WorldWideScience

Sample records for models focus primarily

  1. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  2. Electroejaculation functions primarily by direct activation of pelvic musculature: Perspectives from a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M.R. Groh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ejaculatory dysfunction is a significant cause of infertility in men that have incurred spinal cord injury or iatrogenic lesions to the sympathetic nerves in the retroperitoneum. For such patients, electroejaculation – whereby a voltage is applied transrectally under general anesthesia – is a highly-effective procedure to obtain ejaculate. At present, however, there remains uncertainty as to the physiological mechanism by which electroejaculation prompts seminal emission in males with neurogenic anejaculation. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to determine, for the first time, whether electroejaculation functions by mimicking a neurophysiological response, or by directly activating local pelvic musculature. Using electroejaculation in a novel porcine model, we monitored the strength of contraction of the internal urethral sphincter (a smooth muscle involved in ejaculation before and after lesioning its sympathetic innervation with a combination of progressively-worsening surgical and pharmacological insults in three anesthetized boars (46.1 ± 7.4 kg. Importantly, prior to this investigation, we confirmed the comparative structural anatomy of the porcine model to humans through gross dissection and histological analysis of the infrarenal retroperitoneal sympathetic nerves and ganglia in 18 unembalmed boars. Prior to sacrifice, three of these boars underwent functional testing to confirm control of the internal urethral sphincter by the hypogastric nerves. Our results demonstrate that electroejaculation-induced contraction of the internal urethral sphincter was preserved following each progressive neural insult compared to the control state (p > 0.05. In contrast, these same insults resulted in paralysis/paresis of the internal urethral sphincter when its sympathetic innervation was directly stimulated with bipolar electrodes (p < 0.05. Taken together, our results provide the first empirical evidence to suggest that

  3. Development and Sensitivity Analysis of a Frost Risk model based primarily on freely distributed Earth Observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louka, Panagiota; Petropoulos, George; Papanikolaou, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    The ability to map the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme climatic conditions, such as frost, is a significant tool in successful agricultural management and decision making. Nowadays, with the development of Earth Observation (EO) technology, it is possible to obtain accurately, timely and in a cost-effective way information on the spatiotemporal distribution of frost conditions, particularly over large and otherwise inaccessible areas. The present study aimed at developing and evaluating a frost risk prediction model, exploiting primarily EO data from MODIS and ASTER sensors and ancillary ground observation data. For the evaluation of our model, a region in north-western Greece was selected as test site and a detailed sensitivity analysis was implemented. The agreement between the model predictions and the observed (remotely sensed) frost frequency obtained by MODIS sensor was evaluated thoroughly. Also, detailed comparisons of the model predictions were performed against reference frost ground observations acquired from the Greek Agricultural Insurance Organization (ELGA) over a period of 10-years (2000-2010). Overall, results evidenced the ability of the model to produce reasonably well the frost conditions, following largely explainable patterns in respect to the study site and local weather conditions characteristics. Implementation of our proposed frost risk model is based primarily on satellite imagery analysis provided nowadays globally at no cost. It is also straightforward and computationally inexpensive, requiring much less effort in comparison for example to field surveying. Finally, the method is adjustable to be potentially integrated with other high resolution data available from both commercial and non-commercial vendors. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, frost risk mapping, GIS, remote sensing, MODIS, Greece

  4. Task-focused modeling in automated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriesenga, Mark R.; Peleg, K.; Sklansky, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Machine vision systems analyze image data to carry out automation tasks. Our interest is in machine vision systems that rely on models to achieve their designed task. When the model is interrogated from an a priori menu of questions, the model need not be complete. Instead, the machine vision system can use a partial model that contains a large amount of information in regions of interest and less information elsewhere. We propose an adaptive modeling scheme for machine vision, called task-focused modeling, which constructs a model having just sufficient detail to carry out the specified task. The model is detailed in regions of interest to the task and is less detailed elsewhere. This focusing effect saves time and reduces the computational effort expended by the machine vision system. We illustrate task-focused modeling by an example involving real-time micropropagation of plants in automated agriculture.

  5. Analysis and modeling of "focus" in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Anumanchipalli, Gopala; Parlikar, Alok

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a crowd-sourced definition of a speech phenomenon we have called focus. Given sentences, text and speech, in isolation and in context, we asked annotators to identify what we term the focus word. We present their consistency in identifying the focused word, when presented with text...... or speech stimuli. We then build models to show how well we predict that focus word from lexical (and higher) level features. Also, using spectral and prosodic information, we show the differences in these focus words when spoken with and without context. Finally, we show how we can improve speech synthesis...

  6. Computational numerical modelling of plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brollo, Fabricio

    2005-01-01

    Several models for calculation of the dynamics of Plasma Focus have been developed. All of them begin from the same physic principle: the current sheet run down the anode length, ionizing and collecting the gas that finds in its way.This is known as snow-plow model.Concerning pinch's compression, a MHD model is proposed.The plasma is treated as a fluid , particularly as a high ionized gas.However, there are not many models that, taking into account thermal equilibrium inside the plasma, make approximated calculations of the maximum temperatures reached in the pinch.Besides, there are no models which use those temperatures to estimate the termofusion neutron yield for the Deuterium or Deuterium-Tritium gas filled cases.In the PLADEMA network (Dense Magnetized Plasmas) a code was developed with the objective of describe the plasma focus dynamics, in a conceptual engineering stage.The codes calculates the principal variables (currents, time to focus, etc) and estimates the neutron yield in Deuterium-filled plasma focus devices.It can be affirmed that the code's experimental validation, in its axial and radial stages, was very successfully. However, it was accepted that the compression stage should be formulated again, to find a solution for a large variation of a parameter related with velocity profiles for the particles trapped inside the pinch.The objectives of this work can be stated in the next way : - Check the compression's model hypothesis. Develop a new model .- Implement the new model in the code. Compare results against experimental data of Plasma Focus devices from all around the world [es

  7. Compression Models for Plasma Focus Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Jose; Calusse, Alejandro; Ramos, Ruben; Rodriguez Palomino, Luis

    2003-01-01

    Using a numerical model that calculates the dynamics of Plasma Focus devices, we compared the results of three different compression models of the plasma pinch.One of the main objectives in this area is to develop a simplified model to calculate the neutron production of Plasma Focus devices, to study the influence of the main parameters in this neutron yield.The dynamics is thoroughly studied, and the model predicts fairly well values such as maximum currents and times for pinch collapse.Therefore, we evaluate here different models of pinch compression, to try to predict the neutron production with good agreement with the rest of the variables involved.To fulfill this requirement, we have experimental results of neutron production as a function of deuterium filling pressure in the chamber, and typical values of other main variables in the dynamics of the current sheet

  8. A lumped parameter model of plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Jose H.; Florido, Pablo C.; Bruzzone, H.; Clausse, Alejandro

    1999-01-01

    A lumped parameter model to estimate neutron emission of a plasma focus (PF) device is developed. The dynamic of the current sheet is calculated using a snowplow model, and the neutron production with the thermal fusion cross section for a deuterium filling gas. The results were contrasted as a function of the filling pressure with experimental measurements of a 3.68 KJ Mather-type PF. (author)

  9. Nanoparticles affect PCR primarily via surface interactions with PCR components: using amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a main model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanomaterials have been widely reported to affect the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, many studies in which these effects were observed were not comprehensive, and many of the proposed mechanisms have been primarily speculative. In this work, we used amino-modified silica-coated magnetic n...

  10. MEMO Organisation Modelling Language (1): Focus on organisational structure

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Organisation models are at the core of enterprise model, since they represent key aspects of a company's action system. Within MEMO, the Organisation Modelling Language (OrgML) supports the construction of organisation models. They can be divided into two main abstractions: a static abstraction is focusing on the structure of an organisation that reflects the division of labour with respect to static responsibilities and a dynamic abstraction that is focusing on models of business processes. ...

  11. Ghana integrated to the world economy : focus on Ghana-UK-Germany trade linkage model

    OpenAIRE

    Sarpong, Daniel Bruce

    1998-01-01

    In this study of Ghana integrated to the world economy, we focus primarily on Ghana-UK-Germany trade axis partly because of Ghana?s relative dependence on the EU for her international trade. The study employs ?representative? country macroeconometric models of these economies, using data over 1970-1991, including bilateral trade links among them and with the USA and Japan, to quantitatively analyze and draw policy inference of the international transmission mechanism of macroeconomic disturba...

  12. An industry-sponsored, school-focused model for continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An industry-sponsored, school-focused model for continuing professional ... HEIs and Departments of Education (DoE), could change the traditional concept that CPTD is the responsibility of DoEs into a new model where the business

  13. Vector fields in a tight laser focus: comparison of models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peatross, Justin; Berrondo, Manuel; Smith, Dallas; Ware, Michael

    2017-06-26

    We assess several widely used vector models of a Gaussian laser beam in the context of more accurate vector diffraction integration. For the analysis, we present a streamlined derivation of the vector fields of a uniformly polarized beam reflected from an ideal parabolic mirror, both inside and outside of the resulting focus. This exact solution to Maxwell's equations, first developed in 1920 by V. S. Ignatovsky, is highly relevant to high-intensity laser experiments since the boundary conditions at a focusing optic dictate the form of the focus in a manner analogous to a physical experiment. In contrast, many models simply assume a field profile near the focus and develop the surrounding vector fields consistent with Maxwell's equations. In comparing the Ignatovsky result with popular closed-form analytic vector models of a Gaussian beam, we find that the relatively simple model developed by Erikson and Singh in 1994 provides good agreement in the paraxial limit. Models involving a Lax expansion introduce a divergences outside of the focus while providing little if any improvement in the focal region. Extremely tight focusing produces a somewhat complicated structure in the focus, and requires the Ignatovsky model for accurate representation.

  14. An empirical test of the information-motivation-behavioral skills model of ART adherence in a sample of HIV-positive persons primarily in out-of-HIV-care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Smolenski, Derek; Amico, K Rivet

    2014-02-01

    The current body of evidence supporting the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence rests exclusively on data collected from people living with HIV (PLWH) at point-of-HIV-care services. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if the IMB model is a useful predictive model of ART adherence among PLWH who were primarily recruited in out-of-HIV-care settings; and (2) assess whether the theorized associations between IMB model constructs and adherence persist in the presence of depression and current drug use. PLWH (n = 312) responding to a one-time online survey completed the Life Windows IMB-ART-Adherence Questionnaire, and demographic, depression (CES-D 10), and drug use items. Path models were used to assess the fit of a saturated versus fully mediated IMB model of adherence and examined for moderating effects of depression and current drug use. Participants were on average 43 years of age, had been living with HIV for 9 or more years, and mostly male (84.0%), Caucasian (68.8%), and gay-identified (74.8%). The a priori measurement models for information and behavioral skills did not have acceptable fit to the data and were modified accordingly. Using the revised IMB scales, IMB constructs were associated with adherence as predicted by the theory in all but one model (i.e., the IMB model operated as predicted among nondrug users and those with and without depression). Among drug users, information exerted a direct effect on adherence but was not significantly associated with behavioral skills. Results of this study suggest that the fully or partially mediated IMB model is supported for use with samples of PLWH recruited primarily out-of-HIV-care service settings and is robust in the presence of depression and drug use.

  15. Non-hydrodynamic model of plasma focus structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imshennik, V.S.; Zueva, N.M.; Lokutsievskij, O.V.; Mikhajlova, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical plasma focus study has resulted in the necessity of creating a non-hydrodynamic plasma focus structure model (MKHD model). This model describes the final stage of plasma focus, which starts immediately after maximum plasma compression. It is related to a very limited space near the neck of the sausage instability. The MKHD model is two-dimensional, axially symmetric and collisionless with respect to the ions and magnetohydrodynamic with respect to the electrons; it accounts for the pinch instability of the sausage type (m=0 mode). The MKHD model, first of all, explains the long time of the plasma focus existence and non-thermonuclear peculiarities in the neutron yield. The initial and boundary conditions are formulated in accordance with the experiments and the results of computations in the 2D MHD model. A non-stationary process of plasma focus dynamics is studied numerically for a relatively long time - about 20 ns; this time is, in principle, not restricted. The computations show that the external edge of the neck expands rather slowly (at a speed that is lower than the thermal ion velocity, by an order of magnitude), and the magnetic field energy is converted to the kinetic energy of the chaotic ion motion (which is doubled for the time of computation). A 'supra-thermal' tail (with the deuterium ion energy higher than 10 keV) forms slowly at the ion distribution function; this tail determines a substantial part of the total neutron yield. The formation of stable vortices, which actually determine the structure of the plasma flow during the developed non-hydrodynamic stage of the plasma focus, is also found in the computations. These properties of the development of the sausage instability, as found in the numerical experiment with the MKHD plasma focus model, are in qualitative agreement with the behaviour of an instability of the same type in the MHD models of the Z-pinch

  16. The service dominant business model : a service focused conceptualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüftenegger, E.R.; Comuzzi, M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Weisleder, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing approaches on business model tools are constrained by the goods dominant way of doing business. Nowadays, the shift from goods based approaches towards a service dominant strategy requires novel business model tools specially focused for service business. In this report we present the

  17. A Deformable Model for Bringing Particles in Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    and intensity, which enables an estimation of the out-of-focus blur of the particle. Using the particle model param- eters in a regression model we are able to infer 3D information about individual particles. Based on the defocus information we are able to infer the true size and shape of the particles. We...

  18. Experimental validation of models for Plasma Focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Palomino, Luis; Gonzalez, Jose; Clausse, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Plasma Focus(PF) Devices are thermonuclear pulsators that produce short pulsed radiation (X-ray, charged particles and neutrons). Since Filippov and Mather, investigations have been used to study plasma properties. Nowadays the interest about PF is focused in technology applications, related to the use of these devices as pulsed neutron sources. In the numerical calculus the Inter institutional PLADEMA (PLAsmas DEnsos MAgnetizados) network is developing three models. Each one is useful in different engineering stages of the Plasma Focus design. One of the main objectives in this work is a comparative study on the influence of the different parameters involved in each models. To validate these results, several experimental measurements under different geometry and initial conditions were performed. (author)

  19. The Continuous Improvement Model: A K-12 Literacy Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer V.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if the eight steps of the Continuous Improvement Model (CIM) provided a framework to raise achievement and to focus educators in identifying high-yield literacy strategies. This study sought to determine if an examination of the assessment data in reading revealed differences among schools that fully,…

  20. The Time Is Right to Focus on Model Organism Metabolomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur S. Edison

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Model organisms are an essential component of biological and biomedical research that can be used to study specific biological processes. These organisms are in part selected for facile experimental study. However, just as importantly, intensive study of a small number of model organisms yields important synergies as discoveries in one area of science for a given organism shed light on biological processes in other areas, even for other organisms. Furthermore, the extensive knowledge bases compiled for each model organism enable systems-level understandings of these species, which enhance the overall biological and biomedical knowledge for all organisms, including humans. Building upon extensive genomics research, we argue that the time is now right to focus intensively on model organism metabolomes. We propose a grand challenge for metabolomics studies of model organisms: to identify and map all metabolites onto metabolic pathways, to develop quantitative metabolic models for model organisms, and to relate organism metabolic pathways within the context of evolutionary metabolomics, i.e., phylometabolomics. These efforts should focus on a series of established model organisms in microbial, animal and plant research.

  1. Modeling the Evolution of Beliefs Using an Attentional Focus Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrije Marković

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For making decisions in everyday life we often have first to infer the set of environmental features that are relevant for the current task. Here we investigated the computational mechanisms underlying the evolution of beliefs about the relevance of environmental features in a dynamical and noisy environment. For this purpose we designed a probabilistic Wisconsin card sorting task (WCST with belief solicitation, in which subjects were presented with stimuli composed of multiple visual features. At each moment in time a particular feature was relevant for obtaining reward, and participants had to infer which feature was relevant and report their beliefs accordingly. To test the hypothesis that attentional focus modulates the belief update process, we derived and fitted several probabilistic and non-probabilistic behavioral models, which either incorporate a dynamical model of attentional focus, in the form of a hierarchical winner-take-all neuronal network, or a diffusive model, without attention-like features. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the most likely generative model of subjects' behavior and found that attention-like features in the behavioral model are essential for explaining subjects' responses. Furthermore, we demonstrate a method for integrating both connectionist and Bayesian models of decision making within a single framework that allowed us to infer hidden belief processes of human subjects.

  2. A model of visual, aesthetic communication focusing on web sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Lisbeth

    2002-01-01

    Theory books and method books within the field of web design mainly focus on the technical and functional aspects of the construction of web design. There is a lack of a model which weighs the analysis of the visual and aesthetic aspects against the the functional and technical aspects of web...... design. With a point of departure in Roman Jakobson's linguistic communication model, the reader is introduced to a model which covers the communication aspects, the visual aspects, the aesthetic aspects and the net specific aspects of the analysis of media products. The aesthetic aspects rank low...... in the eyes of the media producers even though the most outstanding media products often obtained their success due to aesthetic phenomena. The formal aesthetic function and the inexpressible aesthetic function have therefore been prioritised in the model in regard to the construction and analysis of media...

  3. MoPCoM Methodology: Focus on Models of Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudri, Ali; Champeau, Joël; Le Lann, Jean-Christophe; Leilde, Vincent

    Today, developments of Real Time Embedded Systems have to face new challenges. On the one hand, Time-To-Market constraints require a reliable development process allowing quick design space exploration. On the other hand, rapidly developing technology, as stated by Moore's law, requires techniques to handle the resulting productivity gap. In a previous paper, we have presented our Model Based Engineering methodology addressing those issues. In this paper, we make a focus on Models of Computation design and analysis. We illustrate our approach on a Cognitive Radio System development implemented on an FPGA. This work is part of the MoPCoM research project gathering academic and industrial organizations (http://www.mopcom.fr).

  4. Regulatory focus at work : the moderating role of regulatory focus in the job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, V.; Demerouti, E.; Blanc, Le P.M.; Emmerik, van I.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of regulatory focus in the job demands-resources model. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire survey was conducted among 146 teachers in secondary education. It was expected that detrimental effects of job demands (i.e.

  5. The transition from diffuse to focused extension: Modeled evolution of the West Antarctic Rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Audrey D.; Harry, Dennis L.

    2007-03-01

    Two distinct stages of extension are recognized in the West Antarctic Rift system (WARS). During the first stage, beginning in the Late Cretaceous, extension was broadly distributed throughout much of West Antarctica. A second stage of extension in the late Paleogene was focused primarily in the Victoria Land Basin, near the boundary with the East Antarctic craton. The transition to focused extension was roughly coeval with volcanic activity and strike-slip faulting in the adjacent Transantarctic Mountains. This spatial and temporal correspondence suggests that the transition in extensional style could be the result of a change in plate motions or impingement of a plume. Here we use finite element models to study the processes and conditions responsible for the two-stage evolution of rifting in the WARS. Model results indicate that the transition from a prolonged period of broadly distributed extension to a later period of focused rifting did not require a change in the regional stress regime (changes in plate motion), or deep mantle thermal state (impingement of a plume). Instead, we attribute the transition from diffuse to focused extension to an early stage dominated by the initially weak accreted lithosphere of West Antarctica, and a later stage that concentrated around a secondary weakness located at the boundary between the juvenile West Antarctica lithosphere and Precambrian East Antarctic craton. The modeled transition in extension from the initially weak West Antarctica region to the secondary weakness at the West Antarctic-East Antarctic boundary is precipitated by strengthening of the West Antarctica lithosphere during syn-extensional thinning and cooling. The modeled syn-extensional strengthening of the WARS lithosphere promotes a wide-rift mode of extension between 105 and ˜ 65 Ma. By ˜ 65 Ma most of the extending WARS region becomes stronger than the area immediately adjacent to the East Antarctic craton and extension becomes concentrated near the

  6. Podocytes Degrade Endocytosed Albumin Primarily in Lysosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M.; Okamura, Kayo; Wakashin, Hidefumi; McFann, Kim; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Blaine, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong, independent predictor of chronic kidney disease progression. We hypothesize that podocyte processing of albumin via the lysosome may be an important determinant of podocyte injury and loss. A human urine derived podocyte-like epithelial cell (HUPEC) line was used for in vitro experiments. Albumin uptake was quantified by Western blot after loading HUPECs with fluorescein-labeled (FITC) albumin. Co-localization of albumin with lysosomes was determined by confocal microscopy. Albumin degradation was measured by quantifying FITC-albumin abundance in HUPEC lysates by Western blot. Degradation experiments were repeated using HUPECs treated with chloroquine, a lysosome inhibitor, or MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor. Lysosome activity was measured by fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching (FRAP). Cytokine production was measured by ELISA. Cell death was determined by trypan blue staining. In vivo, staining with lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) was performed on tissue from a Denys-Drash trangenic mouse model of nephrotic syndrome. HUPECs endocytosed albumin, which co-localized with lysosomes. Choloroquine, but not MG-132, inhibited albumin degradation, indicating that degradation occurs in lysosomes. Cathepsin B activity, measured by FRAP, significantly decreased in HUPECs exposed to albumin (12.5% of activity in controls) and chloroquine (12.8%), and declined further with exposure to albumin plus chloroquine (8.2%, palbumin and chloroquine alone, and these effects were potentiated by exposure to albumin plus chloroquine. Compared to wild-type mice, glomerular staining of LAMP-1 was significantly increased in Denys-Drash mice and appeared to be most prominent in podocytes. These data suggest lysosomes are involved in the processing of endocytosed albumin in podocytes, and lysosomal dysfunction may contribute to podocyte injury and glomerulosclerosis in albuminuric diseases. Modifiers of lysosomal activity may have therapeutic

  7. Podocytes degrade endocytosed albumin primarily in lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M; Okamura, Kayo; Wakashin, Hidefumi; McFann, Kim; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Blaine, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong, independent predictor of chronic kidney disease progression. We hypothesize that podocyte processing of albumin via the lysosome may be an important determinant of podocyte injury and loss. A human urine derived podocyte-like epithelial cell (HUPEC) line was used for in vitro experiments. Albumin uptake was quantified by Western blot after loading HUPECs with fluorescein-labeled (FITC) albumin. Co-localization of albumin with lysosomes was determined by confocal microscopy. Albumin degradation was measured by quantifying FITC-albumin abundance in HUPEC lysates by Western blot. Degradation experiments were repeated using HUPECs treated with chloroquine, a lysosome inhibitor, or MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor. Lysosome activity was measured by fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching (FRAP). Cytokine production was measured by ELISA. Cell death was determined by trypan blue staining. In vivo, staining with lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) was performed on tissue from a Denys-Drash trangenic mouse model of nephrotic syndrome. HUPECs endocytosed albumin, which co-localized with lysosomes. Choloroquine, but not MG-132, inhibited albumin degradation, indicating that degradation occurs in lysosomes. Cathepsin B activity, measured by FRAP, significantly decreased in HUPECs exposed to albumin (12.5% of activity in controls) and chloroquine (12.8%), and declined further with exposure to albumin plus chloroquine (8.2%, plysosomes are involved in the processing of endocytosed albumin in podocytes, and lysosomal dysfunction may contribute to podocyte injury and glomerulosclerosis in albuminuric diseases. Modifiers of lysosomal activity may have therapeutic potential in slowing the progression of glomerulosclerosis by enhancing the ability of podocytes to process and degrade albumin.

  8. Moving forward socio-economically focused models of deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    DEZÉCACHE CAMILLE; SALLES JEAN-MICHEL; VIEILLEDENT GHISLAIN; HÉRAULT BRUNO

    2017-01-01

    While high resolution spatial variables contribute to a good fit of spatially-explicit deforestation models, socio-economic processes are often beyond the scope of these models. Such a low level of interest in the socio-economic dimension of deforestation limits the relevancy of these models for decision making and may be the cause of their failure to accurately predict observed deforestation trends in the medium term. This study aims to propose a flexible methodology for taking into account ...

  9. Proposal for product development model focused on ce certification methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Marcia Goulart Pinheiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis comparing 21 product development models in order to identify whether these structures meet the demands Product Certification of the European Community (CE. Furthermore, it presents a product development model, comprising the steps in the models analyzed, including improvements in activities for referred product certification. The proposed improvements are justified by the growing quest for the internationalization of products and processes within companies.

  10. Porcine models of biofilm infections with focus on pathomorphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Kruse; Johansen, Anne Sofie Boyum; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2017-01-01

    , and reproducible animal models of the infections. In this review, the advantages of in vivo studies are compared to in vitro studies of biofilm formation in infectious diseases. The pig is the animal of choice when developing and applying large animal models of infectious diseases due to its similarity of anatomy......, physiology, and immune system to humans. Furthermore, conventional pigs spontaneously develop many of the same chronic bacterial infections as seen in humans. Therefore, in this review porcine models of five different infectious diseases all associated with biofilm formation and chronicity in humans...

  11. Heritage Education in Museums: an Inclusion- Focused Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fontal Merillas, Olaia; Marín Cepeda, Sofía

    2016-01-01

    Heritage Education in Museums: Inclusion Model (HEM-INMO) is one of the research conclusions of the Spanish Heritage Education Observatory (SHEO), funded by Spain’s Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. The Observatory evaluates educational programs generated in Spain and in the international area in the last two decades, especially in museums as heritage education non-formal contexts. Also, the HEM-INMO model is included within the aims of the National Education and Heritage Plan (NE&HP),...

  12. Moving forward socio-economically focused models of deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezécache, Camille; Salles, Jean-Michel; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Hérault, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    Whilst high-resolution spatial variables contribute to a good fit of spatially explicit deforestation models, socio-economic processes are often beyond the scope of these models. Such a low level of interest in the socio-economic dimension of deforestation limits the relevancy of these models for decision-making and may be the cause of their failure to accurately predict observed deforestation trends in the medium term. This study aims to propose a flexible methodology for taking into account multiple drivers of deforestation in tropical forested areas, where the intensity of deforestation is explicitly predicted based on socio-economic variables. By coupling a model of deforestation location based on spatial environmental variables with several sub-models of deforestation intensity based on socio-economic variables, we were able to create a map of predicted deforestation over the period 2001-2014 in French Guiana. This map was compared to a reference map for accuracy assessment, not only at the pixel scale but also over cells ranging from 1 to approximately 600 sq. km. Highly significant relationships were explicitly established between deforestation intensity and several socio-economic variables: population growth, the amount of agricultural subsidies, gold and wood production. Such a precise characterization of socio-economic processes allows to avoid overestimation biases in high deforestation areas, suggesting a better integration of socio-economic processes in the models. Whilst considering deforestation as a purely geographical process contributes to the creation of conservative models unable to effectively assess changes in the socio-economic and political contexts influencing deforestation trends, this explicit characterization of the socio-economic dimension of deforestation is critical for the creation of deforestation scenarios in REDD+ projects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Sleep and Obesity: A focus on animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.; Teske, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise in obesity prevalence in the modern world parallels a significant reduction in restorative sleep (Agras et al., 2004; Dixon et al., 2007; Dixon et al., 2001; Gangwisch and Heymsfield, 2004; Gupta et al., 2002; Sekine et al., 2002; Vioque et al., 2000; Wolk et al., 2003). Reduced sleep time and quality increases the risk for obesity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear (Gangwisch et al., 2005; Hicks et al., 1986; Imaki et al., 2002; Jennings et al., 2007; Moreno et al., 2006). A majority of the theories linking human sleep disturbances and obesity rely on self-reported sleep. However, studies with objective measurements of sleep/wake parameters suggest a U-shaped relationship between sleep and obesity. Studies in animal models are needed to improve our understanding of the association between sleep disturbances and obesity. Genetic and experimenter-induced models mimicking characteristics of human obesity are now available and these animal models will be useful in understanding whether sleep disturbances determine propensity for obesity, or result from obesity. These models exhibit weight gain profiles consistently different from control animals. Thus a careful evaluation of animal models will provide insight into the relationship between sleep disturbances and obesity in humans. In this review we first briefly consider the fundamentals of sleep and key sleep disturbances, such as sleep fragmentation and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), observed in obese individuals. Then we consider sleep deprivation studies and the role of circadian alterations in obesity. We describe sleep/wake changes in various rodent models of obesity and obesity resistance. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms linking sleep disturbances with obesity. PMID:22266350

  14. Focus for 3D city models should be on interoperability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars; Kjems, Erik; Jaegly, Marie Michele Helena

    2006-01-01

    that would make it useful for other purposes than visualisation. Time has come to try to change this trend and to convince the municipalities that interoperability and semantics are important issues for the future. It is important for them to see that 3D modelling, mapping and geographic information...... developments in Geographical Exploration Systems. Centralized and proprietary Geographical Exploration Systems only give us their own perspective on the world. On the contrary, GRIFINOR is decentralized and available for everyone to use, empowering people to promote their own world vision....... are subjects on the same agenda towards an integrated solution for an object-oriented mapping of multidimensional geographic objects in the urban environment. Many relevant subjects could be discussed regarding these matters, but in this paper we will narrow the discussion down to the ideas behind...

  15. Focused information criterion and model averaging based on weighted composite quantile regression

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ganggang; Wang, Suojin; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2013-01-01

    We study the focused information criterion and frequentist model averaging and their application to post-model-selection inference for weighted composite quantile regression (WCQR) in the context of the additive partial linear models. With the non

  16. Regulatory odour model development: Survey of modelling tools and datasets with focus on building effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, H. R.; Løfstrøm, P.; Berkowicz, R.

    dispersion models for estimating local concentration levels in general. However, the report focuses on some particular issues, which are relevant for subsequent work on odour due to animal production. An issue of primary concern is the effect that buildings (stables) have on flow and dispersion. The handling...... of building effects is a complicated problem, and a major part of the report is devoted to the treatment of building effects in dispersion models......A project within the framework of a larger research programme, Action Plan for the Aquatic Environment III (VMP III) aims towards improving an atmospheric dispersion model (OML). The OML model is used for regulatory applications in Denmark, and it is the candidate model to be used also in future...

  17. Incorporation of ice sheet models into an Earth system model: Focus on methodology of coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Oleg; Volodin, Evgeny; Morozova, Polina; Nevecherja, Artiom

    2018-03-01

    Elaboration of a modern Earth system model (ESM) requires incorporation of ice sheet dynamics. Coupling of an ice sheet model (ICM) to an AOGCM is complicated by essential differences in spatial and temporal scales of cryospheric, atmospheric and oceanic components. To overcome this difficulty, we apply two different approaches for the incorporation of ice sheets into an ESM. Coupling of the Antarctic ice sheet model (AISM) to the AOGCM is accomplished via using procedures of resampling, interpolation and assigning to the AISM grid points annually averaged meanings of air surface temperature and precipitation fields generated by the AOGCM. Surface melting, which takes place mainly on the margins of the Antarctic peninsula and on ice shelves fringing the continent, is currently ignored. AISM returns anomalies of surface topography back to the AOGCM. To couple the Greenland ice sheet model (GrISM) to the AOGCM, we use a simple buffer energy- and water-balance model (EWBM-G) to account for orographically-driven precipitation and other sub-grid AOGCM-generated quantities. The output of the EWBM-G consists of surface mass balance and air surface temperature to force the GrISM, and freshwater run-off to force thermohaline circulation in the oceanic block of the AOGCM. Because of a rather complex coupling procedure of GrIS compared to AIS, the paper mostly focuses on Greenland.

  18. Fast and accurate focusing analysis of large photon sieve using pinhole ring diffraction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Lingjie; Wu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Jizhen; Qu, Hemeng

    2015-06-10

    In this paper, we developed a pinhole ring diffraction model for the focusing analysis of a large photon sieve. Instead of analyzing individual pinholes, we discuss the focusing of all of the pinholes in a single ring. An explicit equation for the diffracted field of individual pinhole ring has been proposed. We investigated the validity range of this generalized model and analytically describe the sufficient conditions for the validity of this pinhole ring diffraction model. A practical example and investigation reveals the high accuracy of the pinhole ring diffraction model. This simulation method could be used for fast and accurate focusing analysis of a large photon sieve.

  19. Surface ionization wave in a plasma focus-like model device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, V; Blagoev, A; Ivanova-Stanik, I; Veldhuizen, E M van; Nijdam, S; Dijk, J van; Mullen, J J A M van der

    2008-01-01

    A numerical particle in cell-Monte Carlo model of the breakdown in the plasma focus device simulates the development of an ionization wave sliding along the insulator. In order to validate this model a planar model device is created. The pictures of the discharges taken by a fast optical camera show that we have qualitative agreement between the model and the experimental observations.

  20. Surface ionization wave in a plasma focus-like model device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, V; Blagoev, A [Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, 5 James Bourchier Blvd, BG-1164, Sofia (Bulgaria); Ivanova-Stanik, I [IPPLM, 23 Hery St, PO Box 49, PL-00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Veldhuizen, E M van; Nijdam, S; Dijk, J van; Mullen, J J A M van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)], E-mail: v.yordanov@phys.uni-sofia.bg

    2008-11-07

    A numerical particle in cell-Monte Carlo model of the breakdown in the plasma focus device simulates the development of an ionization wave sliding along the insulator. In order to validate this model a planar model device is created. The pictures of the discharges taken by a fast optical camera show that we have qualitative agreement between the model and the experimental observations.

  1. Investments in the LNG Value Chain: A Multistage Stochastic Optimization Model focusing on Floating Liquefaction Units

    OpenAIRE

    Røstad, Lars Dybsjord; Erichsen, Jeanette Christine

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we have developed a strategic optimization model of investments in infrastructure in the LNG value chain. The focus is on floating LNG production units: when they are a viable solution and what value they add to the LNG value chain. First a deterministic model is presented with focus on describing the value chain, before it is expanded to a multistage stochastic model with uncertain field sizes and gas prices. The objective is to maximize expected discounted profits through op...

  2. Modeling of Acoustic Field for a Parametric Focusing Source Using the Spheroidal Beam Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lili

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model of acoustic field for a parametric focusing source on concave spherical surface is proposed. In this model, the source boundary conditions of the Spheroidal Beam Equation (SBE for difference frequency wave excitation were studied. Propagation curves and beam patterns for difference frequency component of the acoustic field are compared with those obtained for Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK model. The results demonstrate that the focused parametric model of SBE is good valid for a large aperture angle in the strongly focused acoustic field. It is also investigated that high directivity and good focal ability with the decreasing of downshift ratio and the increasing of half-aperture angle for the focused parametric model of SBE.

  3. Future time perspective, regulatory focus, and selection, optimization, and compensation: Testing a longitudinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltes, B.B.; Wynne, K.; Sirabian, M.; Krenn, D.; Lange, A.H. de

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the behavioral processes through which future time perspective (FTP) and regulatory focus may influence coping behaviors in older workers. A three-wave longitudinal study was conducted to test a novel model, positing that FTP affects regulatory focus, which then influences the

  4. A modelling approach to study learning processes with a focus on knowledge creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naeve, Ambjorn; Yli-Luoma, Pertti; Kravcik, Milos; Lytras, Miltiadis

    2008-01-01

    Naeve, A., Yli-Luoma, P., Kravcik, M., & Lytras, M. D. (2008). A modelling approach to study learning processes with a focus on knowledge creation. International Journal Technology Enhanced Learning, 1(1/2), 1–34.

  5. MACRA, Alternative Payment Models, and the Physician-Focused Payment Model: Implications for Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Nicola, Gregory N; Allen, Bibb; Hughes, Danny R; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2017-06-01

    The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) of 2015 describes alternative payment models (APMs) as new approaches to health care payment that incentivize higher quality and value. MACRA incentivizes increasing APM participation by all physician specialties over the coming years. Some APMs will be deemed Advanced APMs; clinicians who are a Qualifying Participant in an Advanced APM will receive substantial benefits under MACRA including an automatic 5% payment bonus, regardless of their performance and savings within the APM, and a larger payment rate increase beginning in 2026. Existing APMs are most relevant to primary care physicians, and opportunities for radiologists to participate in Advanced APMs fulfilling Qualified Participant requirements are limited. Physician-Focused Payment Models (PFPMs), as described in MACRA, are APMs that target physicians' Medicare payments based on quality and cost of physician services. PFPMs must address a new issue or specialty compared with existing APMs and will thus foster a more diverse range of APMs encompassing a wider range of specialties. The PFPM Technical Advisory Committee is a new independent agency that will review proposals for new PFPMs and provide recommendations to CMS regarding their approval. The PFPM Technical Advisory Committee comprises largely primary care physicians and health policy experts and is not required to consult clinical experts when reviewing new specialist-proposed PFPMs. As PFPMs provide a compelling opportunity for radiologists to demonstrate and be rewarded for their unique contributions toward patient care, radiologists should embrace this new model and actively partner with other stakeholders in developing radiology-relevant PFPMs. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An electrodynamical model for the ion behaviour in the final plasma focus stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambreanu, V.; Doloc, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma focus devices (PFDs) are strong sources of fusion neutrons but the problem of which interactions are responsible for the fusion reactions is still open since neither of the proposed theoretical models has been confirmed experimentally. A model for the trajectories of the deuteron ions in a configuration of selfconsistent electromagnetic fields is proposed starting from an empirical plasma model which describes the plasma focus collapse and column phases. The proposed model is only electrodynamical under the assumption of a uniform current density and an infinite length of the plasma column, not taking into account the fluid characteristics of the plasma. (author)

  7. The impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity: A structural equation modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Mustafa, Zainol; Mohd Suradi, Nur Riza; Idris, Fazli; Abdullah, Mokhtar

    2013-04-01

    Culture and employee-focused criteria are important factors for the success of any organization. These factors have to be aligned with the productivity initiatives in the organization in order to gear ahead for excellence. Therefore, this article investigated the impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Malaysia using intangible indicators through core values. The hypothesized relationship was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with the PLS estimation technique. 429 questionnaires were returned from the target population. The results of the modelling revealed that the PLS estimation confirmed all the hypotheses tested as in the hypothesized model. The results generally support significant relationships between culture values, employee-focused values and productivity-focused values. The study also confirmed the mediating role of employee-focused values for the relationship between culture values and productivity-focused values. In conclusion, the empirically validated results supported the adequacy of the hypothezised model of the impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity in HEI through value-based indicators.

  8. Models of clinical reasoning with a focus on general practice: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Shahram; Hosseinzadeh, Mohammad; Hosseini, Fakhrolsadat

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis lies at the heart of general practice. Every day general practitioners (GPs) visit patients with a wide variety of complaints and concerns, with often minor but sometimes serious symptoms. General practice has many features which differentiate it from specialty care setting, but during the last four decades little attention was paid to clinical reasoning in general practice. Therefore, we aimed to critically review the clinical reasoning models with a focus on the clinical reasoning in general practice or clinical reasoning of general practitioners to find out to what extent the existing models explain the clinical reasoning specially in primary care and also identity the gaps of the model for use in primary care settings. A systematic search to find models of clinical reasoning were performed. To have more precision, we excluded the studies that focused on neurobiological aspects of reasoning, reasoning in disciplines other than medicine decision making or decision analysis on treatment or management plan. All the articles and documents were first scanned to see whether they include important relevant contents or any models. The selected studies which described a model of clinical reasoning in general practitioners or with a focus on general practice were then reviewed and appraisal or critics of other authors on these models were included. The reviewed documents on the model were synthesized. Six models of clinical reasoning were identified including hypothetic-deductive model, pattern recognition, a dual process diagnostic reasoning model, pathway for clinical reasoning, an integrative model of clinical reasoning, and model of diagnostic reasoning strategies in primary care. Only one model had specifically focused on general practitioners reasoning. A Model of clinical reasoning that included specific features of general practice to better help the general practitioners with the difficulties of clinical reasoning in this setting is needed.

  9. Models of clinical reasoning with a focus on general practice: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHRAM YAZDANI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosis lies at the heart of general practice. Every day general practitioners (GPs visit patients with a wide variety of complaints and concerns, with often minor but sometimes serious symptoms. General practice has many features which differentiate it from specialty care setting, but during the last four decades little attention was paid to clinical reasoning in general practice. Therefore, we aimed to critically review the clinical reasoning models with a focus on the clinical reasoning in general practice or clinical reasoning of general practitioners to find out to what extent the existing models explain the clinical reasoning specially in primary care and also identity the gaps of the model for use in primary care settings Methods: A systematic search to find models of clinical reasoning were performed. To have more precision, we excluded the studies that focused on neurobiological aspects of reasoning, reasoning in disciplines other than medicine decision making or decision analysis on treatment or management plan. All the articles and documents were first scanned to see whether they include important relevant contents or any models. The selected studies which described a model of clinical reasoning in general practitioners or with a focus on general practice were then reviewed and appraisal or critics of other authors on these models were included. The reviewed documents on the model were synthesized Results: Six models of clinical reasoning were identified including hypothetic-deductive model, pattern recognition, a dual process diagnostic reasoning model, pathway for clinical reasoning, an integrative model of clinical reasoning, and model of diagnostic reasoning strategies in primary care. Only one model had specifically focused on general practitioners reasoning. Conclusion: A Model of clinical reasoning that included specific features of general practice to better help the general practitioners with the difficulties

  10. A model for plasma evolution in Filipov type plasma focus facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahpoush, V.; Sobhanian, S.; Tafreshi, M. A.; Lamehi, M.

    2003-01-01

    A model is presented in this paper for the evolution of plasma in Filipov type plasma focus facilities. With the help of this model, one can predict some of the main parameters of the produced plasma and obtain the optimized geometrical an physical properties (anode radius and length, gas pressure, capacitance, bank energy etc) for the primary design purposes. The results obtained by this model will be compared with the experimental data obtained from the 90 kJ plasma focus facility D ena

  11. Focused information criterion and model averaging based on weighted composite quantile regression

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ganggang

    2013-08-13

    We study the focused information criterion and frequentist model averaging and their application to post-model-selection inference for weighted composite quantile regression (WCQR) in the context of the additive partial linear models. With the non-parametric functions approximated by polynomial splines, we show that, under certain conditions, the asymptotic distribution of the frequentist model averaging WCQR-estimator of a focused parameter is a non-linear mixture of normal distributions. This asymptotic distribution is used to construct confidence intervals that achieve the nominal coverage probability. With properly chosen weights, the focused information criterion based WCQR estimators are not only robust to outliers and non-normal residuals but also can achieve efficiency close to the maximum likelihood estimator, without assuming the true error distribution. Simulation studies and a real data analysis are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed procedure. © 2013 Board of the Foundation of the Scandinavian Journal of Statistics..

  12. Vibration Stabilization of a Mechanical Model of a X-Band Linear Collider Final Focus Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, J; Decker, V; Hendrickson, L; Markiewicz, T W; Partridge, R; Seryi, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    The small beam sizes at the interaction point of a X-band linear collider require mechanical stabilization of the final focus magnets at the nanometer level. While passive systems provide adequate performance at many potential sites, active mechanical stabilization is useful if the natural or cultural ground vibration is higher than expected. A mechanical model of a room temperature linear collider final focus magnet has been constructed and actively stabilized with an accelerometer based system.

  13. Vibration Stabilization of a Mechanical Model of a X-Band Linear Collider Final Focus Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, Josef; Chang, Allison; Decker, Valentin; Doyle, Eric; Eriksson, Leif; Hendrickson, Linda; Himel, Thomas; Markiewicz, Thomas; Partridge, Richard; Seryi, Andrei; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    The small beam sizes at the interaction point of a X-band linear collider require mechanical stabilization of the final focus magnets at the nanometer level. While passive systems provide adequate performance at many potential sites, active mechanical stabilization is useful if the natural or cultural ground vibration is higher than expected. A mechanical model of a room temperature linear collider final focus magnet has been constructed and actively stabilized with an accelerometer based system

  14. Focusing behavior of the fractal vector optical fields designed by fractal lattice growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xu-Zhen; Pan, Yue; Zhao, Meng-Dan; Zhang, Guan-Lin; Zhang, Yu; Tu, Chenghou; Li, Yongnan; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2018-01-22

    We introduce a general fractal lattice growth model, significantly expanding the application scope of the fractal in the realm of optics. This model can be applied to construct various kinds of fractal "lattices" and then to achieve the design of a great diversity of fractal vector optical fields (F-VOFs) combinating with various "bases". We also experimentally generate the F-VOFs and explore their universal focusing behaviors. Multiple focal spots can be flexibly enginnered, and the optical tweezers experiment validates the simulated tight focusing fields, which means that this model allows the diversity of the focal patterns to flexibly trap and manipulate micrometer-sized particles. Furthermore, the recovery performance of the F-VOFs is also studied when the input fields and spatial frequency spectrum are obstructed, and the results confirm the robustness of the F-VOFs in both focusing and imaging processes, which is very useful in information transmission.

  15. Generalized Empirical Likelihood-Based Focused Information Criterion and Model Averaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Sueishi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops model selection and averaging methods for moment restriction models. We first propose a focused information criterion based on the generalized empirical likelihood estimator. We address the issue of selecting an optimal model, rather than a correct model, for estimating a specific parameter of interest. Then, this study investigates a generalized empirical likelihood-based model averaging estimator that minimizes the asymptotic mean squared error. A simulation study suggests that our averaging estimator can be a useful alternative to existing post-selection estimators.

  16. Adaptation of Sing Lee's model to the Filippov type plasma focus geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahpoush, V; Tafreshi, M A; Sobhanian, S; Khorram, S

    2005-01-01

    A new model for plasma behaviour in Filippov type plasma focus (PF) systems has been described and used. This model is based on the so-called slug model and Sing Lee's model for Mather type PF devices. Using the model, the discharge current and its derivative as a function of time, and the pinch time and the maximum discharge current as a function of pressure, have been predicted. At the end, the predicted data are compared with the experimental data obtained through a Filippov type PF facility with a nominal maximum energy of 90 kJ

  17. Introduction to focus issue: Synchronization in large networks and continuous media—data, models, and supermodels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Gregory S.; Grabow, Carsten; Selten, Frank; Ghil, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The synchronization of loosely coupled chaotic systems has increasingly found applications to large networks of differential equations and to models of continuous media. These applications are at the core of the present Focus Issue. Synchronization between a system and its model, based on limited observations, gives a new perspective on data assimilation. Synchronization among different models of the same system defines a supermodel that can achieve partial consensus among models that otherwise disagree in several respects. Finally, novel methods of time series analysis permit a better description of synchronization in a system that is only observed partially and for a relatively short time. This Focus Issue discusses synchronization in extended systems or in components thereof, with particular attention to data assimilation, supermodeling, and their applications to various areas, from climate modeling to macroeconomics.

  18. Introduction to focus issue: Synchronization in large networks and continuous media-data, models, and supermodels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Gregory S; Grabow, Carsten; Selten, Frank; Ghil, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The synchronization of loosely coupled chaotic systems has increasingly found applications to large networks of differential equations and to models of continuous media. These applications are at the core of the present Focus Issue. Synchronization between a system and its model, based on limited observations, gives a new perspective on data assimilation. Synchronization among different models of the same system defines a supermodel that can achieve partial consensus among models that otherwise disagree in several respects. Finally, novel methods of time series analysis permit a better description of synchronization in a system that is only observed partially and for a relatively short time. This Focus Issue discusses synchronization in extended systems or in components thereof, with particular attention to data assimilation, supermodeling, and their applications to various areas, from climate modeling to macroeconomics.

  19. Object selection costs in visual working memory: A diffusion model analysis of the focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, David K; Lilburn, Simon D; Smith, Philip L

    2016-11-01

    A central question in working memory research concerns the degree to which information in working memory is accessible to other cognitive processes (e.g., decision-making). Theories assuming that the focus of attention can only store a single object at a time require the focus to orient to a target representation before further processing can occur. The need to orient the focus of attention implies that single-object accounts typically predict response time costs associated with object selection even when working memory is not full (i.e., memory load is less than 4 items). For other theories that assume storage of multiple items in the focus of attention, predictions depend on specific assumptions about the way resources are allocated among items held in the focus, and how this affects the time course of retrieval of items from the focus. These broad theoretical accounts have been difficult to distinguish because conventional analyses fail to separate components of empirical response times related to decision-making from components related to selection and retrieval processes associated with accessing information in working memory. To better distinguish these response time components from one another, we analyze data from a probed visual working memory task using extensions of the diffusion decision model. Analysis of model parameters revealed that increases in memory load resulted in (a) reductions in the quality of the underlying stimulus representations in a manner consistent with a sample size model of visual working memory capacity and (b) systematic increases in the time needed to selectively access a probed representation in memory. The results are consistent with single-object theories of the focus of attention. The results are also consistent with a subset of theories that assume a multiobject focus of attention in which resource allocation diminishes both the quality and accessibility of the underlying representations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016

  20. Animal Models of Schizophrenia with a Focus on Models Targeting NMDA Receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svojanovská, Markéta; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2015), s. 3-18 ISSN 1805-7225 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : schizophrenia * animal models * pharmacological models * genetic models * neurodevelopmental models * preclinical studies Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  1. Study on cooling model for debris in lower plenum and countermeasures for prevention of focusing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Zhonghua; Yu Hongxing; Jiang Guangming

    2008-01-01

    From the basic energy conservation equations and experimental or empirical correlations, an intact model is constructed for the thermal calculation of the core debris in the lower plenum. For verification of this model, the results of two calculations for AP600 and AP1000 plants are compared with those presented in relevant literature. The analysis highlights on the impact of the decay heat power density and the focusing effect. In order to mitigate the focusing effect, it is proposed in this paper to change the lower head profile from hemisphere to parabola. The results show that this change of lower head profile can change the heat flux distribution of the debris, and mitigate the focusing effect. (authors)

  2. Modeling of inverse Cherenkov laser acceleration with axicon laser-beam focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romea, R.D.; Kimura, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    Acceleration of free electrons by the inverse Cherenkov effect using radially polarized laser light focused through an axicon [J. P. Fontana and R. H. Pantell, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 4285 (1983)] has been studied utilizing a Monte Carlo computer simulation and further theoretical analysis. The model includes effects, such as scattering of the electrons by the gas, and diffraction and interference effects of the axicon laser beam, that were not included in the original analysis of Fontana and Pantell. Its accuracy is validated using available experimental data. The model results show that effective acceleration is possible even with the effects of scattering. Sample results are given. The analysis includes examining the issues of axicon focusing, phase errors, energy gain, phase slippage, focusing of the e beam, and emittance growth

  3. Exploring How Usage-Focused Business Models Enable Circular Economy through Digital Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Bressanelli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies advocate that digital technologies are key enabling factors for the introduction of servitized business models. At the same time, these technologies support the implementation of the circular economy (CE paradigm into businesses. Despite this general agreement, the literature still overlooks how digital technologies enable such a CE transition. To fill the gap, this paper develops a conceptual framework, based on the literature and a case study of a company implementing a usage-focused servitized business model in the household appliance industry. This study focuses on the Internet of Things (IoT, Big Data, and analytics, and identifies eight specific functionalities enabled by such technologies (improving product design, attracting target customers, monitoring and tracking product activity, providing technical support, providing preventive and predictive maintenance, optimizing the product usage, upgrading the product, enhancing renovation and end-of-life activities. By investigating how these functionalities affect three CE value drivers (increasing resource efficiency, extending lifespan, and closing the loop, the conceptual framework developed in this paper advances knowledge about the role of digital technologies as an enabler of the CE within usage-focused business models. Finally, this study shows how digital technologies help overcome the drawback of usage-focused business models for the adoption of CE pointed out by previous literature.

  4. Formulating state space models in R with focus on longitudinal regression models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

      We provide a language for formulating a range of state space models. The described methodology is implemented in the R -package sspir available from cran.r-project.org . A state space model is specified similarly to a generalized linear model in R , by marking the time-varying terms in the form......  We provide a language for formulating a range of state space models. The described methodology is implemented in the R -package sspir available from cran.r-project.org . A state space model is specified similarly to a generalized linear model in R , by marking the time-varying terms...

  5. Formulating state space models in R with focus on longitudinal regression models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    We provide a language for formulating a range of state space models with response densities within the exponential family. The described methodology is implemented in the R-package sspir. A state space model is specified similarly to a generalized linear model in R, and then the time-varying terms...

  6. Primarily Experimental Results for a W Wire Array Z Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuai Bin; Aici, Qiu; Wang Liangping; Zeng Zhengzhong; Wang Wensheng; Cong Peitian; Gai Tongyang; Wei Fuli; Guo Ning; Zhang Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Primarily experimental results are given for a W wire array Z pinch imploded with up to 2 MA in 100 ns on a Qiangguang-I pulsed power generator. The configuration and parameters of the generator, the W wire array load assembly and the diagnostic system for the experiment are described. The total X-ray energy has been obtained with a averaged power of X-ray radiation of 1.28 TW

  7. Consequences of Collective-Focused Leadership and Differentiated Individual-Focused Leadership : Development and Testing of an Organizational-Level Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Florian; de Jong, Simon Barend; Bruch, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in leadership research suggest that collective-focused leadership climate and differentiated individual-focused leadership might simultaneously, yet oppositely, affect collective outcomes. The present study extends this literature by addressing open questions regarding theory, methods, statistics, and level of analysis. Therefore, a new and more parsimonious theoretical model is developed on the organizational-level of analysis. Drawing on the commitment literature, we argue f...

  8. Constitutive modeling of a nickel base superalloy -with a focus on gas turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almroth, Per

    2003-05-01

    Gas turbines are used where large amounts of energy is needed, typically as engines in aircraft, ferries and power plants. From an efficiency point of view it is desirable to increase the service temperature as much as possible. One of the limiting factors is then the maximum allowable metal temperatures in the turbine stages, primarily in the blades of the first stage, that are exposed to the highest gas temperatures. Specially designed materials are used to cope with these severe conditions, such as the nickel base superalloy IN792. In order to be able to design the components for higher temperatures and tighter tolerances, a detailed understanding and computationel models of the material behaviour is needed. The models presented in this work have been developed with the objective of being physically well motivated, and with the intention of avoiding excessive numbers of parameters. The influence of the parameters should also be as easy as possible to interpret. The models are to describe the behaviour of IN792, under conditions typically found for a gas turbine blade. Specifically the high- and intermediate temperature isothermal modelling of IN792 have been addressed. One main issue when characterising the material and calibrating the models is the use of relevant tests, that are representative of component conditions. Therefore isothermal tests with an eye on the typical environment of a turbine blade have been planned and performed. Using numerical optimization techniques the material parameters for the isothermal behaviour of IN792 at 650 deg and 850 deg have been estimated. The good overall calibration results for these specific temperatures, using the presented modeling concept and nonstandard constitutive tests, suggests that the model can describe the behaviour of IN792 in gas turbine hot part applications.

  9. Experimentally validated multiphysics computational model of focusing and shock wave formation in an electromagnetic lithotripter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovargue, Daniel E; Mitran, Sorin; Smith, Nathan B; Sankin, Georgy N; Simmons, Walter N; Zhong, Pei

    2013-08-01

    A multiphysics computational model of the focusing of an acoustic pulse and subsequent shock wave formation that occurs during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is presented. In the electromagnetic lithotripter modeled in this work the focusing is achieved via a polystyrene acoustic lens. The transition of the acoustic pulse through the solid lens is modeled by the linear elasticity equations and the subsequent shock wave formation in water is modeled by the Euler equations with a Tait equation of state. Both sets of equations are solved simultaneously in subsets of a single computational domain within the BEARCLAW framework which uses a finite-volume Riemann solver approach. This model is first validated against experimental measurements with a standard (or original) lens design. The model is then used to successfully predict the effects of a lens modification in the form of an annular ring cut. A second model which includes a kidney stone simulant in the domain is also presented. Within the stone the linear elasticity equations incorporate a simple damage model.

  10. Incorporation of human factors into ship collision risk models focusing on human centred design aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiralis, P.; Ventikos, N.P.; Hamann, R.; Golyshev, P.; Teixeira, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an approach that more adequately incorporates human factor considerations into quantitative risk analysis of ship operation. The focus is on the collision accident category, which is one of the main risk contributors in ship operation. The approach is based on the development of a Bayesian Network (BN) model that integrates elements from the Technique for Retrospective and Predictive Analysis of Cognitive Errors (TRACEr) and focuses on the calculation of the collision accident probability due to human error. The model takes into account the human performance in normal, abnormal and critical operational conditions and implements specific tasks derived from the analysis of the task errors leading to the collision accident category. A sensitivity analysis is performed to identify the most important contributors to human performance and ship collision. Finally, the model developed is applied to assess the collision risk of a feeder operating in Dover strait using the collision probability estimated by the developed BN model and an Event tree model for calculation of human, economic and environmental risks. - Highlights: • A collision risk model for the incorporation of human factors into quantitative risk analysis is proposed. • The model takes into account the human performance in different operational conditions leading to the collision. • The most important contributors to human performance and ship collision are identified. • The model developed is applied to assess the collision risk of a feeder operating in Dover strait.

  11. Modeling of Nonlinear Propagation in Multi-layer Biological Tissues for Strong Focused Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting-Bo, Fan; Zhen-Bo, Liu; Zhe, Zhang; Dong, Zhang; Xiu-Fen, Gong

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model of the nonlinear propagation in multi-layered tissues for strong focused ultrasound is proposed. In this model, the spheroidal beam equation (SBE) is utilized to describe the nonlinear sound propagation in each layer tissue, and generalized oblique incidence theory is used to deal with the sound transmission between two layer tissues. Computer simulation is performed on a fat-muscle-liver tissue model under the irradiation of a 1 MHz focused transducer with a large aperture angle of 35°. The results demonstrate that the tissue layer would change the amplitude of sound pressure at the focal region and cause the increase of side petals. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  12. Mathematical model for production of an industry focusing on worker status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalakshi, V.; kiran kumari, Sheshma

    2018-04-01

    Productivity improvement is posing a great challenge for industry everyday because of the difficulties in keeping track and priorising the variables that have significant impact on the productivity. The variation in production depends on the linguistic variables such as worker commitment, worker motivation and worker skills. Since the variables are linguistic we try to propose a model which gives an appropriate production of an industry. Fuzzy models aids the relationship between the factors and status. The model will support the industry to focus on the mentality of worker to increase the production.

  13. Evaluation of approaches focused on modelling of organic carbon stocks using the RothC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koco, Štefan; Skalský, Rastislav; Makovníková, Jarmila; Tarasovičová, Zuzana; Barančíková, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    The aim of current efforts in the European area is the protection of soil organic matter, which is included in all relevant documents related to the protection of soil. The use of modelling of organic carbon stocks for anticipated climate change, respectively for land management can significantly help in short and long-term forecasting of the state of soil organic matter. RothC model can be applied in the time period of several years to centuries and has been tested in long-term experiments within a large range of soil types and climatic conditions in Europe. For the initialization of the RothC model, knowledge about the carbon pool sizes is essential. Pool size characterization can be obtained from equilibrium model runs, but this approach is time consuming and tedious, especially for larger scale simulations. Due to this complexity we search for new possibilities how to simplify and accelerate this process. The paper presents a comparison of two approaches for SOC stocks modelling in the same area. The modelling has been carried out on the basis of unique input of land use, management and soil data for each simulation unit separately. We modeled 1617 simulation units of 1x1 km grid on the territory of agroclimatic region Žitný ostrov in the southwest of Slovakia. The first approach represents the creation of groups of simulation units based on the evaluation of results for simulation unit with similar input values. The groups were created after the testing and validation of modelling results for individual simulation units with results of modelling the average values of inputs for the whole group. Tests of equilibrium model for interval in the range 5 t.ha-1 from initial SOC stock showed minimal differences in results comparing with result for average value of whole interval. Management inputs data from plant residues and farmyard manure for modelling of carbon turnover were also the same for more simulation units. Combining these groups (intervals of initial

  14. Multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann modeling of the acoustic field generated by focused transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Feng; Guo, Xiasheng; Tu, Juan; Cheng, Jianchun; Zhang, Dong

    The high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has become an attractive therapeutic tool for the noninvasive tumor treatment. The ultrasonic transducer is the key component in HIFU treatment to generate the HIFU energy. The dimension of focal region generated by the transducer is closely relevant to the safety of HIFU treatment. Therefore, it is essential to numerically investigate the focal region of the transducer. Although the conventional acoustic wave equations have been used successfully to describe the acoustic field, there still exist some inherent drawbacks. In this work, we presented an axisymmetric isothermal multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) model with the Bouzidi-Firdaouss-Lallemand (BFL) boundary condition in cylindrical coordinate system. With this model, some preliminary simulations were firstly conducted to determine a reasonable value of the relaxation parameter. Then, the validity of the model was examined by comparing the results obtained with the LBM results with the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation and the Spheroidal beam equation (SBE) for the focused transducers with different aperture angles, respectively. In addition, the influences of the aperture angle on the focal region were investigated. The proposed model in this work will provide significant references for the parameter optimization of the focused transducer for applications in the HIFU treatment or other fields, and provide new insights into the conventional acoustic numerical simulations.

  15. A model of seismic focus and related statistical distributions of earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, Bogdan-Felix

    2006-01-01

    A growth model for accumulating seismic energy in a localized seismic focus is described, which introduces a fractional parameter r on geometrical grounds. The model is employed for deriving a power-type law for the statistical distribution in energy, where the parameter r contributes to the exponent, as well as corresponding time and magnitude distributions for earthquakes. The accompanying seismic activity of foreshocks and aftershocks is discussed in connection with this approach, as based on Omori distributions, and the rate of released energy is derived

  16. An auto-focusing heuristic model to increase the reliability of a scientific mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualdesi, Lavinio

    2006-01-01

    Researchers invest a lot of time and effort on the design and development of components used in a scientific mission. To capitalize on this investment and on the operational experience of the researchers, it is useful to adopt a quantitative data base to monitor the history and usage of the components. This work describes a model to monitor the reliability level of components. The model is very flexible and allows users to compose systems using the same components in different configurations as required by each mission. This tool provides availability and reliability figures for the configuration requested, derived from historical data of the components' previous performance. The system is based on preliminary checklists to establish standard operating procedures (SOP) for all components life phases. When an infringement to the SOP occurs, a quantitative ranking is provided in order to quantify the risk associated with this deviation. The final agreement between field data and expected performance of the component makes the model converge onto a heuristic monitoring system. The model automatically focuses on points of failure at the detailed component element level, calculates risks, provides alerts when a demonstrated risk to safety is encountered, and advises when there is a mismatch between component performance and mission requirements. This model also helps the mission to focus resources on critical tasks where they are most needed

  17. A modeling approach for district heating systems with focus on transient heat transfer in pipe networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Soma; Bojesen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    the temperature in DH systems. The main focus is on modeling transient heat transfer in pipe networks regarding the time delays between the heat supply unit and the consumers, the heat loss in the pipe networks and the consumers’ dynamic heat loads. A pseudo-dynamic approach is adopted and also the implicit...... district heating networks [DHN] characteristics. This paper is presenting a new developed model, which reflects the thermo-dynamic behavior of DHN. It is designed for tree network topologies. The purpose of the model is to serve as a basis for applying a variety of scenarios towards lowering...... finite element method is applied to simulate transient temperature changes in pipe networks. The model is calculating time series data related to supply temperature to the DHN from heat production units, heat loads and return temperature related to each consumer to calculate dynamic temperature changes...

  18. The feminist/emotionally focused therapy practice model: an integrated approach for couple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatcher, C A; Bogo, M

    2001-01-01

    Emotionally focused therapy (EFT) is a well-developed, empirically tested practice model for couple therapy that integrates systems, experiential, and attachment theories. Feminist family therapy theory has provided a critique of biased assumptions about gender at play in traditional family therapy practice and the historical absence of discussions of power in family therapy theory. This article presents an integrated feminist/EFT practice model for use in couple therapy, using a case from practice to illustrate key concepts. Broadly, the integrated model addresses gender roles and individual emotional experience using a systemic framework for understanding couple interaction. The model provides practitioners with a sophisticated, comprehensive, and relevant practice approach for working with the issues and challenges emerging for contemporary heterosexual couples.

  19. Focused ultrasound for treatment of uterine myoma: From experimental model to clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Milan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that focused ultrasound has a biologic effect on tissue. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU on a small target area raises the temperature of the tissue enough to denaturate proteins and cause irreversible cell damage. The tight focus of the ultrasound energy allows delivery of the intended dose to a very precise location. The resulting coagulation necrosis is relatively painless. The application of this method in the human clinical setting has required pilot studies on an animal model. Although the treatment had a high success rate, there was a significant percentage of complications, mainly attributed to the technical drawbacks of the procedure. Therefore, this method has been modified for use in humans, and the HIFU is now guided, monitored and controlled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In October 2004, Food and Drug Adiministration (FDA approved MRI guided focused ultrasound treatment of uterine fibroids in humans. Since then, successful treatment of uterine myomas by HIFU has been performed in thousands of women.

  20. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyk, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player's payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value.

  1. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyk, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player’s payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value. PMID:28187166

  2. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Marczyk

    Full Text Available Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player's payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value.

  3. Modeling of Focused Acoustic Field of a Concave Multi-annular Phased Array Using Spheroidal Beam Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li-Li; Shou, Wen-De; Hui, Chun

    2012-02-01

    A theoretical model of focused acoustic field for a multi-annular phased array on concave spherical surface is proposed. In this model, the source boundary conditions of the spheroidal beam equation (SBE) for multi-annular phased elements are studied. Acoustic field calculated by the dynamic focusing model of SBE is compared with numerical results of the O'Neil and Khokhlov—Zabolotskaya—Kuznetsov (KZK) model, respectively. Axial dynamic focusing and the harmonic effects are presented. The results demonstrate that the dynamic focusing model of SBE is good valid for a concave multi-annular phased array with a large aperture angle in the linear or nonlinear field.

  4. Focused attention improves working memory: implications for flexible-resource and discrete-capacity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alessandra S; Rerko, Laura; Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Oberauer, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Performance in working memory (WM) tasks depends on the capacity for storing objects and on the allocation of attention to these objects. Here, we explored how capacity models need to be augmented to account for the benefit of focusing attention on the target of recall. Participants encoded six colored disks (Experiment 1) or a set of one to eight colored disks (Experiment 2) and were cued to recall the color of a target on a color wheel. In the no-delay condition, the recall-cue was presented after a 1,000-ms retention interval, and participants could report the retrieved color immediately. In the delay condition, the recall-cue was presented at the same time as in the no-delay condition, but the opportunity to report the color was delayed. During this delay, participants could focus attention exclusively on the target. Responses deviated less from the target's color in the delay than in the no-delay condition. Mixture modeling assigned this benefit to a reduction in guessing (Experiments 1 and 2) and transposition errors (Experiment 2). We tested several computational models implementing flexible or discrete capacity allocation, aiming to explain both the effect of set size, reflecting the limited capacity of WM, and the effect of delay, reflecting the role of attention to WM representations. Both models fit the data better when a spatially graded source of transposition error is added to its assumptions. The benefits of focusing attention could be explained by allocating to this object a higher proportion of the capacity to represent color.

  5. Climate Model Diagnostic and Evaluation: With a Focus on Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliser, Duane

    2011-01-01

    Each year, we host a summer school that brings together the next generation of climate scientists - about 30 graduate students and postdocs from around the world - to engage with premier climate scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and elsewhere. Our yearly summer school focuses on topics on the leading edge of climate science research. Our inaugural summer school, held in 2011, was on the topic of "Using Satellite Observations to Advance Climate Models," and enabled students to explore how satellite observations can be used to evaluate and improve climate models. Speakers included climate experts from both NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), who provided updates on climate model diagnostics and evaluation and remote sensing of the planet. Details of the next summer school will be posted here in due course.

  6. Electrographic waveform structure predicts laminar focus location in a model of temporal lobe seizures in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Adams

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common form of partial-onset epilepsy and accounts for the majority of adult epilepsy cases in most countries. A critical role for the hippocampus (and to some extent amygdala in the pathology of these epilepsies is clear, with selective removal of these regions almost as effective as temporal lobectomy in reducing subsequent seizure risk. However, there is debate about whether hippocampus is 'victim' or 'perpetrator': The structure is ideally placed to 'broadcast' epileptiform activity to a great many other brain regions, but removal often leaves epileptiform events still occurring in cortex, particularly in adjacent areas, and recruitment of the hippocampus into seizure-like activity has been shown to be difficult in clinically-relevant models. Using a very simple model of acute epileptiform activity with known, single primary pathology (GABAA Receptor partial blockade, we track the onset and propagation of epileptiform events in hippocampus, parahippocampal areas and neocortex. In this model the hippocampus acts as a potential seizure focus for the majority of observed events. Events with hippocampal focus were far more readily propagated throughout parahippocampal areas and into neocortex than vice versa. The electrographic signature of events of hippocampal origin was significantly different to those of primary neocortical origin - a consequence of differential laminar activation. These data confirm the critical role of the hippocampus in epileptiform activity generation in the temporal lobe and suggest the morphology of non-invasive electrical recording of neocortical interictal events may be useful in confirming this role.

  7. Modeling a Miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope Focusing Column - Lessons Learned in Electron Optics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Jody; Gregory, Don; Gaskin, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses work done to assess the design of a focusing column in a miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for use in-situ on the Moon-in particular for mineralogical analysis. The MSFC beam column design uses purely electrostatic fields for focusing, because of the severe constraints on mass and electrical power consumption imposed by the goals of lunar exploration and of spaceflight in general. The resolution of an SEM ultimately depends on the size of the focused spot of the scanning beam probe, for which the stated goal here is a diameter of 10 nanometers. Optical aberrations are the main challenge to this performance goal, because they blur the ideal geometrical optical image of the electron source, effectively widening the ideal spot size of the beam probe. In the present work the optical aberrations of the mini SEM focusing column were assessed using direct tracing of non-paraxial rays, as opposed to mathematical estimates of aberrations based on paraxial ray-traces. The geometrical ray-tracing employed here is completely analogous to ray-tracing as conventionally understood in the realm of photon optics, with the major difference being that in electron optics the lens is simply a smoothly varying electric field in vacuum, formed by precisely machined electrodes. Ray-tracing in this context, therefore, relies upon a model of the electrostatic field inside the focusing column to provide the mathematical description of the "lens" being traced. This work relied fundamentally on the boundary element method (BEM) for this electric field model. In carrying out this research the authors discovered that higher accuracy in the field model was essential if aberrations were to be reliably assessed using direct ray-tracing. This led to some work in testing alternative techniques for modeling the electrostatic field. Ultimately, the necessary accuracy was attained using a BEM

  8. Animal models of polycystic ovary syndrome: a focused review of rodent models in relationship to clinical phenotypes and cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Danni; Vine, Donna F

    2012-07-01

    To review rodent animal models of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with a focus on those associated with the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Review. Rodent models of PCOS. Description and comparison of animal models. Comparison of animal models to clinical phenotypes of PCOS. Animals used to study PCOS include rodents, mice, rhesus monkeys, and ewes. Major methods to induce PCOS in these models include subcutaneous injection or implantation of androgens, estrogens, antiprogesterone, letrozole, prenatal exposure to excess androgens, and exposure to constant light. In addition, transgenic mice models and spontaneous PCOS-like rodent models have also been developed. Rodents are the most economical and widely used animals to study PCOS and ovarian dysfunction. The model chosen to study the development of PCOS and other metabolic parameters remains dependent on the specific etiologic hypotheses being investigated. Rodent models have been shown to demonstrate changes in insulin metabolism, with or without induction of hyperandrogenemia, and limited studies have investigated cardiometabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Given the clinical heterogeneity of PCOS, the utilization of different animal models may be the best approach to further our understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with the early etiology of PCOS and cardiometabolic risk. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Critical Overview of Models of Reading Comprehension with a Focus on Cognitive Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Shahnazari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reading is a cognitive activity involving skills, strategies, attentional resources, knowledge resources and their integration. The reader’s role is to decode the written symbols to allow for the recovery of information from long-term memory to construct a plausible interpretation of the writer’s message. Various number of reading models have been proposed by researchers among which some focus on motivational and emotional aspects of reading. Others highlight the cognitive aspects of reading. In this study, the models characterizing reading in terms of cognitive aspects are revieweded, and different viewpoints on the reading process are described. This may help EFL/ESL teachers to improve their understanding of the reading process, update their perspectives on teaching reading tasks which in turn might result in more efficient learning by not putting too much cognitively demanding reading tasks on EFL/ESL learners.

  10. External circuit integration with electromagnetic particle in cell modeling of plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seng, Y. S.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    The pinch performance of a plasma focus (PF) device is sensitive to the physical conditions of the breakdown phase. It is therefore essential to model and study the initial phase in order to optimize device performance. An external circuit is self consistently coupled to the electromagnetic particle in cell code to model the breakdown and initial lift phase of the United Nations University/International Centre for Theoretical Physics (UNU-ICTP) plasma focus device. Gas breakdown during the breakdown phase is simulated successfully, following a drop in the applied voltage across the device and a concurrent substantial rise in the circuit current. As a result, the plasma becomes magnetized, with the growing value of the magnetic field over time leading to the gradual lift off of the well formed current sheath into the axial acceleration phase. This lifting off, with simultaneous outward sheath motion along the anode and vertical cathode, and the strong magnetic fields in the current sheath region, was demonstrated in this work, and hence validates our method of coupling the external circuit to PF devices. Our method produces voltage waveforms that are qualitatively similar to the observed experimental voltage profiles of the UNU-ICTP device. Values of the mean electron energy before and after voltage breakdown turned out to be different, with the values after breakdown being much lower. In both cases, the electron energy density function turned out to be non-Maxwellian

  11. Drosophila as a Model for Human Diseases-Focus on Innate Immunity in Barrier Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, P; Seyedoleslami Esfahani, S; Engström, Y

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial immunity protects the host from harmful microbial invaders but also controls the beneficial microbiota on epithelial surfaces. When this delicate balance between pathogen and symbiont is disturbed, clinical disease often occurs, such as in inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, or atopic dermatitis, which all can be in part linked to impairment of barrier epithelia. Many innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and effector molecules are evolutionarily conserved between human and Drosophila. This review describes the current knowledge on Drosophila as a model for human diseases, with a special focus on innate immune-related disorders of the gut, lung, and skin. The discovery of antimicrobial peptides, the crucial role of Toll and Toll-like receptors, and the evolutionary conservation of signaling to the immune systems of both human and Drosophila are described in a historical perspective. Similarities and differences between human and Drosophila are discussed; current knowledge on receptors, signaling pathways, and effectors are reviewed, including antimicrobial peptides, reactive oxygen species, as well as autophagy. We also give examples of human diseases for which Drosophila appears to be a useful model. In addition, the limitations of the Drosophila model are mentioned. Finally, we propose areas for future research, which include using the Drosophila model for drug screening, as a validation tool for novel genetic mutations in humans and for exploratory research of microbiota-host interactions, with relevance for infection, wound healing, and cancer. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Modeling Study of Flow Diversion and Focusing in unsaturated Fractured Rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Lehua; Wu, Yu-Shu; Zhang, Keni

    2002-01-01

    This study presents a systematic approach to analyze the flow diversion and flow focusing caused by the natural flow-barrier system in the unsaturated zone (UZ) of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, under ambient steady-state flow conditions. An existing analytical solution for analyzing capillary barrier in porous media has been extended to apply to the fractured porous rock. The new analytical solutions are used to identify the critical layers and to provide the guidance for generation of a proper three-dimensional (3-D), site-scale numerical grid. A large-scale 3-D numerical model (with more than a million grid blocks) has been developed with site-specific data to analyze the major flow patterns in the mountain. Our analyses show that large-scale lateral flow could take place in the UZ under ambient conditions, as a result of capillary barriers formed at the contacts of heterogeneous rock layers. This lateral flow runs generally toward the east (in the southern part) or southeast (in the northern part), which is consistent with the dip of the layer contacts. About 90 percent of the total lateral flow is found to be conducted by only a few critical rock layers. Faults that penetrate these rock layers act as vertical capillary barriers that stop the lateral flow. The combined effect of horizontal and vertical capillary barriers resulted in reduced percolation flow through repository horizon in general but focused downward flow along those penetrating faults. The model results were found to be consistent with the field water saturation. The findings of this study are consistent with a previously published two-dimensional (2-D) analysis and recent published modeling results using field-observed Cl-data

  13. Modelling the temperature evolution of bone under high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Eikelder, H. M. M.; Bošnački, D.; Elevelt, A.; Donato, K.; Di Tullio, A.; Breuer, B. J. T.; van Wijk, J. H.; van Dijk, E. V. M.; Modena, D.; Yeo, S. Y.; Grüll, H.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) has been clinically shown to be effective for palliative pain management in patients suffering from skeletal metastasis. The underlying mechanism is supposed to be periosteal denervation caused by ablative temperatures reached through ultrasound heating of the cortex. The challenge is exact temperature control during sonication as MR-based thermometry approaches for bone tissue are currently not available. Thus, in contrast to the MR-HIFU ablation of soft tissue, a thermometry feedback to the HIFU is lacking, and the treatment of bone metastasis is entirely based on temperature information acquired in the soft tissue adjacent to the bone surface. However, heating of the adjacent tissue depends on the exact sonication protocol and requires extensive modelling to estimate the actual temperature of the cortex. Here we develop a computational model to calculate the spatial temperature evolution in bone and the adjacent tissue during sonication. First, a ray-tracing technique is used to compute the heat production in each spatial point serving as a source term for the second part, where the actual temperature is calculated as a function of space and time by solving the Pennes bio-heat equation. Importantly, our model includes shear waves that arise at the bone interface as well as all geometrical considerations of transducer and bone geometry. The model was compared with a theoretical approach based on the far field approximation and an MR-HIFU experiment using a bone phantom. Furthermore, we investigated the contribution of shear waves to the heat production and resulting temperatures in bone. The temperature evolution predicted by our model was in accordance with the far field approximation and agreed well with the experimental data obtained in phantoms. Our model allows the simulation of the HIFU treatments of bone metastasis in patients and can be extended to a planning tool prior to MR

  14. Modelling the temperature evolution of bone under high intensity focused ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Eikelder, H M M; Bošnački, D; Breuer, B J T; Van Wijk, J H; Van Dijk, E V M; Modena, D; Yeo, S Y; Grüll, H; Elevelt, A; Donato, K; Di Tullio, A

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) has been clinically shown to be effective for palliative pain management in patients suffering from skeletal metastasis. The underlying mechanism is supposed to be periosteal denervation caused by ablative temperatures reached through ultrasound heating of the cortex. The challenge is exact temperature control during sonication as MR-based thermometry approaches for bone tissue are currently not available. Thus, in contrast to the MR-HIFU ablation of soft tissue, a thermometry feedback to the HIFU is lacking, and the treatment of bone metastasis is entirely based on temperature information acquired in the soft tissue adjacent to the bone surface. However, heating of the adjacent tissue depends on the exact sonication protocol and requires extensive modelling to estimate the actual temperature of the cortex. Here we develop a computational model to calculate the spatial temperature evolution in bone and the adjacent tissue during sonication. First, a ray-tracing technique is used to compute the heat production in each spatial point serving as a source term for the second part, where the actual temperature is calculated as a function of space and time by solving the Pennes bio-heat equation. Importantly, our model includes shear waves that arise at the bone interface as well as all geometrical considerations of transducer and bone geometry. The model was compared with a theoretical approach based on the far field approximation and an MR-HIFU experiment using a bone phantom. Furthermore, we investigated the contribution of shear waves to the heat production and resulting temperatures in bone. The temperature evolution predicted by our model was in accordance with the far field approximation and agreed well with the experimental data obtained in phantoms. Our model allows the simulation of the HIFU treatments of bone metastasis in patients and can be extended to a planning tool prior to MR

  15. In vitro psoriasis models with focus on reconstructed skin models as promising tools in psoriasis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Eline; Ramadhas, Anesh; Lambert, Jo; Van Gele, Mireille

    2017-06-01

    skin or the disease pathology. This work provides a complete overview of the different available in vitro psoriasis models and suggests improvements for future models. Moreover, a focus was given to psoriatic skin equivalent models, as they offer several advantages over the other models, including commercial availability and validity. The potential and reported applicability of these models in psoriasis pre-clinical research is extensively discussed. As such, this work offers a guide to researchers in their choice of pre-clinical psoriasis model depending on their type of research question.

  16. Role modelling of clinical tutors: a focus group study among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; Goulston, Kerry; Oates, Kim

    2015-02-14

    Role modelling by clinicians assists in development of medical students' professional competencies, values and attitudes. Three core characteristics of a positive role model include 1) clinical attributes, 2) teaching skills, and 3) personal qualities. This study was designed to explore medical students' perceptions of their bedside clinical tutors as role models during the first year of a medical program. The study was conducted with one cohort (n = 301) of students who had completed Year 1 of the Sydney Medical Program in 2013. A total of nine focus groups (n = 59) were conducted with medical students following completion of Year 1. Data were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to code and categorise data into themes. Students identified both positive and negative characteristics and behaviour displayed by their clinical tutors. Characteristics and behaviour that students would like to emulate as medical practitioners in the future included: 1) Clinical attributes: a good knowledge base; articulate history taking skills; the ability to explain and demonstrate skills at the appropriate level for students; and empathy, respect and genuine compassion for patients. 2) Teaching skills: development of a rapport with students; provision of time towards the growth of students academically and professionally; provision of a positive learning environment; an understanding of the student curriculum and assessment requirements; immediate and useful feedback; and provision of patient interaction. 3) Personal qualities: respectful interprofessional staff interactions; preparedness for tutorials; demonstration of a passion for teaching; and demonstration of a passion for their career choice. Excellence in role modelling entails demonstration of excellent clinical care, teaching skills and personal characteristics. Our findings reinforce the important function of clinical bedside tutors as role models, which has implications for faculty development and

  17. SOLAR WIND CHARGE EXCHANGE EMISSION FROM THE HELIUM FOCUSING CONE: MODEL TO DATA COMPARISON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutroumpa, D.; Snowden, S. L.; Collier, M. R.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lallement, R.

    2009-01-01

    A model for heliospheric solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-ray emission is applied to a series of XMM-Newton observations of the interplanetary focusing cone of interstellar helium. The X-ray data are from three coupled observations of the South Ecliptic Pole (SEP; to observe the cone) and the Hubble Deep Field-North (HDF-N, to monitor global variations of the SWCX emission due to variations in the solar wind (SW)) from the period 2003 November 24 to December 15. There is good qualitative agreement between the model predictions and the data, after the SEP data are corrected using the HDF-N data, with the maximum SWCX flux observed at an ecliptic longitude of ∼72 deg., consistent with the central longitude of the He cone. We observe a total excess of 2.1 ± 1.3 line unit (LU) in the O VII line and 2.0 ± 0.9 LU in the O VIII line. However, the SWCX emission model, which was adjusted for SW conditions appropriate for late 2003, predicts an excess from the He cone of only 0.5 LU and 0.2 LU, respectively, in the O VII and O VIII lines. We discuss the model to data comparison and provide possible explanations for the discrepancies. We also qualitatively re-examine our SWCX model predictions in the 1/4 keV band with data from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey toward the North Ecliptic Pole and SEP, when the He cone was probably first detected in soft X-rays.

  18. Introduction to Focus Issue: Rhythms and Dynamic Transitions in Neurological Disease: Modeling, Computation, and Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, Tasso J., E-mail: tasso@bu.edu; Kramer, Mark A., E-mail: mak@bu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Rotstein, Horacio G., E-mail: horacio@njit.edu [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Rhythmic neuronal oscillations across a broad range of frequencies, as well as spatiotemporal phenomena, such as waves and bumps, have been observed in various areas of the brain and proposed as critical to brain function. While there is a long and distinguished history of studying rhythms in nerve cells and neuronal networks in healthy organisms, the association and analysis of rhythms to diseases are more recent developments. Indeed, it is now thought that certain aspects of diseases of the nervous system, such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, Parkinson's, and sleep disorders, are associated with transitions or disruptions of neurological rhythms. This focus issue brings together articles presenting modeling, computational, analytical, and experimental perspectives about rhythms and dynamic transitions between them that are associated to various diseases.

  19. Electromagnetic particle in cell modeling of the plasma focus: Current sheath formation and lift off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seng, Y. S.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    The shaping and formation of the current sheath takes place in the breakdown phase of a plasma focus device and critically controls the device performance. Electrostatic particle in cell codes, with magnetic effects ignored, have been used to model the breakdown phase. This Letter reports the successful development and implementation of an electromagnetic particle in cell (EMPIC) code, including magnetic effects self-consistently, to simulate the breakdown phase; from the ionization, localization and gliding discharge along the insulator to the time instant of current sheath lift off. The magnetic field was found to be appreciable from the time the current sheath came into contact with the anode with increased local current, initiating the voltage breakdown of the device as a result

  20. Laser-enhanced high-intensity focused ultrasound heating in an in vivo small animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2016-11-01

    The enhanced heating effect during the combination of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and low-optical-fluence laser illumination was investigated by using an in vivo murine animal model. The thighs of murine animals were synergistically irradiated by HIFU and pulsed nano-second laser light. The temperature increases in the target region were measured by a thermocouple under different HIFU pressures, which were 6.2, 7.9, and 9.8 MPa, in combination with 20 mJ/cm2 laser exposures at 532 nm wavelength. In comparison with conventional laser therapies, the laser fluence used here is at least one order of magnitude lower. The results showed that laser illumination could enhance temperature during HIFU applications. Additionally, cavitation activity was enhanced when laser and HIFU irradiation were concurrently used. Further, a theoretical simulation showed that the inertial cavitation threshold was indeed decreased when laser and HIFU irradiation were utilized concurrently.

  1. Modeling of the free space and focused magnetic field profiles of the ORNL superconducting motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.M.; Rader, M.; Sohns, C.W.; McKeever, J.; Schwenterly, S.W.

    1992-01-01

    The ORNL superconducting motor, is a device consisting of 4 DC superconducting magnets in a square cross section. These coils are arranged in a N-S-N-S configuration and at present have no iron flux return paths. Experimentally the device has been operated and has been shown to produce 102.3 kg-m of locked rotor torque at 100 Ampers winding current. The superconductors were operating at 40 Kelvin. The peak magnetic field at 2,100 amperes operating current was 2 Tesla on the cryostat face. Recently there has been an effort under way to improve the operating parameters of the device by improving the flux utilization of the device. This was to be accomplished by the use of flux focusing pole pieces. The effects of the pole pieces and the vacuum magnetic field have been modeled with the MSC EMAS code to see the possible benefit of adding pole pieces to the in situ experiment

  2. Introduction to Focus Issue: Rhythms and Dynamic Transitions in Neurological Disease: Modeling, Computation, and Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaper, Tasso J.; Kramer, Mark A.; Rotstein, Horacio G.

    2013-01-01

    Rhythmic neuronal oscillations across a broad range of frequencies, as well as spatiotemporal phenomena, such as waves and bumps, have been observed in various areas of the brain and proposed as critical to brain function. While there is a long and distinguished history of studying rhythms in nerve cells and neuronal networks in healthy organisms, the association and analysis of rhythms to diseases are more recent developments. Indeed, it is now thought that certain aspects of diseases of the nervous system, such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, Parkinson's, and sleep disorders, are associated with transitions or disruptions of neurological rhythms. This focus issue brings together articles presenting modeling, computational, analytical, and experimental perspectives about rhythms and dynamic transitions between them that are associated to various diseases

  3. Breakdown simulations in a focused microwave beam within the simplified model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V. E.; Rakova, E. I.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    The simplified model is proposed to simulate numerically air breakdown in a focused microwave beam. The model is 1D from the mathematical point of view, but it takes into account the spatial non-uniformity of microwave field amplitude along the beam axis. The simulations are completed for different frequencies and different focal lengths of microwave beams. The results demonstrate complicated regimes of the breakdown evolution which represents a series of repeated ionization waves. These waves start at the focal point and propagate towards incident microwave radiation. The ionization wave parameters vary during propagation. At relatively low frequencies, the propagation regime of subsequent waves can also change qualitatively. Each next ionization wave is less pronounced than the previous one, and the breakdown evolution approaches the steady state with relatively small plasma density. The ionization wave parameters are sensitive to the weak source of external ionization, but the steady state is independent on such a source. As the beam focal length decreases, the stationary plasma density increases and the onset of the steady state occurs faster.

  4. Using focus groups to design systems science models that promote oral health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Susan S; Northridge, Mary E; Metcalf, Sara S

    2018-06-04

    While the US population overall has experienced improvements in oral health over the past 60 years, oral diseases remain among the most common chronic conditions across the life course. Further, lack of access to oral health care contributes to profound and enduring oral health inequities worldwide. Vulnerable and underserved populations who commonly lack access to oral health care include racial/ethnic minority older adults living in urban environments. The aim of this study was to use a systematic approach to explicate cause and effect relationships in creating a causal map, a type of concept map in which the links between nodes represent causality or influence. To improve our mental models of the real world and devise strategies to promote oral health equity, methods including system dynamics, agent-based modeling, geographic information science, and social network simulation have been leveraged by the research team. The practice of systems science modeling is situated amidst an ongoing modeling process of observing the real world, formulating mental models of how it works, setting decision rules to guide behavior, and from these heuristics, making decisions that in turn affect the state of the real world. Qualitative data were obtained from focus groups conducted with community-dwelling older adults who self-identify as African American, Dominican, or Puerto Rican to elicit their lived experiences in accessing oral health care in their northern Manhattan neighborhoods. The findings of this study support the multi-dimensional and multi-level perspective of access to oral health care and affirm a theorized discrepancy in fit between available dental providers and patients. The lack of information about oral health at the community level may be compromising the use and quality of oral health care among racial/ethnic minority older adults. Well-informed community members may fill critical roles in oral health promotion, as they are viewed as highly credible

  5. Modeling of Focused Acoustic Field of a Concave Multi-annular Phased Array Using Spheroidal Beam Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lili; Shou Wende; Hui Chun

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical model of focused acoustic field for a multi-annular phased array on concave spherical surface is proposed. In this model, the source boundary conditions of the spheroidal beam equation (SBE) for multi-annular phased elements are studied. Acoustic field calculated by the dynamic focusing model of SBE is compared with numerical results of the O'Neil and Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) model, respectively. Axial dynamic focusing and the harmonic effects are presented. The results demonstrate that the dynamic focusing model of SBE is good valid for a concave multi-annular phased array with a large aperture angle in the linear or nonlinear field. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  6. Central focused convolutional neural networks: Developing a data-driven model for lung nodule segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Mu; Liu, Zaiyi; Liu, Zhenyu; Gu, Dongsheng; Zang, Yali; Dong, Di; Gevaert, Olivier; Tian, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Accurate lung nodule segmentation from computed tomography (CT) images is of great importance for image-driven lung cancer analysis. However, the heterogeneity of lung nodules and the presence of similar visual characteristics between nodules and their surroundings make it difficult for robust nodule segmentation. In this study, we propose a data-driven model, termed the Central Focused Convolutional Neural Networks (CF-CNN), to segment lung nodules from heterogeneous CT images. Our approach combines two key insights: 1) the proposed model captures a diverse set of nodule-sensitive features from both 3-D and 2-D CT images simultaneously; 2) when classifying an image voxel, the effects of its neighbor voxels can vary according to their spatial locations. We describe this phenomenon by proposing a novel central pooling layer retaining much information on voxel patch center, followed by a multi-scale patch learning strategy. Moreover, we design a weighted sampling to facilitate the model training, where training samples are selected according to their degree of segmentation difficulty. The proposed method has been extensively evaluated on the public LIDC dataset including 893 nodules and an independent dataset with 74 nodules from Guangdong General Hospital (GDGH). We showed that CF-CNN achieved superior segmentation performance with average dice scores of 82.15% and 80.02% for the two datasets respectively. Moreover, we compared our results with the inter-radiologists consistency on LIDC dataset, showing a difference in average dice score of only 1.98%. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Translational value of animal models of obesity-Focus on dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osto, Melania; Lutz, Thomas A

    2015-07-15

    A prolonged imbalance between a relative increase in energy intake over a decrease in energy expenditure results in the development of obesity; extended periods of a positive energy balance eventually lead to the accumulation of abnormally high amounts of fat in adipose tissue but also in other organs. Obesity is considered a clinical state of impaired general heath in which the excessive increase in adipose tissue mass may be associated with metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses briefly the use of animal models for the study of obesity and its comorbidities. Generally, most studies are performed with rodents, such as diet induced obesity and genetic models. Here, we focus specifically on two different species, namely dogs and cats. Obese dogs and cats show many features of human obesity. Interestingly, however, dogs and cats differ from each other in certain aspects because even though obese dogs may become insulin resistant, this does not result in the development of diabetes mellitus. In fact, diabetes in dogs is typically not associated with obesity because dogs present a type 1 diabetes-like syndrome. On the other hand, obese cats often develop diabetes mellitus which shares many features with human type 2 diabetes; feline and human diabetes are similar in respect to their pathophysiology, underlying risk factors and treatment strategies. Our review discusses genetic and endocrine factors in obesity, discusses obesity induced changes in lipid metabolism and includes some recent findings on the role of gut microbiota in obesity. Compared to research in rodent models, the array of available techniques and tools is unfortunately still rather limited in dogs and cats. Hence, even though physiological and pathophysiological phenomena are well described in dogs and cats, the underlying mechanisms are often not known and studies investigating causality specifically are

  8. [A test of the focusing hypothesis for category judgment: an explanation using the mental-box model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Tsuyoshi; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Fujii, Satoshi; Ideno, Takashi

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a new model of category judgment. The model hypothesizes that, when more attention is focused on a category, the psychological range of the category gets narrower (category-focusing hypothesis). We explain this hypothesis by using the metaphor of a "mental-box" model: the more attention that is focused on a mental box (i.e., a category set), the smaller the size of the box becomes (i.e., a cardinal number of the category set). The hypothesis was tested in an experiment (N = 40), where the focus of attention on prescribed verbal categories was manipulated. The obtained data gave support to the hypothesis: category-focusing effects were found in three experimental tasks (regarding the category of "food", "height", and "income"). The validity of the hypothesis was discussed based on the results.

  9. Modelling and simulation of flight control electromechanical actuators with special focus on model architecting, multidisciplinary effects and power flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Fu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the aerospace field, electromechanical actuators are increasingly being implemented in place of conventional hydraulic actuators. For safety-critical embedded actuation applications like flight controls, the use of electromechanical actuators introduces specific issues related to thermal balance, reflected inertia, parasitic motion due to compliance and response to failure. Unfortunately, the physical effects governing the actuator behaviour are multidisciplinary, coupled and nonlinear. Although numerous multi-domain and system-level simulation packages are now available on the market, these effects are rarely addressed as a whole because of a lack of scientific approaches for model architecting, multi-purpose incremental modelling and judicious model implementation. In this publication, virtual prototyping of electromechanical actuators is addressed using the Bond-Graph formalism. New approaches are proposed to enable incremental modelling, thermal balance analysis, response to free-run or jamming faults, impact of compliance on parasitic motion, and influence of temperature. A special focus is placed on friction and compliance of the mechanical transmission with fault injection and temperature dependence. Aileron actuation is used to highlight the proposals for control design, energy consumption and thermal analysis, power network pollution analysis and fault response.

  10. Model study of multiphase DMS oxidation with a focus on halogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. von Glasow

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the oxidation of dimethylsulfide (DMS in the marine boundary layer (MBL with a one-dimensional numerical model and focused on the influence of halogens. Our model runs show that there is still significant uncertainty about the end products of the DMS addition pathway, which is especially caused by uncertainty in the product yield of the reaction of the intermediate product methyl sulfinic acid (MSIA with OH. BrO strongly increases the importance of the addition branch in the oxidation of DMS even when present at mixing ratios smaller than 0.5pmol mol-1. The inclusion of halogen chemistry leads to higher DMS oxidation rates and smaller DMS to SO2 conversion efficiencies. The DMS to SO2 conversion efficiency is also drastically reduced under cloudy conditions. In cloud-free model runs between 5 and 15% of the oxidized DMS reacts further to particulate sulfur, in cloudy runs this fraction is almost 100%. Sulfate production by HOClaq and HOBraq is important in cloud droplets even for small Br- deficits and related small gas phase halogen concentrations. In general, more particulate sulfur is formed when halogen chemistry is included. A possible enrichment of HCO3- in fresh sea salt aerosol would increase pH values enough to make the reaction of S(IV* (=SO2,aq+HSO3-+SO32- with O3 dominant for sulfate production. It leads to a shift from methyl sulfonic acid (MSA to non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42- production but increases the total nss-SO42- only somewhat because almost all available sulfur is already oxidized to particulate sulfur in the base scenario. We discuss how realistic this is for the MBL. We found the reaction MSAaq+OH to contribute about 10% to the production of nss-SO42- in clouds. It is unimportant for cloud-free model runs. Overall we find that the presence of halogens leads to processes that decrease the albedo of stratiform clouds in the MBL.

  11. A Value Focused Thinking Model for the Development and Selection of Electrical Energy Source Alternatives at Military Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schanding, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    .... This thesis presents a Value Focused Thinking approach to the development of a decision analysis model to assist a decision maker at a military installation in the generation and selection of back...

  12. Resilience assessment of interdependent infrastructure systems: With a focus on joint restoration modeling and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Min; Wang, Zhenghua

    2015-01-01

    As infrastructure systems are highly interconnected, it is crucial to analyze their resilience with the consideration of their interdependencies. This paper adapts an existing resilience assessment framework for single systems to interdependent systems and mainly focuses on modeling and resilience contribution analysis of multi-systems’ joint restoration processes, which are seldom addressed in the literature. Taking interdependent power and gas systems in Houston, Texas, USA under hurricane hazards as an illustrative exmaple, five types of joint restoration stategies are proposed, including random restoration strategy RS 1 , independent restoration strategy RS 2 , power first and gas second restoration strategy RS 3 , gas aimed restoration strategy RS 4 , and power and gas compromised restoration strategy RS 5 . Results show that under limited restoration resources, RS 1 produces the least resilience for both systems, RS 2 and RS 3 both generates the largest power system resilience while RS 4 is the best for the gas system; and if quantifying the total resilience as the evenly weighted sum of two systems’ individual resilience, RS 5 produces the largest total resilience. The proposed method can help decision makers search optimum joint restoration strategy, which can significantly enhance both systems’ resilience. - Highlights: • We propose a method to assess resilience of interdependent infrastructure systems. • We consider unidirectional interdependencies from power system to gas system. • Multi-systems’ restoration processes are solved by using genetic algorithm. • Effectiveness of five restoration strategies are compared and analyzed. • Interdependency-based strategies produce the largest total resilience

  13. Integrative platform based on the mechatronics model for educational technologies focused on competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaşin, I.; Greta, S.; Dache, L.; Mătieş, V.

    2016-08-01

    Mechatronics is a model of transdisciplinary integration, entirely functional, with remarkable results for mankind. The incredible progress that the global economy has taken in the last decades is based on this new approach, the integrative type, which is present at the foundation of mechatronics. This kind of integrative approach is necessary for building a quality education focused on competence. The requirements from the social and economic environment, the needs of the young people who prepare themselves for an active life and the offers of the education providers are still not too interconnected to offer a satisfying education. This is the reason why the efforts to balance the demand, the needs and the offer are essential to ensure a better integration of students into society. Using a transcultural perspective, we can achieve a constructive approach. The education providers, together with the socio-economic environment, establish a clear structure of competence in multiple domains and of the instruments which can assure it. The scientific demarche, in the spirit of this paper approach the, answers the natural questions from the educational process: „Why, How and What do I learn?”.

  14. Integrating utilization-focused evaluation with business process modeling for clinical research improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jonathan M; Rosas, Scott; Trochim, William M K

    2010-10-01

    New discoveries in basic science are creating extraordinary opportunities to design novel biomedical preventions and therapeutics for human disease. But the clinical evaluation of these new interventions is, in many instances, being hindered by a variety of legal, regulatory, policy and operational factors, few of which enhance research quality, the safety of study participants or research ethics. With the goal of helping increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research, we have examined how the integration of utilization-focused evaluation with elements of business process modeling can reveal opportunities for systematic improvements in clinical research. Using data from the NIH global HIV/AIDS clinical trials networks, we analyzed the absolute and relative times required to traverse defined phases associated with specific activities within the clinical protocol lifecycle. Using simple median duration and Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis, we show how such time-based analyses can provide a rationale for the prioritization of research process analysis and re-engineering, as well as a means for statistically assessing the impact of policy modifications, resource utilization, re-engineered processes and best practices. Successfully applied, this approach can help researchers be more efficient in capitalizing on new science to speed the development of improved interventions for human disease.

  15. Modeling and experimental investigations of Lamb waves focusing in anisotropic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, Bastien; Terrien, Nicolas; Royer, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of Lamb waves focusing in anisotropic plates is theoretically and experimentally investigated. An analysis based on a far field approximation of the Green's function shows that Lamb waves focusing is analog to the phonon focusing effect. In highly anisotropic structures like composite plates the focusing of A 0 and S 0 mode is strong; the energy propagates preferentially in the fibre directions, which are minima of the slowness. This has to be taken into account when developing, for example, a transducer array for structural health monitoring systems based on Lamb waves in order to avoid dead zones.

  16. Object Selection Costs in Visual Working Memory: A Diffusion Model Analysis of the Focus of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, David K.; Lilburn, Simon D.; Smith, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    A central question in working memory research concerns the degree to which information in working memory is accessible to other cognitive processes (e.g., decision-making). Theories assuming that the focus of attention can only store a single object at a time require the focus to orient to a target representation before further processing can…

  17. Maximum Potential Score (MPS: An operating model for a successful customer-focused strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabello González, José Manuel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of marketers’ chief objectives is to achieve customer loyalty, which is a key factor for profitable growth. Therefore, they need to develop a strategy that attracts and maintains customers, giving them adequate motives, both tangible (prices and promotions and intangible (personalized service and treatment, to satisfy a customer and make him loyal to the company. Finding a way to accurately measure satisfaction and customer loyalty is very important. With regard to typical Relationship Marketing measures, we can consider listening to customers, which can help to achieve a competitive sustainable advantage. Customer satisfaction surveys are essential tools for listening to customers. Short questionnaires have gained considerable acceptance among marketers as a means to achieve a customer satisfaction measure. Our research provides an indication of the benefits of a short questionnaire (one/three questions. We find that the number of questions survey is significantly related to the participation in the survey (Net Promoter Score or NPS. We also prove that a the three question survey is more likely to have more participants than a traditional survey (Maximum Potential Score or MPS . Our main goal is to analyse one method as a potential predictor of customer loyalty. Using surveys, we attempt to empirically establish the causal factors in determining the satisfaction of customers. This paper describes a maximum potential operating model that captures with a three questions survey, important elements for a successful customer-focused strategy. MPS may give us lower participation rates than NPS but important information that helps to convert unhappy customers or just satisfied customers, into loyal customers.

  18. Focus on focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics

  19. Focus on focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-10-15

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics.

  20. Foundational Tests of the Need-Support Model: A Framework for Bridging Regulatory Focus Theory and Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Leigh Ann

    2017-03-01

    This article introduces the need-support model, which proposes that regulatory focus can affect subjective support for the needs proposed by self-determination theory (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), and support of these needs can affect subjective labeling of experiences as promotion-focused and prevention-focused. Three studies tested these hypotheses ( N = 2,114). Study 1 found that people recall more need support in promotion-focused experiences than in prevention-focused experiences, and need support in their day yesterday (with no particular regulatory focus) fell in between. Study 2 found that experiences of higher need support were more likely to be labeled as promotion-focused rather than prevention-focused, and that each need accounted for distinct variance in the labeling of experiences. Study 3 varied regulatory focus within a performance task and found that participants in the promotion condition engaged in need-support inflation, whereas participants in the prevention condition engaged in need-support deflation. Directions for future research are discussed.

  1. Modeling the focusing efficiency of lobster-eye optics for image shifting depending on the soft x-ray wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Luning; Li, Wei; Wu, Mingxuan; Su, Yun; Guo, Chongling; Ruan, Ningjuan; Yang, Bingxin; Yan, Feng

    2017-08-01

    Lobster-eye optics is widely applied to space x-ray detection missions and x-ray security checks for its wide field of view and low weight. This paper presents a theoretical model to obtain spatial distribution of focusing efficiency based on lobster-eye optics in a soft x-ray wavelength. The calculations reveal the competition mechanism of contributions to the focusing efficiency between the geometrical parameters of lobster-eye optics and the reflectivity of the iridium film. In addition, the focusing efficiency image depending on x-ray wavelengths further explains the influence of different geometrical parameters of lobster-eye optics and different soft x-ray wavelengths on focusing efficiency. These results could be beneficial to optimize parameters of lobster-eye optics in order to realize maximum focusing efficiency.

  2. On various metrics used for validation of predictive QSAR models with applications in virtual screening and focused library design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kunal; Mitra, Indrani

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have important applications in drug discovery research, environmental fate modeling, property prediction, etc. Validation has been recognized as a very important step for QSAR model development. As one of the important objectives of QSAR modeling is to predict activity/property/toxicity of new chemicals falling within the domain of applicability of the developed models and QSARs are being used for regulatory decisions, checking reliability of the models and confidence of their predictions is a very important aspect, which can be judged during the validation process. One prime application of a statistically significant QSAR model is virtual screening for molecules with improved potency based on the pharmacophoric features and the descriptors appearing in the QSAR model. Validated QSAR models may also be utilized for design of focused libraries which may be subsequently screened for the selection of hits. The present review focuses on various metrics used for validation of predictive QSAR models together with an overview of the application of QSAR models in the fields of virtual screening and focused library design for diverse series of compounds with citation of some recent examples.

  3. Linking Resource-Based Strategies to Customer-Focused Performance for Professional Services: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Lu Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper links professional service firms’ resource-based strategies to their customer-focused performance for formulating service quality improvement priorities. The research applies the structural equation modelling approach to survey data from Hong Kong construction consultants to test some hypotheses. The study validates the various measures of firms’ resource-based strategies and customer-focused performance and bridges the gaps in firms’ organizational learning, core competences and customer-focused performance mediated by their strategic flexibility. The research results have practical implications for professional service firms to deploy resources appropriately to first enhance different competences and then improve customerfocused performance using their different competences.

  4. Envelope model for passive magnetic focusing of an intense proton or ion beam propagating through thin foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lund

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ion beams (including protons with low emittance and high space-charge intensity can be propagated with normal incidence through a sequence of thin metallic foils separated by vacuum gaps of order the characteristic transverse beam extent to transport/collimate the beam or to focus it to a small transverse spot. Energetic ions have sufficient range to pass through a significant number of thin foils with little energy loss or scattering. The foils reduce the (defocusing radial electric self-field of the beam while not altering the (focusing azimuthal magnetic self-field of the beam, thereby allowing passive self-beam focusing if the magnetic field is sufficiently strong relative to the residual electric field. Here we present an envelope model developed to predict the strength of this passive (beam generated focusing effect under a number of simplifying assumptions including relatively long pulse duration. The envelope model provides a simple criterion for the necessary foil spacing for net focusing and clearly illustrates system focusing properties for either beam collimation (such as injecting a laser-produced proton beam into an accelerator or for magnetic pinch focusing to a small transverse spot (for beam driven heating of materials. An illustrative example is worked for an idealization of a recently performed laser-produced proton-beam experiment to provide guidance on possible beam focusing and collimation systems. It is found that foils spaced on the order of the characteristic transverse beam size desired can be employed and that envelope divergence of the initial beam entering the foil lens must be suppressed to limit the total number of foils required to practical values for pinch focusing. Relatively modest proton-beam current at 10 MeV kinetic energy can clearly demonstrate strong magnetic pinch focusing achieving a transverse rms extent similar to the foil spacing (20–50  μm gaps in beam propagation distances of tens of mm

  5. Enhancement of speech signals - with a focus on voiced speech models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie

    This thesis deals with speech enhancement, i.e., noise reduction in speech signals. This has applications in, e.g., hearing aids and teleconference systems. We consider a signal-driven approach to speech enhancement where a model of the speech is assumed and filters are generated based...... on this model. The basic model used in this thesis is the harmonic model which is a commonly used model for describing the voiced part of the speech signal. We show that it can be beneficial to extend the model to take inharmonicities or the non-stationarity of speech into account. Extending the model...

  6. CONCEPT MODEL OF CREATION AND EVALUATION OF THE DEGREE OF FOCUS-ON-CLIENTS OF THE ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladygina Ekaterina Evgen'evna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of ensuring competitive capacity of an enterprise, and identifies the reserves for increasing it. The focus-on-clients of an enterprise was identified to be the main direction for increasing the competitive capacity. This article features the parameters for assessment of the degree of focus-on-clients of an enterprise, as well as formulae for the said assessment. It also presents methods to evaluate the priority of the criteria. The article contains the model created for evaluating the development of focus-on-clients of the enterprise. This model allows to assess the parameters that influence the degree of focus-on-clients, priority of such parameters, and identify the reserves for improving them. In particular, method for calculating quantitative parameters by converting qualitative parameters into quantitative was introduced. In addition, plan of activities aimed at improving the degree of focus-on-clients and, therefore, competitive capacity of the enterprise, is presented. The article features formulae, functional relations, and calculation of all parameters as well. The model for assessment and development of focus-on-customers presented in the work defines the degree of conformance between the selected strategy and accounting for consumers' preferences when the plan of activities aimed at ensuring competitive capacity of the enterprise is implemented.

  7. Comparison of models for predicting outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease focusing on microsimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physicians have difficulty to subjectively estimate the cardiovascular risk of their patients. Using an estimate of global cardiovascular risk could be more relevant to guide decisions than using binary representation (presence or absence of risk factors data. The main aim of the paper is to compare different models of predicting the progress of a coronary artery diseases (CAD to help the decision making of physician. Methods: There are different standard models for predicting risk factors such as models based on logistic regression model, Cox regression model, dynamic logistic regression model, and simulation models such as Markov model and microsimulation model. Each model has its own application which can or cannot use by physicians to make a decision on treatment of each patient. Results: There are five main common models for predicting of outcomes, including models based on logistic regression model (for short-term outcomes, Cox regression model (for intermediate-term outcomes, dynamic logistic regression model, and simulation models such as Markov and microsimulation models (for long-term outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of these models have been discussed and summarized. Conclusion: Given the complex medical decisions that physicians face in everyday practice, the multiple interrelated factors that play a role in choosing the optimal treatment, and the continuously accumulating new evidence on determinants of outcome and treatment options for CAD, physicians may potentially benefit from a clinical decision support system that accounts for all these considerations. The microsimulation model could provide cardiologists, researchers, and medical students a user-friendly software, which can be used as an intelligent interventional simulator.

  8. Enhancement of Entrepreneurial Leadership: A Case Focusing on a Model of Successful Conflict Management Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffel, Anita; Hallam, Cory; Darling, John

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a case study focusing on a new technology start-up firm, founded by two graduate students, an engineer and a business major, who met during their university studies. The case is timely, in that only ten percent of new product introductions result in a profitable business. The causes of failure are numerous…

  9. Non-uniform hybrid strategy for architecting and modeling flight vehicle focused system-of-systems operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yifeng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To balance the contradiction between comprehensiveness of system-of-systems (SoS description and cost of modeling and simulation, a non-uniform hybrid strategy (NUHYS is proposed. NUHYS groups elements of an SoS operation into system community or relatively independent system based on contributors complexity and focus relationship according to the focus of SoS problem. Meanwhile, modeling methods are categorized based on details attention rate and dynamic attention rate, seeking for matching contributors. Taking helicopter rescue in earthquake relief as an example, the procedure of applying NUHYS and its effectiveness are verified.

  10. Dispersed plug flow model for upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors with focus on granular sludge dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Fedorovich, V.V.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to model upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-reactors, referred to as a one-dimensional dispersed plug flow model, was developed. This model focusses on the granular sludge dynamics along the reactor height, based on the balance between dispersion, sedimentation and convection using

  11. Modelling Systems of Classical/Quantum Identical Particles by Focusing on Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastella, Ivan; Fazio, Claudio; Sperandeo-Mineo, Rosa Maria

    2012-01-01

    A procedure modelling ideal classical and quantum gases is discussed. The proposed approach is mainly based on the idea that modelling and algorithm analysis can provide a deeper understanding of particularly complex physical systems. Appropriate representations and physical models able to mimic possible pseudo-mechanisms of functioning and having…

  12. Developing the Practising Model in Physical Education: An Expository Outline Focusing on Movement Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, D. M.; Aggerholm, K.; Standal, O.; Larsson, H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Physical educators currently have a number of pedagogical (or curricular) models at their disposal. While existing models have been well-received in educational contexts, these models seek to extend students' capacities within a limited number of "human activities" (Arendt, 1958). The activity of "human practising,"…

  13. A Simulation Model of Focus and Radial Servos in Compact Disc Players with Disc Surface Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    Compact Disc players have been on the market in more than two decades.As a consequence most of the control servo problems have been solved. A large remaining problem to solve is the handling of Compact Discs with severe surface defects like scratches and fingerprints. This paper introduces a method...... for making the design of controllers handling surface defects easier. A simulation model of Compact Disc players playing discs with surface defects is presented. The main novel element in the model is a model of the surface defects. That model is based on data from discs with surface defects. This model...

  14. The Past, Present and Future of Cyber-Physical Systems: A Focus on Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about better engineering of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) through better models. Deterministic models have historically proven extremely useful and arguably form the kingpin of the industrial revolution and the digital and information technology revolutions. Key deterministic models that have proven successful include differential equations, synchronous digital logic and single-threaded imperative programs. Cyber-physical systems, however, combine these models in such a way that determinism is not preserved. Two projects show that deterministic CPS models with faithful physical realizations are possible and practical. The first project is PRET, which shows that the timing precision of synchronous digital logic can be practically made available at the software level of abstraction. The second project is Ptides (programming temporally-integrated distributed embedded systems), which shows that deterministic models for distributed cyber-physical systems have practical faithful realizations. These projects are existence proofs that deterministic CPS models are possible and practical. PMID:25730486

  15. The Past, Present and Future of Cyber-Physical Systems: A Focus on Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about better engineering of cyber-physical systems (CPSs through better models. Deterministic models have historically proven extremely useful and arguably form the kingpin of the industrial revolution and the digital and information technology revolutions. Key deterministic models that have proven successful include differential equations, synchronous digital logic and single-threaded imperative programs. Cyber-physical systems, however, combine these models in such a way that determinism is not preserved. Two projects show that deterministic CPS models with faithful physical realizations are possible and practical. The first project is PRET, which shows that the timing precision of synchronous digital logic can be practically made available at the software level of abstraction. The second project is Ptides (programming temporally-integrated distributed embedded systems, which shows that deterministic models for distributed cyber-physical systems have practical faithful realizations. These projects are existence proofs that deterministic CPS models are possible and practical.

  16. The past, present and future of cyber-physical systems: a focus on models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward A

    2015-02-26

    This paper is about better engineering of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) through better models. Deterministic models have historically proven extremely useful and arguably form the kingpin of the industrial revolution and the digital and information technology revolutions. Key deterministic models that have proven successful include differential equations, synchronous digital logic and single-threaded imperative programs. Cyber-physical systems, however, combine these models in such a way that determinism is not preserved. Two projects show that deterministic CPS models with faithful physical realizations are possible and practical. The first project is PRET, which shows that the timing precision of synchronous digital logic can be practically made available at the software level of abstraction. The second project is Ptides (programming temporally-integrated distributed embedded systems), which shows that deterministic models for distributed cyber-physical systems have practical faithful realizations. These projects are existence proofs that deterministic CPS models are possible and practical.

  17. Animal models of autism with a particular focus on the neural basis of changes in social behaviour: an update article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olexová, Lucia; Talarovičová, Alžbeta; Lewis-Evans, Ben; Borbélyová, Veronika; Kršková, Lucia

    2012-12-01

    Research on autism has been gaining more and more attention. However, its aetiology is not entirely known and several factors are thought to contribute to the development of this neurodevelopmental disorder. These potential contributing factors range from genetic heritability to environmental effects. A significant number of reviews have already been published on different aspects of autism research as well as focusing on using animal models to help expand current knowledge around its aetiology. However, the diverse range of symptoms and possible causes of autism have resulted in as equally wide variety of animal models of autism. In this update article we focus only on the animal models with neurobehavioural characteristics of social deficit related to autism and present an overview of the animal models with alterations in brain regions, neurotransmitters, or hormones that are involved in a decrease in sociability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Flipped Model of Instruction on EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension: Learners' Attitudes in Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mehrnoosh; Hamzavi, Raouf

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effect of flipped model of instruction on EFL learners' reading comprehension ability. Moreover, this study aimed at identifying EFL students' attitudes toward flipped model of instruction. To this end, 60 EFL learners studying at an accredited private language institute in Isfahan were first…

  19. The Schoolwide Enrichment Model: A Focus on Student Strengths and Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzulli, Joseph S.; Renzulli, Sally Reis

    2010-01-01

    This article includes an introduction to the Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM), with its three components: a total talent portfolio for each child, curriculum differentiation and modification, and enrichment opportunities from the Enrichment Triad Model. Also included is a brief history of the SEM and a summary of 30 years of research underlying…

  20. Investigation of Pupils' Levels of MVPA and VPA during Physical Education Units Focused on Direct Instruction and Tactical Games Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Stephen; Smith, Lindsey; Fairclough, Stuart; Savory, Louise; Kerr, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) levels of pupils during coeducational physical education units focused on direct instruction and tactical games models (TGM). Thirty-two children (11-12 years, 17 girls) were randomly assigned to either a direct instruction (control) or TGM…

  1. Effects of magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation on bone mechanical properties and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeoh, S.Y.; Arias Moreno, A.J.; Rietbergen, van B.; Hoeve, ter N.D.; Diest, van P.J.; Grull, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a promising technique for palliative treatment of bone pain. In this study, the effects of MR-HIFU ablation on bone mechanics and modeling were investigated. Methods A total of 12 healthy rat femurs were ablated

  2. A clinical reasoning model focused on clients' behaviour change with reference to physiotherapists: its multiphase development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvén, Maria; Hochwälder, Jacek; Dean, Elizabeth; Söderlund, Anne

    2015-05-01

    A biopsychosocial approach and behaviour change strategies have long been proposed to serve as a basis for addressing current multifaceted health problems. This emphasis has implications for clinical reasoning of health professionals. This study's aim was to develop and validate a conceptual model to guide physiotherapists' clinical reasoning focused on clients' behaviour change. Phase 1 consisted of the exploration of existing research and the research team's experiences and knowledge. Phases 2a and 2b consisted of validation and refinement of the model based on input from physiotherapy students in two focus groups (n = 5 per group) and from experts in behavioural medicine (n = 9). Phase 1 generated theoretical and evidence bases for the first version of a model. Phases 2a and 2b established the validity and value of the model. The final model described clinical reasoning focused on clients' behaviour change as a cognitive, reflective, collaborative and iterative process with multiple interrelated levels that included input from the client and physiotherapist, a functional behavioural analysis of the activity-related target behaviour and the selection of strategies for behaviour change. This unique model, theory- and evidence-informed, has been developed to help physiotherapists to apply clinical reasoning systematically in the process of behaviour change with their clients.

  3. The Building Blocks of User-Focused 3D City Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Sargent

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At Ordnance Survey, GB, we have taken an incremental approach to creating our 3D geospatial database. Research at Ordnance Survey has focused not only on methods for deriving 3D data, but also on the needs of the user in terms of the actual tasks they perform. This provides insights into the type and quality of the data required and how its quality is conveyed. In 2007, using task analysis and user-centred design, we derived a set of geometric characteristics of building exteriors that are relevant to one or more use contexts. This work has been valuable for guiding which building data to collect and how to augment our products. In 2014, we began to supply building height attributes as an alpha-release enhancement to our 2D topography data, OS MasterMap® Topography Layer. This is the first in a series of enhancements of our 2D data that forms part of a road map that will ultimately lead to a full range of 3D products. This paper outlines our research journey from the understanding of the key 3D building characteristics to the development of geo-spatial products and the specification of research. There remains a rich seam of research into methods for capturing user-focused, geo-spatial data to enable visualisation and analysis in three dimensions. Because the process of informing and designing a product is necessarily focused on the practicalities of production, storage and distribution, this paper is presented as a case report, as we believe our journey will be of interest to others involved in the capture of 3D buildings at a national level.

  4. From Image Processing to Classification: 1. Modelling Disturbances of Isoelectric Focusing Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Søndergaard, I.; Skovgaard, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    In order to optimize the conditions for evaluation of isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns by digital image processing, the sources of error in determination of the pi values were analyzed together with the influence of a varying background. The effects of band distortions, in the spectra...... of the individual lanes, were examined. In order to minimize the effect of these distortions, optimal conditions for handling IEF patterns by digital image processing were elucidated. The systematic part of the global deformation on the gels was investigated and an algorithm was developed by which it was possible...

  5. Idealized digital models for conical reed instruments, with focus on the internal pressure waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergomard, J; Guillemain, P; Silva, F; Karkar, S

    2016-02-01

    Two models for the generation of self-oscillations of reed conical woodwinds are presented. The models use the fewest parameters (of either the resonator or the exciter), whose influence can be quickly explored. The formulation extends iterated maps obtained for lossless cylindrical pipes without reed dynamics. It uses spherical wave variables in idealized resonators, with one parameter more than for cylinders: the missing length of the cone. The mouthpiece volume equals that of the missing part of the cone, and is implemented as either a cylindrical pipe (first model) or a lumped element (second model). Only the first model adds a length parameter for the mouthpiece and leads to the solving of an implicit equation. For the second model, any shape of nonlinear characteristic can be directly considered. The complex characteristic impedance for spherical waves requires sampling times smaller than a round trip in the resonator. The convergence of the two models is shown when the length of the cylindrical mouthpiece tends to zero. The waveform is in semi-quantitative agreement with experiment. It is concluded that the oscillations of the positive episode of the mouthpiece pressure are related to the length of the missing part, not to the reed dynamics.

  6. A Simulation Modeling Approach Method Focused on the Refrigerated Warehouses Using Design of Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, G. S.

    2017-09-01

    For performance optimization of Refrigerated Warehouses, design parameters are selected based on the physical parameters such as number of equipment and aisles, speeds of forklift for ease of modification. This paper provides a comprehensive framework approach for the system design of Refrigerated Warehouses. We propose a modeling approach which aims at the simulation optimization so as to meet required design specifications using the Design of Experiment (DOE) and analyze a simulation model using integrated aspect-oriented modeling approach (i-AOMA). As a result, this suggested method can evaluate the performance of a variety of Refrigerated Warehouses operations.

  7. Perceptions of Mindfulness in a Low-income, Primarily African American Treatment-Seeking Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C; Bamatter, Wendy P; Barrueco, Sandra; Hoover, Diana Stewart; Perskaudas, Rokas

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups often experience profound disparities in mental health and physical well-being. Mindfulness-based interventions show promise for improving mood and health behaviors in higher-SES and non-Latino White populations. However, research is needed to explore what types of adaptations, if any, are needed to best support underserved populations. This study used qualitative methods to gain information about a) perceptions of mindfulness, b) experiences with meditation, c) barriers to practicing mindfulness, and d) recommendations for tailoring mindfulness-based interventions in a low-income, primarily African American treatment-seeking sample. Eight focus groups were conducted with 32 adults (16 men and 16 women) currently receiving services at a community mental health center. Most participants (91%) were African American. Focus group data were transcribed and analyzed using NVivo 10. A team of coders reviewed the transcripts to identify salient themes. Relevant themes included beliefs that mindfulness practice might improve mental health (e.g., managing stress and anger more effectively) and physical health (e.g., improving sleep and chronic pain, promoting healthier behaviors). Participants also discussed ways in which mindfulness might be consistent with, and even enhance, their religious and spiritual practices. Results could be helpful in tailoring mindfulness-based treatments to optimize feasibility and effectiveness for low-SES adults receiving mental health services.

  8. Three-dimensional gravity modeling and focusing inversion using rectangular meshes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commer, M.

    2011-03-01

    Rectangular grid cells are commonly used for the geophysical modeling of gravity anomalies, owing to their flexibility in constructing complex models. The straightforward handling of cubic cells in gravity inversion algorithms allows for a flexible imposition of model regularization constraints, which are generally essential in the inversion of static potential field data. The first part of this paper provides a review of commonly used expressions for calculating the gravity of a right polygonal prism, both for gravity and gradiometry, where the formulas of Plouff and Forsberg are adapted. The formulas can be cast into general forms practical for implementation. In the second part, a weighting scheme for resolution enhancement at depth is presented. Modelling the earth using highly digitized meshes, depth weighting schemes are typically applied to the model objective functional, subject to minimizing the data misfit. The scheme proposed here involves a non-linear conjugate gradient inversion scheme with a weighting function applied to the non-linear conjugate gradient scheme's gradient vector of the objective functional. The low depth resolution due to the quick decay of the gravity kernel functions is counteracted by suppressing the search directions in the parameter space that would lead to near-surface concentrations of gravity anomalies. Further, a density parameter transformation function enabling the imposition of lower and upper bounding constraints is employed. Using synthetic data from models of varying complexity and a field data set, it is demonstrated that, given an adequate depth weighting function, the gravity inversion in the transform space can recover geologically meaningful models requiring a minimum of prior information and user interaction.

  9. Use of animal models for space flight physiology studies, with special focus on the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Animal models have been used to study the effects of space flight on physiological systems. The animal models have been used because of the limited availability of human subjects for studies to be carried out in space as well as because of the need to carry out experiments requiring samples and experimental conditions that cannot be performed using humans. Experiments have been carried out in space using a variety of species, and included developmental biology studies. These species included rats, mice, non-human primates, fish, invertebrates, amphibians and insects. The species were chosen because they best fit the experimental conditions required for the experiments. Experiments with animals have also been carried out utilizing ground-based models that simulate some of the effects of exposure to space flight conditions. Most of the animal studies have generated results that parallel the effects of space flight on human physiological systems. Systems studied have included the neurovestibular system, the musculoskeletal system, the immune system, the neurological system, the hematological system, and the cardiovascular system. Hindlimb unloading, a ground-based model of some of the effects of space flight on the immune system, has been used to study the effects of space flight conditions on physiological parameters. For the immune system, exposure to hindlimb unloading has been shown to results in alterations of the immune system similar to those observed after space flight. This has permitted the development of experiments that demonstrated compromised resistance to infection in rodents maintained in the hindlimb unloading model as well as the beginning of studies to develop countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent such occurrences. Although there are limitations to the use of animal models for the effects of space flight on physiological systems, the animal models should prove very valuable in designing countermeasures for exploration class missions of the future.

  10. Epidemiology of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Intracranial Hemorrhage: Focusing Predictive Models for Neurosurgical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Alessandro; Levy, A Stewart; Carrick, Matthew M; Tanner, Allen; Mains, Charles W; Bar-Or, David

    2017-11-01

    To outline differences in neurosurgical intervention (NI) rates between intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) types in mild traumatic brain injuries and help identify which ICH types are most likely to benefit from creation of predictive models for NI. A multicenter retrospective study of adult patients spanning 3 years at 4 U.S. trauma centers was performed. Patients were included if they presented with mild traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score 13-15) with head CT scan positive for ICH. Patients were excluded for skull fractures, "unspecified hemorrhage," or coagulopathy. Primary outcome was NI. Stepwise multivariable logistic regression models were built to analyze the independent association between ICH variables and outcome measures. The study comprised 1876 patients. NI rate was 6.7%. There was a significant difference in rate of NI by ICH type. Subdural hematomas had the highest rate of NI (15.5%) and accounted for 78% of all NIs. Isolated subarachnoid hemorrhages had the lowest, nonzero, NI rate (0.19%). Logistic regression models identified ICH type as the most influential independent variable when examining NI. A model predicting NI for isolated subarachnoid hemorrhages would require 26,928 patients, but a model predicting NI for isolated subdural hematomas would require only 328 patients. This study highlighted disparate NI rates among ICH types in patients with mild traumatic brain injury and identified mild, isolated subdural hematomas as most appropriate for construction of predictive NI models. Increased health care efficiency will be driven by accurate understanding of risk, which can come only from accurate predictive models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling Seismic Cycles of Great Megathrust Earthquakes Across the Scales With Focus at Postseismic Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Stephan V.; Muldashev, Iskander A.

    2017-12-01

    Subduction is substantially multiscale process where the stresses are built by long-term tectonic motions, modified by sudden jerky deformations during earthquakes, and then restored by following multiple relaxation processes. Here we develop a cross-scale thermomechanical model aimed to simulate the subduction process from 1 min to million years' time scale. The model employs elasticity, nonlinear transient viscous rheology, and rate-and-state friction. It generates spontaneous earthquake sequences and by using an adaptive time step algorithm, recreates the deformation process as observed naturally during the seismic cycle and multiple seismic cycles. The model predicts that viscosity in the mantle wedge drops by more than three orders of magnitude during the great earthquake with a magnitude above 9. As a result, the surface velocities just an hour or day after the earthquake are controlled by viscoelastic relaxation in the several hundred km of mantle landward of the trench and not by the afterslip localized at the fault as is currently believed. Our model replicates centuries-long seismic cycles exhibited by the greatest earthquakes and is consistent with the postseismic surface displacements recorded after the Great Tohoku Earthquake. We demonstrate that there is no contradiction between extremely low mechanical coupling at the subduction megathrust in South Chile inferred from long-term geodynamic models and appearance of the largest earthquakes, like the Great Chile 1960 Earthquake.

  12. A case study on business model innovations using Blockchain: focusing on financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JaeShup Oh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Blockchain is a distributed ledger, in which the blocks containing transaction details are connected chronologically to form a series of chains, thus raising the possibility of improving the process and innovating business model for the financial institutions. The purpose of this paper is to study the actual cases of Blockchain applied in Korea in 2017, so that a vision of business model innovation of financial institutions can be drawn. Design/methodology/approach - The financial institutions in Korea are in the technology verification stage to introduce Blockchain technology. Since there is an insufficient amount of actual measurement data, case study method was adopted. The authors interviewed ICT officers of major banks in Korea. The purpose of the interview was to understand the relationship between Blockchain and business models of financial institutions, and the effects and challenges that Blockchain has on the business model of financial institutions. Findings - From the perspective of financial institutions, the emergence of Blockchain does not just have technical significance – emergence of highly efficient database system – but has the possibility that if the business model of existing financial intermediaries disappears or get reduced, the financial services relying on them can disappear altogether, or some of them can be replaced, and financial transaction patterns of consumers can be changed. As a case studies researched for this paper, it was discovered that the distributed characteristic of Blockchain cannot be applied when actually developing financial services.

  13. MODEL OF INTERVENTION FOCUSED ON CHILDHOOD AND THEIR PROTAGONISM IN THEIR OWN LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Morera-Castro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to systematize the methodological experience acquired during the Psychomotricity and Intervention Project taught at Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica. This model of intervention aims at strengthening the different areas of human development in children ages 2 to 7, being perceptual-motor development and self-regulation the central axes. As a result of the implementation of this model children were able to become protagonists of their own learning.  They were exposed to different spaces and situations that, through movement, autonomy, analysis and resolution of situations, they were able to learn, face and improve daily tasks, skills and emotions.  The foregoing is according to the perception of the adult in charge of the child, project staff and the child’s own comments. It is concluded that the creation of this model is a contribution for professionals and the general community interested in children’s education and their overall formation.

  14. A closed-loop model of the respiratory system: focus on hypercapnia and active expiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav I Molkov

    Full Text Available Breathing is a vital process providing the exchange of gases between the lungs and atmosphere. During quiet breathing, pumping air from the lungs is mostly performed by contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration, and muscle contraction during expiration does not play a significant role in ventilation. In contrast, during intense exercise or severe hypercapnia forced or active expiration occurs in which the abdominal "expiratory" muscles become actively involved in breathing. The mechanisms of this transition remain unknown. To study these mechanisms, we developed a computational model of the closed-loop respiratory system that describes the brainstem respiratory network controlling the pulmonary subsystem representing lung biomechanics and gas (O2 and CO2 exchange and transport. The lung subsystem provides two types of feedback to the neural subsystem: a mechanical one from pulmonary stretch receptors and a chemical one from central chemoreceptors. The neural component of the model simulates the respiratory network that includes several interacting respiratory neuron types within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes, as well as the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG representing the central chemoreception module targeted by chemical feedback. The RTN/pFRG compartment contains an independent neural generator that is activated at an increased CO2 level and controls the abdominal motor output. The lung volume is controlled by two pumps, a major one driven by the diaphragm and an additional one activated by abdominal muscles and involved in active expiration. The model represents the first attempt to model the transition from quiet breathing to breathing with active expiration. The model suggests that the closed-loop respiratory control system switches to active expiration via a quantal acceleration of expiratory activity, when increases in breathing rate and phrenic amplitude no longer provide sufficient

  15. Immediate survival focus: synthesizing life history theory and dual process models to explain substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Hardesty, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have recently applied evolutionary life history theory to the understanding of behaviors often conceived of as prosocial or antisocial. In addition, researchers have applied cognitive science to the understanding of substance use and used dual process models, where explicit cognitive processes are modeled as relatively distinct from implicit cognitive processes, to explain and predict substance use behaviors. In this paper we synthesized these two theoretical perspectives to produce an adaptive and cognitive framework for explaining substance use. We contend that this framework provides new insights into the nature of substance use that may be valuable for both clinicians and researchers.

  16. Immediate Survival Focus: Synthesizing Life History Theory and Dual Process Models to Explain Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B. Richardson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have recently applied evolutionary life history theory to the understanding of behaviors often conceived of as prosocial or antisocial. In addition, researchers have applied cognitive science to the understanding of substance use and used dual process models, where explicit cognitive processes are modeled as relatively distinct from implicit cognitive processes, to explain and predict substance use behaviors. In this paper we synthesized these two theoretical perspectives to produce an adaptive and cognitive framework for explaining substance use. We contend that this framework provides new insights into the nature of substance use that may be valuable for both clinicians and researchers.

  17. The potential impact and cost of focusing HIV prevention on young women and men: A modeling analysis in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi A Alsallaq

    Full Text Available We compared the impact and costs of HIV prevention strategies focusing on youth (15-24 year-old persons versus on adults (15+ year-old persons, in a high-HIV burden context of a large generalized epidemic.Compartmental age-structured mathematical model of HIV transmission in Nyanza, Kenya.The interventions focused on youth were high coverage HIV testing (80% of youth, treatment at diagnosis (TasP, i.e., immediate start of antiretroviral therapy [ART] and 10% increased condom usage for HIV-positive diagnosed youth, male circumcision for HIV-negative young men, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for high-risk HIV-negative females (ages 20-24 years, and cash transfer for in-school HIV-negative girls (ages 15-19 years. Permutations of these were compared to adult-focused HIV testing coverage with condoms and TasP.The youth-focused strategy with ART treatment at diagnosis and condom use without adding interventions for HIV-negative youth performed better than the adult-focused strategy with adult testing reaching 50-60% coverage and TasP/condoms. Over the long term, the youth-focused strategy approached the performance of 70% adult testing and TasP/condoms. When high coverage male circumcision also is added to the youth-focused strategy, the combined intervention outperformed the adult-focused strategy with 70% testing, for at least 35 years by averting 94,000 more infections, averting 5.0 million more disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, and saving US$46.0 million over this period. The addition of prevention interventions beyond circumcision to the youth-focused strategy would be more beneficial if HIV care costs are high, or when program delivery costs are relatively high for programs encompassing HIV testing coverage exceeding 70%, TasP and condoms to HIV-infected adults compared to combination prevention programs among youth.For at least the next three decades, focusing in high burden settings on high coverage HIV testing, ART treatment upon

  18. A Utilization-Focused Program Evaluation of a Supplemental Educational Services Third-Party Tutoring Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Under the mandates of No Child Left Behind, supplemental educational services (SES) in the form of tutoring are provided to eligible students who attend schools in the 3rd year of program improvement status. A local suburban school district in the southern California currently uses a 3rd party tutoring model to provide tutoring services in both…

  19. Integrative invasion science: model systems, multi-site studies, focused meta-analysis, and invasion syndromes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kueffer, C.; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 3 (2013), s. 615-633 ISSN 1469-8137 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028; GA ČR GA206/09/0563 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : model systems * invasion syndromes * multi-site studies Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.545, year: 2013

  20. MODELING AND SHIFTING FOCUS AS A FACILITATOR FOR INTENTIONAL EMERGENCE IN TRANSFORMATION DESIGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mabogunje, Ade

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the phenomenon "intentional emergence" in a transformation design context. We examine modeling and play enablers for intentional emergence and report on experiences with the Lego Serious Play method. The empirical observations are based on a real-time transformation design...

  1. Triple Diagonal modeling: A mechanism to focus productivity improvement for business success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Villareal, L.D. [Army Depot, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Triple Diagonal (M) modeling is a technique to help quickly diagnose an organization`s existing production system and to identify significant improvement opportunities in executing, controlling, and planning operations. TD modeling is derived from ICAM Definition Language (IDEF 0)-also known as Structured Analysis and Design Technique. It has been used successfully at several Department of Defense remanufacturing facilities trying to accomplish significant production system modernization. TD has several advantages over other modeling techniques. First, it quickly does ``As-ls`` analysis and then moves on to identify improvements. Second, creating one large diagram makes it easier to share the TD model throughout an organization, rather than the many linked 8 1/2 {times} 11`` drawings used in traditional decomposition approaches. Third, it acts as a communication mechanism to share understanding about improvement opportunities that may cross existing functional/organizational boundaries. Finally, TD acts as a vehicle to build a consensus on a prioritized list of improvement efforts that ``hangs togethers as an agenda for systemic changes in the production system and the improved integration of support functions.

  2. Regional modeling of carbonaceous aerosols over Europe-focus on secondary organic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessagnet, B.; Menut, L.; Curci, G.; Hodzic, A.; Guillaume, B.; Liousse, C.; Moukhtar, S.; Pun, B.; Seigneur, C.; Schulz, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, an improved and complete secondary organic aerosols (SOA) chemistry scheme was implemented in the CHIMERE model. The implementation of isoprene chemistry for SOA significantly improves agreement between long series of simulated and observed particulate matter concentrations. While simulated organic carbon concentrations are clearly improved at elevated sites by adding the SOA scheme, time correlation are impaired at low level sites in Portugal, Italy and Slovakia. At several sites a clear underestimation by the CHIMERE model is noticed in wintertime possibly due to missing wood burning emissions as shown in previous modeling studies. In Europe, the CHIMERE model gives yearly average SOA concentrations ranging from 0.5 μg m -3 in the Northern Europe to 4 μg m -3 over forested regions in Spain, France, Germany and Italy. In addition, our work suggests that during the highest fire emission periods, fires can be the dominant source of primary organic carbon over the Mediterranean Basin, but the SOA contribution from fire emissions is low. Isoprene chemistry has a strong impact on SOA formation when using current available kinetic schemes. (authors)

  3. A model of adaptation for families of elderly patients with dementia: focusing on family resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geun Myun; Lim, Ji Young; Kim, Eun Joo; Kim, Sang Suk

    2017-07-19

    We constructed a model explaining families' positive adaptation in chronic crisis situations such as the problematic behavior of elderly patients with dementia and attendant caregiving stress, based on the family resilience model. Our aim was to devise an adaptation model for families of elderly patients with dementia. A survey of problematic behavior in elderly patients with dementia, family stress, family resilience, and family adaptation was conducted with 292 consenting individuals. The collected data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The communication process, family stress, and problematic behavior of elderly patients with dementia had direct and indirect effects on family adaptation, while belief system, organization pattern, and social support had indirect effects. Specifically, family stress and more severe problematic behavior by elderly patients with dementia negatively influenced family adaptation, while greater family resilience improved such adaptation. Interventions aiming to enhance family resilience, based on the results of this study, are required to help families with positive adaptation. Such family programs might involve practical support such as education on the characteristics of elderly persons with dementia and coping methods for their problematic behavior; forming self-help groups for families; revitalizing communication within families; and activating communication channels with experts.

  4. Regional modeling of carbonaceous aerosols over Europe-focus on secondary organic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessagnet, B. [INERIS, Inst Nat Env Indust Risques, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte, (France); Menut, L. [Ecole Poltechnique, Inst Pierre Simon Laplace, Lab Meteorol Dyn, F-91128 Palaiseau, (France); Curci, G. [Univ degli Studi dell' Aquila, CETEMPS, 67010 Coppito - L' Aquila, (Italy); Hodzic, A. [NCAR, Nat Center for Atmosph Research, Boulder, 80301, CO, (United States); Guillaume, B.; Liousse, C. [LA/OMP, Lab Aerol/Observ Midi-Pyrenees, F-31400 Toulouse, (France); Moukhtar, S. [York Univ, Centre Atmosph Chem, Toronto, (Italy); Pun, B.; Seigneur, C. [Atmosph and Environ Research, San Ramon, CA 94583, (United States); Schulz, M. [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, IPSL, Lab Sciences Climat et Environm, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, (France)

    2008-07-01

    In this study, an improved and complete secondary organic aerosols (SOA) chemistry scheme was implemented in the CHIMERE model. The implementation of isoprene chemistry for SOA significantly improves agreement between long series of simulated and observed particulate matter concentrations. While simulated organic carbon concentrations are clearly improved at elevated sites by adding the SOA scheme, time correlation are impaired at low level sites in Portugal, Italy and Slovakia. At several sites a clear underestimation by the CHIMERE model is noticed in wintertime possibly due to missing wood burning emissions as shown in previous modeling studies. In Europe, the CHIMERE model gives yearly average SOA concentrations ranging from 0.5 {mu}g m{sup -3} in the Northern Europe to 4 {mu}g m{sup -3} over forested regions in Spain, France, Germany and Italy. In addition, our work suggests that during the highest fire emission periods, fires can be the dominant source of primary organic carbon over the Mediterranean Basin, but the SOA contribution from fire emissions is low. Isoprene chemistry has a strong impact on SOA formation when using current available kinetic schemes. (authors)

  5. Modeling the Smartphone Game to Improve Players Focus Case Study of Game Dumb Ways to Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Purnamasari

    2014-10-01

    There are a need to find some characteristics of a game which has positive effects for the players. Those characteristics can be formulated as the example of a good game. This paper will analyze the opinion and produce the conclusion from a survey of playing "Dumb Ways to Die to generate a positive game model.

  6. A computational model of focused attention meditation and its transfer to a sustained attention task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moye, Amir Sep; van Vugt, Marieke; van Vugt, Marieke K; Banks, Adrian P; Kennedy, William G

    2017-01-01

    Although meditation and mindfulness practices are widely discussed and studied more and more in the scientific literature, there is little theory about the cognitive mechanisms that comprise it. Here we begin to develop such a theory by creating a computational cognitive model of a particular type

  7. Digital Surface and Terrain Models (DSM,DTM), The DTM associated with the Base Mapping Program consists of mass points and breaklines used primarily for ortho rectification. The DTM specifications included all breaklines for all hydro and transportation features and are the source for the TIPS (Tenn, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Tennessee, OIR-GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Digital Surface and Terrain Models (DSM,DTM) dataset current as of 2007. The DTM associated with the Base Mapping Program consists of mass points and breaklines used...

  8. Focused modelling. Fracture identification in Olkiluoto borehole OL-KR04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokinen, J.; Jakobsson, K.

    2004-10-01

    An extensive set of measured borehole data has been obtained from geological repository investigations in the bedrock of Olkiluoto. Our hypothesis is that geophysical data may be used more efficiently to identify and classify fracture zones. It is known that several geophysical logging methods yield useful information outside the borehole walls that cannot be reached otherwise. At present, this data is used for additional fracture characterization but not for identification purposes. The study focuses on the application of 14 different geophysical data measured in the borehole OL-KR04. The whole data set is divided into main groups using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Each group is composed mainly of sensitive methods detecting specific physical characteristics. The main groups from the geophysical point of view are open fractures, reduced density, increased electrical conductivity, and increased natural radiation. The Varimax optimization method is used to maximize the importance of supporting data as well as to emphasize differences between the discovered principal components. In fracture zone analysis, drilling core samples and the hydrological measurement results form an indispensable data set. For practical reasons, and in order to fulfill the requirements of the PCA analysis, S-wave velocity and electrical resistivity measurements are also performed. A combination of these methods, simultaneously applied using suitable 'trigger limits', identifies penetrated extensive fracture sections in a borehole cost-effectively and unambiguously. (orig.)

  9. Modelling of dynamic and quasistatic events with special focus on wood-drying distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Ekevad, Mats

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals mainly with computer simulations of wood-drying distortions, especially twist. The reason for this is that such distortions often appear in dried timber, and the results are quality downgrades and thus value losses in the wood value chain. A computer simulation is a way to theoretically simulate what happens in reality when moisture content in timber changes. If the computer simulation model is appropriate and capable of realistic simulations of real events, then it is possi...

  10. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound: A Novel Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    and depression-related phenomena. Rationale. Changes in neurological functioning are measurable in humans using neuropsychological assessment... hunger , fear and rage. 20. Cernak I. 2005. Animal models of head trauma. NeuroRx 2:410-22 21. Chandran R, Sharma A, Barry ES, Balakathiresan NS...the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 30:163-72 43. Grunberg NE. 1982. The effects of

  11. Structural Probing and Molecular Modeling of the A₃ Adenosine Receptor: A Focus on Agonist Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancetta, Antonella; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2017-03-11

    Adenosine is an endogenous modulator exerting its functions through the activation of four adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes, termed A₁, A 2A , A 2B and A₃, which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. The human A₃AR (hA₃AR) subtype is implicated in several cytoprotective functions. Therefore, hA₃AR modulators, and in particular agonists, are sought for their potential application as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and cardioprotective agents. Structure-based molecular modeling techniques have been applied over the years to rationalize the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of newly emerged A₃AR ligands, guide the subsequent lead optimization, and interpret site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) data from a molecular perspective. In this review, we showcase selected modeling-based and guided strategies that were applied to elucidate the binding of agonists to the A₃AR and discuss the challenges associated with an accurate prediction of the receptor extracellular vestibule through homology modeling from the available X-ray templates.

  12. Structural Probing and Molecular Modeling of the A3 Adenosine Receptor: A Focus on Agonist Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancetta, Antonella; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous modulator exerting its functions through the activation of four adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes, termed A1, A2A, A2B and A3, which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. The human A3AR (hA3AR) subtype is implicated in several cytoprotective functions. Therefore, hA3AR modulators, and in particular agonists, are sought for their potential application as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and cardioprotective agents. Structure-based molecular modeling techniques have been applied over the years to rationalize the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of newly emerged A3AR ligands, guide the subsequent lead optimization, and interpret site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) data from a molecular perspective. In this review, we showcase selected modeling-based and guided strategies that were applied to elucidate the binding of agonists to the A3AR and discuss the challenges associated with an accurate prediction of the receptor extracellular vestibule through homology modeling from the available X-ray templates. PMID:28287473

  13. Structural Probing and Molecular Modeling of the A3 Adenosine Receptor: A Focus on Agonist Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Ciancetta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine is an endogenous modulator exerting its functions through the activation of four adenosine receptor (AR subtypes, termed A1, A2A, A2B and A3, which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR superfamily. The human A3AR (hA3AR subtype is implicated in several cytoprotective functions. Therefore, hA3AR modulators, and in particular agonists, are sought for their potential application as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and cardioprotective agents. Structure-based molecular modeling techniques have been applied over the years to rationalize the structure–activity relationships (SARs of newly emerged A3AR ligands, guide the subsequent lead optimization, and interpret site-directed mutagenesis (SDM data from a molecular perspective. In this review, we showcase selected modeling-based and guided strategies that were applied to elucidate the binding of agonists to the A3AR and discuss the challenges associated with an accurate prediction of the receptor extracellular vestibule through homology modeling from the available X-ray templates.

  14. Focus on the studies in support of fire safety analysis. IRSN modelling approach for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espargilliere, Julien; Meyrand, Raphael; Vinot, Thierry [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2015-12-15

    For a fire safety analysis, in order to comply with nuclear safety goals, a nuclear fuel facility operator has to define the elements important for safety to be maintained, even in the case of a fire. One of the key points of this fire analysis is the assessment of possible fire scenarios in the facility. This paper presents the IRSN method applied to a case study to assess fire scenarios which have the most harmful effects on safety targets. The layout consists in a central room (fire cell) containing three glove boxes with radioactive material and three electrical cabinets. This room is linked to two connecting compartments (the fire cell and these two compartments define the containment cell) and then to two corridors. Each room is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, and a pressure cascade is established from the corridors to the central room. A fire scenario was studied with fire ignition occurring in an electrical cabinet. This scenario has a set of safety goals (prevention of fire cell and containment device failure, propagation of the fire). This case study was conducted with the IRSN code SYLVIA based on two zones modelling. Safety goals were associated with key parameters and performance criteria to be fulfilled. Modelling assumptions were defined in order to maximize physical effects of the fire. Sensitivity studies were also conducted on key parameters such as oxygen limitation, equivalent-fuel definition. Eventually, a critical analysis of the code models was carried out.

  15. Control-focused, nonlinear and time-varying modelling of dielectric elastomer actuators with frequency response analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, William R; Dodd, Tony J; Anderson, Sean R; Wilson, Emma D; Porrill, John; Assaf, Tareq; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Current models of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are mostly constrained to first principal descriptions that are not well suited to the application of control design due to their computational complexity. In this work we describe an integrated framework for the identification of control focused, data driven and time-varying DEA models that allow advanced analysis of nonlinear system dynamics in the frequency-domain. Experimentally generated input–output data (voltage-displacement) was used to identify control-focused, nonlinear and time-varying dynamic models of a set of film-type DEAs. The model description used was the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input structure. Frequency response analysis of the DEA dynamics was performed using generalized frequency response functions, providing insight and a comparison into the time-varying dynamics across a set of DEA actuators. The results demonstrated that models identified within the presented framework provide a compact and accurate description of the system dynamics. The frequency response analysis revealed variation in the time-varying dynamic behaviour of DEAs fabricated to the same specifications. These results suggest that the modelling and analysis framework presented here is a potentially useful tool for future work in guiding DEA actuator design and fabrication for application domains such as soft robotics. (paper)

  16. Investigation of cellular and molecular responses to pulsed focused ultrasound in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R Burks

    Full Text Available Continuous focused ultrasound (cFUS has been widely used for thermal ablation of tissues, relying on continuous exposures to generate temperatures necessary to induce coagulative necrosis. Pulsed FUS (pFUS employs non-continuous exposures that lower the rate of energy deposition and allow cooling to occur between pulses, thereby minimizing thermal effects and emphasizing effects created by non-thermal mechanisms of FUS (i.e., acoustic radiation forces and acoustic cavitation. pFUS has shown promise for a variety of applications including drug and nanoparticle delivery; however, little is understood about the effects these exposures have on tissue, especially with regard to cellular pro-homing factors (growth factors, cytokines, and cell adhesion molecules. We examined changes in murine hamstring muscle following pFUS or cFUS and demonstrate that pFUS, unlike cFUS, has little effect on the histological integrity of muscle and does not induce cell death. Infiltration of macrophages was observed 3 and 8 days following pFUS or cFUS exposures. pFUS increased expression of several cytokines (e.g., IL-1α, IL-1β, TNFα, INFγ, MIP-1α, MCP-1, and GMCSF creating a local cytokine gradient on days 0 and 1 post-pFUS that returns to baseline levels by day 3 post-pFUS. pFUS exposures induced upregulation of other signaling molecules (e.g., VEGF, FGF, PlGF, HGF, and SDF-1α and cell adhesion molecules (e.g., ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on muscle vasculature. The observed molecular changes in muscle following pFUS may be utilized to target cellular therapies by increasing homing to areas of pathology.

  17. Parasites Affect Food Web Structure Primarily through Increased Diversity and Complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunne, J.A.; Lafferty, K.D.; Dobson, A.P.; Hechinger, R.F.; Kuris, A.M.; Martinez, N.D.; McLaughlin, J.P.; Mouritsen, K.N.; Poulin, R.; Reise, K.; Stouffer, D.B.; Thieltges, D.W.; Williams, R.J.; Zander, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters

  18. Modeling focusing characteristics of low Fnumber diffractive optical elements with continuous relief fabricated by laser direct writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Mingguang; Tan, Jiubin

    2007-12-10

    A theoretical model is established using Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory to describe the diffraction focusing characteristics of low F-number diffractive optical elements with continuous relief fabricated by laser direct writing, and continuous-relief diffractive optical elements with a design wavelength of 441.6nm and a F-number of F/4 are fabricated and measured to verify the validity of the diffraction focusing model. The measurements made indicate that the spot size is 1.75mum and the diffraction efficiency is 70.7% at the design wavelength, which coincide well with the theoretical results: a spot size of 1.66mum and a diffraction efficiency of 71.2%.

  19. Validation of the Dynamic Wake Meander model with focus on tower loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T. J.; Larsen, G. C.; Pedersen, M. M.; Enevoldsen, K.; Madsen, H. A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a comparison between measured and simulated tower loads for the Danish offshore wind farm Nysted 2. Previously, only limited full scale experimental data containing tower load measurements have been published, and in many cases the measurements include only a limited range of wind speeds. In general, tower loads in wake conditions are very challenging to predict correctly in simulations. The Nysted project offers an improved insight to this field as six wind turbines located in the Nysted II wind farm have been instrumented to measure tower top and tower bottom moments. All recorded structural data have been organized in a database, which in addition contains relevant wind turbine SCADA data as well as relevant meteorological data - e.g. wind speed and wind direction - from an offshore mast located in the immediate vicinity of the wind farm. The database contains data from a period extending over a time span of more than 3 years. Based on the recorded data basic mechanisms driving the increased loading experienced by wind turbines operating in offshore wind farm conditions have been identified, characterized and modeled. The modeling is based on the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) approach in combination with the state-of-the-art aeroelastic model HAWC2, and has previously as well as in this study shown good agreement with the measurements. The conclusions from the study have several parts. In general the tower bending and yaw loads show a good agreement between measurements and simulations. However, there are situations that are still difficult to match. One is tower loads of single-wake operation near rated ambient wind speed for single wake situations for spacing’s around 7-8D. A specific target of the study was to investigate whether the largest tower fatigue loads are associated with a certain downstream distance. This has been identified in both simulations and measurements, though a rather flat optimum is seen in the measurements.

  20. Autism spectrum disorder model mice: Focus on copy number variation and epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Nobuhiro; Otsuka, Susumu; Myung, Jihwan; Takumi, Toru

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is gathering concerns in socially developed countries. ASD is a neuropsychiatric disorder of genetic origin with high prevalence of 1%-2%. The patients with ASD characteristically show impaired social skills. Today, many genetic studies identify numerous susceptible genes and genetic loci associated with ASD. Although some genetic factors can lead to abnormal brain function linked to ASD phenotypes, the pathogenic mechanism of ASD is still unclear. Here, we discuss a new mouse model for ASD as an advanced tool to understand the mechanism of ASD.

  1. Trends in biomedical engineering: focus on Patient Specific Modeling and Life Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubini, Gabriele; Ambrosi, Davide; Bagnoli, Paola; Boschetti, Federica; Caiani, Enrico G; Chiastra, Claudio; Conti, Carlo A; Corsini, Chiara; Costantino, Maria Laura; D'Angelo, Carlo; Formaggia, Luca; Fumero, Roberto; Gastaldi, Dario; Migliavacca, Francesco; Morlacchi, Stefano; Nobile, Fabio; Pennati, Giancarlo; Petrini, Lorenza; Quarteroni, Alfio; Redaelli, Alberto; Stevanella, Marco; Veneziani, Alessandro; Vergara, Christian; Votta, Emiliano; Wu, Wei; Zunino, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Over the last twenty years major advancements have taken place in the design of medical devices and personalized therapies. They have paralleled the impressive evolution of three-dimensional, non invasive, medical imaging techniques and have been continuously fuelled by increasing computing power and the emergence of novel and sophisticated software tools. This paper aims to showcase a number of major contributions to the advancements of modeling of surgical and interventional procedures and to the design of life support systems. The selected examples will span from pediatric cardiac surgery procedures to valve and ventricle repair techniques, from stent design and endovascular procedures to life support systems and innovative ventilation techniques.

  2. Mathematical model of massive dynamics in the neighborhood of disturbance focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeeva, Lyudmila A. [Institute of Mathematics and Mathematical Modeling, 050010, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Sarsenov, Bakytbek T. [Akhmet Yasawi International Kazakh-Turkish University, 161200 Turkistan (Kazakhstan)

    2015-09-18

    We consider a model problem for the research of Earth’s surface state caused by discharge of tectonic stress on the deep cracks in the earth’s crust. Using the numerical method of bicharacteristics, algorithm is developed and solution of the problem of non-stationary dynamics of a homogeneous isotropic elastic half-space is built under plane strain when one resets the vertical stress on crack. Diffraction of waves on the surface is studied, pictures of wave fields and stress-strain state of the medium and the surface for different moments of time are built.

  3. Optical modeling of a corneal inlay in real eyes to increase depth of focus: optimum centration and residual defocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Juan; Artal, Pablo

    2012-02-01

    To determine the optimum position to center a small-aperture corneal inlay and the effect of residual defocus in the surgical eye to maximize depth of focus. Laboratorio de Óptica, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain. Cohort study. Personalized eye models were built using actual data (corneal topography, eye length, ocular aberrations, and eye alignment). A small aperture 1.6 mm in diameter was placed at the corneal plane in each model. The monochromatic and polychromatic Strehl ratios were calculated as a function of the pinhole position. Different residual defocus values were also incorporated into the models, and the through-focus Strehl ratios were calculated. Sixteen eye models were built. For most subjects, the optimum location of the aperture for distance vision was close to the corneal reflex position. For a given optimized centration of the aperture, the best compromise of depth of focus was obtained when the eyes had some residual myopic defocus (range -0.75 to -1.00 diopter [D]). Strehl ratio values were over 0.1 for far distance, which led to visual acuities better than 20/20. The depth of focus was 2.50 D with a mean near visual acuity of Jaeger 1 or better. In eyes with little astigmatism and aberrations, the optimum centration of the small aperture was near the corneal reflex position. To improve optical outcomes with the inlay, some small residual myopia and correction of corneal astigmatism might be required. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of a Typical CSTR Using Optimal Focused Time Lagged Recurrent Neural Network Model with Gamma Memory Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Naikwad, S. N.; Dudul, S. V.

    2009-01-01

    A focused time lagged recurrent neural network (FTLR NN) with gamma memory filter is designed to learn the subtle complex dynamics of a typical CSTR process. Continuous stirred tank reactor exhibits complex nonlinear operations where reaction is exothermic. It is noticed from literature review that process control of CSTR using neuro-fuzzy systems was attempted by many, but optimal neural network model for identification of CSTR process is not yet available. As CSTR process includes tempora...

  5. Accelerating Neuronal Aging in In Vitro Model Brain Disorders: a Focus on Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Britto Campos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we discuss insights gained through the use of stem cell preparations regarding the modeling of neurological diseases, the need for aging neurons derived from pluripotent stem cells to further advance the study of late-onset adult neurological diseases, and the extent to which mechanisms linked to the mismanagement of ROS. The context of these issues can be revealed using the three disease states of Parkinson’s (PD, Alzheimer’s (AD, and schizophrenia, as considerable insights have been gained into these conditions through the use of stem cells in terms of disease etiologies and the role of oxidative stress. The latter subject is a primary area of interest of our group. After discussing the molecular models of accelerated aging, we highlight the role of ROS for the three diseases explored here. Importantly, we do not seek to provide an extensive account of all genetic mutations for each of the three disorders discussed in this review, but we aim instead to provide a conceptual framework that could maximize the gains from merging the approaches of stem cell microsystems and the study of oxidative stress in disease in order to optimize therapeutics and determine new molecular targets against oxidative stress that spare stem cell proliferation and development.

  6. A Predictive Model of Domestic Violence in Multicultural Families Focusing on Perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Young; Hyun, Hye Jin

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess predictor variables of husbands in multicultural families and examine the relationship among variables after setting up a hypothetical model including influencing factors, so as to provide a framework necessary for developing nursing interventions of domestic violence. The participants were 260 husbands in multicultural families in four cities in Korea. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 20.0. Self-control, social support, family of origin violence experience and stress on cultural adaptation directly affected to dysfunctional communication, and the explanatory power of the variables was 64.7%. Family of origin violence experience in domestic stress on cultural adaptation, and dysfunctional communication were directly related to domestic violence in multicultural families, and the explanatory power of the variables was 64.6%. We found out that all variables in the model had mediation effects to domestic violence through dysfunctional communication. In other words, self-control and social support had complete mediation effects, and family of origin violence experience in domestic violence and stress on cultural adaptation had partial mediation effects. The variables explained in this study should be considered as predictive factors of domestic violence in multicultural families, and used to provide preventive nursing intervention. Our resutls can be taken into account for developing and implementing programs on alleviating dysfunctional communication in multicultural families in Korea. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Groundwater flow modeling focused on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori; Kohashi, Akio; Watanabe, Masahisa

    2015-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company is facing contaminated water issues in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. The amount of contaminated water is continuously increasing due to groundwater leakage into the underground part of reactor and turbine buildings. Therefore, it is important to understand the groundwater flow conditions at the site and to predict the impact of countermeasures taken for isolating groundwater from the source of the contamination, i.e. the reactor buildings. Installations, such as of land-side and sea-side impermeable walls have been planned as countermeasures. In this study, groundwater flow modeling has been performed to estimate the response of groundwater flow conditions to the countermeasures. From the modeling, groundwater recharge and discharge areas, major groundwater flow direction, inflow rate into underground part of the buildings, and changes in response to implementation of the countermeasures could be reasonably estimated. The results indicate that the countermeasures will decrease the volume of inflow into the underground part of the buildings. This means that the countermeasures will be effective in reducing the discharge volume of contaminated groundwater to ocean. (author)

  8. Are invertebrates relevant models in ageing research? Focus on the effects of rapamycin on TOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is the organisms increased susceptibility to death, which is linked to accumulated damage in the cells and tissues. Ageing is a complex process regulated by crosstalk of various pathways in the cells. Ageing is highly regulated by the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway activity. TOR is an evolutionary conserved key protein kinase in the TOR pathway that regulates growth, proliferation and cell metabolism in response to nutrients, growth factors and stress. Comparing the ageing process in invertebrate model organisms with relatively short lifespan with mammals provides valuable information about the molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing process faster than mammal systems. Inhibition of the TOR pathway activity via either genetic manipulation or rapamycin increases lifespan profoundly in most invertebrate model organisms. This contribution will review the recent findings in invertebrates concerning the TOR pathway and effects of TOR inhibition by rapamycin on lifespan. Besides some contradictory results, the majority points out that rapamycin induces longevity. This suggests that administration of rapamycin in invertebrates is a promising tool for pursuing the scientific puzzle of lifespan prolongation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Numerical experiments on plasma focus for soft x-ray yield scaling laws derivation using Lee model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akel, M.

    2015-01-01

    The required plasma parameters of krypton and xenon at different temperatures were calculated, the x-ray emission properties of plasmas were studied, and based on the corona model the suitable temperature range for generating H-like and He-like ions (therefore soft x-ray emissions) of different gases plasma were found. The code is applied to characterize the plasma focus in different plasma focus devices, and for optimizing the nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon soft x-ray yields based on bank, tubes and operating parameters. It is found that t he soft x-ray yield increases with changing pressure until it reaches the maximum value for each plasma focus device. Keeping the bank parameters, operational voltage unchanged but systematically changing other parameters, numerical experiments were performed finding the optimum combination of Po, z0 and 'a' for the maximum soft x-ray yield. Thus we expect to increase the soft x-ray yield of plasma focus device several-fold from its present typical operation; without changing the capacitor bank, merely by changing the electrode configuration and the operating pressure. The Lee model code was also used to run numerical experiments on plasma focus devices for optimizing soft x-ray yield with reducing Lo, varying z0 and 'a' to get engineering designs with maximum soft x-ray yield for these devices at different experimental conditions and gases. Numerical experiments showed the influence of the gas used in plasma focus and its propor ties on soft x-ray emission and its propor ties and then on its applications. Scaling laws for soft x-ray of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon plasma focus in terms of energy, peak discharge current and focus pinch current were found. Radiative cooling effects are studied indicating that radiative collapse may be observed for heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe) for pinch currents even below 100 k A. The results show that the line radiation emission and

  10. Numerical experiments on plasma focus for soft x-ray yield scaling laws derivation using Lee model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akel, M.

    2012-09-01

    The required plasma parameters of krypton and xenon at different temperatures were calculated, the x-ray emission properties of plasmas were studied, and based on the corona model the suitable temperature range for generating H-like and He-like ions (therefore soft x-ray emissions) of different gases plasma were found. The code is applied to characterize the plasma focus in different plasma focus devices, and for optimizing the nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon soft x-ray yields based on bank, tubes and operating parameters. It is found that the soft x-ray yield increases with changing pressure until it reaches the maximum value for each plasma focus device. Keeping the bank parameters, operational voltage unchanged but systematically changing other parameters, numerical experiments were performed finding the optimum combination of P o , Z o and 'a' for the maximum soft x-ray yield. Thus we expect to increase the soft x-ray yield of plasma focus device several-fold from its present typical operation; without changing the capacitor bank, merely by changing the electrode configuration and the operating pressure. The Lee model code was also used to run numerical experiments on plasma focus devices for optimizing soft x-ray yield with reducing L o , varying L o and 'a' to get engineering designs with maximum soft x-ray yield for these devices at different experimental conditions and gases. Numerical experiments showed the influence of the gas used in plasma focus and its properties on soft x-ray emission and its properties and then on its applications. Scaling laws for soft x-ray of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon plasma focus, in terms of energy, peak discharge current and focus pinch current were found. Radiative cooling effects are studied indicating that radiative collapse may be observed for heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe) for pinch currents even below 100 kA. The results show that the line radiation emission and tube voltages have

  11. Value-Focused Thinking Model to Evaluate SHM System Alternatives From Military end User Requirements Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimaszewski Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes Value-Focused Thinking (VFT model developed in order to evaluate various alternatives for implementation of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM system on a military aircraft. Four SHM system alternatives are considered based on: visual inspection (current approach, piezoelectric (PZT sensors, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors and Comparative Vacuum Monitoring (CVM sensors. A numerical example is shown to illustrate the model capability. Sensitivity analyses are performed on values such as Cost, Performance, Aircraft Availability and Technology Readiness Level in order to examine influence of these values on overall value of structural state of awareness provided by particular SHM system alternative.

  12. Transmembrane Signal Transduction in Oocyte Maturation and Fertilization: Focusing on Xenopus laevis as a Model Animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Sato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization is a cell biological phenomenon of crucial importance for the birth of new life in a variety of multicellular and sexual reproduction species such as algae, animal and plants. Fertilization involves a sequence of events, in which the female gamete “egg” and the male gamete “spermatozoon (sperm” develop, acquire their functions, meet and fuse with each other, to initiate embryonic and zygotic development. Here, it will be briefly reviewed how oocyte cytoplasmic components are orchestrated to undergo hormone-induced oocyte maturation and sperm-induced activation of development. I then review how sperm-egg membrane interaction/fusion and activation of development in the fertilized egg are accomplished and regulated through egg coat- or egg plasma membrane-associated components, highlighting recent findings and future directions in the studies using Xenopus laevis as a model experimental animal.

  13. Customer Focused Product Design Using Integrated Model of Target Costing, Quality Function Deployment and Value Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rezaei Dolatabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Target costing by integrating customer requirements, technical attributes and cost information into the product design phase and eliminating the non-value added functions, plays a vital role in different phases of the product life cycle. Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Value Engineering (VE are two techniques which can be used for applying target costing, successfully. The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated model of target costing, QFD and VE to explore the role of target costing in managing product costs while promoting quality specifications meeting customers’ needs. F indings indicate that the integration of target costing, QFD and VE is an essential technique in managing the costs of production process. Findings also imply that integration of the three techniques provides a competitive cost advantage to companies.

  14. Unspoken Playground Rules Discourage Adolescent Physical Activity in School: A Focus Group Study of Constructs in the Prototype Willingness Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Catherine M; Davies, Emma L; Dawes, Helen

    2018-03-01

    The health benefits of exercise in school are recognized, yet physical activity continues to decline during early adolescence despite numerous interventions. In this study, we investigated whether the prototype willingness model, an account of adolescent decision making that includes both reasoned behavioral choices and unplanned responses to social environments, might improve understanding of physical activity in school. We conducted focus groups with British pupils aged 12 to 13 years and used deductive thematic analysis to search for themes relating to the model. Participants described reasoned decisions about physical activity outside school and unplanned choices to be inactive during break, in response to social contexts described as more "judgmental" than in primary school. Social contexts appeared characterized by anxiety about competence, negative peer evaluation, and inactive playground norms. The prototype willingness model might more fully explain physical activity in school than reasoned behavioral models alone, indicating potential for interventions targeting anxieties about playground social environments.

  15. A review of safety-focused mechanical modeling of commercial lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Juner; Wierzbicki, Tomasz; Li, Wei

    2018-02-01

    We are rapidly approaching an inflection point in the adoption of electric vehicles on the roads. All major automotive companies are having well-funded plans for mass market affordable branded EV product line models, which can open the floodgates. A rapid growth of battery energy density, accompanied by an aggressive progress of reduction of costs of lithium-ion batteries, brings safety concerns. While more energy stored in the battery pack of an EV translates to a longer range, the downside is that accidents will be more violent due to battery inevitable explosion. With today's technology, severe crashes involving intrusion into the battery pack will potentially result in a thermal runaway, fire, and explosion. Most of research on lithium-ion batteries have been concerned with the electrochemistry of cells. However, in most cases failure and thermal runaway is caused by mechanical loading due to crash events. There is a growing need to summarize the already published results on mechanical loading and response of batteries and offer a critical evaluation of work in progress. The objective of this paper is to present such review with a discussion of many outstanding issues and outline of a roadmap for future research.

  16. A MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODEL FOCUSED ON THE CONFIGURATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD RESPONSIBLE FOR A SOLAR PENUMBRAL MICROJET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magara, T.

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand the configuration of magnetic field producing a solar penumbral microjet that was recently discovered by Hinode, we performed a magnetohydrodynamic simulation reproducing a dynamic process of how that configuration is formed in a modeled solar penumbral region. A horizontal magnetic flux tube representing a penumbral filament is placed in a stratified atmosphere containing the background magnetic field that is directed in a relatively vertical direction. Between the flux tube and the background field there forms the intermediate region in which the magnetic field has a transitional configuration, and the simulation shows that in the intermediate region magnetic reconnection occurs to produce a clear jet-like structure as suggested by observations. The result that a continuous distribution of magnetic field in three-dimensional space gives birth to the intermediate region producing a jet presents a new view about the mechanism of a penumbral microjet, compared to a simplistic view that two field lines, one of which represents a penumbral filament and the other the background field, interact together to produce a jet. We also discuss the role of the intermediate region in protecting the structure of a penumbral filament subject to microjets.

  17. From quantum to classical modeling of radiation reaction: A focus on stochasticity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niel, F.; Riconda, C.; Amiranoff, F.; Duclous, R.; Grech, M.

    2018-04-01

    Radiation reaction in the interaction of ultrarelativistic electrons with a strong external electromagnetic field is investigated using a kinetic approach in the nonlinear moderately quantum regime. Three complementary descriptions are discussed considering arbitrary geometries of interaction: a deterministic one relying on the quantum-corrected radiation reaction force in the Landau and Lifschitz (LL) form, a linear Boltzmann equation for the electron distribution function, and a Fokker-Planck (FP) expansion in the limit where the emitted photon energies are small with respect to that of the emitting electrons. The latter description is equivalent to a stochastic differential equation where the effect of the radiation reaction appears in the form of the deterministic term corresponding to the quantum-corrected LL friction force, and by a diffusion term accounting for the stochastic nature of photon emission. By studying the evolution of the energy moments of the electron distribution function with the three models, we are able to show that all three descriptions provide similar predictions on the temporal evolution of the average energy of an electron population in various physical situations of interest, even for large values of the quantum parameter χ . The FP and full linear Boltzmann descriptions also allow us to correctly describe the evolution of the energy variance (second-order moment) of the distribution function, while higher-order moments are in general correctly captured with the full linear Boltzmann description only. A general criterion for the limit of validity of each description is proposed, as well as a numerical scheme for the inclusion of the FP description in particle-in-cell codes. This work, not limited to the configuration of a monoenergetic electron beam colliding with a laser pulse, allows further insight into the relative importance of various effects of radiation reaction and in particular of the discrete and stochastic nature of high

  18. Corrective emotional experience in an integrative affect-focused therapy: Building a preliminary model using task analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kaori; Iwakabe, Shigeru

    2018-03-01

    The present study constructed a preliminary process model of corrective emotional experience (CEE) in an integrative affect-focused therapy. Task analysis was used to analyse 6 in-session events taken from 6 Japanese clients who worked with an integrative affect-focused therapist. The 6 events included 3 successful CEEs and 3 partially successful CEEs for comparison. A rational-empirical model of CEE was generated, which consisted of two parallel client change processes, intrapersonal change and interpersonal change, and the therapist interventions corresponding to each process. Therapist experiential interventions and therapist affirmation facilitated both intrapersonal and interpersonal change processes, whereas his relational interventions were associated with the interpersonal change process. The partially successful CEEs were differentiated by the absence of the component of core painful emotions or negative beliefs in intrapersonal change process, which seemed crucial for the interpersonal change process to develop. CEE is best represented by a preliminary model that depicts two parallel yet interacting change processes. Intrapersonal change process is similar to the sequence of change described by the emotional processing model (Pascual-Leone & Greenberg, ), whereas interpersonal change process is a unique contribution of this study. Interpersonal change process was facilitated when the therapist's active stance and use of immediacy responses to make their relational process explicit allowed a shared exploration. Therapist affirmation bridged intrapersonal change to interpersonal change by promoting an adaptive sense of self in clients and forging a deeper emotional connection between the two. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Ray Tracing through the Edge Focusing of Rectangular Benders and an Improved Model for the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolski, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barlow, David B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macek, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCrady, Rodney C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    Particle ray tracing through simulated 3D magnetic fields was executed to investigate the effective quadrupole strength of the edge focusing of the rectangular bending magnets in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR). The particle rays receive a kick in the edge field of the rectangular dipole. A focal length may be calculated from the particle tracking and related to the fringe field integral (FINT) model parameter. This tech note introduces the baseline lattice model of the PSR and motivates the need for an improvement in the baseline model's vertical tune prediction, which differs from measurement by .05. An improved model of the PSR is created by modifying the fringe field integral parameter to those suggested by the ray tracing investigation. This improved model is then verified against measurement at the nominal PSR operating set point and at set points far away from the nominal operating conditions. Lastly, Linear Optics from Closed Orbits (LOCO) is employed in an orbit response matrix method for model improvement to verify the quadrupole strengths of the improved model.

  20. Fourier and non-Fourier bio-heat transfer models to predict ex vivo temperature response to focused ultrasound heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenghai; Miao, Jiaming; Yang, Kexin; Guo, Xiasheng; Tu, Juan; Huang, Pintong; Zhang, Dong

    2018-05-01

    Although predicting temperature variation is important for designing treatment plans for thermal therapies, research in this area is yet to investigate the applicability of prevalent thermal conduction models, such as the Pennes equation, the thermal wave model of bio-heat transfer, and the dual phase lag (DPL) model. To address this shortcoming, we heated a tissue phantom and ex vivo bovine liver tissues with focused ultrasound (FU), measured the temperature response, and compared the results with those predicted by these models. The findings show that, for a homogeneous-tissue phantom, the initial temperature increase is accurately predicted by the Pennes equation at the onset of FU irradiation, although the prediction deviates from the measured temperature with increasing FU irradiation time. For heterogeneous liver tissues, the predicted response is closer to the measured temperature for the non-Fourier models, especially the DPL model. Furthermore, the DPL model accurately predicts the temperature response in biological tissues because it increases the phase lag, which characterizes microstructural thermal interactions. These findings should help to establish more precise clinical treatment plans for thermal therapies.

  1. Application of solution focused brief counseling model to increase of counselee resilience as a part of multicultural society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Kurnia Sari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern multicultural society and is a dynamic life marked by interaction between the components of a diverse society based on the rule of science and technology. A society that is increasingly complex due to the rapid changes in various aspects of life often creates problems for the individual's life. For example, inner tension, internal and external conflicts, and emotional disturbance. Facing these challenges, the individual is expected to have resilience was good. The role of the counselor is to help the counselee improve resilience with counseling approach effectively. Counseling models that meet the criteria of an effective and efficient is the Solution Focused Brief Counseling. Counseling model emphasizes the collaborative process between counselor and counselee to find solutions to achieve the expected goals. In the process of this counseling model uses questioning techniques to uncover the story, advantages, strengths and exceptions problems experienced by counselee in a short time.

  2. The Future of Digital Music Services in Three Stereotypes; How Focus Groups of End Users See the New Business Models

    OpenAIRE

    Bookholt, Erik; Spil, Antonius A.M.; Katsma, Christiaan

    2013-01-01

    “I am just a stereotype” sang Terry Hall in 1980. Ariola records took them in and made the band The Specials a world success. How will that process go in 2014? Will they put it on You Tube for free? Do they need a record company? Will they have less or more fans, earn less or more money? Focus group interviews with 90 people between the ages of 15 and 25 were successfully employed to create 20 new business models for the digital music industry. Analysis with grounded theory revealed that a ne...

  3. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-10

    Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics in a DPF and the associated instabilities and neutron production.

  4. Modeling the impacts of cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan: observations from cetacean watching boats: 2002-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yung-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chin; Kyle, Gerard T; Yang, Ming-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan has grown rapidly since 1997. This development, measured in terms of both number of tour boats and visitors, has resulted in many resource management challenges stemming from the absence of regulation and scientific data. To fill this void in empirical evidence, we used 464 sighting records from 2002 to 2005 to model the impact of cetacean-focused tourism. Cox proportional hazard analysis indicated cetacean avoidance responses to cetacean watching boats were strongly associated with pod size, mother-calf pairs, and cetacean-vessel distances. Mother-calf pairs abandoned their avoidance tactic by 55% compared to noncalf groups when tour boats approached. Second, the hazard ratio of abundance was 0.996, suggesting that the odds of encountering avoidance responses by the cetaceans decreased by 42% for every 100-member increase in the cetacean pod size. Last, distances maintained by boats from the cetaceans was positively related to avoidance responses (i.e., less avoidance behavior with closer interaction). Based on our findings, we have the following recommendations: (a) limit vessels from approaching mothers with calves, (b) limit vessels from approaching small groups of cetaceans, (c) reduced avoidance behavior to boat traffic may be a red flag for potential long-term disturbance, and (d) apply the "precautionary principle" based on the best scientific information available in cetacean-based tourism in Taiwan. These recommendations will help contribute to the sustainable development of cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan.

  5. Modeling the Impacts of Cetacean-Focused Tourism in Taiwan: Observations from Cetacean Watching Boats: 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yung-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chin; Kyle, Gerard T.; Yang, Ming-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan has grown rapidly since 1997. This development, measured in terms of both number of tour boats and visitors, has resulted in many resource management challenges stemming from the absence of regulation and scientific data. To fill this void in empirical evidence, we used 464 sighting records from 2002 to 2005 to model the impact of cetacean-focused tourism. Cox proportional hazard analysis indicated cetacean avoidance responses to cetacean watching boats were strongly associated with pod size, mother-calf pairs, and cetacean-vessel distances. Mother-calf pairs abandoned their avoidance tactic by 55% compared to noncalf groups when tour boats approached. Second, the hazard ratio of abundance was 0.996, suggesting that the odds of encountering avoidance responses by the cetaceans decreased by 42% for every 100-member increase in the cetacean pod size. Last, distances maintained by boats from the cetaceans was positively related to avoidance responses (i.e., less avoidance behavior with closer interaction). Based on our findings, we have the following recommendations: (a) limit vessels from approaching mothers with calves, (b) limit vessels from approaching small groups of cetaceans, (c) reduced avoidance behavior to boat traffic may be a red flag for potential long-term disturbance, and (d) apply the "precautionary principle" based on the best scientific information available in cetacean-based tourism in Taiwan. These recommendations will help contribute to the sustainable development of cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan.

  6. Focusing ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    underpinnings of focusing ethnographic research by comparing different schools of thought and suggesting a practice theory-based approach. It argues that many research projects are focused but do not reflect on the process of focusing, describes how to identify focal settings or practices, and introduces......Building theory with ethnography and filmic research increasingly requires focussing on key practices or settings, instead of painting a broad panorama of a culture. But few authors discuss why and how to focus. This article provides a systematic discussion of the theoretical and methodological...

  7. Therapeutic effects of microbubble added to combined high-intensity focused ultrasound and chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mi Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Ri [Dept. of Pre-Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University College of Dentistry, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Ihn [Dept. of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model.

  8. Therapeutic Effects of Microbubbles Added to Combined High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound and Chemotherapy in a Pancreatic Cancer Xenograft Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mi Hye [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 05030 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Ri [Department of Pre-Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University College of Dentistry, Gangneung 25457 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun-Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Ihn [Department of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul 06973 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model.

  9. Thermal Ablation of the Pancreas With Intraoperative High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound: Safety and Efficacy in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Aurélien; Melodelima, David; Pflieger, Hannah; Chen, Yao; Vincenot, Jérémy; Kocot, Anthony; Langonnet, Stéphan; Rivoire, Michel

    2017-02-01

    New focal destruction technologies such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) may improve the prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Our objectives were to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of intraoperative pancreatic HIFU ablation in a porcine model. In a porcine model (N = 12), a single HIFU ablation was performed in either the body or tail of the pancreas, distant to superior mesenteric vessels. All animals were sacrificed on the eighth day. The primary objective was to obtain an HIFU ablation measuring at least 1 cm without premature death. In total, 12 HIFU ablations were carried out. These ablations were performed within 160 seconds and on average measured 20 (15-27) × 16 (8-26) mm. The primary objective was fulfilled in all but 1 pig. There were no premature deaths or severe complications. High-intensity focused ultrasound treatment was associated with a transitory increase in amylase and lipase levels, and pseudocysts were observed in half of the pigs without being clinically apparent. All ablations were well delimited at both gross and histological examinations. Intraoperative thermal destruction of porcine pancreas with HIFU is feasible. Reproducibility and safety have to be confirmed when applied close to mesenteric vessels and in long-term preclinical studies.

  10. Focused Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Knoblauch

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I focus on a distinctive kind of sociological ethnography which is particularly, though not exclusively, adopted in applied research. It has been proposed that this branch of ethno­graphy be referred to as focused ethnography. Focused ethnography shall be delineated within the context of other common conceptions of what may be called conventional ethnography. However, rather than being opposed to it, focused ethno­graphy is rather complementary to conventional ethnography, particularly in fields that are charac­teristic of socially and functionally differentiated contemporary society. The paper outlines the back­ground as well as the major methodological features of focused ethnography, such as short-term field visits, data intensity and time intensity, so as to provide a background for future studies in this area. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503440

  11. Exploring Parental and Staff Perceptions of the Family-Integrated Care Model: A Qualitative Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Margaret; Parsons, Georgia; Carlisle, Hazel; Kecskes, Zsuzsoka; Thibeau, Shelley

    2017-12-01

    Family-integrated care (FICare) is an innovative model of care developed at Mount Sinai Hospital, Canada, to better integrate parents into the team caring for their infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The effects of FICare on neonatal outcomes and parental anxiety were assessed in an international multicenter randomized trial. As an Australian regional level 3 NICU that was randomized to the intervention group, we aimed to explore parent and staff perceptions of the FICare program in our dual occupancy NICU. This qualitative study took place in a level 3 NICU with 5 parent participants and 8 staff participants, using a post implementation review design. Parents and staff perceptions of FICare were explored through focus group methodology. Thematic content analysis was done on focus group transcripts. Parents and staff perceived the FICare program to have had a positive impact on parental confidence and role attainment and thought that FICare improved parent-to-parent and parent-to-staff communication. Staff reported that nurses working with families in the program performed less hands-on care and spent more time educating and supporting parents. FICare may change current NICU practice through integrating and accepting parents as active members of the infant's care team. In addition, nurse's roles may transition from bedside carer to care coordinator, educating and supporting parents during their journey through the NICU. Further research is needed to assess the long-term impact of FICare on neonates, parents, and staff.

  12. A semi-analytical model of a time reversal cavity for high-amplitude focused ultrasound applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, J.; Tanter, M.; Pernot, M.

    2017-09-01

    Time reversal cavities (TRC) have been proposed as an efficient approach for 3D ultrasound therapy. They allow the precise spatio-temporal focusing of high-power ultrasound pulses within a large region of interest with a low number of transducers. Leaky TRCs are usually built by placing a multiple scattering medium, such as a random rod forest, in a reverberating cavity, and the final peak pressure gain of the device only depends on the temporal length of its impulse response. Such multiple scattering in a reverberating cavity is a complex phenomenon, and optimisation of the device’s gain is usually a cumbersome process, mostly empirical, and requiring numerical simulations with extremely long computation times. In this paper, we present a semi-analytical model for the fast optimisation of a TRC. This model decouples ultrasound propagation in an empty cavity and multiple scattering in a multiple scattering medium. It was validated numerically and experimentally using a 2D-TRC and numerically using a 3D-TRC. Finally, the model was used to determine rapidly the optimal parameters of the 3D-TRC which had been confirmed by numerical simulations.

  13. Identification of a Typical CSTR Using Optimal Focused Time Lagged Recurrent Neural Network Model with Gamma Memory Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Naikwad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A focused time lagged recurrent neural network (FTLR NN with gamma memory filter is designed to learn the subtle complex dynamics of a typical CSTR process. Continuous stirred tank reactor exhibits complex nonlinear operations where reaction is exothermic. It is noticed from literature review that process control of CSTR using neuro-fuzzy systems was attempted by many, but optimal neural network model for identification of CSTR process is not yet available. As CSTR process includes temporal relationship in the input-output mappings, time lagged recurrent neural network is particularly used for identification purpose. The standard back propagation algorithm with momentum term has been proposed in this model. The various parameters like number of processing elements, number of hidden layers, training and testing percentage, learning rule and transfer function in hidden and output layer are investigated on the basis of performance measures like MSE, NMSE, and correlation coefficient on testing data set. Finally effects of different norms are tested along with variation in gamma memory filter. It is demonstrated that dynamic NN model has a remarkable system identification capability for the problems considered in this paper. Thus FTLR NN with gamma memory filter can be used to learn underlying highly nonlinear dynamics of the system, which is a major contribution of this paper.

  14. Effects of human hair on trans-cranial focused ultrasound efficacy in an ex-vivo cadaver model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hananel, Arik; Snell, John W.; Kassell, Neal F.; Eames, Matthew D. C.

    2012-11-01

    Current practice before a trans-cranial MR guided Focused ultrasound procedure is shaving the patient head on treatment day. Here we present an initial attempt to evaluate the feasibility of trans-cranial FUS, in an unshaved, ex-vivo cadaver skull. We have sonicated using 220kHz and 710kHz head transducers, a cadaver skull filled with tissue mimicking phantom and covered with a wig made of human hair to evaluate feasibility of acoustic energy transfer in a full size model. Heating at focal point was measured using MR proton resonance shift thermometry. Results showed negligible effect of hair in 220kHz, and an 18% drop in temperature elevation when using 710kHz.

  15. Focus On Impact® for a Profit-Driven Medical Practice, Part I: Capitalize on the New Economy with the First Four Steps of the Focus On Impact® Strategic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton-Dibner, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    How do you raise revenues in a practice that is defined by insurance regulations, operating expenses, and an ever-shifting economy? The most effective strategy is completely counterintuitive: to grow your revenues, take your focus off of money and focus every aspect of your practice on making a measurable impact in people's lives. This article presents a proven, step-by-step model to thrive in the new economy by maximizing and capitalizing on your impact so you can reap the rewards of your efforts and recapture the passion that first drove you to serve as a healthcare professional.

  16. PROPOSAL FOR A MEASUREMENT MODEL FOR SOFTWARE TESTS WITH A FOCUS ON THE MANAGEMENT OF OUTSOURCED SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Toffano Seidel Calazans

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The need for outsourcing IT services has shown a significant growth over the past few years. This article presents a proposal for a measurement model for Software Tests with a focus on the management of these outsourced services by governmental organizations. The following specific goals were defined: to identify and analyze the test process; to identify and analyze the existing standards that govern the hiring of IT services and to propose a Measurement Model for outsourced services of this type. As to the analysis of the data collected (documentary research and semi-structured interviews, content analysis was adopted, and in order to prepare the metrics, the GQM – Goal, Questions, Metrics – approach was used. The result was confirmed by semi-structured interviews. Here is what the research identifies as possible: to establish objective and measurable criteria for a measurement size as the input to evaluate the efforts and deadlines involved; to follow up the test sub-processes and to evaluate the service quality. Therefore, the management of this type of service hiring can be done more efficiently.

  17. Modeling localized delivery of Doxorubicin to the brain following focused ultrasound enhanced blood-brain barrier permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nhan, Tam; Burgess, Alison; Hynynen, Kullervo; Lilge, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is a well-established chemotherapeutic agent, however it has limited efficacy in treating brain malignancies due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recent preclinical studies have demonstrated that focused ultrasound induced BBB disruption (BBBD) enables efficient delivery of Dox to the brain. For future treatment planning of BBBD-based drug delivery, it is crucial to establish a mathematical framework to predict the effect of transient BBB permeability enhancement on the spatiotemporal distribution of Dox at the targeted area. The constructed model considers Dox concentrations within three compartments (plasma, extracellular, intracellular) that are governed by various transport processes (e.g. diffusion in interstitial space, exchange across vessel wall, clearance by cerebral spinal fluid, uptake by brain cells). By examining several clinical treatment aspects (e.g. sonication scheme, permeability enhancement, injection mode), our simulation results support the experimental findings of optimal interval delay between two consecutive sonications and therapeutically-sufficient intracellular concentration with respect to transfer constant K trans range of 0.01–0.03 min −1 . Finally, the model suggests that infusion over a short duration (20–60 min) should be employed along with single-sonication or multiple-sonication at 10 min interval to ensure maximum delivery to the intracellular compartment while attaining minimal cardiotoxicity via suppressing peak plasma concentration. (paper)

  18. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  19. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements...

  20. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  1. Re-appraisal and extension of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus evolution in the context of contemporary research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent resurgence of interest in applications of dense plasma focus and doubts about the conventional view of dense plasma focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow have re-opened questions concerning device optimization. In this context, this paper re-appraises and extends the analytical snowplow model of plasma focus sheath evolution developed by F. Gratton and J. M. Vargas [Energy Storage, Compression and Switching, edited by V. Nardi, H. Sahlin, and W. H. Bostick (Plenum, New York, 1983), Vol. 2, p. 353)] and shows its relevance to contemporary research. The Gratton-Vargas (GV) model enables construction of a special orthogonal coordinate system in which the plasma flow problem can be simplified and a model of sheath structure can be formulated. The Lawrenceville Plasma Physics (LPP) plasma focus facility, which reports neutron yield better than global scaling law, is shown to be operating closer to an optimum operating point of the GV model as compared with PF-1000

  2. The construction of a model of the process of couples' forgiveness in emotion-focused therapy for couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Catalina Woldarsky; Greenberg, Leslie S

    2011-10-01

    This study explored how forgiveness unfolds in the context of emotion-focused couples therapy (EFT-C) in eight cases of women betrayed by their partners. Forgiveness was defined as a process involving the reduction in negative feelings and the giving out of undeserved compassion. This was measured by changes in the pre- and posttreatment scores on the Enright Forgiveness Inventory, the Unfinished Business Resolution Scale, and a single item directly asking respondents to indicate their degree of forgiveness. A task analysis was performed to rigorously track the steps leading to forgiveness using videotapes of therapy sessions for eight couples. The performance of the four couples who forgave were compared with each other and then contrasted with the performance of another four couples who did not reach forgiveness at the end of therapy. Based on these observations, a model of the process of forgiveness in EFT-C and a process rating system were developed. © 2011 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  3. Black women, work, stress, and perceived discrimination: the focused support group model as an intervention for stress reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, V M

    1995-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the use of two components (small and large groups) of a community-based intervention, the Focused Support Group (FSG) model, to alleviate employment-related stressors in Black women. Participants were assigned to small groups based on occupational status. Groups met for five weekly 3-hr sessions in didactic or small- and large-group formats. Two evaluations following the didactic session and the small and large group sessions elicited information on satisfaction with each of the formats, self-reported change in stress, awareness of interpersonal and sociopolitical issues affecting Black women in the labor force, assessing support networks, and usefulness of specific discussion topics to stress reduction. Results indicated the usefulness of the small- and large-group formats in reduction of self-reported stress and increases in personal and professional sources of support. Discussions on race and sex discrimination in the workplace were effective in overall stress reduction. The study highlights labor force participation as a potential source of stress for Black women, and supports the development of culture- and gender-appropriate community interventions as viable and cost-effective methods for stress reduction.

  4. Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Alain; Jolas, Alain; Garconnet, J.-P.; Mascureau, J. de; Nazet, Christian; Coudeville, Alain; Bekiarian, Andre.

    1977-01-01

    The present report is the edition of the lectures given in a conference on the Focus experiment held at the Centre d'etudes de Limeil, on Oct. 1975. After a survey of the early laboratories one will find the main results obtained in Limeil concerning interferometry, laser scattering, electric and magnetic-measurements, X-ray and neutron emission and also the possible use of explosive current generators instead of capacitor banks at high energy levels. The principal lines of future research are given in the conclusion [fr

  5. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  6. Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Dunne

    Full Text Available Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite data. Our analyses show that adding parasites usually increases link density and connectance (simple measures of complexity, particularly when including concomitant links (links from predators to parasites of their prey. However, we clarify prior claims that parasites "dominate" food web links. Although parasites can be involved in a majority of links, in most cases classic predation links outnumber classic parasitism links. Regarding network structure, observed changes in degree distributions, 14 commonly studied metrics, and link probabilities are consistent with scale-dependent changes in structure associated with changes in diversity and complexity. Parasite and free-living species thus have similar effects on these aspects of structure. However, two changes point to unique roles of parasites. First, adding parasites and concomitant links strongly alters the frequency of most motifs of interactions among three taxa, reflecting parasites' roles as resources for predators of their hosts, driven by trophic intimacy with their hosts. Second, compared to free-living consumers, many parasites' feeding niches appear broader and less contiguous, which may reflect complex life cycles and small body sizes. This study provides new insights about generic versus unique impacts of parasites on food web structure, extends the generality of food web theory, gives a more rigorous framework for assessing the impact of any species on trophic

  7. Hydrogen peroxide production is not primarily increased in human myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, A D; Gaster, M

    2011-09-01

    Increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. To date, it is unknown whether increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes is primarily increased or a secondary adaptation to environmental, lifestyle, and hormonal factors. This study investigates whether ROS production is primarily increased in isolated diabetic myotubes. Mitochondrial membrane potential, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide, and mitochondrial mass were determined in human myotubes precultured under normophysiological conditions. Furthermore, the corresponding ATP synthesis was measured in isolated mitochondria. Muscle biopsies were taken from 10 lean subjects, 10 obese subjects, and 10 subjects with type 2 diabetes; satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Mitochondrial mass, membrane potential/mitochondrial mass, and superoxide-production/mitochondrial mass were not different between groups. In contrast, H(2)O(2) production/mitochondrial mass and ATP production were significantly reduced in diabetic myotubes compared to lean controls (P production is not primarily increased in diabetic myotubes but rather is reduced. Moreover, the comparable ATP/H(2)O(2) ratios indicate that the reduced ROS production in diabetic myotubes parallels the reduced ATP production because ROS production in diabetic myotubes must be considered to be in a proportion comparable to lean. Thus, the increased ROS production seen in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients is an adaptation to the in vivo conditions.

  8. Effects of magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation on bone mechanical properties and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sin Yuin; Arias Moreno, Andrés J; van Rietbergen, Bert; Ter Hoeve, Natalie D; van Diest, Paul J; Grüll, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a promising technique for palliative treatment of bone pain. In this study, the effects of MR-HIFU ablation on bone mechanics and modeling were investigated. A total of 12 healthy rat femurs were ablated using 10 W for 46 ± 4 s per sonication with 4 sonications for each femur. At 7 days after treatments, all animals underwent MR and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Then, six animals were euthanized. At 1 month following ablations, the remaining six animals were scanned again with MR and SPECT/CT prior to euthanization. Thereafter, both the HIFU-treated and contralateral control bones of three animals from each time interval were processed for histology, whereas the remaining bones were subjected to micro-CT (μCT), three-point bending tests, and micro-finite element (micro-FE) analyses. At 7 days after HIFU ablations, edema formation around the treated bones coupled with bone marrow and cortical bone necrosis was observed on MRI and histological images. SPECT/CT and μCT images revealed presence of bone modeling through an increased uptake of (99m)Tc-MDP and formation of woven bone, respectively. At 31 days after ablations, as illustrated by imaging and histology, healing of the treated bone and the surrounding soft tissue was noted, marked by decreased in amount of tissue damage, formation of scar tissue, and sub-periosteal reaction. The results of three-point bending tests showed no significant differences in elastic stiffness, ultimate load, and yield load between the HIFU-treated and contralateral control bones at 7 days and 1 month after treatments. Similarly, the elastic stiffness and Young's moduli determined by micro-FE analyses at both time intervals were not statistically different. Multimodality imaging and histological data illustrated the presence of HIFU-induced bone damage at the cellular level, which activated the

  9. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  10. Modelisation of transport in fractured media with a smeared fractures modeling approach: special focus on matrix diffusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourno, A.; Grenier, C.; Benabderrahmane, H.

    2003-04-01

    Modeling flow and transport in natural fractured media is a difficult issue due among others to the complexity of the system, the particularities of the geometrical features, the strong parameter value contrasts between the fracture zones (flow zones) and the matrix zones (no flow zones). This lead to the development of dedicated tools like for instance discrete fracture network models (DFN). We follow here another line applicable for classical continuous modeling codes. The fracture network is not meshed here but presence of fractures is taken into account by means of continuous heterogeneous fields (permeability, porosity, head, velocity, concentration ...). This line, followed by different authors, is referred as smeared fracture approach and presents the following advantages: the approach is very versatile because no dedicated spatial discretization effort is required (we use a basic regular mesh, simulations can be done on a rough mesh saving computer time). This makes this kind of approach very promising for taking heterogeneity of properties as well as uncertainties into account within a Monte Carlo framework for instance. Furthermore, the geometry of the matrix blocks where transfers proceed by diffusion is fully taken into account contrary to classical simplified 1D approach for instance. Nevertheless continuous heterogeneous field representation of a fractured medium requires a homogenization process at the scale of the mesh considered. Literature proves that this step of homogenization for transport is still a challenging task. Consequently, the level precision of the results has to be estimated. We precedently proposed a new approach dedicated to Mixed and Hybrid Finite Element approach. This numerical scheme is very interesting for such highly heterogeneous media and in particular guaranties exact conservation of mass flow for each mesh leading to good transport results. We developed a smeared fractures approach to model flow and transport limited to

  11. Laser beam induced nanoscale spot through nonlinear “thick” samples: A multi-layer thin lens self-focusing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jingsong; Yan, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Self-focusing is a well-researched phenomenon. Nanoscale spots can be achieved through self-focusing, which is an alternative method for achieving high-density data storage, high-resolution light imaging, and maskless nanolithography. Several research groups have observed that self-focusing spots can be reduced to nanoscale levels via incident laser power manipulation. Self-focusing spots can be analyzed by solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the finite difference time domain method. However, both procedures are complex and time-consuming. In the present work, a multi-layer thin-lens self-focusing model that considers diffraction effects and changes of refractive index along the radial and film thickness directions is proposed to analyze the self-focusing behavior and traveling process of light beams intuitively. The self-focusing behaviors of As 2 S 3 are simulated, and results show that a nanoscale self-focusing spot with a radius of about 0.12 μm can be formed at the bottom of nonlinear sample when the incident laser power exceeds 4.25 mW. Our findings are basically consistent with experimental reports and provide a good method for analyzing and understanding the self-focusing process. An appropriate application schematic design is also provided

  12. Eningiomas: outcome, and analysis of prognostic factors of primarily resected tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, S.L.; Perry, A.; Suman, V.; Meyer, B.; Scheithauer, B.W.; Shaw, E.G.; Earle, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: 582 consecutive cases of primary intracranial meningioma undergoing resection at the Mayo Clinic, (Rochester, MN) were reviewed to determine overall survival (OS), progression free survival(PFS), prognostic factors predicting recurrence, and to determine the importance of radiation therapy in the management of this tumor. Materials and Methods: Between 1978-1988, 582 cases of primarily resected meningiomas were identified based on the tumor and operative registries where diagnosis was between 1978-1988 inclusive. PFS was identified by radiographic progression. Follow-up was accomplished by chart review, and a detailed questionnaire sent to patients and referring physicians. Estimation of OS and PFS distributions were done by the Kaplan-Meier method. The log rank test was used to assess which factors were associated with PFS. Proportional hazard modeling was performed to obtain a subset of independent predictors of PFS. Results: the median age was 57(5-93). 67% were female. CT identified the tumor in 91% of cases. There was associated edema in 21% and 2% were radiographically en plaque. There were 17 patients with multiple tumors, four of whom had a known diagnosis of neurofibromatosis. Gross total resection (GTR) was accomplished in 80%, radical subtotal or subtotal resection(STR) in 20%, and biopsy in 53) cellularity, and four or more mitoses per 10 HPF. Multivariate analysis indicated young age, male sex, en plaque at surgery, were significant for decreased PFS when only patient characteristics were considered. When treatment and pathologic factors were also considered, then young age, male sex, less than GTR, and tumor sheeting were predictors for decreased PFS. 10 patients had RT after initial resection, two of whom recurred. There were 107 first recurrences. 50 were observed(no intervention within 3 months), 35 treated by surgery alone, 11 had S+RT, and 11 were treated with RT alone. Considering those patients treated at recurrence (n=57), PFS was at

  13. Triacylglycerol Accumulation is not primarily affected in Myotubes established from Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation, glucose and fatty acid (FA) uptake, and glycogen synthesis (GS) in human myotubes from healthy, lean, and obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D), exposed to increasing palmitate (PA) and oleate (OA...... uptake (P0.05). These results indicate that (1) TAG accumulation is not primarily affected in skeletal muscle tissue of obese and T2D; (2) induced inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation is followed by TAG accumulation...... in skeletal muscle of obese and T2D subjects is adaptive....

  14. Disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with purity-based moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Fieke M A; Brandt, Mark J; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2018-03-01

    Individual differences in disgust sensitivity are associated with a range of judgments and attitudes related to the moral domain. Some perspectives suggest that the association between disgust sensitivity and moral judgments will be equally strong across all moral domains (i.e., purity, authority, loyalty, care, fairness, and liberty). Other perspectives predict that disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with judgments of specific moral domains (e.g., primarily purity). However, no study has systematically tested if disgust sensitivity is associated with moral judgments of the purity domain specifically, more generally to moral judgments of the binding moral domains, or to moral judgments of all of the moral domains equally. Across 5 studies (total N = 1,104), we find consistent evidence for the notion that disgust sensitivity relates more strongly to moral condemnation of purity-based transgressions (meta-analytic r = .40) than to moral condemnation of transgressions of any of the other domains (range meta-analytic rs: .07-.27). Our findings are in line with predictions from Moral Foundations Theory, which predicts that personality characteristics like disgust sensitivity make people more sensitive to a certain set of moral issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Lamin A/C mutation affecting primarily the right side of the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ollila

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LMNA mutations are amongst the most important causes of familial dilated cardiomyopathy. The most important cause of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC is desmosomal pathology. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of LMNA mutations among Finnish cardiomyopathy patients. We screened 135 unrelated cardiomyopathy patients for LMNA mutations. Because of unusual phenotype, two patients were screened for the known Finnish ARVC-related mutations of desmosomal genes, and their Plakophilin-2b gene was sequenced. Myocardial samples from two patients were examined by immunohistochemical plakoglobin staining and in one case by electron microscopy. We found a new LMNA mutation Phe237Ser in a family of five affected members with a cardiomyopathy affecting primarily the right side of the heart. The phenotype resembles ARVC but does not fulfill the Task Force Criteria. The main clinical manifestations of the mutation were severe tricuspid insufficiency, right ventricular enlargement and failure. Three of the affected patients died of the heart disease, and the two living patients received heart transplants at ages 44 and 47. Electron microscopy showed nuclear blebbing compatible with laminopathy. Immunohisto - chemical analysis did not suggest desmosomal pathology. No desmosomal mutations were found. The Phe237Ser LMNA mutation causes a phenotype different from traditional cardiolaminopathy. Our findings suggest that cardiomyopathy affecting primarily the right side of the heart is not always caused by desmosomal pathology. Our observations highlight the challenges in classifying cardiomyopathies, as there often is significant overlap between the traditional categories.

  16. Strategy-focused writing instruction: just observing and reflecting on a model benefits 6th grade students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidalgo, R.; Torrance, M.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; van den Bergh, H.; Álvarez, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Three groups of typically-developing 6th grade students (total N = 62) each completed strategy-focused writing training. Using a combined lagged-group and cross-panel design we assessed the effectiveness of a sequence of four different instructional components: observation and group reflection on a

  17. The Future of Digital Music Services in Three Stereotypes; How Focus Groups of End Users See the New Business Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bookholt, Erik; Spil, Antonius A.M.; Katsma, Christiaan

    2013-01-01

    “I am just a stereotype” sang Terry Hall in 1980. Ariola records took them in and made the band The Specials a world success. How will that process go in 2014? Will they put it on You Tube for free? Do they need a record company? Will they have less or more fans, earn less or more money? Focus group

  18. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellis, Birgit; Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004-2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students.

  19. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D.; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M.; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004–2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students. PMID:29698502

  20. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling: Methodology, Applications, and Limitations with a Focus on Its Role in Pediatric Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras Khalil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK modeling was introduced years ago, but it has not been practiced significantly. However, interest in and implementation of this modeling technique have grown, as evidenced by the increased number of publications in this field. This paper demonstrates briefly the methodology, applications, and limitations of PBPK modeling with special attention given to discuss the use of PBPK models in pediatric drug development and some examples described in detail. Although PBPK models do have some limitations, the potential benefit from PBPK modeling technique is huge. PBPK models can be applied to investigate drug pharmacokinetics under different physiological and pathological conditions or in different age groups, to support decision-making during drug discovery, to provide, perhaps most important, data that can save time and resources, especially in early drug development phases and in pediatric clinical trials, and potentially to help clinical trials become more “confirmatory” rather than “exploratory”.

  1. Direct healthcare costs of selected diseases primarily or partially transmitted by water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, S A; Stockman, L J; Hicks, L A; Garrison, L E; Zhou, F J; Beach, M J

    2012-11-01

    Despite US sanitation advancements, millions of waterborne disease cases occur annually, although the precise burden of disease is not well quantified. Estimating the direct healthcare cost of specific infections would be useful in prioritizing waterborne disease prevention activities. Hospitalization and outpatient visit costs per case and total US hospitalization costs for ten waterborne diseases were calculated using large healthcare claims and hospital discharge databases. The five primarily waterborne diseases in this analysis (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, Legionnaires' disease, otitis externa, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection) were responsible for over 40 000 hospitalizations at a cost of $970 million per year, including at least $430 million in hospitalization costs for Medicaid and Medicare patients. An additional 50 000 hospitalizations for campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, shigellosis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and toxoplasmosis cost $860 million annually ($390 million in payments for Medicaid and Medicare patients), a portion of which can be assumed to be due to waterborne transmission.

  2. Temporal integration of loudness in listeners with hearing losses of primarily cochlear origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Søren; Florentine, Mary; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    To investigate how hearing loss of primarily cochlear origin affects the loudness of brief tones, loudness matches between 5- and 200-ms tones were obtained as a function of level for 15 listeners with cochlear impairments and for seven age-matched controls. Three frequencies, usually 0.5, 1, and 4...... of temporal integration—defined as the level difference between equally loud short and long tones—varied nonmonotonically with level and was largest at moderate levels. No consistent effect of frequency was apparent. The impaired listeners varied widely, but most showed a clear effect of level on the amount...... of temporal integration. Overall, their results appear consistent with expectations based on knowledge of the general properties of their loudness-growth functions and the equal-loudness-ratio hypothesis, which states that the loudness ratio between equal-SPL long and brief tones is the same at all SPLs...

  3. The Serotonin Transporter Undergoes Constitutive Internalization and Is Primarily Sorted to Late Endosomes and Lysosomal Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Bay, Tina; Eriksen, Jacob; Gether, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating serotonin signaling by mediating reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT levels in the membrane remain poorly understood. To study trafficking of the surface resident SERT, two functional epitope-tagged variants were generated. Fusion of a FLAG-tagged one-transmembrane segment protein Tac to the SERT N terminus generated a transporter with an extracellular epitope suited for trafficking studies (TacSERT). Likewise, a construct with an extracellular antibody epitope was generated by introducing an HA (hemagglutinin) tag in the extracellular loop 2 of SERT (HA-SERT). By using TacSERT and HA-SERT in antibody-based internalization assays, we show that SERT undergoes constitutive internalization in a dynamin-dependent manner. Confocal images of constitutively internalized SERT demonstrated that SERT primarily co-localized with the late endosomal/lysosomal marker Rab7, whereas little co-localization was observed with the Rab11, a marker of the “long loop” recycling pathway. This sorting pattern was distinct from that of a prototypical recycling membrane protein, the β2-adrenergic receptor. Furthermore, internalized SERT co-localized with the lysosomal marker LysoTracker and not with transferrin. The sorting pattern was further confirmed by visualizing internalization of SERT using the fluorescent cocaine analog JHC1-64 and by reversible and pulse-chase biotinylation assays showing evidence for lysosomal degradation of the internalized transporter. Finally, we found that SERT internalized in response to stimulation with 12-myristate 13-acetate co-localized primarily with Rab7- and LysoTracker-positive compartments. We conclude that SERT is constitutively internalized and that the internalized transporter is sorted mainly to degradation. PMID:24973209

  4. Consortia Focused on Photovoltaic R&D, Manufacturing, and Testing: A Review of Existing Models and Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggeshall, C.; Margolis, R. M.

    2010-03-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program prepares to initiate a new cost-shared research and development (R&D) effort on photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, it is useful to review the experience to date with consortia focused on PV R&D, manufacturing, and testing. Information was gathered for this report by conducting interviews and accessing Web sites of 14 U.S. consortia and four European consortia, each with either a primary focus on or an emerging interest in PV technology R&D, manufacturing, or testing. Additional input was collected from several workshops held by the DOE and National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 2009, which examined the practical steps -- including public-private partnerships and policy support -- necessary to enhance the United States' capacity to competitively manufacture photovoltaics. This report categorizes the 18 consortia into three groups: university-led consortia, industry-led consortia, and manufacturing and testing facilities consortia. The first section summarizes the organizations within the different categories, with a particular focus on the key benefits and challenges for each grouping. The second section provides a more detailed overview of each consortium, including the origins, goals, organization, membership, funding sources, and key contacts. This survey is a useful resource for stakeholders interested in PV manufacturing R&D, but should not imply endorsement of any of these groups.

  5. Report on Integration of Existing Grid Models for N-R HES Interaction Focused on Balancing Authorities for Sub-hour Penalties and Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McJunkin, Timothy; Epiney, Aaron; Rabiti, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the effort in the Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy System (N-R HES) project on the level 4 milestone to consider integration of existing grid models into the factors for optimization on shorter time intervals than the existing electric grid models with the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) and Modelica [1] optimizations and economic analysis that are the focus of the project to date.

  6. Report on Integration of Existing Grid Models for N-R HES Interaction Focused on Balancing Authorities for Sub-hour Penalties and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McJunkin, Timothy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Epiney, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report provides a summary of the effort in the Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy System (N-R HES) project on the level 4 milestone to consider integration of existing grid models into the factors for optimization on shorter time intervals than the existing electric grid models with the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) and Modelica [1] optimizations and economic analysis that are the focus of the project to date.

  7. Examining Teacher Mental Models for the Implementation of a STEM-Focused Curriculum Paradigm in Engineering and Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Janel M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of mental models in Idaho's Engineering and Technology Education teachers' in decision making when faced with major curriculum changes. Senge (1990) defined mental models as, "deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that influence how we understand the world…

  8. A Study on Development of a Cost Optimal and Energy Saving Building Model: Focused on Industrial Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Yeon Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study suggests an optimization method for the life cycle cost (LCC in an economic feasibility analysis when applying energy saving techniques in the early design stage of a building. Literature and previous studies were reviewed to select appropriate optimization and LCC analysis techniques. The energy simulation (Energy Plus and computational program (MATLAB were linked to provide an automated optimization process. From the results, it is suggested that this process could outline the cost optimization model with which it is possible to minimize the LCC. To aid in understanding the model, a case study on an industrial building was performed to outline the operations of the cost optimization model including energy savings. An energy optimization model was also presented to illustrate the need for the cost optimization model.

  9. Focused ultrasound treatment of abscesses induced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Feasibility study in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieck, Birgit; Bates, David; Pichardo, Samuel; Curiel, Laura; Zhang, Kunyan; Escott, Nicholas; Mougenot, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study the therapeutic effect of focused ultrasound on abscesses induced by methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen where immunocompromised patients are prone to develop infections that are less and less responsive to regular treatments. Because of its capability to induce a rise of temperature at a very precise location, the use of focused ultrasound represents a considerable opportunity for therapy of localized MRSA-related infections. Methods: 50μl of MRSA strain USA400 bacteria suspension at a concentration of 1.32 ± 0.5 × 10 5 colony forming units (cfu)/μl was injected subcutaneously in the left flank of BALB/c mice. An abscess of 6 ± 2 mm in diameter formed after 48 h. A transducer operating at 3 MHz with a focal length of 50 mm and diameter of 32 mm was used to treat the abscess. The focal point was positioned 2 mm under the skin at the abscess center. Forty-eight hours after injection four ultrasound exposures of 9 s each were applied to each abscess under magnetic resonance imaging guidance. Each exposure was followed by a 1 min pause. These parameters were based on preliminary experiments to ensure repetitive accurate heating of the abscess. Real-time estimation of change of temperature was done using water-proton resonance frequency and a communication toolbox (matMRI) developed inhouse. Three experimental groups of animals each were tested: control, moderate temperature (MT), and high temperature (HT). MT and HT groups reached, respectively, 52.3 ± 5.1 and 63.8 ± 7.5 °C at the end of exposure. Effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by evaluating the bacteria amount of the treated abscess 1 and 4 days after treatment. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay evaluating the neutrophil amount was performed to assess the local neutrophil recruitment and the white blood cell count was used to evaluate the systemic inflammatory response after focused ultrasound treatment. Results: Macroscopic

  10. Evaluation of the coupled COSMO-CLM+NEMO-Nordic model with focus on North and Baltic seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, J.; Pham, T. V.; Früh, B.; Brauch, J.

    2017-12-01

    The region east of the Baltic Sea has been identified as a hot-spot of climate change by Giorgi, 2006, on the base of temperature and precipitation variability. For this purpose, the atmosphere model COSMO-CLM has been coupled to the ocean model NEMO, including the sea ice model LIM3, via the OASIS3-MCT coupler (Pham et al., 2014). The coupler interpolates heat, fresh water, momentum fluxes, sea level pressure and the fraction of sea ice at the interface in space and time. Our aim is to find an optimal configuration of the already existing coupled regional atmospheric-ocean model COSMO-CLM+NEMO-Nordic. So far results for the North- and Baltic seas show that the coupled run has large biases compared with the E-OBS reference data. Therefore, additional simulation evaluations are planned by the use of independent satellite observation data (e.g. Copernicus, EURO4M). We have performed a series of runs with the coupled COSMO-CLM+NEMO-Nordic model to find out about differences of model outputs due to different coupling time steps. First analyses of COSMO-CLM 2m temperatures let presume that different coupling time steps have an impact on the results of the coupled model run. Additional tests over a longer period of time are conducted to understand whether the signal-to-noise ratio could influence the bias. The results will be presented in our poster.

  11. ABrox-A user-friendly Python module for approximate Bayesian computation with a focus on model comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Ulf Kai; Voss, Andreas; Radev, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    We give an overview of the basic principles of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), a class of stochastic methods that enable flexible and likelihood-free model comparison and parameter estimation. Our new open-source software called ABrox is used to illustrate ABC for model comparison on two prominent statistical tests, the two-sample t-test and the Levene-Test. We further highlight the flexibility of ABC compared to classical Bayesian hypothesis testing by computing an approximate Bayes factor for two multinomial processing tree models. Last but not least, throughout the paper, we introduce ABrox using the accompanied graphical user interface.

  12. Overview of Millimeter Wave Communications for Fifth-Generation (5G) Wireless Networks—With a Focus on Propagation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Theodore S.; Xing, Yunchou; MacCartney, George R.; Molisch, Andreas F.; Mellios, Evangelos; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the features of fifth generation (5G) wireless communication systems now being developed for use in the millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency bands. Early results and key concepts of 5G networks are presented, and the channel modeling efforts of many international groups for both licensed and unlicensed applications are described here. Propagation parameters and channel models for understanding mmWave propagation, such as line-of-sight (LOS) probabilities, large-scale path loss, and building penetration loss, as modeled by various standardization bodies, are compared over the 0.5-100 GHz range.

  13. Anisotropies of the neutron emission of the 'Focus' discharge compared with different theoretical models; Anisotropies de l'emission neutronique de la decharge 'Focus' comparees a divers modeles theoriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patou, Claude; Simonnet, Alain

    1969-08-06

    When a plasma emits enough neutrons to make an analysis of this neutrons possible, the study of emission characteristics allows the mechanism governing fusion reaction to be specified. The experimental study of neutron flow and energy anisotropies is herein compared with various possible theoretical models. It seems that the 'Boiler' model (thermal plasma in movement) matches the obtained results. Only observed flow values in the discharge axis remain unexplained. Although the study approach does not allow to be sure of plasma thermalization in the strict meaning of the term, it seems that there is a relatively well established anisotropy of the speed distribution function of reacting ions [French] Lorsqu'un plasma emet suffisamment de neutrons pour les soumettre a l'analyse, l'etude des caracteristiques de l'emission permet de preciser le mecanisme responsable des reactions de fusion. L'etude experimentale des anisotropies du flux et de l'energie des neutrons est comparee a divers modeles theoriques possibles. Il semble que le modele du 'Boiler' - plasma thermique en mouvement - s'accorde avec nos resultats. Seules les valeurs des flux observes selon l'axe de la decharge restent sans explication. Bien que ce moyen d'etude ne permette pas d'etre certain de la thermalisation du plasma au sens strict du terme, il semble cependant qu'on se trouve en presence d'une isotropie relativement bien realisee de la fonction de distribution des vitesses des ions qui entrent en reaction. (auteurs)

  14. Hemostatic mechanism underlying microbubble-enhanced non-focused ultrasound in the treatment of a rabbit liver trauma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Da-wei; Tian, Meng; Yang, Jian-zheng; Du, Peng; Bi, Jie; Zhu, Xinjian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the hemostatic mechanism underlying microbubble-enhanced non-focused ultrasound treatment of liver trauma. Thirty rabbits with liver trauma were randomly divided into three groups—the microbubble-enhanced ultrasound (MEUS; further subdivided based on exposure intensity into MEUS1 [0.11 W/cm2], MEUS2 [0.55 W/cm2], and MEUS3 [1.1 W/cm2]), ultrasound without microbubbles (US), and microbubbles without ultrasound (MB) groups. The pre- and post-treatment bleeding weight and visual bleeding scores were evaluated. The serum liver enzyme concentrations as well as the blood perfusion level represented by mean peak contrast intensity (PI) ratio in the treatment area were analyzed. The hemostatic mechanism was evaluated by histological and transmission electron microscopic examination of liver tissue samples. The MEUS subgroups 1–3 (grade 0–1, grade 0–2, and grade 1–2, respectively) exhibited significantly lower post-treatment visual bleeding scores than the US and MB groups (both, grade 3–4; all, P hepatic cells became edematous and compressed the hepatic sinus and associated blood vessels. However, the serum liver enzyme levels were not significantly altered. Microbubble-enhanced non-focused ultrasound does not significantly affect blood perfusion and liver function and can be used to induce rapid hemostasis in case of liver trauma. PMID:27633577

  15. Nitric oxide circulates in mammalian plasma primarily as an S-nitroso adduct of serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, J S; Jaraki, O; Osborne, J; Simon, D I; Keaney, J; Vita, J; Singel, D; Valeri, C R; Loscalzo, J

    1992-01-01

    We have recently shown that nitric oxide or authentic endothelium-derived relaxing factor generated in a biologic system reacts in the presence of specific protein thiols to form S-nitrosoprotein derivatives that have endothelium-derived relaxing factor-like properties. The single free cysteine of serum albumin, Cys-34, is particularly reactive toward nitrogen oxides (most likely nitrosonium ion) under physiologic conditions, primarily because of its anomalously low pK; given its abundance in plasma, where it accounts for approximately 0.5 mM thiol, we hypothesized that this plasma protein serves as a reservoir for nitric oxide produced by the endothelial cell. To test this hypothesis, we developed a methodology, which involves UV photolytic cleavage of the S--NO bond before reaction with ozone for chemiluminescence detection, with which to measure free nitric oxide, S-nitrosothiols, and S-nitrosoproteins in biologic systems. We found that human plasma contains approximately 7 microM S-nitrosothiols, of which 96% are S-nitrosoproteins, 82% of which is accounted for by S-nitroso-serum albumin. By contrast, plasma levels of free nitric oxide are only in the 3-nM range. In rabbits, plasma S-nitrosothiols are present at approximately 1 microM; 60 min after administration of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine at 50 mg/ml, a selective and potent inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetases, S-nitrosothiols decreased by approximately 40% (greater than 95% of which were accounted for by S-nitrosoproteins, and approximately 80% of which was S-nitroso-serum albumin); this decrease was accompanied by a concomitant increase in mean arterial blood pressure of 22%. These data suggest that naturally produced nitric oxide circulates in plasma primarily complexed in S-nitrosothiol species, principal among which is S-nitroso-serum albumin. This abundant, relatively long-lived adduct likely serves as a reservoir with which plasma levels of highly reactive, short-lived free nitric oxide can be

  16. The development and characterization of a primarily mineral calcium phosphate - poly(epsilon-caprolactone) biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, Ian Robert

    Orthopaedic reconstruction often involves the surgical introduction of structural implants that provide for rigid fixation, skeletal stabilization, and bone integration. The high stresses incurred by these implanted devices have historically limited material choices to metallic and select polymeric formulations. While mechanical requirements are achieved, these non-degradable materials do not participate actively in the remodeling of the skeleton and present the possibility of long-term failure or rejection. This is particularly relevant in cervical fusion, an orthopaedic procedure to treat damaged, degenerative or diseased intervertebral discs. A significant improvement on the available synthetic bone replacement/regeneration options for implants to treat these conditions in the cervical spine may be achieved with the development of primarily mineral biocomposites comprised of a bioactive ceramic matrix reinforced with a biodegradable polymer. Such a biocomposite may be engineered to possess the clinically required mechanical properties of a particular application, while maintaining the ability to be remodeled completely by the body. A biocomposite of Si-doped calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed for application as such a synthetic bone material for potential use as a fusion device in the cervical spine. In this thesis, a method by which high mineral content Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites with interpenetrating matrices of mineral and polymer phases may be prepared will be demonstrated, in addition to the effects of the various preparation parameters on the biocomposite density, porosity and mechanical properties. This new technique by which dense, primarily ceramic Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites were prepared, allowed for the incorporation of mineral contents ranging between 45-97vol%. Polymer infiltration, accomplished solely by passive capillary uptake over several days, was found to be capable of fully infiltrating the microporosity

  17. Detailed Geological Modelling in Urban Areas focused on Structures relevant to the Near Surface Groundwater Flow in the context of Climatic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, T.; Pallesen, T. M.; Jensen, N. P.; Mielby, S.; Sandersen, P.; Kristensen, M.

    2015-12-01

    This case demonstrates a practical example from the city of Odense (DK) where new geological modeling techniques has been developed and used in the software GeoScene3D, to create a detailed voxel model of the anthropogenic layer. The voxel model has been combined with a regional hydrostratigraphic layer model. The case is part of a pilot project partly financed by VTU (Foundation for Development of Technology in the Danish Water Sector) and involves many different datatypes such as borehole information, geophysical data, human related elements (landfill, pipelines, basements, roadbeds etc). In the last few years, there has been increased focus on detailed geological modeling in urban areas. The models serve as important input to hydrological models. This focus is partly due to climate changes as high intensity rainfalls are seen more often than in the past, and water recharge is a topic too. In urban areas, this arises new challenges. There is a need of a high level of detailed geological knowledge for the uppermost zone of the soil, which typically are problematic due to practically limitations, especially when using geological layer models. Furthermore, to accommodate the need of a high detail, all relevant available data has to be used in the modeling process. Human activity has deeply changed the soil layers, e.g. by constructions as roadbeds, buildings with basements, pipelines, landfill etc. These elements can act as barriers or pathways regarding surface near groundwater flow and can attribute to local flooding or mobilization and transport of contaminants etc. A geological voxel model is built by small boxes (a voxel). Each box can contain several parameters, ex. lithology, transmissivity or contaminant concentration. Human related elements can be implemented using tools, which gives the modeler advanced options for making detailed small-scale models. This case demonstrates the workflow and the resulting geological model for the pilot area.

  18. Efficient transfection of DNA into primarily cultured rat sertoli cells by electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuping; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Okada, Keisuke; Matsushita, Kei; Enatsu, Noritoshi; Chiba, Koji; Yue, Huanxun; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-03-01

    The expression of exogenous DNA in Sertoli cells is essential for studying its functional genomics, pathway analysis, and medical applications. Electroporation is a valuable tool for nucleic acid delivery, even in primarily cultured cells, which are considered difficult to transfect. In this study, we developed an optimized protocol for electroporation-based transfection of Sertoli cells and compared its efficiency with conventional lipofection. Sertoli cells were transfected with pCMV-GFP plasmid by square-wave electroporation under different conditions. After transfection of plasmid into Sertoli cells, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression could be easily detected by fluorescent microscopy, and cell survival was evaluated by dye exclusion assay using Trypan blue. In terms of both cell survival and the percentage expressing EGFP, 250 V was determined to produce the greatest number of transiently transfected cells. Keeping the voltage constant (250 V), relatively high cell survival (76.5% ± 3.4%) and transfection efficiency (30.6% ± 5.6%) were observed with a pulse length of 20 μm. The number of pulses significantly affected cell survival and EGFP expression (P transfection methods, the transfection efficiency of electroporation (21.5% ± 5.7%) was significantly higher than those of Lipofectamine 2000 (2.9% ± 1.0%) and Effectene (1.9% ± 0.8%) in this experiment (P transfection of Sertoli cells.

  19. Identification of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is primarily expressed in Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemazanyy, Ivan; Panasyuk, Ganna; Breus, Oksana; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan T.

    2006-01-01

    CoA and its derivatives Acetyl-CoA and Acyl-CoA are important players in cellular metabolism and signal transduction. CoA synthase is a bifunctional enzyme which mediates the final stages of CoA biosynthesis. In previous studies, we have reported molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and subcellular localization of CoA synthase (CoASy). Here, we describe the existence of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is the product of alternative splicing and possesses a 29aa extension at the N-terminus. We termed it CoASy β and originally identified CoA synthase, CoASy α. The transcript specific for CoASy β was identified by electronic screening and by RT-PCR analysis of various rat tissues. The existence of this novel isoform was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis with antibodies directed to the N-terminal peptide of CoASy β. In contrast to CoASy α, which shows ubiquitous expression, CoASy β is primarily expressed in Brain. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that both isoforms are localized on mitochondria. The N-terminal extension does not affect the activity of CoA synthase, but possesses a proline-rich sequence which can bring the enzyme into complexes with signalling proteins containing SH3 or WW domains. The role of this novel isoform in CoA biosynthesis, especially in Brain, requires further elucidation

  20. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 encodes a primarily multifunctional cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-03-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis.

  1. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 Encodes a Primarily Multifunctional Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Rice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-01-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis. PMID:16443696

  2. A modelling approach to evaluating the effectiveness of Ecological Focus Areas: the case of the European brown hare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhammer, Maria; Grimm, Volker; Putz, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    and Man Simulation System (ALMaSS), an established simulation system that has been used to simulate a wide range of farmland species relevant to biodiversity. We analysed the benefits of seven greening scenarios for the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus), which has been in widespread decline throughout......With the current implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for 2014–2020, the European Commission wants to move towards “greener” farming practices in the European Union. Therefore, the EU funds both obligatory measures, such as Ecological Focus Areas (EFAs) through the Green Direct...... of each type was increased separately up to 5% of the area in three Danish landscapes, which are characterised by low hare densities. The effects on female and yearling abundance were observed over a period of 30 years. All greening scenarios had significant positive effects on hare populations...

  3. Integrating family work into the treatment of young people with severe and complex depression: a developmentally focused model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Simon; Halperin, Stephen; Blaikie, Simon; Monson, Katherine; Stefaniak, Rachel; Phelan, Mark; Davey, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    Although models of family intervention are clearly articulated in the child and early adolescent literature, there is less clarity regarding family intervention approaches in later adolescence and emerging adulthood. This study provides the rationale and intervention framework for a developmentally sensitive model of time-limited family work in the outpatient treatment of complex youth depression (15-25 years). Derived from current practice in the Youth Mood Clinic (YMC) at Orygen Youth Health, Melbourne, a stepped model of family intervention is discussed. YMC aims to provide comprehensive orientation, assessment and education to all families. For some, a family-based intervention, delivered either by the treating team or through the integration of a specialist family worker, offers an important adjunct in supporting the recovery of the young person. Developmental phases and challenges experienced by the young person with respect to family/caregiver involvement are discussed in the context of two case studies. A developmentally sensitive model is presented with particular attention to the developmental needs and preferences of young people. Formal evaluation of this model is required. Evaluation perspectives should include young people, caregivers, the broader family system (i.e. siblings) and the treating team (i.e. case manager, doctor and family worker) incorporating outcome measurement. Such work determines how best to apply a time-limited family-based intervention approach in strengthening family/caregiver relationships as part of the young person's recovery from severe and complex depression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Focused ultrasound treatment of abscesses induced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Feasibility study in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieck, Birgit [Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B6V4 (Canada); Bates, David; Pichardo, Samuel, E-mail: spichard@lakeheadu.ca, E-mail: lcuriel@lakeheadu.ca; Curiel, Laura, E-mail: spichard@lakeheadu.ca, E-mail: lcuriel@lakeheadu.ca [Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B6V4, Canada and Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B6V4 (Canada); Zhang, Kunyan [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Escott, Nicholas [Department of Pathology, Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 6V4 (Canada); Mougenot, Charles [Philips Healthcare, Ontario L6C 2S3 (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To study the therapeutic effect of focused ultrasound on abscesses induced by methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen where immunocompromised patients are prone to develop infections that are less and less responsive to regular treatments. Because of its capability to induce a rise of temperature at a very precise location, the use of focused ultrasound represents a considerable opportunity for therapy of localized MRSA-related infections. Methods: 50μl of MRSA strain USA400 bacteria suspension at a concentration of 1.32 ± 0.5 × 10{sup 5} colony forming units (cfu)/μl was injected subcutaneously in the left flank of BALB/c mice. An abscess of 6 ± 2 mm in diameter formed after 48 h. A transducer operating at 3 MHz with a focal length of 50 mm and diameter of 32 mm was used to treat the abscess. The focal point was positioned 2 mm under the skin at the abscess center. Forty-eight hours after injection four ultrasound exposures of 9 s each were applied to each abscess under magnetic resonance imaging guidance. Each exposure was followed by a 1 min pause. These parameters were based on preliminary experiments to ensure repetitive accurate heating of the abscess. Real-time estimation of change of temperature was done using water-proton resonance frequency and a communication toolbox (matMRI) developed inhouse. Three experimental groups of animals each were tested: control, moderate temperature (MT), and high temperature (HT). MT and HT groups reached, respectively, 52.3 ± 5.1 and 63.8 ± 7.5 °C at the end of exposure. Effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by evaluating the bacteria amount of the treated abscess 1 and 4 days after treatment. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay evaluating the neutrophil amount was performed to assess the local neutrophil recruitment and the white blood cell count was used to evaluate the systemic inflammatory response after focused ultrasound treatment. Results: Macroscopic

  5. A maturation model for project-based organisations – with uncertainty management as an always remaining multi-project management focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jerbrant

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The classical view of multi-project management does not capture its dynamic nature. Present theory falls short in the expositive dimension of how management of project-based companies evolves because of their need to be agile and adaptable to a changing environment. The purpose of this paper is therefore to present a descriptive model that elucidates the maturation processes in a project-based organization as well as to give an enhanced understanding of multi-project management in practice. The maturation model displays how the management of project-based organizations evolves between structuring administration and managing any uncertainty, and emphasizes the importance of active individual actions and situated management actions that haveto be undertaken in order to coordinate, synchronize, and communicate the required knowledge and skills.The outcomes primarily reveal that, although standardized project models are used and considerable resources are spent on effective project portfolio management, how information and communication are executedis essential for the management of project-based organizations. This is particularly true for informal and non-codified communication.

  6. A focus on reward in anorexia nervosa through the lens of the activity-based anorexia rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldi, C J; Milton, L K; Oldfield, B J

    2017-10-01

    Patients suffering anorexia nervosa (AN) become anhedonic, unable or unwilling to derive normal pleasures and tend to avoid rewarding outcomes, most profoundly in food intake. The activity-based anorexia model recapitulates many of the pathophysiological and behavioural hallmarks of the human condition, including a reduction in food intake, excessive exercise, dramatic weight loss, loss of reproductive cycles, hypothermia and anhedonia, and therefore it allows investigation into the underlying neurobiology of anorexia nervosa. The use of this model has directed attention to disruptions in central reward neurocircuitry, which may contribute to disease susceptibility. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the utility of this unique model to provide insight into the mechanisms of reward relevant to feeding and weight loss, which may ultimately help to unravel the neurobiology of anorexia nervosa and, in a broader sense, the foundation of reward-based feeding. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  7. Modeling and observational constraints on the sulfur cycle in the marine troposphere: a focus on reactive halogens and multiphase chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Breider, T.; Schmidt, J.; Sherwen, T.; Evans, M. J.; Xie, Z.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.; Alexander, B.

    2017-12-01

    The radiative forcing from marine boundary layer clouds is still highly uncertain, which partly stems from our poor understanding of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) formation. The oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and subsequent chemical evolution of its products (e.g. DMSO) are key processes in CCN formation, but are generally very simplified in large-scale models. Recent research has pointed out the importance of reactive halogens (e.g. BrO and Cl) and multiphase chemistry in the tropospheric sulfur cycle. In this study, we implement a series of sulfur oxidation mechanisms into the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model, involving both gas-phase and multiphase oxidation of DMS, DMSO, MSIA and MSA, to improve our understanding of the sulfur cycle in the marine troposphere. DMS observations from six locations around the globe and MSA/nssSO42- ratio observations from two ship cruises covering a wide range of latitudes and longitudes are used to assess the model. Preliminary results reveal the important role of BrO for DMS oxidation at high latitudes (up to 50% over Southern Ocean). Oxidation of DMS by Cl radicals is small in the model (within 10% in the marine troposphere), probably due to an underrepresentation of Cl sources. Multiphase chemistry (e.g. oxidation by OH and O3 in cloud droplets) is not important for DMS oxidation but is critical for DMSO oxidation and MSA production and removal. In our model, about half of the DMSO is oxidized in clouds, leading to the formation of MSIA, which is further oxidized to form MSA. Overall, with the addition of reactive halogens and multiphase chemistry, the model is able to better reproduce observations of seasonal variations of DMS and MSA/nssSO42- ratios.

  8. Probabilistic migration modelling focused on functional barrier efficiency and low migration concepts in support of risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsch, Rainer

    2017-10-01

    Migration modelling provides reliable migration estimates from food-contact materials (FCM) to food or food simulants based on mass-transfer parameters like diffusion and partition coefficients related to individual materials. In most cases, mass-transfer parameters are not readily available from the literature and for this reason are estimated with a given uncertainty. Historically, uncertainty was accounted for by introducing upper limit concepts first, turning out to be of limited applicability due to highly overestimated migration results. Probabilistic migration modelling gives the possibility to consider uncertainty of the mass-transfer parameters as well as other model inputs. With respect to a functional barrier, the most important parameters among others are the diffusion properties of the functional barrier and its thickness. A software tool that accepts distribution as inputs and is capable of applying Monte Carlo methods, i.e., random sampling from the input distributions of the relevant parameters (i.e., diffusion coefficient and layer thickness), predicts migration results with related uncertainty and confidence intervals. The capabilities of probabilistic migration modelling are presented in the view of three case studies (1) sensitivity analysis, (2) functional barrier efficiency and (3) validation by experimental testing. Based on the predicted migration by probabilistic migration modelling and related exposure estimates, safety evaluation of new materials in the context of existing or new packaging concepts is possible. Identifying associated migration risk and potential safety concerns in the early stage of packaging development is possible. Furthermore, dedicated material selection exhibiting required functional barrier efficiency under application conditions becomes feasible. Validation of the migration risk assessment by probabilistic migration modelling through a minimum of dedicated experimental testing is strongly recommended.

  9. Development and evaluation of an innovative model of inter-professional education focused on asthma medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Stuart, Meg; Mackson, Judith; Cvetkovski, Biljana; Sainsbury, Erica; Armour, Carol; Mavritsakis, Sofia; Mendrela, Gosia; Travers-Mason, Pippa; Williamson, Margaret

    2014-04-07

    Inter-professional learning has been promoted as the solution to many clinical management issues. One such issue is the correct use of asthma inhaler devices. Up to 80% of people with asthma use their inhaler device incorrectly. The implications of this are poor asthma control and quality of life. Correct inhaler technique can be taught, however these educational instructions need to be repeated if correct technique is to be maintained. It is important to maximise the opportunities to deliver this education in primary care. In light of this, it is important to explore how health care providers, in particular pharmacists and general medical practitioners, can work together in delivering inhaler technique education to patients, over time. Therefore, there is a need to develop and evaluate effective inter-professional education, which will address the need to educate patients in the correct use of their inhalers as well as equip health care professionals with skills to engage in collaborative relationships with each other. This mixed methods study involves the development and evaluation of three modules of continuing education, Model 1, Model 2 and Model 3. A fourth group, Model 4, acting as a control.Model 1 consists of face-to-face continuing professional education on asthma inhaler technique, aimed at pharmacists, general medical practitioners and their practice nurses.Model 2 is an electronic online continuing education module based on Model 1 principles.Model 3 is also based on asthma inhaler technique education but employs a learning intervention targeting health care professional relationships and is based on sociocultural theory.This study took the form of a parallel group, repeated measure design. Following the completion of continuing professional education, health care professionals recruited people with asthma and followed them up for 6 months. During this period, inhaler device technique training was delivered and data on patient inhaler technique

  10. Diet Quality and Nutrient Intake of Urban Overweight and Obese Primarily African American Older Adults with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevasti Vergis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Diet quality may be a unique target for preventing and managing obesity-related osteoarthritis (OA. Using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010, this study examined the nutrient intake and diet quality of 400 urban overweight and obese primarily African American older adults with self-reported lower extremity OA. Associations between sociodemographic and health-related factors and diet quality were explored. Participants (mean age 67.8 years, SD 5.9 were included. Habitual dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrient intake and diet quality were calculated from the FFQ. Results indicated that diet quality needs improvement (HEI-2010: 66.3 (SD 10.5. Age, body mass index, employment (multivariable model only, and OA severity (bivariate model only were significant predictors of HEI-2010 total score in linear models. Mean intakes for fiber, calcium, and vitamin D were below recommendations, while percentage of calories as total fat exceeded recommendations. These findings can inform future dietary intervention trials and public health messaging for a sub-population at a high risk for obesity-related OA.

  11. Should We Formulate an Incentivized Model Facilitating Kidney Donation from Living Donors? A Focus on Turkey's Current System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Ercan

    2018-04-23

    Kidney transplantation is a lifesaving medical treatment. However, very high demand for kidneys with low kidney donation causes a black market that exploits patients' desperation and donors' vulnerability. The current kidney donation programs fail to produce promising results to avoid illegal and unethical kidney trafficking and commercialism. Even though the primary goal of kidney donation is to increase the number of deceased organ donations, in some countries, like Turkey, due to religious or cultural concerns, it is impossible to supply adequate deceased kidney donations. In this view, the aim of this paper is to examine kidney trafficking in the scope of Turkey's current organ donation system and propose a new model, named the Incentivized Kidney Donation Model (IKDM), to increase kidney donation from living donors. The model encompasses the following benefits offered to kidney donors; lifetime health insurance, exemptions from copayments/contribution shares, priority when receiving an organ, priority when finding a job, income tax exemptions for salaried employees, and free or discounted public utilities. This normative model has the potential to promote donors' altruistic acts as well as the solidarity and loyalty among members of a society without violating ethical values and internationally accepted principles. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Proposed Model for a Streamlined, Cohesive, and Optimized K-12 STEM Curriculum with a Focus on Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Edward

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a proposed model for a clear description of K-12 age-possible engineering knowledge content, in terms of the selection of analytic principles and predictive skills for various grades, based on the mastery of mathematics and science pre-requisites, as mandated by national or state performance standards; and a streamlined,…

  13. How much time do health services spend on antenatal care? Implications for the introduction of the focused antenatal care model in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpembeni Rose

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care (ANC is a widely used strategy to improve the health of pregnant women and to encourage skilled care during childbirth. In 2002, the Ministry of Health of the United Republic of Tanzania developed a national adaptation plan based on the new model of the World Health Organisation (WHO. In this study we assess the time health workers currently spent on providing ANC services and compare it to the requirements anticipated for the new ANC model in order to identify the implications of Focused ANC on health care providers' workload. Methods Health workers in four dispensaries in Mtwara Urban District, Southern Tanzania, were observed while providing routine ANC. The time used for the overall activity as well as for the different, specific components of 71 ANC service provisions was measured in detail; 28 of these were first visits and 43 revisits. Standard time requirements for the provision of focused ANC were assessed through simulated consultations based on the new guidelines. Results The average time health workers currently spend for providing ANC service to a first visit client was found to be 15 minutes; the provision of ANC according to the focused ANC model was assessed to be 46 minutes. For a revisiting client the difference between current practise and the anticipated standard of the new model was 27 minutes (9 vs. 36 min.. The major discrepancy between the two procedures was related to counselling. On average a first visit client was counselled for 1:30 minutes, while counselling in revisiting clients did hardly take place at all. The simulation of focused ANC revealed that proper counselling would take about 15 minutes per visit. Conclusion While the introduction of focused ANC has the potential to improve the health of pregnant women and to raise the number of births attended by skilled staff in Tanzania, it may need additional investment in human resources. The generally anticipated saving effect of

  14. Modelling of spatio-temporal precipitation relevant for urban hydrology with focus on scales, extremes and climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen

    -correlation lengths for sub-daily extreme precipitation besides having too low intensities. Especially the wrong spatial correlation structure is disturbing from an urban hydrological point of view as short-term extremes will cover too much ground if derived directly from bias corrected regional climate model output...... of precipitation are compared and used to rank climate models with respect to performance metrics. The four different observational data sets themselves are compared at daily temporal scale with respect to climate indices for mean and extreme precipitation. Data density seems to be a crucial parameter for good...... happening in summer and most of the daily extremes in fall. This behaviour is in good accordance with reality where short term extremes originate in convective precipitation cells that occur when it is very warm and longer term extremes originate in frontal systems that dominate the fall and winter seasons...

  15. Global parameter optimization of a Mather-type plasma focus in the framework of the Gratton–Vargas two-dimensional snowplow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auluck, S K H

    2014-01-01

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) is known to produce highly energetic ions, electrons and plasma environment which can be used for breeding short-lived isotopes, plasma nanotechnology and other material processing applications. Commercial utilization of DPF in such areas would need a design tool that can be deployed in an automatic search for the best possible device configuration for a given application. The recently revisited (Auluck 2013 Phys. Plasmas 20 112501) Gratton–Vargas (GV) two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus provides a numerical formula for dynamic inductance of a Mather-type plasma focus fitted to thousands of automated computations, which enables the construction of such a design tool. This inductance formula is utilized in the present work to explore global optimization, based on first-principles optimality criteria, in a four-dimensional parameter-subspace of the zero-resistance GV model. The optimization process is shown to reproduce the empirically observed constancy of the drive parameter over eight decades in capacitor bank energy. The optimized geometry of plasma focus normalized to the anode radius is shown to be independent of voltage, while the optimized anode radius is shown to be related to capacitor bank inductance. (paper)

  16. Focused Transhepatic Electroporation Mediated by Hypersaline Infusion through the Portal Vein in Rat Model. Preliminary Results on Differential Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pañella, Clara; Castellví, Quim; Moll, Xavier; Quesada, Rita; Villanueva, Alberto; Iglesias, Mar; Naranjo, Dolores; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Andaluz, Anna; Grande, Luís; Ivorra, Antoni; Burdío, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Spread hepatic tumours are not suitable for treatment either by surgery or conventional ablation methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility and safety of selectively increasing the healthy hepatic conductivity by the hypersaline infusion (HI) through the portal vein. We hypothesize this will allow simultaneous safe treatment of all nodules by irreversible electroporation (IRE) when applied in a transhepatic fashion. Sprague Dawley (Group A, n = 10) and Athymic rats with implanted hepatic tumour (Group B, n = 8) were employed. HI was performed (NaCl 20%, 3.8 mL/Kg) by trans-splenic puncture. Deionized serum (40 mL/Kg) and furosemide (2 mL/Kg) were simultaneously infused through the jugular vein to compensate hypernatremia. Changes in conductivity were monitored in the hepatic and tumour tissue. The period in which hepatic conductivity was higher than tumour conductivity was defined as the therapeutic window (TW). Animals were monitored during 1-month follow-up. The animals were sacrificed and selective samples were used for histological analysis. The overall survival rate was 82.4% after the HI protocol. The mean maximum hepatic conductivity after HI was 2.7 and 3.5 times higher than the baseline value, in group A and B, respectively. The mean maximum hepatic conductivity after HI was 1.4 times higher than tumour tissue in group B creating a TW to implement selective IRE. HI through the portal vein is safe when the hypersaline overload is compensated with deionized serum and it may provide a TW for focused IRE treatment on tumour nodules.

  17. A mouse model of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease: focus on pharmacological interventions targeting affective dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eBonito Oliva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-motor symptoms, including psychiatric disorders, are increasingly recognized as a major challenge in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD. These ailments, which often appear in the early stage of the disease, affect a large number of patients and are only partly resolved by conventional antiparkinsonian medications, such as L-DOPA. Here, we investigated non-motor symptoms of PD in a mouse model based on bilateral injection of the toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA in the dorsal striatum. This model presented only subtle gait modifications, which did not affect horizontal motor activity in the open-field test. Bilateral 6-OHDA lesion also impaired olfactory discrimination, in line with the anosmia typically observed in early stage parkinsonism. The effect of 6-OHDA was then examined for mood-related dysfunctions. Lesioned mice showed increased immobility in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, two behavioral paradigms of depression. Moreover, the lesion exerted anxiogenic effects, as shown by reduced time spent in the open arms, in the elevated plus maze test, and by increased thigmotaxis in the open-field test. L-DOPA did not modify depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, which were instead counteracted by the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist, pramipexole. Reboxetine, a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, was also able to prevent the depressive and anxiogenic effects produced by the lesion with 6-OHDA. Interestingly, pre-treatment with desipramine prior to injection of 6-OHDA, which is commonly used to preserve noradrenaline neurons, did not modify the effect of the lesion on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, in the present model, mood-related conditions are independent of the reduction of noradrenaline caused by 6-OHDA. Based on these findings we propose that the anti-depressive and anxiolytic action of reboxetine is mediated by promoting dopamine transmission through blockade of dopamine uptake from residual

  18. Foundational Tests of the Need-Support Model: A Framework for Bridging Regulatory Focus Theory and Self-Determination Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Ann Vaughn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This dataset includes data from the three studies reported in my paper on Foundational Tests of the Need-Support Model [6]. I collected these data in 2014, 2015, and 2016 from over 2,100 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers in the United States and Canada. The dataset contains the measures described in the paper, as well as participants’ writing about the experiences they brought to mind in these studies. The data are stored on the Open Science Framework, and they could be used for exploratory research, meta-analyses, and research on replication. I also welcome collaborative research involving re-analyses of these data.

  19. Numerical study focusing on the entropy analysis of MHD squeezing flow of a nanofluid model using Cattaneo–Christov theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Akmal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study gives an account of the heat transfer characteristics of the squeezing flow of a nanofluid between two flat plates with upper plate moving vertically and the lower in the horizontal direction. Tiwari and Das nanofluid model has been utilized to give a comparative analysis of the heat transfer in the Cu-water and Al2O3–water nanofluids with entropy generation. The modeling is carried out with the consideration of Lorentz forces to observe the effect of magnetic field on the flow. The Joule heating effect is included to discuss the heat dissipation in the fluid and its effect on the entropy of the system. The nondimensional ordinary differential equations are solved using the Keller box method to assess the numerical results which are presented by the graphs and tables. An interesting observation is that the entropy is generated more near the lower plate as compared with that at the upper plate. Also, the heat transfer rate is found to be higher for the Cu nanoparticles in comparison with the Al2O3 nanoparticles.

  20. Causal biological network database: a comprehensive platform of causal biological network models focused on the pulmonary and vascular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Stéphanie; Talikka, Marja; Westra, Jurjen Willem; Hayes, William; Di Fabio, Anselmo; Park, Jennifer; Schlage, Walter K; Sewer, Alain; Fields, Brett; Ansari, Sam; Martin, Florian; Veljkovic, Emilija; Kenney, Renee; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2015-01-01

    With the wealth of publications and data available, powerful and transparent computational approaches are required to represent measured data and scientific knowledge in a computable and searchable format. We developed a set of biological network models, scripted in the Biological Expression Language, that reflect causal signaling pathways across a wide range of biological processes, including cell fate, cell stress, cell proliferation, inflammation, tissue repair and angiogenesis in the pulmonary and cardiovascular context. This comprehensive collection of networks is now freely available to the scientific community in a centralized web-based repository, the Causal Biological Network database, which is composed of over 120 manually curated and well annotated biological network models and can be accessed at http://causalbionet.com. The website accesses a MongoDB, which stores all versions of the networks as JSON objects and allows users to search for genes, proteins, biological processes, small molecules and keywords in the network descriptions to retrieve biological networks of interest. The content of the networks can be visualized and browsed. Nodes and edges can be filtered and all supporting evidence for the edges can be browsed and is linked to the original articles in PubMed. Moreover, networks may be downloaded for further visualization and evaluation. Database URL: http://causalbionet.com © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. A formative evaluation of a coach-based technical assistance model for youth- and family-focused programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jonathan R; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Perkins, Daniel F; Borden, Lynne M

    2018-04-01

    The Children, Youth, and Families At-Risk (CYFAR) initiative provides funding and technical support for local community-based programs designed to promote positive outcomes among vulnerable populations. In 2013, CYFAR implemented significant changes in the way it provides technical assistance (TA) to grantees. These changes included introducing a new TA model in which trained coaches provide proactive support that is tailored to individual CYFAR projects. The purpose of this paper is to describe the evolution of this TA model and present preliminary findings from a formative evaluation. CYFAR Principal Investigators (PIs) were invited to respond to online surveys in 2015 and 2016. The surveys were designed to assess PI attitudes towards the nature and quality of support that they receive from their coaches. CYFAR PIs reported that their coaches have incorporated a range of coaching skills and techniques into their work. PIs have generally positive attitudes towards their coaches, and these attitudes have become more positive over time. Results suggest that CYFAR PIs have been generally supportive of the new TA system. Factors that may have facilitated support include a strong emphasis on team-building and the provision of specific resources that support program design, implementation, and evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Homogenous stretching or detachment faulting? Which process is primarily extending the Aegean crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumerics, C.; Ring, U.

    2003-04-01

    In extending orogens like the Aegean Sea of Greece and the Basin-and-Range province of the western United States, knowledge of rates of tectonic processes are important for understanding which process is primarily extending the crust. Platt et al. (1998) proposed that homogeneous stretching of the lithosphere (i.e. vertical ductile thinning associated with a subhorizontal foliation) at rates of 4-5 km Myr-1 is the dominant process that formed the Alboran Sea in the western Mediterranean. The Aegean Sea in the eastern Mediterranean is well-known for its low-angle normal faults (detachments) (Lister et al., 1984; Lister &Forster, 1996) suggesting that detachment faulting may have been the primary agent achieving ~>250 km (McKenzie, 1978) of extension since the Miocene. Ring et al. (2003) provided evidence for a very fast-slipping detachment on the islands of Syros and Tinos in the western Cyclades, which suggests that normal faulting was the dominant tectonic process that formed the Aegean Sea. However, most extensional detachments in the Aegean do not allow to quantify the amount of vertical ductile thinning associated with extension and therefore a full evaluation of the significance of vertical ductile thinning is not possible. On the Island of Ikaria in the eastern Aegean Sea, a subhorizontal extensional ductile shear zone is well exposed. We studied this shear zone in detail to quantify the amount of vertical ductile thinning associated with extension. Numerous studies have shown that natural shear zones usually deviate significantly from progressive simple shear and are characterized by pronounced shortening perpendicular to the shear zone. Numerous deformed pegmatitic veins in this shear zone on Ikaria allow the reconstruction of deformation and flow parameters (Passchier, 1990), which are necessary for quantifying the amount of vertical ductile thinning in the shear zone. Furthermore, a flow-path and finite-strain study in a syn-tectonic granite, which

  3. Assessment of Soft Power Strategies: Towards an Aggregative Analytical Model for Country-Focused Case Study Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patalakh Artem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper advances a realist analytical model for case studies of national soft power policies. First, it argues that for the purposes of realist analysis, a soft power policy must be considered as a rational strategy pursued under the conditions of competition. Furthermore, it emphasises the importance of taking into account the specificities of the recipient state as well as the fact that a soft power strategy is targeted at both its elite and its public. In addition, the article substantiates the necessity to draw a clear-cut distinction between soft power sources and instruments and shows possible shortcomings that research can have should this distinction fail to be made. Finally, the paper discusses the impact of a competitor’s presence on a soft power strategy and specifies the terms under which disregarding this impact may engender a wrong conclusion.

  4. Plasma focus matching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; Elkhalafawy, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A snow-plough and slug models have been used to obtain the optimum matching conditions of the plasma in the focus. The dimensions of the plasma focus device are, inner electrode radius = 2 cm, outer electrode radius = 5.5 cm, and its length = 8 cm. It was found that the maximum magnetic energy of 12.26 kJ has to be delivered to plasma focus whose density is 10 19 /cm 3 at focusing time of 2.55 μs and with total external inductance of 24.2 n H. The same method is used to evaluate the optimum matching conditions for the previous coaxial discharge system which had inner electrode radius = 1.6 cm, outer electrode radius = 3.3 cm and its length = 31.5 cm. These conditions are charging voltage = 12 kV, capacity of the condenser bank = 430 μf, plasma focus density = 10 19 /cm 3 focusing time = 8 μs and total external inductance = 60.32 n H.3 fig., 2 tab

  5. Gulf of Mexico dissolved oxygen model (GoMDOM) research and quality assurance project plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated high resolution mathematical modeling framework is being developed that will link hydrodynamic, atmospheric, and water quality models for the northern Gulf of Mexico. This Research and Quality Assurance Project Plan primarily focuses on the deterministic Gulf of Me...

  6. Space-time models for a panzootic in bats, with a focus on the endangered Indiana bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; King, R. Andrew; Szymanski, Jennifer A.; Pruitt, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of current trends of quickly spreading infectious wildlife diseases is vital to efficient and effective management. We developed space-time mixed-effects logistic regressions to characterize a disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), quickly spreading among endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) in eastern North America. Our goal was to calculate and map the risk probability faced by uninfected colonies of hibernating Indiana bats. Model covariates included annual distance from and direction to nearest sources of infection, geolocational information, size of the Indiana bat populations within each wintering population, and total annual size of populations known or suspected to be affected by WNS. We considered temporal, spatial, and spatiotemporal formulae through the use of random effects for year, complex (a collection of interacting hibernacula), and yearxcomplex. Since first documented in 2006, WNS has spread across much of the range of the Indiana bat. No sizeable wintering population now occurs outside of the migrational distance of an infected source. Annual rates of newly affected wintering Indiana bat populations between winter 2007 to 2008 and 2010 to 2011 were 4, 6, 8, and 12%; this rate increased each year at a rate of 3%. If this increasing rate of newly affected populations continues, all wintering populations may be affected by 2016. Our models indicated the probability of a wintering population exhibiting infection was a linear function of proximity to affected Indiana bat populations and size of the at-risk population. Geographic location was also important, suggesting broad-scale influences. For every 50-km increase in distance from a WNS-affected population, risk of disease declined by 6% (95% CI=5.2-5.7%); for every increase of 1,000 Indiana bats, there was an 8% (95% CI = 1-21%) increase in disease risk. The increasing rate of infection seems to be associated with the movement of this disease into the core of the Indiana bat range. Our

  7. A simulation model for predicting the temperature during the application of MR-guided focused ultrasound for stroke treatment using pulsed ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjisavvas, V.; Damianou, C.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper a simulation model for predicting the temperature during the application of MR-guided focused ultrasound for stroke treatment using pulsed ultrasound is presented. A single element spherically focused transducer of 5 cm diameter, focusing at 10 cm and operating at either 0.5 MHz or 1 MHz was considered. The power field was estimated using the KZK model. The temperature was estimated using the bioheat equation. The goal was to extract the acoustic parameters (power, pulse duration, duty factor and pulse repetition frequency) that maintain a temperature increase of less than 1 °C during the application of a pulse ultrasound protocol. It was found that the temperature change increases linearly with duty factor. The higher the power, the lower the duty factor needed to keep the temperature change to the safe limit of 1 °C. The higher the frequency the lower the duty factor needed to keep the temperature change to the safe limit of 1 °C. Finally, the deeper the target, the higher the duty factor needed to keep the temperature change to the safe limit of 1 °C. The simulation model was tested in brain tissue during the application of pulse ultrasound and the measured temperature was in close agreement with the simulated temperature. This simulation model is considered to be very useful tool for providing acoustic parameters (frequency, power, duty factor, pulse repetition frequency) during the application of pulsed ultrasound at various depths in tissue so that a safe temperature is maintained during the treatment. This model could be tested soon during stroke clinical trials.

  8. Analysis of survival for patients with chronic kidney disease primarily related to renal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jitao; Suk-Ouichai, Chalairat; Dong, Wen; Antonio, Elvis Caraballo; Derweesh, Ithaar H; Lane, Brian R; Demirjian, Sevag; Li, Jianbo; Campbell, Steven C

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate predictors of long-term survival for patients with chronic kidney disease primarily due to surgery (CKD-S). Patients with CKD-S have generally good survival that approximates patients who do not have CKD even after renal cancer surgery (RCS), yet there may be heterogeneity within this cohort. From 1997 to 2008, 4 246 patients underwent RCS at our centre. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) follow-up was 9.4 (7.3-11.0) years. New baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was defined as highest GFR between nadir and 6 weeks after RCS. We retrospectively evaluated three cohorts: no-CKD (new baseline GFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ); CKD-S (new baseline GFR of cancer-related survival (NRCRS) for the CKD-S cohort. Kaplan-Meier analysis assessed the longitudinal impact of new baseline GFR (45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 vs <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) and Cox regression evaluated relative impact of preoperative GFR, new baseline GFR, and relevant demographics/comorbidities. Of the 4 246 patients who underwent RCS, 931 had CKD-S and 1 113 had CKD-M/S, whilst 2 202 had no-CKD even after RCS. Partial/radical nephrectomy (PN/RN) was performed in 54%/46% of the patients, respectively. For CKD-S, 641 patients had a new baseline GFR of 45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 290 had a new baseline GFR of <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly reduced NRCRS for patients with CKD-S with a GFR of <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 compared to those with no-CKD or CKD-S with a GFR of 45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (both P ≤ 0.004), and competing risk analysis confirmed this (P < 0.001). Age, gender, heart disease, and new baseline GFR were all associated independently with NRCRS for patients with CKD-S (all P ≤ 0.02). Our data suggest that CKD-S is heterogeneous, and patients with a reduced new baseline GFR have compromised survival, particularly if <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Our findings may have implications regarding choice of PN/RN in patients at risk of developing

  9. Green Template for Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings Based on Building Information Modeling: Focus on Embodied Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased popularity of building information modeling (BIM for application in the construction of eco-friendly green buildings has given rise to techniques for evaluating green buildings constructed using BIM features. Existing BIM-based green building evaluation techniques mostly rely on externally provided evaluation tools, which pose problems associated with interoperability, including a lack of data compatibility and the amount of time required for format conversion. To overcome these problems, this study sets out to develop a template (the “green template” for evaluating the embodied environmental impact of using a BIM design tool as part of BIM-based building life-cycle assessment (LCA technology development. Firstly, the BIM level of detail (LOD was determined to evaluate the embodied environmental impact, and constructed a database of the impact factors of the embodied environmental impact of the major building materials, thereby adopting an LCA-based approach. The libraries of major building elements were developed by using the established databases and compiled evaluation table of the embodied environmental impact of the building materials. Finally, the green template was developed as an embodied environmental impact evaluation tool and a case study was performed to test its applicability. The results of the green template-based embodied environmental impact evaluation of a test building were validated against those of its actual quantity takeoff (2D takeoff, and its reliability was confirmed by an effective error rate of ≤5%. This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP, acidification (AP, eutrophication (EP, abiotic depletion (ADP, ozone depletion (ODP, and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP, using the life a cycle assessment (LCA method. To achieve this, we proposed an LCA method

  10. Respiratory Polysomnographic Findings in Patients Treated Primarily for Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Davi Sandes; Faller, Gustavo Juliane; Collares, Marcus Vinícius Martins

    2018-02-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most common congenital craniofacial abnormality. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent but underdiagnosed disease and is frequently associated with craniofacial anomalies. There are few studies describing the sleep breathing pattern of children with CLP. This study sought to characterize the respiratory profile of 23 children with unilateral cleft lip and palate, aged 7-12 years, who had undergone cleft lip and nasal repair at age 3-4 months and palatoplasty at 12-15 months, with a particular focus on evaluating the presence of OSAS in children with CLP. Polysomnography was performed and findings were analyzed descriptively. We found a mean and median for apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) of 1.11/h (SD = 0.78) and 0.9/h, respectively. The mean obstructive apnea index (OAI) was 0.27/h (SD = 0.38) and the median, 0.1/h. Nearly 30% of patients had an AHI above 1.4 events/h. There was no significant oxyhemoglobin desaturation in the study group. In this group, the prevalence of OSAS was higher than in noncleft populations when compared to the normality values adopted. This sample of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate exhibited an increased prevalence of OSAS during the mixed dentition stage. Although the results showed that OSAS was mild, we advise closer observation of these patients. Polysomnography is recommended for the assessment of children with airway abnormalities, to individualize the extent of treatment.

  11. Two DNA glycosylases in Esherichia coli which release primarily 3-methyladenine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, L.; Yang, C.; Goldthwait, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two enzymes have been partially purified from Escherichia coli and designated 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylases I and II. The apparent molecular weight of glycosylase I is 20,000, and that of II is 27,000. Glycosylase I releases 3-methyladenine (3-MeA) while II releases 3-MeA, 3-methylguanine (3-MeG), 7-methylguanine (7-MeG), and 7-methyladenine (7-MeA). The rate of release of 3-MeA by glycosylase II is 30 times that of 7-MeG. Glycosylase I is missing in mutants tag 1 and tag 2. In crude extracts, the 3-MeA activity of II is approximately 10% of the total 3-MeA activity. A 50% inactivation at 48 0 C required 5 min for I and 65 min for II. The 3-MeA and 7-MeG activities of the glycosylase II preparation could not be separated by isoelectric focusing, by chromatography of DEAE, Sephadex G-100, phosphocellulose, DNA-cellulose, or carboxymethylcellulose, or by heating at 50 0 C

  12. CO2 leakage-induced vegetation decline is primarily driven by decreased soil O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyan; Ma, Xin; Zhao, Zhi; Wu, Yang; Li, Yue

    2016-04-15

    To assess the potential risks of carbon capture and storage (CCS), studies have focused on vegetation decline caused by leaking CO2. Excess soil CO2 caused by leakage can affect soil O2 concentrations and soil pH, but how these two factors affect plant development remains poorly understood. This hinders the selection of appropriate species to mitigate potential negative consequences of CCS. Through pot experiments, we simulated CO2 leakage to examine its effects on soil pH and soil O2 concentrations. We subsequently assessed how maize growth responded to these changes in soil pH and O2. Decreased soil O2 concentrations significantly reduced maize biomass, and explained 69% of the biomass variation under CO2 leakage conditions. In contrast, although leaked CO2 changed soil pH significantly (from 7.32 to 6.75), it remained within the optimum soil pH range for maize growth. This suggests that soil O2 concentration, not soil pH, influences plant growth in these conditions. Therefore, in case of potential CO2 leakage risks, hypoxia-tolerant species should be chosen to improve plant survival, growth, and yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interorgan Communication Pathways in Physiology: Focus on Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droujinine, Ilia A; Perrimon, Norbert

    2016-11-23

    Studies in mammals and Drosophila have demonstrated the existence and significance of secreted factors involved in communication between distal organs. In this review, primarily focusing on Drosophila, we examine the known interorgan communication factors and their functions, physiological inducers, and integration in regulating physiology. Moreover, we describe how organ-sensing screens in Drosophila can systematically identify novel conserved interorgan communication factors. Finally, we discuss how interorgan communication enabled and evolved as a result of specialization of organs. Together, we anticipate that future studies will establish a model for metazoan interorgan communication network (ICN) and how it is deregulated in disease.

  14. Evaluation of Turner relaxed state as a model of long-lived ion-trapping structures in plasma focus and Z-pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2011-03-01

    Relatively long-lived spheroidal structures coincident with the neutron emission phase have been observed in frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinch and some plasma focus devices. Existence of energetic ion-trapping mechanism in plasma focus has also been inferred from experimental data. It has been conjectured that these are related phenomena. This paper applies Turner's theory [L. Turner, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 14, 849 (1986)] of relaxation of a Hall magnetofluid to construct a model of these structures and ion-trapping mechanism. Turner's solution modified for a finite-length plasma is used to obtain expressions for the magnetic field, velocity, and equilibrium pressure fields and is shown to represent an entity which is simultaneously a fluid vortex, a force-free magnetic field, a confined finite-pressure plasma, a charged object, and a trapped energetic ion beam. Characteristic features expected from diagnostic experiments are evaluated and shown to resemble experimental observations.

  15. Addressing Thermal Model Run Time Concerns of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Hume; Guerrero, Sergio; Hawk, John; Rodriguez, Juan; McDonald, Carson; Jackson, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) utilizes an existing 2.4 m diameter Hubble sized telescope donated from elsewhere in the federal government for near-infrared sky surveys and Exoplanet searches to answer crucial questions about the universe and dark energy. The WFIRST design continues to increase in maturity, detail, and complexity with each design cycle leading to a Mission Concept Review and entrance to the Mission Formulation Phase. Each cycle has required a Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) analysis to ensure the design can meet the stringent pointing and stability requirements. As such, the models have also grown in size and complexity leading to increased model run time. This paper addresses efforts to reduce the run time while still maintaining sufficient accuracy for STOP analyses. A technique was developed to identify slews between observing orientations that were sufficiently different to warrant recalculation of the environmental fluxes to reduce the total number of radiation calculation points. The inclusion of a cryocooler fluid loop in the model also forced smaller time-steps than desired, which greatly increases the overall run time. The analysis of this fluid model required mitigation to drive the run time down by solving portions of the model at different time scales. Lastly, investigations were made into the impact of the removal of small radiation couplings on run time and accuracy. Use of these techniques allowed the models to produce meaningful results within reasonable run times to meet project schedule deadlines.

  16. Improving representation of drought stress and fire emissions in climate carbon models: measurements and modeling with a focus on the western USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, James [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Biology; Randerson, James [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lai, Chun-Ta [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-02-16

    The objective of the proposed research was to collect data and develop models to improve our understanding of the role of drought and fire impacts on the terrestrial carbon cycle in the western US, including impacts associated with urban systems as they impacted regional carbon cycles. Using data we collected and a synthesis of other measurements, we developed new ways (a) to evaluate the representation of drought stress and fire emissions in the Community Land Model, (b) to model net ecosystem exchange combining ground level atmospheric observations with boundary layer theory, (c) to model upstream impacts of fire and fossil fuel emissions on atmospheric carbon dioxide observations, and (d) to model carbon dioxide observations within urban systems and at the urban-wildland interfaces of forest ecosystems.

  17. Preoperative teaching and stoma marking in an inpatient population: a quality improvement process using a FOCUS-Plan-Do-Check-Act model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnicki, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative teaching and stoma marking are supported by research and included in clinical practice guidelines from the WOCN Society and others. Using a FOCUS-Plan-Do-Check-Act model of Total Quality Management, a multidisciplinary team was formed that developed a flow chart outlining the process of care for patients undergoing planned ostomy surgery that included an educational intervention that enabled staff nurses to perform preoperative stoma site marking and education. After 3 months, we found a statistically significant increase in the number of surgical patients who received these evidence-based interventions (14% vs 64%; χ = 9.32; P = .002).

  18. An Interaction of Economy and Environment in Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Modelling with a Focus on Climate Change Issues in Korea : A Proto-type Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Seung Hun; Dellink, Rob; Nam, Yunmi; Kim, Yong Gun; Song, Yang Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, climate change is one of hottest issues in arena of both international environment and domestic one. During the COP6 meeting held in The Hague, over 10,000 people got together from the world. This report is a series of policy study on climate change in context of Korea. This study addresses on interactions of economy and environment in a perfect foresight dynamic computable general equilibrium with a focus on greenhouse gas mitigation strategy in Korea. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate greenhouse gas mitigation portfolios of changes in timing and magnitude with a particular focus on developing a methodology to integrate the bottom-up information on technical measures to reduce pollution into a top-down multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium framework. As a non-Annex I country Korea has been under strong pressure to declare GHG reduction commitment. Of particular concern is economic consequences GHG mitigation would accrue to the society. Various economic assessment have been carried out to address on the issue including analyses on cost, ancillary benefit, emission trading, so far. In this vein, this study on GHG mitigation commitment is a timely answer to climate change policy field. Empirical results available next year would be highly demanded in the situation. 62 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Search for primarily non-interacting decay modes of the upsilon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leffler, J.S.

    1986-03-01

    The hadronic transition UPSILON(2S) → π 0 π 0 UPSILON(1S) is utilized to search for the reactions: UPSILON(1S) → non-interacting particles and UPSILON(1S) → γ + non-interacting particles. 44 pb -1 of UPSILON(2S) data were taken by the Crystal Ball detector at the DORIS II storage ring in order to perform this study. An upper limit of BR(UPSILON → Unseen) -1 of UPSILON(2S) data was available for this study. An upper limit on the branching ratio BR(UPSILON → γ + Unseen) is measured for photon energies in the range 500 MeV -3 (90% C.L.), is obtained. The compact size of the Crystal Ball detector enhances the observable branching ratio for noninteracting particles with short lifetimes such as massive axions. The identification of the recent Darmstadt events with a 1.6 MeV axion is excluded by the present result assuming the minimal Peccei-Quinn model. Limits on the spontaneous supersymmetry breaking mass scale are also derived as a function of gravitino mass

  20. Amazonian Amphibian Diversity Is Primarily Derived from Late Miocene Andean Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juan C; Coloma, Luis A; Summers, Kyle; Caldwell, Janalee P; Ree, Richard; Cannatella, David C

    2009-01-01

    The Neotropics contains half of remaining rainforests and Earth's largest reservoir of amphibian biodiversity. However, determinants of Neotropical biodiversity (i.e., vicariance, dispersals, extinctions, and radiations) earlier than the Quaternary are largely unstudied. Using a novel method of ancestral area reconstruction and relaxed Bayesian clock analyses, we reconstructed the biogeography of the poison frog clade (Dendrobatidae). We rejected an Amazonian center-of-origin in favor of a complex connectivity model expanding over the Neotropics. We inferred 14 dispersals into and 18 out of Amazonia to adjacent regions; the Andes were the major source of dispersals into Amazonia. We found three episodes of lineage dispersal with two interleaved periods of vicariant events between South and Central America. During the late Miocene, Amazonian, and Central American-Chocoan lineages significantly increased their diversity compared to the Andean and Guianan-Venezuelan-Brazilian Shield counterparts. Significant percentage of dendrobatid diversity in Amazonia and Chocó resulted from repeated immigrations, with radiations at Venezuelan Highlands, and Guiana Shield have undergone extended in situ diversification at near constant rate since the Oligocene. The effects of Miocene paleogeographic events on Neotropical diversification dynamics provided the framework under which Quaternary patterns of endemism evolved. PMID:19278298

  1. Why we cannot conclude that sexual orientation is primarily a biological phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byne, W

    1997-01-01

    While all mental phenomena must have an ultimate biological substrate, the precise contribution of biological factors to the development of sexual orientation remains to be elucidated. Does biology merely provide the slate of neural circuitry upon which sexual orientation is inscribed by experience? Do biological factors directly wire the brain so that it will support a particular orientation? Or do biological factors influence sexual orientation only indirectly, perhaps by influencing personality variables that in turn influence how one interacts with and shapes the environment as it contributes to the social relationships and experiences that shape sexual orientation as it emerges developmentally? Recent neurostructural and genetic linkage evidence pertaining to sexual orientation must be viewed tentatively until it has been adequately corroborated and integrated with psychological and cultural models. Moreover, even a reliable and robust correlation between a biological marker and sexual orientation would be equally compatible with the second and third possibilities delineated above. Yet if the third possibility more closely approximates reality, the search for predisposing biological factors will result in incomplete and misleading findings until their interactions with environmental factors are taken into account and controlled for in adequate longitudinal studies.

  2. Sub-micrometre Particulate Matter is Primarily in Liquid Form over Amazon Rainforests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Z. H.; Liu, Pengfei; Sato, Bruno; Cirino, Glauber; Zhang, Yue; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Manzi, A.; Rizzo, L. V.; Souza, Rodrigo A.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) occurs in the Earth’s atmosphere both in liquid and non-liquid forms. The physical state affects the available physical and chemical mechanisms of growth and reactivity, ultimately affecting the number, size, and composition of the atmospheric particle population. Herein, the physical state, including the response to relative humidity (RH), was investigated on-line and in real time for PM (< 1 μm) over the tropical rain forest of central Amazonia during both the wet and dry seasons of 2013. The results show that the PM was liquid for RH > 80% across 296 to 300 K. These results, in conjunction with the distributions of RH and temperature in Amazonia, imply that near-surface submicron PM in Amazonia is liquid most of the time. The observations are consistent with laboratory experiments showing that PM produced by isoprene photo-oxidation is liquid across these meteorological conditions. The findings have implications for the mechanisms of new particle production in Amazonia, the growth of submicron particles and hence dynamics of the cloud life cycle, and the sensitivity of these processes to anthropogenic activities. An approach for inclusion of particle physical state in chemical transport models is presented.

  3. The link between women's body image disturbances and body-focused cancer screening behaviors: a critical review of the literature and a new integrated model for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Danielle R; Crowther, Janis H

    2013-03-01

    A large body of literature demonstrates the association between body image disturbances and health compromising behaviors among women (e.g., pathological eating, substance use, inappropriate exercise). However, given that disturbed body image is a pervasive problem, it is likely inversely related to health maintenance behaviors. Cancer screenings for breast, skin, and cervical cancer represent an important type of health maintenance behavior, yet adherence rates are low. Given the body-focused nature of these screenings, body image may be a salient predictor. This paper reviews the literature on the relationship between body image disturbances and cancer screening behaviors among women culminating in the proposal of a theoretical model. This model posits that body shame and body avoidance predict performance of cancer screenings and that variables drawn from the cancer literature, including risk perception, health anxiety, subjective norms, and self-efficacy, may moderate this relationship. Clinical implications and suggestions for research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Professional responsibility and decision-making in the context of a disease-focused model of nursing care: The difficulties experienced by Spanish nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Olga; Caïs, Jordi; Monforte-Royo, Cristina

    2017-10-01

    When, in 1977, nurse education in Spain was transferred to universities a more patient-centred, the Anglo-American philosophy of care was introduced into a context in which nurses had traditionally prioritised their technical skills. This paper examines the characteristics of the nurse's professional role in Spain, where the model of nursing practice has historically placed them in a position akin to that of physician assistants. The study design was qualitative and used the method of analytic induction. Participants were selected by means of theoretical sampling and then underwent in-depth interviews. The resulting material was analysed using an approach based on the principles of grounded theory. Strategies were applied to ensure the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of the findings. The main conclusion is that nurses in Spain continue to work within a disease-focused model of care, making it difficult for them to take responsibility for decision-making. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. CONFIRMING THE PRIMARILY SMOOTH STRUCTURE OF THE VEGA DEBRIS DISK AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, A. Meredith; Plambeck, Richard; Chiang, Eugene [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wilner, David J.; Andrews, Sean M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mason, Brian [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Carpenter, John M. [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, MC 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chiang, Hsin-Fang [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hales, Antonio [Joint ALMA Observatory, Av. El Golf 40, Piso 18, Santiago (Chile); Su, Kate [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dicker, Simon; Korngut, Phil; Devlin, Mark, E-mail: mhughes@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Clumpy structure in the debris disk around Vega has been previously reported at millimeter wavelengths and attributed to concentrations of dust grains trapped in resonances with an unseen planet. However, recent imaging at similar wavelengths with higher sensitivity has disputed the observed structure. We present three new millimeter-wavelength observations that help to resolve the puzzling and contradictory observations. We have observed the Vega system with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at a wavelength of 880 {mu}m and an angular resolution of 5''; with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) at a wavelength of 1.3 mm and an angular resolution of 5''; and with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) at a wavelength of 3.3 mm and angular resolution of 10''. Despite high sensitivity and short baselines, we do not detect the Vega debris disk in either of the interferometric data sets (SMA and CARMA), which should be sensitive at high significance to clumpy structure based on previously reported observations. We obtain a marginal (3{sigma}) detection of disk emission in the GBT data; the spatial distribution of the emission is not well constrained. We analyze the observations in the context of several different models, demonstrating that the observations are consistent with a smooth, broad, axisymmetric disk with inner radius 20-100 AU and width {approx}> 50 AU. The interferometric data require that at least half of the 860 {mu}m emission detected by previous single-dish observations with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope be distributed axisymmetrically, ruling out strong contributions from flux concentrations on spatial scales of {approx}<100 AU. These observations support recent results from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer indicating that previous detections of clumpy structure in the Vega debris disk were spurious.

  6. CONFIRMING THE PRIMARILY SMOOTH STRUCTURE OF THE VEGA DEBRIS DISK AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, A. Meredith; Plambeck, Richard; Chiang, Eugene; Wilner, David J.; Andrews, Sean M.; Mason, Brian; Carpenter, John M.; Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Williams, Jonathan P.; Hales, Antonio; Su, Kate; Dicker, Simon; Korngut, Phil; Devlin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Clumpy structure in the debris disk around Vega has been previously reported at millimeter wavelengths and attributed to concentrations of dust grains trapped in resonances with an unseen planet. However, recent imaging at similar wavelengths with higher sensitivity has disputed the observed structure. We present three new millimeter-wavelength observations that help to resolve the puzzling and contradictory observations. We have observed the Vega system with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at a wavelength of 880 μm and an angular resolution of 5''; with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) at a wavelength of 1.3 mm and an angular resolution of 5''; and with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) at a wavelength of 3.3 mm and angular resolution of 10''. Despite high sensitivity and short baselines, we do not detect the Vega debris disk in either of the interferometric data sets (SMA and CARMA), which should be sensitive at high significance to clumpy structure based on previously reported observations. We obtain a marginal (3σ) detection of disk emission in the GBT data; the spatial distribution of the emission is not well constrained. We analyze the observations in the context of several different models, demonstrating that the observations are consistent with a smooth, broad, axisymmetric disk with inner radius 20-100 AU and width ∼> 50 AU. The interferometric data require that at least half of the 860 μm emission detected by previous single-dish observations with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope be distributed axisymmetrically, ruling out strong contributions from flux concentrations on spatial scales of ∼<100 AU. These observations support recent results from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer indicating that previous detections of clumpy structure in the Vega debris disk were spurious.

  7. Using cross-classified multilevel models to disentangle school and neighborhood effects: an example focusing on smoking behaviors among adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C; Richmond, Tracy K; Milliren, Carly E; Subramanian, S V

    2015-01-01

    Despite much interest in understanding the influence of contexts on health, most research has focused on one context at a time, ignoring the reality that individuals have simultaneous memberships in multiple settings. Using the example of smoking behavior among adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we applied cross-classified multilevel modeling (CCMM) to examine fixed and random effects for schools and neighborhoods. We compared the CCMM results with those obtained from a traditional multilevel model (MLM) focused on either the school and neighborhood separately. In the MLMs, 5.2% of the variation in smoking was due to differences between neighborhoods (when schools were ignored) and 6.3% of the variation in smoking was due to differences between schools (when neighborhoods were ignored). However in the CCMM examining neighborhood and school variation simultaneously, the neighborhood-level variation was reduced to 0.4%. Results suggest that using MLM, instead of CCMM, could lead to overestimating the importance of certain contexts and could ultimately lead to targeting interventions or policies to the wrong settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe Is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Zoë H.; Zerjal, Tatiana; Hurles, Matthew E.; Adojaan, Maarja; Alavantic, Dragan; Amorim, António; Amos, William; Armenteros, Manuel; Arroyo, Eduardo; Barbujani, Guido; Beckman, Gunhild; Beckman, Lars; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Bosch, Elena; Bradley, Daniel G.; Brede, Gaute; Cooper, Gillian; Côrte-Real, Helena B. S. M.; de Knijff, Peter; Decorte, Ronny; Dubrova, Yuri E.; Evgrafov, Oleg; Gilissen, Anja; Glisic, Sanja; Gölge, Mukaddes; Hill, Emmeline W.; Jeziorowska, Anna; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Kayser, Manfred; Kivisild, Toomas; Kravchenko, Sergey A.; Krumina, Astrida; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Lavinha, João; Livshits, Ludmila A.; Malaspina, Patrizia; Maria, Syrrou; McElreavey, Ken; Meitinger, Thomas A.; Mikelsaar, Aavo-Valdur; Mitchell, R. John; Nafa, Khedoudja; Nicholson, Jayne; Nørby, Søren; Pandya, Arpita; Parik, Jüri; Patsalis, Philippos C.; Pereira, Luísa; Peterlin, Borut; Pielberg, Gerli; Prata, Maria João; Previderé, Carlo; Roewer, Lutz; Rootsi, Siiri; Rubinsztein, D. C.; Saillard, Juliette; Santos, Fabrício R.; Stefanescu, Gheorghe; Sykes, Bryan C.; Tolun, Aslihan; Villems, Richard; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    Clinal patterns of autosomal genetic diversity within Europe have been interpreted in previous studies in terms of a Neolithic demic diffusion model for the spread of agriculture; in contrast, studies using mtDNA have traced many founding lineages to the Paleolithic and have not shown strongly clinal variation. We have used 11 human Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms, defining 10 haplogroups, to analyze a sample of 3,616 Y chromosomes belonging to 47 European and circum-European populations. Patterns of geographic differentiation are highly nonrandom, and, when they are assessed using spatial autocorrelation analysis, they show significant clines for five of six haplogroups analyzed. Clines for two haplogroups, representing 45% of the chromosomes, are continentwide and consistent with the demic diffusion hypothesis. Clines for three other haplogroups each have different foci and are more regionally restricted and are likely to reflect distinct population movements, including one from north of the Black Sea. Principal-components analysis suggests that populations are related primarily on the basis of geography, rather than on the basis of linguistic affinity. This is confirmed in Mantel tests, which show a strong and highly significant partial correlation between genetics and geography but a low, nonsignificant partial correlation between genetics and language. Genetic-barrier analysis also indicates the primacy of geography in the shaping of patterns of variation. These patterns retain a strong signal of expansion from the Near East but also suggest that the demographic history of Europe has been complex and influenced by other major population movements, as well as by linguistic and geographic heterogeneities and the effects of drift. PMID:11078479

  9. Three dimensional (3D) microstructure-based finite element modeling of Al-SiC nanolaminates using focused ion beam (FIB) tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Carl R. [Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 (United States); Molina-Aladareguia, Jon [IMDEA Materials Institute, c/Eric Kandel 2, Getafe, Madrid 28906 (Spain); Chawla, Nikhilesh, E-mail: nchawla@asu.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Al-SiC nanolaminate composites show promise as high performance coating materials due to their combination of strength and toughness. Although a significant amount of modeling effort has been focused on materials with an idealized flat nanostructure, experimentally these materials exhibit complex undulating layer geometries. This work utilizes FIB tomography to characterize this nanostructure in 3D and finite element modeling to determine the effect that this complex structure has on the mechanical behavior of these materials. A sufficiently large volume was characterized such that a 1 × 2 μm micropillar could be generated from the dataset and compared directly to experimental results. The mechanical response from this nanostructure was then compared to pillar models using simplified structures with perfectly flat layers, layers with sinusoidal waviness, and layers with arc segment waviness. The arc segment based layer geometry showed the best agreement with the experimentally determined structure, indicating it would be the most appropriate geometry for future modeling efforts. - Highlights: •FIB tomography was used to determine the structure of an Al-SiC nanolaminate in 3D. •FEM was used to compare the deformation of the nanostructure to experimental results. •Idealized structures from literature were compared to the FIB determined structure. •Arc segment based structures approximated the FIB determined structure most closely.

  10. Enfoques da teoria institucional nos modelos de avaliação institucional brasileiros Focus of the institutional theory on the Brazilian institutional evaluation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Schlickmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo identificar quais enfoques da perspectiva institucional foram predominantes nos modelos de avaliação institucional propostos pelos governos às universidades brasileiras. Quanto à abordagem, podemos caracterizar o estudo como qualitativo; a verificação dos enfoques foi realizada tomando-se por base a revisão teórica acerca dos diferentes enfoques da teoria institucional, do histórico da avaliação institucional no Brasil, bem como a caracterização de cada modelo avaliativo proposto pelos governos, a partir da década de 1970. O estudo evidenciou que os modelos de avaliação institucional ao longo dos governos apresentaram diferentes enfoques institucionais, sendo que houve uma predominância dos enfoques regulador e normativo, embora o cognitivo seja o que permeia o atual sistema de avaliação institucional brasileiro.This article has the purpose of verifying which approaches of the institutional perspective were predominant in the models of institutional evaluation proposed by the governments to the Brazilian universities. This study can be characterized as qualitative, in which the focal points were verified through theoretical revision of the different aspects of the institutional theory, of the history of Brazilian institutional evaluation, as well as the characterization of each evaluative model proposed by the governments since the 1970s. The study made evident that the institutional evaluation models during different governments presented a different institutional focus, with the predominance of the regulatory and normative focuses, although the cognitive is the one that permeates Brazil's present institutional evaluation system.

  11. Ex vivo optimisation of a heterogeneous speed of sound model of the human skull for non-invasive transcranial focused ultrasound at 1 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, L; Chauvet, D; La Greca, R; Boch, A-L; Chaumoitre, K; Tanter, M; Aubry, J-F

    2017-09-01

    Transcranial brain therapy has recently emerged as a non-invasive strategy for the treatment of various neurological diseases, such as essential tremor or neurogenic pain. However, treatments require millimetre-scale accuracy. The use of high frequencies (typically ≥1 MHz) decreases the ultrasonic wavelength to the millimetre scale, thereby increasing the clinical accuracy and lowering the probability of cavitation, which improves the safety of the technique compared with the use of low-frequency devices that operate at 220 kHz. Nevertheless, the skull produces greater distortions of high-frequency waves relative to low-frequency waves. High-frequency waves require high-performance adaptive focusing techniques, based on modelling the wave propagation through the skull. This study sought to optimise the acoustical modelling of the skull based on computed tomography (CT) for a 1 MHz clinical brain therapy system. The best model tested in this article corresponded to a maximum speed of sound of 4000 m.s -1 in the skull bone, and it restored 86% of the optimal pressure amplitude on average in a collection of six human skulls. Compared with uncorrected focusing, the optimised non-invasive correction led to an average increase of 99% in the maximum pressure amplitude around the target and an average decrease of 48% in the distance between the peak pressure and the selected target. The attenuation through the skulls was also assessed within the bandwidth of the transducers, and it was found to vary in the range of 10 ± 3 dB at 800 kHz and 16 ± 3 dB at 1.3 MHz.

  12. A Conceptual Model for the Sustainable Governance of Integrated Management of National Water Resources with a Focus on Training and Capacity Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaleh Ghaemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The instabilities over the past two decades in governing water resources have led to the need for an integrated approach to the problem. Moreover, the decent and sustainable governance of water resources has come to be recognized as the supplement to the integrated management of water resources. The present study strives to develop a conceptual model of water reources sustainable governance with emphasis on training and capacity-building. For this purpose, expert views presented to different international meetings and world conferences on water were reviewed to develop a comprehensive and all-embracuing conceptual model of sustainable governance for the integrated management of water resources with a focus on training and capacity-building. In a second stage of the study, both internationally published literature and the regulatory documents on water management approved at the national level were consulted to derive appropriate standards, criteria, and indicators for the implementation of the proposed conceptual model. The relevance of these indicators was validated by soliciting expert views while their stability was calculated via the Cronbach’s alpha formula to be 0.94. The third stage of the study involved the ranking and gradation of the indicators using the relevant software in a fuzzy decision-making environment based on interviews with 110 senior water executives, academics working in the field, senior agricultural managers, water experts in local communities, and NGO activists. The emerging model finally consisted of 9 criteria and 52 indicators, amongst which the criterion of public participation and the indicator of training and capacity-building won the highest scores. It may be claimed that the proposed conceptual model is quite relevant and adapted to the sustainable governance presently sought. The key roles in this model are played by public participation as well as training and capacity building that must be on the priority

  13. Seasonal monitoring of soil erosion at regional scale: An application of the G2 model in Crete focusing on agricultural land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panagos; Christos, Karydas; Cristiano, Ballabio; Ioannis, Gitas

    2014-04-01

    A new soil erosion model, namely G2, was applied in the island of Crete with a focus on agricultural land uses, including potential grazing lands. The G2 model was developed within the Geoland2 project as an agro-environmental service in the framework of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES, now Copernicus) initiative. The G2 model takes advantage of the empirical background of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and the Gavrilovic model, together with readily available time series of vegetation layers and 10-min rainfall intensity data to produce monthly time-step erosion risk maps at 300 m cell size. The innovations of the G2 model include the implementation of land-use influence parameters based on empirical data and the introduction of a corrective term in the estimation of the topographic influence factor. The mean annual erosion rate in Crete was found to be 8.123 t ha-1. The season from October to January (the rainy season in Crete) was found to be the most critical, accounting for 80% of the annual erosion in the island. Seasonal erosion figures proved to be crucial for the identification of erosion hotspots and of risky land uses. In Crete, high annual erosion figures were detected in natural grasslands and shrublands (14.023 t ha-1), mainly due to the intensification of livestock grazing during the past decades. The G2 model allows for the integrated spatio-temporal monitoring of soil erosion per land-use type based on moderate data input requirements and existing datasets.

  14. The impact of standing wave effects on transcranial focused ultrasound disruption of the blood-brain barrier in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, Meaghan A; Huang Yuexi; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2010-01-01

    Microbubble-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for targeted drug delivery using focused ultrasound shows great potential as a therapy for a wide range of brain disorders. This technique is currently at the pre-clinical stage and important work is being conducted in animal models. Measurements of standing waves in ex vivo rat skulls were conducted using an optical hydrophone and a geometry dependence was identified. Standing waves could not be eliminated through the use of swept frequencies, which have been suggested to eliminate standing waves. Definitive standing wave patterns were detected in over 25% of animals used in a single study. Standing waves were successfully eliminated using a wideband composite sharply focused transducer and a reduced duty cycle. The modified pulse parameters were used in vivo to disrupt the BBB in a rat indicating that, unlike some other bioeffects, BBB disruption is not dependent on standing wave conditions. Due to the high variability of standing waves and the inability to correctly estimate in situ pressures given standing wave conditions, attempts to minimize standing waves should be made in all future work in this field to ensure that results are clinically translatable.

  15. Elucidation of the role of biological factors and device design in cerebral NIRS using an in vivo hematoma model based on high-intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianting; Huang, Stanley; Myers, Matthew; Chen, Yu; Welle, Cristin; Pfefer, Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is an emerging medical countermeasure for rapid, field detection of hematomas caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI). Bench and animal tests to determine NIRS sensitivity and specificity are needed. However, current animal models involving non-invasively induced, localized neural damage are limited. We investigated an in vivo murine hematoma model in which cerebral hemorrhage was induced noninvasively by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with calibrated positioning and parameters. To characterize the morphology of induced hematomas, we used skull-intact histological evaluation. A multi-wavelength fiber-optic NIRS system with three source-detector separation distances was used to detect hematoma A 1.1 MHz transducer produced consistent small-to-medium hematoma localized to a single hemisphere, along with bruising of the scalp, with a low mortality rate. A 220 kHz transducer produced larger, more diffuse hematomas, with higher variability in size and a correspondingly higher mortality rate. No skin bruising or blood accumulation between the skin and skull was observed following injury application with the 220 kHz transducer. Histological analysis showed higher sensitivity for larger hematomas (>4x4 mm2). NIRS optical density change after HIFU was able to detect all hematomas, with sensitivity dependent on wavelength and separation distance. While improvements in methods for validating cerebral blood distribution are needed, the HIFU hematoma model provided useful insights that will inform development of biologically relevant, performance test methods for cerebral NIRS systems.

  16. Examining Change in K-3 Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs: The Case of Primarily Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutaka, T. S.; Ren, L.; Smith, W. M.; Beattie, H. L.; Edwards, C. P.; Green, J. L.; Chernyavskiy, P.; Stroup, W.; Heaton, R. M.; Lewis, W. J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the Primarily Math Elementary Mathematics Specialist program on K-3 teachers' mathematical content knowledge for teaching, attitudes toward learning mathematics, and beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning. Three cohorts of teachers participating in the program were compared to a similar group of…

  17. Opening the Blood-Brain Barrier with MR Imaging-guided Focused Ultrasound: Preclinical Testing on a Trans-Human Skull Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuexi; Alkins, Ryan; Schwartz, Michael L; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop and test a protocol in preparation for a clinical trial on opening the blood-brain barrier (BBB) with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided focused ultrasound for the delivery of chemotherapy drugs to brain tumors. Materials and Methods The procedures were approved by the institutional animal care committee. A trans-human skull porcine model was designed for the preclinical testing. Wide craniotomies were applied in 11 pigs (weight, approximately 15 kg). A partial human skull was positioned over the animal's brain. A modified clinical MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound brain system was used with a 3.0-T MR unit. The ultrasound beam was steered during sonications over a 3 × 3 grid at 3-mm spacing. Acoustic power levels of 3-20 W were tested. Bolus injections of microbubbles at 4 μL/kg were tested for each sonication. Levels of BBB opening, hemorrhage, and cavitation signal were measured with MR imaging, histologic examination, and cavitation receivers, respectively. A cavitation safety algorithm was developed on the basis of logistic regression of the measurements and tested to minimize the risk of hemorrhage. Results BBB openings of approximately 1 cm 3 in volume were visualized with gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging after sonication at an acoustic power of approximately 5 W. Gross examination of histologic specimens helped confirm Evans blue (bound to macromolecule albumin) extravasation, and hematoxylin-eosin staining helped detect only scattered extravasation of red blood cells. In cases where cavitation signals were higher than thresholds, sonications were terminated immediately without causing hemorrhage. Conclusion With a trans-human skull porcine model, this study demonstrated BBB opening with a 230-kHz system in preparation for a clinical trial. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  18. Host resistance, population structure and the long-term persistence of bubonic plague: contributions of a modelling approach in the Malagasy focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Gascuel

    Full Text Available Although bubonic plague is an endemic zoonosis in many countries around the world, the factors responsible for the persistence of this highly virulent disease remain poorly known. Classically, the endemic persistence of plague is suspected to be due to the coexistence of plague resistant and plague susceptible rodents in natural foci, and/or to a metapopulation structure of reservoirs. Here, we test separately the effect of each of these factors on the long-term persistence of plague. We analyse the dynamics and equilibria of a model of plague propagation, consistent with plague ecology in Madagascar, a major focus where this disease is endemic since the 1920s in central highlands. By combining deterministic and stochastic analyses of this model, and including sensitivity analyses, we show that (i endemicity is favoured by intermediate host population sizes, (ii in large host populations, the presence of resistant rats is sufficient to explain long-term persistence of plague, and (iii the metapopulation structure of susceptible host populations alone can also account for plague endemicity, thanks to both subdivision and the subsequent reduction in the size of subpopulations, and extinction-recolonization dynamics of the disease. In the light of these results, we suggest scenarios to explain the localized presence of plague in Madagascar.

  19. Host Resistance, Population Structure and the Long-Term Persistence of Bubonic Plague: Contributions of a Modelling Approach in the Malagasy Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Fanny; Choisy, Marc; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Débarre, Florence; Brouat, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Although bubonic plague is an endemic zoonosis in many countries around the world, the factors responsible for the persistence of this highly virulent disease remain poorly known. Classically, the endemic persistence of plague is suspected to be due to the coexistence of plague resistant and plague susceptible rodents in natural foci, and/or to a metapopulation structure of reservoirs. Here, we test separately the effect of each of these factors on the long-term persistence of plague. We analyse the dynamics and equilibria of a model of plague propagation, consistent with plague ecology in Madagascar, a major focus where this disease is endemic since the 1920s in central highlands. By combining deterministic and stochastic analyses of this model, and including sensitivity analyses, we show that (i) endemicity is favoured by intermediate host population sizes, (ii) in large host populations, the presence of resistant rats is sufficient to explain long-term persistence of plague, and (iii) the metapopulation structure of susceptible host populations alone can also account for plague endemicity, thanks to both subdivision and the subsequent reduction in the size of subpopulations, and extinction-recolonization dynamics of the disease. In the light of these results, we suggest scenarios to explain the localized presence of plague in Madagascar. PMID:23675291

  20. An Economic and Environmental Assessment Model for Selecting the Optimal Implementation Strategy of Fuel Cell Systems—A Focus on Building Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeho Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerable effort is being made to reduce the primary energy consumption in buildings. As part of this effort, fuel cell systems are attracting attention as a new/renewable energy systems for several reasons: (i distributed generation system; (ii combined heat and power system; and (iii availability of various sources of hydrogen in the future. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an economic and environmental assessment model for selecting the optimal implementation strategy of the fuel cell system, focusing on building energy policy. This study selected two types of buildings (i.e., residential buildings and non-residential buildings as the target buildings and considered two types of building energy policies (i.e., the standard of energy cost calculation and the standard of a government subsidy. This study established the optimal implementation strategy of the fuel cell system in terms of the life cycle cost and life cycle CO2 emissions. For the residential building, it is recommended that the subsidy level and the system marginal price level be increased. For the non-residential building, it is recommended that gas energy cost be decreased and the system marginal price level be increased. The developed model could be applied to any other country or any other type of building according to building energy policy.

  1. Linking the open source, spatial electrification tool (ONSSET) and the open source energy modelling system (OSeMOSYS), with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, Dimitrios; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Holger; Korkovelos, Alexandros; Arderne, Christopher; Siyal, Shahid; Zepeda, Eduardo; Taliotis, Constantinos; Bazilian, Morgan; de Roo, Ad; Tanvez, Yann; Oudalov, Alexandre; Scholtz, Ernst

    2017-04-01

    In September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Agenda 2030, which comprises a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) defined by 169 targets. "Ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030" is the seventh goal (SDG7). While access to energy refers to more than electricity, the latter is the central focus of this work. According to the World Bank's 2015 Global Tracking Framework, roughly 15% of world population (or 1.1 billion people) lack access to electricity, and many more rely on poor quality electricity services. The majority of those without access (87%) reside in rural areas. This paper presents results of a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach coupled with open access data and linked to the Electricity Model Base for Africa (TEMBA), a model that represents each continental African country's electricity supply system. We present least-cost electrification strategies on a country-by-country basis for Sub-Saharan Africa. The electrification options include grid extension, mini-grid and stand-alone systems for rural, peri-urban, and urban contexts across the economy. At low levels of electricity demand there is a strong penetration of standalone technologies. However, higher electricity demand levels move the favourable electrification option from stand-alone systems to mini grid and to grid extensions.

  2. A critical review of anaesthetised animal models and alternatives for military research, testing and training, with a focus on blast damage, haemorrhage and resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D

    2013-11-01

    dynamic modelling of the human body, cadavers, interactive human patient simulators for training, in vitro techniques involving organotypic cultures of target organs, and epidemiological and clinical studies. While the first four of these have long proven useful for developing protective measures and predicting the consequences of trauma, and although many phenomena and their sequelae arising from different forms of trauma in vivo can be induced and reproduced in vitro, non-animal approaches require further development, and their validation and use need to be coordinated and harmonised. Recommendations to these ends are proposed, and the scientific and welfare problems associated with animal models are addressed, with the future focus being on the use of batteries of complementary replacement methods deployed in integrated strategies, and on greater transparency and scientific cooperation. 2013 FRAME.

  3. Modeling Energy and Development : An Evaluation of Models and Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijven, Bas van; Urban, Frauke; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.; Sluijs, Jeroen P. van der; Vries, Bert de; Vuuren, Detlef P. van

    2008-01-01

    Most global energy models are developed by institutes from developed countries focusing primarily oil issues that are important in industrialized countries. Evaluation of the results for Asia of the IPCC/SRES models shows that broad concepts of energy and development. the energy ladder and the

  4. X-ray and CT signs of connective tissue dysplasia in patients with primarily diagnosed infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanova, L.A.; Sharmazanova, O.P.

    2009-01-01

    The x-ray signs of connective tissue systemic dysplasia (CTSD) in patients with primarily diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis was investigated. Fifty-four patients (28 med and 26 women aged 18-70) with primarily diagnosed infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis underwent x-ray study. In patients with infiltration pulmonary tuberculosis CTSD in the lungs manifests by their diminishing, deformity of the lung pattern, high position of the diaphragm cupola, mediastinum shift to the side of the pathology, which is better seen on CT. The degree of CTSD x-ray signs in the lungs depends on the number of phenotypical signs that is the degree of the disease manifestation. CT allows more accurate determining of the signs of connective tissue dysplasia in which tuberculosis develops

  5. Assessment of Vegetation Variation on Primarily Creation Zones of the Dust Storms Around the Euphrates Using Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Amanollahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, period frequency and effect domain of the dust storms that enter Iran from Iraq have increased. In this study, in addition to detecting the creation zones of the dust storms, the effect of vegetation cover variation on their creation was investigated using remote sensing. Moderate resolution image Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM5 have been utilized to identify the primarily creation zones of the dust storms and to assess the vegetation cover variation, respectively. Vegetation cover variation was studied using Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI obtained from band 3 and band 4 of the Landsate satellite. The results showed that the surrounding area of the Euphrates in Syria, the desert in the vicinity of this river in Iraq, including the deserts of Alanbar Province, and the north deserts of Saudi Arabia are the primarily creation zones of the dust storms entering west and south west of Iran. The results of NDVI showed that excluding the deserts in the border of Syria and Iraq, the area with very weak vegetation cover have increased between 2.44% and 20.65% from 1991 to 2009. In the meanwhile, the retention pound surface areas in the south deserts of Syria as well as the deserts in its border with Iraq have decreased 6320 and 4397 hectares, respectively. As it can be concluded from the findings, one of the main environmental parameters initiating these dust storms is the decrease in the vegetation cover in their primarily creation zones.

  6. Medicare Program; Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) and Alternative Payment Model (APM) Incentive Under the Physician Fee Schedule, and Criteria for Physician-Focused Payment Models. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) repeals the Medicare sustainable growth rate (SGR) methodology for updates to the physician fee schedule (PFS) and replaces it with a new approach to payment called the Quality Payment Program that rewards the delivery of high-quality patient care through two avenues: Advanced Alternative Payment Models (Advanced APMs) and the Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) for eligible clinicians or groups under the PFS. This final rule with comment period establishes incentives for participation in certain alternative payment models (APMs) and includes the criteria for use by the Physician-Focused Payment Model Technical Advisory Committee (PTAC) in making comments and recommendations on physician-focused payment models (PFPMs). Alternative Payment Models are payment approaches, developed in partnership with the clinician community, that provide added incentives to deliver high-quality and cost-efficient care. APMs can apply to a specific clinical condition, a care episode, or a population. This final rule with comment period also establishes the MIPS, a new program for certain Medicare-enrolled practitioners. MIPS will consolidate components of three existing programs, the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS), the Physician Value-based Payment Modifier (VM), and the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program for Eligible Professionals (EPs), and will continue the focus on quality, cost, and use of certified EHR technology (CEHRT) in a cohesive program that avoids redundancies. In this final rule with comment period we have rebranded key terminology based on feedback from stakeholders, with the goal of selecting terms that will be more easily identified and understood by our stakeholders.

  7. Review of Current Student-Monitoring Techniques used in eLearning-Focused recommender Systems and Learning analytics. The Experience API & LIME model Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Corbi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems require input information in order to properly operate and deliver content or behaviour suggestions to end users. eLearning scenarios are no exception. Users are current students and recommendations can be built upon paths (both formal and informal, relationships, behaviours, friends, followers, actions, grades, tutor interaction, etc. A recommender system must somehow retrieve, categorize and work with all these details. There are several ways to do so: from raw and inelegant database access to more curated web APIs or even via HTML scrapping. New server-centric user-action logging and monitoring standard technologies have been presented in past years by several groups, organizations and standard bodies. The Experience API (xAPI, detailed in this article, is one of these. In the first part of this paper we analyse current learner-monitoring techniques as an initialization phase for eLearning recommender systems. We next review standardization efforts in this area; finally, we focus on xAPI and the potential interaction with the LIME model, which will be also summarized below.

  8. Electric motors in the focus; Elektroantrieb im Focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, Jan

    2013-05-15

    In August 2013, the first electric series production model of Ford comes to the market: the Focus Electric. A 23-kWh lithium-ion battery supplies the 107 kilowatts (145 hp) electric motor of the Focus Electric with energy. This battery enables a range of 162 kilometers and a limited top speed of 136 kilometers per hour. However, with 40,000 Euro this electric-powered vehicles is too expensive.

  9. Professional hazards? The impact of models' body size on advertising effectiveness and women's body-focused anxiety in professions that do and do not emphasize the cultural ideal of thinness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Helga; Howard, Sarah

    2004-12-01

    Previous experimental research indicates that the use of average-size women models in advertising prevents the well-documented negative effect of thin models on women's body image, while such adverts are perceived as equally effective (Halliwell & Dittmar, 2004). The current study extends this work by: (a) seeking to replicate the finding of no difference in advertising effectiveness between average-size and thin models (b) examining level of ideal-body internalization as an individual, internal factor that moderates women's vulnerability to thin media models, in the context of (c) comparing women in professions that differ radically in their focus on, and promotion of, the sociocultural ideal of thinness for women--employees in fashion advertising (n = 75) and teachers in secondary schools (n = 75). Adverts showing thin, average-size and no models were perceived as equally effective. High internalizers in both groups of women felt worse about their body image after exposure to thin models compared to other images. Profession affected responses to average-size models. Teachers reported significantly less body-focused anxiety after seeing average-size models compared to no models, while there was no difference for fashion advertisers. This suggests that women in professional environments with less focus on appearance-related ideals can experience increased body-esteem when exposed to average-size models, whereas women in appearance-focused professions report no such relief.

  10. FADD Expression as a Prognosticator in Early-Stage Glottic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Treated Primarily With Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrijvers, Michiel L.; Pattje, Wouter J.; Slagter-Menkema, Lorian; Mastik, Mirjam F.; Gibcus, Johan H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wal, Jacqueline E. van der; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. vn der; Schuuring, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We recently reported on the identification of the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) as a possible driver of the chromosome 11q13 amplicon and the association between increased FADD expression and disease-specific survival in advanced-stage laryngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to examine whether expression of FADD and its Ser194-phosphorylated isoform (pFADD) predicts local control in patients with early-stage glottic carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy only. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining for FADD and pFADD was performed on pretreatment biopsy specimens of 92 patients with T1–T2 glottic squamous cell carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy between 1996 and 2005. Cox regression analysis was used to correlate expression levels with local control. Results: High levels of pFADD were associated with significantly better local control (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–5.55; p = 0.040). FADD overexpression showed a trend toward better local control (hazard ratio, 3.656; 95% confidence interval, 0.853–15.663; p = 0.081). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high pFADD expression was the best predictor of local control after radiotherapy. Conclusions: This study showed that expression of phosphorylated FADD is a new prognostic biomarker for better local control after radiotherapy in patients with early-stage glottic carcinomas.

  11. Plasma focus breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1981-09-01

    Instead of using linear accelerators, it is possible to breed fissile fuels with the help of high current plasma focus device. A mechanism of accelerating proton beam in plasma focus device to high energy would be a change of inductance in plasma column because of rapid growth of plasma instability. A possible scheme of plasma focus breeder is also proposed. (author)

  12. A Focused Salivary Gland Infection with attenuated MCMV: An Animal Model with Prevention of Pathology Associated with Systemic MCMV Infection1, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Mark J.; Kasman, Laura; Grewal, Jasvir; Bruorton, Mary E.; Werner, Phil; London, Lucille; London, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    While the salivary gland has been recognized as an important effector site of the common mucosal immune system, a useful model for studying anti-viral salivary gland immune responses in vivo and for exploring the role of the salivary gland within the common mucosal system has been lacking. Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is a beta-herpesvirus that displays a strong tropism for the salivary gland and produces significant morbidity in susceptible mice when introduced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation. This study tested the hypothesis that MCMV morbidity and pathology could be reduced by injecting the virus directly the submandibular salivary gland (intraglandular (i.g.)), using either in vivo derived MCMV or the less virulent, tissue culture-derived MCMV (tcMCMV). Peak salivary gland viral titers were completely unaffected by infection route (i.p vs. i.g.) after inoculation with either MCMV or tcMCMV. However, i.g. tcMCMV inoculation reduced viremia in all systemic tissues tested compared to i.p. inoculation. Further, systemic organ pathology observed in the liver and spleen after i.p. inoculation with either MCMV or tcMCMV was completely eliminated by i.g. inoculation with tcMCMV. Cellular infiltrates in the salivary glands, after i.p. or i.g. inoculation were composed of both B and T cells, indicating the potential for a local immune response to occur in the salivary gland. These results demonstrate that a focused MCMV infection of the salivary gland without systemic organ pathology is possible using i.g. delivery of tcMCMV. PMID:17320076

  13. Enhancement in blood-tumor barrier permeability and delivery of liposomal doxorubicin using focused ultrasound and microbubbles: evaluation during tumor progression in a rat glioma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Muna; Park, Juyoung; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Zhang, Yong-Zhi; McDannold, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    Effective drug delivery to brain tumors is often challenging because of the heterogeneous permeability of the ‘blood tumor barrier’ (BTB) along with other factors such as increased interstitial pressure and drug efflux pumps. Focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with microbubbles can enhance the permeability of the BTB in brain tumors, as well as the blood-brain barrier in the surrounding tissue. In this study, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was used to characterize the FUS-induced permeability changes of the BTB in a rat glioma model at different times after implantation. 9L gliosarcoma cells were implanted in both hemispheres in male rats. At day 9, 14, or 17 days after implantation, FUS-induced BTB disruption using 690 kHz ultrasound and definity microbubbles was performed in one tumor in each animal. Before FUS, liposomal doxorubicin was administered at a dose of 5.67 mg kg-1. This chemotherapy agent was previously shown to improve survival in animal glioma models. The transfer coefficient Ktrans describing extravasation of the MRI contrast agent Gd-DTPA was measured via DCE-MRI before and after sonication. We found that tumor doxorubicin concentrations increased monotonically (823  ±  600, 1817  ±  732 and 2432  ±  448 ng g-1) in the control tumors at 9, 14 and 17 d. With FUS-induced BTB disruption, the doxorubicin concentrations were enhanced significantly (P benefit from FUS-induced drug enhancement. Corresponding enhancements in Ktrans were found to be variable in large/late-stage tumors and not significantly different than controls, perhaps reflecting the size mismatch between the liposomal drug (~100 nm) and Gd-DTPA (molecular weight: 938 Da; hydrodynamic diameter: ≃2 nm). It may be necessary to use a larger MRI contrast agent to effectively evaluate the sonication-induced enhanced permeabilization in large/late-stage tumors when a large drug carrier such as a liposome is used.

  14. Accumulation of a poly(hydroxyalkanoate) copolymer containing primarily 3-hydroxyvalerate from simple carbohydrate substrates by Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 40126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, G W; Anderson, A J; Williams, D R; Dawes, E A; Ewing, D F

    1991-04-01

    A number of taxonomically-related bacteria have been identified which accumulate poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) copolymers containing primarily 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) monomer units from a range of unrelated single carbon sources. One of these, Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 40126, was further investigated and shown to produce a copolymer containing 75 mol% 3HV and 25 mol% 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) from glucose as sole carbon source. Polyesters containing both 3HV and 3HB monomer units, together with 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB), 5-hydroxyvalerate (5HV) or 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx), were also produced by this organism from certain accumulation substrates. With valeric acid as substrate, almost pure (99 mol% 3HV) poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) was produced. N.m.r. analysis confirmed the composition of these polyesters. The thermal properties and molecular weight of the copolymer produced from glucose were comparable to those of PHB produced by Alcaligenes eutrophus.

  15. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Preliminary Findings From a Sample of Primarily LGBQ-Identified Survey Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Corina; Koon-Magnin, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study is among the first to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and rape myth adherence using a nationwide survey of primarily lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) respondents (n = 184). The more established Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale and a modified Male Rape Survey serve as the primary instruments to test both rape myth adherence and instrument-appropriateness. Results suggest that respondents were most likely to support myths that discredit sexual assault allegations or excuse rape as a biological imperative and least likely to support myths related to physical resistance. Consistent with previous work, men exhibited higher levels of rape myth adherence than women. Regarding sexual orientation, respondents who identified as queer consistently exhibited lower levels of rape myth adherence than respondents who identified as gay.

  16. Multi-Province Listeriosis Outbreak Linked to Contaminated Deli Meat Consumed Primarily in Institutional Settings, Canada, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Andrea; Farber, Jeffrey M; Nadon, Céline; Sharma, Davendra; Whitfield, Yvonne; Gaulin, Colette; Galanis, Eleni; Bekal, Sadjia; Flint, James; Tschetter, Lorelee; Pagotto, Franco; Lee, Brenda; Jamieson, Fred; Badiani, Tina; MacDonald, Diane; Ellis, Andrea; May-Hadford, Jennifer; McCormick, Rachel; Savelli, Carmen; Middleton, Dean; Allen, Vanessa; Tremblay, Francois-William; MacDougall, Laura; Hoang, Linda; Shyng, Sion; Everett, Doug; Chui, Linda; Louie, Marie; Bangura, Helen; Levett, Paul N; Wilkinson, Krista; Wylie, John; Reid, Janet; Major, Brian; Engel, Dave; Douey, Donna; Huszczynski, George; Di Lecci, Joe; Strazds, Judy; Rousseau, Josée; Ma, Kenneth; Isaac, Leah; Sierpinska, Urszula

    2015-08-01

    A multi-province outbreak of listeriosis occurred in Canada from June to November 2008. Fifty-seven persons were infected with 1 of 3 similar outbreak strains defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and 24 (42%) individuals died. Forty-one (72%) of 57 individuals were residents of long-term care facilities or hospital inpatients during their exposure period. Descriptive epidemiology, product traceback, and detection of the outbreak strains of Listeria monocytogenes in food samples and the plant environment confirmed delicatessen meat manufactured by one establishment and purchased primarily by institutions was the source of the outbreak. The food safety investigation identified a plant environment conducive to the introduction and proliferation of L. monocytogenes and persistently contaminated with Listeria spp. This outbreak demonstrated the need for improved listeriosis surveillance, strict control of L. monocytogenes in establishments producing ready-to-eat foods, and advice to vulnerable populations and institutions serving these populations regarding which high-risk foods to avoid.

  17. Healthy younger and older adults control foot placement to avoid small obstacles during gait primarily by modulating step width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Brian W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are a significant problem in the older population. Most falls occur during gait, which is primarily regulated by foot placement. Variability of foot placement has been associated with falls, but these associations are inconsistent and generally for smooth, level flooring. This study investigates the control of foot placement and the associated gait variability in younger and older men and women (N=7/group, total N=28 while walking at three different speeds (slow, preferred, and fast across a control surface with no obstacles and surfaces with multiple (64 small (10cm long ×13mm high visible and hidden obstacles. Results Minimum obstacle distance between the shoe and nearest obstacle during each footfall was greater on the visible obstacles surface for older subjects because some of them chose to actively avoid obstacles. This obstacle avoidance strategy was implemented primarily by modulating step width and to a lesser extent step length as indicated by linear regressions of step width and length variability on minimum obstacle distance. Mean gait speed, step length, step width, and step time did not significantly differ by subject group, flooring surface, or obstacle avoidance strategy. Conclusions Some healthy older subjects choose to actively avoid small obstacles that do not substantially perturb their gait by modulating step width and, to a lesser extent, step length. It is not clear if this obstacle avoidance strategy is appropriate and beneficial or overcautious and maladaptive, as it results in fewer obstacles encountered at a consequence of a less efficient gait pattern that has been shown to indicate increased fall risk. Further research is needed on the appropriateness of strategy selection when the environmental demands and/or task requirements have multiple possible completion strategies with conflicting objectives (i.e. perceived safety vs. efficiency.

  18. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-12-12

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  19. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  20. FOCUS ON GRAPHENE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, N M R; Ribeiro, Ricardo M

    2009-01-01

    Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fuerst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P Lopez-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J Gonzalez and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square lattice models and quantum spin chains Mahdi Zarea and Nancy Sandler On the universal ac optical background in graphene V P Gusynin, S G Sharapov and J P Carbotte Heat conduction in graphene: experimental study and theoretical interpretation S Ghosh, D L Nika, E P Pokatilov and A A

  1. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  2. Space Focus Lead Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  3. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About BrightFocus Foundation Featured Content BrightFocus: Investing in Science to Save Mind and Sight We're here to help. Explore ... recognition is very important. Monday, November 6, 2017 New Diagnosis? Managing a mind and sight disease is a journey. And you’ ...

  4. Genetic models for CNS inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Wekerle, H; Antel, J

    2001-01-01

    The use of transgenic technology to over-express or prevent expression of genes encoding molecules related to inflammation has allowed direct examination of their role in experimental disease. This article reviews transgenic and knockout models of CNS demyelinating disease, focusing primarily on ...

  5. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: Modelling complex biophysical processes associated with diseases. Case study: the ecology of vibriocholerae in the Mozambican channel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available will be undertaken. Non-linear dynamics and chaos theory will be applied to enhance our understanding of the link between the microbial ecology, remote sensing and meteorological data. Focus on CSIR Research in Water Resources Contact details: CSIR Natural...

  6. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Rothman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72, and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51% had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15, and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth is common, and may be associated with ADA victimization.

  7. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  8. Predictors of moderated drinking in a primarily alcohol dependent sample of men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuerbis, Alexis; Morgenstern, Jon; Hail, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Understanding for whom moderated drinking is a viable, achievable, and sustainable goal among those with a range of alcohol use disorders (AUD) remains an important public health question. Despite common acceptance as severe risk factors, there is little empirical evidence to conclude whether co-occurring mental health disorders or drug dependence contribute to an individual’s inability to successfully moderate his drinking. Utilizing secondary data analysis, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of moderation among both treatment seeking and non-treatment seeking, primarily alcohol dependent, problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM), with an emphasis on the high risk factors psychiatric comorbidity and drug dependence. Problem drinkers (N=187) were assessed, provided feedback about their drinking, given the option to receive brief AUD treatment or change their drinking on their own, and then followed for 15 months. Findings revealed that neither psychiatric comorbidity or drug dependence predicted ability to achieve moderation when controlling for alcohol dependence severity. Those who were younger, more highly educated, and had more mild alcohol dependence were more likely to achieve moderated drinking. Impact of treatment on predictors is explored. Limitations of this study and arenas for future research are discussed. PMID:22201219

  9. A study of plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Katsumi; Majima, Kazuo

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of the plasma acceleration between electrodes, the phenomena due to the pinch effect at the top of the electrodes and the neutron emission mechanism were experimentally studied. The plasma focus device was a Mather type coaxial discharge device, and the instruments used for the present purpose were a Rogoski coil, an image converter camera, a scintillation detector and a silver foil activation counter. The results of the present experiment were as follows. Plasma focus was not definitely made under the same condition. When the focus was seen, a dip was observed in the discharge wave form, and the emissions of X-ray and neutrons were detected. The angular anisotropy of neutron emission was observed, and corresponds to a beam target model. The phenomena showing the occurrence of focus were seen, when the current sheet was produced at a delayed time after discharge, and arrived at the muzzle with large velocity. The relation between the number of emitted neutrons and the velocity of the current sheet was obtained, whereas no systematic relation exists between the number of emitted neutrons and the velocity of pinch. When the focus was not observed, no dip was seen in current wave form, and the emissions of X-ray and neutrons were not detected. The reason of no focus was considered. (Kato, T.)

  10. Energy efficiency in the industrial sector. Model based analysis of the efficient use of energy in the EU-27 with focus on the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuder, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency is a highly important topic and currently omnipresent in the energy political discussion. Despite this high importance there's no common understanding even concerning the definition of the term energy efficiency. In addition, there are plenty so called energy efficiency targets and several indicators. Therefore this study should provide a deepened understanding of the efficient use of energy. The inconsistent definition of energy efficiency is related to the use of this term for a specific as well as an absolute reduction of energy consumption. Furthermore both static views on efficiency as a status and also dynamic views on efficiency as an improvement of a value compared to a reference number are used. Additional differences occur in the evaluation of the energy use and in the selection of a reference value in a key figure to assess energy efficiency. Moreover the focus of the current general understanding is mainly only on the consumption of energy. All other resources next to the energy input which are needed to provide energy services are not considered even though there are strong interactions and substitution possibilities among these resources. Hence the understanding of energy efficiency is extended in this study by these additional resources which were not considered yet. Based on this extension the efficient use of the resource energy is a result of an optimisation of the relation of these total costs of all resources to the related benefit. To determine the efficient use of energy in the industrial sector, a deeper understanding of the sector and its characteristics is necessary. The industrial sector is the largest consumer of electricity within the EU. Also a quarter of the final energy consumption and about 20 % of the CO 2 emissions are related to this sector. Typical for this sector are the heterogeneous and high temperature level of the heat demand and the process emissions which accrue in transformation processes. The subsectors

  11. Final focus nomenclature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number

  12. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  13. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  14. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  15. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  16. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  17. The Individually Focused Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....

  18. Light-focusing human micro-lenses generated from pluripotent stem cells model lens development and drug-induced cataract in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patricia; Kabir, Md Humayun; Srivastava, Tarini; Mason, Michele E; Dewi, Chitra U; Lim, Seakcheng; Yang, Andrian; Djordjevic, Djordje; Killingsworth, Murray C; Ho, Joshua W K; Harman, David G; O'Connor, Michael D

    2018-01-09

    Cataracts cause vision loss and blindness by impairing the ability of the ocular lens to focus light onto the retina. Various cataract risk factors have been identified, including drug treatments, age, smoking and diabetes. However, the molecular events responsible for these different forms of cataract are ill-defined, and the advent of modern cataract surgery in the 1960s virtually eliminated access to human lenses for research. Here, we demonstrate large-scale production of light-focusing human micro-lenses from spheroidal masses of human lens epithelial cells purified from differentiating pluripotent stem cells. The purified lens cells and micro-lenses display similar morphology, cellular arrangement, mRNA expression and protein expression to human lens cells and lenses. Exposing the micro-lenses to the emergent cystic fibrosis drug Vx-770 reduces micro-lens transparency and focusing ability. These human micro-lenses provide a powerful and large-scale platform for defining molecular disease mechanisms caused by cataract risk factors, for anti-cataract drug screening and for clinically relevant toxicity assays. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Plutonium focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  20. Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response in mice is primarily dependent on the Ah phenotype of lymphoid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Antrim, L.A.; Sack, G.

    1986-01-01

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons act through the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor in mice to produce a series of toxic effects of the immune system. The receptor protein is a product of the Ah gene locus. Ah responsive (Ahb/Ahb) mice express a high affinity receptor in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues whereas nonresponsive Ahd/Ahd mice express a poor affinity receptor. To determine the role of the Ah receptor of lymphoid tissue relative to that of nonlymphoid tissue in the induction of immune impairment, bone marrow was used to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice of the same or opposite Ah phenotype. All mice were given 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (35 and 350 mumol/kg) ip 2 days before immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The immune response to this T dependent antigen and organ weights were determined 5 or 7 days later in normal or chimeric mice, respectively. Monoclonal Lyt 1.1 and Lyt 1.2 antibodies were used to establish the origin of the cells which repopulated the chimeric thymuses. The immune responses of both BALB/cBy (Ahb/Ahb) and the BALB/cBy X DBA/2 hybrid, CByD2F1 (Ahb/Ahd), were significantly suppressed but DBA/2 mice were unaffected. The immune responses of chimeric BALB/cBy----BALB/cBy and BALB/cBy----DBA/2 (donor----recipient) mice were also significantly suppressed and thymic atrophy was observed in both cases. The serum anti-SRBC antibody titers of DBA/2----BALB/cBy chimeras were also significantly decreased although not to the same extent as in BALB/cBy----DBA/2 mice. Chimeric DBA/2----DBA/2 mice were not affected. These results indicate that the sensitivity to Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response is primarily determined by the Ah phenotype of the lymphoid tissue

  1. Inward Rectifier K+ Currents Are Regulated by CaMKII in Endothelial Cells of Primarily Cultured Bovine Pulmonary Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lihui; Yu, Lei; Wang, Yanli; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Qianlong; Lu, Ping; Yu, Xiufeng; Zhong, Weiwei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Cui, Ningren; Jiang, Chun; Zhu, Daling

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium lines the interior surface of vascular walls and regulates vascular tones. The endothelial cells sense and respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli in the circulation, and couple the stimulus signals to vascular smooth muscles, in which inward rectifier K+ currents (Kir) play an important role. Here we applied several complementary strategies to determine the Kir subunit in primarily cultured pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) that was regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). In whole-cell voltage clamp, the Kir currents were sensitive to micromolar concentrations of extracellular Ba2+. In excised inside-out patches, an inward rectifier K+ current was observed with single-channel conductance 32.43 ± 0.45 pS and Popen 0.27 ± 0.04, which were consistent with known unitary conductance of Kir 2.1. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that expression of Kir 2.1 was significantly stronger than that of other subtypes in PAECs. Pharmacological analysis of the Kir currents demonstrated that insensitivity to intracellular ATP, pinacidil, glibenclamide, pH, GDP-β-S and choleratoxin suggested that currents weren't determined by KATP, Kir2.3, Kir2.4 and Kir3.x. The currents were strongly suppressed by exposure to CaMKII inhibitor W-7 and KN-62. The expression of Kir2.1 was inhibited by knocking down CaMKII. Consistently, vasodilation was suppressed by Ba2+, W-7 and KN-62 in isolated and perfused pulmonary arterial rings. These results suggest that the PAECs express an inward rectifier K+ current that is carried dominantly by Kir2.1, and this K+ channel appears to be targeted by CaMKII-dependent intracellular signaling systems.

  2. Inward Rectifier K+ Currents Are Regulated by CaMKII in Endothelial Cells of Primarily Cultured Bovine Pulmonary Arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Qu

    Full Text Available Endothelium lines the interior surface of vascular walls and regulates vascular tones. The endothelial cells sense and respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli in the circulation, and couple the stimulus signals to vascular smooth muscles, in which inward rectifier K+ currents (Kir play an important role. Here we applied several complementary strategies to determine the Kir subunit in primarily cultured pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs that was regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII. In whole-cell voltage clamp, the Kir currents were sensitive to micromolar concentrations of extracellular Ba2+. In excised inside-out patches, an inward rectifier K+ current was observed with single-channel conductance 32.43 ± 0.45 pS and Popen 0.27 ± 0.04, which were consistent with known unitary conductance of Kir 2.1. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that expression of Kir 2.1 was significantly stronger than that of other subtypes in PAECs. Pharmacological analysis of the Kir currents demonstrated that insensitivity to intracellular ATP, pinacidil, glibenclamide, pH, GDP-β-S and choleratoxin suggested that currents weren't determined by KATP, Kir2.3, Kir2.4 and Kir3.x. The currents were strongly suppressed by exposure to CaMKII inhibitor W-7 and KN-62. The expression of Kir2.1 was inhibited by knocking down CaMKII. Consistently, vasodilation was suppressed by Ba2+, W-7 and KN-62 in isolated and perfused pulmonary arterial rings. These results suggest that the PAECs express an inward rectifier K+ current that is carried dominantly by Kir2.1, and this K+ channel appears to be targeted by CaMKII-dependent intracellular signaling systems.

  3. Social Media Use and its Association with Sexual Risk and Parental Monitoring among a Primarily Hispanic Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Dina L; Garnett, Chelsea; Younger, Alayna P; Stockwell, Melissa S; Soren, Karen; Catallozzi, Marina; Neu, Natalie

    2017-08-01

    In this study we assessed the association between social media (SM) use with sexual risk, and with parental monitoring among Hispanic adolescents. Self-administered anonymous survey. Urban primary care clinics. Primarily Hispanic adolescents ages 13-21 years old. Chi-square and regression analyses controlling for age and gender were used to assess associations between SM use or sexting and sexual behaviors (kissing, touching genitals, vaginal oral, and anal sex), sexual risk (≥4 lifetime partners, >1 recent partner, inconsistent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted infection diagnosis) and contraceptive use. Similar analyses were used to assess relationships between adolescent-reported parental monitoring and SM use, and sexting. Participants with frequent SM use (social networking sites or apps) had greater odds of all sexual activity. Ever sexters had greater odds of penetrative sex only (oral, vaginal, and anal sex) as well as use of hormonal contraception (except long-acting reversible contraception). Approximately half of the participants reported parental access to profiles on SM. Female participants had higher odds of parental access to online profiles and having a parental discussion of privacy settings. Those having privacy discussions had greater odds of "private" profiles on SM and lower odds of ever sexting. Frequent SM use and sexting was associated with an increase in all types of sexual behaviors; sexting alone was associated with more lifetime and recent sexual partners. Parental discussion of privacy settings was found to be protective. Providers and parents should be aware of the effect of SM use on sexual behaviors. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 49 CFR 37.195 - Purchase or lease of OTRBs by private entities not primarily in the business of transporting people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... primarily in the business of transporting people. 37.195 Section 37.195 Transportation Office of the... transporting people. This section applies to all purchases or leases of new vehicles by private entities which are not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people, with respect to buses delivered to...

  5. The relevance of preclinical research models for the development of antimigraine drugs: Focus on 5-HT1B/1D and CGRP receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, S.; Villalon, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    to the relief of migraineurs. Pathophysiological factors culminating into migraine headaches have not yet been completely deciphered and, thus, pose an additional challenge for preclinical research in the absence of any direct experimental marker. Migraine provocation experiments in humans use a head......-score to evaluate migraine, as articulated by the volunteer, which cannot be applied to laboratory animals. Therefore, basic research focuses on different symptoms and putative mechanisms, one at a time or in combination, to validate the hypotheses. Studies in several species, utilizing different preclinical...... incorporating the newer ideas/techniques in order to get better insights into migraine pathophysiology. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved...

  6. How can we cope with the complexity of the environment? A "Learning by modelling" approach using qualitative reasoning for developing causal models and simulations with focus on Sustainable River Catchment Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Michaela; Zitek, Andreas; Salles, Paulo; Bredeweg, Bert; Muhar, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    land use in the catchments have created ecological problems. A sustainable, catchment-wide management of riverine landscapes is needed and stated by water right acts, e.g. the European Water Framework and Floods Directive. This interdisciplinary approach needs the integration of natural riverine processes, flood protection, resource management, landscape planning, and social and political aspects to achieve a sustainable development. Therefore the model shows the effects of different management strategies concerning flood protection, restoration measures and land use. The model illustrates the wide range of ecosystem services of riverine landscapes that contribute to human well-being such as water supply, hydropower generation, flood regulation, and recreational opportunities. The effects of different land use strategies in the catchment are highlighted by means of the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework. The model is used to support activities of students at the University as well as at High School within the DynaLearn Software to promote scientific culture in the secondary education system. Model fragments allow learners to re-use parts of the existing model at different levels of complexity. But learners can also construct their own conceptual system knowledge, either individually or in a collaborative setting, and using the model as a reference for comparisons of their own understanding. Of special interest for the DynaLearn project is the intended development of interdisciplinary and social skills like cooperative working, cross-linked thinking, problem solving, decision-making, and the identification of the conflicts between environment, economy, legislation, science, technology, and society. A comprehensive evaluation of the DynaLearn software is part of the project. To be effective, science education should focus on understanding scientific concepts and on application of scientific knowledge to everyday life. Conceptual knowledge of systems

  7. A Population WB-PBPK Model of Colistin and its Prodrug CMS in Pigs: Focus on the Renal Distribution and Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Alexis; Henri, Jérôme; Bouchène, Salim; Laroche, Julian; Rolland, Jean-Guy; Manceau, Jacqueline; Laurentie, Michel; Couet, William; Grégoire, Nicolas

    2018-03-12

    The objective was the development of a whole-body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (WB-PBPK) model for colistin, and its prodrug colistimethate sodium (CMS), in pigs to explore their tissue distribution, especially in kidneys. Plasma and tissue concentrations of CMS and colistin were measured after systemic administrations of different dosing regimens of CMS in pigs. The WB-PBPK model was developed based on these data according to a non-linear mixed effect approach and using NONMEM software. A detailed sub-model was implemented for kidneys to handle the complex disposition of CMS and colistin within this organ. The WB-PBPK model well captured the kinetic profiles of CMS and colistin in plasma. In kidneys, an accumulation and slow elimination of colistin were observed and well described by the model. Kidneys seemed to have a major role in the elimination processes, through tubular secretion of CMS and intracellular degradation of colistin. Lastly, to illustrate the usefulness of the PBPK model, an estimation of the withdrawal periods after veterinary use of CMS in pigs was made. The WB-PBPK model gives an insight into the renal distribution and elimination of CMS and colistin in pigs; it may be further developed to explore the colistin induced-nephrotoxicity in humans.

  8. Little-known truths, quirky anecdotes, seething scandals, and even some science in the history of (primarily achievement) motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    This article presents a history of the study of motivation from approximately 1900-1975, focusing on achievement strivings and containing little-known and often surprising facts about the main contributors to this field. Four theorists are highlighted: David McClelland, Kurt Lewin, John Atkinson, and Fritz Heider, each associated with a different theoretical approach (respectively and in order of historical emergence: trait, Gestalt, expectancy/value, and attribution theory). A fifth conception, drive theory, is also represented. In addition, a number of individuals who influenced these theorists and others who followed them are discussed. The article emphasizes the interrelations between the theorists and the interaction between personal and scientific life.

  9. TRPA1 is functionally expressed primarily by IB4-binding, non-peptidergic mouse and rat sensory neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E Barabas

    functionally expressed primarily in the IB4-positive, CGRP-negative subpopulation of small lumbar DRG neurons from rodents. Thus, IB4 binding is a better indicator than neuropeptides for TRPA1 expression.

  10. TRPA1 Is Functionally Expressed Primarily by IB4-Binding, Non-Peptidergic Mouse and Rat Sensory Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    primarily in the IB4-positive, CGRP-negative subpopulation of small lumbar DRG neurons from rodents. Thus, IB4 binding is a better indicator than neuropeptides for TRPA1 expression. PMID:23133534

  11. Instabilities in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1975-03-01

    The plasma focus was studied by many research teams in view of a possible approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Though it is questionable whether the plasma focus will ever lead to a fusion reactor, it nevertheless constitutes a strong source of neutron, X- and gamma radiation for simulating fusion reactor conditions. Furthermore, the plasma focus yields very high temperatures (10 7 K) and densities (> 10 19 cm -3 ) and thus provides interesting conditions for the study of high density plasmas. This review paper starts with a description of the compression stage of the focussing plasma, using a snow-plough model. It is shown that sophisticated MHD calculations substantiate the snowplough theory, but are not suited to describe the phenomena in the final compressed stage. For this purpose, a particle-in-cell calculation is employed, yielding a beam-beam collision model for the neutron production. Experimental evidence indicates that neutron production is associated with the appearence of m = O instabilities and is the direct result of collisions between anomalously accelerated ions. One of the mechanisms of ion acceleration are strong local electric fields. Another possible mechanism can bee seen in beam-plasma instabilities caused by runaway electrons. The analytical derivation of the dispersion relation for plasma focus conditions including runaway effect is discussed (orig.) [de

  12. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...... effectively measures the intended phenomenon (i.e., journal specialisation). Only weak correlations were found between journal re-citations and obsolescence, journal self-citations, and number of references. Conclusions. The focus factor successfully measures journal specialisation over time. Measures based...

  13. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  14. SIMULATION OF ENERGETIC PARTICLE TRANSPORT AND ACCELERATION AT SHOCK WAVES IN A FOCUSED TRANSPORT MODEL: IMPLICATIONS FOR MIXED SOLAR PARTICLE EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartavykh, Y. Y.; Dröge, W. [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Gedalin, M. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion Unversity of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2016-03-20

    We use numerical solutions of the focused transport equation obtained by an implicit stochastic differential equation scheme to study the evolution of the pitch-angle dependent distribution function of protons in the vicinity of shock waves. For a planar stationary parallel shock, the effects of anisotropic distribution functions, pitch-angle dependent spatial diffusion, and first-order Fermi acceleration at the shock are examined, including the timescales on which the energy spectrum approaches the predictions of diffusive shock acceleration theory. We then consider the case that a flare-accelerated population of ions is released close to the Sun simultaneously with a traveling interplanetary shock for which we assume a simplified geometry. We investigate the consequences of adiabatic focusing in the diverging magnetic field on the particle transport at the shock, and of the competing effects of acceleration at the shock and adiabatic energy losses in the expanding solar wind. We analyze the resulting intensities, anisotropies, and energy spectra as a function of time and find that our simulations can naturally reproduce the morphologies of so-called mixed particle events in which sometimes the prompt and sometimes the shock component is more prominent, by assuming parameter values which are typically observed for scattering mean free paths of ions in the inner heliosphere and energy spectra of the flare particles which are injected simultaneously with the release of the shock.

  15. Optimum Design of Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Ruben; Gonzalez, Jose; Clausse, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    The optimum design of Plasma Focus devices is presented based in a lumped parameter model of the MHD equations.Maps in the design parameters space are obtained, which determine the length and deuterium pressure required to produce a given neutron yield.Sensitivity analyses of the main effective numbers (sweeping efficiencies) was performed, and lately the optimum values were determined in order to set a basis for the conceptual design

  16. Collective focusing ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The principal subject of this dissertation is the trapping confinement of pure electron plasmas in bumpy toroidal magnetic fields, with particular attention given to the trapping procedure and the behavior of the plasma during the final equilibrium. The most important aspects of the equilibrium studied were the qualitative nature of the plasma configuration and motion and its density, distribution and stability. The motivation for this study was that an unneutralized cloud of electrons contained in a toroidal system, sufficiently dense and stable, may serve to electrostatically focus ions (against centrifugal and self space charge forces) in a cyclic ion accelerator. Such an accelerator, known as a Collective Focusing Ion Accelerator (CFIA) could be far smaller than conventional designs (which use external magnetic fields directly to focus the ions) due to the smaller gyro-radium of an electron in a magnetic field of given strength. The electron cloud generally drifted poloidally at a finite radius from the toroidal minor axis. As this would preclude focusing ions with such clouds, damping this motion was investigated. Finite resistance in the normally perfectly conductive vessel wall did this. In further preparation for a working CFIA, additional experiments studied the effect of ions on the stability of the electron cloud

  17. Plasma focus project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlin, H.L.

    1975-12-01

    The primary objective of this project is to provide a relatively simple pulsed power source for high density pulsed fusion studies with a variety of DT and other fusion microexplosion targets. The plasma focus operated on DT at 1 MJ should produce greater than or equal to 10 15 DT neutrons per pulse corresponding to 2800 J of nuclear energy release and for low pressure operation and appropriately configured high Z anode center should yield an x-ray burst of about 1000 J with a substantial fraction of this x-ray energy concentrated in the 5-100 kV range. Because of its x-ray and neutron production potential, the operation of the focus as an x-ray source is also under study and an initial design study for a repetitively pulsed 1 MJ plasma focus as a pulsed neutron materials testing source has been completed. The plasma focus seems particularly appropriate for application as a materials testing source for pulsed fusion reactors, for example, based on laser driven fusion microexplosions. The construction status of the device is described

  18. DPW-VI Results Using FUN3D with Focus on k-kL-MEAH2015 (k-kL) Turbulence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdol-Hamid, K. S.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Park, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    The Common Research Model wing-body configuration is investigated with the k-kL-MEAH2015 turbulence model implemented in FUN3D. This includes results presented at the Sixth Drag Prediction Workshop and additional results generated after the workshop with a nonlinear Quadratic Constitutive Relation (QCR) variant of the same turbulence model. The workshop provided grids are used, and a uniform grid refinement study is performed at the design condition. A large variation between results with and without a reconstruction limiter is exhibited on "medium" grid sizes, indicating that the medium grid size is too coarse for drawing conclusions in comparison with experiment. This variation is reduced with grid refinement. At a fixed angle of attack near design conditions, the QCR variant yielded decreased lift and drag compared with the linear eddy-viscosity model by an amount that was approximately constant with grid refinement. The k-kL-MEAH2015 turbulence model produced wing root junction flow behavior consistent with wind tunnel observations.

  19. A formal statistical approach to representing uncertainty in rainfall-runoff modelling with focus on residual analysis and probabilistic output evaluation - Distinguishing simulation and prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Anders; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    While there seems to be consensus that hydrological model outputs should be accompanied with an uncertainty estimate the appropriate method for uncertainty estimation is not agreed upon and a debate is ongoing between advocators of formal statistical methods who consider errors as stochastic...... and GLUE advocators who consider errors as epistemic, arguing that the basis of formal statistical approaches that requires the residuals to be stationary and conform to a statistical distribution is unrealistic. In this paper we take a formal frequentist approach to parameter estimation and uncertainty...... necessary but the statistical assumptions were nevertheless not 100% justified. The residual analysis showed that significant autocorrelation was present for all simulation models. We believe users of formal approaches to uncertainty evaluation within hydrology and within environmental modelling in general...

  20. Corporate Evaluation in Banks - Development of a New Evaluation Model with the Special Focus on the Separation of the Value of Maturity Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svend Reuse

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Banks have to be handled differently in the theory of corporate evaluation. After a critical discussion of existing approaches of corporate evaluation, the following results can be stated: As banks generate value by an efficient liability side, gross methods do not lead to reliable results concerning a bank’s value. Further, the effects of maturity transformation have to be separated as they do not increase the value of banks. The model developed by the author takes these aspects into consideration. By an integrated usage of the market interest rate method and the usage of secure cash flows, the CAPM approach could be avoided. The model separates the treasury effects and quantifies the value of a bank in a more realistic way. The first empirical test shows that the model works in practice.

  1. A Tracer Experiment to Understand Dispersion Characteristics at a Nuclear Power Plant Site-Focusing on the Comparison with Predictive Results using Reg. Guide 1.145 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyojoon; Kim, Eunhan; Jeong, Haesun; Hwang, Wontae; Han, Moonhee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    There remains disagreement regarding the application of a Gaussian plume model in PAVAN, as it relates to the complicated geographical features of a coastal area. Therefore, this study was performed in order to figure out the characteristics of the PAVAN program that was developed based on the equations of Gaussian Plume Model, which reflected the actual measured concentration of radioactive materials released to the air. It also evaluated the appropriateness of using a Gaussian plume model for assessing the environmental impact of radiation from a nuclear power plant. In order to analyze the dispersion characteristics of radioactive materials released into the air from the Wolsong nuclear power plant, SF{sub 6} gas was released from the site at night for one hour under stable atmospheric conditions disadvantageous to dilute a tracer gas in this study. The measured concentrations were compared with theoretical estimates derived from meteorological data observed during the experiment period to evaluate the prediction capabilities of the Gaussian plume model. This study conducted a tracer dispersion experiment at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant site in Korea to analyze the atmospheric dispersion characteristics of radioactive materials. It compared the experimental value with the calculated value using the Gaussian Plume Model as suggested in Reg. 1.145, based on the meteorological data observed in the experiment time period, and evaluated the conservative estimate of the calculated value. In the area where the calculated value is relatively high, the calculated value tends to show higher than the experimental value, which confirmed the conservative manner of the estimating of the calculated value using the Gaussian Plume Model. The short-term exposure of radiation to a human body caused by a nuclear accident would be higher in the area where the atmospheric concentration of radiation is high. Therefore, it is a sufficiently conservative manner to use the

  2. A Tracer Experiment to Understand Dispersion Characteristics at a Nuclear Power Plant Site-Focusing on the Comparison with Predictive Results using Reg. Guide 1.145 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyojoon; Kim, Eunhan; Jeong, Haesun; Hwang, Wontae; Han, Moonhee

    2014-01-01

    There remains disagreement regarding the application of a Gaussian plume model in PAVAN, as it relates to the complicated geographical features of a coastal area. Therefore, this study was performed in order to figure out the characteristics of the PAVAN program that was developed based on the equations of Gaussian Plume Model, which reflected the actual measured concentration of radioactive materials released to the air. It also evaluated the appropriateness of using a Gaussian plume model for assessing the environmental impact of radiation from a nuclear power plant. In order to analyze the dispersion characteristics of radioactive materials released into the air from the Wolsong nuclear power plant, SF 6 gas was released from the site at night for one hour under stable atmospheric conditions disadvantageous to dilute a tracer gas in this study. The measured concentrations were compared with theoretical estimates derived from meteorological data observed during the experiment period to evaluate the prediction capabilities of the Gaussian plume model. This study conducted a tracer dispersion experiment at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant site in Korea to analyze the atmospheric dispersion characteristics of radioactive materials. It compared the experimental value with the calculated value using the Gaussian Plume Model as suggested in Reg. 1.145, based on the meteorological data observed in the experiment time period, and evaluated the conservative estimate of the calculated value. In the area where the calculated value is relatively high, the calculated value tends to show higher than the experimental value, which confirmed the conservative manner of the estimating of the calculated value using the Gaussian Plume Model. The short-term exposure of radiation to a human body caused by a nuclear accident would be higher in the area where the atmospheric concentration of radiation is high. Therefore, it is a sufficiently conservative manner to use the Gaussian

  3. Staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in quality improvement: a focus group discussion study at two hospital settings in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvitfeldt-Forsberg, Helena; Mazzocato, Pamela; Glaser, Daniel; Keller, Christina; Unbeck, Maria

    2017-06-06

    To explore healthcare staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in improvement efforts. Two focus group discussions were performed. Two settings were included: a rheumatology department and an orthopaedic section both situated in Sweden. Healthcare staff and managers (n=13) from the two settings. Two workshops were performed, one at each setting. Workshops were initiated by a short introduction to simulation modelling. Results from the respective simulation model were then presented and discussed in the following focus group discussion. Categories from the content analysis are presented according to the following research questions: how and when simulation modelling can assist healthcare improvement? Regarding how, the participants mentioned that simulation modelling could act as a tool for support and a way to visualise problems, potential solutions and their effects. Regarding when, simulation modelling could be used both locally and by management, as well as a pedagogical tool to develop and test innovative ideas and to involve everyone in the improvement work. Its potential as an information and communication tool and as an instrument for pedagogic work within healthcare improvement render a broader application and value of simulation modelling than previously reported. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Review Team Focused Modeling Analysis of Radial Collector Well Operation on the Hypersaline Groundwater Plume beneath the Turkey Point Site near Homestead, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Vail, Lance W.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory served as members of a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission review team for the Florida Power & Light Company's application for two combined construction permits and operating licenses (combined licenses or COLs) for two proposed new reactor units-Turkey Point Units 6 and 7. The review team evaluated the environmental impacts of the proposed action based on the October 29, 2014 revision of the COL application, including the Environmental Report, responses to requests for additional information, and supplemental information. As part of this effort, team members tasked with assessing the environmental effects of proposed construction and operation of Units 6 and 7 at the Turkey Point site reviewed two separate modeling studies that analyzed the interaction between surface water and groundwater that would be altered by the operation of radial collector wells (RCWs) at the site. To further confirm their understanding of the groundwater hydrodynamics and to consider whether certain actions, proposed after the two earlier modeling studies were completed, would alter the earlier conclusions documented by the review team in their draft environmental impact statement (EIS; NRC 2015), a third modeling analysis was performed. The third modeling analysis is discussed in this report.

  5. Model Estimates Of Gross Domestic Product In Relation to Export And Import Of Fuels, Focused on the Elasticity and Determination Of Directly and Indirectly Associated Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Săvoiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on several interrogative assumptions related to the positive impact of the crises and the recession on determinations in the econometric models of Romania’s GDP as a variable dependent in relation to the export and import of fuels. After a short introductory section, which details, in a relative manner, the overall goal and the objectives of the paper, a first section makes use of elasticity and the modern solutions of building the coefficient of elasticity, proposing an original alternative to existing variants, and afterwards the next section builds on these statistical tools in the econometric modeling of Romania’s GDP, starting from the ratios and value indicators and offering a few original models where the export and import of fuels are the key initial explanatory factors. The final remarks reinterpret the role of the energy resources, as well as that of the related flows, in enhancing statistical connections, and especially the role of crises and recessions in validating econometric models, by raising their degree of predictability.

  6. Review Team Focused Modeling Analysis of Radial Collector Well Operation on the Hypersaline Groundwater Plume beneath the Turkey Point Site near Homestead, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vail, Lance W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory served as members of a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission review team for the Florida Power & Light Company’s application for two combined construction permits and operating licenses (combined licenses or COLs) for two proposed new reactor units—Turkey Point Units 6 and 7. The review team evaluated the environmental impacts of the proposed action based on the October 29, 2014 revision of the COL application, including the Environmental Report, responses to requests for additional information, and supplemental information. As part of this effort, team members tasked with assessing the environmental effects of proposed construction and operation of Units 6 and 7 at the Turkey Point site reviewed two separate modeling studies that analyzed the interaction between surface water and groundwater that would be altered by the operation of radial collector wells (RCWs) at the site. To further confirm their understanding of the groundwater hydrodynamics and to consider whether certain actions, proposed after the two earlier modeling studies were completed, would alter the earlier conclusions documented by the review team in their draft environmental impact statement (EIS; NRC 2015), a third modeling analysis was performed. The third modeling analysis is discussed in this report.

  7. Development of a Model for Measuring Scientific Processing Skills Based on Brain-Imaging Technology: Focused on the Experimental Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il-Sun; Byeon, Jung-Ho; Kim, Young-shin; Kwon, Yong-Ju

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model for measuring experimental design ability based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during biological inquiry. More specifically, the researchers developed an experimental design task that measures experimental design ability. Using the developed experimental design task, they measured…

  8. Modeling plankton ecosystem functioning and nitrogen fluxes in the oligotrophic waters of the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean: a focus on light-driven processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Le Fouest

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean (AO undergoes profound changes of its physical and biotic environments due to climate change. In some areas of the Beaufort Sea, the stronger haline stratification observed in summer alters the plankton ecosystem structure, functioning and productivity, promoting oligotrophy. A one-dimension (1-D physical–biological coupled model based on the large multiparametric database of the Malina project in the Beaufort Sea was used (i to infer the plankton ecosystem functioning and related nitrogen fluxes and (ii to assess the model sensitivity to key light-driven processes involved in nutrient recycling and phytoplankton growth. The coupled model suggested that ammonium photochemically produced from photosensitive dissolved organic nitrogen (i.e., photoammonification process was a necessary nitrogen source to achieve the observed levels of microbial biomass and production. Photoammonification directly and indirectly (by stimulating the microbial food web activity contributed to 70% and 18.5% of the 0–10 m and whole water column, respectively, simulated primary production (respectively 66% and 16% for the bacterial production. The model also suggested that variable carbon to chlorophyll ratios were required to simulate the observed herbivorous versus microbial food web competition and realistic nitrogen fluxes in the Beaufort Sea oligotrophic waters. In face of accelerating Arctic warming, more attention should be paid in the future to the mechanistic processes involved in food webs and functional group competition, nutrient recycling and primary production in poorly productive waters of the AO, as they are expected to expand rapidly.

  9. Habitat modeling for brown trout population in alpine region of Slovenia with focus on determination of preference functions, fuzzy rules and fuzzy sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santl, Saso; Carf, Masa; Preseren, Tanja; Jenic, Aljaz

    2013-04-01

    Water withdrawals and consequently reduction of discharges in river streams for different water uses (hydro power, irrigation, etc.) usually impoverish habitat suitability for naturally present river fish fauna. In Slovenia reduction of suitable habitats resulting from water abstractions frequently impacts local brown trout (Salmo truta) populations. This is the reason for establishment of habitat modeling which can qualitatively and quantitatively support decision making for determination of the environmental flow and other mitigation measures. Paper introduces applied methodology for habitat modeling where input data preparation and elaboration with required accuracy has to be considered. For model development four (4) representative and heterogeneous sampling sites were chosen. Two (2) sampling sections were located within the sections with small hydropower plants and were considered as sections affected by water abstractions. The other two (2) sampling sections were chosen where there are no existing water abstractions. Precise bathymetric mapping for chosen river sections has been performed. Topographic data and series of discharge and water level measurements enabled establishment of calibrated hydraulic models, which provide data on water velocities and depths for analyzed discharges. Brief field measurements were also performed to gather required data on dominant and subdominant substrate size and cover type. Since the accuracy of fish distribution on small scale is very important for habitat modeling, a fish sampling method had to be selected and modified for existing river microhabitats. The brown trout specimen's locations were collected with two (2) different sampling methods. A method of riverbank observation which is suitable for adult fish in pools and a method of electro fishing for locating small fish and fish in riffles or hiding in cover. Ecological and habitat requirements for fish species vary regarding different fish populations as well as eco

  10. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-01-01

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs

  11. Magnetic Focusing Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This magnetic focusing horn was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Its development was an important step towards using CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider. This eventually led to the discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983. Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  12. An adiabatic focuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.; Oide, K.; Sessler, A.M.; Yu, S.S.

    1989-08-01

    Theoretical analysis is made of an intense relativistic electron beam, such as would be available from a linear collider, moving through a plasma of increasing density, but density always less than that of the beam (underdense). In this situation, the plasma electrons are expelled from the beam channel and the electrons are subject to an ever-increasing focusing force provided by the channel ions. Analysis is made on the beam radiation energy loss in the classical, the transition, and the quantum regimes. It is shown that the focuser is insensitive to the beam energy spread behaviors in the nonclassical regimes, the radiation limit on lenses (the Oide limit) can be exceeded. The sensitivity of the system to the topic mismatch and the nonlinearity is also analyzed. Examples are given with SLC-type and TLC-type parameters. 9 refs., 1 tab

  13. Line broadening by focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.L. de; Jabs, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the spectral width of a quasi-monochromatic light beam broadens when the beam is focused. A quantitative formula for this broadening is derived from classical wave theory. The effect is shown to explain some experiments on laser beams done by E. Panarella which that author has explained under the ad-hoc hypothesis that the frequency of the photons changes along with the intensity of the light beam. The line broadening by focusing might also contribute to gas ionization by incident light when the ionization potential is well above the mean photon energy. Some remarks are made on some direct applications of the Heisenberg relations in comparison with our treatment. (Author) [pt

  14. Focus on Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Kirsten; Barfoed, Anne

    Background: Compared to other Nordic countries, Denmark has a high incidence of anal sphincter injury. Recent studies indicate that a strict focus on prevention of severe perineal trauma has decreased the incidence (1). This has resulted in changed clinical procedures in several Danish labour wards...... (2). It is, however, not clarified which of the multifaceted aspects of preventing perineal injury that might explain the decrease (3). Aims: We hypothesized that the use of structured reflection on a clinical practice by midwives and midwifery students would increase both parts’ knowledge on how...... attended the delivery, facilitated the midwife’s and the student’s structured reflection. Further, the project midwife held daily simulation workshops with midwives and students. Two focus group interviews with students and midwives were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusion...

  15. High mobility group protein number17 cross-links primarily to histone H2A in the reconstituted HMG 17 - nucleosome core particle complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.R.; Yau, P.; Yasuda, H.; Traut, R.R.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    The neighbor relationship of lamb thymus High Mobility Group (HMG) protein 17 to native HeLa nucleosome core particle histones in the reconstituted complex has been studied. 125 I-labeled HMG 17 was cross-linking to core histones using the protein-protein cross-linking reagent 2-iminothiolane. Specific cross-linked products were separated on a two-dimensional Triton-acid-urea/SDS gel system, located by autoradiography, excised and quantified. Disulfide bonds in the cross links were then cleaved and the protein constituents were identified by SDS gel electrophoresis. HMG 17 cross-linked primarily to histone H2A while lower levels of cross-linking occurred between HMG 17 and the other histones. In contrast, cross-linking between two HMG 17 molecules bound on the same nucleosome was relatively rare. It is concluded that the same nucleosome was relatively rare. It is concluded that H2A comprises part of the HMG 17 binding site but that HMG 17 is sufficiently elongated and mobile to permit cross-linking to the other histones and to a second HMG 17 molecule. These results are in agreement with the current model for the structure of the nucleosome and the proposed binding sites for HMG 17

  16. Bacterial diversity shift determined by different diets in the gut of the spotted wing fly Drosophila suzukii is primarily reflected on acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Vacchini, Violetta

    2016-11-25

    The pivotal role of diet in shaping gut microbiota has been evaluated in different animal models, including insects. Drosophila flies harbour an inconstant microbiota among which acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important components. Here, we investigated the bacterial and AAB components of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii microbiota, by studying the same insect population separately grown on fruit-based or non-fruit artificial diet. AAB were highly prevalent in the gut under both diets (90 and 92% infection rates with fruits and artificial diet, respectively). Fluorescent in situ hybridization and recolonization experiments with green fluorescent protein (Gfp)-labelled strains showed AAB capability to massively colonize insect gut. High-throughput sequencing on 16S rRNA gene indicated that the bacterial microbiota of guts fed with the two diets clustered separately. By excluding AAB-related OTUs from the analysis, insect bacterial communities did not cluster separately according to the diet, suggesting that diet-based diversification of the community is primarily reflected on the AAB component of the community. Diet influenced also AAB alpha-diversity, with separate OTU distributions based on diets. High prevalence, localization and massive recolonization, together with AAB clustering behaviour in relation to diet, suggest an AAB role in the D. suzukii gut response to diet modification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling Established the Awn as the Major Photosynthetic Organ of the Barley Spike While the Lemma and the Palea Primarily Protect the Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Abebe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The lemma, palea, and awn of a barley ( L. spike are photosynthetic organs that supply the developing seed with carbohydrates. The lemma and palea also enclose the seed and protect it from pathogens and insects. Despite the important roles they play, little information exists on gene expression in these organs that identifies their function. In this study, we compared gene expression among the lemma, palea, awn, and developing seed of barley during grain filling using the Barley1 Genome Array to identify highly expressed genes involved in the primary function of these organs. Hierarchical clustering and mixed model analysis revealed that the lemma and palea have closely related gene expression patterns. In addition, the lemma and palea overexpressed defense-related genes compared with the awn. The awn preferentially expressed genes for photosynthesis, the biosynthesis of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and reactive oxygen species scavenging. This suggests the lemma and palea are mainly protective organs whereas the awn is primarily a photosynthetic structure. The seed was enriched with genes for the biosynthesis of starch, storage proteins, enzyme inhibitors, and cell proliferation.

  18. Focus Group Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    home for the arrival of school- aged children. TIP: Do not conduct focus groups in a command conference room in the command group area. Doing so...organizational effectiveness and equal opportunity/equal employment opportunity/fair treatment and sexual assault and response factors (which are listed on the... Sexual Harassment (C) Sex Harassment Retaliation (D) Discrimination - Sex (E) Discrimination - Race (F) Discrimination - Disability (G

  19. Dialogicality in Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The phenomenon which dialogism addresses is human interaction. It enables us to conceptualise human interaction as intersubjective, symbolic, cultural, transformative and conflictual, in short, as complex. The complexity of human interaction is evident in all domains of human life, for example, i......, because rather than applying dialogism to this or that domain, the present volume focuses on dialogicality itself to interrogate the concepts and methods which are taken for granted in the burgeoning literature. (Imprint: Nova Press)...

  20. Technologies and Reformed-Based Science Instruction: The Examination of a Professional Development Model Focused on Supporting Science Teaching and Learning with Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Todd; Longhurst, Max L.; Wang, Shiang-Kwei; Hsu, Hui-Yin; Coster, Dan C.

    2015-10-01

    While access to computers, other technologies, and cyber-enabled resources that could be leveraged for enhancing student learning in science is increasing, generally it has been found that teachers use technology more for administrative purposes or to support traditional instruction. This use of technology, especially to support traditional instruction, sits in opposition to most recent standards documents in science education that call for student involvement in evidence-based sense-making activities. Many see technology as a potentially powerful resource that is reshaping society and has the potential to do the same in science classrooms. To consider the promise of technology in science classrooms, this research investigated the impact of a professional development project focused on enhancing teacher and student learning by using information and communication technologies (ICTs) for engaging students in reformed-based instruction. More specifically, these findings revealed positive teacher outcomes with respect to reformed-based and technology-supported instruction and increased ICT and new literacies skills. When considering students, the findings revealed positive outcomes with respect to ICT and new literacies skills and student achievement in science.

  1. Cranial nerve threshold for thermal injury induced by MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU): preliminary results on an optic nerve model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnof, Sagi; Zibly, Zion; Cohen, Zvi; Shaw, Andrew; Schlaff, Cody; Kassel, Neal F

    2013-04-01

    Future clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) are moving toward the management of different intracranial pathologies. We sought to validate the production, safety, and efficacy of thermal injury to cranial nerves generated by MRgHIFU. In this study, five female domestic pigs underwent a standard bifrontal craniectomy under general anesthesia. Treatment was then given using an MRgHIFU system to induce hyperthermic ablative sonication (6 to 10 s; 50 to 2000 J.) Histological analyses were done to confirm nerve damage; temperature measured on the optic nerve was approximately 53.4°C (range: 39°C to 70°C.) Histology demonstrated a clear definition between a necrotic, transitional zone, and normal tissue. MRgHIFU induces targeted thermal injury to nervous tissue within a specific threshold of 50°C to 60°C with the tissue near the sonication center yielding the greatest effect; adjacent tissue showed minimal changes. Additional studies utilizing this technology are required to further establish accurate threshold parameters for optic nerve thermo-ablation.

  2. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  3. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João

    2017-08-01

    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  4. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  5. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  6. Corporate Evaluation in Banks - Development of a New Evaluation Model with the Special Focus on the Separation of the Value of Maturity Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Svend Reuse

    2011-01-01

    Banks have to be handled differently in the theory of corporate evaluation. After a critical discussion of existing approaches of corporate evaluation, the following results can be stated: As banks generate value by an efficient liability side, gross methods do not lead to reliable results concerning a bank’s value. Further, the effects of maturity transformation have to be separated as they do not increase the value of banks. The model developed by the author takes these aspects into consid...

  7. Effects of water chemistry and fluid dynamics on wall thinning behavior. Part 1. Development of FAC model focused on water chemistry and composition of material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Domae, Masafumi; Ohta, Joji; Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Inada, Fumio

    2009-01-01

    Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC), which is one of the important subjects at fossil and nuclear power plans, is caused by the accelerated dissolution of protective oxide film due to the turbulent flow. The influence factors on FAC such as water chemistry, material, and fluid dynamics are closely related to the oxide property so that the risk of FAC can be reduced by the suitable control of water chemistry. There are some FAC models and evaluation codes of FAC rate. Some of them are used in wall thinning management of nuclear power plant in some country. Nevertheless, these FAC codes include many empirical parameters so that some uncertainty to evaluate the synergistic effectiveness of factors are the controversial point for the application of FAC code to wall thinning management in Japanese nuclear power plant. In this study, a FAC model that can evaluate the effect of temperature, NH3 concentration, chromium content, and dissolved oxygen concentration on FAC rate was developed by considering the diffusion of dissolved species. The critical dissolved oxygen concentration, which can inhibit FAC, was also calculated by this model. (author)

  8. Storm Water Infiltration and Focused Groundwater Recharge in a Rain Garden: Finite Volume Model and Numerical Simulations for Different Configurations and Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, J.; Dussaillant, A. R.

    2006-12-01

    Source control is the fundamental principle behind sustainable management of stormwater. Rain gardens are an infiltration practice that provides volume and water quality control, recharge, and multiple landscape, ecological and economic potential benefits. The fulfillment of these objectives requires understanding their behavior during events as well as long term, and tools for their design. We have developed a model based on Richards equation coupled to a surface water balance, solved with a 2D finite volume Fortran code which allows alternating upper boundary conditions, including ponding, which is not present in available 2D models. Also, it can simulate non homogeneous water input, heterogeneous soil (layered or more complex geometries), and surface irregularities -e.g. terracing-, so as to estimate infiltration and recharge. The algorithm is conservative; being an advantage compared to available finite difference and finite element methods. We will present performance comparisons to known models, to experimental data from a bioretention cell, which receives roof water to its surface depression planted with native species in an organic-rich root zone soil layer (underlain by a high conductivity lower layer that, while providing inter-event storage, percolates water readily), as well as long term simulations for different rain garden configurations. Recharge predictions for different climates show significant increases from natural recharge, and that the optimal area ratio (raingarden vs. contributing impervious area) reduces from 20% (humid) to 5% (dry).

  9. Anaerobic biodegradation of cellulosic material: Batch experiments and modelling based on isotopic data and focusing on aceticlastic and non-aceticlastic methanogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, X.; Vavilin, V.A.; Mazeas, L.; Lemunier, M.; Duquennoi, C.; He, P.-J.; Bouchez, T.

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing stable carbon isotope data to account for aceticlastic and non-aceticlastic pathways of methane generation, a model was created to describe laboratory batch anaerobic decomposition of cellulosic materials (office paper and cardboard). The total organic and inorganic carbon concentrations, methane production volume, and methane and CO 2 partial pressure values were used for the model calibration and validation. According to the fluorescent in situ hybridization observations, three groups of methanogens including strictly hydrogenotrophic methanogens, strictly aceticlastic methanogens (Methanosaeta sp.) and Methanosarcina sp., consuming both acetate and H 2 /H 2 CO 3 as well as acetate-oxidizing syntrophs, were considered. It was shown that temporary inhibition of aceticlastic methanogens by non-ionized volatile fatty acids or acidic pH was responsible for two-step methane production from office paper at 35 o C where during the first and second steps methane was generated mostly from H 2 /H 2 CO 3 and acetate, respectively. Water saturated and unsaturated cases were tested. According to the model, at the intermediate moisture (150%), much lower methane production occurred because of full-time inhibition of aceticlastic methanogens. At the lowest moisture, methane production was very low because most likely hydrolysis was seriously inhibited. Simulations showed that during cardboard and office paper biodegradation at 55 o C, non-aceticlastic syntrophic oxidation by acetate-oxidizing syntrophs and hydrogenotrophic methanogens were the dominant methanogenic pathways.

  10. Impact Assessment of Ecosystem Influenced by Changing Global Climate and its National Management Practices II - Focusing on me bioclimatic model development of the forest -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, S.W.; Park, Y.H; Chung, W.C.; Hideo, H.; Kiyoshi, T. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    In order to assess the influences from climate change, lots of studies have been conducted in Asia/Pacific region recently. The analyzed contents in these studies have a wide range of uncertainty even though the results were limited to the direct influences. While the geographical resolutions of various data used in the model are important factors, integration and expansion of the basic physical and biological reactions is another problem. The results from the previous researches suggest that there will be some problems, which are not to reflect the climate change correctly due to the regional small scale and various utilization of land, if data of the existing large-scale influence model is applied to Korea as it is. This study adopts data of 5 large-scale GCM (Global Circulation Model) in order to find the special climate change pattern and estimates the influences from climate change based on the pattern. In the interpretation of the results from this study, therefore, it is necessary to apply the method, which simultaneously analyzes averages and ranges of the estimated influences by 5 GCM, when forecasting influences by scenarios in 2003, the third year of this study. On considering this background, even though the averages and transition ranges of GCM data in this study provide many suggestions for estimating the influences ranges of forest, their application should be conducted after the serious examination because they do not perfectly reflect the regional microclimate. 108 refs., 56 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Understand, Identify, and Respond: The New Focus of Access Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juan Carlos; Meyer, Kristin; Merry, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Library public services staff have primarily focused on providing services through interactions with their users. Although service quality and customer satisfaction are important in the delivery of these services, the emphasis and nature of the work have often been influenced by a library-centric philosophy rather than a user-centric philosophy.…

  12. A physical theory of focus development in plant disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zawolek, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Chapter 1. The 'diffusion theory' of focus development in plant disease is introduced. Foci develop in space and time. The theory applies primarily to air-borne fungal diseases of the foliage.

    Chapter 2. The contents of the present volume are outlined.

    Chapter 3. The

  13. Problematizing War: Reviving the Historical Focus of Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, William

    2017-01-01

    In the last forty years, peace education has broadened its focus from primarily international peace and the prevention of war to an approach that encompasses social justice, environmental education, critical theory, and multicultural education. While this is a positive evolution in many respects, there is a danger in de-emphasizing the actual…

  14. Missing data imputation: focusing on single imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-01-01

    Complete case analysis is widely used for handling missing data, and it is the default method in many statistical packages. However, this method may introduce bias and some useful information will be omitted from analysis. Therefore, many imputation methods are developed to make gap end. The present article focuses on single imputation. Imputations with mean, median and mode are simple but, like complete case analysis, can introduce bias on mean and deviation. Furthermore, they ignore relationship with other variables. Regression imputation can preserve relationship between missing values and other variables. There are many sophisticated methods exist to handle missing values in longitudinal data. This article focuses primarily on how to implement R code to perform single imputation, while avoiding complex mathematical calculations.

  15. Comparison of branch and distally focused main renal artery denervation using two different radio-frequency systems in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoud, Felix; Pipenhagen, Catherine A; Boyce Moon, L; Ewen, Sebastian; Kulenthiran, Saarraaken; Fish, Jeffrey M; Jensen, James A; Virmani, Renu; Joner, Michael; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Tsioufis, Costas; Böhm, Michael

    2017-08-15

    Anatomic placement of lesions may impact efficacy of radio-frequency (RF) catheter renal denervation (RDN). However, it is unclear if it is necessary to perform treatments post bifurcation with systems that may provide deeper penetration to achieve successful RDN. Sixteen domestic swine (n=16) were randomly assigned to 4 groups: 1) 8 lesions created in the branch arteries using the Spyral catheter (SP8); 2) 8 lesions created in the branch arteries plus 4 lesions created in the main artery using the SP catheter (SP12); 3) 8 lesions created in the main artery using the EnligHTN catheter with the distal position as close as possible to the bifurcation (EN8); and 4) 12 lesions created in the main artery using the EN catheter with the distal position as close as possible to the bifurcation (EN12). Each arm showed statistically significant changes in kidney norepinephrine (NE, ng/g) between treated kidneys vs. untreated contralateral control. There were no statistically significant differences in tissue NE% reductions across each arm based on catheter, anatomic location, & number of lesions (p=0.563): EN8 -74±34%, EN12 -95±3%, SP8 -76±16%, SP12 -82±17% (p=0.496). A total of 46 lesions were measured for lesion depth: EN main (3.3±2.8mm) vs. SP branch (2.0±1.0mm, p=0.039), SP main (2.9±1.6mm) vs. SP branch (p=0.052), and EN main vs. SP main (p=0.337). Distally-focused main renal artery treatment using the EN system appears to be equally efficacious in reducing tissue NE levels compared with SP treatment in the branches plus main renal arteries, advocating for device-specific procedure execution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Feasibility Study on MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Sciatic Nerve in a Swine Model: Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, Elena A., E-mail: kayee@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics (United States); Gutta, Narendra Babu, E-mail: gnbabu.aiims@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Monette, Sebastien, E-mail: monettes@mskcc.org [The Rockefeller University, Tri-Institutional Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College (United States); Gulati, Amitabh, E-mail: gulatia@mskcc.org; Loh, Jeffrey, E-mail: jeffreyloh@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Anesthesiology-Critical Care (United States); Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan, E-mail: srimaths@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Ezell, Paula C., E-mail: paula.ezell@intusurg.com [The Rockefeller University, Tri-Institutional Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College (United States); Erinjeri, Joseph P., E-mail: erinjerj@mskcc.org; Solomon, Stephen B., E-mail: solomons@mskcc.org; Maybody, Majid, E-mail: maybodym@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    IntroductionSpastic patients often seek neurolysis, the permanent destruction of the sciatic nerve, for better pain management. MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) may serve as a noninvasive alternative to the prevailing, more intrusive techniques. This in vivo acute study is aimed at performing sciatic nerve neurolysis using a clinical MRgHIFU system.MethodsThe HIFU ablation of sciatic nerves was performed in swine (n = 5) using a HIFU system integrated with a 3 T MRI scanner. Acute lesions were confirmed using T1-weighted contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI and histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The animals were euthanized immediately following post-ablation imaging.ResultsReddening and mild thickening of the nerve and pallor of the adjacent muscle were seen in all animals. The HIFU-treated sections of the nerves displayed nuclear pyknosis of Schwann cells, vascular hyperemia, perineural edema, hyalinization of the collagenous stroma of the nerve, myelin sheet swelling, and loss of axons. Ablations were visible on CE MRI. Non-perfused volume of the lesions (5.8–64.6 cc) linearly correlated with estimated lethal thermal dose volume (4.7–34.2 cc). Skin burn adjacent to the largest ablated zone was observed in the first animal. Bilateral treatment time ranged from 55 to 138 min, and preparation time required 2 h on average.ConclusionThe acute pilot study in swine demonstrated the feasibility of a noninvasive neurolysis of the sciatic nerve using a clinical MRgHIFU system. Results revealed that acute HIFU nerve lesions were detectable on CE MRI, gross pathology, and histology.

  17. Applications of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells; focused on disease modeling, drug screening and therapeutic potentials for liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Yong Soon; Chaudhari, Pooja; Jang, Yoon-Young

    2010-12-14

    The recent advances in the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) research have significantly changed our perspectives on regenerative medicine by providing researchers with a unique tool to derive disease-specific stem cells for study. In this review, we describe the human iPSC generation from developmentally diverse origins (i.e. endoderm-, mesoderm-, and ectoderm- tissue derived human iPSCs) and multistage hepatic differentiation protocols, and discuss both basic and clinical applications of these cells including disease modeling, drug toxicity screening/drug discovery, gene therapy and cell replacement therapy.

  18. Developmental cascade models of a parenting-focused program for divorced families on mental health problems and substance use in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N; Kim, Han-Joe

    2016-08-01

    A developmental cascade model from functioning in adolescence to emerging adulthood was tested using data from a 15-year longitudinal follow-up of 240 emerging adults whose families participated in a randomized, experimental trial of a preventive program for divorced families. Families participated in the program or literature control condition when the offspring were ages 9-12. Short-term follow-ups were conducted 3 months and 6 months following completion of the program when the offspring were in late childhood/early adolescence. Long-term follow-ups were conducted 6 years and 15 years after program completion when the offspring were in middle to late adolescence and emerging adulthood, respectively. It was hypothesized that the impact of the program on mental health and substance use outcomes in emerging adulthood would be explained by developmental cascade effects of program effects in adolescence. The results provided support for a cascade effects model. Specifically, academic competence in adolescence had cross-domain effects on internalizing problems and externalizing problems in emerging adulthood. In addition, adaptive coping in adolescence was significantly, negatively related to binge drinking. It was unexpected that internalizing symptoms in adolescence were significantly negatively related to marijuana use and alcohol use. Gender differences occurred in the links between mental health problems and substance use in adolescence and mental health problems and substance use in emerging adulthood.

  19. Focus on Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.

    2008-01-01

    A few articles in this magazine focus on the developments and policies in Russia. The titles of some of the articles are 'Between state power and liberal reform' on the task of the new Russian president to find a new balance between government interference and market economy; 'Green light for green energy' on the willingness of the Russian government to stimulate renewable energy; 'Russian power play' on the role of Gazprom in the liberalization of the Russian power market; 'Gazprom's risky strategy' on it's pricing strategy

  20. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  1. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  2. General Equilibrium Models: Improving the Microeconomics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Walter; Westhoff, Frank

    2009-01-01

    General equilibrium models now play important roles in many fields of economics including tax policy, environmental regulation, international trade, and economic development. The intermediate microeconomics classroom has not kept pace with these trends, however. Microeconomics textbooks primarily focus on the insights that can be drawn from the…

  3. Advanced structural equation modeling issues and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Marcoulides, George A

    2013-01-01

    By focusing primarily on the application of structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques in example cases and situations, this book provides an understanding and working knowledge of advanced SEM techniques with a minimum of mathematical derivations. The book was written for a broad audience crossing many disciplines, assumes an understanding of graduate level multivariate statistics, including an introduction to SEM.

  4. Study of Chinese pollution with the 3D regional chemistry transport CHIMERE model and remote sensing observations, with a focus on mineral dust impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachatre, Mathieu; Foret, Gilles; Beekmann, Matthias; Cheiney, Audrey; Dufour, Gaëlle; Laurent, Benoit; Cuesta, Juan

    2017-04-01

    Since the end of the 20th century, China has observed important growth in numerous sectors. China's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been multiply by 4 during the 2000-2010 decade (National Bureau of Statistics of China), mostly because of the industry's growth. These evolutions have been accompanied by important increases of atmospheric pollutants emissions (Yinmin et al, Atmo Env, 2016). As a consequence and for about 10 years now, Chinese authorities have been working to reduce pollutant levels, because atmospheric pollution is a major health issue for Chinese population especially within cities, for which World Health Organisation's standards for major pollutants (Ozone, PM2.5, PM10) are often exceeded. Particles have multiple issues, as they impact on health and global warming. Their impacts will depend on their sources (primary or secondary pollutants) and natures (Particle size distribution, chemical composition…). Controlling particles loading is a complex task as their sources are various and dispersed on the Chinese territories: mineral dust can be emitted from Chinese deserts in large amount (Laurent et al., GPC, 2006), ammonia can be emitted from agriculture and livestock (Kang et al., ACP, 2016) and lots of urban primary pollutants can be emitted from urbanized areas. It is then necessary to work from a continental to local scales to understand more precisely pollution of urbanized areas. It is then mandatory to discriminate and quantify pollution sources and to estimate the impact of natural pollution and the major contributing sources. We propose here an approach based on a model and satellite observation synergy to estimate what controls Chinese pollution. We use the regional chemistry transport model CHIMERE (Menut et al., GMD, 2013) to simulate atmospheric pollutants concentrations. A large domain (72°E-145°E; 17.5°N-55°N), with a ¼°x¼° resolution is used to make multi-annual simulations. CHIMERE model include most of the pollutants

  5. Opto-acoustic diagnostics of the thermal action of high-intensity focused ultrasound on biological tissues: the possibility of its applications and model experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlova, Tanya D; Pelivanov, Ivan M; Solomatin, Vladimir S; Karabutov, Aleksander A; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of using the opto-acoustic (OA) method for monitoring high-intensity ultrasonic therapy is studied. The optical properties of raw and boiled liver samples used as the undamaged model tissue and tissue destroyed by ultrasound, respectively, are measured. Experiments are performed with samples consisting of several alternating layers of raw and boiled liver of different thickness. The position and transverse size of the thermal lesion were determined from the temporal shape of the OA signals. The results of measurements are compared with the real size and position of the thermal lesion determined from the subsequent cuts of the sample. It is shown that the OA method permits the diagnostics of variations in biological tissues upon ultrasonic therapy. (special issue devoted to multiple radiation scattering in random media)

  6. Focused detection logging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for determining a characteristic of the media surrounding a borehole by emitting gamma radiation in at least one tightly collimated beam toward an earth formation adjacent a borehole, by detecting from a plurality of tightly collimated paths that are focused at a zone of intersection with and aligned to intersect with each emitted beam the gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media at the zones of intersection, by misaligning the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths to prevent their intersection, by detecting gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media with the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths misaligned and by determining from the detected gamma radiation a media characteristic. In one embodiment, the detection collimater used is formed of a material that is essentially opaque to gamma radiation at the energies of interest and includes a plurality of passageways that are spherically focused at a zone of intersection with one of the emitted beams of gamma radiation and that are arranged in a number of surfaces that are curved to be azimuthally symmetrical about the axis of the intersected beam. 14 figures

  7. Investigation of the Safety of Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening in a Natural Canine Model of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Meaghan Anne; Jones, Ryan Matthew; Barrett, Edward; Schwab, Anthony; Head, Elizabeth; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Ultrasound-mediated opening of the Blood-Brain Barrier(BBB) has shown exciting potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease(AD). Studies in transgenic mouse models have shown that this approach can reduce plaque pathology and improve spatial memory. Before clinical translation can occur the safety of the method needs to be tested in a larger brain that allows lower frequencies be used to treat larger tissue volumes, simulating clinical situations. Here we investigate the safety of opening the BBB in half of the brain in a large aged animal model with naturally occurring amyloid deposits. Methods: Aged dogs naturally accumulate plaques and show associated cognitive declines. Low-frequency ultrasound was used to open the BBB unilaterally in aged beagles (9-11yrs, n=10) in accordance with institutionally approved protocols. Animals received either a single treatment or four weekly treatments. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) was used to guide the treatments and assess the tissue effects. The animals underwent neurological testing during treatment follow-up, and a follow-up MRI exam 1 week following the final treatment. Results: The permeability of the BBB was successfully increased in all animals (mean enhancement: 19±11% relative to untreated hemisphere). There was a single adverse event in the chronic treatment group that resolved within 24 hrs. Follow-up MRI showed the BBB to be intact with no evidence of tissue damage in all animals. Histological analysis showed comparable levels of microhemorrhage between the treated and control hemispheres in the prefrontal cortex (single/repeat treatment: 1.0±1.4 vs 0.4±0.5/5.2±1.8 vs. 4.0±2.0). No significant differences were observed in beta-amyloid load (single/repeat: p=0.31/p=0.98) although 3/5 animals in each group showed lower Aβ loads in the treated hemisphere. Conclusion: Whole-hemisphere opening of the BBB was well tolerated in the aged large animal brain. The treatment volumes and frequencies

  8. Optoelectrical modeling of solar cells based on c-Si/a-Si:H nanowire array: focus on the electrical transport in between the nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levtchenko, Alexandra; Le Gall, Sylvain; Lachaume, Raphaël; Michallon, Jérôme; Collin, Stéphane; Alvarez, José; Djebbour, Zakaria; Kleider, Jean-Paul

    2018-06-01

    By coupling optical and electrical modeling, we have investigated the photovoltaic performances of p-i-n radial nanowires array based on crystalline p-type silicon (c-Si) core/hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) shell. By varying either the doping concentration of the c-Si core, or back contact work function we can separate and highlight the contribution to the cell’s performance of the nanowires themselves (the radial cell) from the interspace between the nanowires (the planar cell). We show that the build-in potential (V bi) in the radial and planar cells strongly depends on the doping of c-Si core and the work function of the back contact respectively. Consequently, the solar cell’s performance is degraded if either the doping concentration of the c-Si core, or/and the work function of the back contact is too low. By inserting a thin (p) a-Si:H layer between both core/absorber and back contact/absorber, the performance of the solar cell can be improved by partly fixing the V bi at both interfaces due to strong electrostatic screening effect. Depositing such a buffer layer playing the role of an electrostatic screen for charge carriers is a suggested way of enhancing the performance of solar cells based on radial p-i-n or n-i-p nanowire array.

  9. FAMOUS, faster: using parallel computing techniques to accelerate the FAMOUS/HadCM3 climate model with a focus on the radiative transfer algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hanappe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have optimised the atmospheric radiation algorithm of the FAMOUS climate model on several hardware platforms. The optimisation involved translating the Fortran code to C and restructuring the algorithm around the computation of a single air column. Instead of the existing MPI-based domain decomposition, we used a task queue and a thread pool to schedule the computation of individual columns on the available processors. Finally, four air columns are packed together in a single data structure and computed simultaneously using Single Instruction Multiple Data operations.

    The modified algorithm runs more than 50 times faster on the CELL's Synergistic Processing Element than on its main PowerPC processing element. On Intel-compatible processors, the new radiation code runs 4 times faster. On the tested graphics processor, using OpenCL, we find a speed-up of more than 2.5 times as compared to the original code on the main CPU. Because the radiation code takes more than 60 % of the total CPU time, FAMOUS executes more than twice as fast. Our version of the algorithm returns bit-wise identical results, which demonstrates the robustness of our approach. We estimate that this project required around two and a half man-years of work.

  10. Towards mastering CRISPR-induced gene knock-in in plants: Survey of key features and focus on the model Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collonnier, Cécile; Guyon-Debast, Anouchka; Maclot, François; Mara, Kostlend; Charlot, Florence; Nogué, Fabien

    2017-05-15

    Beyond its predominant role in human and animal therapy, the CRISPR-Cas9 system has also become an essential tool for plant research and plant breeding. Agronomic applications rely on the mastery of gene inactivation and gene modification. However, if the knock-out of genes by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated repair of the targeted double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by the CRISPR-Cas9 system is rather well mastered, the knock-in of genes by homology-driven repair or end-joining remains difficult to perform efficiently in higher plants. In this review, we describe the different approaches that can be tested to improve the efficiency of CRISPR-induced gene modification in plants, which include the use of optimal transformation and regeneration protocols, the design of appropriate guide RNAs and donor templates and the choice of nucleases and means of delivery. We also present what can be done to orient DNA repair pathways in the target cells, and we show how the moss Physcomitrella patens can be used as a model plant to better understand what DNA repair mechanisms are involved, and how this knowledge could eventually be used to define more performant strategies of CRISPR-induced gene knock-in. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PTSD, food addiction, and disordered eating in a sample of primarily older veterans: The mediating role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Karen S; Wolf, Erika J

    2016-09-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with eating disorders (EDs) and addictive behaviors, including the relatively new construct food addiction. However, few studies have investigated mechanisms that account for these associations, and men are underrepresented in studies of EDs and food addiction. We examined whether lifetime PTSD symptoms were associated with current food addiction and ED symptoms, and whether emotion regulation (expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal), which has been associated with both PTSD and EDs, mediated these relations, in a sample of trauma-exposed, male (n=642) and female (n=55) veterans. Participants were recruited from the Knowledge Networks-GfK Research Panel and completed an online questionnaire. Structural equation modeling revealed that PTSD was directly associated with ED symptoms, food addiction, expressive suppression, and cognitive reappraisal in the full sample and with all constructs except cognitive reappraisal in the male subsample. Expressive suppression was significantly associated with ED symptoms and mediated the PTSD-ED relation. These results highlight the importance of investigating PTSD as a risk factor for food addiction and ED symptoms and the potential mediating role of emotion regulation in the development of PTSD and EDs in order to identify targets for treatments. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Reconstructing the post-LGM decay of the Eurasian Ice Sheets with Ice Sheet Models; data-model comparison and focus on the Storfjorden (Svalbard) ice stream dynamics history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Michele; Kirchner, Nina; Colleoni, Florence; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Rebesco, Michele; Lucchi, Renata G.; Forte, Emanuele; Colucci, Renato R.

    2017-04-01

    The challenge of reconstructing palaeo-ice sheets past growth and decay represent a critical task to better understand mechanisms of present and future global climate change. Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and the subsequent deglaciation until Pre-Industrial time (PI) represent an excellent testing ground for numerical Ice Sheet Models (ISMs), due to the abundant data available that can be used in an ISM as boundary conditions, forcings or constraints to test the ISMs results. In our study, we simulate with ISMs the post-LGM decay of the Eurasian Ice Sheets, with a focus on the marine-based Svalbard-Barents Sea-Kara Sea Ice Sheet. In particular, we aim to reconstruct the Storfjorden ice stream dynamics history by comparing the model results with the marine geological data (MSGLs, GZWs, sediment cores analysis) available from the area, e.g., Pedrosa et al. 2011, Rebesco et al. 2011, 2013, Lucchi et al. 2013. Two hybrid SIA/SSA ISMs are employed, GRISLI, Ritz et al. 2001, and PSU, Pollard&DeConto 2012. These models differ mainly in the complexity with which grounding line migration is treated. Climate forcing is interpolated by means of climate indexes between LGM and PI climate. Regional climate indexes are constructed based on the non-accelerated deglaciation transient experiment carried out with CCSM3, Liu et al. 2009. Indexes representative of the climate evolution over Siberia, Svalbard and Scandinavia are employed. The impact of such refined representation as opposed to the common use of the NGRIP δ18O index for transient experiments is analysed. In this study, the ice-ocean interaction is crucial to reconstruct the Storfjorden ice stream dynamics history. To investigate the sensitivity of the ice shelf/stream retreat to ocean temperature, we allow for a space-time variation of basal melting under the ice shelves by testing two-equations implementations based on Martin et al. 2011 forced with simulated ocean temperature and salinity from the TraCE-21ka coupled

  13. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge...... that interview data can be of some use if the distinction between natural and contrived data is given up and replaced with a distinction between interview data as topic or as resource. In greater detail, such scholars argue that interview data are perfectly adequate if the researcher wants to study the topic...... of interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ...

  14. Focus on Succes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Slimák

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Editor wishes to present the need and form of turning the focus of individuals and organisations to success, based on evaluating understanding of the situation, on complex improving the quality of work, production and life, and on awareness of accountability for consequences of one’s actions in the given environment and time. Understood by success is sustained financial and non-financial prosperity, whilst decisive is the evaluating process, the key element is loyalty of natural and physical persons, and the priority is loyalty of external customers. The address is targeted to would-be authors and readers of our Journal interested in engineering and management of quality of mutually correlate entities.

  15. Cosmological Final Focus Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J

    2004-01-01

    We develop the many striking parallels between the dynamics of light streams from distant galaxies and particle beams in accelerator final focus systems. Notably the deflections of light by mass clumps are identical to the kicks arising from the long-range beam-beam interactions of two counter-rotating particle beams (known as parasitic crossings). These deflections have sextupolar as well as quadrupolar components. We estimate the strength of such distortions for a variety of circumstances and argue that the sextupolar distortions from clumping within clusters may be observable. This possibility is enhanced by the facts that (1) the sextupolar distortions of background galaxies is a factor of 5 smaller than the quadrupolar distortion, (2) the angular orientation of the sextupolar and quadrupolar distortions from a mass distribution would be correlated, appearing as a slightly curved image, (3) these effects should be spatially clumped on the sky

  16. The FOCUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise B; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Randers, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a distinct feature among people at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and pose a barrier to functional recovery. Insufficient evidence exists on how to ameliorate these cognitive deficits in patients at UHR for psychosis and hence improve daily living and quality...... of life. The aim of the trial is to investigate whether cognitive remediation can improve cognitive and psychosocial function in patients at UHR for psychosis. METHODS: The FOCUS trial (Function and Overall Cognition in Ultra-high risk States) is a randomised, parallel group, observer-blinded clinical...... trial enrolling 126 patients meeting the standardised criteria of being at UHR for psychosis. Patients are recruited from psychiatric in- and outpatient facilities in the Copenhagen catchment area. Patients are randomised to one of the two treatment arms: cognitive remediation plus standard treatment...

  17. Focusing on customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  18. Focusing on media body ideal images triggers food intake among restrained eaters: a test of restraint theory and the elaboration likelihood model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

    2014-04-01

    Although research consistently shows that images of thin women in the media (media body ideals) affect women negatively (e.g., increased weight dissatisfaction and food intake), this effect is less clear among restrained eaters. The majority of experiments demonstrate that restrained eaters - identified with the Restraint Scale - consume more food than do other participants after viewing media body ideal images; whereas a minority of experiments suggest that such images trigger restrained eaters' dietary restraint. Weight satisfaction and mood results are just as variable. One reason for these inconsistent results might be that different methods of image exposure (e.g., slideshow vs. film) afford varying levels of attention. Therefore, we manipulated attention levels and measured participants' weight satisfaction and food intake. We based our hypotheses on the elaboration likelihood model and on restraint theory. We hypothesised that advertent (i.e., processing the images via central routes of persuasion) and inadvertent (i.e., processing the images via peripheral routes of persuasion) exposure would trigger differing degrees of weight dissatisfaction and dietary disinhibition among restrained eaters (cf. restraint theory). Participants (N = 174) were assigned to one of four conditions: advertent or inadvertent exposure to media or control images. The dependent variables were measured in a supposedly unrelated study. Although restrained eaters' weight satisfaction was not significantly affected by either media exposure condition, advertent (but not inadvertent) media exposure triggered restrained eaters' eating. These results suggest that teaching restrained eaters how to pay less attention to media body ideal images might be an effective strategy in media-literary interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of MELCOR Code to a French PWR 900 MWe Severe Accident Sequence and Evaluation of Models Performance Focusing on In-Vessel Thermal Hydraulic Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rosa, Felice

    2006-01-01

    specific models (candling, corium pool behaviour, etc.) they were less good. A future work will be the preparation of an input deck for the new MELCOR 1.8.6. and to perform a code-to-code comparison with ASTEC v1.2 rev. 1. (author)

  20. HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of primarily African-American and Latino men who have sex with men social media users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African-American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African-American and Latino MSM from Los Angeles. A total of 112 (primarily African-American and Latino, n = 98, 88%) MSM Facebook users completed a survey on demographics, online social network use, and HIV/AIDS stigma. A composite stigma score was created by taking the cumulative score from a 15-item stigma questionnaire. Cumulative logistic models were used to assess the association between HIV/AIDS stigma and online social network use. In general, participants reported a low level of HIV/AIDS stigma (mean = 22.2/75, SD = 5.74). HIV/AIDS stigma composite score was significantly associated with increased time spent on online social networks each day (Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). Among this diverse sample of MSM online social network users, findings suggest that HIV/AIDS stigma is associated with usage of social media. We discuss the implications of this work for future HIV prevention.

  1. A comparison of two clinical correlation models used for real-time tumor tracking of semi-periodic motion: A focus on geometrical accuracy in lung and liver cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poels, Kenneth; Dhont, Jennifer; Verellen, Dirk; Blanck, Oliver; Ernst, Floris; Vandemeulebroucke, Jef; Depuydt, Tom; Storme, Guy; De Ridder, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A head-to-head comparison of two clinical correlation models with a focus on geometrical accuracy for internal tumor motion estimation during real-time tumor tracking (RTTT). Methods and materials: Both the CyberKnife (CK) and the Vero systems perform RTTT with a correlation model that is able to describe hysteresis in the breathing motion. The CK dual-quadratic (DQ) model consists of two polynomial functions describing the trajectory of the tumor for inhale and exhale breathing motion, respectively. The Vero model is based on a two-dimensional (2D) function depending on position and speed of the external breathing signal to describe a closed-loop tumor trajectory. In this study, 20 s of internal motion data, using an 11 Hz (on average) full fluoroscopy (FF) sequence, was used for training of the CK and Vero models. Further, a subsampled set of 15 internal tumor positions (15p) equally spread over the different phases of the breathing motion was used for separate training of the CK DQ model. Also a linear model was trained using 15p and FF tumor motion data. Fifteen liver and lung cancer patients, treated on the Vero system with RTTT, were retrospectively evaluated comparing the CK FF, CK 15p and Vero FF models using an in-house developed simulator. The distance between estimated target position and the tumor position localized by X-ray imaging was measured in the beams-eye view (BEV) to calculate the 95th percentile BEV modeling errors (ME 95,BEV ). Additionally, the percentage of ME 95,BEV smaller than 5 mm (P 5mm ) was determined for all correlation models. Results: In general, no significant difference (p > 0.05, paired t-test) was found between the CK FF and Vero models. Based on patient-specific evaluation of the geometrical accuracy of the linear, CK DQ and Vero correlation models, no statistical necessity (p > 0.05, two-way ANOVA) of including hysteresis in correlation models was proven, although during inhale breathing motion, the linear model

  2. An Interaction of Economy and Environment in Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Modeling with a Focus on Climate Change Issue in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, S.H.; Chang, K.G.; Kim, Y.G.; Kang, S.I. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea); Rob, D. [Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    In this study, the economic cost; of carbon taxes imposed on fossil fuels associated with climate change issue in Korea were analyzed based on the model of a small open-economy forward-looking dynamic CGE over the years 1998-2047. As a primary policy instrument, carbon taxes are imposed on coal, oil, and gas from year 2013 through 2047 from 100,000 Korean Won/ton of Carbon (TC) to KW400,000. The primary findings through this study are as follows: First, the primary economic indicators reflecting the results of sensitivity analysis through the study estimated that in the year 2025 at a carbon tax rate of 100,000KW/TC, the EVs span from -0.217% to -0.167% and the GDP changes from -0.195% to -0.432%, while the results from a rate of 400,000KW/TC were found to be -0.472% to -0.575% for EVs and -0.708% to - 1.525% for GDPs. Second, the reduction of emissions attributed to carbon tax rates of 100,000KW/TC equal 17(25) million TC which is 1.19(1.78) times the 2000 level in the year 2015(2035). In terms of GDP, the corresponding economic costs of the abatement are 1,261 billion Korean Won in 2015 and 4,551 KW in 2035. Third, the changes in GDP, resulting from sensitivity analysis, are almost identical with a tax rate of 100,000KW/TC and annual growth rate or 2{approx}3%. Thus, the change in GDP with a 3%(2%) growth rate were calculated to be -0.025%(-0.023%) in 2005, -0.176%(-0.176%) in 2015, -0.292%(-0.294%) in 2025, -0.347%(-0.350%) in 2035, and -0.371%(-0.374%) in 2045. In comparison to other Korean studies on carbon tax simulations, the results of this study found that there was no significant difference of the economic cost assessments in terms of GDP loss, overall; however, with increasing tax rates, the reduction in emissions in the present study were found to be less than those of previous ones. The following policy recommendations are suggested based on the results from this study: First, the carbon tax approach should be utilized to a limited extent. In the

  3. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  4. Order Management - Today's focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Ari

    1996-01-01

    Small and mid-range companies throughout the world have moved towards customer-specific production during the last few years, but often, the order flow has not changed to meet new demands. Customer orders pass through a laarge number of departments, such as sales, construction, pre...... to the final product.In the paper, a new method for improving order flow is presented, including an extended use of activity chain models....

  5. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  6. Thermal self-focusing with multiple beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.; McCrory, R.L.

    1986-07-01

    Self-focusing in underdense plasmas in the presence of overlapping beams is of interest for multibeam laser-irradiation systems. The hydrodynamics/ray-tracing simulation code SAGE is used to model thermal self-focusing in two-dimensional line-focus geometry with beams incident obliquely at different angles. The conjecture that multiple overlapping beams may suppress self-focusing is investigated for parameters appropriate to reactor-sized targets; in particular, the dependence upon intensity, scale length and pulse width is examined. While the full problem is three-dimensional, insight may be gained from two-dimensional simulations

  7. A Focus of Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf Peter

    2008-01-01

    In 1887, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) was originally founded as the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (PTR) in Berlin in order to promote basic research in physics. It subsequently developed into the largest research center worldwide as a place where scientists could concentrate exclusively on their research subject, and served as a model for similar institutes established in other countries.Within a very short time, the PTR produced extremely important scientific results that cemented its international position at the top, such as Max Planck's radiation law and energy q

  8. Logistics of Mathematical Modeling-Focused Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, R. Corban

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses the logistics of implementing projects in an undergraduate mathematics class and is intended both for new instructors and for instructors who have had negative experiences implementing projects in the past. Project implementation is given for both lower- and upper-division mathematics courses with an emphasis on mathematical…

  9. Focus On: Neurotransmitter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Puglia, Michael P.; Zucca, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Neurotransmitter systems have been long recognized as important targets of the developmental actions of alcohol (i.e., ethanol). Short- and long-term effects of ethanol on amino acid (e.g., γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate) and biogenic amine (e.g., serotonin and dopamine) neurotransmitters have been demonstrated in animal models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Researchers have detected ethanol effects after exposure during developmental periods equivalent to the first, second, and third trimesters of human pregnancy. Results support the recommendation that pregnant women should abstain from drinking—even small quantities—as effects of ethanol on neurotransmitter systems have been detected at low levels of exposure. Recent studies have elucidated new mechanisms and/or consequences of the actions of ethanol on amino acid and biogenic amine neurotransmitter systems. Alterations in these neurotransmitter systems could, in part, be responsible for many of the conditions associated with FASD, including (1) learning, memory, and attention deficits; (2) motor coordination impairments; (3) abnormal responsiveness to stress; and (4) increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, such as substance abuse and depression, and also neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and sudden infant death syndrome. However, future research is needed to conclusively establish a causal relationship between these conditions and developmental dysfunctions in neurotransmitter systems. PMID:23580048

  10. Focusing on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdin, C.M. du; Lacroix, D.

    2004-01-01

    Safety of our packages and operations is our first concern to ensure protection for people and the environment. Environmental impact generated by COGEMA LOGISTICS activities is also covered by an environmental management approach. This systematical environmental management approach starts with the design phase of new products and processes and meets several objectives: -to reduce the environmental impact of our direct activities by optimizing the maintenance, management and storage of our fleet, -to inform and develop awareness among our suppliers and incite them to join us in this approach. We favor the development of partnerships with our suppliers so as to work together to improve our products and services. As part of AREVA's policy of sustainable development, COGEMA LOGISTICS has decided to expand the management system at the environment using the ISO 14001 model. The associated ISO certification was obtained in February 2003 for all our activities and locations. In this context and beyond the compliance with regulations, COGEMA LOGISTICS undertakes to prevent all types of pollution and continuously improve environmental performance, together with customers, authorities, suppliers and local partners

  11. Focusing on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdin, C.M. du; Lacroix, D. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    Safety of our packages and operations is our first concern to ensure protection for people and the environment. Environmental impact generated by COGEMA LOGISTICS activities is also covered by an environmental management approach. This systematical environmental management approach starts with the design phase of new products and processes and meets several objectives: -to reduce the environmental impact of our direct activities by optimizing the maintenance, management and storage of our fleet, -to inform and develop awareness among our suppliers and incite them to join us in this approach. We favor the development of partnerships with our suppliers so as to work together to improve our products and services. As part of AREVA's policy of sustainable development, COGEMA LOGISTICS has decided to expand the management system at the environment using the ISO 14001 model. The associated ISO certification was obtained in February 2003 for all our activities and locations. In this context and beyond the compliance with regulations, COGEMA LOGISTICS undertakes to prevent all types of pollution and continuously improve environmental performance, together with customers, authorities, suppliers and local partners.

  12. Family focused nursing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. E. Thompson

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available At the present time the majority of nurse education programmes are firmly tied to the perspectives of curative medicine within hospitals - they are disease and hospital oriented. This model, which indicates a 'sickness’ concept of nursing is entirely inappropriate if contemporary and future health care needs are to be met. The shift in education should be towards a health, family and whole person centered approach. The family is the most fundamental and dynamic unit in society with a profound influence upon its members. Besides performing a variety of other functions, the family has a central role in promoting and maintaining the health of its members. Because the family unit is the microcosm of society and accurately reflects the needs of society at large it is appropriate that this should be a key area of experience. Family attachments during training provide opportunities for close and committed contact with people in their everyday world and for learning what is really important to them.

  13. Identification of the main processes underlying ecosystem functioning in the Eastern English Channel, with a focus on flatfish species, as revealed through the application of the Atlantis end-to-end model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, Raphaël; Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Lehuta, Sigrid; Rolland, Marie; Thébaud, Olivier; Travers-Trolet, Morgane; Vermard, Youen; Marchal, Paul

    2018-02-01

    The ecosystem model Atlantis was used to investigate the key dynamics and processes that structure the Eastern English Channel ecosystem, with a particular focus on two commercial flatfish species, sole (Solea solea) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). This complex model was parameterized with data collected from diverse sources (a literature review, survey data, as well as landings and stock assessment information) and tuned so both simulated biomass and catch fit 2002-2011 observations. Here, the outputs are mainly presented for the two focus species and for some other vertebrates found to be important in the trophic network. The calibration process revealed the importance of coastal areas in the Eastern English Channel and of nutrient inputs from estuaries: a lack of river nutrients decreases the productivity of nursery grounds and adversely affects the production of sole and plaice. The role of discards in the trophic network is also highlighted. While sole and plaice did not have a strong influence on the trophic network of vertebrates, they are important predators for benthic invertebrates and compete for food with crustaceans, whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and other demersal fish. We also found that two key species, cod (Gadus morhua) and whiting, thoroughly structured the Eastern English Channel trophic network.

  14. Technology of focus detection for 193nm projection lithographic tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chengliang; Yan, Wei; Hu, Song; Xu, Feng; Li, Jinglong

    2012-10-01

    With the shortening printing wavelength and increasing numerical aperture of lithographic tool, the depth of focus(DOF) sees a rapidly drop down trend, reach a scale of several hundred nanometers while the repeatable accuracy of focusing and leveling must be one-tenth of DOF, approximately several dozen nanometers. For this feature, this article first introduces several focusing technology, Obtained the advantages and disadvantages of various methods by comparing. Then get the accuracy of dual-grating focusing method through theoretical calculation. And the dual-grating focusing method based on photoelastic modulation is divided into coarse focusing and precise focusing method to analyze, establishing image processing model of coarse focusing and photoelastic modulation model of accurate focusing. Finally, focusing algorithm is simulated with MATLAB. In conclusion dual-grating focusing method shows high precision, high efficiency and non-contact measurement of the focal plane, meeting the demands of focusing in 193nm projection lithography.

  15. Numerical experimentation on focusing time and neutron yield in GN1 plasma focus machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Arwinder; Lee, Sing; Saw, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have shown how we have fitted Lee's six phase model code to analyze the current waveform of the GN1 plasma focus machine working in deuterium gas. The Lee's 6-phase model codes was later configured to work between 0.5 to 6 Torr and the results of both focusing time and neutron yield was then compared with the published experimental results. The final results indicate that Lee's code, gives realistic plasma dynamics and focus properties together with a realistic neutron yield for GN1 plasma focus, without the need of any adjustable parameters, needing only to fit the computed current trace to a measured current trace. (author)

  16. Spatial agent-based models for socio-ecological systems: challenges and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Filatova, T.; Verburg, P.H.; Parker, D.C.; Stannard, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Departing from the comprehensive reviews carried out in the field, we identify the key challenges that agent-based methodology faces when modeling coupled socio-ecological systems. Focusing primarily on the papers presented in this thematic issue, we review progress in spatial agent-based models

  17. Model of cognitive processes and conversational principles in survey interview interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, Y.P.; Dijkstra, W.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we provide a model of interviewer-respondent interaction in survey interviews. Our model is primarily focused on the occurrence of problems within this interaction that seem likely to affect data quality. Both conversational principles and cognitive processes, especially where they do

  18. A model of cognitive processes and conversational principles in survey interview interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, Yfke P.; Dijkstra, Wil

    In this paper we provide a model of interviewer–respondent interaction in survey interviews. Our model is primarily focused on the occurrence of problems within this interaction that seem likely to affect data quality. Both conversational principles and cognitive processes, especially where they do

  19. Interorgan Communication Pathways in Physiology: Focus on Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Droujinine, Ilia A.; Perrimon, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Studies in mammals and Drosophila have demonstrated the existence and significance of secreted factors involved in communication between distal organs. In this review, primarily focusing on Drosophila, we examine the known interorgan communication factors and their functions, physiological inducers, and integration in regulating physiology. Moreover, we describe how organ-sensing screens in Drosophila can systematically identify novel conserved interorgan communication factors. Finally, we di...

  20. Scenario Focus Group Workshop Report (2nd SFG Meeting)

    OpenAIRE

    Water Futures and Solution Initiative, (WFaS)

    2016-01-01

    The Scenario Focus Group (SFG) is comprised of water policy and planning decision makers at the national and international level who collaborate within the Water Futures and Solutions Initiative, primarily by identifying key water management challenges, priorities, trends, options, and trade-offs within their regions and advising on where further systems analysis and investigation would be most helpful for understanding externalities and guiding planning decisions. The SFG guides the developm...

  1. Magnetic tearing in plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkawy, W.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma focus device used is Mather type filled with hydrogen gas at pressure between 0.1 and 1 torr. When connected to a large capacitor ≤10 KV a discharge is started with peak current 100 KA. Under the influence of the radial electric field E r , due to the potential between electrodes, and B φ the plasma will drift in the axial direction with velocity cE r /B φ . An induced axial magnetic field B z has been detected which due to sheath velocity. A propagation of magnetosonic wave has been observed with velocity ≅10 3 m sec -1 . Such a wave might be excited when the magnetic pressure is much greater than the plasma kinetic pressure B 2 /8π>nKT. Assuming (MHD) to be stable, Tearing model was driven which generally has smaller growth rates than (MHD) modes. Using the designed theoretical model and the plasma parameters the electron energy dΦ/dt=Ba 2 /τ R was calculated to be 2.22 KeV, which is comparable with that detected from X-ray measurements. (author)

  2. Findings: LANL outsourcing focus groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannotta, M.J.; McCabe, V.B.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1996, a series of 24 3-hour dialog focus groups were held with randomly selected Laboratory employees and contractors to gain their perceptions regarding potentials and problems for privatization and consolidation. A secondary goal was to educate and inform the workforce about potentials and issues in privatization and consolidation. Two hundred and thirty-six participants engaged in a learning session and structured input exercises resulting in 2,768 usable comments. Comments were categorized using standard qualitative methods; resulting categories included positive and negative comments on four models (consolidation, spin offs, outsourcing, and corporate partnering) and implications for the workforce, the Laboratory, and the local economy. Categories were in the areas of increasing/decreasing jobs, expertise, opportunity/salary/benefits, quality/efficiency, and effect on the local area and economy. An additional concern was losing Laboratory culture and history. Data were gathered and categorized on employee opinion regarding elements of successful transition to the four models, and issues emerged in the areas of terms and conditions of employment; communication; involvement; sound business planning; ethics and fairness; community infrastructure. From the aggregated opinion of the participants, it is recommended that decision-makers: Plan using sound business principles and continually communicate plans to the workforce; Respect workforce investments in the Laboratory; Tell the workforce exactly what is going on at all times; Understand that economic growth in Northern New Mexico is not universally viewed as positive; and Establish dialog with stakeholders on growth issues.

  3. Focusators for laser-branding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskolovich, L. L.; Kazanskiy, N. L.; Kharitonov, S. I.; Uspleniev, G. V.

    A new method is investigated for synthesis of computer-generated optical elements: focusators that are able to focus the radial-symmetrical laser beam into complex focal contours, in particular into alphanumeric symbols. The method is based on decomposition of the focal contour into segments of straight lines and semi-circles, following corresponding spacing out of the focusator on elementary segments (concentric rings or sectors) and solution of the inverse task of focusing from focusator segments into corresponding elements of the focal contour. The results of numerical computing of the field from synthesized focusators into the letters are presented. The theoretical efficiency of the focusators discussed is no less than 85%. The amplitude masks and the results of operational studies of synthesized focusators are presented.

  4. Incidence of diseases primarily affecting the skin by age group: population-based epidemiologic study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and comparison with age-specific incidence rates worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessman, Laurel L; Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2018-01-29

    Understanding the effects of age on the epidemiology of diseases primarily affecting the skin is important to the practice of dermatology, both for proper allocation of resources and for optimal patient-centered care. To fully appreciate the effect that age may have on the population-based calculations of incidence of diseases primarily affecting the skin in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and worldwide, we performed a review of all relevant Rochester Epidemiology Project-published data and compared them to similar reports in the worldwide English literature. Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, population-based epidemiologic studies have been performed to estimate the incidence of specific skin diseases over the past 50 years. In older persons (>65 years), nonmelanoma skin cancer, lentigo maligna, herpes zoster, delusional infestation, venous stasis syndrome, venous ulcer, and burning mouth syndrome were more commonly diagnosed. In those younger than 65 years, atypical nevi, psoriatic arthritis, pityriasis rosea, herpes progenitalis, genital warts, alopecia areata, hidradenitis suppurativa, infantile hemangioma, Behçet's disease, and sarcoidosis (isolated cutaneous, with sarcoidosis-specific cutaneous lesions and with erythema nodosum) had a higher incidence. Many of the incidence rates by age group of diseases primarily affecting the skin derived from the Rochester Epidemiology Project were similar to those reported elsewhere. © 2018 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Prosodic Focus Marking in Bai.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zenghui; Chen, A.; Van de Velde, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic marking of focus in Bai, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Southwest of China, by adopting a semi-spontaneous experimental approach. Our data show that Bai speakers increase the duration of the focused constituent and reduce the duration of the post-focus

  6. The Grammar of History: Enhancing Content-Based Instruction through a Functional Focus on Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleppegrell, Mary J.; Achugar, Mariana; Oteiza, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    In K-12 contexts, the teaching of English language learners (ELLs) has been greatly influenced by the theory and practice of content-based instruction (CBI). A focus on content can help students achieve grade-level standards in school subjects while they develop English proficiency, but CBI practices have focused primarily on vocabulary and the…

  7. Contingent Commitments: Bringing Part-Time Faculty into Focus. Methodology Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Center reporting prior to 2013 focused primarily on descriptive statistics (frequencies and means) of student and faculty behaviors. The goal of the analyses reported here and in "Contingent Commitments: Bringing Part-Time Faculty into Focus" is to understand the engagement of part-time or contingent faculty in various activities that…

  8. The Optimal Conditions for Form-Focused Instruction: Method, Target Complexity, and Types of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-eun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates optimal conditions for form-focused instruction (FFI) by considering effects of internal (i.e., timing and types of FFI) and external (i.e., complexity and familiarity) variables of FFI when it is offered within a primarily meaning-focused context of adult second language (L2) learning. Ninety-two Korean-speaking…

  9. A Feminist Critique of Solution-Focused Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermer, Shannon B.; Hemesath, Crystal Wilhite; Russell, Candyce S.

    1998-01-01

    Applying the feminist critique to solution-focused therapy highlights the strengths and weaknesses of this model from a feminist perspective. Although solution-focused therapy and feminist approaches share an emphasis on competence and strengths, solution-focused theory tends to overlook gender and power differences. In general, the model falls…

  10. Mechanisms for focusing mitotic spindle poles by minus end-directed motor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshima, Gohta; Nédélec, François; Vale, Ronald D

    2005-10-24

    During the formation of the metaphase spindle in animal somatic cells, kinetochore microtubule bundles (K fibers) are often disconnected from centrosomes, because they are released from centrosomes or directly generated from chromosomes. To create the tightly focused, diamond-shaped appearance of the bipolar spindle, K fibers need to be interconnected with centrosomal microtubules (C-MTs) by minus end-directed motor proteins. Here, we have characterized the roles of two minus end-directed motors, dynein and Ncd, in such processes in Drosophila S2 cells using RNA interference and high resolution microscopy. Even though these two motors have overlapping functions, we show that Ncd is primarily responsible for focusing K fibers, whereas dynein has a dominant function in transporting K fibers to the centrosomes. We also report a novel localization of Ncd to the growing tips of C-MTs, which we show is mediated by the plus end-tracking protein, EB1. Computer modeling of the K fiber focusing process suggests that the plus end localization of Ncd could facilitate the capture and transport of K fibers along C-MTs. From these results and simulations, we propose a model on how two minus end-directed motors cooperate to ensure spindle pole coalescence during mitosis.

  11. ECONOMIC STRATEGY CREATED THROUGH THEORY FOCUSED PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru-Alexandru Bodislav

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research done for this article is following the elaboration of a moldable model on the actual economic context, in which there are considered continuous learning elements on facts and commercial niches, evaluating a business starting from causality diagram and structuring its processes. Analyzing the evolution of a business and on the market in which they are deploying their activity through quantitative and qualitative measurement methods focused on trends. Testing hypotheses and business suppositions that are the main engine of theory focused on planning, a model of creating a strategic management process that will be developed in this article.

  12. High-Resolution Global Modeling of the Effects of Subgrid-Scale Clouds and Turbulence on Precipitating Cloud Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogenschutz, Peter [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Moeng, Chin-Hoh [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The PI’s at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Chin-Hoh Moeng and Peter Bogenschutz, have primarily focused their time on the implementation of the Simplified-Higher Order Turbulence Closure (SHOC; Bogenschutz and Krueger 2013) to the Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) global model and testing of SHOC on deep convective cloud regimes.

  13. Transition from linear- to nonlinear-focusing regime in filamentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Khan; Durand, Magali; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Laser filamentation in gases is often carried out in the laboratory with focusing optics to better stabilize the filament, whereas real-world applications of filaments frequently involve collimated or near-collimated beams. It is well documented that geometrical focusing can alter the properties of laser filaments and, consequently, a transition between a collimated and a strongly focused filament is expected. Nevertheless, this transition point has not been identified. Here, we propose an analytical method to determine the transition, and show that it corresponds to an actual shift in the balance of physical mechanisms governing filamentation. In high-NA conditions, filamentation is primarily governed by geometrical focusing and plasma effects, while the Kerr nonlinearity plays a more significant role as NA decreases. We find the transition between the two regimes to be relatively insensitive to the intrinsic laser parameters, and our analysis agrees well with a wide range of parameters found in published literature. PMID:25434678

  14. [Focused ultrasound therapy: current status and potential applications in neurosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervishi, E; Aubry, J-F; Delattre, J-Y; Boch, A-L

    2013-12-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is an innovative approach for tissue ablation, based on high intensity focused ultrasound beams. At the focus, HIFU induces a temperature elevation and the tissue can be thermally destroyed. In fact, this approach has been tested in a number of clinical studies for the treatment of several tumors, primarily the prostate, uterine, breast, bone, liver, kidney and pancreas. For transcranial brain therapy, the skull bone is a major limitation, however, new adaptive techniques of phase correction for focusing ultrasound through the skull have recently been implemented by research systems, paving the way for HIFU therapy to become an interesting alternative to brain surgery and radiotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Focus Groups Help To Focus the Marketing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashar, Hanna; Lane, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    A university-based degree completion program for adults conducted focus group research to refine market positioning and promotion. Focus groups averaged five current students and recent graduates who reflected, demographically, the current student population. Results gave insight into reasons for selecting the university, aspects of the program…

  16. Cost that is Directly Incurred as a Result of Operating the Train Service on the 1520 mm Rail with Primarily Freight Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Hudenko, J; Ribakova, N; Počs, R

    2016-01-01

    Under the Directive 2012/34/EU (21 November 2012) "the charges for … [rail] infrastructure … shall be set at the cost that is directly incurred as a result of operating the train service". This charging rule is new for Baltic States’ railways, where due to the favorable geographic position a full cost application without detalization was possible. Although, a big number of relevant studies on the issue was made in EU, all of them covered only 1435mm railways with primarily passenger transport...

  17. Capacidad predictiva de la evaluación de los pares y focos del modelo de acreditación institucional en Chile Predictive capacity of peer evaluation and the focus of the institutional accreditation model in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Rodríguez-Ponce

    2010-01-01

    evaluation and the accreditation decision; that the score given by the academic peer to the area of 'Undergraduate Teaching Process' has more capacity to predict the accreditation results than the score of the area 'Institutional Management'; and, that there are arguments to support that the focus on 'evaluation'(in comparison to the focus on audit was predominant in the model of institutional accreditation in Chile during the studied period.

  18. Chemopreventive activity of vitamin E in breast cancer: a focus on γ- and δ-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, Amanda K; Suh, Nanjoo

    2011-11-01

    Vitamin E consists of eight different variants: α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols (saturated phytyl tail) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienols (unsaturated phytyl tail). Cancer prevention studies with vitamin E have primarily utilized the variant α-tocopherol. To no avail, a majority of these studies focused on variant α-tocopherol with inconsistent results. However, γ-tocopherol, and more recently δ-tocopherol, have shown greater ability to reduce inflammation, cell proliferation, and tumor burden. Recent results have shown that γ-enriched mixed tocopherols inhibit the development of mammary hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in animal models. In this review, we discuss the possible differences between the variant forms, molecular targets, and cancer-preventive effects of tocopherols. We recommend that a γ-enriched mixture, γ- and δ-tocopherol, but not α-tocopherol, are promising agents for breast cancer prevention and warrant further investigation.

  19. Focus on quantum Einstein gravity Focus on quantum Einstein gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The gravitational asymptotic safety program summarizes the attempts to construct a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity within Wilson's generalized framework of renormalization. Its key ingredient is a non-Gaussian fixed point of the renormalization group flow which controls the behavior of the theory at trans-Planckian energies and renders gravity safe from unphysical divergences. Provided that the fixed point comes with a finite number of ultraviolet-attractive (relevant) directions, this construction gives rise to a consistent quantum field theory which is as predictive as an ordinary, perturbatively renormalizable one. This opens up the exciting possibility of establishing quantum Einstein gravity as a fundamental theory of gravity, without introducing supersymmetry or extra dimensions, and solely based on quantization techniques that are known to work well for the other fundamental forces of nature. While the idea of gravity being asymptotically safe was proposed by Steven Weinberg more than 30 years ago [1], the technical tools for investigating this scenario only emerged during the last decade. Here a key role is played by the exact functional renormalization group equation for gravity, which allows the construction of non-perturbative approximate solutions for the RG-flow of the gravitational couplings. Most remarkably, all solutions constructed to date exhibit a suitable non-Gaussian fixed point, lending strong support to the asymptotic safety conjecture. Moreover, the functional renormalization group also provides indications that the central idea of a non-Gaussian fixed point providing a safe ultraviolet completion also carries over to more realistic scenarios where gravity is coupled to a suitable matter sector like the standard model. These theoretical successes also triggered a wealth of studies focusing on the consequences of asymptotic safety in a wide range of phenomenological applications covering the physics of black holes, early

  20. Corrigendum to 'A novel model evaluation approach focusing on local and advected contributions to urban PM2.5 levels - application to Paris, France' published in Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1483-1505, 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Sciare, J.; Bressi, M.; Rosso, A.; Sanchez, O.; Ghersi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Due to an oversight in the production process, an essential word (overestimation) was left out of the abstract. The correct version of the abstract can be seen below. Aerosol simulations in chemistry transport models (CTMs) still suffer from numerous uncertainties, and diagnostic evaluations are required to point out major error sources. This paper presents an original approach to evaluate CTMs based on local and imported contributions in a large mega-city rather than urban background concentrations. The study is applied to the CHIMERE model in the Paris region (France) and considers the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its main chemical constituents (elemental and organic carbon, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium), for which daily measurements are available during a whole year at various stations (PARTICULES project). Back-trajectory data are used to locate the upwind station, from which the concentration is identified as the import, the local production being deduced from the urban concentration by subtraction. Uncertainties on these contributions are quantified. Small biases in urban background PM2.5 simulations (bias of +16 %) hide significant error compensations between local and advected contributions, as well as in PM2.5 chemical compounds. In particular, winter time organic matter (OM) imports appear strongly underestimated while local OM and elemental carbon (EC) production is overestimated all along the year. Erroneous continental wood burning emissions and missing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) pathways may explain errors on advected OM, while the carbonaceous compounds overestimation is likely to be related to errors in emissions and dynamics. A statistically significant local formation of nitrate is also highlighted from observations, but missed by the model. Together with the overestimation of nitrate imports, it leads to a bias of +51% on the local PM2.5 contribution. Such an evaluation finally gives more

  1. Re-appraisal and extension of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus. III. Scaling theory for high pressure operation and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2016-12-01

    Recent work on the revised Gratton-Vargas model (Auluck, Phys. Plasmas 20, 112501 (2013); 22, 112509 (2015) and references therein) has demonstrated that there are some aspects of Dense Plasma Focus (DPF), which are not sensitive to details of plasma dynamics and are well captured in an oversimplified model assumption, which contains very little plasma physics. A hyperbolic conservation law formulation of DPF physics reveals the existence of a velocity threshold related to specific energy of dissociation and ionization, above which, the work done during shock propagation is adequate to ensure dissociation and ionization of the gas being ingested. These developments are utilized to formulate an algorithmic definition of DPF optimization that is valid in a wide range of applications, not limited to neutron emission. This involves determination of a set of DPF parameters, without performing iterative model calculations, that lead to transfer of all the energy from the capacitor bank to the plasma at the time of current derivative singularity and conversion of a preset fraction of this energy into magnetic energy, while ensuring that electromagnetic work done during propagation of the plasma remains adequate for dissociation and ionization of neutral gas being ingested. Such a universal optimization criterion is expected to facilitate progress in new areas of DPF research that include production of short lived radioisotopes of possible use in medical diagnostics, generation of fusion energy from aneutronic fuels, and applications in nanotechnology, radiation biology, and materials science. These phenomena are expected to be optimized for fill gases of different kinds and in different ranges of mass density compared to the devices constructed for neutron production using empirical thumb rules. A universal scaling theory of DPF design optimization is proposed and illustrated for designing devices working at one or two orders higher pressure of deuterium than the current

  2. Polycrystal model of the mechanical behavior of a Mo–TiC30vol.% metal–ceramic composite using a three-dimensional microstructure map obtained by dual beam focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cédat, D.; Fandeur, O.; Rey, C.; Raabe, D.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a Mo–TiC 30vol.% ceramic–metal composite was investigated over a wide temperature range (25–700 °C). High-energy X-ray tomography was used to reveal percolation of the hard titanium carbide phase through the composite. Using a polycrystal approach for a two-phase material, finite-element simulations were performed on a real three-dimensional (3-D) aggregate of the material. The 3-D microstructure, used as the starting configuration for the predictions, was obtained by serial sectioning in a dual beam focused ion beam scanning electron microscope coupled to an electron backscattered diffraction system. The 3-D aggregate consists of a molybdenum matrix and a percolating TiC skeleton. As for most body-centered cubic (bcc) metals, the molybdenum matrix phase is characterized by a change in plasticity mechanism with temperature. We used a polycrystal model for bcc materials which was extended to two phases (TiC and Mo). The model parameters of the matrix were determined from experiments on pure molydenum. For all temperatures investigated the TiC particles were considered to be brittle. Gradual damage to the TiC particles was treated, based on an accumulative failure law that is approximated by evolution of the apparent particle elastic stiffness. The model enabled us to determine the evolution of the local mechanical fields with deformation and temperature. We showed that a 3-D aggregate representing the actual microstructure of the composite is required to understand the local and global mechanical properties of the composite studied.

  3. A randomized trial of a DWI intervention program for first offenders: intervention outcomes and interactions with antisocial personality disorder among a primarily American-Indian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, W Gill; Delaney, Harold D; Kunitz, Stephen J; Westerberg, Verner S; Zhao, Hongwei

    2007-06-01

    Randomized trial evidence on the effectiveness of incarceration and treatment of first-time driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders who are primarily American Indian has yet to be reported in the literature on DWI prevention. Further, research has confirmed the association of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with problems with alcohol including DWI. A randomized clinical trial was conducted, in conjunction with 28 days of incarceration, of a treatment program incorporating motivational interviewing principles for first-time DWI offenders. The sample of 305 offenders including 52 diagnosed as ASPD by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were assessed before assignment to conditions and at 6, 12, and 24 months after discharge. Self-reported frequency of drinking and driving as well as various measures of drinking over the preceding 90 days were available at all assessments for 244 participants. Further, DWI rearrest data for 274 participants were available for analysis. Participants randomized to receive the first offender incarceration and treatment program reported greater reductions in alcohol consumption from baseline levels when compared with participants who were only incarcerated. Antisocial personality disorder participants reported heavier and more frequent drinking but showed significantly greater declines in drinking from intake to posttreatment assessments. Further, the treatment resulted in larger effects relative to the control on ASPD than non-ASPD participants. Nonconfrontational treatment may significantly enhance outcomes for DWI offenders with ASPD when delivered in an incarcerated setting, and in the present study, such effects were found in a primarily American-Indian sample.

  4. Evaluating a County-Sponsored Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Mothers' Initiation of HPV Vaccine for their Pre-teen Daughters in a Primarily Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R; Shafer, Autumn; Diehl, Sandra J; Deal, Allison M

    2011-01-01

    Routine vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the main cause of cervical cancer, is recommended for 11-12 year old girls, yet vaccine uptake is low. This study evaluates a social marketing campaign initiated by 13 North Carolina counties to raise awareness among parents and reduce barriers to accessing the vaccine in a primarily rural area. The 3-month campaign targeted mothers of girls ages 11-12 and healthcare practices serving pre-teen girls in four counties. Principles of social marketing were: product (recommended vaccine against HPV), price (cost, perception of safety and efficacy, and access), promotion (posters, brochures, website, news releases, doctor's recommendation), and place (doctors' offices, retail outlets). We analyzed (1) website traffic, hotline calls, and media placement; (2) cross-sectional surveys of mothers and providers; and (3) HPV immunization rates in intervention versus non-intervention counties. Of respondent mothers (n=225), 82% heard or saw campaign messages or materials. Of respondent providers (n=35), 94% used campaign brochures regularly or occasionally in conversations with parents. HPV vaccination rates within six months of campaign launch were 2% higher for 9-13 year old girls in two of the four intervention counties compared to 96 non-intervention counties. This evaluation supports campaign use in other primarily rural and underserved areas.

  5. Fragment-Specific Fixation Versus Volar Locking Plates in Primarily Nonreducible or Secondarily Redisplaced Distal Radius Fractures: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgren, Marcus; Abramo, Antonio; Geijer, Mats; Kopylov, Philippe; Tägil, Magnus

    2017-03-01

    To compare the patient-reported, clinical, and radiographic outcome of 2 methods of internal fixation in distal radius fractures. Fifty patients, mean age 56 years (range, 21-69 years) with primarily nonreducible or secondarily redisplaced distal radius fractures were randomized to open reduction internal fixation using volar locking plates (n = 25) or fragment-specific fixation (n = 25). The patients were assessed on grip strength, range of motion, patient-reported outcome (Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand), pain (visual analog scale), health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 [SF-12]), and radiographic evaluation. Grip strength at 12 months was the primary outcome measure. At 12 months, no difference was found in grip strength, which was 90% of the uninjured side in the volar plate group and 87% in the fragment-specific fixation group. No differences were found in range of motion and the median Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 5 in both groups. The overall complication rate was significant, 21% in the volar locking plate group, compared with 52% in the fragment-specific group. In treatment of primarily nonreducible or secondarily redisplaced distal radius fractures, volar locking plates and fragment-specific fixation both achieve good and similar patient-reported outcomes, although more complications were recorded in the fragment-specific group. Therapeutic II. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating a County-Sponsored Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Mothers’ Initiation of HPV Vaccine for their Pre-teen Daughters in a Primarily Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R.; Shafer, Autumn; Diehl, Sandra J.; Deal, Allison M.

    2011-01-01

    Routine vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the main cause of cervical cancer, is recommended for 11–12 year old girls, yet vaccine uptake is low. This study evaluates a social marketing campaign initiated by 13 North Carolina counties to raise awareness among parents and reduce barriers to accessing the vaccine in a primarily rural area. The 3-month campaign targeted mothers of girls ages 11–12 and healthcare practices serving pre-teen girls in four counties. Principles of social marketing were: product (recommended vaccine against HPV), price (cost, perception of safety and efficacy, and access), promotion (posters, brochures, website, news releases, doctor’s recommendation), and place (doctors’ offices, retail outlets). We analyzed (1) website traffic, hotline calls, and media placement; (2) cross-sectional surveys of mothers and providers; and (3) HPV immunization rates in intervention versus non-intervention counties. Of respondent mothers (n=225), 82% heard or saw campaign messages or materials. Of respondent providers (n=35), 94% used campaign brochures regularly or occasionally in conversations with parents. HPV vaccination rates within six months of campaign launch were 2% higher for 9–13 year old girls in two of the four intervention counties compared to 96 non-intervention counties. This evaluation supports campaign use in other primarily rural and underserved areas. PMID:21804767

  7. Regulatory focus in groupt contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faddegon, Krispijn Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The thesis examines the influence of group processes on the regulatory focus of individual group members. It is demonstrated that the group situation can affect group members' regulatory focus both in a top-down fashion (via the identitiy of the group) and in a bottom-up fashion (emerging from the

  8. CTE's Focus on Continuous Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John; Kelley, Patricia; Pritz, Sandy; Hodes, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Just one of the ways career and technical education (CTE) is revamping its image is through increased attention to data-driven instructional techniques as a means of improving and focusing instruction on what matters most. Accountability and data have increasingly become a core focus of research, news, and commentary about education in recent…

  9. On the Semantics of Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kess, Joseph F.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the semantics of the notion of focus, insofar as it relates to Filipino languages. The evolution of this notion is reviewed, and an alternative explanation of it is given, stressing the fact that grammar and semantics should be kept separate in a discussion of focus. (CLK)

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic studies of the strong Focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezin, Robert

    1971-01-01

    The POTTER magnetohydrodynamic code is used. It consists of a two-dimensional fluid model with two temperatures Te, Ti and transverse transport coefficients for a fully ionized plasma. Applied to the FOCUS geometry used at Limeil, it gives temperatures consistent with the BENNETT law but much lower than those evaluated experimentally by the X-ray absorbing foils technique. (author) [fr

  11. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau, P Umek, K Hernadi, P Marcoux, B Lukic, Cs Mikó, M Milas, R Gaál and L Forró Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end

  12. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    Maturity models are widespread in IS research and in particular, IT practitioner communities. However, theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous and empirically validated maturity models are quite rare. This literature review paper focuses on the challenges faced during the development...... literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... Maturity Model (CMM). Only recently have there been some research efforts to standardize maturity model development. We also identify three dominant views of maturity models and provide guidelines for various approaches of constructing maturity models with a standard vocabulary. We finally propose using...

  13. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50's structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG's charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  14. Compact electron beam focusing column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-12-01

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  15. Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha sensitize primarily resistant human endometrial stromal cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluhr, Herbert; Krenzer, Stefanie; Stein, Gerburg M

    2007-01-01

    The subtle interaction between the implanting embryo and the maternal endometrium plays a pivotal role during the process of implantation. Human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) express Fas and the implanting trophoblast cells secrete Fas ligand (FASLG, FasL), suggesting a possible role for Fas......-mediated signaling during early implantation. Here we show that ESCs are primarily resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis independently of their state of hormonal differentiation. Pre-treatment of ESCs with interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha sensitizes them to become apoptotic upon stimulation...... of Fas by an agonistic anti-Fas antibody. Incubation of ESCs with the early embryonic signal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, CGB) does not influence their reaction to Fas stimulation. The sensitizing effect of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha was accompanied by a significant upregulation of Fas and FLICE...

  16. Elevated plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α levels in human smokers originate primarily from enzymatic instead of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Erve, Thomas J; Lih, Fred B; Kadiiska, Maria B; Deterding, Leesa J; Mason, Ronald P

    2018-02-01

    It is widely accepted that free radicals in tobacco smoke lead to oxidative stress and generate the popular lipid peroxidation biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ). However, 8-iso-PGF 2α can simultaneously be produced in vivo by the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases (PGHS) induced by inflammation. This inflammation-dependent mechanism has never been considered as a source of elevated 8-iso-PGF 2α in tobacco smokers. The goal of this study is to quantify the distribution of chemical- and PGHS-dependent 8-iso-PGF 2α formation in the plasma of tobacco smokers and non-smokers. The influences of gender and hormonal contraceptive use were accounted for. The distribution was determined by measuring the 8-iso-PGF 2α /prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ) ratio. When comparing smokers (n = 28) against non-smokers (n = 30), there was a statistically significant increase in the 8-iso-PGF 2α concentration. The source of this increased 8-iso-PGF 2α was primarily from PGHS. When stratifying for gender, the increase in 8-iso-PGF 2α in male smokers (n = 9) was primarily from PGHS. Interestingly, female smokers on hormonal contraceptives had increased 8-iso-PGF 2α in both pathways, whereas those not on hormonal contraceptives did not have increased 8-iso-PGF 2α . In conclusion, increased plasma 8-iso-PGF 2α in tobacco smokers has complex origins, with PGHS-dependent formation as the primary source. Accounting for both pathways provides a definitive measurement of both oxidative stress and inflammation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Focusing liquid microjets with nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, A J; Ferrera, C; Montanero, J M; Gañán-Calvo, A M

    2012-01-01

    The stability of flow focusing taking place in a converging–diverging nozzle, as well as the size of the resulting microjets, is examined experimentally in this paper. The results obtained in most aspects of the problem are similar to those of the classical plate-orifice configuration. There is, however, a notable difference between flow focusing in nozzles and in the plate-orifice configuration. In the former case, the liquid meniscus oscillates laterally (global whipping) for a significant area of the control parameter plane, a phenomenon never observed when focusing with the plate-orifice configuration. Global whipping may constitute an important drawback of flow focusing with nozzles because it reduces the robustness of the technique. (paper)

  18. Wayside Teaching: Focusing on Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sara Davis

    2011-01-01

    Wayside teaching focuses on building and maintaining positive relationships with students. Teachers can implement certain wayside teaching practices to end the year in a positive way and begin preparing for the next school year.

  19. Learning to Swim Using Video Modelling and Video Feedback within a Self-Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, So-An; Furlonger, Brett E.; Moore, Dennis W.; Busacca, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Although many adults who cannot swim are primarily interested in learning by direct coaching there are options that have a focus on self-directed learning. As an alternative a self-management program combined with video modelling, video feedback and high quality and affordable video technology was used to assess its effectiveness to assisting an…

  20. Focus on Student Success: Components for Effective Summer Bridge Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Quiroz, Alicia; Garza, Nora R.

    2018-01-01

    Using research focused on best practices, focus group information, and data analytics, the Title V: Focus on Student Success (FOSS) Grant created a model for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a summer bridge program. Results included increased academic performance indicators in first-year Hispanic college students. Validation for…