support the cognitively demanding task of sensemaking. Their success often depends on the ability to leverage capabilities of mathematical models, visualization, and human intuition through flexible, usable, and expressive interactions. Spatially clustering data is one effective metaphor for users to explore similarity and relationships between information, adjusting the weighting of dimensions or characteristics of the dataset to observe the change in the spatial layout. Semantic interaction is an approach to user interaction in such spatializations that couples these parametric modifications of the clustering model with users' analytic operations on the data (e.g., direct document movement in the spatialization, highlighting text, search, etc.). In this paper, we present results of a user study exploring the ability of semantic interaction in a visual analytic prototype, ForceSPIRE, to support sensemaking. We found that semantic interaction captures the analytical reasoning of the user through keyword weighting, and aids the user in co-creating a spatialization based on the user's reasoning and intuition.

  19. Ultrasound-Stimulated Mutual Interaction Forces between Optically Configured Micro-Bubble Pairs (United States)

    Prentice, Paul A.; Campbell, Paul A.


    The mutual interaction between two oscillating encapsulated microbubbles was investigated using a novel optical trapping arrangement. This approach facilitated the development of an arbitrary, stable, initial spatial configuration for a two-bubble system. Critically, exercising optical control over such a binary bubble system meant that it could be isolated from the resident population of microbubbles during exposure to ultrasound. This ensured that any early stage dynamical evolution of the system was dominated by the mutual interaction of the two bubbles in view, rather than any extraneous influence arising from `crosstalk' with the rest of the bubble population. We observed, using high speed microphotography at 4×105 frames per second, that the action of secondary radiation forces leads to mutual bubble attraction. Phenomena such as coalescence and `bounce' were observed. Estimates of the microbubble [Sonovue™] compressibility could also be made, and tally well with published values obtained for other shelled contrast agents.

  20. Nanoparticle-nanoparticle interactions in biological media by Atomic Force Microscopy (United States)

    Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Blattmann, Christoph O.; Pratsinis, Sotiris; Demokritou, Philip


    Particle-particle interactions in physiological media are important determinants for nanoparticle fate and transport. Herein, such interactions are assessed by a novel Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) based platform. Industry-relevant CeO2, Fe2O3, and SiO2 nanoparticles of various diameters were made by the flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) based Harvard Versatile Engineering Nanomaterials Generation System (Harvard VENGES). The nanoparticles were fully characterized structurally and morphologically and their properties in water and biological media were also assessed. The nanoparticles were attached on AFM tips and deposited on Si substrates to measure particle–particle interactions. The corresponding force was measured in air, water and biological media that are widely used in toxicological studies. The presented AFM based approach can be used to assess the agglomeration potential of nanoparticles in physiological fluids. The agglomeration potential of CeO2 nanoparticles in water and RPMI 1640 (Roswell Park Memorial Institute formulation 1640) was inversely proportional to their primary particle (PP) diameter, but for Fe2O3 nanoparticles, that potential is independent of PP diameter in these media. Moreover, in RPMI+10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) the corona thickness and dispersibility of the CeO2 is independent of PP diameter while for Fe2O3, the corona thickness and dispersibility were inversely proportional to PP diameter. The present method can be combined with (dynamic light scattering (DLS), proteomics, and computer simulations to understand the nano-bio interactions, with emphasis on the agglomeration potential of nanoparticles and their transport in physiological media. PMID:23978039

  1. Global Quantitative Modeling of Chromatin Factor Interactions (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Troyanskaya, Olga G.


    Chromatin is the driver of gene regulation, yet understanding the molecular interactions underlying chromatin factor combinatorial patterns (or the “chromatin codes”) remains a fundamental challenge in chromatin biology. Here we developed a global modeling framework that leverages chromatin profiling data to produce a systems-level view of the macromolecular complex of chromatin. Our model ultilizes maximum entropy modeling with regularization-based structure learning to statistically dissect dependencies between chromatin factors and produce an accurate probability distribution of chromatin code. Our unsupervised quantitative model, trained on genome-wide chromatin profiles of 73 histone marks and chromatin proteins from modENCODE, enabled making various data-driven inferences about chromatin profiles and interactions. We provided a highly accurate predictor of chromatin factor pairwise interactions validated by known experimental evidence, and for the first time enabled higher-order interaction prediction. Our predictions can thus help guide future experimental studies. The model can also serve as an inference engine for predicting unknown chromatin profiles — we demonstrated that with this approach we can leverage data from well-characterized cell types to help understand less-studied cell type or conditions. PMID:24675896

  2. Modeling molecular boiling points using computed interaction energies. (United States)

    Peterangelo, Stephen C; Seybold, Paul G


    The noncovalent van der Waals interactions between molecules in liquids are typically described in textbooks as occurring between the total molecular dipoles (permanent, induced, or transient) of the molecules. This notion was tested by examining the boiling points of 67 halogenated hydrocarbon liquids using quantum chemically calculated molecular dipole moments, ionization potentials, and polarizabilities obtained from semi-empirical (AM1 and PM3) and ab initio Hartree-Fock [HF 6-31G(d), HF 6-311G(d,p)], and density functional theory [B3LYP/6-311G(d,p)] methods. The calculated interaction energies and an empirical measure of hydrogen bonding were employed to model the boiling points of the halocarbons. It was found that only terms related to London dispersion energies and hydrogen bonding proved significant in the regression analyses, and the performances of the models generally improved at higher levels of quantum chemical computation. An empirical estimate for the molecular polarizabilities was also tested, and the best models for the boiling points were obtained using either this empirical polarizability itself or the polarizabilities calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level, along with the hydrogen-bonding parameter. The results suggest that the cohesive forces are more appropriately described as resulting from highly localized interactions rather than interactions between the global molecular dipoles.

  3. Visualising the Micro World of Chemical/Geochemical Interactions Using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, G.M.; Sorbie, K.S.


    Scanning force microscopy, in particular AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy), provides a particular useful and interesting tool for the examination of surface structure at the near-atomic level. AFM is particularly well suited to the study of interactions at the surface in aqueous solutions using real time in-situ measurements. In this paper there is presented AFM images showing in situ crystal growth from supersaturated BaSO{sub 4} solutions onto the surface of barite. Growth structures in the form of spiral crystal growth features, presumably originating from screw dislocations, are illustrated. AFM images of novel scale crystal growth inhibition experiments are presented. Examination of the manner in which generically different species adsorb onto growth structures may help to explain mechanistic differences in the way which different inhibitor species perform against barium sulphate scale formation. Adsorption of polyacrylamide species onto mica surfaces have been viewed. The general utility of AFM to a number of other common surface interactions in oil field chemistry will be discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Force Modeling, Identification, and Feedback Control of Robot-Assisted Needle Insertion: A Survey of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongjun Yang


    Full Text Available Robot-assisted surgery is of growing interest in the surgical and engineering communities. The use of robots allows surgery to be performed with precision using smaller instruments and incisions, resulting in shorter healing times. However, using current technology, an operator cannot directly feel the operation because the surgeon-instrument and instrument-tissue interaction force feedbacks are lost during needle insertion. Advancements in force feedback and control not only help reduce tissue deformation and needle deflection but also provide the surgeon with better control over the surgical instruments. The goal of this review is to summarize the key components surrounding the force feedback and control during robot-assisted needle insertion. The literature search was conducted during the middle months of 2017 using mainstream academic search engines with a combination of keywords relevant to the field. In total, 166 articles with valuable contents were analyzed and grouped into five related topics. This survey systemically summarizes the state-of-the-art force control technologies for robot-assisted needle insertion, such as force modeling, measurement, the factors that influence the interaction force, parameter identification, and force control algorithms. All studies show force control is still at its initial stage. The influence factors, needle deflection or planning remain open for investigation in future.

  5. Validation of Swarm accelerometer data by modelled nongravitational forces (United States)

    Bezděk, Aleš; Sebera, Josef; Klokočník, Jaroslav


    Swarm is a three-satellite mission of the European Space Agency, in orbit since November 2013, whose main objective is the study of the Earth's magnetic field from space. As part of other scientific payload, each Swarm satellite is equipped with an accelerometer that measures the nongravitational forces (e.g. atmospheric drag and radiation pressure). Since the mission beginning, the Swarm onboard accelerometer observations have been facing a problem of much higher temperature influence than it had been anticipated in the pre-launch tests. In our paper, we use the a posteriori computed models of physical nongravitational forces acting on each satellite for external validation of the accelerometer measurements. To reduce the high temperature dependence, we apply a simple and straightforward method of linear temperature correction. The most successful application of this approach is for the along-track component of the accelerometer data, where the signal magnitude is strongest. The best performing accelerometer is that of the Swarm C satellite, the accelerometer of Swarm A displays more temperature dependence and noise, the noisiest accelerometer data set is provided by Swarm B. We analyzed the occurrence of anomalous periods in the along-track accelerometer component of Swarm A and Swarm C, when the number of accelerometer hardware anomalies is peaking. Over the time interval from June 2014 to December 2015, we found a correlation between these anomalous periods and the minima in the time-varying part of the modelled nongravitational signal.

  6. Building a Model of Infant Social Interaction


    Lewis, Joshua; Deak, Gedeon; Jasso, Hector; Triesch, Jochen


    Naturalistic observations of infant/caregiver social attention have yielded rich information about human social develop- ment. However, observational data are expensive, laborious, and reliant on fallible human coders. We model interactions between caregivers and infants using a three dimensional sim- ulation environment in order to gain greater insight into the development of infant attention sharing, specifically gaze fol- lowing. Most models of infant cognition have been only ab- stractly ...

  7. Extraction of user's navigation commands from upper body force interaction in walker assisted gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pons José L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advances in technology make possible the incorporation of sensors and actuators in rollators, building safer robots and extending the use of walkers to a more diverse population. This paper presents a new method for the extraction of navigation related components from upper-body force interaction data in walker assisted gait. A filtering architecture is designed to cancel: (i the high-frequency noise caused by vibrations on the walker's structure due to irregularities on the terrain or walker's wheels and (ii the cadence related force components caused by user's trunk oscillations during gait. As a result, a third component related to user's navigation commands is distinguished. Results For the cancelation of high-frequency noise, a Benedict-Bordner g-h filter was designed presenting very low values for Kinematic Tracking Error ((2.035 ± 0.358·10-2 kgf and delay ((1.897 ± 0.3697·101ms. A Fourier Linear Combiner filtering architecture was implemented for the adaptive attenuation of about 80% of the cadence related components' energy from force data. This was done without compromising the information contained in the frequencies close to such notch filters. Conclusions The presented methodology offers an effective cancelation of the undesired components from force data, allowing the system to extract in real-time voluntary user's navigation commands. Based on this real-time identification of voluntary user's commands, a classical approach to the control architecture of the robotic walker is being developed, in order to obtain stable and safe user assisted locomotion.

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of a Physiochemical Interaction Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mathematical modelling of physiochemical interactions in the framework of industrial and environmental physics usually relies on an initial value problem which is described by a single first order ordinary differential equation. In this analysis, we will study the sensitivity analysis due to a variation of the initial condition ...

  9. Some dynamical aspects of interacting quintessence model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binayak S Choudhury


    Mar 16, 2018 ... show the phase-space analysis for the 'best-fit Universe' or concordance model. In our analysis, we observe the existence of late-time scaling attractors. Keywords. Accelerated expansion of the Universe; quintessence; dynamical system; Friedmann–Lemaitre–. Robertson–Walker Universe; interacting ...

  10. A fashion model with social interaction (United States)

    Nakayama, Shoichiro; Nakamura, Yasuyuki


    In general, it is difficult to investigate social phenomena mathematically or quantitatively due to non-linear interactions. Statistical physics can provide powerful methods for studying social phenomena with interactions, and could be very useful for them. In this study, we take a focus on fashion as a social phenomenon with interaction. The social interaction considered here are “bandwagon effect” and “snob effect.” In the bandwagon effect, the correlation between one's behavior and others is positive. People feel fashion weary or boring when it is overly popular. This is the snob effect. It is assumed that the fashion phenomenon is formed by the aggregation of individual's binary choice, that is, the fashion is adopted or not. We formulate the fashion phenomenon as the logit model, which is based on the random utility theory in social science, especially economics. The model derived here basically has the similarity with the pioneering model by Weidlich (Phys. Rep. 204 (1991) 1), which was derived from the master equation, the Langevin equation, or the Fokker-Planck equation. This study seems to give the behavioral or behaviormetrical foundation to his model. As a result of dynamical analysis, it is found that in the case that both the bandwagon effect and the snob effect work, periodic or chaotic behavior of fashion occurs under certain conditions.

  11. A yarn interaction model for circular braiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenhorst, J.H.; Akkerman, Remko


    Machine control data for the automation of the circular braiding process has been generated using previously published mathematical models that neglect yarn interaction. This resulted in a significant deviation from the required braid angle at mandrel cross-sectional changes, likely caused by an

  12. QSO evolution in the interaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Robertis, M.


    QSO evolution is investigated according to the interaction hypothesis described most recently by Stockton (1982), in which activity results from an interaction between two galaxies resulting in the transfer of gas onto a supermassive black hole (SBH) at the center of at least one participant. Explicit models presented here for interactions in cluster environments show that a peak QSO population can be formed in this way at zroughly-equal2--3, with little activity prior to this epoch. Calculated space densities match those inferred from observations for this epoch. Substantial density evolution is expected in such models, since, after virialization, conditions in the cores of rich clusters lead to the depletion of gas-rich systems through ram-pressure stripping. Density evolution parameters of 6--12 are easily accounted for. At smaller redshifts, however, QSOs should be found primarily in poor clusters or groups. Probability estimates provided by this model are consistent with local estimates for the observed number of QSOs per interaction. Significant luminosity-dependent evolution might also be expected in these models. It is suggested that the mean SBH mass increases with lookback time, leading to a statistical brightening with redshift. Undoubtedly, both forms of evolution contribute to the overall QSO luminosity function

  13. Vegetation Monitoring with Gaussian Processes and Latent Force Models (United States)

    Camps-Valls, Gustau; Svendsen, Daniel; Martino, Luca; Campos, Manuel; Luengo, David


    Monitoring vegetation by biophysical parameter retrieval from Earth observation data is a challenging problem, where machine learning is currently a key player. Neural networks, kernel methods, and Gaussian Process (GP) regression have excelled in parameter retrieval tasks at both local and global scales. GP regression is based on solid Bayesian statistics, yield efficient and accurate parameter estimates, and provides interesting advantages over competing machine learning approaches such as confidence intervals. However, GP models are hampered by lack of interpretability, that prevented the widespread adoption by a larger community. In this presentation we will summarize some of our latest developments to address this issue. We will review the main characteristics of GPs and their advantages in vegetation monitoring standard applications. Then, three advanced GP models will be introduced. First, we will derive sensitivity maps for the GP predictive function that allows us to obtain feature ranking from the model and to assess the influence of examples in the solution. Second, we will introduce a Joint GP (JGP) model that combines in situ measurements and simulated radiative transfer data in a single GP model. The JGP regression provides more sensible confidence intervals for the predictions, respects the physics of the underlying processes, and allows for transferability across time and space. Finally, a latent force model (LFM) for GP modeling that encodes ordinary differential equations to blend data-driven modeling and physical models of the system is presented. The LFM performs multi-output regression, adapts to the signal characteristics, is able to cope with missing data in the time series, and provides explicit latent functions that allow system analysis and evaluation. Empirical evidence of the performance of these models will be presented through illustrative examples.

  14. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of interacting tunneling transport: variational grand potential, density functional formulation and nature of steady-state forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyldgaard, P


    The standard formulation of tunneling transport rests on an open-boundary modeling. There, conserving approximations to nonequilibrium Green function or quantum statistical mechanics provide consistent but computational costly approaches; alternatively, the use of density-dependent ballistic-transport calculations (e.g., Lang 1995 Phys. Rev. B 52 5335), here denoted ‘DBT’, provides computationally efficient (approximate) atomistic characterizations of the electron behavior but has until now lacked a formal justification. This paper presents an exact, variational nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory for fully interacting tunneling and provides a rigorous foundation for frozen-nuclei DBT calculations as a lowest-order approximation to an exact nonequilibrium thermodynamic density functional evaluation. The theory starts from the complete electron nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics and I identify the operator for the nonequilibrium Gibbs free energy which, generally, must be treated as an implicit solution of the fully interacting many-body dynamics. I demonstrate a minimal property of a functional for the nonequilibrium thermodynamic grand potential which thus uniquely identifies the solution as the exact nonequilibrium density matrix. I also show that the uniqueness-of-density proof from a closely related Lippmann-Schwinger collision density functional theory (Hyldgaard 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 165109) makes it possible to express the variational nonequilibrium thermodynamic description as a single-particle formulation based on universal electron-density functionals; the full nonequilibrium single-particle formulation improves the DBT method, for example, by a more refined account of Gibbs free energy effects. I illustrate a formal evaluation of the zero-temperature thermodynamic grand potential value which I find is closely related to the variation in the scattering phase shifts and hence to Friedel density oscillations. This paper also discusses the

  15. Cloud-radiation interactions and their parameterization in climate models (United States)


    This report contains papers from the International Workshop on Cloud-Radiation Interactions and Their Parameterization in Climate Models met on 18-20 October 1993 in Camp Springs, Maryland, USA. It was organized by the Joint Working Group on Clouds and Radiation of the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences. Recommendations were grouped into three broad areas: (1) general circulation models (GCMs), (2) satellite studies, and (3) process studies. Each of the panels developed recommendations on the themes of the workshop. Explicitly or implicitly, each panel independently recommended observations of basic cloud microphysical properties (water content, phase, size) on the scales resolved by GCMs. Such observations are necessary to validate cloud parameterizations in GCMs, to use satellite data to infer radiative forcing in the atmosphere and at the earth's surface, and to refine the process models which are used to develop advanced cloud parameterizations.

  16. Evaluating interaction forces between BSA and rabbit anti-BSA in sulphathiazole sodium, tylosin and levofloxacin solution by AFM (United States)

    Wang, Congzhou; Wang, Jianhua; Deng, Linhong


    Protein-protein interactions play crucial roles in numerous biological processes. However, it is still challenging to evaluate the protein-protein interactions, such as antigen and antibody, in the presence of drug molecules in physiological liquid. In this study, the interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and rabbit anti-BSA was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the presence of various antimicrobial drugs (sulphathiazole sodium, tylosin and levofloxacin) under physiological condition. The results show that increasing the concentration of tylosin decreased the single-molecule-specific force between BSA and rabbit anti-BSA. As for sulphathiazole sodium, it dramatically decreased the specific force at a certain critical concentration, but increased the nonspecific force as its concentration increasing. In addition, the presence of levofloxacin did not greatly influence either the specific or nonspecific force. Collectively, these results suggest that these three drugs may adopt different mechanisms to affect the interaction force between BSA and rabbit anti-BSA. These findings may enhance our understanding of antigen/antibody binding processes in the presence of drug molecules, and hence indicate that AFM could be helpful in the design and screening of drugs-modulating protein-protein interaction processes.

  17. Prosthetic finger phalanges with lifelike skin compliance for low-force social touching interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Shuzhi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prosthetic arms and hands that can be controlled by the user's electromyography (EMG signals are emerging. Eventually, these advanced prosthetic devices will be expected to touch and be touched by other people. As realistic as they may look, the currently available prosthetic hands have physical properties that are still far from the characteristics of human skins because they are much stiffer. In this paper, different configurations of synthetic finger phalanges have been investigated for their skin compliance behaviour and have been compared with the phalanges of the human fingers and a phalanx from a commercially available prosthetic hand. Methods Handshake tests were performed to identify which areas on the human hand experience high contact forces. After these areas were determined, experiments were done on selected areas using an indenting probe to obtain the force-displacement curves. Finite element simulations were used to compare the force-displacement results of the synthetic finger phalanx designs with that of the experimental results from the human and prosthetic finger phalanges. The simulation models were used to investigate the effects of (a varying the internal topology of the finger phalanx and (b varying different materials for the internal and external layers. Results and Conclusions During handshake, the high magnitudes of contact forces were observed at the areas where the full grasping enclosure of the other person's hand can be achieved. From these areas, the middle phalanges of the (a little, (b ring, and (c middle fingers were selected. The indentation experiments on these areas showed that a 2 N force corresponds to skin tissue displacements of more than 2 mm. The results from the simulation model show that introducing an open pocket with 2 mm height on the internal structure of synthetic finger phalanges increased the skin compliance of the silicone material to 235% and the polyurethane material to

  18. Understanding and modelling Man-Machine Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciabue, P.C.


    This paper gives an overview of the current state of the art in man machine systems interaction studies, focusing on the problems derived from highly automated working environments and the role of humans in the control loop. In particular, it is argued that there is a need for sound approaches to design and analysis of Man-Machine Interaction (MMI), which stem from the contribution of three expertises in interfacing domains, namely engineering, computer science and psychology: engineering for understanding and modelling plants and their material and energy conservation principles; psychology for understanding and modelling humans and their cognitive behaviours; computer science for converting models in sound simulations running in appropriate computer architectures. (author)

  19. Understanding and modelling man-machine interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciabue, P.C.


    This paper gives an overview of the current state of the art in man-machine system interaction studies, focusing on the problems derived from highly automated working environments and the role of humans in the control loop. In particular, it is argued that there is a need for sound approaches to the design and analysis of man-machine interaction (MMI), which stem from the contribution of three expertises in interfacing domains, namely engineering, computer science and psychology: engineering for understanding and modelling plants and their material and energy conservation principles; psychology for understanding and modelling humans an their cognitive behaviours; computer science for converting models in sound simulations running in appropriate computer architectures. (orig.)

  20. Optimizing Solute-Solute Interactions in the GLYCAM06 and CHARMM36 Carbohydrate Force Fields Using Osmotic Pressure Measurements. (United States)

    Lay, Wesley K; Miller, Mark S; Elcock, Adrian H


    GLYCAM06 and CHARMM36 are successful force fields for modeling carbohydrates. To correct recently identified deficiencies with both force fields, we adjusted intersolute nonbonded parameters to reproduce the experimental osmotic coefficient of glucose at 1 M. The modified parameters improve behavior of glucose and sucrose up to 4 M and improve modeling of a dextran 55-mer. While the modified parameters may not be applicable to all carbohydrates, they highlight the use of osmotic simulations to optimize force fields.

  1. Experimental identification and analytical modelling of human walking forces: Literature review (United States)

    Racic, V.; Pavic, A.; Brownjohn, J. M. W.


    Dynamic forces induced by humans walking change simultaneously in time and space, being random in nature and varying considerably not only between different people but also for a single individual who cannot repeat two identical steps. Since these important aspects of walking forces have not been adequately researched in the past, the corresponding lack of knowledge has reflected badly on the quality of their mathematical models used in vibration assessments of pedestrian structures such as footbridges, staircases and floors. To develop better force models which can be used with more confidence in the structural design, an adequate experimental and analytical approach must be taken to account for their complexity. This paper is the most comprehensive review published to date, of 270 references dealing with different experimental and analytical characterizations of human walking loading. The source of dynamic human-induced forces is in fact in the body motion. To date, human motion has attracted a lot of interest in many scientific branches, particularly in medical and sports science, bioengineering, robotics, and space flight programs. Other fields include biologists of various kinds, physiologists, anthropologists, computer scientists (graphics and animation), human factors and ergonomists, etc. It resulted in technologically advanced tools that can help understanding the human movement in more detail. Therefore, in addition to traditional direct force measurements utilizing a force plate and an instrumented treadmill, this review also introduces methods for indirect measurement of time-varying records of walking forces via combination of visual motion tracking (imaging) data and known body mass distribution. The review is therefore an interdisciplinary article that bridges the gaps between biomechanics of human gait and civil engineering dynamics. Finally, the key reason for undertaking this review is the fact that human-structure dynamic interaction and

  2. Propulsion and airframe aerodynamic interactions of supersonic V/STOL configurations. Volume 2: Wind tunnel test force and moment data report (United States)

    Zilz, D. E.


    A wind tunnel model of a supersonic V/STOL fighter configuration has been tested to measure the aerodynamic interaction effects which can result from geometrically close-coupled propulsion system/airframe components. The approach was to configure the model to represent two different test techniques. One was a conventional test technique composed of two test modes. In the Flow-Through mode, absolute configuration aerodynamics are measured, including inlet/airframe interactions. In the Jet-Effects mode, incremental nozzle/airframe interactions are measured. The other test technique is a propulsion simulator approach, where a sub-scale, externally powered engine is mounted in the model. This allows proper measurement of inlet/airframe and nozzle/airframe interactions simultaneously. This is Volume 2 of 2: Wind Tunnel Test Force and Moment Data Report.

  3. Geometrical analysis of the interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieperink, A.E.L.


    The Interacting Boson Model is considered, in relation with geometrical models and the application of mean field techniques to algebraic models, in three lectures. In the first, several methods are reviewed to establish a connection between the algebraic formulation of collective nuclear properties in terms of the group SU(6) and the geometric approach. In the second lecture the geometric interpretation of new degrees of freedom that arise in the neutron-proton IBA is discussed, and in the third one some further applications of algebraic techniques to the calculation of static and dynamic collective properties are presented. (U.K.)

  4. Hadronization of quark-diquark model for nucleon structure and nuclear force by path integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Keitaro


    One of the central issues of the hadron physics is how to interpret the properties and the origin of nuclear force. Nuclear force is in principle the manifestation of dynamics of quarks and gluons but no trial has been successful yet in describing the nuclear force by using QCD, the fundamental theory of the strong interactions. Phenomenon related to the chiral symmetry and the spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry is one of the important phenomena for the understanding of hadron physics. Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model is one of the quark system models to explain the phenomena concerning the chiral symmetry. Although the method to deduce the Lagrangian describing mesons by applying the path integral to NJL model has been well known as the bosonization, it has been difficult to extend it to baryons because baryons are three-body system. In this paper, a method is reported to deduce Lagrangian which describes baryon-meson from quark-diquark Lagrangian by assuming that baryons are the bound states of quark and diquark. (S. Funahashi)

  5. Hydrodynamic modelling of small upland lakes under strong wind forcing (United States)

    Morales, L.; French, J.; Burningham, H.


    Small lakes (Area important source of water supply. Lakes also provide an important sedimentary archive of environmental and climate changes and ecosystem function. Hydrodynamic controls on the transport and distribution of lake sediments, and also seasonal variations in thermal structure due to solar radiation, precipitation, evaporation and mixing and the complex vertical and horizontal circulation patterns induced by the action of wind are not very well understood. The work presented here analyses hydrodynamic motions present in small upland lakes due to circulation and internal scale waves, and their linkages with the distribution of bottom sediment accumulation in the lake. For purpose, a 3D hydrodynamic is calibrated and implemented for Llyn Conwy, a small oligotrophic upland lake in North Wales, UK. The model, based around the FVCOM open source community model code, resolves the Navier-Stokes equations using a 3D unstructured mesh and a finite volume scheme. The model is forced by meteorological boundary conditions. Improvements made to the FVCOM code include a new graphical user interface to pre- and post process the model input and results respectively, and a JONSWAT wave model to include the effects of wind-wave induced bottom stresses on lake sediment dynamics. Modelled internal scale waves are validated against summer temperature measurements acquired from a thermistor chain deployed at the deepest part of the lake. Seiche motions were validated using data recorded by high-frequency level sensors around the lake margins, and the velocity field and the circulation patterns were validated using the data recorded by an ADCP and GPS drifters. The model is shown to reproduce the lake hydrodynamics and reveals well-developed seiches at different frequencies superimposed on wind-driven circulation patterns that appear to control the distribution of bottom sediments in this small upland lake.

  6. Physical Forces between Humans and How Humans Attract and Repel Each Other Based on Their Social Interactions in an Online World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Thurner

    Full Text Available Physical interactions between particles are the result of the exchange of gauge bosons. Human interactions are mediated by the exchange of messages, goods, money, promises, hostilities, etc. While in the physical world interactions and their associated forces have immediate dynamical consequences (Newton's laws the situation is not clear for human interactions. Here we quantify the relative acceleration between humans who interact through the exchange of messages, goods and hostilities in a massive multiplayer online game. For this game we have complete information about all interactions (exchange events between about 430,000 players, and about their trajectories (movements in the metric space of the game universe at any point in time. We use this information to derive "interaction potentials" for communication, trade and attacks and show that they are harmonic in nature. Individuals who exchange messages and trade goods generally attract each other and start to separate immediately after exchange events end. The form of the interaction potential for attacks mirrors the usual "hit-and-run" tactics of aggressive players. By measuring interaction intensities as a function of distance, velocity and acceleration, we show that "forces" between players are directly related to the number of exchange events. We find an approximate power-law decay of the likelihood for interactions as a function of distance, which is in accordance with previous real world empirical work. We show that the obtained potentials can be understood with a simple model assuming an exchange-driven force in combination with a distance-dependent exchange rate.

  7. Modeling of interaction effects in granular systems

    CERN Document Server

    El-Hilo, M; Al-Rsheed, A


    Interaction effects on the magnetic behavior of granular solid systems are examined using a numerical model which is capable of predicting the field, temperature and time dependence of magnetization. In this work, interaction effects on the temperature dependence of time viscosity coefficient S(T) and formation of minor hysteresis loops have been studied. The results for the time- and temperature dependence of remanence ratio have showed that the distribution of energy barriers f(DELTA E) obtained depend critically on the strength and nature of interactions. These interactions-based changes in f(DELTA E) can easily give a temperature-independent behavior of S(T) when these changes give a 1/DELTA E behavior to the distribution of energy barriers. Thus, conclusions about macroscopic quantum tunneling must be carefully drawn when the temperature dependence of S(T) is used to probe for MQT effects. For minor hysteresis effects, the result shows that for the non-interacting case, no minor hysteresis loops occur an...

  8. Effect of forced convection on the collision and interaction between nanoparticles and ultramicroelectrode. (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Huang, Xinjian; Wang, Lishi


    Detection of nanoparticle (NP) collision events at ultramicroelectrode (UME) has emerged as a new methodology for the investigation of single NP in recent years. Although the method was widely employed, some fundamental knowledge such as how the NP moves to and interacts with the UME remain less understood. It was generally recognized that the recorded rate of collision was determined by diffusion that should follow Fick's first law. However, significant lower collision frequency compared with that of predicted by theory were frequently reported. Experiments carried out by us suggest that the collision frequency will increase dramatically if forced convection (stir or flow injection) is applied during detection. Furthermore, the collision frequency gradually increases to a maximum and then decreases, along with the increase of the convection intensity. This phenomenon is interpreted as follows: (a) there are two steps for a freely moving NP to generate a detectable collision signal. The first step is the move of NP from bulk solution to the surface of the UME which is mass transfer limited; the second step is the landing of NP on the surface of UME which is affected by many factors and is the critical step; (b) there is a barrier that must be overcame before the contact between freely moving NP and UME. Forced convection with moderate intensity can not only increase the mass transfer rate but also help to overcome this barrier and thus enhance the collision frequency; (c) the landing of NP on the surface of UME can be suppressed by stronger convections, because NP will be swept away by hydrodynamic force. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Interacting Dark Energy Models and Observations (United States)

    Shojaei, Hamed; Urioste, Jazmin


    Dark energy is one of the mysteries of the twenty first century. Although there are candidates resembling some features of dark energy, there is no single model describing all the properties of dark energy. Dark energy is believed to be the most dominant component of the cosmic inventory, but a lot of models do not consider any interaction between dark energy and other constituents of the cosmic inventory. Introducing an interaction will change the equation governing the behavior of dark energy and matter and creates new ways to explain cosmic coincidence problem. In this work we studied how the Hubble parameter and density parameters evolve with time in the presence of certain types of interaction. The interaction serves as a way to convert dark energy into matter to avoid a dark energy-dominated universe by creating new equilibrium points for the differential equations. Then we will use numerical analysis to predict the values of distance moduli at different redshifts and compare them to the values for the distance moduli obtained by WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe). Undergraduate Student

  10. Cognitive Emotional Regulation Model in Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu


    Full Text Available This paper integrated Gross cognitive process into the HMM (hidden Markov model emotional regulation method and implemented human-robot emotional interaction with facial expressions and behaviors. Here, energy was the psychological driving force of emotional transition in the cognitive emotional model. The input facial expression was translated into external energy by expression-emotion mapping. Robot’s next emotional state was determined by the cognitive energy (the stimulus after cognition and its own current emotional energy’s size and source’s position. The two random quantities in emotional transition process—the emotional family and the specific emotional state in the AVS (arousal-valence-stance 3D space—were used to simulate human emotion selection. The model had been verified by an emotional robot with 10 degrees of freedom and more than 100 kinds of facial expressions. Experimental results show that the emotional regulation model does not simply provide the typical classification and jump in terms of a set of emotional labels but that it operates in a 3D emotional space enabling a wide range of intermediary emotional states to be obtained. So the robot with cognitive emotional regulation model is more intelligent and real; moreover it can give full play to its emotional diversification in the interaction.

  11. Force Field Benchmark of Amino Acids: I. Hydration and Diffusion in Different Water Models. (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyang; Yin, Chunhua; Jiang, Yang; van der Spoel, David


    Thermodynamic and kinetic properties are of critical importance for the applicability of computational models to biomolecules such as proteins. Here we present an extensive evaluation of the Amber ff99SB-ILDN force field for modeling of hydration and diffusion of amino acids with three-site (SPC, SPC/E, SPC/E b , and TIP3P), four-site (TIP4P, TIP4P-Ew, and TIP4P/2005), and five-site (TIP5P and TIP5P-Ew) water models. Hydration free energies (HFEs) of neutral amino acid side chain analogues have little dependence on the water model, with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of ∼1 kcal/mol from experimental observations. On the basis of the number of interacting sites in the water model, HFEs of charged side chains can be putatively classified into three groups, of which the group of three-site models lies between those of four- and five-site water models; for each group, the water model dependence is greatly eliminated when the solvent Galvani potential is considered. Some discrepancies in the location of the first hydration peak ( R RDF ) in the ion-water radial distribution function between experimental and calculated observations were detected, such as a systematic underestimation of the acetate (Asp side chain) ion. The RMSE of calculated diffusion coefficients of amino acids from experiment increases linearly with the increasing diffusion coefficients of the solvent water models at infinite dilution. TIP3P has the fastest diffusivity, in line with literature findings, while the "FB" and "OPC" water model families as well as TIP4P/2005 perform well, within a relative error of 5%, and TIP4P/2005 yields the most accurate estimate for the water diffusion coefficient. All of the tested water models overestimate amino acid diffusion coefficients by approximately 40% (TIP4P/2005) to 200% (TIP3P). Scaling of protein-water interactions with TIP4P/2005 in the Amber ff99SBws and ff03ws force fields leads to more negative HFEs but has little influence on the diffusion of

  12. Definition of interaction force between car wheel and rough road while driving


    Polyakov V.M.; Razboynikov A.A.


    For the calculation of indicators of operational properties of a car moving on a rough road, in most cases it is necessary to know the support reactions on the wheels of the vehicle and changing depending on mode of motion. In this connection, there arises an interest in determining strength of the central plane of rotation of the car wheel while driving over uneven at different speeds its movement. A mathematical model for definition of force in the central plane of rotation wheel at unif...

  13. Atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions for surface interactions (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Outlaw, R. A.; Heinbockel, J. H.


    The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base developed from analysis of the two-body potential data, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas surfaces and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  14. Aespoe modelling task force - experiences of the site specific flow and transport modelling (in detailed and site scale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Stroem, A.; Wikberg, P. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. , Stockholm (Sweden)


    The Aespoe Task Force on modelling of groundwater flow and transport of solutes was initiated in 1992. The Task Force shall be a forum for the organisations supporting the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Project to interact in the area of conceptual and numerical modelling of groundwater flow and solute transport in fractured rock. Much emphasis is put on building of confidence in the approaches and methods in use for modelling of groundwater flow and nuclide migration in order to demonstrate their use for performance and safety assessment. The modelling work within the Task Force is linked to the experiments performed at the Aespoe Laboratory. As the first Modelling Task, a large scale pumping and tracer experiment called LPT2 was chosen. This was the final part of the characterisation work for the Aespoe site before the construction of the laboratory in 1990. The construction of the Aespoe HRL access tunnel caused an even larger hydraulic disturbance on a much larger scale than that caused by the LPT2 pumping test. This was regarded as an interesting test case for the conceptual and numerical models of the Aespoe site developed during Task No 1, and was chosen as the third Modelling Task. The aim of Task 3 can be seen from two different perspectives. The Aespoe HRL project saw it as a test of their ability to define a conceptual and structural model of the site that can be utilised by independent modelling groups and be transformed to a predictive groundwater flow model. The modelling groups saw it as a means of understanding groundwater flow in a large fractured rock volume and of testing their computational tools. A general conclusion is that Task 3 has served these purposes well. Non-sorbing tracers tests, made as a part of the TRUE-experiments were chosen as the next predictive modelling task. A preliminary comparison between model predictions made by the Aespoe Task Force and the experimental results, shows that most modelling teams predicted breakthrough from

  15. Modeling Electronic Skin Response to Normal Distributed Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Seminara


    Full Text Available The reference electronic skin is a sensor array based on PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride piezoelectric polymers, coupled to a rigid substrate and covered by an elastomer layer. It is first evaluated how a distributed normal force (Hertzian distribution is transmitted to an extended PVDF sensor through the elastomer layer. A simplified approach based on Boussinesq’s half-space assumption is used to get a qualitative picture and extensive FEM simulations allow determination of the quantitative response for the actual finite elastomer layer. The ultimate use of the present model is to estimate the electrical sensor output from a measure of a basic mechanical action at the skin surface. However this requires that the PVDF piezoelectric coefficient be known a-priori. This was not the case in the present investigation. However, the numerical model has been used to fit experimental data from a real skin prototype and to estimate the sensor piezoelectric coefficient. It turned out that this value depends on the preload and decreases as a result of PVDF aging and fatigue. This framework contains all the fundamental ingredients of a fully predictive model, suggesting a number of future developments potentially useful for skin design and validation of the fabrication technology.

  16. Forced Translocation of Polymer through Nanopore: Deterministic Model and Simulations (United States)

    Wang, Yanqian; Panyukov, Sergey; Liao, Qi; Rubinstein, Michael


    We propose a new theoretical model of forced translocation of a polymer chain through a nanopore. We assume that DNA translocation at high fields proceeds too fast for the chain to relax, and thus the chain unravels loop by loop in an almost deterministic way. So the distribution of translocation times of a given monomer is controlled by the initial conformation of the chain (the distribution of its loops). Our model predicts the translocation time of each monomer as an explicit function of initial polymer conformation. We refer to this concept as ``fingerprinting''. The width of the translocation time distribution is determined by the loop distribution in initial conformation as well as by the thermal fluctuations of the polymer chain during the translocation process. We show that the conformational broadening δt of translocation times of m-th monomer δtm^1.5 is stronger than the thermal broadening δtm^1.25 The predictions of our deterministic model were verified by extensive molecular dynamics simulations

  17. Narcissistic Force Meets Systemic Resistance: The Energy Clash Model. (United States)

    Sedikides, Constantine; Campbell, W Keith


    This article focuses on the interplay between narcissistic leaders and organizations. It attempts to capture the gist of this interplay with a model outlining the narcissistic organizational trajectory. The Energy Clash Model borrows and adapts a phase/state physics metaphor to conceptualize narcissism as a force that enters or emerges in a stable system (i.e., organization) as a leader, destabilizes it, and stabilizes it at a different state or is expelled. The model consists of three time-contingent phases: perturbation, conflict, and resolution. Narcissists create instability through waves of excitement, proposed reforms, and an inspiring vision for organization's future ( perturbation). With the passage of time, though, systemic awareness and alertness intensify, as organizational costs-in terms of human resources and monetary losses-accrue. Narcissistic energy clashes directly with the organization ( conflict), a clash likely to restabilize the system eventually. The conflict may provoke the exit of the narcissistic leader or his or her accommodation, that is, steps or controls negotiated between the system and the leader ( resolution). Although narcissism is subject to organizational liability, narcissistic energy, when managed and directed properly, may contribute to organizational innovation and evolution. Thus, several interventions for working with narcissistic leaders are discussed.

  18. Nonlinear interaction model of subsonic jet noise. (United States)

    Sandham, Neil D; Salgado, Adriana M


    Noise generation in a subsonic round jet is studied by a simplified model, in which nonlinear interactions of spatially evolving instability modes lead to the radiation of sound. The spatial mode evolution is computed using linear parabolized stability equations. Nonlinear interactions are found on a mode-by-mode basis and the sound radiation characteristics are determined by solution of the Lilley-Goldstein equation. Since mode interactions are computed explicitly, it is possible to find their relative importance for sound radiation. The method is applied to a single stream jet for which experimental data are available. The model gives Strouhal numbers of 0.45 for the most amplified waves in the jet and 0.19 for the dominant sound radiation. While in near field axisymmetric and the first azimuthal modes are both important, far-field sound is predominantly axisymmetric. These results are in close correspondence with experiment, suggesting that the simplified model is capturing at least some of the important mechanisms of subsonic jet noise.

  19. Modeling Users' Experiences with Interactive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Karapanos, Evangelos


    Over the past decade the field of Human-Computer Interaction has evolved from the study of the usability of interactive products towards a more holistic understanding of how they may mediate desired human experiences.  This book identifies the notion of diversity in usersʼ experiences with interactive products and proposes methods and tools for modeling this along two levels: (a) interpersonal diversity in usersʽ responses to early conceptual designs, and (b) the dynamics of usersʼ experiences over time. The Repertory Grid Technique is proposed as an alternative to standardized psychometric scales for modeling interpersonal diversity in usersʼ responses to early concepts in the design process, and new Multi-Dimensional Scaling procedures are introduced for modeling such complex quantitative data. iScale, a tool for the retrospective assessment of usersʼ experiences over time is proposed as an alternative to longitudinal field studies, and a semi-automated technique for the analysis of the elicited exper...

  20. Oil transformation sector modelling: price interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, A.


    A global oil and oil product prices evolution model is proposed that covers the transformation sector incidence and the final user price establishment together with price interactions between gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons. High disparities among oil product prices in the various consumer zones (North America, Western Europe, Japan) are well described and compared with the low differences between oil supply prices in these zones. Final user price fluctuations are shown to be induced by transformation differences and competition; natural gas market is also modelled

  1. Nuclear interaction model developments in FLUKA

    CERN Document Server

    Fontana, A


    A selection of recent improvements in the modeling of nuclear interactions with the FLUKA code is presented. At low energy the new features are related to the emission of secondary particles, to the inclusion of spin-parity effects in the evaporation stage and to the extension of the pre-equilibrium step to the Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (RQMD) model. At high energy new results from Electro-Magnetic Dissociation (EMD) and cosmogenic neutron production are shown. These results confirm and extend the use of FLUKA in different fields of interest, ranging from the LHC to medical applications.

  2. Nagaoka's atomic model and hyperfine interactions. (United States)

    Inamura, Takashi T


    The prevailing view of Nagaoka's "Saturnian" atom is so misleading that today many people have an erroneous picture of Nagaoka's vision. They believe it to be a system involving a 'giant core' with electrons circulating just outside. Actually, though, in view of the Coulomb potential related to the atomic nucleus, Nagaoka's model is exactly the same as Rutherford's. This is true of the Bohr atom, too. To give proper credit, Nagaoka should be remembered together with Rutherford and Bohr in the history of the atomic model. It is also pointed out that Nagaoka was a pioneer of understanding hyperfine interactions in order to study nuclear structure.

  3. An equilibrium approach to modelling social interaction (United States)

    Gallo, Ignacio


    The aim of this work is to put forward a statistical mechanics theory of social interaction, generalizing econometric discrete choice models. After showing the formal equivalence linking econometric multinomial logit models to equilibrium statical mechanics, a multi-population generalization of the Curie-Weiss model for ferromagnets is considered as a starting point in developing a model capable of describing sudden shifts in aggregate human behaviour. Existence of the thermodynamic limit for the model is shown by an asymptotic sub-additivity method and factorization of correlation functions is proved almost everywhere. The exact solution of the model is provided in the thermodynamical limit by finding converging upper and lower bounds for the system's pressure, and the solution is used to prove an analytic result regarding the number of possible equilibrium states of a two-population system. The work stresses the importance of linking regimes predicted by the model to real phenomena, and to this end it proposes two possible procedures to estimate the model's parameters starting from micro-level data. These are applied to three case studies based on census type data: though these studies are found to be ultimately inconclusive on an empirical level, considerations are drawn that encourage further refinements of the chosen modelling approach.

  4. Human-Human Interaction Forces and Interlimb Coordination During Side-by-Side Walking With Hand Contact. (United States)

    Sylos-Labini, Francesca; d'Avella, Andrea; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yury


    Handholding can naturally occur between two walkers. When people walk side-by-side, either with or without hand contact, they often synchronize their steps. However, despite the importance of haptic interaction in general and the natural use of hand contact between humans during walking, few studies have investigated forces arising from physical interactions. Eight pairs of adult subjects participated in this study. They walked on side-by-side treadmills at 4 km/h independently and with hand contact. Only hand contact-related sensory information was available for unintentional synchronization, while visual and auditory communication was obstructed. Subjects walked at their natural cadences or following a metronome. Limb kinematics, hand contact 3D interaction forces and EMG activity of 12 upper limb muscles were recorded. Overall, unintentional step frequency locking was observed during about 40% of time in 88% of pairs walking with hand contact. On average, the amplitude of contact arm oscillations decreased while the contralateral (free) arm oscillated in the same way as during normal walking. Interestingly, EMG activity of the shoulder muscles of the contact arm did not decrease, and their synergistic pattern remained similar. The amplitude of interaction forces and of trunk oscillations was similar for synchronized and non-synchronized steps, though the synchronized steps were characterized by significantly more regular orientations of interaction forces. Our results further support the notion that gait synchronization during natural walking is common, and that it may occur through interaction forces. Conservation of the proximal muscle activity of the contact (not oscillating) arm is consistent with neural coupling between cervical and lumbosacral pattern generation circuitries ("quadrupedal" arm-leg coordination) during human gait. Overall, the findings suggest that individuals might integrate force interaction cues to communicate and coordinate steps during

  5. Human-Human Interaction Forces and Interlimb Coordination During Side-by-Side Walking With Hand Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sylos-Labini


    Full Text Available Handholding can naturally occur between two walkers. When people walk side-by-side, either with or without hand contact, they often synchronize their steps. However, despite the importance of haptic interaction in general and the natural use of hand contact between humans during walking, few studies have investigated forces arising from physical interactions. Eight pairs of adult subjects participated in this study. They walked on side-by-side treadmills at 4 km/h independently and with hand contact. Only hand contact-related sensory information was available for unintentional synchronization, while visual and auditory communication was obstructed. Subjects walked at their natural cadences or following a metronome. Limb kinematics, hand contact 3D interaction forces and EMG activity of 12 upper limb muscles were recorded. Overall, unintentional step frequency locking was observed during about 40% of time in 88% of pairs walking with hand contact. On average, the amplitude of contact arm oscillations decreased while the contralateral (free arm oscillated in the same way as during normal walking. Interestingly, EMG activity of the shoulder muscles of the contact arm did not decrease, and their synergistic pattern remained similar. The amplitude of interaction forces and of trunk oscillations was similar for synchronized and non-synchronized steps, though the synchronized steps were characterized by significantly more regular orientations of interaction forces. Our results further support the notion that gait synchronization during natural walking is common, and that it may occur through interaction forces. Conservation of the proximal muscle activity of the contact (not oscillating arm is consistent with neural coupling between cervical and lumbosacral pattern generation circuitries (“quadrupedal” arm-leg coordination during human gait. Overall, the findings suggest that individuals might integrate force interaction cues to communicate and

  6. Modeling the Thermal Interactions of Meteorites Below the Antarctic Ice (United States)

    Oldroyd, William Jared; Radebaugh, Jani; Stephens, Denise C.; Lorenz, Ralph; Harvey, Ralph; Karner, James


    Meteorites with high specific gravities, such as irons, appear to be underrepresented in Antarctic collections over the last 40 years. This underrepresentation is in comparison with observed meteorite falls, which are believed to represent the actual population of meteorites striking Earth. Meteorites on the Antarctic ice sheet absorb solar flux, possibly leading to downward tunneling into the ice, though observations of this in action are very limited. This descent is counteracted by ice sheet flow supporting the meteorites coupled with ablation near mountain margins, which helps to force meteorites towards the surface. Meteorites that both absorb adequate thermal energy and are sufficiently dense may instead reach a shallow equilibrium depth as downward melting overcomes upward forces during the Antarctic summer. Using a pyronometer, we have measured the incoming solar flux at multiple depths in two deep field sites in Antarctica, the Miller Range and Elephant Moraine. We compare these data with laboratory analogues and model the thermal and physical interactions between a variety of meteorites and their surroundings. Our Matlab code model will account for a wide range of parameters used to characterize meteorites in an Antarctic environment. We will present the results of our model along with depth estimates for several types of meteorites. The recovery of an additional population of heavy meteorites would increase our knowledge of the formation and composition of the solar system.

  7. A validation study of a stochastic model of human interaction (United States)

    Burchfield, Mitchel Talmadge

    The purpose of this dissertation is to validate a stochastic model of human interactions which is part of a developmentalism paradigm. Incorporating elements of ancient and contemporary philosophy and science, developmentalism defines human development as a progression of increasing competence and utilizes compatible theories of developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, educational psychology, social psychology, curriculum development, neurology, psychophysics, and physics. To validate a stochastic model of human interactions, the study addressed four research questions: (a) Does attitude vary over time? (b) What are the distributional assumptions underlying attitudes? (c) Does the stochastic model, {-}N{intlimitssbsp{-infty}{infty}}varphi(chi,tau)\\ Psi(tau)dtau, have utility for the study of attitudinal distributions and dynamics? (d) Are the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein theories applicable to human groups? Approximately 25,000 attitude observations were made using the Semantic Differential Scale. Positions of individuals varied over time and the logistic model predicted observed distributions with correlations between 0.98 and 1.0, with estimated standard errors significantly less than the magnitudes of the parameters. The results bring into question the applicability of Fisherian research designs (Fisher, 1922, 1928, 1938) for behavioral research based on the apparent failure of two fundamental assumptions-the noninteractive nature of the objects being studied and normal distribution of attributes. The findings indicate that individual belief structures are representable in terms of a psychological space which has the same or similar properties as physical space. The psychological space not only has dimension, but individuals interact by force equations similar to those described in theoretical physics models. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to estimate Fermi-Dirac parameters from the data. The model explained a high degree

  8. Modeling and experiments of the adhesion force distribution between particles and a surface. (United States)

    You, Siming; Wan, Man Pun


    Due to the existence of surface roughness in real surfaces, the adhesion force between particles and the surface where the particles are deposited exhibits certain statistical distributions. Despite the importance of adhesion force distribution in a variety of applications, the current understanding of modeling adhesion force distribution is still limited. In this work, an adhesion force distribution model based on integrating the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness distribution (i.e., the variation of RMS roughness on the surface in terms of location) into recently proposed mean adhesion force models was proposed. The integration was accomplished by statistical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. A series of centrifuge experiments were conducted to measure the adhesion force distributions between polystyrene particles (146.1 ± 1.99 μm) and various substrates (stainless steel, aluminum and plastic, respectively). The proposed model was validated against the measured adhesion force distributions from this work and another previous study. Based on the proposed model, the effect of RMS roughness distribution on the adhesion force distribution of particles on a rough surface was explored, showing that both the median and standard deviation of adhesion force distribution could be affected by the RMS roughness distribution. The proposed model could predict both van der Waals force and capillary force distributions and consider the multiscale roughness feature, greatly extending the current capability of adhesion force distribution prediction.

  9. Pre-relaxation in weakly interacting models (United States)

    Bertini, Bruno; Fagotti, Maurizio


    We consider time evolution in models close to integrable points with hidden symmetries that generate infinitely many local conservation laws that do not commute with one another. The system is expected to (locally) relax to a thermal ensemble if integrability is broken, or to a so-called generalised Gibbs ensemble if unbroken. In some circumstances expectation values exhibit quasi-stationary behaviour long before their typical relaxation time. For integrability-breaking perturbations, these are also called pre-thermalisation plateaux, and emerge e.g. in the strong coupling limit of the Bose-Hubbard model. As a result of the hidden symmetries, quasi-stationarity appears also in integrable models, for example in the Ising limit of the XXZ model. We investigate a weak coupling limit, identify a time window in which the effects of the perturbations become significant and solve the time evolution through a mean-field mapping. As an explicit example we study the XYZ spin-\\frac{1}{2} chain with additional perturbations that break integrability. One of the most intriguing results of the analysis is the appearance of persistent oscillatory behaviour. To unravel its origin, we study in detail a toy model: the transverse-field Ising chain with an additional nonlocal interaction proportional to the square of the transverse spin per unit length (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 197203). Despite being nonlocal, this belongs to a class of models that emerge as intermediate steps of the mean-field mapping and shares many dynamical properties with the weakly interacting models under consideration.

  10. Ferromagnetic Potts models with multisite interaction (United States)

    Schreiber, Nir; Cohen, Reuven; Haber, Simi


    We study the q -state Potts model with four-site interaction on a square lattice. Based on the asymptotic behavior of lattice animals, it is argued that when q ≤4 the system exhibits a second-order phase transition and when q >4 the transition is first order. The q =4 model is borderline. We find 1 /lnq to be an upper bound on Tc, the exact critical temperature. Using a low-temperature expansion, we show that 1 /(θ lnq ) , where θ >1 is a q -dependent geometrical term, is an improved upper bound on Tc. In fact, our findings support Tc=1 /(θ lnq ) . This expression is used to estimate the finite correlation length in first-order transition systems. These results can be extended to other lattices. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed numerically by an extensive study of the four-site interaction model using the Wang-Landau entropic sampling method for q =3 ,4 ,5 . In particular, the q =4 model shows an ambiguous finite-size pseudocritical behavior.

  11. Modeling disordered protein interactions from biophysical principles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenna X Peterson


    Full Text Available Disordered protein-protein interactions (PPIs, those involving a folded protein and an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP, are prevalent in the cell, including important signaling and regulatory pathways. IDPs do not adopt a single dominant structure in isolation but often become ordered upon binding. To aid understanding of the molecular mechanisms of disordered PPIs, it is crucial to obtain the tertiary structure of the PPIs. However, experimental methods have difficulty in solving disordered PPIs and existing protein-protein and protein-peptide docking methods are not able to model them. Here we present a novel computational method, IDP-LZerD, which models the conformation of a disordered PPI by considering the biophysical binding mechanism of an IDP to a structured protein, whereby a local segment of the IDP initiates the interaction and subsequently the remaining IDP regions explore and coalesce around the initial binding site. On a dataset of 22 disordered PPIs with IDPs up to 69 amino acids, successful predictions were made for 21 bound and 18 unbound receptors. The successful modeling provides additional support for biophysical principles. Moreover, the new technique significantly expands the capability of protein structure modeling and provides crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms of disordered PPIs.

  12. Modeling the response of Northwest Greenland to enhanced ocean thermal forcing and subglacial discharge (United States)

    Morlighem, M.; Wood, M.; Seroussi, H. L.; Bondzio, J. H.; Rignot, E. J.


    Glacier-front dynamics is an important control on Greenland's ice mass balance. Warm and salty Atlantic water, which is typically found at a depth below 200-300 m, has the potential to trigger ice-front retreats of marine-terminating glaciers, and the corresponding loss in resistive stress leads to glacier acceleration and thinning. It remains unclear, however, which glaciers are currently stable but may retreat in the future, and how far inland and how fast they will retreat. Here, we quantify the sensitivity and vulnerability of marine-terminating glaciers along the Northwest coast of Greenland (from 72.5° to 76°N) to ocean forcing using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), and its new ice front migration capability. We rely on the ice melt parameterization from Rignot et al. 2016, and use ocean temperature and salinity from high-resolution ECCO2 simulations on the continental shelf to constrain the thermal forcing. The ice flow model includes a calving law based on a Von Mises criterion. We investigate the sensitivity of Northwest Greenland to enhanced ocean thermal forcing and subglacial discharge. We find that some glaciers, such as Dietrichson Gletscher or Alison Gletscher, are sensitive to small increases in ocean thermal forcing, while others, such as Illullip Sermia or Qeqertarsuup Sermia, are very difficult to destabilize, even with a quadrupling of the melt. Under the most intense melt experiment, we find that Hayes Gletscher retreats by more than 50 km inland into a deep trough and its velocity increases by a factor of 10 over only 15 years. The model confirms that ice-ocean interactions are the triggering mechanism of glacier retreat, but the bed controls its magnitude. This work was performed at the University of California Irvine under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cryospheric Sciences Program (#NNX15AD55G), and the National Science Foundation's ARCSS program (#1504230).

  13. New Force Field Model for Propylene Glycol: Insight to Local Structure and Dynamics. (United States)

    Ferreira, Elisabete S C; Voroshylova, Iuliia V; Koverga, Volodymyr A; Pereira, Carlos M; Cordeiro, M Natália D S


    In this work we developed a new force field model (FFM) for propylene glycol (PG) based on the OPLS all-atom potential. The OPLS potential was refined using quantum chemical calculations, taking into account the densities and self-diffusion coefficients. The validation of this new FFM was carried out based on a wide range of physicochemical properties, such as density, enthalpy of vaporization, self-diffusion coefficients, isothermal compressibility, surface tension, and shear viscosity. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed over a large range of temperatures (293.15-373.15 K). The comparison with other force field models, such as OPLS, CHARMM27, and GAFF, revealed a large improvement of the results, allowing a better agreement with experimental data. Specific structural properties (radial distribution functions, hydrogen bonding and spatial distribution functions) were then analyzed in order to support the adequacy of the proposed FFM. Pure propylene glycol forms a continuous phase, displaying no microstructures. It is shown that the developed FFM gives rise to suitable results not only for pure propylene glycol but also for mixtures by testing its behavior for a 50 mol % aqueous propylene glycol solution. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the addition of water to the PG phase produces a homogeneous solution and that the hydration interactions prevail over the propylene glycol self-association interactions.

  14. Comments on interactions in the SUSY models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Physics, Varanasi (India); Reshetnyak, Alexander [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of SB RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation)


    We consider special supersymmetry (SUSY) transformations with m generators /leftarrow s{sub α}, for some class of models and study the physical consequences when making the Grassmann-odd transformations to form an Abelian supergroup with finite parameters and a set of group-like elements with finite parameters being functionals of the field variables. The SUSY-invariant path integral measure within conventional quantization scheme leads to the appearance of the Jacobian under a change of variables generated by such SUSY transformations, which is explicitly calculated. The Jacobian implies, first of all, the appearance of trivial interactions in the transformed action, and, second, the presence of a modified Ward identity which reduces to the standard Ward identities in the case of constant parameters. We examine the case of the N = 1 and N = 2 supersymmetric harmonic oscillators to illustrate the general concept by a simple free model with (1, 1) physical degrees of freedom. It is shown that the interaction terms U{sub tr} have a corresponding SUSY-exact form: U{sub tr} = (V{sub (1)} /leftarrow s; V{sub (2)} /leftarrow anti s /leftarrow s) generated naturally under such generalized formulation. We argue that the case of a non-trivial interaction cannot be obtained in such a way. (orig.)

  15. Interactions between fluvial forces and vegetation size, density and morphology influence plant mortality during experimental floods (United States)

    Stella, J. C.; Kui, L.; Manners, R.; Wilcox, A. C.; Lightbody, A.; Sklar, L. S.


    Introduction and methods Fluvial disturbance is a key driver of riparian vegetation dynamics in river corridors. Despite an increasing understanding of ecohydraulic interactions between plants and fluvial forces, the interactive influences of plant morphology and sediment supply on plant mortality, a key demographic factor, are largely unknown. To better understand these processes, we designed and conducted a series of flume experiments to: (1) quantify effects of plant traits that interact with flow and sediment transport on plant loss to scour during floods; and (2) predict plant dislodgement for different species across a range of plant sizes, patch densities, and sediment condition (equilibrium transport versus sediment deficit). We ran ten experimental floods in a 28 m long × 0.6 m wide × 0.71 m tall flume, using live, 1-3 year-old tamarisk and cottonwood seedlings with contrasting morphologies with varied combinations of size and density. Results and discussion Both sediment supply and plant traits (morphology and composition) have significant impacts on plant vulnerability during floods. Sediment deficit resulted in bed degradation and a 35% greater risk of plant loss compared to equilibrium sediment conditions. The probability of plant dislodgement in sparse patches was 4.5 times greater than in dense patches. Tamarisk plants and patches had greater frontal area, basal diameter and longer roots compared to cottonwood across all seedling heights. These traits, as well as its lower crown position reduced tamarisk's vulnerability to scour by 75%. Compared with cottonwood, tamarisk exhibits better resistance to floods, due to its greater root biomass and longer roots that stabilize soil, and its greater frontal area and lower crown that effectively trap sediment. These traits likely contribute to riverscape-scale changes in channel morphology that are evident where tamarisk has invaded native riparian communities, and explain the persistence of tamarisk

  16. Thrust Force Analysis of Tripod Constant Velocity Joint Using Multibody Model (United States)

    Sugiura, Hideki; Matsunaga, Tsugiharu; Mizutani, Yoshiteru; Ando, Yosei; Kashiwagi, Isashi

    A tripod constant velocity joint is used in the driveshaft of front wheel drive vehicles. Thrust force generated by this joint causes lateral vibration in these vehicles. To analyze the thrust force, a detailed model is constructed based on a multibody dynamics approach. This model includes all principal parts of the joint defined as rigid bodies and all force elements of contact and friction acting among these parts. This model utilizes a new contact modeling method of needle roller bearings for more precise and faster computation. By comparing computational and experimental results, the appropriateness of this model is verified and the principal factors inducing the second and third rotating order components of the thrust force are clarified. This paper also describes the influence of skewed needle rollers on the thrust force and evaluates the contribution of friction forces at each contact region to the thrust force.

  17. An Approach for Simulation of the Muscle Force Modeling It by Summation of Motor Unit Contraction Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rositsa Raikova


    Full Text Available Muscle force is due to the cumulative effect of repetitively contracting motor units (MUs. To simulate the contribution of each MU to whole muscle force, an approach implemented in a novel computer program is proposed. The individual contraction of an MU (the twitch is modeled by a 6-parameter analytical function previously proposed; the force of one MU is a sum of its contractions due to an applied stimulation pattern, and the muscle force is the sum of the active MUs. The number of MUs, the number of slow, fast-fatigue-resistant, and fast-fatigable MUs, and their six parameters as well as a file with stimulation patterns for each MU are inputs for the developed software. Different muscles and different firing patterns can be simulated changing the input data. The functionality of the program is illustrated with a model consisting of 30 MUs of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle. The twitches of these MUs were experimentally measured and modeled. The forces of the MUs and of the whole muscle were simulated using different stimulation patterns that included different regular, irregular, synchronous, and asynchronous firing patterns of MUs. The size principle of MUs for recruitment and derecruitment was also demonstrated using different stimulation paradigms.

  18. Force modeling for incisions into various tissues with MRF haptic master (United States)

    Kim, Pyunghwa; Kim, Soomin; Park, Young-Dai; Choi, Seung-Bok


    This study proposes a new model to predict the reaction force that occurs in incisions during robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The reaction force is fed back to the manipulator by a magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) haptic master, which is featured by a bi-directional clutch actuator. The reaction force feedback provides similar sensations to laparotomy that cannot be provided by a conventional master for surgery. This advantage shortens the training period for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery and can improve the accuracy of operations. The reaction force modeling of incisions can be utilized in a surgical simulator that provides a virtual reaction force. In this work, in order to model the reaction force during incisions, the energy aspect of the incision process is adopted and analyzed. Each mode of the incision process is classified by the tendency of the energy change, and modeled for realistic real-time application. The reaction force model uses actual reaction force information with three types of actual tissues: hard tissue, medium tissue, and soft tissue. This modeled force is realized by the MRF haptic master through an algorithm based on the position and velocity of a scalpel using two different control methods: an open-loop algorithm and a closed-loop algorithm. The reaction forces obtained from the proposed model are compared with a desired force in time domain.

  19. Mapping the global football field: a sociological model of transnational forces within the world game. (United States)

    Giulianotti, Richard; Robertson, Roland


    This paper provides a sociological model of the key transnational political and economic forces that are shaping the 'global football field'. The model draws upon, and significantly extends, the theory of the 'global field' developed previously by Robertson. The model features four quadrants, each of which contains a dominant operating principle, an 'elemental reference point', and an 'elemental theme'. The quadrants contain, first, neo-liberalism, associated with the individual and elite football clubs; second, neo-mercantilism, associated with nation-states and national football systems; third, international relations, associated with international governing bodies; and fourth, global civil society, associated with diverse institutions that pursue human development and/or social justice. We examine some of the interactions and tensions between the major institutional and ideological forces across the four quadrants. We conclude by examining how the weakest quadrant, featuring global civil society, may gain greater prominence within football. In broad terms, we argue that our four-fold model may be utilized to map and to examine other substantive research fields with reference to globalization. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  20. Dynamics of dissipative self-assembly of particles interacting through oscillatory forces. (United States)

    Tagliazucchi, M; Szleifer, I


    Dissipative self-assembly is the formation of ordered structures far from equilibrium, which continuously uptake energy and dissipate it into the environment. Due to its dynamical nature, dissipative self-assembly can lead to new phenomena and possibilities of self-organization that are unavailable to equilibrium systems. Understanding the dynamics of dissipative self-assembly is required in order to direct the assembly to structures of interest. In the present work, Brownian dynamics simulations and analytical theory were used to study the dynamics of self-assembly of a mixture of particles coated with weak acids and bases under continuous oscillations of the pH. The pH of the system modulates the charge of the particles and, therefore, the interparticle forces oscillate in time. This system produces a variety of self-assembled structures, including colloidal molecules, fibers and different types of crystalline lattices. The most important conclusions of our study are: (i) in the limit of fast oscillations, the whole dynamics (and not only those at the non-equilibrium steady state) of a system of particles interacting through time-oscillating interparticle forces can be described by an effective potential that is the time average of the time-dependent potential over one oscillation period; (ii) the oscillation period is critical to determine the order of the system. In some cases the order is favored by very fast oscillations while in others small oscillation frequencies increase the order. In the latter case, it is shown that slow oscillations remove kinetic traps and, thus, allow the system to evolve towards the most stable non-equilibrium steady state.

  1. Forces of Tool-Tissue Interaction to Assess Surgical Skill Level. (United States)

    Sugiyama, Taku; Lama, Sanju; Gan, Liu Shi; Maddahi, Yaser; Zareinia, Kourosh; Sutherland, Garnette R


    The application of optimal forces between surgical instruments and tissue is fundamental to surgical performance and learning. To date, this force has not been measured clinically during the performance of microsurgery. To establish a normative catalog of force profiles during the performance of surgery, to compare force variables among surgeons with different skill levels, and to evaluate whether such a force-based metric determines or differentiates skill level. Through installation of strain gauge sensors, a force-sensing bipolar forceps was developed, and force data were obtained from predetermined surgical tasks at the Foothills Medical Centre, University of Calgary, a tertiary care center that serves Southern Alberta, Canada. Sixteen neurosurgeons (3 groups: novice, intermediate, and experienced) performed surgery on 26 neurosurgical patients with various conditions. Normative baseline force ranges were obtained using the force profiles (mean and maximum forces and force variability) from the experienced surgeons. Standardized force profiles and force errors (high force error [HFE], low force error [LFE], and force variability error [FVE]) were analyzed and compared among surgeons with different skill levels. Each trial of the forceps use was termed successful or unsuccessful. The force profiles and force errors were analyzed and compared. This study included 26 patients (10 [38%] male and 16 [62%] female; mean [SD] age, 43 [15] years) undergoing neurosurgery by 16 surgeons (6 in the novice group, 5 in the intermediate group, and 5 in the experienced group). Unsuccessful trial-incomplete significantly correlated with LFE and FVE, and unsuccessful trial-bleeding correlated with HFE and FVE. The force strengths exerted by novice surgeons were significantly higher than those of experienced surgeons (mean force, 0.74N vs 0.00N; P intermediate (mean force, 0.28N) to experienced (mean force, 0.00N) surgeons; however, these differences varied among surgical tasks

  2. The interacting boson-fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iachello, F.; Van Isacker, P.


    The interacting boson-fermion model has become in recent years the standard model for the description of atomic nuclei with an odd number of protons and/or neutrons. This book describes the mathematical framework on which the interacting boson-fermion model is built and presents applications to a variety of situations encountered in nuclei. The book addresses both the analytical and the numerical aspects of the problem. The analytical aspect requires the introduction of rather complex group theoretic methods, including the use of graded (or super) Lie algebras. The first (and so far only) example of supersymmetry occurring in nature is also discussed. The book is the first comprehensive treatment of the subject and will appeal to both theoretical and experimental physicists. The large number of explicit formulas for level energies, electromagnetic transition rates and intensities of transfer reactions presented in the book provide a simple but detailed way to analyze experimental data. This book can also be used as a textbook for advanced graduate students

  3. A model-independent description of few-body system with strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenog, I.V.


    In this contribution, the authors discuss the formulation of equations that provide model-independent description of systems of three and more nucleons irrespective of the details of the interaction, substantiate the approach, estimate the correction terms with respect to the force range, and give basic qualitative results obtained by means of the model-independent procedure. They consider three nucleons in the doublet state (spin S=I/2) taking into account only S-interaction. The elastic nd-scattering amplitude may be found from the model-independent equations that follow from the Faddeev equations in the short-range-force limit. They note that the solutions of several model-independent equations and basic results obtained with the use of this approach may serve both as a standard solution and starting point in the discussion of various conceptions concerning the details of nuclear interactions

  4. Nonlinear Modeling of Forced Magnetic Reconnection with Transient Perturbations (United States)

    Beidler, Matthew T.; Callen, James D.; Hegna, Chris C.; Sovinec, Carl R.


    Externally applied 3D magnetic fields in tokamaks can penetrate into the plasma and lead to forced magnetic reconnection, and hence magnetic islands, on resonant surfaces. Analytic theory has been reasonably successful in describing many aspects of this paradigm with regard to describing the time asymptotic-steady state. However, understanding the nonlinear evolution into a low-slip, field-penetrated state, especially how MHD events such as sawteeth and ELMs precipitate this transition, is in its early development. We present nonlinear computations employing the extended-MHD code NIMROD, building on previous work by incorporating a temporally varying external perturbation as a simple model for an MHD event that produces resonant magnetic signals. A parametric series of proof-of-principle computations and accompanying analytical theory characterize the transition into a mode-locked state with an emphasis on detailing the temporal evolution properties. Supported by DOE OFES Grants DE-FG02-92ER54139, DE-FG02-86ER53218, and the U.S. DOE FES Postdoctoral Research program administered by ORISE and managed by ORAU under DOE contract DE-SC0014664.

  5. Optimal Scaling of Interaction Effects in Generalized Linear Models (United States)

    van Rosmalen, Joost; Koning, Alex J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.


    Multiplicative interaction models, such as Goodman's (1981) RC(M) association models, can be a useful tool for analyzing the content of interaction effects. However, most models for interaction effects are suitable only for data sets with two or three predictor variables. Here, we discuss an optimal scaling model for analyzing the content of…

  6. Forces in the Shoulder Joint : On validation of musculoskeletal shoulder models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi Nikooyan, A.


    Detailed information about muscle forces in the human musculoskeletal system are highly demanded for several applications. Unfortunately, the measurement of muscle forces in-vivo is hardly possible. To date, musculoskeletal models are best alternative for the direct measurement of these forces. A

  7. Numerical time-domain modelling of hoof-ground interaction during the stance phase. (United States)

    Behnke, R


    Hoof-ground interaction impacts on the health and performance characteristics of horses. Due to complex interactions between hoof and ground during the stance phase, previous experimentally dominated studies concentrated on subproblems of the phenomena observed. A multidisciplinary methodology with mathematical modelling, material testing and in vivo experimental measurements seems promising. With the help of a mathematical approach, this contribution aims to explain from a biomechanical point of view the phenomena observed during experimental investigations (hoof acceleration, interacting forces) and aims to contribute to an overall experimental-mathematical multidisciplinary approach. In silico modelling of hoof-ground interaction (limb, hoof and horizontally unbounded ground). Hoof-ground interaction is represented by a time-domain finite element model including the limb, the hoof and the unbounded representation of the ground via the scaled boundary finite element method to capture radiation damping during the stance phase. Motoric forces (driving forces) of the horse during locomotion are included. Numerical model results for acceleration-time relations (hoof) at different trotting velocities are compared with previously published acceleration-time relations and show qualitative agreement. From the model approach, power loss due to different ground properties and ground damping is computed in combination with the maximum limb force during the stance phase. Intentionally, a simplified model approach for the material and structural representation of the limb, the hoof and the ground in terms of material features and spatial resolution has been used for this study, which might be the basis for a model refinement in terms of contact properties as well as the integration of bone and joint structures. The comparison to experimentally obtained results demonstrates the applicability of the model, which, in turn, enables an insight into the processes taking place

  8. Interaction of Mastoparan with Model Membranes (United States)

    Haloot, Justin


    The use of antimicrobial agents began during the 20th century to reduce the effects of infectious diseases. Since the 1990s, antimicrobial resistance has become an ever-increasing global problem. Our laboratory recently found that small antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have potent antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms including antibiotic resistant organisms. These AMPs are potential therapeutic agents against the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance. AMPs are small peptides produced by plants, insects and animals. Several hypotheses concede that these peptides cause some type of structural perturbations and increased membrane permeability in bacteria however, how AMPs kill bacteria remains unclear. The goal of this study was to design an assay that would allow us to evaluate and monitor the pore forming ability of an AMP, Mastoparan, on model membrane structures called liposomes. Development of this model will facilitate the study of how mastoparan and related AMPs interact with the bacterial membrane.

  9. Convex Modeling of Interactions with Strong Heredity. (United States)

    Haris, Asad; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah


    We consider the task of fitting a regression model involving interactions among a potentially large set of covariates, in which we wish to enforce strong heredity. We propose FAMILY, a very general framework for this task. Our proposal is a generalization of several existing methods, such as VANISH [Radchenko and James, 2010], hierNet [Bien et al., 2013], the all-pairs lasso, and the lasso using only main effects. It can be formulated as the solution to a convex optimization problem, which we solve using an efficient alternating directions method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm. This algorithm has guaranteed convergence to the global optimum, can be easily specialized to any convex penalty function of interest, and allows for a straightforward extension to the setting of generalized linear models. We derive an unbiased estimator of the degrees of freedom of FAMILY, and explore its performance in a simulation study and on an HIV sequence data set.

  10. Calogero model with Yukawa-like interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessabi, Mohammed; Saidi, El Hassan; Sebbata, Hanane


    We study an extension of one-dimensional Calogero model involving strongly coupled and electrically charged particles. Besides Calogero term g2x 2 , there is an extra factor described by a Yukawa-like coupling modeling short distance interactions. Mimicking Calogero analysis and using developments in formal series of the wave function Ψ(x) factorized as x - bar Φ(x) with -bar (-bar -1)=g, we develop a technique to approach the spectrum of the generalized system and show that information on full spectrum is captured by Φ(x) and Φ ' '(x) at the singular point x=0 of the potential. Convergence of ∫dx|Ψ(x)| 2 requires -bar >-12 and is shown to be sensitive to the zero mode of Φ(x) at x=0

  11. Laser interaction with biological material mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikov, Kirill


    This book covers the principles of laser interaction with biological cells and tissues of varying degrees of organization. The problems of biomedical diagnostics are considered. Scattering of laser irradiation of blood cells is modeled for biological structures (dermis, epidermis, vascular plexus). An analytic theory is provided which is based on solving the wave equation for the electromagnetic field. It allows the accurate analysis of interference effects arising from the partial superposition of scattered waves. Treated topics of mathematical modeling are: optical characterization of biological tissue with large-scale and small-scale inhomogeneities in the layers, heating blood vessel under laser irradiation incident on the outer surface of the skin and thermo-chemical denaturation of biological structures at the example of human skin.

  12. Modes of Escherichia coli Dps Interaction with DNA as Revealed by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav V Melekhov

    Full Text Available Multifunctional protein Dps plays an important role in iron assimilation and a crucial role in bacterial genome packaging. Its monomers form dodecameric spherical particles accumulating ~400 molecules of oxidized iron ions within the protein cavity and applying a flexible N-terminal ends of each subunit for interaction with DNA. Deposition of iron is a well-studied process by which cells remove toxic Fe2+ ions from the genetic material and store them in an easily accessible form. However, the mode of interaction with linear DNA remained mysterious and binary complexes with Dps have not been characterized so far. It is widely believed that Dps binds DNA without any sequence or structural preferences but several lines of evidence have demonstrated its ability to differentiate gene expression, which assumes certain specificity. Here we show that Dps has a different affinity for the two DNA fragments taken from the dps gene regulatory region. We found by atomic force microscopy that Dps predominantly occupies thermodynamically unstable ends of linear double-stranded DNA fragments and has high affinity to the central part of the branched DNA molecule self-assembled from three single-stranded oligonucleotides. It was proposed that Dps prefers binding to those regions in DNA that provide more contact pads for the triad of its DNA-binding bundle associated with one vertex of the protein globule. To our knowledge, this is the first study revealed the nucleoid protein with an affinity to branched DNA typical for genomic regions with direct and inverted repeats. As a ubiquitous feature of bacterial and eukaryotic genomes, such structural elements should be of particular care, but the protein system evolutionarily adapted for this function is not yet known, and we suggest Dps as a putative component of this system.

  13. Repetition-based Interactive Facade Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan


    Modeling and reconstruction of urban environments has gained researchers attention throughout the past few years. It spreads in a variety of directions across multiple disciplines such as image processing, computer graphics and computer vision as well as in architecture, geoscience and remote sensing. Having a virtual world of our real cities is very attractive in various directions such as entertainment, engineering, governments among many others. In this thesis, we address the problem of processing a single fa cade image to acquire useful information that can be utilized to manipulate the fa cade and generate variations of fa cade images which can be later used for buildings\\' texturing. Typical fa cade structures exhibit a rectilinear distribution where in windows and other elements are organized in a grid of horizontal and vertical repetitions of similar patterns. In the firt part of this thesis, we propose an efficient algorithm that exploits information obtained from a single image to identify the distribution grid of the dominant elements i.e. windows. This detection method is initially assisted with the user marking the dominant window followed by an automatic process for identifying its repeated instances which are used to define the structure grid. Given the distribution grid, we allow the user to interactively manipulate the fa cade by adding, deleting, resizing or repositioning the windows in order to generate new fa cade structures. Having the utility for the interactive fa cade is very valuable to create fa cade variations and generate new textures for building models. Ultimately, there is a wide range of interesting possibilities of interactions to be explored.

  14. A simple model for studying interacting networks (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Jolad, Shivakumar; Schmittmann, Beate; Zia, R. K. P.


    Many specific physical networks (e.g., internet, power grid, interstates), have been characterized in considerable detail, but in isolation from each other. Yet, each of these networks supports the functions of the others, and so far, little is known about how their interactions affect their structure and functionality. To address this issue, we consider two coupled model networks. Each network is relatively simple, with a fixed set of nodes, but dynamically generated set of links which has a preferred degree, κ . In the stationary state, the degree distribution has exponential tails (far from κ), an attribute which we can explain. Next, we consider two such networks with different κ 's, reminiscent of two social groups, e.g., extroverts and introverts. Finally, we let these networks interact by establishing a controllable fraction of cross links. The resulting distribution of links, both within and across the two model networks, is investigated and discussed, along with some potential consequences for real networks. Supported in part by NSF-DMR-0705152 and 1005417.

  15. Entropic elasticity in the generation of muscle Force - A theoretical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert


    -bridges are explored [linear, power function and worm-like chain (WLC) model based], and it is shown that the best results are obtained if the individual myosin-spring forces are modelled using a WLC model, thus hinting that entropic elasticity could be the main source of force in myosin undergoing the conformational...

  16. Beyond Born-Mayer: Improved Models for Short-Range Repulsion in ab Initio Force Fields. (United States)

    Van Vleet, Mary J; Misquitta, Alston J; Stone, Anthony J; Schmidt, J R


    Short-range repulsion within intermolecular force fields is conventionally described by either Lennard-Jones (A/r(12)) or Born-Mayer (A exp(-Br)) forms. Despite their widespread use, these simple functional forms are often unable to describe the interaction energy accurately over a broad range of intermolecular distances, thus creating challenges in the development of ab initio force fields and potentially leading to decreased accuracy and transferability. Herein, we derive a novel short-range functional form based on a simple Slater-like model of overlapping atomic densities and an iterated stockholder atom (ISA) partitioning of the molecular electron density. We demonstrate that this Slater-ISA methodology yields a more accurate, transferable, and robust description of the short-range interactions at minimal additional computational cost compared to standard Lennard-Jones or Born-Mayer approaches. Finally, we show how this methodology can be adapted to yield the standard Born-Mayer functional form while still retaining many of the advantages of the Slater-ISA approach.

  17. On the Relationship between Aquatic Plant Stem Characteristics and Drag Force: Is a Modeling Application Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Łoboda


    Full Text Available This paper presents a basic model that shows the relationship between the diameter of a stem and its flexural rigidity. The model was developed from experimental measurements of biomechanical traits (i.e., tensile and bending traits like maximum forces, stresses, moduli of elasticity, flexural rigidity, strain of three freshwater macrophyte species (Elodea canadensis Michx., Potamogeton pectinatus L., and P. crispus L., reflecting the seasonal changes in plant biomechanics throughout the vegetative season. These were obtained with the use of a bench-top testing machine in 2016 and 2017. The presented calculations are based on the ratio of drag-to-bending forces, in which the flexural rigidity plays a key role. The proposed model has the form EI = adb, and two approaches based on a regression analysis were applied to determine the parameters of the model—a and b. In the first method, the parameters were identified separately for each day of measurement, while in the second method, the coefficient b was calculated for all data from all days as a unified number for individual plants. The results suggest that coefficient b may provide information about the proportion of changes in drag forces depending on plant stiffness. The values of this coefficient were associated with the shape of the stem cross-section. The more circular the cross-section, the closer the value of the parameter was to 1. The parameter values were 1.60 for E. canadensis, 1.98 for P. pectinatus, and 2.46 for P. crispus. Moreover, this value also depended on the density of the cross-section structure. Most of the results showed that with an increase in stem diameter, the ratio between the drag and bending forces decreased, which led to fewer differences between these two forces. The model application may be introduced in many laboratory measurements of flow–biota interactions as well as in aquatic plant management applications. The implementation of these results in control

  18. Thermal characterization of static and dynamical properties of the confined molecular systems interacting through dispersion force. (United States)

    Ramos, Sergio Luis L M; Ogino, Michihiko; Oguni, Masaharu


    We investigated the thermal properties of liquid methylcyclohexane and racemic sec-butylcyclohexane, as representatives of a molecular system with only dispersion-force intermolecular interactions, confined in the pores (thickness/diameter d = 12, 6, 1.1 nm) of silica gels by adiabatic calorimetry. The results imply a heterogeneous picture for molecular aggregate under confinement consisting of an interfacial region and an inner pore one. In the vicinity of a glass-transition temperature T(g,bulk) of bulk liquid, two distinguishable relaxation phenomena were observed for the confined systems and their origins were attributed to the devitrification, namely glass transition, processes of (1) a layer of interfacial molecules adjacent to the pore walls and (2) the molecules located in the middle of the pore. A third glass-transition phenomenon was observed at lower temperatures and ascribed to a secondary relaxation process. The glass transition of the interfacial-layer molecules was found to proceed at temperatures rather above T(g,bulk), whereas that of the molecules located in the inner pore region occurred at temperatures below T(g,bulk). We discuss the reason why the molecules located in different places in the pores reveal the respectively different dynamical properties.

  19. MDM2-MDM4 molecular interaction investigated by atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance. (United States)

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Teveroni, Emanuela; Moretti, Fabiola; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) and 4 (MDM4) are known as the main negative regulators of p53, a tumor suppressor. They are able to form heterodimers that are much more effective in the downregulation of p53. Therefore, the MDM2-MDM4 complex could be a target for promising therapeutic restoration of p53 function. To this aim, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlining the heterodimerization is needed. The kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the MDM2-MDM4 complex was performed with two complementary approaches: atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance. Both techniques revealed an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD ) in the micromolar range for the MDM2-MDM4 heterodimer, similar to related complexes involved in the p53 network. Furthermore, the MDM2-MDM4 complex is characterized by a relatively high free energy, through a single energy barrier, and by a lifetime in the order of tens of seconds. New insights into the MDM2-MDM4 interaction could be highly important for developing innovative anticancer drugs focused on p53 reactivation.

  20. Social Force Model-Based Group Behavior Simulation in Virtual Geographic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang


    Full Text Available Virtual geographic environments (VGEs are extensively used to explore the relationship between humans and environments. Crowd simulation provides a method for VGEs to represent crowd behaviors that are observed in the real world. The social force model (SFM can simulate interactions among individuals, but it has not sufficiently accounted for inter-group and intra-group behaviors which are important components of crowd dynamics. We present the social group force model (SGFM, based on an extended SFM, to simulate group behaviors in VGEs with focuses on the avoiding behaviors among different social groups and the coordinate behaviors among subgroups that belong to one social group. In our model, psychological repulsions between social groups make them avoid with the whole group and group members can stick together as much as possible; while social groups are separated into several subgroups, the rear subgroups try to catch up and keep the whole group cohesive. We compare the simulation results of the SGFM with the extended SFM and the phenomena in videos. Then we discuss the function of Virtual Reality (VR in crowd simulation visualization. The results indicate that the SGFM can enhance social group behaviors in crowd dynamics.

  1. Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Weather Forecasts in the ECMWF Model (United States)

    Bozzo, A.; Benedetti, A.; Rodwell, M. J.; Bechtold, P.; Remy, S.


    Aerosols play an important role in the energy balance of the Earth system via direct scattering and absorpiton of short-wave and long-wave radiation and indirect interaction with clouds. Diabatic heating or cooling by aerosols can also modify the vertical stability of the atmosphere and influence weather pattern with potential impact on the skill of global weather prediction models. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) provides operational daily analysis and forecast of aerosol optical depth (AOD) for five aerosol species using a prognostic model which is part of the Integrated Forecasting System of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF-IFS). The aerosol component was developed during the research project Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC). Aerosols can have a large impact on the weather forecasts in case of large aerosol concentrations as found during dust storms or strong pollution events. However, due to its computational burden, prognostic aerosols are not yet feasible in the ECMWF operational weather forecasts, and monthly-mean climatological fields are used instead. We revised the aerosol climatology used in the operational ECMWF IFS with one derived from the MACC reanalysis. We analyse the impact of changes in the aerosol radiative effect on the mean model climate and in medium-range weather forecasts, also in comparison with prognostic aerosol fields. The new climatology differs from the previous one by Tegen et al 1997, both in the spatial distribution of the total AOD and the optical properties of each aerosol species. The radiative impact of these changes affects the model mean bias at various spatial and temporal scales. On one hand we report small impacts on measures of large-scale forecast skill but on the other hand details of the regional distribution of aerosol concentration have a large local impact. This is the case for the northern Indian Ocean where the radiative impact of the mineral

  2. Modeling energy-economy interactions using integrated models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyterlinde, M.A.


    Integrated models are defined as economic energy models that consist of several submodels, either coupled by an interface module, or embedded in one large model. These models can be used for energy policy analysis. Using integrated models yields the following benefits. They provide a framework in which energy-economy interactions can be better analyzed than in stand-alone models. Integrated models can represent both energy sector technological details, as well as the behaviour of the market and the role of prices. Furthermore, the combination of modeling methodologies in one model can compensate weaknesses of one approach with strengths of another. These advantages motivated this survey of the class of integrated models. The purpose of this literature survey therefore was to collect and to present information on integrated models. To carry out this task, several goals were identified. The first goal was to give an overview of what is reported on these models in general. The second one was to find and describe examples of such models. Other goals were to find out what kinds of models were used as component models, and to examine the linkage methodology. Solution methods and their convergence properties were also a subject of interest. The report has the following structure. In chapter 2, a 'conceptual framework' is given. In chapter 3 a number of integrated models is described. In a table, a complete overview is presented of all described models. Finally, in chapter 4, the report is summarized, and conclusions are drawn regarding the advantages and drawbacks of integrated models. 8 figs., 29 refs

  3. Quantification of the Interaction Forces between Metals and Graphene by Quantum Chemical Calculations and Dynamic Force Measurements under Ambient Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lazar, P.; Zhang, S.; Šafářová, K.; LI, Q.; Froning, J. P.; Granatier, Jaroslav; Hobza, Pavel; Zbořil, R.; Besenbacher, F.; Dong, M.; Otyepka, M.


    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2013), s. 1646-1651 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Grant - others:European Regional Development Fund(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0058; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0017 Program:EE Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : graphene * nano particle * interaction energy * gold * platinum * copper Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 12.033, year: 2013

  4. Sediment interactions in a new ocean model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplin, W.C.; Gurbutt, P.A.


    A new ocean model has been developed jointly by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). It has been used in 1985 for the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) review of the NE Atlantic site for low-level radioactive waste disposal. The circulation model, which covers the world's oceans, is overlaid with a sediment model, which includes particle interactions in the ocean interior and in the seabed. The ocean interior processes feature movements with water, two particle size ranges, equilibrium distribution coefficients, gravitational settling and dissolution during descent. In the seabed there is a stack of compartments consisting of an interface between bottom waters and the seabed surface, a well mixed or bioturbated layer, a diffusive layer and a sediment sink from which activity does not return. The processes connecting the seabed compartments are burial, bioturbation and pore water diffusion. Model predictions for an arbitrary release from the dump site are presented. Distribution coefficients are shown to be an important factor in determining water concentrations. (author)

  5. Interactions of Model Cell Membranes with Nanoparticles (United States)

    D'Angelo, S. M.; Camesano, T. A.; Nagarajan, R.


    The same properties that give nanoparticles their enhanced function, such as high surface area, small size, and better conductivity, can also alter the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials. Ultimately, many of these nanomaterials will be released into the environment, and can cause cytotoxic effects to environmental bacteria, aquatic organisms, and humans. Previous results from our laboratory suggest that nanoparticles can have a detrimental effect on cells, depending on nanoparticle size. It is our goal to characterize the properties of nanomaterials that can result in membrane destabilization. We tested the effects of nanoparticle size and chemical functionalization on nanoparticle-membrane interactions. Gold nanoparticles at 2, 5,10, and 80 nm were investigated, with a concentration of 1.1x1010 particles/mL. Model cell membranes were constructed of of L-α-phosphatidylcholine (egg PC), which has negatively charged lipid headgroups. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was used to measure frequency changes at different overtones, which were related to mass changes corresponding to nanoparticle interaction with the model membrane. In QCM-D, a lipid bilayer is constructed on a silicon dioxide crystal. The crystals, oscillate at different harmonic frequencies depending upon changes in mass or energy dissipation. When mass is added to the crystal surface, such as through addition of a lipid vesicle solution, the frequency change decreases. By monitoring the frequency and dissipation, we could verify that a supported lipid bilayer (SLB) formed on the silica surface. After formation of the SLB, the nanoparticles can be added to the system, and the changes in frequency and dissipation are monitored in order to build a mechanistic understanding of nanoparticle-cell membrane interactions. For all of the smaller nanoparticles (2, 5, and 10 nm), nanoparticle addition caused a loss of mass from the lipid bilayer, which appears to be due to the formation of holes

  6. Fundamental investigation on interaction forces in bubble swarms and its application to the design of centrifugal separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisman, R.


    The present investigation deals with two aspects of gas-liquid flows, viz. interaction forces between the phases in bubble swarms and numerical description of rotating gas-liquid flows. The insight obtained was applied to the development of axial gas-liquid cyclones, as used i.a. as primary separators in nuclear boiling water reactors. (Auth.)

  7. Integrating interactive computational modeling in biology curricula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Helikar


    Full Text Available While the use of computer tools to simulate complex processes such as computer circuits is normal practice in fields like engineering, the majority of life sciences/biological sciences courses continue to rely on the traditional textbook and memorization approach. To address this issue, we explored the use of the Cell Collective platform as a novel, interactive, and evolving pedagogical tool to foster student engagement, creativity, and higher-level thinking. Cell Collective is a Web-based platform used to create and simulate dynamical models of various biological processes. Students can create models of cells, diseases, or pathways themselves or explore existing models. This technology was implemented in both undergraduate and graduate courses as a pilot study to determine the feasibility of such software at the university level. First, a new (In Silico Biology class was developed to enable students to learn biology by "building and breaking it" via computer models and their simulations. This class and technology also provide a non-intimidating way to incorporate mathematical and computational concepts into a class with students who have a limited mathematical background. Second, we used the technology to mediate the use of simulations and modeling modules as a learning tool for traditional biological concepts, such as T cell differentiation or cell cycle regulation, in existing biology courses. Results of this pilot application suggest that there is promise in the use of computational modeling and software tools such as Cell Collective to provide new teaching methods in biology and contribute to the implementation of the "Vision and Change" call to action in undergraduate biology education by providing a hands-on approach to biology.

  8. Integrating interactive computational modeling in biology curricula. (United States)

    Helikar, Tomáš; Cutucache, Christine E; Dahlquist, Lauren M; Herek, Tyler A; Larson, Joshua J; Rogers, Jim A


    While the use of computer tools to simulate complex processes such as computer circuits is normal practice in fields like engineering, the majority of life sciences/biological sciences courses continue to rely on the traditional textbook and memorization approach. To address this issue, we explored the use of the Cell Collective platform as a novel, interactive, and evolving pedagogical tool to foster student engagement, creativity, and higher-level thinking. Cell Collective is a Web-based platform used to create and simulate dynamical models of various biological processes. Students can create models of cells, diseases, or pathways themselves or explore existing models. This technology was implemented in both undergraduate and graduate courses as a pilot study to determine the feasibility of such software at the university level. First, a new (In Silico Biology) class was developed to enable students to learn biology by "building and breaking it" via computer models and their simulations. This class and technology also provide a non-intimidating way to incorporate mathematical and computational concepts into a class with students who have a limited mathematical background. Second, we used the technology to mediate the use of simulations and modeling modules as a learning tool for traditional biological concepts, such as T cell differentiation or cell cycle regulation, in existing biology courses. Results of this pilot application suggest that there is promise in the use of computational modeling and software tools such as Cell Collective to provide new teaching methods in biology and contribute to the implementation of the "Vision and Change" call to action in undergraduate biology education by providing a hands-on approach to biology.

  9. Mechanical principles of effects of botulinum toxin on muscle length-force characteristics: an assessment by finite element modeling. (United States)

    Turkoglu, Ahu N; Huijing, Peter A; Yucesoy, Can A


    Recent experiments involving muscle force measurements over a range of muscle lengths show that effects of botulinum toxin (BTX) are complex e.g., force reduction varies as a function of muscle length. We hypothesized that altered conditions of sarcomeres within active parts of partially paralyzed muscle is responsible for this effect. Using finite element modeling, the aim was to test this hypothesis and to study principles of how partial activation as a consequence of BTX affects muscle mechanics. In order to model the paralyzing effect of BTX, only 50% of the fascicles (most proximal, or middle, or most distal) of the modeled muscle were activated. For all muscle lengths, a vast majority of sarcomeres of these BTX-cases were at higher lengths than identical sarcomeres of the BTX-free muscle. Due to such "longer sarcomere effect", activated muscle parts show an enhanced potential of active force exertion (up to 14.5%). Therefore, a muscle force reduction originating exclusively from the paralyzed muscle fiber populations, is compromised by the changes of active sarcomeres leading to a smaller net force reduction. Moreover, such "compromise to force reduction" varies as a function of muscle length and is a key determinant of muscle length dependence of force reduction caused by BTX. Due to longer sarcomere effect, muscle optimum length tends to shift to a lower muscle length. Muscle fiber-extracellular matrix interactions occurring via their mutual connections along full peripheral fiber lengths (i.e., myofascial force transmission) are central to these effects. Our results may help improving our understanding of mechanisms of how the toxin secondarily affects the muscle mechanically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling and Simulation for Exploring Human-Robot Team Interaction Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald Dean; Bruemmer, David Jonathon; Davis, Midge Lee


    Small-sized and micro-robots will soon be available for deployment in large-scale forces. Consequently, the ability of a human operator to coordinate and interact with largescale robotic forces is of great interest. This paper describes the ways in which modeling and simulation have been used to explore new possibilities for human-robot interaction. The paper also discusses how these explorations have fed implementation of a unified set of command and control concepts for robotic force deployment. Modeling and simulation can play a major role in fielding robot teams in actual missions. While live testing is preferred, limitations in terms of technology, cost, and time often prohibit extensive experimentation with physical multi-robot systems. Simulation provides insight, focuses efforts, eliminates large areas of the possible solution space, and increases the quality of actual testing.

  11. Single particle degrees of freedom in the interacting boson model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.


    An overview is given of different aspects of the Interacting Boson Fermion Model, the extension of the interacting Boson Model to odd mass nuclei. The microscopic model for the coupling of single-particle degrees of freedom to the system of bosons is outlined and the interaction between the bosons

  12. Optimal Scaling of Interaction Effects in Generalized Linear Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); A.J. Koning (Alex); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick)


    textabstractMultiplicative interaction models, such as Goodman's RC(M) association models, can be a useful tool for analyzing the content of interaction effects. However, most models for interaction effects are only suitable for data sets with two or three predictor variables. Here, we discuss an

  13. Modeling of movement-induced and flow-induced fluid forces in fast switching valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Schmidt, Lasse


    Fast switching fluid power valves set strict requirements on performance, size and energy efficiency and simulation models are therefore needed to obtain good designs of such components. The valve moving member is subject to fluid forces depending on the valve flow rate and movement of the valve...... member itself. These fluid forces may be accurately simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis, but such models suffer from being computationally expensive and is not suited for optimization routines. In this paper, a computationally inexpensive method for modeling the fluid forces...... is proposed, which includes both the flow-induced fluid forces and the movement-induced fluid forces resulting from movement of the valve moving member. The movement-induced fluid force model is based on a known solution to the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. A method for accurately simulating the flow...

  14. Physical modelling of interactions between interfaces and turbulence; Modelisation physique des interactions entre interfaces et turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toutant, A


    The complex interactions between interfaces and turbulence strongly impact the flow properties. Unfortunately, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) have to entail a number of degrees of freedom proportional to the third power of the Reynolds number to correctly describe the flow behaviour. This extremely hard constraint makes it impossible to use DNS for industrial applications. Our strategy consists in using and improving DNS method in order to develop the Interfaces and Sub-grid Scales concept. ISS is a two-phase equivalent to the single-phase Large Eddy Simulation (LES) concept. The challenge of ISS is to integrate the two-way coupling phenomenon into sub-grid models. Applying a space filter, we have exhibited correlations or sub-grid terms that require closures. We have shown that, in two-phase flows, the presence of a discontinuity leads to specific sub-grid terms. Comparing the maximum of the norm of the sub-grid terms with the maximum of the norm of the advection tensor, we have found that sub-grid terms related to interfacial forces and viscous effect are negligible. Consequently, in the momentum balance, only the sub-grid terms related to inertia have to be closed. Thanks to a priori tests performed on several DNS data, we demonstrate that the scale similarity hypothesis, reinterpreted near discontinuity, provides sub-grid models that take into account the two-way coupling phenomenon. These models correspond to the first step of our work. Indeed, in this step, interfaces are smooth and, interactions between interfaces and turbulence occur in a transition zone where each physical variable varies sharply but continuously. The next challenge has been to determine the jump conditions across the sharp equivalent interface corresponding to the sub-grid models of the transition zone. We have used the matched asymptotic expansion method to obtain the jump conditions. The first tests on the velocity of the sharp equivalent interface are very promising (author)

  15. Identification of the cognate peptide-MHC target of T cell receptors using molecular modeling and force field scoring. (United States)

    Lanzarotti, Esteban; Marcatili, Paolo; Nielsen, Morten


    Interactions of T cell receptors (TCR) to peptides in complex with MHC (p:MHC) are key features that mediate cellular immune responses. While MHC binding is required for a peptide to be presented to T cells, not all MHC binders are immunogenic. The interaction of a TCR to the p:MHC complex holds a key, but currently poorly comprehended, component for our understanding of this variation in the immunogenicity of MHC binding peptides. Here, we demonstrate that identification of the cognate target of a TCR from a set of p:MHC complexes to a high degree is achievable using simple force-field energy terms. Building a benchmark of TCR:p:MHC complexes where epitopes and non-epitopes are modelled using state-of-the-art molecular modelling tools, scoring p:MHC to a given TCR using force-fields, optimized in a cross-validation setup to evaluate TCR inter atomic interactions involved with each p:MHC, we demonstrate that this approach can successfully be used to distinguish between epitopes and non-epitopes. A detailed analysis of the performance of this force-field-based approach demonstrate that its predictive performance depend on the ability to both accurately predict the binding of the peptide to the MHC and model the TCR:p:MHC complex structure. In summary, we conclude that it is possible to identify the TCR cognate target among different candidate peptides by using a force-field based model, and believe this works could lay the foundation for future work within prediction of TCR:p:MHC interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fabrication of robot head module using contact resistance force sensor for human robot interaction and its evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Jong Ho [Korea Reserch Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyun Joon [Univ. of Maryland, Maryland (United States); Kwon, Young Ha [Kyung Hee Univ., Gyunggi Do (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper presents a design of a robot head module with touch sensing algorithms that can simultaneously detect contact force and location. The module is constructed with a hemisphere and three sensor units that are fabricated using contact resistance force sensors. The surface part is designed with the hemisphere that measures 300 mm in diameter and 150 mm in height. Placed at the bottom of the robot head module are three sensor units fabricated using a simple screen printing technique. The contact force and the location of the model are evaluated through the calibration setup. The experiment showed that the calculated contact positions almost coincided with the applied load points as the contact location changed with a location error of about {+-}8.67 mm. The force responses of the module were evaluated at two points under loading and unloading conditions from 0 N to 5 N. The robot head module showed almost the same force responses at the two points.

  17. Neutron matter with a model interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Shaginyan, V.R.


    An infinite system of neutrons interacting by a model pair potential is considered. We investigate a case when this potential is sufficiently strong attractive, so that its scattering length a tends to infinity, a →-∞. It appeared, that if the structure of the potential is simple enough, including no finite parameters, reliable evidences can be presented that such a system is completely unstable at any finite density. The incompressibility as a function of the density is negative, reaching zero value when the density tends to zero. If the potential contains a sufficiently strong repulsive core then the system possesses an equilibrium density. The main features of a theory describing such systems are considered. (orig.)

  18. Neutron matter with a model interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics; A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shaginyan, V.R. [Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, 188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)


    An infinite system of neutrons interacting by a model pair potential is considered. We investigate a case when this potential is sufficiently strong attractive, so that its scattering length a tends to infinity, a {yields}-{infinity}. It appeared, that if the structure of the potential is simple enough, including no finite parameters, reliable evidences can be presented that such a system is completely unstable at any finite density. The incompressibility as a function of the density is negative, reaching zero value when the density tends to zero. If the potential contains a sufficiently strong repulsive core then the system possesses an equilibrium density. The main features of a theory describing such systems are considered. (orig.)

  19. Interaction of elaiophylin with model bilayer membrane (United States)

    Genova, J.; Dencheva-Zarkova, M.


    Elaiophylin is a new macrodiolide antibiotic, which is produced by the Streptomyces strains [1]. It displays biological activities against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The mode of action of this antibiotic has been attributed to an alteration of the membrane permeability. When this antibiotic is inserted into the bilayer membranes destabilization of the membrane and formation of ion-penetrable channels is observed. The macrodiolide antibiotic forms stable cation selective ion channels in synthetic lipid bilayer membranes. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Elaiophylin with model bilayer membranes and to get information on the mechanical properties of lipid bilayers in presence of this antibiotic. Patch-clamp technique [2] were used in the study

  20. Analisis Lingkungan Industri Kakkk, Ayam Geprek Surabaya Menggunakan Porter's Five Forces Model


    Jeffrey, Charles Raymond


    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis lingkungan industri Kakkk, Ayam Geprek, yaitu industri restoran berdasarkan Porter's Five Forces Model. Tinggi rendahnya masing-masing kekuatan Porter's Five Forces Model dinilai berdasarkan Porter's Five Forces Scorecard. Kemudian, hasil dari Porter's Five Scorecard akan dijadikan patokan bobot dalam External Factor Evaluation (EFE) Matrix untuk mengevaluasi kemampuan Kakkk, Ayam Geprek dalam menghadapi peluang dan ancaman di dalam industri. Jenis ...

  1. Network flow model of force transmission in unbonded and bonded granular media. (United States)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Tobin, Steven T; Cil, Mehmet; Alshibli, Khalid; Behringer, Robert P


    An established aspect of force transmission in quasistatic deformation of granular media is the existence of a dual network of strongly versus weakly loaded particles. Despite significant interest, the regulation of strong and weak forces through the contact network remains poorly understood. We examine this aspect of force transmission using data on microstructural fabric from: (I) three-dimensional discrete element models of grain agglomerates of bonded subspheres constructed from in situ synchrotron microtomography images of silica sand grains under unconfined compression and (II) two-dimensional assemblies of unbonded photoelastic circular disks submitted to biaxial compression under constant volume. We model force transmission as a network flow and solve the maximum flow-minimum cost (MFMC) problem, the solution to which yields a percolating subnetwork of contacts that transmits the "maximum flow" (i.e., the highest units of force) at "least cost" (i.e., the dissipated energy from such transmission). We find the MFMC describes a two-tier hierarchical architecture. At the local level, it encapsulates intraconnections between particles in individual force chains and in their conjoined 3-cycles, with the most common configuration having at least one force chain contact experiencing frustrated rotation. At the global level, the MFMC encapsulates interconnections between force chains. The MFMC can be used to predict most of the force chain particles without need for any information on contact forces, thereby suggesting the network flow framework may have potential broad utility in the modeling of force transmission in unbonded and bonded granular media.

  2. Modelling of Muscle Force Distributions During Barefoot and Shod Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Jonathan


    Full Text Available Research interest in barefoot running has expanded considerably in recent years, based around the notion that running without shoes is associated with a reduced incidence of chronic injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the differences in the forces produced by different skeletal muscles during barefoot and shod running. Fifteen male participants ran at 4.0 m·s-1 (± 5%. Kinematics were measured using an eight camera motion analysis system alongside ground reaction force parameters. Differences in sagittal plane kinematics and muscle forces between footwear conditions were examined using repeated measures or Freidman’s ANOVA. The kinematic analysis showed that the shod condition was associated with significantly more hip flexion, whilst barefoot running was linked with significantly more flexion at the knee and plantarflexion at the ankle. The examination of muscle kinetics indicated that peak forces from Rectus femoris, Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Tibialis anterior were significantly larger in the shod condition whereas Gastrocnemius forces were significantly larger during barefoot running. These observations provide further insight into the mechanical alterations that runners make when running without shoes. Such findings may also deliver important information to runners regarding their susceptibility to chronic injuries in different footwear conditions.

  3. Rigorous Model Reduction for a Damped-Forced Nonlinear Beam Model: An Infinite-Dimensional Analysis (United States)

    Kogelbauer, Florian; Haller, George


    We use invariant manifold results on Banach spaces to conclude the existence of spectral submanifolds (SSMs) in a class of nonlinear, externally forced beam oscillations. SSMs are the smoothest nonlinear extensions of spectral subspaces of the linearized beam equation. Reduction in the governing PDE to SSMs provides an explicit low-dimensional model which captures the correct asymptotics of the full, infinite-dimensional dynamics. Our approach is general enough to admit extensions to other types of continuum vibrations. The model-reduction procedure we employ also gives guidelines for a mathematically self-consistent modeling of damping in PDEs describing structural vibrations.

  4. A new fluid dynamics model to evaluate the contractile force of a biological spring, Vorticella convallaria (United States)

    Ryu, Sangjin; Matsudaira, Paul


    Vorticella convallaria, a sessile peritrich having a body and spring-like stalk, is a model for a bioinspired actuator because of its remarkably fast (msec) and powerful contractions (nN). An example of a biological spring, the stalk converts biochemical energy to physical motion, but the mechanics of contraction are poorly understood. To evaluate contraction force, past models have assumed the body to be a sphere moving in quiescent water and have equated contraction force to drag force on the body described by Stokes' law. However, flow induced by contracting Vorticella does not satisfy conditions of Stokes' law because the flow is unsteady (Womersley number > 1) and bound with a solid substrate to which the cell is tethered. We develop a more rigorous model for contraction force evaluation by assuming the body to be a sphere unsteadily moving perpendicularly toward a solid surface. The model comprises quasi-steady drag force, added mass force and history force with wall effect correction terms for each force. Vorticella not only generates a maximum contraction force greater than Stokes' drag, but it also experiences drag force in the direction of contraction in the later stage of contraction due to the memory effect of water.

  5. Investigation of a model to verify software for 3-D static force calculation


    Takahashi, Norio; Nakata, Takayoshi; Morishige, H.


    Requirements for a model to verify software for 3-D static force calculation are examined, and a 3-D model for static force calculation is proposed. Some factors affecting the analysis and experiments are investigated in order to obtain accurate and reproducible results

  6. Modeling and validating the grabbing forces of hydraulic log grapples used in forest operations (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux; Lihai Wang


    The grabbing forces of log grapples were modeled and analyzed mathematically under operating conditions when grabbing logs from compact log piles and from bunch-like log piles. The grabbing forces are closely related to the structural parameters of the grapple, the weight of the grapple, and the weight of the log grabbed. An operational model grapple was designed and...

  7. A dynamic force balance model for colloidal expansion and its DLVO-based application. (United States)

    Liu, Longcheng; Moreno, Luis; Neretnieks, Ivars


    A force balance model that describes the dynamic expansion of colloidal bentonite gels/sols is presented. The colloidal particles are assumed to consist of one or several thin sheets with the other dimensions much larger than their thickness. The forces considered include van der Waals force, diffuse double layer force, thermal force giving rise to Brownian motion, gravity, as well as friction force. The model results in an expression resembling the instationary diffusion equation but with an immensely variable diffusivity. This diffusivity is strongly influenced by the concentration of counterions as well as by the particle concentration in the colloid gel/sol. The properties of the model are explored and discussed, exemplified by the upward expansion of an originally highly compacted bentonite tablet in a test tube. Examples are presented for a number of cases with ionic concentrations varying between very dilute waters up to several molar of counterions. The volume fraction of particles ranges from 40% to very dilute sols.

  8. Institute for Multiscale Modeling of Biological Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulaitis, Michael E; Garcia-Moreno, Bertrand; Lenhoff, Abraham


    The Institute for Multiscale Modeling of Biological Interactions (IMMBI) has two primary goals: Foster interdisciplinary collaborations among faculty and their research laboratories that will lead to novel applications of multiscale simulation and modeling methods in the biological sciences and engineering; and Building on the unique biophysical/biology-based engineering foundations of the participating faculty, train scientists and engineers to apply computational methods that collectively span multiple time and length scales of biological organization. The success of IMMBI will be defined by the following: Size and quality of the applicant pool for pre-doctoral and post-doctoral fellows; Academic performance; Quality of the pre-doctoral and post-doctoral research; Impact of the research broadly and to the DOE (ASCR program) mission; Distinction of the next career step for pre-doctoral and post-doctoral fellows; and Faculty collaborations that result from IMMBI activities. Specific details about accomplishments during the three years of DOE support for IMMBI have been documented in Annual Progress Reports (April 2005, June 2006, and March 2007) and a Report for a National Academy of Sciences Review (October 2005) that were submitted to DOE on the dates indicated. An overview of these accomplishments is provided.

  9. Spectron: Graphical Model for Interacting With Timbre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gómez


    Full Text Available The algorithms for creating and manipulating sound by electronic or digital means have grown in number and complexity since the creation of the first analog synthesizers. The techniques for visualizing these synthesis models have not increasingly grown with synthesizers, neither in hardware nor in software. In this paper, the possibilities to graphically represent and control timbre are presented, based on displaying the parameters involved in its synthesis model. A very simple data set was extracted from a commercial subtractive synthesizer and analyzed in two different approaches, dimensionality reduction and abstract data visualization. The results of these two different approaches were used as leads to design a synthesizer prototype: the Spectron synthesizer. This prototype uses an Amplitude vs. Frequency graphic as it´s main interface to give information about the timbre and to interact with it, it´s control offers a simplification in the amount of variables of a classic oscillator and expands its possibilities to generate additional timbre.

  10. Role of subgrid-scale modeling in large eddy simulation of wind turbine wake interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlak, Hamid; Meneveau, C.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    A series of simulations are carried out to evaluate specific features of the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique in wind turbine wake interactions. We aim to model wake interactions of two aligned model rotors. The effects of the rotor resolution, actuator line force filter size, and Reynolds...... number are investigated at certain tip speed ratios. The numerical results are validated against wind tunnel measurements in terms of the mean velocity, turbulence intensity and the power and thrust coefficients. Special emphasis is placed on the role played by subgrid scale (SGS) models in affecting...... the flow structures and turbine loading, as this has been studied less in prior investigations. It is found that, compared with the effects of rotor resolution and force kernel size, the SGS models have only a minor impact on the wake and predicted power performance. These observations confirm the usual...

  11. A 3D lower limb musculoskeletal model for simultaneous estimation of musculo-tendon, joint contact, ligament and bone forces during gait. (United States)

    Moissenet, Florent; Chèze, Laurence; Dumas, Raphaël


    Musculo-tendon forces and joint reaction forces are typically estimated using a two-step method, computing first the musculo-tendon forces by a static optimization procedure and then deducing the joint reaction forces from the force equilibrium. However, this method does not allow studying the interactions between musculo-tendon forces and joint reaction forces in establishing this equilibrium and the joint reaction forces are usually overestimated. This study introduces a new 3D lower limb musculoskeletal model based on a one-step static optimization procedure allowing simultaneous musculo-tendon, joint contact, ligament and bone forces estimation during gait. It is postulated that this approach, by giving access to the forces transmitted by these musculoskeletal structures at hip, tibiofemoral, patellofemoral and ankle joints, modeled using anatomically consistent kinematic models, should ease the validation of the model using joint contact forces measured with instrumented prostheses. A blinded validation based on four datasets was made under two different minimization conditions (i.e., C1 - only musculo-tendon forces are minimized, and C2 - musculo-tendon, joint contact, ligament and bone forces are minimized while focusing more specifically on tibiofemoral joint contacts). The results show that the model is able to estimate in most cases the correct timing of musculo-tendon forces during normal gait (i.e., the mean coefficient of active/inactive state concordance between estimated musculo-tendon force and measured EMG envelopes was C1: 65.87% and C2: 60.46%). The results also showed that the model is potentially able to well estimate joint contact, ligament and bone forces and more specifically medial (i.e., the mean RMSE between estimated joint contact force and in vivo measurement was C1: 1.14BW and C2: 0.39BW) and lateral (i.e., C1: 0.65BW and C2: 0.28BW) tibiofemoral contact forces during normal gait. However, the results remain highly influenced by the

  12. Stochastic modeling of friction force and vibration analysis of a mechanical system using the model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Won Seok; Choi, Chan Kyu; Yoo, Hong Hee


    The squeal noise generated from a disk brake or chatter occurred in a machine tool primarily results from friction-induced vibration. Since friction-induced vibration is usually accompanied by abrasion and lifespan reduction of mechanical parts, it is necessary to develop a reliable analysis model by which friction-induced vibration phenomena can be accurately analyzed. The original Coulomb's friction model or the modified Coulomb friction model employed in most commercial programs employs deterministic friction coefficients. However, observing friction phenomena between two contact surfaces, one may observe that friction coefficients keep changing due to the unevenness of contact surface, temperature, lubrication and humidity. Therefore, in this study, friction coefficients are modeled as random parameters that keep changing during the motion of a mechanical system undergoing friction force. The integrity of the proposed stochastic friction model was validated by comparing the analysis results obtained by the proposed model with experimental results.

  13. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics framework for modelling multiphase interactions at meso-scale (United States)

    Li, Ling; Shen, Luming; Nguyen, Giang D.; El-Zein, Abbas; Maggi, Federico


    A smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) framework is developed for modelling multiphase interactions at meso-scale, including the liquid-solid interaction induced deformation of the solid phase. With an inter-particle force formulation that mimics the inter-atomic force in molecular dynamics, the proposed framework includes the long-range attractions between particles, and more importantly, the short-range repulsive forces to avoid particle clustering and instability problems. Three-dimensional numerical studies have been conducted to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed framework to quantitatively replicate the surface tension of water, to model the interactions between immiscible liquids and solid, and more importantly, to simultaneously model the deformation of solid and liquid induced by the multiphase interaction. By varying inter-particle potential magnitude, the proposed SPH framework has successfully simulated various wetting properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic surfaces. The simulation results demonstrate the potential of the proposed framework to genuinely study complex multiphase interactions in wet granular media.

  14. Physical Modeling of microtubule force generation and self-organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanase, C.


    Biological systems are complex heterogeneous and far from equilibrium systems. The fundamental questions posed by the physics of such systems are what the force generation mechanisms are, and how energy is processed and distributed among the components inside them. In answering these questions we

  15. The Force-Frequency Relationship: Insights from Mathematical Modeling (United States)

    Puglisi, Jose L.; Negroni, Jorge A.; Chen-Izu, Ye; Bers, Donald M.


    The force-frequency relationship has intrigued researchers since its discovery by Bowditch in 1871. Many attempts have been made to construct mathematical descriptions of this phenomenon, beginning with the simple formulation of Koch-Wesser and Blinks in 1963 to the most sophisticated ones of today. This property of cardiac muscle is amplified by…

  16. Modeling of IPMC cantilever’s displacements and blocking forces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokoun, David; He, Q.; Heller, Luděk; Yu, M.; Dai, Z.


    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2015), s. 142-151 ISSN 1672-6529 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ionic polymer metal composite * actuator * blocking force * finite element method Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.466, year: 2015

  17. Force-free field model of ball lightning (United States)

    Tsui, K. H.


    Due to the nature that the force-free magnetic field, whose current carried by the conducting plasma is everywhere parallel to the magnetic field it generates, is the minimum energy configuration under the constraint of magnetic helicity conservation, ball lightning is considered as a self-organized phenomenon with a plasma fireball immersed in a spherical force-free magnetic field. Since this field does not exert force on the plasma, the plasma pressure, by itself, is in equilibrium with the surrounding environment, and the force-free magnetic field can take on any value without affecting the plasma. Due to this second feature, singular solutions of the magnetic field that are otherwise excluded are allowed, which enable a large amount of energy to be stored to sustain the ball lightning. The singularity is truncated only by the physical limit of current density that a plasma can carry. Scaling the customary soccer-size fireball to larger dimensions could account for day and night sightings of luminous objects in the sky.

  18. Atomic force microscopy on domains in biological model membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinia, H.A.


    This thesis describes the preparation and imaging of supported lipid bilayers, which can be regarded as biological modelmembranes, in the light of the formation of domains. The bilayers were prepared with either the Langmuir-Blodgett method, or with vesicle fusion. They were imaged with Atomic Force

  19. A Modeling Framework to Investigate the Radial Component of the Pushrim Force in Manual Wheelchair Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann Marko


    Full Text Available The ratio of tangential to total pushrim force, the so-called Fraction Effective Force (FEF, has been used to evaluate wheelchair propulsion efficiency based on the fact that only the tangential component of the force on the pushrim contributes to actual wheelchair propulsion. Experimental studies, however, consistently show low FEF values and recent experimental as well as modelling investigations have conclusively shown that a more tangential pushrim force direction can lead to a decrease and not increase in propulsion efficiency. This study aims at quantifying the contributions of active, inertial and gravitational forces to the normal pushrim component. In order to achieve this goal, an inverse dynamics-based framework is proposed to estimate individual contributions to the pushrim forces using a model of the wheelchair-user system. The results show that the radial pushrim force component arise to a great extent due to purely mechanical effects, including inertial and gravitational forces. These results corroborate previous findings according to which radial pushrim force components are not necessarily a result of inefficient propulsion strategies or hand-rim friction requirements. This study proposes a novel framework to quantify the individual contributions of active, inertial and gravitational forces to pushrim forces during wheelchair propulsion.

  20. The self-consistent field model for Fermi systems with account of three-body interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Poluektov


    Full Text Available On the basis of a microscopic model of self-consistent field, the thermodynamics of the many-particle Fermi system at finite temperatures with account of three-body interactions is built and the quasiparticle equations of motion are obtained. It is shown that the delta-like three-body interaction gives no contribution into the self-consistent field, and the description of three-body forces requires their nonlocality to be taken into account. The spatially uniform system is considered in detail, and on the basis of the developed microscopic approach general formulas are derived for the fermion's effective mass and the system's equation of state with account of contribution from three-body forces. The effective mass and pressure are numerically calculated for the potential of "semi-transparent sphere" type at zero temperature. Expansions of the effective mass and pressure in powers of density are obtained. It is shown that, with account of only pair forces, the interaction of repulsive character reduces the quasiparticle effective mass relative to the mass of a free particle, and the attractive interaction raises the effective mass. The question of thermodynamic stability of the Fermi system is considered and the three-body repulsive interaction is shown to extend the region of stability of the system with the interparticle pair attraction. The quasiparticle energy spectrum is calculated with account of three-body forces.

  1. The Dual Model Of The Development Of German Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Timofeev


    Full Text Available At the present stage Germany seeks to increase its influence at the international arena and plays active role in the solution of the problems in the sphere of inter-national security. In this regard Germany uses a wide range of foreign policy tools, some of them are military. The Bundeswehr becomes the armed forces which are intended for the usage at the global level and for the solution a large range of tasks, including ones which are atypical for the period of the «cold war». The reform of the Bundeswehr led to its real division of German armed forces into two components. The first of them were the forces which were intend-ed for the usage outside NATO zone of responsibility, and the second component were troops which should complete the tasks of the ensuring the territorial de-fense of Germany and its Alliance`s partners if necessary. In the 1990s – 2000s years the undisputed priority was the development of forces, used outside the Euro-Atlantic society. At the same time the combat capa-bilities of another component were gradually declining in the situation of com-mon reducing the personnel and armaments of the Bundeswehr. At the present stage the Western countries came to a period of profound deterioration of rela-tions with Russia and faced with the increasing manifestations of the non-traditional security threats caused by instability in the Middle East and North Af-rica. It puts Germany in front of necessity of simultaneous development of both parts of the armed forces. In this regard in the conclusion there is an attempt to characterize the modern and perspective image of the Bundeswehr and to outline possible ways of overcoming the existing difficulties of its development.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Timofeev


    Full Text Available At the present stage Germany seeks to increase its influence at the international arena and plays active role in the solution of the problems in the sphere of inter-national security. In this regard Germany uses a wide range of foreign policy tools, some of them are military. The Bundeswehr becomes the armed forces which are intended for the usage at the global level and for the solution a large range of tasks, including ones which are atypical for the period of the «cold war». The reform of the Bundeswehr led to its real division of German armed forces into two components. The first of them were the forces which were intend-ed for the usage outside NATO zone of responsibility, and the second component were troops which should complete the tasks of the ensuring the territorial de-fense of Germany and its Alliance`s partners if necessary. In the 1990s – 2000s years the undisputed priority was the development of forces, used outside the Euro-Atlantic society. At the same time the combat capa-bilities of another component were gradually declining in the situation of com-mon reducing the personnel and armaments of the Bundeswehr. At the present stage the Western countries came to a period of profound deterioration of rela-tions with Russia and faced with the increasing manifestations of the non-traditional security threats caused by instability in the Middle East and North Af-rica. It puts Germany in front of necessity of simultaneous development of both parts of the armed forces. In this regard in the conclusion there is an attempt to characterize the modern and perspective image of the Bundeswehr and to outline possible ways of overcoming the existing difficulties of its development. 

  3. Minimal model for acoustic forces on Brownian particles (United States)

    Balboa Usabiaga, F.; Delgado-Buscalioni, R.


    We present a generalization of inertial coupling (IC) [Balboa Usabiaga , J. Comput. Phys.JCTPAH0021-999110.1016/ 235, 701 (2013)], which permits the resolution of radiation forces on small particles with arbitrary acoustic contrast factor. The IC method is based on a Eulerian-Lagrangian approach: particles move in continuum space while the fluid equations are solved in a regular mesh (here we use the finite volume method). Thermal fluctuations in the fluid stress, important below the micron scale, are also taken into account following the Landau-Lifshitz fluid description. Each particle is described by a minimal cost resolution which consists of a single small kernel (bell-shaped function) concomitant to the particle. The main role of the particle kernel is to interpolate fluid properties and spread particle forces. Here, we extend the kernel functionality to allow for an arbitrary particle compressibility. The particle-fluid force is obtained from an imposed “no-slip” constraint which enforces similar particle and kernel fluid velocities. This coupling is instantaneous and permits the capture of the fast, nonlinear effects underlying the radiation forces on particles. Acoustic forces arise because of an excess either in particle compressibility (monopolar term) or in mass (dipolar contribution) over the fluid values. Comparison with theoretical expressions shows that the present generalization of the IC method correctly reproduces both contributions. Due to its low computational cost, the present method allows for simulations with many [O(104)] particles using a standard graphical processor unit.

  4. Interaction between subducting plates: results from numerical and analogue modeling (United States)

    Kiraly, Agnes; Capitanio, Fabio A.; Funiciello, Francesca; Faccenna, Claudio


    The tectonic setting of the Alpine-Mediterranean area is achieved during the late Cenozoic subduction, collision and suturing of several oceanic fragments and continental blocks. In this stage, processes such as interactions among subducting slabs, slab migrations and related mantle flow played a relevant role on the resulting tectonics. Here, we use numerical models to first address the mantle flow characteristic in 3D. During the subduction of a single plate the strength of the return flow strongly depends on the slab pull force, that is on the plate's buoyancy, however the physical properties of the slab, such as density, viscosity or width, do not affect largely the morphology of the toroidal cell. Instead, dramatic effects on the geometry and the dynamics of the toroidal cell result in models where the thickness of the mantle is varied. The vertical component of the vorticity vector is used to define the characteristic size of the toroidal cell, which is ~1.2-1.3 times the mantle depth. This latter defines the range of viscous stress propagation through the mantle and consequent interactions with other slabs. We thus further investigate on this setup where two separate lithospheric plates subduct in opposite sense, developing opposite polarities and convergent slab retreat, and model different initial sideways distance between the plates. The stress profiles in time illustrate that the plates interacts when slabs are at the characteristic distance and the two slabs toroidal cells merge. Increased stress and delayed slab migrations are the results. Analogue models of double-sided subduction show similar maximum distance and allow testing the additional role of stress propagated through the plates. We use a silicon plate subducting on its two opposite margins, which is either homogeneous or comprises oceanic and continental lithospheres, differing in buoyancy. The modeling results show that the double-sided subduction is strongly affected by changes in plate

  5. Salt bridge interactions within the β2integrin α7helix mediate force-induced binding and shear resistance ability. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Li, Linda; Li, Ning; Shu, Xinyu; Zhou, Lüwen; Lü, Shouqin; Chen, Shenbao; Mao, Debin; Long, Mian


    The functional performance of the αI domain α 7 helix in β 2 integrin activation depends on the allostery of the α 7 helix, which axially slides down; therefore, it is critical to elucidate what factors regulate the allostery. In this study, we determined that there were two conservative salt bridge interaction pairs that constrain both the upper and bottom ends of the α 7 helix. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for three β 2 integrin members, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1; α L β 2 ), macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1; α M β 2 ) and α x β 2 , indicated that the magnitude of the salt bridge interaction is related to the stability of the αI domain and the strength of the corresponding force-induced allostery. The disruption of the salt bridge interaction, especially with double mutations in both salt bridges, significantly reduced the force-induced allostery time for all three members. The effects of salt bridge interactions of the αI domain α 7 helix on β 2 integrin conformational stability and allostery were experimentally validated using Mac-1 constructs. The results demonstrated that salt bridge mutations did not alter the conformational state of Mac-1, but they did increase the force-induced ligand binding and shear resistance ability, which was consistent with MD simulations. This study offers new insight into the importance of salt bridge interaction constraints of the αI domain α 7 helix and external force for β 2 integrin function. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  6. Modeling viscoelasticity through spring-dashpot models in intermittent-contact atomic force microscopy. (United States)

    López-Guerra, Enrique A; Solares, Santiago D


    We examine different approaches to model viscoelasticity within atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulation. Our study ranges from very simple linear spring-dashpot models to more sophisticated nonlinear systems that are able to reproduce fundamental properties of viscoelastic surfaces, including creep, stress relaxation and the presence of multiple relaxation times. Some of the models examined have been previously used in AFM simulation, but their applicability to different situations has not yet been examined in detail. The behavior of each model is analyzed here in terms of force-distance curves, dissipated energy and any inherent unphysical artifacts. We focus in this paper on single-eigenmode tip-sample impacts, but the models and results can also be useful in the context of multifrequency AFM, in which the tip trajectories are very complex and there is a wider range of sample deformation frequencies (descriptions of tip-sample model behaviors in the context of multifrequency AFM require detailed studies and are beyond the scope of this work).

  7. 3D modeling of olive tree and simulating the harvesting forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glăvan Dan Ovidiu


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the study regarding the influence of shaking forces on olive tree harvesting systems. Shaking forces can be released through several methods. Important is the end result, namely the shaking force and the cadence of shaking speed. Mechanical and automatic harvesting methods collect more olives than traditional methods but may damage the olive trees. In order to prevent this damage, we need to calculate the necessary shaking force. An original research method is proposed to simulate shaking forces using a 3D olive tree model with Autodesk Inventor software. In the experiments, we use different shaking forces and various shaking speeds. We also use different diameters of the olive tree trunk. We analyze the results from this experiment to determine the optimal shaking force for harvesting olives without damaging the olive tree.

  8. Inertial forces affect fluid front displacement dynamics in a pore-throat network model. (United States)

    Moebius, Franziska; Or, Dani


    The seemingly regular and continuous motion of fluid displacement fronts in porous media at the macroscopic scale is propelled by numerous (largely invisible) pore-scale abrupt interfacial jumps and pressure bursts. Fluid fronts in porous media are characterized by sharp phase discontinuities and by rapid pore-scale dynamics that underlie their motion; both attributes challenge standard continuum theories of these flow processes. Moreover, details of pore-scale dynamics affect front morphology and subsequent phase entrapment behind a front and thereby shape key macroscopic transport properties of the unsaturated zone. The study presents a pore-throat network model that focuses on quantifying interfacial dynamics and interactions along fluid displacement fronts. The porous medium is represented by a lattice of connected pore throats capable of detaining menisci and giving rise to fluid-fluid interfacial jumps (the study focuses on flow rate controlled drainage). For each meniscus along the displacement front we formulate a local inertial, capillary, viscous, and hydrostatic force balance that is then solved simultaneously for the entire front. The model enables systematic evaluation of the role of inertia and boundary conditions. Results show that while displacement patterns are affected by inertial forces mainly by invasion of throats with higher capillary resistance, phase entrapment (residual saturation) is largely unaffected by inertia, limiting inertial effects on hydrological properties behind a front. Interfacial jump velocities are often an order of magnitude larger than mean front velocity, are strongly dependent on geometrical throat dimensions, and become less predictable (more scattered) when inertia is considered. Model simulations of the distributions of capillary pressure fluctuations and waiting times between invasion events follow an exponential distribution and are in good agreement with experimental results. The modeling approach provides insights

  9. A discrete force allocation algorithm for modelling wind turbines in computational fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Sørensen, Niels N.


    This paper describes an algorithm for allocating discrete forces in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Discrete forces are useful in wind energy CFD. They are used as an approximation of the wind turbine blades’ action on the wind (actuator disc/line), to model forests and to model turbulent inf...... applicable in other fields of CFD that use discrete body forces. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....... inflows. Many CFD codes are designed with collocated variables layout. Although this approach has many attractive features, it can generate a numerical decoupling between the pressure and the velocities. This issue is addressed by the Rhie–Chow control volume momentum interpolation. However......This paper describes an algorithm for allocating discrete forces in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Discrete forces are useful in wind energy CFD. They are used as an approximation of the wind turbine blades’ action on the wind (actuator disc/line), to model forests and to model turbulent...

  10. Effect of energy source, salt concentration and loading force on colloidal interactions between Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans cells and mineral surfaces. (United States)

    Diao, Mengxue; Nguyen, Tuan A H; Taran, Elena; Mahler, Stephen M; Nguyen, Anh V


    The surface appendages and extracellular polymeric substances of cells play an important role in the bacterial adhesion process. In this work, colloidal forces and nanomechanical properties of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. f) interacted with silicon wafer and pyrite (FeS2) surfaces in solutions of varying salt concentrations were quantitatively examined using the bacterial probe technique with atomic force microscopy. A. f cells were cultured with either ferrous sulfate or elemental sulfur as key energy sources. Our results show that A. f cells grown with ferrous ion and elemental sulfur exhibit distinctive retraction force vs separation distance curves with stair-step and saw tooth shapes, respectively. During the approach of bacterial probes to the substrate surfaces, surface appendages and biopolymers of cells are sequentially compressed. The conformations of surface appendages and biopolymers are significantly influenced by the salt concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling of forced vibration phenomenon by making an electrical analogy with ANSYS finite element software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Rocío Pallares Muñoz


    Full Text Available Designing mechanical systems which are submitted to vibration requires calculation methods which are very different to those u-sed in other disciplines because, when this occurs, the magnitude of the forces becomes secondary and the frequency with which the force is repeated becomes the most important aspect. It must be taken care of, given that smaller periodic forces can prompt disasters than greater static forces. The article presents a representative problem regarding systems having forced vibration, the mathematical treatment of differential equations from an electrical and mechanical viewpoint, an electrical analogy, numerical modeling of circuits using ANSYS finite element software, analysis and comparison of numerical modeling results compared to test values, the post-processing of results and conclusions regarding electrical analogy methodology when analysing forced vibra-tion systems.

  12. An Excellent Pilot Model for the Korean Air Force. (United States)


    Q3 Controlled Uncontrolled. Lax Factor Q4 Tense. Excitableous Phlegmatic. Composed Source: Fleischman, Haward L. et al.. "The Relationship of Five...Scales Excluded Personality Scales Included 0.359 0.425 0.150 0.270 0.286 0.3S1 Source: Fleischman. Haward L. et al., "The Relationship of...Dorsey Press, Chicago, Illinois. 1983. 2. Correll. John T., Air Force Magazine technology and the Troops, December 1986. 3. North, Robert A. and

  13. Modelling of Ion Transport in Solids with a General Bond Valence Based Force-Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adams


    Full Text Available Empirical bond length - bond valence relations provide insight into the link between structure of and ion transport in solid electrolytes. Building on our earlier systematic adjustment of bond valence (BV parameters to the bond softness, here we discuss how the squared BV mismatch can be linked to the absolute energy scale and used as a general Morse-type interaction potential for analyzing low-energy pathways in ion conducting solid or mixed conductors either by an energy landscape approach or by molecular dynamics (MD simulations. For a wide range of Lithium oxides we could thus model ion transport revealing significant differences to an earlier geometric approach. Our novel BV-based force-field has also been applied to investigate a range of mixed conductors, focusing on cathode materials for lithium ion battery (LIB applications to promote a systematic design of LIB cathodes that combine high energy density with high power density. To demonstrate the versatility of the new BV-based force-field it is applied in exploring various strategies to enhance the power performance of safe low cost LIB materials (LiFePO4, LiVPO4F, LiFeSO4F, etc..

  14. π -Stacking interactions in YFP, quantum mechanics and force field evaluations in the S0 and S1 states (United States)

    Merabti, Karim Elhadj; Azizi, Sihem; Ridard, Jacqueline; Lévy, Bernard; Demachy, Isabelle


    We study the π -stacking interaction between the chromophore and Tyr203 in the Yellow Fluorescent Protein (YFP) in order to (i) evaluate the contribution of the internal interaction energy of the isolated Chromophore-Tyrosine complex (Eint) to the 26 nm red shift observed from GFP to YFP, (ii) compare the effects of Eint and of the proteic environment. To that end, we perform quantum mechanical and force field (ff) calculations of the isolated complex in S0 and S1 states on a large sample of geometries, together with molecular dynamics simulations and potential of mean force analysis. The calculated absorption wavelengths are found red shifted with respect to the isolated chromophore by 12-19 nm, that represents a large part of the GFP-YFP shift. We find that the effect of the protein is determinant on the dynamics of the complex while the error that results from using a classicalff is of limited effect.

  15. Experimental and modeling evidence of appendicularian-ciliate interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, Fabien; Eloire, D.; Gobet, A.

    Interactions between appendicularians and ciliates were observed over the life span of Oikopleura dioica in laboratory cultures and clarified with the use of mathematical modeling and microscopic observations. Complex interactions including competition, parasitism, predation, and histophagy...

  16. Experimental and modeling evidence of appendicularian-ciliate interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, Fabien; Eloire, Damien; Gobet, Angelique


    Interactions between appendicularians and ciliates were observed over the life span of Oikopleura dioica in laboratory cultures and clarified with the use of mathematical modeling and microscopic observations. Complex interactions including competition, parasitism, predation, and histophagy...

  17. Thole's interacting polarizability model in computational chemistry practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deVries, AH; vanDuijnen, PT; Zijlstra, RWJ; Swart, M

    Thole's interacting polarizability model to calculate molecular polarizabilities from interacting atomic polarizabilities is reviewed and its major applications in computational chemistry are illustrated. The applications include prediction of molecular polarizabilities, use in classical expressions

  18. Research on model of additional forces of ocean conditions in one-dimensional coolant channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Libo; Tian Wenxi; Qiu Suizheng; Su Guanghui; Li Yong; Huang Yanping; Yan Xiao


    The effect of different ocean conditions on coolant flow can come down to the differences of additional forces in the momentum equations, thus ocean conditions can be considered by adding the additional forces caused by them to the momentum equations. The model of additional forces of 6 types of typical and relevant coupled ocean conditions is obtained based on the basic momentum equation in the non-inertial reference frame and the one-dimensional coolant channel. (authors)

  19. Modelling atomic scale manipulation with the non-contact atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevethan, T; Watkins, M; Kantorovich, L N; Shluger, A L; Polesel-Maris, J; Gauthier, S


    We present the results of calculations performed to model the process of lateral manipulation of an oxygen vacancy in the MgO(001) surface using the non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM). The potential energy surfaces for the manipulation as a function of tip position are determined from atomistic modelling of the MgO(001) surface interacting with a Mg terminated MgO tip. These energies are then used to model the dynamical evolution of the system as the tip oscillates and at a finite temperature using a kinetic Monte Carlo method. The manipulation process is strongly dependent on the lateral position of the tip and the system temperature. It is also found that the expectation value of the point at which the vacancy jumps depends on the trajectory of the oscillating cantilever as the surface is approached. The effect of the manipulation on the operation of the NC-AFM is modelled with a virtual dynamic AFM, which explicitly simulates the entire experimental instrumentation and control loops. We show how measurable experimental signals can result from a single controlled atomic scale event and suggest the most favourable conditions for achieving successful atomic scale manipulation experimentally

  20. 6Li in a three-body model with realistic Forces: Separable versus nonseparable approach (United States)

    Hlophe, L.; Lei, Jin; Elster, Ch.; Nogga, A.; Nunes, F. M.


    Background: Deuteron induced reactions are widely used to probe nuclear structure and astrophysical information. Those (d ,p ) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Purpose: Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. However, it needs to be demonstrated that their solution based on separable interactions agrees exactly with solutions based on nonseparable forces. Methods: Momentum space Faddeev equations are solved with nonseparable and separable forces as coupled integral equations. Results: The ground state of 6Li is calculated via momentum space Faddeev equations using the CD-Bonn neutron-proton force and a Woods-Saxon type neutron(proton)-4He force. For the latter the Pauli-forbidden S -wave bound state is projected out. This result is compared to a calculation in which the interactions in the two-body subsystems are represented by separable interactions derived in the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler (EST) framework. Conclusions: We find that calculations based on the separable representation of the interactions and the original interactions give results that agree to four significant figures for the binding energy, provided that energy and momentum support points of the EST expansion are chosen independently. The momentum distributions computed in both approaches also fully agree with each other.

  1. Aerosols, Chemistry, and Radiative Forcing: A 3-D Model Analysis of Satellite and ACE-Asia data (ACMAP) (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul; Torres, Omar; Zhao, Xue-Peng


    We propose a research project to incorporate a global 3-D model and satellite data into the multi-national Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia (ACE-Asia) mission. Our objectives are (1) to understand the physical, chemical, and optical properties of aerosols and the processes that control those properties over the Asian-Pacific region, (2) to investigate the interaction between aerosols and tropospheric chemistry, and (3) to determine the aerosol radiative forcing over the Asia-Pacific region. We will use the Georgia TecWGoddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to link satellite observations and the ACE-Asia measurements. First, we will use the GOCART model to simulate aerosols and related species, and evaluate the model with satellite and in-situ observations. Second, the model generated aerosol vertical profiles and compositions will be used to validate the satellite products; and the satellite data will be used for during- and post- mission analysis. Third, we will use the model to analyze and interpret both satellite and ACE- Asia field campaign data and investigate the aerosol-chemistry interactions. Finally, we will calculate aerosol radiative forcing over the Asian-Pacific region, and assess the influence of Asian pollution in the global atmosphere. We propose a research project to incorporate a global 3-D model and satellite data into

  2. Dynamics of two forced quantum oscillators with parametric down-conversion interaction solved by virtue of the entangled state representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Hongyi [CCAST (World Laboratory) PO Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China); Jiang Zhonghua [Special Class for the Gifted Young, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)


    By virtue of the entangled state representation |{xi} rang rang, we solve the dynamics of a generalized parametric amplifier whose Hamiltonian is composed of two forced quantum oscillators plus a parametric down-conversion interaction in the resonant case. The solutions and state vectors of the Schroedinger equation are derived, of which the simplest solution is a squeezed coherent state. The method of characteristics is employed.

  3. The lines-of-force landscape of interactions between molecules in crystals; cohesive versus tolerant and 'collateral damage' contact. (United States)

    Gavezzotti, Angelo


    A quantitative analysis of relative stabilities in organic crystal structures is possible by means of reliable calculations of interaction energies between pairs of molecules. Such calculations have been performed by the PIXEL method for 1108 non-ionic and 98 ionic organic crystals, yielding total energies and separate Coulombic polarization and dispersive contributions. A classification of molecule-molecule interactions emerges based on pair energy and its first derivative, the interaction force, which is estimated here explicitly along an approximate stretching path. When molecular separation is not at the minimum-energy value, as frequently happens, forces may be attractive or repulsive. This information provides a fine structural fingerprint and may be relevant to the mechanical properties of materials. The calculations show that the first coordination shell includes destabilizing contacts in approximately 9% of crystal structures for compounds with highly polar chemical groups (e.g. CN, NO(2), SO(2)). Calculations also show many pair contacts with weakly stabilizing (neutral) energies; such fine modulation is presumably what makes crystal structure prediction so difficult. Ionic organic salts or zwitterions, including small peptides, show a Madelung-mode pairing of opposite ions where the total lattice energy is stabilized from sums of strongly repulsive and strongly attractive interactions. No obvious relationships between atom-atom distances and interaction energies emerge, so analyses of crystal packing in terms of geometrical parameters alone should be conducted with due care.

  4. Analytical study on model tests of soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odajima, M.; Suzuki, S.; Akino, K.


    Since nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are stiff, heavy and partly-embedded, the behavior of those structures during an earthquake depends on the vibrational characteristics of not only the structure but also the soil. Accordingly, seismic response analyses considering the effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) are extremely important for seismic design of NPP structures. Many studies have been conducted on analytical techniques concerning SSI and various analytical models and approaches have been proposed. Based on the studies, SSI analytical codes (computer programs) for NPP structures have been improved at JINS (Japan Institute of Nuclear Safety), one of the departments of NUPEC (Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center) in Japan. These codes are soil-spring lumped-mass code (SANLUM), finite element code (SANSSI), thin layered element code (SANSOL). In proceeding with the improvement of the analytical codes, in-situ large-scale forced vibration SSI tests were performed using models simulating light water reactor buildings, and simulation analyses were performed to verify the codes. This paper presents an analytical study to demonstrate the usefulness of the codes

  5. Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling (United States)

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang


    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions.

  6. Steady state hydrogen, deuterium, helium and argon plasma interactions with a liquid metal: Ga67In20.5Sn12.5 convected by Lorentz force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshi Hirooka


    Full Text Available Steady state hydrogen, deuterium and helium plasma interactions with a liquid metal: Ga67In20.5Sn12.5 at termperatures between room temperature and ∼250°C have been investigated with JxB-forced convection, using a laboratory-scale facility: VEHICLE-1. Noticeably reduced recycling has been observed for all these gases, when JxB-forced convection is applied, under respevtive plasma bombardment. Preliminary fluid dynamics modeling has been done to interpret experimental observations. For hydrogenic species, a trend has been found, indicating temperature-dependent retention saturation levels. With thermal desorption spectrometry, the amount of deuterium retention after saturation at ∼250°C has been evaluated to be of the order of 1014D/cm3 whereas the retention of inert gases is found to be undetectable.

  7. Evaluating user interactions with clinical information systems: a model based on human-computer interaction models. (United States)

    Despont-Gros, Christelle; Mueller, Henning; Lovis, Christian


    This article proposes a model for dimensions involved in user evaluation of clinical information systems (CIS). The model links the dimensions in traditional CIS evaluation and the dimensions from the human-computer interaction (HCI) perspective. In this article, variables are defined as the properties measured in an evaluation, and dimensions are defined as the factors contributing to the values of the measured variables. The proposed model is based on a two-step methodology with: (1) a general review of information systems (IS) evaluations to highlight studied variables, existing models and frameworks, and (2) a review of HCI literature to provide the theoretical basis to key dimensions of user evaluation. The review of literature led to the identification of eight key variables, among which satisfaction, acceptance, and success were found to be the most referenced. Among those variables, IS acceptance is a relevant candidate to reflect user evaluation of CIS. While their goals are similar, the fields of traditional CIS evaluation, and HCI are not closely connected. Combining those two fields allows for the development of an integrated model which provides a model for summative and comprehensive user evaluation of CIS. All dimensions identified in existing studies can be linked to this model and such an integrated model could provide a new perspective to compare investigations of different CIS systems.

  8. Multiple Size Group Modeling of Polydispersed Bubbly Flow in the Mold: An Analysis of Turbulence and Interfacial Force Models (United States)

    Liu, Zhongqiu; Qi, Fengsheng; Li, Baokuan; Jiang, Maofa


    An inhomogeneous Multiple Size Group (MUSIG) model based on the Eulerian-Eulerian approach has been developed to describe the polydispersed bubbly flow inside the continuous-casting mold. A laboratory scale mold has been simulated using four different turbulence closure models (modified k - ɛ, RNG k - ɛ, k - ω, and SST) with the purpose of critically comparing their predictions of bubble Sauter mean diameter distribution with previous experimental data. Furthermore, the influences of all the interfacial momentum transfer terms including drag force, lift force, virtual mass force, wall lubrication force, and turbulent dispersion force are investigated. The breakup and coalescence effects of the bubbles are modeled according to the bubble breakup by the impact of turbulent eddies while for bubble coalescence by the random collisions driven by turbulence and wake entrainment. It has been found that the modified k - ɛ model shows better agreement than other models in predicting the bubble Sauter mean diameter profiles. Further, simulations have also been performed to understand the sensitivity of different interfacial forces. The appropriate drag force coefficient, lift force coefficient, virtual mass force coefficient, and turbulent dispersion force coefficient are chosen in accordance with measurements of water model experiments. However, the wall lubrication force does not have much effect on the current polydispersed bubbly flow system. Finally, the MUSIG model is then used to estimate the argon bubble diameter in the molten steel of the mold. The argon bubble Sauter mean diameter generated in molten steel is predicted to be larger than air bubbles in water for the similar conditions.

  9. Coalition Logistics - The Multinational Force and Observers Model (United States)


    lia1t’ippi~y lmiippoirt andl~ medical tevicutt-iOl ont I Ighti- LI) rciiiotev cmioIiiamid puntL JAIn tili’ Fijii anid Colombia zoviei ot opernitI n...conserve water and permit the supply routine to be established. The quantity for the base camp included everything from drinking to showers, to laundry...approach allowed the force to get the best price and to energize the most ’responsive source of supply. As an example, tools for the support services

  10. CFD Model for Lift Force in a Wall-Bounded Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baalbaki


    Full Text Available The modeling of the lift force in high shear rate pipe flow is an essential issue for the estimation of the droplet dispersion. The analytical models used in most CFD softwares, such as the popular models of Auton or Saffman, overestimate the intensity of the lift force for inertial particles at high particle Reynolds number. In this paper, after a review of DNS calculations, we present an overall solution for the lift force acting on a droplet in a shear flow, for moderate and high particle Reynolds number in the near-wall zone and for unbounded shear flow. Finally, some numerical results in a cylindrical pipe are presented.

  11. Modeling the Kelvin polarization force actuation of Micro- and Nanomechanical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Hierold, C.; Boisen, Anja


    Polarization forces have become of high interest in micro- and nanomechanical systems. In this paper, an analytical model for a transduction scheme based on the Kelvin polarization force is presented. A dielectric beam is actuated by placing it over the gap of two coplanar electrodes. Finite...

  12. A rumor transmission model with various contact interactions. (United States)

    Kawachi, Kazuki; Seki, Motohide; Yoshida, Hiraku; Otake, Yohei; Warashina, Katsuhide; Ueda, Hiroshi


    We consider a rumor transmission model with various contact interactions and explore what effect such interactions have on the spread of a rumor, in particular whether they can explain the rumor recursion. Through mathematical analysis and computer simulations, we conjecture that rumor recursion remains a major challenge to mathematical models of rumors beyond our model proposed here.

  13. Rotary ultrasonic machining of CFRP: a mechanistic predictive model for cutting force. (United States)

    Cong, W L; Pei, Z J; Sun, X; Zhang, C L


    Cutting force is one of the most important output variables in rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites. Many experimental investigations on cutting force in RUM of CFRP have been reported. However, in the literature, there are no cutting force models for RUM of CFRP. This paper develops a mechanistic predictive model for cutting force in RUM of CFRP. The material removal mechanism of CFRP in RUM has been analyzed first. The model is based on the assumption that brittle fracture is the dominant mode of material removal. CFRP micromechanical analysis has been conducted to represent CFRP as an equivalent homogeneous material to obtain the mechanical properties of CFRP from its components. Based on this model, relationships between input variables (including ultrasonic vibration amplitude, tool rotation speed, feedrate, abrasive size, and abrasive concentration) and cutting force can be predicted. The relationships between input variables and important intermediate variables (indentation depth, effective contact time, and maximum impact force of single abrasive grain) have been investigated to explain predicted trends of cutting force. Experiments are conducted to verify the model, and experimental results agree well with predicted trends from this model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Model for Determining Modular Heat Recovery Incinerator Feasibility on Air Force Installations. (United States)


    recognize that there are limits in the level of control that an Air Force installation can yield to the public (73:86). e Polluion •Issues. It is...AD-A261 336 11 lHINN 1 AFIT/GEE/ENV/92S-2 DTIC ELECTE MAR2 1993 C A MODEL FOR DETERMINING MODULAR HEAT RECOVERY INCINERATOR FEASIBILITY ON AIR FORCE...INCINERATOR FEASIBILITY ON AIR FORCE INSTALLATIONS THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology

  15. Modeling and analysis of the chip formation and transient cutting force during elliptical vibration cutting process (United States)

    Lin, Jieqiong; Guan, Liang; Lu, Mingming; Han, Jinguo; Kan, Yudi


    In traditional diamond cutting, the cutting force is usually large and it will affect tool life and machining quality. Elliptical vibration cutting (EVC) as one of the ultra-precision machining technologies has a lot of advantages, such as reduces cutting force, extend tool life and so on. It's difficult to predict the transient cutting force of EVC due to its unique elliptical motion trajectory. Study on chip formation will helpfully to predict cutting force. The geometric feature of chip has important effects on cutting force, however, few scholars have studied the chip formation. In order to investigate the time-varying cutting force of EVC, the geometric feature model of chip is established based on analysis of chip formation, and the effects of cutting parameters on the geometric feature of chip are analyzed. To predict transient force quickly and effectively, the geometric feature of chip is introduced into the cutting force model. The calculated results show that the error between the predicted cutting force in this paper and that in the literature is less than 2%, which proves its feasibility.

  16. Modeling and analysis of the chip formation and transient cutting force during elliptical vibration cutting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Lin


    Full Text Available In traditional diamond cutting, the cutting force is usually large and it will affect tool life and machining quality. Elliptical vibration cutting (EVC as one of the ultra-precision machining technologies has a lot of advantages, such as reduces cutting force, extend tool life and so on. It’s difficult to predict the transient cutting force of EVC due to its unique elliptical motion trajectory. Study on chip formation will helpfully to predict cutting force. The geometric feature of chip has important effects on cutting force, however, few scholars have studied the chip formation. In order to investigate the time-varying cutting force of EVC, the geometric feature model of chip is established based on analysis of chip formation, and the effects of cutting parameters on the geometric feature of chip are analyzed. To predict transient force quickly and effectively, the geometric feature of chip is introduced into the cutting force model. The calculated results show that the error between the predicted cutting force in this paper and that in the literature is less than 2%, which proves its feasibility.

  17. The ELBA force field for coarse-grain modeling of lipid membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Orsi

    Full Text Available A new coarse-grain model for molecular dynamics simulation of lipid membranes is presented. Following a simple and conventional approach, lipid molecules are modeled by spherical sites, each representing a group of several atoms. In contrast to common coarse-grain methods, two original (interdependent features are here adopted. First, the main electrostatics are modeled explicitly by charges and dipoles, which interact realistically through a relative dielectric constant of unity (ε(r = 1. Second, water molecules are represented individually through a new parametrization of the simple Stockmayer potential for polar fluids; each water molecule is therefore described by a single spherical site embedded with a point dipole. The force field is shown to accurately reproduce the main physical properties of single-species phospholipid bilayers comprising dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC and dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE in the liquid crystal phase, as well as distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC in the liquid crystal and gel phases. Insights are presented into fundamental properties and phenomena that can be difficult or impossible to study with alternative computational or experimental methods. For example, we investigate the internal pressure distribution, dipole potential, lipid diffusion, and spontaneous self-assembly. Simulations lasting up to 1.5 microseconds were conducted for systems of different sizes (128, 512 and 1058 lipids; this also allowed us to identify size-dependent artifacts that are expected to affect membrane simulations in general. Future extensions and applications are discussed, particularly in relation to the methodology's inherent multiscale capabilities.

  18. Quantum dynamics modeled by interacting trajectories (United States)

    Cruz-Rodríguez, L.; Uranga-Piña, L.; Martínez-Mesa, A.; Meier, C.


    We present quantum dynamical simulations based on the propagation of interacting trajectories where the effect of the quantum potential is mimicked by effective pseudo-particle interactions. The method is applied to several quantum systems, both for bound and scattering problems. For the bound systems, the quantum ground state density and zero point energy are shown to be perfectly obtained by the interacting trajectories. In the case of time-dependent quantum scattering, the Eckart barrier and uphill ramp are considered, with transmission coefficients in very good agreement with standard quantum calculations. Finally, we show that via wave function synthesis along the trajectories, correlation functions and energy spectra can be obtained based on the dynamics of interacting trajectories.

  19. Driving-forces model on individual behavior in scenarios considering moving threat agents (United States)

    Li, Shuying; Zhuang, Jun; Shen, Shifei; Wang, Jia


    The individual behavior model is a contributory factor to improve the accuracy of agent-based simulation in different scenarios. However, few studies have considered moving threat agents, which often occur in terrorist attacks caused by attackers with close-range weapons (e.g., sword, stick). At the same time, many existing behavior models lack validation from cases or experiments. This paper builds a new individual behavior model based on seven behavioral hypotheses. The driving-forces model is an extension of the classical social force model considering scenarios including moving threat agents. An experiment was conducted to validate the key components of the model. Then the model is compared with an advanced Elliptical Specification II social force model, by calculating the fitting errors between the simulated and experimental trajectories, and being applied to simulate a specific circumstance. Our results show that the driving-forces model reduced the fitting error by an average of 33.9% and the standard deviation by an average of 44.5%, which indicates the accuracy and stability of the model in the studied situation. The new driving-forces model could be used to simulate individual behavior when analyzing the risk of specific scenarios using agent-based simulation methods, such as risk analysis of close-range terrorist attacks in public places.

  20. Sensitivity of ocean model simulation in the coastal ocean to the resolution of the meteorological forcing (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Shapiro, Georgy; Thain, Richard


    The quality of ocean simulations depends on a number of factors such as approximations in governing equations, errors introduced by the numerical scheme, uncertainties in input parameters, and atmospheric forcing. The identification of relations between the uncertainties in input and output data is still a challenge for the development of numerical models. The impacts of ocean variables on ocean models are still not well known (e.g., Kara et al., 2009). Given the considerable importance of the atmospheric forcing to the air-sea interaction, it is essential that researchers in ocean modelling work need a good understanding about how sensitive the atmospheric forcing is to variations of model results, which is beneficial to the development of ocean models. Also, it provides a proper way to choose the atmospheric forcing in ocean modelling applications. Our previous study (Shapiro et al, 2011) has shown that the basin-wide circulation pattern and the temperature structure in the Black Sea produced by the same model is significantly dependent on the source of the meteorological input, giving remarkably different responses. For the purpose of this study we have chosen the Celtic Sea where high resolution meteo data are available from the UK Met office since 2006. The Celtic Sea is tidally dominated water basin, with the tidal stream amplitude varying from 0.25m/s in the southwest to 2 m/s in the Bristol Channel. It is also filled with mesoscale eddies which contribute to the formation of the residual (tidally averaged) circulation pattern (Young et al, 2003). The sea is strongly stratified from April to November, which adds to the formation of density driven currents. In this paper we analyse how sensitive the model output is to variations in the spatial resolution of meteorological using low (1.6°) and high (0.11°) resolution meteo forcing, giving the quantitative relation between variations of met forcing and the resulted differences of model results, as well as

  1. Biological and environmental surface interactions of nanomaterials: characterization, modeling, and prediction. (United States)

    Chen, Ran; Riviere, Jim E


    The understanding of nano-bio interactions is deemed essential in the design, application, and safe handling of nanomaterials. Proper characterization of the intrinsic physicochemical properties, including their size, surface charge, shape, and functionalization, is needed to consider the fate or impact of nanomaterials in biological and environmental systems. The characterizations of their interactions with surrounding chemical species are often hindered by the complexity of biological or environmental systems, and the drastically different surface physicochemical properties among a large population of nanomaterials. The complexity of these interactions is also due to the diverse ligands of different chemical properties present in most biomacromolecules, and multiple conformations they can assume at different conditions to minimize their conformational free energy. Often these interactions are collectively determined by multiple physical or chemical forces, including electrostatic forces, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic forces, and calls for multidimensional characterization strategies, both experimentally and computationally. Through these characterizations, the understanding of the roles surface physicochemical properties of nanomaterials and their surface interactions with biomacromolecules can play in their applications in biomedical and environmental fields can be obtained. To quantitatively decipher these physicochemical surface interactions, computational methods, including physical, statistical, and pharmacokinetic models, can be used for either analyses of large amounts of experimental characterization data, or theoretical prediction of the interactions, and consequent biological behavior in the body after administration. These computational methods include molecular dynamics simulation, structure-activity relationship models such as biological surface adsorption index, and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017

  2. VOF simulations of the contact angle dynamics during the drop spreading: standard models and a new wetting force model. (United States)

    Malgarinos, Ilias; Nikolopoulos, Nikolaos; Marengo, Marco; Antonini, Carlo; Gavaises, Manolis


    In this study,a novel numerical implementation for the adhesion of liquid droplets impacting normally on solid dry surfaces is presented. The advantage of this new approach, compared to the majority of existing models, is that the dynamic contact angle forming during the surface wetting process is not inserted as a boundary condition, but is derived implicitly by the induced fluid flow characteristics (interface shape) and the adhesion physics of the gas-liquid-surface interface (triple line), starting only from the advancing and receding equilibrium contact angles. These angles are required in order to define the wetting properties of liquid phases when interacting with a solid surface. The physical model is implemented as a source term in the momentum equation of a Navier-Stokes CFD flow solver as an "adhesion-like" force which acts at the triple-phase contact line as a result of capillary interactions between the liquid drop and the solid substrate. The numerical simulations capture the liquid-air interface movement by considering the volume of fluid (VOF) method and utilizing an automatic local grid refinement technique in order to increase the accuracy of the predictions at the area of interest, and simultaneously minimize numerical diffusion of the interface. The proposed model is validated against previously reported experimental data of normal impingement of water droplets on dry surfaces at room temperature. A wide range of impact velocities, i.e. Weber numbers from as low as 0.2 up to 117, both for hydrophilic (θadv=10°-70°) and hydrophobic (θadv=105°-120°) surfaces, has been examined. Predictions include in addition to droplet spreading dynamics, the estimation of the dynamic contact angle; the latter is found in reasonable agreement against available experimental measurements. It is thus concluded that theimplementation of this model is an effective approach for overcoming the need of a pre-defined dynamic contact angle law, frequently adopted as

  3. Overall evaluation of the modelling of the TRUE-1 tracer tests - Task 4. The Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschall, Paul [Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland); Elert, Mark [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes is a forum for the international organisations supporting the Aespoe HRL Project. The purpose of the Task Force is to interact in the area of conceptual and numerical modelling of groundwater flow and solute transport in fractured rock. Task 4 of the Aespoe Modelling Task Force consists of modelling exercises in support of the TRUE-1 tracer tests. The task was carried out in 1995-2000 and consisted of several modelling exercises in support of the TRUE-1 tracer tests, including predictive modelling where experimental results were not available beforehand. This report presents an overall evaluation of the achievements of Task 4. The specific objectives of the overall evaluation were to highlight innovative and successful modelling approaches developed, to assess the stages of the task which proved most beneficial for conceptual understanding of transport processes at the TRUE-1 site and to assess the success of various steering tools. A concise summary of scientific achievements is given and conclusions drawn with respect to unresolved technical issues. Recommendations are presented that can optimise the management of future modelling tasks.

  4. Modelling the cutting edge radius size effect for force prediction in micro milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Jan, Slunsky


    This paper presents a theoretical model for cutting force prediction in micro milling, taking into account the cutting edge radius size effect, the tool run out and the deviation of the chip flow angle from the inclination angle. A parameterization according to the uncut chip thickness to cutting...... edge radius ratio is used for the parameters involved in the force calculation. The model was verified by means of cutting force measurements in micro milling. The results show good agreement between predicted and measured forces. It is also demonstrated that the use of the Stabler's rule...... is a reasonable approximation and that micro end mill run out is effectively compensated by the deflections induced by the cutting forces....

  5. Human-Robot Interaction: Does Robotic Guidance Force Affect Gait-Related Brain Dynamics during Robot-Assisted Treadmill Walking? (United States)

    Knaepen, Kristel; Mierau, Andreas; Swinnen, Eva; Fernandez Tellez, Helio; Michielsen, Marc; Kerckhofs, Eric; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain


    In order to determine optimal training parameters for robot-assisted treadmill walking, it is essential to understand how a robotic device interacts with its wearer, and thus, how parameter settings of the device affect locomotor control. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different levels of guidance force during robot-assisted treadmill walking on cortical activity. Eighteen healthy subjects walked at 2 km.h-1 on a treadmill with and without assistance of the Lokomat robotic gait orthosis. Event-related spectral perturbations and changes in power spectral density were investigated during unassisted treadmill walking as well as during robot-assisted treadmill walking at 30%, 60% and 100% guidance force (with 0% body weight support). Clustering of independent components revealed three clusters of activity in the sensorimotor cortex during treadmill walking and robot-assisted treadmill walking in healthy subjects. These clusters demonstrated gait-related spectral modulations in the mu, beta and low gamma bands over the sensorimotor cortex related to specific phases of the gait cycle. Moreover, mu and beta rhythms were suppressed in the right primary sensory cortex during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking with 100% guidance force, indicating significantly larger involvement of the sensorimotor area during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking. Only marginal differences in the spectral power of the mu, beta and low gamma bands could be identified between robot-assisted treadmill walking with different levels of guidance force. From these results it can be concluded that a high level of guidance force (i.e., 100% guidance force) and thus a less active participation during locomotion should be avoided during robot-assisted treadmill walking. This will optimize the involvement of the sensorimotor cortex which is known to be crucial for motor learning.

  6. Force spectroscopy to understand cell surface receptor interactions in the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, J. te


    Since the invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM) in 1986, the application of the instrument has shifted from a pure physicist’s tool to a useful instrument for physicists, chemists and biologists. The AFM is not a classical microscope in the sense that light or electrons are used to obtain

  7. Methodes de calcul des forces aerodynamiques pour les etudes des interactions aeroservoelastiques (United States)

    Biskri, Djallel Eddine

    L'aeroservoelasticite est un domaine ou interagissent la structure flexible d'un avion, l'aerodynamique et la commande de vol. De son cote, la commande du vol considere l'avion comme une structure rigide et etudie l'influence du systeme de commande sur la dynamique de vol. Dans cette these, nous avons code trois nouvelles methodes d'approximation de forces aerodynamiques: Moindres carres corriges, Etat minimal corrige et Etats combines. Dans les deux premieres methodes, les erreurs d'approximation entre les forces aerodynamiques approximees par les methodes classiques et celles obtenues par les nouvelles methodes ont les memes formes analytiques que celles des forces aerodynamiques calculees par LS ou MS. Quant a la troisieme methode, celle-ci combine les formulations des forces approximees avec les methodes standards LS et MS. Les vitesses et frequences de battement et les temps d'executions calcules par les nouvelles methodes versus ceux calcules par les methodes classiques ont ete analyses.

  8. Interactive effects between physical forces and ecosystem engineers on seed burial: a case study using

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Z.; Cozzoli, F.; Chu, N.; Salvador, M.; Ysebaert, T.; Zhang, L.; Herman, P.M.J.; Bouma, T.J.


    Seed burial (i.e. vertical seed dispersal) has become increasingly valued for its relevance for seed fate and plant recruitment. While ecosystem engineers have been generally considered as the most important drivers of seed burial, the role of physical forces, such as wind or water flow, has been

  9. Mechanism of interaction between cellulase action and applied shear force, an hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenting, H.B.M.; Lenting, H.B.M.; Warmoeskerken, Marinus


    An overview is given of what is known in literature concerning the structure of both cellulose and cellulase enzymes and the enzymatic degradation of cellulose. Based on this knowledge, a hypothesis is formulated about the relation between cellulase performance and required applied shear force on

  10. Probing multivalent interactions in a synthetic host-guest complex by dynamic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez Casado, A.; Dam, H.H.; Yilmaz, M.D.; Florea, D.; Florea, Daniel; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Huskens, Jurriaan


    Multivalency is present in many biological and synthetic systems. Successful application of multivalency depends on a correct understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics of this phenomenon. In this Article, we address the stability and strength of multivalent bonds with force spectroscopy

  11. An Investigation of the Static Force Balance of a Model Railgun

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schroeder, Matthew K


    .... The various claims do not appear to be supported by direct experimental observation. The goal of this research paper is to develop an experiment to observe the balance of forces in a model railgun in a static state...

  12. Modeling the Value of Micro Solutions in Air Force Financial Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hare, Scott M; Krott, James E


    The purpose of this MBA Project was to develop a model that would estimate the value of applying available spreadsheet programming tools to automation opportunities in Air Force Financial Management (FM...

  13. Modeling Studies of Wind and Thermohaline Forcing on the California Current System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vance, Phillip


    A high-resolution, multi-level, primitive equation model is initialized with climatological data to study the combined effects of wind and thermohaline forcing on the ocean circulation of the California Current System (CCS...

  14. Interaction model for 3D cutting in maxillofacial surgery planning (United States)

    Neumann, Patrick; Siebert, Dirk; Schulz, Armin; Faulkner, Gabriele; Krauss, Manfred; Tolxdorff, Thomas


    Our main research work is the realization of a completely computer-based maxillofacial surgery planning system. An important step toward this goal is the availability of virtual tools for the surgeon to interactively define bone segments from skull and jaw bones. The easy-to-handle user interface employs visual and force-feedback devices to define subvolumes of a patient's volume dataset. The defined subvolumes together with their spatial arrangements lead to an operation plan. We have evaluated modern low-cost, force- feedback devices with regard to their ability to emulate the surgeon's working procedure.

  15. Model Development for Atomic Force Microscope Stage Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Ralph C; Hatch, Andrew G; De, Tathagata; Salapaka, Murti V; Raye, Julie K; del Rosario, Ricardo C


    In this paper, we develop nonlinear constitutive equations and resulting system models quantifying the nonlinear and hysteretic field-displacement relations inherent to lead zirconate titanate (PZT...

  16. Analytical and Empirical Modeling of Wear and Forces of CBN Tool in Hard Turning - A Review (United States)

    Patel, Vallabh Dahyabhai; Gandhi, Anishkumar Hasmukhlal


    Machining of steel material having hardness above 45 HRC (Hardness-Rockwell C) is referred as a hard turning. There are numerous models which should be scrutinized and implemented to gain optimum performance of hard turning. Various models in hard turning by cubic boron nitride tool have been reviewed, in attempt to utilize appropriate empirical and analytical models. Validation of steady state flank and crater wear model, Usui's wear model, forces due to oblique cutting theory, extended Lee and Shaffer's force model, chip formation and progressive flank wear have been depicted in this review paper. Effort has been made to understand the relationship between tool wear and tool force based on the different cutting conditions and tool geometries so that appropriate model can be used according to user requirement in hard turning.

  17. Realistic model for a fifth force explaining anomaly in Be8* →8Bee+e- decay (United States)

    Gu, Pei-Hong; He, Xiao-Gang


    We propose a theoretical model to explain a 6.8 σ anomaly recently reported in the opening angle and invariant mass distributions of e+e- pairs produced in excited Be8* nuclear transition to its ground state 8B e. The anomaly is explained by a fifth force mediated by a 17 MeV X boson through the decay Be8* →8Be X followed by X →e+e-. The X boson comes from extension of the standard model with two additional U(1) gauge symmetries producing a protophobic pure vector current interaction with quarks. The model also contains axial-vector current interaction. Although the existent axial-vector current interactions are strongly constrained by the measurement of parity violation in e-quark scattering, their contributions cancel out in the iso-scalar interaction for Be8* →8Be X. It is remarkable that the model parameters need to explain the anomaly survive all known low energy experimental constraints. The model may also alleviate the long-standing (g - 2)μ anomaly problem and can be probed by the LHCb experiment.

  18. Wave-current interactions: model development and preliminary results (United States)

    Mayet, Clement; Lyard, Florent; Ardhuin, Fabrice


    The coastal area concentrates many uses that require integrated management based on diagnostic and predictive tools to understand and anticipate the future of pollution from land or sea, and learn more about natural hazards at sea or activity on the coast. The realistic modelling of coastal hydrodynamics needs to take into account various processes which interact, including tides, surges, and sea state (Wolf [2008]). These processes act at different spatial scales. Unstructured-grid models have shown the ability to satisfy these needs, given that a good mesh resolution criterion is used. We worked on adding a sea state forcing in a hydrodynamic circulation model. The sea state model is the unstructured version of WAVEWATCH III c (Tolman [2008]) (which version is developed at IFREMER, Brest (Ardhuin et al. [2010]) ), and the hydrodynamic model is the 2D barotropic module of the unstructured-grid finite element model T-UGOm (Le Bars et al. [2010]). We chose to use the radiation stress approach (Longuet-Higgins and Stewart [1964]) to represent the effect of surface waves (wind waves and swell) in the barotropic model, as previously done by Mastenbroek et al. [1993]and others. We present here some validation of the model against academic cases : a 2D plane beach (Haas and Warner [2009]) and a simple bathymetric step with analytic solution for waves (Ardhuin et al. [2008]). In a second part we present realistic application in the Ushant Sea during extreme event. References Ardhuin, F., N. Rascle, and K. Belibassakis, Explicit wave-averaged primitive equations using a generalized Lagrangian mean, Ocean Modelling, 20 (1), 35-60, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.07.001, 2008. Ardhuin, F., et al., Semiempirical Dissipation Source Functions for Ocean Waves. Part I: Definition, Calibration, and Validation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40 (9), 1917-1941, doi:10.1175/2010JPO4324.1, 2010. Haas, K. A., and J. C. Warner, Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and

  19. Lattice model for amyloid peptides: OPEP force field parametrization and applications to the nucleus size of Alzheimer’s peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Thanh Thuy; Nguyen, Phuong H., E-mail:; Derreumaux, Philippe, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Biochimie Théorique, UPR 9080, CNRS, Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité IBPC, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)


    Coarse-grained protein lattice models approximate atomistic details and keep the essential interactions. They are, therefore, suitable for capturing generic features of protein folding and amyloid formation at low computational cost. As our aim is to study the critical nucleus sizes of two experimentally well-characterized peptide fragments Aβ{sub 16−22} and Aβ{sub 37−42} of the full length Aβ{sub 1−42} Alzheimer’s peptide, it is important that simulations with the lattice model reproduce all-atom simulations. In this study, we present a comprehensive force field parameterization based on the OPEP (Optimized Potential for Efficient protein structure Prediction) force field for an on-lattice protein model, which incorporates explicitly the formation of hydrogen bonds and directions of side-chains. Our bottom-up approach starts with the determination of the best lattice force parameters for the Aβ{sub 16−22} dimer by fitting its equilibrium parallel and anti-parallel β-sheet populations to all-atom simulation results. Surprisingly, the calibrated force field is transferable to the trimer of Aβ{sub 16−22} and the dimer and trimer of Aβ{sub 37−42}. Encouraged by this finding, we characterized the free energy landscapes of the two decamers. The dominant structure of the Aβ{sub 16−22} decamer matches the microcrystal structure. Pushing the simulations for aggregates between 4-mer and 12-mer suggests a nucleus size for fibril formation of 10 chains. In contrast, the Aβ{sub 37−42} decamer is largely disordered with mixed by parallel and antiparallel chains, suggesting that the nucleus size is >10 peptides. Our refined force field coupled to this on-lattice model should provide useful insights into the critical nucleation number associated with neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Digital design and fabrication of simulation model for measuring orthodontic force. (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Peng-Yuan; Zhang, Qiao-Fang; Zhang, Jian-Xing; Chen, Jie


    Three dimensional (3D) forces are the key factors for determining movement of teeth during orthodontic treatment. Designing precise forces and torques on tooth before treatment can result accurate tooth movements, but it is too difficult to realize. In orthodontic biomechanical systems, the periodontal tissues, including bones, teeth, and periodontal ligaments (PDL), are affected by braces, and measuring the forces applied on the teeth by braces should be based on a simulated model composed of these three types of tissues. This study explores the design and fabrication of a simulated oral model for 3D orthodontic force measurements. Based on medical image processing, tissue reconstruction, 3D printing, and PDL simulation and testing, a model for measuring force was designed and fabricated, which can potentially be used for force prediction, design of treatment plans, and precise clinical operation. The experiment illustrated that bi-component silicones with 2:8 ratios had similar mechanical properties to PDL, and with a positioning guide, the teeth were assembled in the mandible sockets accurately, and so a customized oral model for 3D orthodontic force measurement was created.

  1. Combining spanwise morphing, inline motion and model based optimization for force magnitude and direction control (United States)

    Scheller, Johannes; Braza, Marianna; Triantafyllou, Michael


    Bats and other animals rapidly change their wingspan in order to control the aerodynamic forces. A NACA0013 type airfoil with dynamically changing span is proposed as a simple model to experimentally study these biomimetic morphing wings. Combining this large-scale morphing with inline motion allows to control both force magnitude and direction. Force measurements are conducted in order to analyze the impact of the 4 degree of freedom flapping motion on the flow. A blade-element theory augmented unsteady aerodynamic model is then used to derive optimal flapping trajectories.

  2. Improving Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) Offloads Using Modeling and Simulation (United States)


    Viskit Visual Kit VRML Virtual Reality Modeling Language W3C Web3D Consortium X3D Extensible 3D Graphics XML Extensible Markup Language XSLT...successor to the Virtual Reality Modeling Language ( VRML ). X3D features extensions to VRML (e.g., Humanoid Animation (HANIM), NURBS (Non-uniform

  3. Modeling and Simulation of Process-Machine Interaction in Grinding of Cemented Carbide Indexable Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Feng


    Full Text Available Interaction of process and machine in grinding of hard and brittle materials such as cemented carbide may cause dynamic instability of the machining process resulting in machining errors and a decrease in productivity. Commonly, the process and machine tools were dealt with separately, which does not take into consideration the mutual interaction between the two subsystems and thus cannot represent the real cutting operations. This paper proposes a method of modeling and simulation to understand well the process-machine interaction in grinding process of cemented carbide indexable inserts. First, a virtual grinding wheel model is built by considering the random nature of abrasive grains and a kinematic-geometrical simulation is adopted to describe the grinding process. Then, a wheel-spindle model is simulated by means of the finite element method to represent the machine structure. The characteristic equation of the closed-loop dynamic grinding system is derived to provide a mathematic description of the process-machine interaction. Furthermore, a coupling simulation of grinding wheel-spindle deformations and grinding process force by combining both the process and machine model is developed to investigate the interaction between process and machine. This paper provides an integrated grinding model combining the machine and process models, which can be used to predict process-machine interactions in grinding process.

  4. Modelling microbial interactions and food structure in predictive microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakar, P.K.


    Keywords: modelling, dynamic models, microbial interactions, diffusion, microgradients, colony growth, predictive microbiology.

    Growth response of microorganisms in foods is a complex process. Innovations in food production and preservation techniques have resulted in adoption of

  5. A phenomenological force model of Li-ion battery packs for enhanced performance and health management (United States)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.


    A 1-D phenomenological force model of a Li-ion battery pack is proposed to enhance the control performance of Li-ion battery cells in pack conditions for efficient performance and health management. The force model accounts for multiple swelling sources under the operational environment of electric vehicles to predict swelling-induced forces in pack conditions, i.e. mechanically constrained. The proposed force model not only incorporates structural nonlinearities due to Li-ion intercalation swelling, but also separates the overall range of states of charge into three ranges to account for phase transitions. Moreover, an approach to study cell-to-cell variations in pack conditions is proposed with serial and parallel combinations of linear and nonlinear stiffness, which account for battery cells and other components in the battery pack. The model is shown not only to accurately estimate the reaction force caused by swelling as a function of the state of charge, battery temperature and environmental temperature, but also to account for cell-to-cell variations due to temperature variations, SOC differences, and local degradation in a wide range of operational conditions of electric vehicles. Considering that the force model of Li-ion battery packs can account for many possible situations in actual operation, the proposed approach and model offer potential utility for the enhancement of current battery management systems and power management strategies.

  6. Exploring the binding of 4-thiothymidine with human serum albumin by spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and molecular modeling methods. (United States)

    Zhang, Juling; Gu, Huaimin; Zhang, Xiaohui


    The interaction of 4-thiothymidine (S(4)TdR) with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied by equilibrium dialysis under normal physiological conditions. In this work, the mechanism of the interaction between S(4)TdR and human serum albumin (HSA) was exploited by fluorescence, UV, CD circular, and SERS spectroscopic. Fluorescence and UV spectroscopy suggest that HSA intensities are significantly decreased when adding S(4)TdR to HAS, and the quenching mechanism of the fluorescence is static. Also, the ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS values across temperature indicated that hydrophobic interaction was the predominant binding force. The CD circular results show that there is little change in the secondary structure of HSA except the environment of amino acid changes when adding S(4)TdR to HSA. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) shows that the interaction between S(4)TdR and HSA can be achieved through different binding sites which are probably located in the II A and III A hydrophobic pockets of HSA which correspond to Sudlow's I and II binding sites. In addition, the molecular modeling displays that S(4)TdR-HSA complex is stabilized by hydrophobic forces, which result from amino acid residues. The atomic force microscopy results revealed that the single HSA molecular dimensions were larger after interaction of 4-thiothymidine. This work would be useful to understand the state of the transportation, distribution, and metabolism of the anticancer drugs in the human body, and it could provide a useful biochemistry parameter for the development of new anti-cancer drugs and research of pharmacology mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interaction of an anticancer peptide fragment of azurin with p53 and its isolated domains studied by atomic force spectroscopy. (United States)

    Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Santini, Simona; Coppari, Emilia; Bucciantini, Monica; Di Agostino, Silvia; Yamada, Tohru; Beattie, Craig W; Cannistraro, Salvatore


    p28 is a 28-amino acid peptide fragment of the cupredoxin azurin derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa that preferentially penetrates cancerous cells and arrests their proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Its antitumor activity reportedly arises from post-translational stabilization of the tumor suppressor p53 normally downregulated by the binding of several ubiquitin ligases. This would require p28 to specifically bind to p53 to inhibit specific ligases from initiating proteosome-mediated degradation. In this study, atomic force spectroscopy, a nanotechnological approach, was used to investigate the interaction of p28 with full-length p53 and its isolated domains at the single molecule level. Analysis of the unbinding forces and the dissociation rate constant suggest that p28 forms a stable complex with the DNA-binding domain of p53, inhibiting the binding of ubiquitin ligases other than Mdm2 to reduce proteasomal degradation of p53.

  8. Modeling the Static Force of a Festo Pneumatic Muscle Actuator: A New Approach and a Comparison to Existing Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Martens


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new approach for modeling the static force characteristic of Festo pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs will be presented. The model is physically motivated and therefore gives a deeper understanding of the Festo PMA. After introducing the new model, it will be validated through a comparison to a measured force map of a Festo DMSP-10-250 and a DMSP-20-300, respectively. It will be shown that the error between the new model and the measured data is below 4.4% for the DMSP-10-250 and below 2.35% for the DMSP-20-300. In addition, the quality of the presented model will be compared to the quality of existing models by comparing the maximum error. It can be seen that the newly introduced model is closer to the measured force characteristic of a Festo PMA than any existing model.

  9. Multiscale Modeling of Primary Cilium Deformations Under Local Forces and Shear Flows (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Feng, Zhe; Resnick, Andrew; Young, Yuan-Nan


    We study the detailed deformations of a primary cilium under local forces and shear flows by developing a multiscale model based on the state-of-the-art understanding of its molecular structure. Most eukaryotic cells are ciliated with primary cilia. Primary cilia play important roles in chemosensation, thermosensation, and mechanosensation, but the detailed mechanism for mechanosensation is not well understood. We apply the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to model an entire well with a primary cilium and consider its different components, including the basal body, microtubule doublets, actin cortex, and lipid bilayer. We calibrate the mechanical properties of individual components and their interactions from experimental measurements and molecular dynamics simulations. We validate the simulations by comparing the deformation profile of the cilium and the rotation of the basal body with optical trapping experiments. After validations, we investigate the deformation of the primary cilium under shear flows. Furthermore, we calculate the membrane tensions and cytoskeleton stresses, and use them to predict the activation of mechanosensitive channels.

  10. Individual variations in numerically modeled human muscle and temporomandibular joint forces during static biting. (United States)

    Iwasaki, Laura R; Thornton, Benjamin R; McCall, Willard D; Nickel, Jeffrey C


    To test the effects of occlusal force (OF) angle on the variations in predicted muscle and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) forces during unilateral molar bites. The craniomandibular (CM) geometries of 21 individuals were determined from lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric radiographs. These geometries were used in a numerical model based on minimization of muscle effort. This model was previously validated for this subject group through the use of jaw tracking and electromyographic data. The model predicted muscle and TMJ forces associated with static OFs on the right mandibular first molar. OF angle was varied from vertical to 40 degrees in the buccal and lingual directions, in increments of 10 degrees. Intra- and intersubject variations in predicted muscle and TMJ forces for unilateral molar biting were dependent on OF angle and CM geometry. Nonvertical OFs were associated with either large anterior temporalis muscle forces (> 100% of applied OF in 3 subjects) or large inferior lateral pterygoid muscle forces (> 90% of applied OF in 3 subjects). On average, vertically and buccally directed OFs were associated with higher mean contralateral TMJ forces (60% of applied OF, SD 12%). Two subjects had large ipsilateral or contralateral TMJ forces (> 90% of applied OF). In a group of healthy subjects, depending on the individual CM geometry, large muscle and/or TMJ forces were predicted to be associated with specific unilateral molar OF angles. Propensities to increased muscle or joint forces may be predisposing factors in the development of myofascial pain or intracapsular disease. The results may explain, in part, the variation in location of symptoms in individuals who first present with temporomandibular disorders.

  11. Impact of particle size on interaction forces between ettringite and dispersing comb-polymers in various electrolyte solutions. (United States)

    Ferrari, Lucia; Kaufmann, Josef; Winnefeld, Frank; Plank, Johann


    The inter-particle forces play a fundamental role for the flow properties of a particle suspension in response to shear stresses. In concrete applications, cement admixtures based on comb-polymers like polycarboxylate-ether-based superplasticizer (PCE) are used to control the rheological behavior of the fresh mixtures, as it is negatively impacted by certain early hydration products, like the mineral ettringite. In this work, dispersion forces due to PCE were measured directly at the surface of ettringite crystals in different electrolyte solutions by the means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) applying spherical and sharp silicon dioxide tips. Results show an effective repulsion between ettringite surface and AFM tips for solutions above the IEP of ettringite (pH∼12) and significant attraction in solution at lower pH. The addition of polyelectrolytes in solution provides dispersion forces exclusively between the sharp tips (radius ≈ 10 nm) and the ettringite surface, whereas the polymer layer at the ettringite surface results to be unable to disperse large colloidal probes (radius ≈ 10 μm). A simple modeling of the inter-particle forces explains that, for large particles, the steric hindrance of the studied PCE molecules is not high enough to compensate for the Van der Waals and the attractive electrostatic contributions. Therefore, in cement suspensions the impact of ettringite on rheology is probably not only related to the particle charge, but also related to the involved particle sizes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microscopic interacting boson model calculations for even–even ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    one of the goals of the present study is to test interacting boson model calculations in the mass region of A ∼= 130 by comparing them with some previous experimental and theoretical results. The interacting boson model offers a simple Hamiltonian, capable of describing collective nuclear properties across a wide range of ...

  13. A Method for Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Le Guilly, Thibaut; Ravn, Anders Peter


    This paper presents a method to check for feature interactions in a system assembled from independently developed concurrent processes as found in many reactive systems. The method combines and refines existing definitions and adds a set of activities. The activities describe how to populate the ...

  14. Open Interactivity: A Model for Audience Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Gould


    Full Text Available Artists have increasingly acknowledged the role of the audience as collaborators both in the construction of meaning (Bathes, 1977, through subjective experience (Dewey, 1934 and in contributing to the creative act by externalising the work. (Duchamp Lucy Lippard identifies 1966-72 as a period where artists turned increasingly towards the audience, representing a "dematerialization of the art object" (Lippard, 1997 through "Happenings" and "Fluxus" movements. Digital media has facilitated this trajectory, implicit in the interactive computer interface (Manovich, 2005, but interactivity per se may offer no more than a series of choices put forward by the artist (Daniels, 2011. Interactivity represents interplay between artist and audience (Dinka, 1996 and is potentially a process of audience empowerment to offer agency, defined as real and creative choice (Browning, 1964. Public screen installation "Peoples Screen" Guangzhou, linking China to Perth Australia (Sermon & Gould, 2015 offered a partnership between artist and audience to co-create content though playful narratives and active engagement in a drama that unfolds using improvisation and play. Initially visitors enjoy observing the self on the screen but audiences quickly start to interact with the environment and other participants. Immersed in play they lose a sense of the self (Callois, 2011 and enter a virtual third space where possibilities for creativity and direction of play are limitless. The self becomes an avatar where the audience can inhabit "the other" thereby exploring alternative realities through ludic play, promoting tolerance and empathy and developing collective memory.

  15. Flattening of Sustainment: The Interaction of Technology, Information, Force Structure, and the Emergence of Operational Logistics (United States)


    respective theaters. The ballet between the combatant commands, the generating force, and the requirement of operations to maximize the greatest amount...based on the logistics failures of the campaign. 18John J. McGrath, The Brigade: A History ; Its Organization and Employment in the United States Army...of Military History 55, no. 1 (January 1991): 39. 1986127?seq=1. 15 Corps, Division, and Brigade trains and movement

  16. Porter Five Forces Model Pada PT. Ruci Gas


    Riky, Alfonsus


    Penelitian ini akan membahas mengenai analisis lima model utama kekuatan Porter pada Perusahaan keluarga PT.Ruci Gas. Tujuan dari penelitian ini penulis ingin menganalis tentang struktur industri PT. Ruci Gas yang dikaitkan dengan teori lima model kekuatan utama yang dikembangkan oleh Porter. Selain itu penulis ingin menganalisis mengenai tingkat atraktif investasi gas di Indonesia. Jenis dari penelitian ini adalah kualitatif deskriptif.Dengan pengumpulan data dengan metode wawancara dan obse...

  17. A valence force field-Monte Carlo algorithm for quantum dot growth modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barettin, Daniele; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Pecchia, Alessandro


    We present a novel kinetic Monte Carlo version for the atomistic valence force fields algorithm in order to model a self-assembled quantum dot growth process. We show our atomistic model is both computationally favorable and capture more details compared to traditional kinetic Monte Carlo models...

  18. Testing a Non-Competency Inservice Education Model Based on Humanistic or Third Force Psychology (United States)

    Beck, William


    The investigation of the impact of the "growth" approach, based on humanistic or Third Force psychology, involved developing a "growth" model based on humanistic psychology, pilot "testing" the model, and drawing implications regarding the model's potential for inservice education. The data indicated that the "growth" approach to inservice…

  19. Modeling Force Transfer around Openings in Wood-Frame Shear Walls (United States)

    Minghao Li; Frank Lam; Borjen Yeh; Tom Skaggs; Doug Rammer; James Wacker


    This paper presented a modeling study on force transfer around openings (FTAO) in wood-frame shear walls detailed for FTAO. To understand the load transfer in the walls, this study used a finite-element model WALL2D, which is able to model individual wall components, including framing members, sheathing panels, oriented panel-frame nailed connections, framing...

  20. An assessment of wind forcing impact on a spectral wave model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The focus of the present study is the assessment of the impact of wind forcing on the spectral wave model MIKE 21 SW in the Indian Ocean region. Three different wind fields, namely the ECMWF analyzed winds, the ECMWF blended winds, and the NCEP blended winds have been used to drive the model. The wave model ...

  1. Combined particle-image velocimetry and force analysis of the three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction of a natural owl wing. (United States)

    Winzen, A; Roidl, B; Schröder, W


    Low-speed aerodynamics has gained increasing interest due to its relevance for the design process of small flying air vehicles. These small aircraft operate at similar aerodynamic conditions as, e.g. birds which therefore can serve as role models of how to overcome the well-known problems of low Reynolds number flight. The flight of the barn owl is characterized by a very low flight velocity in conjunction with a low noise emission and a high level of maneuverability at stable flight conditions. To investigate the complex three-dimensional flow field and the corresponding local structural deformation in combination with their influence on the resulting aerodynamic forces, time-resolved stereoscopic particle-image velocimetry and force and moment measurements are performed on a prepared natural barn owl wing. Several spanwise positions are measured via PIV in a range of angles of attack [Formula: see text] 6° and Reynolds numbers 40 000 [Formula: see text] 120 000 based on the chord length. Additionally, the resulting forces and moments are recorded for -10° ≤ α ≤ 15° at the same Reynolds numbers. Depending on the spanwise position, the angle of attack, and the Reynolds number, the flow field on the wing's pressure side is characterized by either a region of flow separation, causing large-scale vortical structures which lead to a time-dependent deflection of the flexible wing structure or wing regions showing no instantaneous deflection but a reduction of the time-averaged mean wing curvature. Based on the force measurements the three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction is assumed to considerably impact the aerodynamic forces acting on the wing leading to a strong mechanical loading of the interface between the wing and body. These time-depending loads which result from the flexibility of the wing should be taken into consideration for the design of future small flying air vehicles using flexible wing structures.

  2. Identifying and Assessing Interaction Knowledge, Skills, and Attributes for Future Force Soldiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowden, Tim; Keenan, Patricia; Ramli, Masayu; Heffner, Tonia


    .... The goal of the AISA is to gauge the Soldier's aptitude to effectively manage interpersonal interactions and to identify Soldiers who may be well suited for positions where effective interpersonal...

  3. Coding Verbal Interactions in a Prototype Future Force Command and Control Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durlach, Paula


    ...) still in the concept exploration phase. The goal of the present effort was to establish and measure command group behavior observed in such a human-in-the-loop simulation via analysis of the verbal interactions of the command group...

  4. A discrete element model for soil-sweep interaction in three different soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nyord, Tavs


    was developed to simulate a slurry injection tool (a sweep) and its interaction with soil using Particle Flow Code in Three Dimensions (PFC3D). In the model, spherical particles with bonds and viscous damping between particles were used to simulate agricultural soil aggregates and their cohesive behaviours......Soil–tool interactions are at the centre of many agricultural field operations, including slurry injection. Understanding of soil–tool interaction behaviours (soil cutting forces and soil disturbance) is important for designing high performance injection tools. A discrete element model....... The calibrated model was validated using the soil disturbance characteristics measured in those three soils. The simulations agreed well with the measurements with relative errors below 10% in most cases....

  5. Contemporary Ecological Interactions Improve Models of Past Trait Evolution. (United States)

    Hutchinson, Matthew C; Gaiarsa, Marília P; Stouffer, Daniel B


    Despite the fact that natural selection underlies both traits and interactions, evolutionary models often neglect that ecological interactions may, and in many cases do, influence the evolution of traits. Here, we explore the interdependence of ecological interactions and functional traits in the pollination associations of hawkmoths and flowering plants. Specifically, we develop an adaptation of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of trait evolution that allows us to study the influence of plant corolla depth and observed hawkmoth-plant interactions on the evolution of hawkmoth proboscis length. Across diverse modelling scenarios, we find that the inclusion of contemporary interactions can provide a better description of trait evolution than the null expectation. Moreover, we show that the pollination interactions provide more-likely models of hawkmoth trait evolution when interactions are considered at increasingly finescale groups of hawkmoths. Finally, we demonstrate how the results of best-fit modelling approaches can implicitly support the association between interactions and trait evolution that our method explicitly examines. In showing that contemporary interactions can provide insight into the historical evolution of hawkmoth proboscis length, we demonstrate the clear utility of incorporating additional ecological information to models designed to study past trait evolution.

  6. A comprehensive model of the railway wheelset-track interaction in curves (United States)

    Martínez-Casas, José; Di Gialleonardo, Egidio; Bruni, Stefano; Baeza, Luis


    Train-track interaction has been extensively studied in the last 40 years at least, leading to modelling approaches that can deal satisfactorily with many dynamic problems arising at the wheel/rail interface. However, the available models are usually not considering specifically the running dynamics of the vehicle in a curve, whereas a number of train-track interaction phenomena are specific to curve negotiation. The aim of this paper is to define a model for a flexible wheelset running on a flexible curved track. The main novelty of this work is to combine a trajectory coordinate set with Eulerian modal coordinates; the former permits to consider curved tracks, and the latter models the small relative displacements between the trajectory frame and the solid. In order to reduce the computational complexity of the problem, one single flexible wheelset is considered instead of one complete bogie, and suitable forces are prescribed at the primary suspension seats so that the mean values of the creepages and contact forces are consistent with the low frequency curving dynamics of the complete vehicle. The wheelset model is coupled to a cyclic track model having constant curvature by means of a wheel/rail contact model which accounts for the actual geometry of the contacting profiles and for the nonlinear relationship between creepages and creep forces. The proposed model can be used to analyse a variety of dynamic problems for railway vehicles, including rail corrugation and wheel polygonalisation, squeal noise, numerical estimation of the wheelset service loads. In this paper, simulation results are presented for some selected running conditions to exemplify the application of the model to the study of realistic train-track interaction cases and to point out the importance of curve negotiation effects specifically addressed in the work.

  7. Computational Intelligence Based Data Fusion Algorithm for Dynamic sEMG and Skeletal Muscle Force Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekhar Potluri,; Madhavi Anugolu; Marco P. Schoen; D. Subbaram Naidu


    In this work, an array of three surface Electrography (sEMG) sensors are used to acquired muscle extension and contraction signals for 18 healthy test subjects. The skeletal muscle force is estimated using the acquired sEMG signals and a Non-linear Wiener Hammerstein model, relating the two signals in a dynamic fashion. The model is obtained from using System Identification (SI) algorithm. The obtained force models for each sensor are fused using a proposed fuzzy logic concept with the intent to improve the force estimation accuracy and resilience to sensor failure or misalignment. For the fuzzy logic inference system, the sEMG entropy, the relative error, and the correlation of the force signals are considered for defining the membership functions. The proposed fusion algorithm yields an average of 92.49% correlation between the actual force and the overall estimated force output. In addition, the proposed fusionbased approach is implemented on a test platform. Experiments indicate an improvement in finger/hand force estimation.

  8. User Interaction Modeling and Profile Extraction in Interactive Systems: A Groupware Application Case Study. (United States)

    Tîrnăucă, Cristina; Duque, Rafael; Montaña, José L


    A relevant goal in human-computer interaction is to produce applications that are easy to use and well-adjusted to their users' needs. To address this problem it is important to know how users interact with the system. This work constitutes a methodological contribution capable of identifying the context of use in which users perform interactions with a groupware application (synchronous or asynchronous) and provides, using machine learning techniques, generative models of how users behave. Additionally, these models are transformed into a text that describes in natural language the main characteristics of the interaction of the users with the system.

  9. Comparisons of the Maxwell and CLL gas/surface interaction models using DSMC (United States)

    Hedahl, Marc O.; Wilmoth, Richard G.


    The behavior of two different models of gas-surface interactions is studied using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The DSMC calculations examine differences in predictions of aerodynamic forces and heat transfer between the Maxwell and the Cercignani-Lampis-Lord (CLL) models for flat plate configurations at freestream conditions corresponding to a 140 km orbit around Venus. The size of the flat plate represents one of the solar panels on the Magellan spacecraft, and the freestream conditions correspond to those experienced during aerobraking maneuvers. Results are presented for both a single flat plate and a two-plate configuration as a function of angle of attack and gas-surface accommodation coefficients. The two-plate system is not representative of the Magellan geometry but is studied to explore possible experiments that might be used to differentiate between the two gas-surface interaction models. The Maxwell and CLL models produce qualitatively similar results for the aerodynamic forces and heat transfer on a single flat plate. However, the flow fields produced with the two models are qualitatively different for both the single-plate and two-plate calculations. These differences in the flowfield lead to predictions of the angle of attack for maximum heat transfer in a two plate configuration that are distinctly different for the two gas-surface interactions models.

  10. Magnetic Circuit Model of PM Motor-Generator to Predict Radial Forces (United States)

    McLallin, Kerry (Technical Monitor); Kascak, Peter E.; Dever, Timothy P.; Jansen, Ralph H.


    A magnetic circuit model is developed for a PM motor for flywheel applications. A sample motor is designed and modeled. Motor configuration and selection of materials is discussed, and the choice of winding configuration is described. A magnetic circuit model is described, which includes the stator back iron, rotor yoke, permanent magnets, air gaps and the stator teeth. Iterative solution of this model yields flux linkages, back EMF, torque, power, and radial force at the rotor caused by eccentricity. Calculated radial forces are then used to determine motor negative stiffness.

  11. Mathematical Modelling of Biomechanical Interactions between Backpack and Bearer during Load Carriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ren


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a three-dimensional mathematical model of the biomechanical interactions between backpack and bearer during load carriage. The model considers both the coupled pack motions, which follow the torso, and also the longitudinal compliance and damping in the backpack suspension. The pack interaction forces and moments, acting on the bearer, are determined from kinematic relationships, equations of motion, and a dynamic pack suspension model. The parameters of the pack suspension model were identified from test data obtained using a load carriage test rig. Output from the load carriage mathematical model has been compared with measurement data during human gait and conclusions drawn with regard to the validity of the proposed approach.

  12. Modeling good research practices--overview: a report of the ISPOR-SMDM Modeling Good Research Practices Task Force--1. (United States)

    Caro, J Jaime; Briggs, Andrew H; Siebert, Uwe; Kuntz, Karen M


    Models--mathematical frameworks that facilitate estimation of the consequences of health care decisions--have become essential tools for health technology assessment. Evolution of the methods since the first ISPOR Modeling Task Force reported in 2003 has led to a new Task Force, jointly convened with the Society for Medical Decision Making, and this series of seven articles presents the updated recommendations for best practices in conceptualizing models; implementing state-transition approaches, discrete event simulations, or dynamic transmission models; and dealing with uncertainty and validating and reporting models transparently. This overview article introduces the work of the Task Force, provides all the recommendations, and discusses some quandaries that require further elucidation. The audience for these articles includes those who build models, stakeholders who utilize their results, and, indeed, anyone concerned with the use of models to support decision making. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling good research practices--overview: a report of the ISPOR-SMDM Modeling Good Research Practices Task Force-1. (United States)

    Caro, J Jaime; Briggs, Andrew H; Siebert, Uwe; Kuntz, Karen M


    Models-mathematical frameworks that facilitate estimation of the consequences of health care decisions-have become essential tools for health technology assessment. Evolution of the methods since the first ISPOR modeling task force reported in 2003 has led to a new task force, jointly convened with the Society for Medical Decision Making, and this series of seven papers presents the updated recommendations for best practices in conceptualizing models; implementing state-transition approaches, discrete event simulations, or dynamic transmission models; dealing with uncertainty; and validating and reporting models transparently. This overview introduces the work of the task force, provides all the recommendations, and discusses some quandaries that require further elucidation. The audience for these papers includes those who build models, stakeholders who utilize their results, and, indeed, anyone concerned with the use of models to support decision making.

  14. Point Process Modeling for Directed Interaction Networks (United States)


    Enron corporation between 1998 and 2002. These e-mail interaction data give rise to the following questions: Homophily To what extent are traits shared...methods Our example analysis uses publicly available data from the Enron e-mail corpus (Cohen, 2009), a large subset of the e-mail messages sent within...the Enron corporation between 1998 and 2002, and made public as the result of a subpoena by the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission during an

  15. A square-force cohesion model and its extraction from bulk measurements (United States)

    Liu, Peiyuan; Lamarche, Casey; Kellogg, Kevin; Hrenya, Christine


    Cohesive particles remain poorly understood, with order of magnitude differences exhibited for prior, physical predictions of agglomerate size. A major obstacle lies in the absence of robust models of particle-particle cohesion, thereby precluding accurate prediction of the behavior of cohesive particles. Rigorous cohesion models commonly contain parameters related to surface roughness, to which cohesion shows extreme sensitivity. However, both roughness measurement and its distillation into these model parameters are challenging. Accordingly, we propose a ``square-force'' model, where cohesive force remains constant until a cut-off separation. Via DEM simulations, we demonstrate validity of the square-force model as surrogate of more rigorous models, when its two parameters are selected to match the two key quantities governing dense and dilute granular flows, namely maximum cohesive force and critical cohesive energy, respectively. Perhaps more importantly, we establish a method to extract the parameters in the square-force model via defluidization, due to its ability to isolate the effects of the two parameters. Thus, instead of relying on complicated scans of individual grains, determination of particle-particle cohesion from simple bulk measurements becomes feasible. Dow Corning Corporation.

  16. Learning probabilistic document template models via interaction (United States)

    Ahmadullin, Ildus; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan


    Document aesthetics measures are key to automated document composition. Recently we presented a probabilistic document model (PDM) which is a micro-model for document aesthetics based on a probabilistic modeling of designer choice in document design. The PDM model comes with efficient layout synthesis algorithms once the aesthetic model is defined. A key element of this approach is an aesthetic prior on the parameters of a template encoding aesthetic preferences for template parameters. Parameters of the prior were required to be chosen empirically by designers. In this work we show how probabilistic template models (and hence the PDM cost function) can be learnt directly by observing a designer making design choices in composing sample documents. From such training data our learning approach can learn a quality measure that can mimic some of the design tradeoffs a designer makes in practice.

  17. Five challenges in modelling interacting strain dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Wikramaratna


    Full Text Available Population epidemiological models where hosts can be infected sequentially by different strains have the potential to help us understand many important diseases. Researchers have in recent years started to develop and use such models, but the extra layer of complexity from multiple strains brings with it many technical challenges. It is therefore hard to build models which have realistic assumptions yet are tractable. Here we outline some of the main challenges in this area. First we begin with the fundamental question of how to translate from complex small-scale dynamics within a host to useful population models. Next we consider the nature of so-called “strain space”. We describe two key types of host heterogeneities, and explain how models could help generate a better understanding of their effects. Finally, for diseases with many strains, we consider the challenge of modelling how immunity accumulates over multiple exposures.

  18. Force field modeling of amino acid conformational energies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaminský, Jakub; Jensen, F.


    Roč. 3, č. 5 (2007), s. 1774-1788 ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : amino acids * modeling * MP2 * DFT Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.308, year: 2007

  19. Introduction to Discrete Element Methods: Basics of Contact Force Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luding, Stefan


    One challenge of today's research is the realistic simulation of granular materials, like sand or powders, consisting of millions of particles. In this article, the discrete element method (DEM), as based on molecular dynamics methods, is introduced. Contact models are at the physical basis of DEM.

  20. Modelling wind forced bedforms on a sandy beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.; Van Thiel de Vries, J.; Ruessink, B.G.


    This paper aims to conceptually simulate observed spatial and temporal variability in aeolian sediment transport rates, erosion and deposition on a beach. Traditional strategies of modeling aeolian sediment transport rates do not account for supply limitations that are common on natural beaches. A