Tracer technology modeling the flow of fluids
Levenspiel, Octave
2012-01-01
A vessel’s behavior as a heat exchanger, absorber, reactor, or other process unit is dependent upon how fluid flows through the vessel. In early engineering, the designer would assume either plug flow or mixed flow of the fluid through the vessel. However, these assumptions were oftentimes inaccurate, sometimes being off by a volume factor of 100 or more. The result of this unreliable figure produced ineffective products in multiple reaction systems. Written by a pioneering researcher in the field of chemical engineering, the tracer method was introduced to provide more accurate flow data. First, the tracer method measured the actual flow of fluid through a vessel. Second, it developed a suitable model to represent the flow in question. Such models are used to follow the flow of fluid in chemical reactors and other process units, like in rivers and streams, or solid and porous structures. In medicine, the tracer method is used to study the flow of chemicals—harmful and harmless—in the...
Simple Flows of Pseudoplastic Fluids Based on Dehaven Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Walicka A.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper three simple flows of visco-plastic fluids of DeHaven type or fluids similar to them are considered. These flows are: Poiseuille flow in a plane channel, Poiseuille flow through a circular pipe and rotating Couette flow between two coaxial cylinders. After presentation DeHaven model it was presented some models of fluids similar to this model. Next it was given the solutions of equations of motion for three flows mentioned above.
Simple Flows of Pseudoplastic Fluids Based on Dehaven Model
Walicka, A.
2017-12-01
In this paper three simple flows of visco-plastic fluids of DeHaven type or fluids similar to them are considered. These flows are: Poiseuille flow in a plane channel, Poiseuille flow through a circular pipe and rotating Couette flow between two coaxial cylinders. After presentation DeHaven model it was presented some models of fluids similar to this model. Next it was given the solutions of equations of motion for three flows mentioned above.
Modeling fluid flow in faulted basins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faille, I.; Thibaut, M.; Cacas, M.C.; Have, P.; Willien, F.; Wolf, S.; Agelas, L.; Pegaz-Fiornet, S.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a basin simulator designed to better take faults into account, either as conduits or as barriers to fluid flow. It computes hydrocarbon generation, fluid flow and heat transfer on the 4D (space and time) geometry obtained by 3D volume restoration. Contrary to classical basin simulators, this calculator does not require a structured mesh based on vertical pillars nor a multi-block structure associated to the fault network. The mesh follows the sediments during the evolution of the basin. It deforms continuously with respect to time to account for sedimentation, erosion, compaction and kinematic displacements. The simulation domain is structured in layers, in order to handle properly the corresponding heterogeneities and to follow the sedimentation processes (thickening of the layers). In each layer, the mesh is unstructured: it may include several types of cells such as tetrahedra, hexahedra, pyramid, prism, etc. However, a mesh composed mainly of hexahedra is preferred as they are well suited to the layered structure of the basin. Faults are handled as internal boundaries across which the mesh is non-matching. Different models are proposed for fault behavior such as impervious fault, flow across fault or conductive fault. The calculator is based on a cell centered Finite Volume discretization, which ensures conservation of physical quantities (mass of fluid, heat) at a discrete level and which accounts properly for heterogeneities. The numerical scheme handles the non matching meshes and guaranties appropriate connection of cells across faults. Results on a synthetic basin demonstrate the capabilities of this new simulator. (authors)
Modeling Tools Predict Flow in Fluid Dynamics
2010-01-01
"Because rocket engines operate under extreme temperature and pressure, they present a unique challenge to designers who must test and simulate the technology. To this end, CRAFT Tech Inc., of Pipersville, Pennsylvania, won Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Marshall Space Flight Center to develop software to simulate cryogenic fluid flows and related phenomena. CRAFT Tech enhanced its CRUNCH CFD (computational fluid dynamics) software to simulate phenomena in various liquid propulsion components and systems. Today, both government and industry clients in the aerospace, utilities, and petrochemical industries use the software for analyzing existing systems as well as designing new ones."
Poiseuille flow to measure the viscosity of particle model fluids.
Backer, J.A.; Lowe, C.P.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Iedema, P.D.
2005-01-01
The most important property of a fluid is its viscosity, it determines the flow properties. If one simulates a fluid using a particle model, calculating the viscosity accurately is difficult because it is a collective property. In this article we describe a new method that has a better signal to
A numerical model for dynamic crustal-scale fluid flow
Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Koehn, Daniel
2015-04-01
Fluid flow in the crust is often envisaged and modeled as continuous, yet minimal flow, which occurs over large geological times. This is a suitable approximation for flow as long as it is solely controlled by the matrix permeability of rocks, which in turn is controlled by viscous compaction of the pore space. However, strong evidence (hydrothermal veins and ore deposits) exists that a significant part of fluid flow in the crust occurs strongly localized in both space and time, controlled by the opening and sealing of hydrofractures. We developed, tested and applied a novel computer code, which considers this dynamic behavior and couples it with steady, Darcian flow controlled by the matrix permeability. In this dual-porosity model, fractures open depending on the fluid pressure relative to the solid pressure. Fractures form when matrix permeability is insufficient to accommodate fluid flow resulting from compaction, decompression (Staude et al. 2009) or metamorphic dehydration reactions (Weisheit et al. 2013). Open fractures can close when the contained fluid either seeps into the matrix or escapes by fracture propagation: mobile hydrofractures (Bons, 2001). In the model, closing and sealing of fractures is controlled by a time-dependent viscous law, which is based on the effective stress and on either Newtonian or non-Newtonian viscosity. Our simulations indicate that the bulk of crustal fluid flow in the middle to lower upper crust is intermittent, highly self-organized, and occurs as mobile hydrofractures. This is due to the low matrix porosity and permeability, combined with a low matrix viscosity and, hence, fast sealing of fractures. Stable fracture networks, generated by fluid overpressure, are restricted to the uppermost crust. Semi-stable fracture networks can develop in an intermediate zone, if a critical overpressure is reached. Flow rates in mobile hydrofractures exceed those in the matrix porosity and fracture networks by orders of magnitude
Lattice Boltzmann model for three-phase viscoelastic fluid flow
Xie, Chiyu; Lei, Wenhai; Wang, Moran
2018-02-01
A lattice Boltzmann (LB) framework is developed for simulation of three-phase viscoelastic fluid flows in complex geometries. This model is based on a Rothman-Keller type model for immiscible multiphase flows which ensures mass conservation of each component in porous media even for a high density ratio. To account for the viscoelastic effects, the Maxwell constitutive relation is correctly introduced into the momentum equation, which leads to a modified lattice Boltzmann evolution equation for Maxwell fluids by removing the normal but excess viscous term. Our simulation tests indicate that this excess viscous term may induce significant errors. After three benchmark cases, the displacement processes of oil by dispersed polymer are studied as a typical example of three-phase viscoelastic fluid flow. The results show that increasing either the polymer intrinsic viscosity or the elastic modulus will enhance the oil recovery.
Particle hopping vs. fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagel, K.
1995-12-31
Although particle hopping models have been introduced into traffic science in the 19509, their systematic use has only started recently. Two reasons for this are, that they are advantageous on modem computers, and that recent theoretical developments allow analytical understanding of their properties and therefore more confidence for their use. In principle, particle hopping models fit between microscopic models for driving and fluiddynamical models for traffic flow. In this sense, they also help closing the conceptual gap between these two. This paper shows connections between particle hopping models and traffic flow theory. It shows that the hydrodynamical limits of certain particle hopping models correspond to the Lighthill-Whitham theory for traffic flow, and that only slightly more complex particle hopping models produce already the correct traffic jam dynamics, consistent with recent fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow. By doing so, this paper establishes that, on the macroscopic level, particle hopping models are at least as good as fluid-dynamical models. Yet, particle hopping models have at least two advantages over fluid-dynamical models: they straightforwardly allow microscopic simulations, and they include stochasticity.
Fluid flow modeling in complex areas*, **
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Poullet Pascal
2012-04-01
Full Text Available We show first results of 3D simulation of sea currents in a realistic context. We use the full Navier–Stokes equations for incompressible viscous fluid. The problem is solved using a second order incremental projection method associated with the finite volume of the staggered (MAC scheme for the spatial discretization. After validation on classical cases, it is used in a numerical simulation of the Pointe à Pitre harbour area. The use of the fictious domain method permits us to take into account the complexity of bathymetric data and allows us to work with regular meshes and thus preserves the efficiency essential for a 3D code. Dans cette étude, nous présentons les premiers résultats de simulation d’un écoulement d’un fluide incompressible visqueux dans un contexte environnemental réel. L’approche utilisée utilise une méthode de domaines fictifs pour une prise en compte d’un domaine physique tridimensionnel très irrégulier. Le schéma numérique combine un schéma de projection incrémentale et des volumes finis utilisant des volumes de contrôle adaptés à un maillage décalé. Les tests de validation sont menés pour les cas tests de la cavité double entraînée ainsi que l’écoulement dans un canal avec un obstacle placé de manière asymmétrique.
Reduced order modeling of some fluid flows of industrial interest
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alonso, D; Terragni, F; Velazquez, A; Vega, J M
2012-01-01
Some basic ideas are presented for the construction of robust, computationally efficient reduced order models amenable to be used in industrial environments, combined with somewhat rough computational fluid dynamics solvers. These ideas result from a critical review of the basic principles of proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order modeling of both steady and unsteady fluid flows. In particular, the extent to which some artifacts of the computational fluid dynamics solvers can be ignored is addressed, which opens up the possibility of obtaining quite flexible reduced order models. The methods are illustrated with the steady aerodynamic flow around a horizontal tail plane of a commercial aircraft in transonic conditions, and the unsteady lid-driven cavity problem. In both cases, the approximations are fairly good, thus reducing the computational cost by a significant factor. (review)
Reduced order modeling of some fluid flows of industrial interest
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alonso, D; Terragni, F; Velazquez, A; Vega, J M, E-mail: josemanuel.vega@upm.es [E.T.S.I. Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2012-06-01
Some basic ideas are presented for the construction of robust, computationally efficient reduced order models amenable to be used in industrial environments, combined with somewhat rough computational fluid dynamics solvers. These ideas result from a critical review of the basic principles of proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order modeling of both steady and unsteady fluid flows. In particular, the extent to which some artifacts of the computational fluid dynamics solvers can be ignored is addressed, which opens up the possibility of obtaining quite flexible reduced order models. The methods are illustrated with the steady aerodynamic flow around a horizontal tail plane of a commercial aircraft in transonic conditions, and the unsteady lid-driven cavity problem. In both cases, the approximations are fairly good, thus reducing the computational cost by a significant factor. (review)
Leaback of Pulsatile Flow of Particle Fluid Suspension Model of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Leaback of Pulsatile Flow of Particle Fluid Suspension Model of Blood Under Periodic Body Acceleration. ... The variation in body acceleration amplitude though affects the velocity profile in the capillary tubes, it has no effect on the leakback in the tubes. Leakback is mainly determined by the balance of the viscous drag and ...
Mathematical Modelling of Fluid Flow in Cone and Cavitation Formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milada KOZUBKOVÁ
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Problem of cavitation is the undesirable phenomena occuring in the fluid flow in many hydraulic application (pumps, turbines, valves, etc.. Therefore this is in the focus of interest using experimental and mathematical methods. Based on cavitation modelling in Laval nozzle results and experience [1], [2], [4], following problem described as the water flow at the outlet from turbine blade wheel was solved. Primarily the problem is simplified into modelling of water flow in cone. Profiles of axial, radial and tangential velocity are defined on inlet zone. The value of pressure is defined on the outlet. Boundary conditions were defined by main investigator of the grant project – Energy Institute, Victor Kaplan’s Department of Fluid Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology. The value of air volume was insignificant. Cavitation was solved by Singhal model of cavitation.
Beyond Poiseuille: Preservation Fluid Flow in an Experimental Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saurabh Singh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Poiseuille’s equation describes the relationship between fluid viscosity, pressure, tubing diameter, and flow, yet it is not known if cold organ perfusion systems follow this equation. We investigated these relationships in an ex vivo model and aimed to offer some rationale for equipment selection. Increasing the cannula size from 14 to 20 Fr increased flow rate by a mean (SD of 13 (12%. Marshall’s hyperosmolar citrate was three times less viscous than UW solution, but flows were only 45% faster. Doubling the bag pressure led to a mean (SD flow rate increase of only 19 (13%, not twice the rate. When external pressure devices were used, 100 mmHg of continuous pressure increased flow by a mean (SD of 43 (17% when compared to the same pressure applied initially only. Poiseuille’s equation was not followed; this is most likely due to “slipping” of preservation fluid within the plastic tubing. Cannula size made little difference over the ranges examined; flows are primarily determined by bag pressure and fluid viscosity. External infusor devices require continuous pressurisation to deliver high flow. Future studies examining the impact of perfusion variables on graft outcomes should include detailed equipment descriptions.
Numerical modeling of fluid flow in solid tumors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Soltani
Full Text Available A mathematical model of interstitial fluid flow is developed, based on the application of the governing equations for fluid flow, i.e., the conservation laws for mass and momentum, to physiological systems containing solid tumors. The discretized form of the governing equations, with appropriate boundary conditions, is developed for a predefined tumor geometry. The interstitial fluid pressure and velocity are calculated using a numerical method, element based finite volume. Simulations of interstitial fluid transport in a homogeneous solid tumor demonstrate that, in a uniformly perfused tumor, i.e., one with no necrotic region, because of the interstitial pressure distribution, the distribution of drug particles is non-uniform. Pressure distribution for different values of necrotic radii is examined and two new parameters, the critical tumor radius and critical necrotic radius, are defined. Simulation results show that: 1 tumor radii have a critical size. Below this size, the maximum interstitial fluid pressure is less than what is generally considered to be effective pressure (a parameter determined by vascular pressure, plasma osmotic pressure, and interstitial osmotic pressure. Above this size, the maximum interstitial fluid pressure is equal to effective pressure. As a consequence, drugs transport to the center of smaller tumors is much easier than transport to the center of a tumor whose radius is greater than the critical tumor radius; 2 there is a critical necrotic radius, below which the interstitial fluid pressure at the tumor center is at its maximum value. If the tumor radius is greater than the critical tumor radius, this maximum pressure is equal to effective pressure. Above this critical necrotic radius, the interstitial fluid pressure at the tumor center is below effective pressure. In specific ranges of these critical sizes, drug amount and therefore therapeutic effects are higher because the opposing force, interstitial fluid
ANFIS modeling for prediction of particle motions in fluid flows
Safdari, Arman; Kim, Kyung Chun
2015-11-01
Accurate dynamic analysis of parcel of solid particles driven in fluid flow system is of interest for many natural and industrial applications such as sedimentation process, study of cloud particles in atmosphere, etc. In this paper, numerical modeling of solid particles in incompressible flow using Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is carried out to investigate the dynamic behavior of particles in different flow conditions; channel and cavity flow. Although modern computers have been well developed, the high computational time and costs for this kind of problems are still demanded. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is used to simulate fluid flows and combined with the Lagrangian approach to predict the motion of particles in the range of masses. Some particles are selected, and subjected to Adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the trajectory of moving solid particles. Using a hybrid learning procedure from computational particle movement, the ANFIS can construct an input-output mapping based on fuzzy if-then rules and stipulated computational fluid dynamics prediction pairs. The obtained results from ANFIS algorithm is validated and compared with the set of benchmark data provided based on point-like approach coupled with the LBM method.
Combining multiblock and detailed fluid flow models (LOVI) - MASIT17
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alopaeus, V.; Moilanen, P.; Visuri, O.; Laakkonen, M.; Aittamaa, J. (Helsinki University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry and Materials Sciences, Department of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)); Heiskanen, K.; Wierink, G. (Helsinki University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry and Materials Sciences, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Espoo (Finland)); Manninen, M.; Seppaelae, M. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))
2008-07-01
The goal of this research project is to develop models for scale-up, design and operation of heterogeneous reactors. By computing a detailed fluid flow field and using it in a multiblock-model the computing times can be kept reasonable. Our modelling is based on phenomenological models verified on experimental results. Several experimental apparatuses have been used to study gas-liquid flow (tapered channel, 14/200dm3 stirred vessels and the 'giraffe') and bubble-particle interactions. A particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) apparatus is being purchased during 2008 to study fluid flow fields. There has been extensive experimental activity. During this project phenomenological models have been verified, numerical methods for the calculation of population balances have been improved, a novel local mixing time analysis method has been developed and automated multiblock generation algorithms have been developed. A method of evaluating CFD results with a single glance with a two-block model has been introduced. Fermentation process of Galilaeus and the flotation cell of Outotec have been modelled. (orig.)
Fluid flow and heat transfer modeling for castings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domanus, H.M.; Liu, Y.Y.; Sha, W.T.
1986-01-01
Casting is fundamental to manufacturing of many types of equipment and products. Although casting is a very old technology that has been in existence for hundreds of years, it remains a highly empirical technology, and production of new castings requires an expensive and time-consuming trial-and-error approach. In recent years, mathematical modeling of casting has received increasing attention; however, a majority of the modeling work has been in the area of heat transfer and solidification. Very little work has been done in modeling fluid flow of the liquid melt. This paper presents a model of fluid flow coupled with heat transfer of a liquid melt for casting processes. The model to be described in this paper is an extension of the COMMIX code and is capable of handling castings with any shape, size, and material. A feature of this model is the ability to track the liquid/gas interface and liquid/solid interface. The flow of liquid melt through the sprue and runners and into the mold cavity is calculated as well as three-dimensional temperature and velocity distributions of the liquid melt throughout the casting process. 14 refs., 13 figs
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Flow over Stepped Spillway
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raad Hoobi Irzooki
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In present paper, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD - program Flow-3D was used toanalyze and study the characteristics of flow energy dissipation over stepped spillways. Threedifferent spillway heights ( (15, 20 and 25cm were used. For each one of these models, threenumbers of steps (N (5, 10 and 25 and three spillway slopes (S (0.5, 1 and 1.25 were used.Eight different discharges ranging (600-8500cm³/s were passed over each one of these models,therefore the total runs of this study are 216. The energy dissipation over these models and thepressure distribution on the horizontal and vertical step faces over some models were studied. Forverification purpose of the (CFD program, the experimental work was conducted on four models ofstepped spillway and five different discharges were passed over each model. The magnitude ofdissipated energy on models was compared with results of numerical program under sameconditions. The comparison showed good agreement between them with standard percentage errorranging between (-2.01 - 11.13%. Thus, the program Flow-3D is a reasonable numerical programwhich can be used in this study.Results showed that the energy dissipation increases with increased spillway height anddecreased number of steps and spillway slope. Also, the energy dissipation decreases withincreasing the flow rate. An empirical equation for measuring the energy dissipation was derivedusing the dimensional analysis. The coefficient of determination of this equation ( equals 0.766.
Multiscale modeling of fluid flow and mass transport
Masuoka, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Bijeljic, B.; Lin, Q.; Blunt, M. J.
2017-12-01
In recent years, there are some reports on a simulation of fluid flow in pore spaces of rocks using Navier-Stokes equations. These studies mostly adopt a X-ray CT to create 3-D numerical grids of the pores in micro-scale. However, results may be of low accuracy when the rock has a large pore size distribution, because pores, whose size is smaller than resolution of the X-ray CT may be neglected. We recently found out by tracer tests in a laboratory using a brine saturated Ryukyu limestone and inject fresh water that a decrease of chloride concentration took longer time. This phenomenon can be explained due to weak connectivity of the porous networks. Therefore, it is important to simulate entire pore spaces even those of very small sizes in which diffusion is dominant. We have developed a new methodology for multi-level modeling for pore scale fluid flow in porous media. The approach is to combine pore-scale analysis with Darcy-flow analysis using two types of X-ray CT images in different resolutions. Results of the numerical simulations showed a close match with the experimental results. The proposed methodology is an enhancement for analyzing mass transport and flow phenomena in rocks with complicated pore structure.
Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow in the Tape Casting Process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jabbari, Masoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2011-01-01
The flow behavior of the fluid in the tape casting process is analyzed. A simple geometry is assumed for running the numerical calculations in ANSYS Fluent and the main parameters are expressed in non-dimensional form. The effect of different values for substrate velocity and pressure force...... of the substrate velocity is evaluated. The results of the modeling show that a relatively uniform tape thickness can be achieved. Moreover, the results are compared with selected experimental and analytical data from literature and good agreement is found....
Modeling of dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laux, Harald
1998-08-01
A general two-fluid model is derived and applied in CFD computations to various test cases of important industrial multiphase flows. It is general in the sense of its applicability to dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flows. The model is limited to isothermal flow without mass transfer and only one particle phase is described. The instantaneous fluid phase equations, including the phase interaction terms, are derived from a volume averaging technique, and the instantaneous particle phase equations are derived from the kinetic theory of granular material. Whereas the averaging procedure, the treatment of the interaction terms, and the kinetic theory approach have been reported in literature prior to this work the combination of the approaches is new. The resulting equations are derived without ambiguity in the interpretation of the particle phase pressure (equation-of-state of particle phase). The basic modeling for the particle phase is improved in two steps. Because in the basic modeling only stresses due to kinetic and collisional interactions are included, a simple model for an effective viscosity is developed in order to allow also frictional stresses within the particle phase. Moreover, turbulent stresses and turbulent dispersion of particles play often an important role for the transport processes. Therefore in a second step, a two-equation turbulence model for both fluid and particle phase turbulence is derived by applying the phasic average to the instantaneous equations. The resulting k-{epsilon}-k{sup d}-{epsilon}{sup d} model is new. Mathematical closure is attempted such that the resulting set of equations is valid for both dilute arid dense flows. During the development of the closure relations a clear distinction is made between granular or ''viscous'' microscale fluctuations and turbulent macro scale fluctuations (true particle turbulence) within the particle phase. The set of governing equations is discretized by using a
Surfactant micelles: model systems for flow instabilities of complex fluids.
Perge, Christophe; Fardin, Marc-Antoine; Manneville, Sébastien
2014-04-01
Complex fluids such as emulsions, colloidal gels, polymer or surfactant solutions are all characterized by the existence of a "microstructure" which may couple to an external flow on time scales that are easily probed in experiments. Such a coupling between flow and microstructure usually leads to instabilities under relatively weak shear flows that correspond to vanishingly small Reynolds numbers. Wormlike micellar surfactant solutions appear as model systems to study two examples of such instabilities, namely shear banding and elastic instabilities. Focusing on a semidilute sample we show that two-dimensional ultrafast ultrasonic imaging allows for a thorough investigation of unstable shear-banded micellar flows. In steady state, radial and azimuthal velocity components are recovered and unveil the original structure of the vortical flow within an elastically unstable high shear rate band. Furthermore thanks to an unprecedented frame rate of up to 20,000 fps, transients and fast dynamics can be resolved, which paves the way for a better understanding of elastic turbulence.
Flow modelling of a newtonian fluid by two regions- the region of pure fluid and porous region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sampaio, R.; Gama, R.M.S. da
1983-01-01
A model of flow with two regions is presented using mixture theory. One region contains only pure fluid and the other a mixture of fluid and porous rigid solid. Compatibility conditons on the pure fluid-mixture interface are carefully discussed. The theory is used to solve a problem of a flow induced by pressure gradient and helicoidal motion of an impermeable cylinder on two rings one of pure fluid and another of mixture. (Author) [pt
Two-Fluid Mathematical Models for Blood Flow in Stenosed Arteries: A Comparative Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sankar DS
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The pulsatile flow of blood through stenosed arteries is analyzed by assuming the blood as a two-fluid model with the suspension of all the erythrocytes in the core region as a non-Newtonian fluid and the plasma in the peripheral layer as a Newtonian fluid. The non-Newtonian fluid in the core region of the artery is assumed as a (i Herschel-Bulkley fluid and (ii Casson fluid. Perturbation method is used to solve the resulting system of non-linear partial differential equations. Expressions for various flow quantities are obtained for the two-fluid Casson model. Expressions of the flow quantities obtained by Sankar and Lee (2006 for the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model are used to get the data for comparison. It is found that the plug flow velocity and velocity distribution of the two-fluid Casson model are considerably higher than those of the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model. It is also observed that the pressure drop, plug core radius, wall shear stress and the resistance to flow are significantly very low for the two-fluid Casson model than those of the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model. Hence, the two-fluid Casson model would be more useful than the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model to analyze the blood flow through stenosed arteries.
Wu, Binxin
2010-12-01
In this paper, 12 turbulence models for single-phase non-newtonian fluid flow in a pipe are evaluated by comparing the frictional pressure drops obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with those from three friction factor correlations. The turbulence models studied are (1) three high-Reynolds-number k-ε models, (2) six low-Reynolds-number k-ε models, (3) two k-ω models, and (4) the Reynolds stress model. The simulation results indicate that the Chang-Hsieh-Chen version of the low-Reynolds-number k-ε model performs better than the other models in predicting the frictional pressure drops while the standard k-ω model has an acceptable accuracy and a low computing cost. In the model applications, CFD simulation of mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester with pumped circulation is performed to propose an improvement in the effective mixing standards recommended by the U.S. EPA based on the effect of rheology on the flow fields. Characterization of the velocity gradient is conducted to quantify the growth or breakage of an assumed floc size. Placement of two discharge nozzles in the digester is analyzed to show that spacing two nozzles 180° apart with each one discharging at an angle of 45° off the wall is the most efficient. Moreover, the similarity rules of geometry and mixing energy are checked for scaling up the digester.
Advanced Fluid Reduced Order Models for Compressible Flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tezaur, Irina Kalashnikova [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Fike, Jeffrey A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlberg, Kevin Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Barone, Matthew F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maddix, Danielle [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mussoni, Erin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Balajewicz, Maciej [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
2017-09-01
This report summarizes fiscal year (FY) 2017 progress towards developing and implementing within the SPARC in-house finite volume flow solver advanced fluid reduced order models (ROMs) for compressible captive-carriage flow problems of interest to Sandia National Laboratories for the design and qualification of nuclear weapons components. The proposed projection-based model order reduction (MOR) approach, known as the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD)/Least- Squares Petrov-Galerkin (LSPG) method, can substantially reduce the CPU-time requirement for these simulations, thereby enabling advanced analyses such as uncertainty quantification and de- sign optimization. Following a description of the project objectives and FY17 targets, we overview briefly the POD/LSPG approach to model reduction implemented within SPARC . We then study the viability of these ROMs for long-time predictive simulations in the context of a two-dimensional viscous laminar cavity problem, and describe some FY17 enhancements to the proposed model reduction methodology that led to ROMs with improved predictive capabilities. Also described in this report are some FY17 efforts pursued in parallel to the primary objective of determining whether the ROMs in SPARC are viable for the targeted application. These include the implemen- tation and verification of some higher-order finite volume discretization methods within SPARC (towards using the code to study the viability of ROMs on three-dimensional cavity problems) and a novel structure-preserving constrained POD/LSPG formulation that can improve the accuracy of projection-based reduced order models. We conclude the report by summarizing the key takeaways from our FY17 findings, and providing some perspectives for future work.
Mathematical modeling of slope flows with entrainment as flows of non-Newtonian fluids
Zayko, Julia; Eglit, Margarita
2015-04-01
Non-Newtonian fluids in which the shear stresses are nonlinear functions of the shear strain rates are used to model slope flows such as snow avalanches, mudflows, debris flows. The entrainment of bottom material is included into the model basing on the assumption that in entraining flows the bed friction is equal to the shear stress of the bottom material (Issler et al, 2011). Unsteady motion down long homogeneous slopes with constant inclines is studied numerically for different flow rheologies and different slope angles. Variation of the velocity profile, increase of the flow depth and velocity due to entrainment as well as the value of the entrainment rate is calculated. Asymptotic formulae for the entrainment rate are derived for unsteady flows of different rheological properties. REFERENCES Chowdhury M., Testik F., 2011. Laboratory testing of mathematical models for high-concentration fluid mud turbidity currents. Ocean Engineering 38, 256-270. Eglit, M.E., Demidov, K.S., 2005. Mathematical modeling of snow entrainment in avalanche motion. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 43 (1-2), 10-23. Eglit M. E., Yakubenko A. E., 2012, Mathematical Modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Eglit M. E., Yakubenko A. E., 2014, Numerical modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 108, 139-148. Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011. Interplay of entrainment and rheology in snow avalanches; a numerical study. Annals of Glaciology, 52(58), pp.143-147 Kern M. A., Tiefenbacher F., McElwaine J., N., 2004. The rheology of snow in large chute flows. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 39, 181 -192. Naaim, M., Faug, T., Naaim-Bouvet, F., 2003. Dry granular flow modelling including erosion and deposition. Surv. Geophys. 24, 569-585. Naaim, M., Naaim-Bouvet, F., Faug, T., Bouchet, A., 2004. Dense snow avalanche modeling: flow, erosion, deposition and obstacle effects. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 39, 193-204. Rougier, J & Kern, M 2010, 'Predicting snow
Modeling of movement-induced and flow-induced fluid forces in fast switching valves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Schmidt, Lasse
2015-01-01
Fast switching fluid power valves set strict requirements on performance, size and energy efficiency and simulation models are therefore needed to obtain good designs of such components. The valve moving member is subject to fluid forces depending on the valve flow rate and movement of the valve...... member itself. These fluid forces may be accurately simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis, but such models suffer from being computationally expensive and is not suited for optimization routines. In this paper, a computationally inexpensive method for modeling the fluid forces...... is proposed, which includes both the flow-induced fluid forces and the movement-induced fluid forces resulting from movement of the valve moving member. The movement-induced fluid force model is based on a known solution to the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. A method for accurately simulating the flow...
A physical five-equation model for compressible two-fluid flow, and its numerical treatment
J.J. Kreeft (Jasper); B. Koren (Barry)
2009-01-01
htmlabstractA novel five-equation model for inviscid, non-heat-conducting, compressible two-fluid flow is derived, together with an appropriate numerical method. The model uses flow equations based on conservation laws and exchange laws only. The two fluids exchange momentum and energy, for which
Spatial and Temporal Low-Dimensional Models for Fluid Flow
Kalb, Virginia
2008-01-01
A document discusses work that obtains a low-dimensional model that captures both temporal and spatial flow by constructing spatial and temporal four-mode models for two classic flow problems. The models are based on the proper orthogonal decomposition at two reference Reynolds numbers. Model predictions are made at an intermediate Reynolds number and compared with direct numerical simulation results at the new Reynolds number.
Leaback of Pulsatile Flow of Particle Fluid Suspension Model of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We considered a two-phase model flow of blood subject to both pulsative pressure gradient due to normal heart action and a periodic body acceleration. The leakback of flow due to the fact that the velocity of the red cell is greater than the mean velocity is derived using the method of characteristics. The variation in body ...
Shaded computer graphic techniques for visualizing and interpreting analytic fluid flow models
Parke, F. I.
1981-01-01
Mathematical models which predict the behavior of fluid flow in different experiments are simulated using digital computers. The simulations predict values of parameters of the fluid flow (pressure, temperature and velocity vector) at many points in the fluid. Visualization of the spatial variation in the value of these parameters is important to comprehend and check the data generated, to identify the regions of interest in the flow, and for effectively communicating information about the flow to others. The state of the art imaging techniques developed in the field of three dimensional shaded computer graphics is applied to visualization of fluid flow. Use of an imaging technique known as 'SCAN' for visualizing fluid flow, is studied and the results are presented.
Simulation of horizontal pipe two-phase slug flows using the two-fluid model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortega Malca, Arturo J. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT); Nieckele, Angela O. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica
2005-07-01
Slug flow occurs in many engineering applications, mainly in the transport of hydrocarbon fluids in pipelines. The intermittency of slug flow causes severe unsteady loading on the pipelines carrying the fluids, which gives rise to design problems. Therefore, it is important to be able to predict the onset and development of slug flow as well as slug characteristics. The present work consists in the simulation of two-phase flow in slug pattern through horizontal pipes using the two-fluid model in its transient and one-dimensional form. The advantage of this model is that the flow field is allowed to develop naturally from a given initial conditions as part of the transient calculation; the slug evolves automatically as a product of the computed flow development. Simulations are then carried out for a large number of flow conditions that lead a slug flow. (author)
Many-body dissipative particle dynamics modeling of fluid flow in fine-grained nanoporous shales
Xia, Yidong; Goral, Jan; Huang, Hai; Miskovic, Ilija; Meakin, Paul; Deo, Milind
2017-05-01
A many-body dissipative particle dynamics model, namely, MDPD, is applied for simulation of pore-scale, multi-component, multi-phase fluid flows in fine-grained, nanoporous shales. Since this model is able to simultaneously capture the discrete features of fluid molecules in nanometer size pores and continuum fluid dynamics in larger pores, and is relatively easy to parameterize, it has been recognized as being particularly suitable for simulating complex fluid flow in multi-length-scale nanopore networks of shales. A remarkable feature of this work is the integration of a high-resolution FIB-SEM (focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy) digital imaging technique to the MDPD model for providing 3D voxel data that contain the invaluable geometrical and compositional information of shale samples. This is the first time that FIB-SEM is seamlessly linked to a Lagrangian model like MDPD for fluid flow simulation, which offers a robust approach to bridging gaps between the molecular- and continuum-scales, since the relevant spatial and temporal scales are too big for molecular dynamics, and too small for computational fluid dynamics with known constitutive models. Simulations ranging from a number of benchmark problems to a forced two-fluid flow in a Woodford shale sample are presented. Results indicate that this model can be used to deliver reasonable simulations for multi-component, multi-phase fluid flows in arbitrarily complex pore networks in shales.
Optimization of a new flow design for solid oxide cells using computational fluid dynamics modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duhn, Jakob Dragsbæk; Jensen, Anker Degn; Wedel, Stig
2016-01-01
Design of a gas distributor to distribute gas flow into parallel channels for Solid Oxide Cells (SOC) is optimized, with respect to flow distribution, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling. The CFD model is based on a 3d geometric model and the optimized structural parameters include...
Bianchi type-V cosmological models with perfect fluid and heat flow ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2015-11-27
-V cosmological models with perfect fluid and heat flow in Saez–Ballester theory. Shri Ram M ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science
Planar channel flow of a discontinuous shear-thickening model fluid: Theory and simulation
Vázquez-Quesada, A.; Wagner, N. J.; Ellero, M.
2017-10-01
In this work, an analytical solution for the pressure-driven flow of a discontinuous shear-thickening (DST) fluid in a planar channel is presented. In order to model the fluid rheology, a regularized inverse-biviscous model is adopted. This involves a region of finite thickness to model the sharp jump in viscosity, and it is consistent with momentum conservation. In the limit of vanishing thickness, the truly DST behavior is obtained. Analytical results are validated by numerical simulations under steady and start-up flow using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. Flow results are investigated and discussed for different values of the model parameters.
Soltani, M; Chen, P
2013-01-01
Modeling of interstitial fluid flow involves processes such as fluid diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix, and extravasation from blood vessels. To date, majority of microvascular flow modeling has been done at different levels and scales mostly on simple tumor shapes with their capillaries. However, with our proposed numerical model, more complex and realistic tumor shapes and capillary networks can be studied. Both blood flow through a capillary network, which is induced by a solid tumor, and fluid flow in tumor's surrounding tissue are formulated. First, governing equations of angiogenesis are implemented to specify the different domains for the network and interstitium. Then, governing equations for flow modeling are introduced for different domains. The conservation laws for mass and momentum (including continuity equation, Darcy's law for tissue, and simplified Navier-Stokes equation for blood flow through capillaries) are used for simulating interstitial and intravascular flows and Starling's law is used for closing this system of equations and coupling the intravascular and extravascular flows. This is the first study of flow modeling in solid tumors to naturalistically couple intravascular and extravascular flow through a network. This network is generated by sprouting angiogenesis and consisting of one parent vessel connected to the network while taking into account the non-continuous behavior of blood, adaptability of capillary diameter to hemodynamics and metabolic stimuli, non-Newtonian blood flow, and phase separation of blood flow in capillary bifurcation. The incorporation of the outlined components beyond the previous models provides a more realistic prediction of interstitial fluid flow pattern in solid tumors and surrounding tissues. Results predict higher interstitial pressure, almost two times, for realistic model compared to the simplified model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Soltani
Full Text Available Modeling of interstitial fluid flow involves processes such as fluid diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix, and extravasation from blood vessels. To date, majority of microvascular flow modeling has been done at different levels and scales mostly on simple tumor shapes with their capillaries. However, with our proposed numerical model, more complex and realistic tumor shapes and capillary networks can be studied. Both blood flow through a capillary network, which is induced by a solid tumor, and fluid flow in tumor's surrounding tissue are formulated. First, governing equations of angiogenesis are implemented to specify the different domains for the network and interstitium. Then, governing equations for flow modeling are introduced for different domains. The conservation laws for mass and momentum (including continuity equation, Darcy's law for tissue, and simplified Navier-Stokes equation for blood flow through capillaries are used for simulating interstitial and intravascular flows and Starling's law is used for closing this system of equations and coupling the intravascular and extravascular flows. This is the first study of flow modeling in solid tumors to naturalistically couple intravascular and extravascular flow through a network. This network is generated by sprouting angiogenesis and consisting of one parent vessel connected to the network while taking into account the non-continuous behavior of blood, adaptability of capillary diameter to hemodynamics and metabolic stimuli, non-Newtonian blood flow, and phase separation of blood flow in capillary bifurcation. The incorporation of the outlined components beyond the previous models provides a more realistic prediction of interstitial fluid flow pattern in solid tumors and surrounding tissues. Results predict higher interstitial pressure, almost two times, for realistic model compared to the simplified model.
A two-fluid model for vertical flow applied to CO2 injection wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linga, Gaute; Lund, Halvor
2016-01-01
to thermal stresses and subsequent loss of well integrity, and it is therefore crucial to employ models that can predict this accurately. In this work, we present a model for vertical well flow that includes both two-phase flow and heat conduction. The flow is described by a two-fluid model, where mass...... robust transition from two-phase to single-phase flow than the previous formulation. The model predicts which flow regimes are present downhole, and calculates friction and heat transfer depending on this. Moreover, the flow model is coupled with a heat conduction model for the layers that comprise......Flow of CO2 in wells is associated with substantial variations in thermophysical properties downhole, due to the coupled transient processes involved: complex flow patterns, density changes, phase transitions, and heat transfer to and from surroundings. Large temperature variations can lead...
Computational modelling of the flow of viscous fluids in carbon nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khosravian, N; Rafii-Tabar, H
2007-01-01
Carbon nanotubes will have extensive application in all areas of nano-technology, and in particular in the field of nano-fluidics, wherein they can be used for molecular separation, nano-scale filtering and as nano-pipes for conveying fluids. In the field of nano-medicine, nanotubes can be functionalized with various types of receptors to act as bio-sensors for the detection and elimination of cancer cells, or be used as bypasses and even neural connections. Modelling fluid flow inside nanotubes is a very challenging problem, since there is a complex interplay between the motion of the fluid and the stability of the walls. A critical issue in the design of nano-fluidic devices is the induced vibration of the walls, due to the fluid flow, which can promote structural instability. It has been established that the resonant frequencies depend on the flow velocity. We have studied, for the first time, the flow of viscous fluids through multi-walled carbon nanotubes, using the Euler-Bernoulli classical beam theory to model the nanotube as a continuum structure. Our aim has been to compute the effect of the fluid flow on the structural stability of the nanotubes, without having to consider the details of the fluid-walls interaction. The variations of the resonant frequencies with the flow velocity are obtained for both unembedded nanotubes, and when they are embedded in an elastic medium. It is found that a nanotube conveying a viscous fluid is more stable against vibration-induced buckling than a nanotube conveying a non-viscous fluid, and that the aspect ratio plays the same role in both cases
Flow of an Eyring-Powell Model Fluid between Coaxial Cylinders with Variable Viscosity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azad Hussain
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the flow of Eyring-Powell model fluid in the annulus between two cylinders whose viscosity depends upon the temperature. We consider the steady flow in the annulus due to the motion of inner cylinder and constant pressure gradient. In the problem considered the flow is found to be remarkedly different from that for the incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid with constant viscosity. An analytical solution of the nonlinear problem is obtained using homotopy analysis method. The behavior of pertinent parameters is analyzed and depicted through graphs.
Two-Fluid Models for Simulating Dispersed Multiphase Flows-A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L.X. Zhou
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The development of two-fluid models for simulating dispersed multiphase flows (gas-particle, gas-droplet, bubble-liquid, liquid-particle flows by the present author within the last 20 years is systematically reviewed. The two-fluid models based on Reynolds expansion, time averaging and mass-weighed averaging, and also PDF transport equations are described. Different versions of two-phase turbulence models, including the unified second-order moment (USM and k-ε-kp models, the DSM-PDF model, the SOM-MC model, the nonlinear k-e-kp model, and the USM-Θ model for dense gas-particle flows and their application and experimental validation are discussed.
Dietterich, Hannah; Lev, Einat; Chen, Jiangzhi; Richardson, Jacob A.; Cashman, Katharine V.
2017-01-01
Numerical simulations of lava flow emplacement are valuable for assessing lava flow hazards, forecasting active flows, designing flow mitigation measures, interpreting past eruptions, and understanding the controls on lava flow behavior. Existing lava flow models vary in simplifying assumptions, physics, dimensionality, and the degree to which they have been validated against analytical solutions, experiments, and natural observations. In order to assess existing models and guide the development of new codes, we conduct a benchmarking study of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for lava flow emplacement, including VolcFlow, OpenFOAM, FLOW-3D, COMSOL, and MOLASSES. We model viscous, cooling, and solidifying flows over horizontal planes, sloping surfaces, and into topographic obstacles. We compare model results to physical observations made during well-controlled analogue and molten basalt experiments, and to analytical theory when available. Overall, the models accurately simulate viscous flow with some variability in flow thickness where flows intersect obstacles. OpenFOAM, COMSOL, and FLOW-3D can each reproduce experimental measurements of cooling viscous flows, and OpenFOAM and FLOW-3D simulations with temperature-dependent rheology match results from molten basalt experiments. We assess the goodness-of-fit of the simulation results and the computational cost. Our results guide the selection of numerical simulation codes for different applications, including inferring emplacement conditions of past lava flows, modeling the temporal evolution of ongoing flows during eruption, and probabilistic assessment of lava flow hazard prior to eruption. Finally, we outline potential experiments and desired key observational data from future flows that would extend existing benchmarking data sets.
Fully coupled thermal-mechanical-fluid flow model for nonliner geologic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hart, R.D.
1981-01-01
A single model is presented which describes fully coupled thermal-mechanical-fluid flow behavior of highly nonlinear, dynamic or quasistatic, porous geologic systems. The mathematical formulation for the model utilizes the continuum theory of mixtures to describe the multiphase nature of the system, and incremental linear constitutive theory to describe the path dependency of nonlinear material behavior. The model, incorporated in an explicit finite difference numerical procedure, was implemented in two different computer codes. A special-purpose one-dimensional code, SNEAKY, was written for initial validation of the coupling mechanisms and testing of the coupled model logic. A general purpose commercially available code, STEALTH, developed for modeling dynamic nonlinear thermomechanical processes, was modified to include fluid flow behavior and the coupling constitutive model. The fully explicit approach in the coupled calculation facilitated the inclusion of the coupling mechanisms and complex constitutive behavior. Analytical solutions pertaining to consolidation theory for soils, thermoelasticity for solids, and hydrothermal convection theory provided verification of stress and fluid flow, stress and conductive heat transfer, and heat transfer and fluid flow couplings, respectively, in the coupled model. A limited validation of the adequacy of the coupling constitutive assumptions was also performed by comparison with the physical response from two laboratory tests. Finally, the full potential of the coupled model is illustrated for geotechnical applications in energy-resource related areas. Examples in the areas of nuclear waste isolation and cut-and-fill mining are cited
Krimi, Abdelkader; Rezoug, Mehdi; Khelladi, Sofiane; Nogueira, Xesús; Deligant, Michael; Ramírez, Luis
2018-04-01
In this work, a consistent Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model to deal with interfacial multiphase fluid flows simulation is proposed. A modification to the Continuum Stress Surface formulation (CSS) [1] to enhance the stability near the fluid interface is developed in the framework of the SPH method. A non-conservative first-order consistency operator is used to compute the divergence of stress surface tensor. This formulation benefits of all the advantages of the one proposed by Adami et al. [2] and, in addition, it can be applied to more than two phases fluid flow simulations. Moreover, the generalized wall boundary conditions [3] are modified in order to be well adapted to multiphase fluid flows with different density and viscosity. In order to allow the application of this technique to wall-bounded multiphase flows, a modification of generalized wall boundary conditions is presented here for using the SPH method. In this work we also present a particle redistribution strategy as an extension of the damping technique presented in [3] to smooth the initial transient phase of gravitational multiphase fluid flow simulations. Several computational tests are investigated to show the accuracy, convergence and applicability of the proposed SPH interfacial multiphase model.
A critical review of the data requirements for fluid flow models through fractured rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Priest, S.D.
1986-01-01
The report is a comprehensive critical review of the data requirements for ten models of fluid flow through fractured rock, developed in Europe and North America. The first part of the report contains a detailed review of rock discontinuities and how their important geometrical properties can be quantified. This is followed by a brief summary of the fundamental principles in the analysis of fluid flow through two-dimensional discontinuity networks and an explanation of a new approach to the incorporation of variability and uncertainty into geotechnical models. The report also contains a review of the geological and geotechnical properties of anhydrite and granite. Of the ten fluid flow models reviewed, only three offer a realistic fracture network model for which it is feasible to obtain the input data. Although some of the other models have some valuable or novel features, there is a tendency to concentrate on the simulation of contaminant transport processes, at the expense of providing a realistic fracture network model. Only two of the models reviewed, neither of them developed in Europe, have seriously addressed the problem of analysing fluid flow in three-dimensional networks. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohsen Mehrabi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This study focuses on the behavior of blood flow in the stenosed vessels. Blood is modelled as an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid which is based on the power law viscosity model. A numerical technique based on the finite difference method is developed to simulate the blood flow taking into account the transient periodic behaviour of the blood flow in cardiac cycles. Also, pulsatile blood flow in the stenosed vessel is based on the Womersley model, and fluid flow in the lumen region is governed by the continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equations. In this study, the stenosis shape is cosine by using Tu and Devil model. Comparing the results obtained from three stenosed vessels with 30%, 50%, and 75% area severity, we find that higher percent-area severity of stenosis leads to higher extrapressure jumps and higher blood speeds around the stenosis site. Also, we observe that the size of the stenosis in stenosed vessels does influence the blood flow. A little change on the cross-sectional value makes vast change on the blood flow rate. This simulation helps the people working in the field of physiological fluid dynamics as well as the medical practitioners.
Characterization and Low-Dimensional Modeling of Urban Fluid Flow
2014-10-06
extract coherent modes. They studied the effect of roof top shape ( pitched and flat) on turbulent flow characteristics in streets. Even with valuable...through a large array of obstacles with a scaled field experiment. Boundary- Layer Meteorology, 121:389– 432 , 2006. doi: 10.1007/s10546-006-9084-2. S.A
Predictions of bubbly flows in vertical pipes using two-fluid models in CFDS-FLOW3D code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banas, A.O.; Carver, M.B. [Chalk River Laboratories (Canada); Unrau, D. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)
1995-09-01
This paper reports the results of a preliminary study exploring the performance of two sets of two-fluid closure relationships applied to the simulation of turbulent air-water bubbly upflows through vertical pipes. Predictions obtained with the default CFDS-FLOW3D model for dispersed flows were compared with the predictions of a new model (based on the work of Lee), and with the experimental data of Liu. The new model, implemented in the CFDS-FLOW3D code, included additional source terms in the {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} {kappa}-{epsilon} transport equations for the liquid phase, as well as modified model coefficients and wall functions. All simulations were carried out in a 2-D axisymmetric format, collapsing the general multifluid framework of CFDS-FLOW3D to the two-fluid (air-water) case. The newly implemented model consistently improved predictions of radial-velocity profiles of both phases, but failed to accurately reproduce the experimental phase-distribution data. This shortcoming was traced to the neglect of anisotropic effects in the modelling of liquid-phase turbulence. In this sense, the present investigation should be considered as the first step toward the ultimate goal of developing a theoretically sound and universal CFD-type two-fluid model for bubbly flows in channels.
Predictions of bubbly flows in vertical pipes using two-fluid models in CFDS-FLOW3D code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banas, A.O.; Carver, M.B.; Unrau, D.
1995-01-01
This paper reports the results of a preliminary study exploring the performance of two sets of two-fluid closure relationships applied to the simulation of turbulent air-water bubbly upflows through vertical pipes. Predictions obtained with the default CFDS-FLOW3D model for dispersed flows were compared with the predictions of a new model (based on the work of Lee), and with the experimental data of Liu. The new model, implemented in the CFDS-FLOW3D code, included additional source terms in the open-quotes standardclose quotes κ-ε transport equations for the liquid phase, as well as modified model coefficients and wall functions. All simulations were carried out in a 2-D axisymmetric format, collapsing the general multifluid framework of CFDS-FLOW3D to the two-fluid (air-water) case. The newly implemented model consistently improved predictions of radial-velocity profiles of both phases, but failed to accurately reproduce the experimental phase-distribution data. This shortcoming was traced to the neglect of anisotropic effects in the modelling of liquid-phase turbulence. In this sense, the present investigation should be considered as the first step toward the ultimate goal of developing a theoretically sound and universal CFD-type two-fluid model for bubbly flows in channels
Some subtleties concerning fluid flow and turbulence modeling in 4.-valve engines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jovanovic Zoran S.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper some results concerning the structure and evolution of fluid flow pattern during induction and compression in 4.- valve engines with tilted valves were presented. Results were obtained by dint of multidimensional modeling of non-reactive flows in arbitrary geometry with moving boundaries. During induction fluid flow pattern was characterized with organized tumble motion followed by small but clearly legible deterioration in the vicinity of BDC. During compression the fluid flow pattern is entirely three-dimensional and fully controlled by vortex motion located in the central part of the chamber. In order to annihilate negative effects of tumble deterioration and to enhance swirling motion one of the intake valves was deactivated. Some positive and negative effects of such attempt were elucidated. The effect of turbulence model alteration in the case of excessive macro flows was tackled as well. Namely, some results obtained with eddy-viscosity model i.e. standard k-ε model were compared with results obtained with k-ξ-f model of turbulence in domain of 4.-valve engine in-cylinder flow. Some interesting results emerged rendering impetus for further quest in the near future.
Kanyanta, V; Ivankovic, A; Karac, A
2009-08-07
Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) numerical models are now widely used in predicting blood flow transients. This is because of the importance of the interaction between the flowing blood and the deforming arterial wall to blood flow behaviour. Unfortunately, most of these FSI models lack rigorous validation and, thus, cannot guarantee the accuracy of their predictions. This paper presents the comprehensive validation of a two-way coupled FSI numerical model, developed to predict flow transients in compliant conduits such as arteries. The model is validated using analytical solutions and experiments conducted on polyurethane mock artery. Flow parameters such as pressure and axial stress (and precursor) wave speeds, wall deformations and oscillating frequency, fluid velocity and Poisson coupling effects, were used as the basis of this validation. Results show very good comparison between numerical predictions, analytical solutions and experimental data. The agreement between the three approaches is generally over 95%. The model also shows accurate prediction of Poisson coupling effects in unsteady flows through flexible pipes, which up to this stage have only being predicted analytically. Therefore, this numerical model can accurately predict flow transients in compliant vessels such as arteries.
Bianchi type-V cosmological models with perfect fluid and heat flow ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
physics pp. 415–427. Bianchi type-V cosmological models with perfect fluid and heat flow in Saez–Ballester theory. SHRI RAM1, M ZEYAUDDIN1 and C P SINGH2,∗ ... Introduction. In the last few decades there has been much interest in alternative theories of gravitation, especially the scalar–tensor theories proposed by ...
State space modeling of fluid flow for thrust control in mems-based micropropulsion
de Athayde Costa e Silva, Marsil A. C.; Cordeiro Guerrieri, Dadu?ı C.; Cervone, A.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a dynamic system approach for the modeling of fluid flow in microchannels to be used in thrust control applications. A micro-resistojet fabricated using MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) technology has been selected for the analysis. The device operates by vaporizing a liquid
Bianchi type-V cosmological models with perfect fluid and heat flow ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
415–427. Bianchi type-V cosmological models with perfect fluid and heat flow in Saez–Ballester theory. SHRI RAM1, M ZEYAUDDIN1 and C P SINGH2,∗. 1Department of Applied Mathematics, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University,. Varanasi 221 005, India. 2Department of Applied Mathematics, Delhi College ...
A PISO-like algorithm to simulate superfluid helium flow with the two-fluid model
Soulaine, Cyprien; Allain, Hervé; Baudouy, Bertrand; Van Weelderen, Rob
2015-01-01
This paper presents a segregated algorithm to solve numerically the superfluid helium (He II) equations using the two-fluid model. In order to validate the resulting code and illustrate its potential, different simulations have been performed. First, the flow through a capillary filled with He II with a heated area on one side is simulated and results are compared to analytical solutions in both Landau and Gorter–Mellink flow regimes. Then, transient heat transfer of a forced flow of He II is investigated. Finally, some two-dimensional simulations in a porous medium model are carried out.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, Farhad; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmad; Khan, Ilyas; Saqib, Muhammad
2017-01-01
The effects of magnetohydrodynamics on the blood flow when blood is represented as a Casson fluid, along with magnetic particles in a horizontal cylinder is studied. The flow is due to an oscillating pressure gradient. The Laplace and finite Hankel transforms are used to obtain the closed form solutions of the fractional partial differential equations. Effects of various parameters on the flow of both blood and magnetic particles are shown graphically. The analysis shows that, the model with fractional order derivatives bring a remarkable changes as compared to the ordinary model. The study highlights that applied magnetic field reduces the velocities of both the blood and magnetic particles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ali, Farhad, E-mail: farhadaliecomaths@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, City University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmad [Department of Mathematics, City University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); Khan, Ilyas [Basic Engineering Sciences Department, College of Engineering Majmaah University, Majmaah 11952 (Saudi Arabia); Saqib, Muhammad [Department of Mathematics, City University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan)
2017-02-01
The effects of magnetohydrodynamics on the blood flow when blood is represented as a Casson fluid, along with magnetic particles in a horizontal cylinder is studied. The flow is due to an oscillating pressure gradient. The Laplace and finite Hankel transforms are used to obtain the closed form solutions of the fractional partial differential equations. Effects of various parameters on the flow of both blood and magnetic particles are shown graphically. The analysis shows that, the model with fractional order derivatives bring a remarkable changes as compared to the ordinary model. The study highlights that applied magnetic field reduces the velocities of both the blood and magnetic particles.
Two-fluid model for the simultaneous flow of colloids and fluids in porous media
Biesheuvel, P.M.
2011-01-01
To describe the velocities of particles such as ions, protein molecules and colloids dispersed or dissolved in a fluid, it is important to also describe the forces acting on the fluid, including pressure gradients and friction of the fluid with the particles and with the porous media through which
Hutnak, M.; Hurwitz, S.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Hsieh, P.A.
2009-01-01
Ground surface displacement (GSD) in large calderas is often interpreted as resulting from magma intrusion at depth. Recent advances in geodetic measurements of GSD, notably interferometric synthetic aperture radar, reveal complex and multifaceted deformation patterns that often require complex source models to explain the observed GSD. Although hydrothermal fluids have been discussed as a possible deformation agent, very few quantitative studies addressing the effects of multiphase flow on crustal mechanics have been attempted. Recent increases in the power and availability of computing resources allow robust quantitative assessment of the complex time-variant thermal interplay between aqueous fluid flow and crustal deformation. We carry out numerical simulations of multiphase (liquid-gas), multicomponent (H 2O-CO2) hydrothermal fluid flow and poroelastic deformation using a range of realistic physical parameters and processes. Hydrothermal fluid injection, circulation, and gas formation can generate complex, temporally and spatially varying patterns of GSD, with deformation rates, magnitudes, and geometries (including subsidence) similar to those observed in several large calderas. The potential for both rapid and gradual deformation resulting from magma-derived fluids suggests that hydrothermal fluid circulation may help explain deformation episodes at calderas that have not culminated in magmatic eruption.
A fully coupled thermal-mechanical-fluid flow model for nonlinear geologic systems
Hart, R. D.
1981-02-01
A single model is presented which describes fully coupled thermal-mechanical-fluid flow behavior of highly nonlinear, dynamic or quasistatic, porous geologic systems. The mathematical formulation for the model utilizes the continuum theory of mixtures to describe the multiphase nature of the system, and incremental linear constitutive theory to describe the path dependency of nonlinear material behavior. The model, incorporated in an explicit finite difference numerical procedure, was implemented in two different computer codes. A special-purpose one-dimensional code, SNEAKY, was written for initial validation of the coupling mechanisms and testing of the coupled model logic. A general purpose commercially available code, STEALTH, developed for modeling dynamic nonlinear thermomechanical processes, was modified to include fluid flow behavior and the coupling constitutive model. The fully explicit approach in the coupled calculation facilitated the inclusion of the coupling mechanisms and complex constitutive behavior.
Mesoscale hydrodynamic modeling of a colloid in shear-thinning viscoelastic fluids under shear flow.
Ji, Shichen; Jiang, Run; Winkler, Roland G; Gompper, Gerhard
2011-10-07
In order to study the dynamics of colloidal suspensions with viscoelastic solvents, a simple mesoscopic model of the solvent is required. We propose to extend the multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) technique--a particle-based simulation method, which has been successfully applied to study the hydrodynamic behavior of many complex fluids with Newtonian solvent--to shear-thinning viscoelastic solvents. Here, the normal MPC particles are replaced by dumbbells with finite-extensible nonlinear elastic (FENE) springs. We have studied the properties of FENE-dumbbell fluids under simple shear flow with shear rate ̇γ. The stress tensor is calculated, and the viscosity η and the first normal-stress coefficient Ψ(1) are obtained. Shear-thinning behavior is found for reduced shear rates Γ= ̇γτ>1, where τ is a characteristic dumbbell relaxation time. Here, both η and Ψ(1) display power-law behavior in the shear-thinning regime. Thus, the FENE-dumbbell fluid with MPC collisions provides a good description of viscoelastic fluids. As a first application, we study the flow behavior of a colloid in a shear-thinning viscoelastic fluid in two dimensions. A slowing down of the colloid rotation in a viscoelastic fluid compared to a Newtonian fluid is obtained, in agreement with recent numerical calculations and experimental results. © 2011 American Institute of Physics
A Constitutive Model for Flow-Induced Anisotropic Behavior of Viscoelastic Complex Fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, H.; De Kee, D.
2008-01-01
Flow-induced structural anisotropy could result when a complex fluid system is removed from equilibrium by means of hydrodynamic forces. In this paper, a general theory is developed to model flow induced anisotropic behavior of complex viscoelastic systems, e.g. polymer solutions/melts and suspensions. The rheological properties are characterized by viscosity and relaxation time tensors. We consider a second-rank tensor as a measure of the microstructure. We consider the effect of the flow on the structural changes: i.e. the evolution of the microstructure tensor is governed by a relaxation-type differential equation. We also propose that the viscosity and the relaxation time tensors depend on the second-rank microstructure tensor. That is as the microstructure tensor changes with the applied rate of deformation, the viscosity and relaxation time tensors evolve accordingly. As an example we consider elongational flow of two complex fluids
Computational modeling for fluid flow and interfacial transport
Shyy, Wei
2006-01-01
Practical applications and examples highlight this treatment of computational modeling for handling complex flowfields. A reference for researchers and graduate students of many different backgrounds, it also functions as a text for learning essential computation elements.Drawing upon his own research, the author addresses both macroscopic and microscopic features. He begins his three-part treatment with a survey of the basic concepts of finite difference schemes for solving parabolic, elliptic, and hyperbolic partial differential equations. The second part concerns issues related to computati
Modeling of flow of particles in a non-Newtonian fluid using lattice Boltzmann method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skocek, Jan; Svec, Oldrich; Spangenberg, Jon
2011-01-01
To predict correctly the castings process of self compacting concrete a numerical model capable of simulating flow patterns at the structural scale and at the same time the impact of the varying volume fraction of aggregates and other phenomena at the scale of aggregates on the flow evolution...... is necessary. In this contribution, the model at the scale of aggregates is introduced. The conventional lattice Boltzmann method for fluid flow is enriched with the immersed boundary method with direct forcing to simulate the flow of rigid particles in a non- Newtonian liquid. Basic ingredients of the model...... are presented and discussed with the emphasis on a newly developed algorithm for the dynamics of particles whose interactions strongly depend on velocities of particles. The application of the model is demonstrated by a parametric study with varying volume fractions of aggregates and speed of shearing used...
Dynamic analysis of electro- and magneto-rheological fluid dampers using duct flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esteki, Kambiz; Bagchi, Ashutosh; Sedaghati, Ramin
2014-01-01
Magneto-rheological (MR) and electro-rheological (ER) fluid dampers provide a semi-active control mechanism for suppressing vibration responses of a structure. MR and ER fluids change their viscosity under the influence of magnetic and electrical fields, respectively, which facilitates automatic control when these fluids are used in damping devices. The existing models, namely the phenomenological models for simulating the behavior of MR and ER dampers, rely on various parameters determined experimentally by the manufacturers for each damper configuration. It is of interest to develop mechanistic models of these dampers which can be applied to various configurations so that their fundamental characteristics can be studied to develop flexible design solutions for smart structures. This paper presents a formulation for dynamic analysis of electro-rheological (ER) and magneto-rheological (MR) fluid dampers in flow and mix mode configurations under harmonic and random excitations. The procedure employs the vorticity transport equation and the regularization function to deal with the unsteady flow and nonlinear behavior of ER/MR fluid in general motion. The finite difference method has been used to solve the governing differential equations. Using the developed approach, the damping force of ER/MR dampers can be calculated under any type of excitation. (paper)
Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field based on well log interpretation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwe, R.; Howard, J.H.
1982-08-10
The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine the direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.
Mathematical modeling of fluid flow in complex multi-channel structures
Shashkin, V. Y.
2017-10-01
The work is focused on a numerical hydraulic model, which allows one to simulate fluid flow in a complex, arbitrarily configured multi-channel system with a capability of automatic visualization of its structure. The main elements of a system are channels which are united in the system by means of a particular set of coupling elements (local resistance, knots). The processes models in channels are based on the equation of continuity, momentum conservation. The system structure is made by forming matrices of regional and internal boundary conditions according to the developed algorithm. By the model the algorithm is created, on the basis of which the application program is developed. The application program enables one to determine parameters of a steady state of fluid flow in the complex multichannel structures. The calculation structure is shown.
Comparison of fluid-dynamic modeling of flow with velocity-encoded MR imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Y.; Hearshen, D.O.; Rankin, G.W.; Haggar, A.M.
1990-01-01
This paper develops a fluid dynamic model using finite difference methods characterizing flow in phantoms simulating in vivo conditions and to compare those results with velocity encoded MR images. The phantom consisted of 1-inch (2.5-cm) tubing with semicircular insert and fluid with viscosity, T1, and T2 comparable to blood. Numeric solutions to Navier-Stokes equations for this system were obtained using finite difference methods, with velocity input function of zero at walls and parabolic at both ends. In resulting color raster (CR) images, color temperature represented velocity value. In velocity-encoded MR images acquired under the same flow conditions, phase is proportional to average velocity during application of flow-encoding gradients. Because these gradients are applied along one direction per acquisition, magnitude and direction of velocity are obtained
A discontinuous finite element approach to cracking in coupled poro-elastic fluid flow models
Wilson, C. R.; Spiegelman, M. W.; Evans, O.; Ulven, O. I.; Sun, W.
2016-12-01
Reaction-driven cracking is a coupled process whereby fluid-induced reactions drive large volume changes in the host rock which produce stresses leading to crack propagation and failure. This in turn generates new surface area and fluid-flow pathways for subsequent reaction in a potentially self-sustaining system. This mechanism has has been proposed for the pervasive serpentinization and carbonation of peridotite, as well as applications to mineral carbon sequestration and hydrocarbon extraction. The key computational issue in this problem is implementing algorithms that adequately model the formation of discrete fractures. Here we present models using a discontinuous finite element method for modeling fracture formation (Radovitsky et al., 2011). Cracks are introduced along facets of the mesh by the relaxation of penalty parameters once a failure criterion is met. It is fully described in the weak form of the equations, requiring no modification of the underlying mesh structure and allowing fluid properties to be easily adjusted along cracked facets. To develop and test the method, we start by implementing the algorithm for the simplified Biot equations for poro-elasticity using the finite element model assembler TerraFERMA. We consider hydro-fracking around a borehole (Grassl et al., 2015), where elevated fluid pressure in the poro-elastic solid causes it to fail radially in tension. We investigate the effects of varying the Biot coefficient and adjusting the fluid transport properties in the vicinity of the crack and compare our results to related dual-graph models (Ulven & Sun, submitted). We discuss issues arising from this method, including the formation of null spaces and appropriate preconditioning and solution strategies. Initial results suggest that this method provides a promising way to incorporate cracking into our reactive fluid flow models and future work aims to integrate the mechanical and chemical aspects of this process.
Basniev, Kaplan S; Chilingar, George V 0
2012-01-01
The mechanics of fluid flow is a fundamental engineering discipline explaining both natural phenomena and human-induced processes, and a thorough understanding of it is central to the operations of the oil and gas industry. This book, written by some of the world's best-known and respected petroleum engineers, covers the concepts, theories, and applications of the mechanics of fluid flow for the veteran engineer working in the field and the student, alike. It is a must-have for any engineer working in the oil and gas industry.
a Matlab Toolbox for Basin Scale Fluid Flow Modeling Applied to Hydrology and Geothermal Energy
Alcanie, M.; Lupi, M.; Carrier, A.
2017-12-01
Recent boosts in the development of geothermal energy were fostered by the latest oil crises and by the need of reducing CO2 emissions generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. Various numerical codes (e.g. FEHM, CSMP++, HYDROTHERM, TOUGH) have thus been implemented for the simulation and quantification of fluid flow in the upper crust. One possible limitation of such codes is the limited accessibility and the complex structure of the simulators. For this reason, we began to develop a Hydrothermal Fluid Flow Matlab library as part of MRST (Matlab Reservoir Simulation Toolbox). MRST is designed for the simulation of oil and gas problems including carbon capture storage. However, a geothermal module is still missing. We selected the Geneva Basin as a natural laboratory because of the large amount of data available in the region. The Geneva Basin has been intensely investigated in the past with exploration wells, active seismic and gravity surveys. In addition, the energy strategy of Switzerland promotes the development of geothermal energy that lead to recent geophysical prospections. Previous and ongoing projects have shown the geothermal potential of the Geneva Basin but a consistent fluid flow model assessing the deep circulation in the region is yet to be defined. The first step of the study was to create the basin-scale static model. We integrated available active seismic, gravity inversions and borehole data to describe the principal geologic and tectonic features of the Geneva Basin. Petrophysical parameters were obtained from available and widespread well logs. This required adapting MRST to standard text format file imports and outline a new methodology for quick static model creation in an open source environment. We implemented several basin-scale fluid flow models to test the effects of petrophysical properties on the circulation dynamics of deep fluids in the Geneva Basin. Preliminary results allow the identification of preferential fluid flow
Collisionless kinetic-fluid model of zonal flows in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Horton, W.
2006-12-01
A novel kinetic-fluid model is presented, which describes collisionless time evolution of zonal flows in tokamaks. In the new zonal-flow closure relations, the parallel heat fluxes are written by the sum of short- and long-time-evolution parts. The former part is given in the dissipative form of the parallel heat diffusion and relates to collisionless damping processes. The latter is derived from the long-time-averaged gyrocenter distribution and plays a major role in describing low-frequency or stationary zonal flows, for which the parallel heat fluxes are expressed in terms of the parallel flow as well as the nonlinear-source and initial-condition terms. It is shown analytically and numerically that, when applied to the zonal flow driven by either ion or electron temperature gradient turbulence, the kinetic-fluid equations including the new closure relations can reproduce the same long-time zonal-flow responses to the initial condition and to the turbulence source as those obtained from the gyrokinetic model. (author)
Subbotin, A V; Malkin, A Ya; Kulichikhin, V G
2011-02-17
Flow induced transitions in complex fluids are usually accompanied by changes in the internal media structure and the flow symmetry. In this review paper, we discuss the theoretical models and approaches that have been used for the analysis of different types of flow instabilities and flow patterns. The main attention is focused on the basic fluid models which reveal vortex and banding flow structures at high shear rates. The Oldroyd-B fluid is one of such models. The Reynolds and the Weissenberg (or Deborah) numbers are the parameters governing its flow behavior. For this model, the secondary flow patterns arising in viscometric flows of different geometries at the bifurcation point are described. Complex fluids which are able to exist in multiple states can form coexisting bands of different structures with different rheological properties and flowing with different shear rates at the same shear stress. Shear banding is typical for fluids demonstrating non-monotonous flow curves described by such models as the diffusive Johnson-Segalman fluid model, for example. Recent progress in exploring this phenomenon is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Numerical modelling of thermal and fluid flow phenomena in the mould channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Sowa
2007-12-01
Full Text Available In the paper, a mathematical and a numerical model of the solidification of a cylindrical slender shaped casting, which take into account the process of filling the mould cavity with molten metal, has been proposed. Pressure and velocity fields were obtained by solving the momentum equations and the continuity equation, while the thermal fields were obtained by solving the heat conduction equation containing the convection term. Next, the numerical analysis of the solidification process of metals alloy in a cylindrical mould channel has been made. In the model one takes into account interdependence the heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena. Coupling of the thermal and fluid flow phenomena has been taken into consideration by the changes of the fluidity function and thermophysical parameters of alloy with respect to the temperature. The influence of the pressure and the temperature of metal pouring on the solid phase growth kinetics were estimated. The problem has been solved by the finite element method.
High-beta axisymmetric equilibria with flow in reduced single-fluid and two-fluid models
Atsushi, ITO; Jes?s J., RAMOS; Noriyoshi, NAKAJIMA
2008-01-01
Reduced single-fluid and two-fluid equations for axisymmetric toroidal equilibria of high-beta plasmas with flow are derived by using asymptotic expansions in terms of the inverse aspect ratio. Two different orderings for the flow velocity, comparable to the poloidal Alfv?n velocity and comparable to the poloidal sound velocity, are considered. For a poloidal-Alfv?nic flow, the two-fluid equilibrium equations with hot ion effects are shown to have a singularity that is shifted by the gyrovisc...
Modeling fluid forces and response of a tube bundle in cross-flow induced vibrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khushnood, Shahab; Khan, Zaffar M.; Malik, M. Afzaal; Koreshi, Zafarullah; Khan, Mahmood Anwar
2003-01-01
Flow induced vibrations occur in process heat exchangers, condensers, boilers and nuclear steam generators. Under certain flow conditions and fluid velocities, the fluid forces result in tube vibrations and possible damage of tube, tube sheet or baffle due to fretting and fatigue. Prediction of these forces is an important consideration. The characteristics of vibration depend greatly on the fluid dynamic forces and structure of the tube bundle. It is undesirable for the tube bundles to vibrate excessively under normal operating conditions because tubes wear and eventual leakage can occur leading to costly shutdowns. In this paper modeling of fluid forces and vibration response of a tube in a heat exchanger bundle has been carried out. Experimental validation has been performed on an existing refinery heat exchanger tube bundle. The target tube has been instrumented with an accelerometer and strain gages. The bundle has been studied for pulse, sinusoidal and random excitations. Natural frequencies and damping of the tubes have also been computed. Experimental fluid forces and response shows a reasonable agreement with the predictions. (author)
Suppachoknirun, Theerapat; Tutuncu, Azra N.
2017-12-01
With increasing production from shale gas and tight oil reservoirs, horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing processes have become a routine procedure in unconventional field development efforts. Natural fractures play a critical role in hydraulic fracture growth, subsequently affecting stimulated reservoir volume and the production efficiency. Moreover, the existing fractures can also contribute to the pressure-dependent fluid leak-off during the operations. Hence, a reliable identification of the discrete fracture network covering the zone of interest prior to the hydraulic fracturing design needs to be incorporated into the hydraulic fracturing and reservoir simulations for realistic representation of the in situ reservoir conditions. In this research study, an integrated 3-D fracture and fluid flow model have been developed using a new approach to simulate the fluid flow and deliver reliable production forecasting in naturally fractured and hydraulically stimulated tight reservoirs. The model was created with three key modules. A complex 3-D discrete fracture network model introduces realistic natural fracture geometry with the associated fractured reservoir characteristics. A hydraulic fracturing model is created utilizing the discrete fracture network for simulation of the hydraulic fracture and flow in the complex discrete fracture network. Finally, a reservoir model with the production grid system is used allowing the user to efficiently perform the fluid flow simulation in tight formations with complex fracture networks. The complex discrete natural fracture model, the integrated discrete fracture model for the hydraulic fracturing, the fluid flow model, and the input dataset have been validated against microseismic fracture mapping and commingled production data obtained from a well pad with three horizontal production wells located in the Eagle Ford oil window in south Texas. Two other fracturing geometries were also evaluated to optimize
Modeling studies of multiphase fluid and heat flow processes in nuclear waste isolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruess, K.
1989-01-01
Multiphase fluid and heat flow plays an important role in many problems relating to the disposal of nuclear wastes in geologic media. Examples include boiling and condensation processes near heat-generating wastes, flow of water and formation gas in partially saturated formations, evolution of a free gas phase from waste package corrosion in initially water-saturated environments, and redistribution (dissolution, transport and precipitation) of rock minerals in non-isothermal flow fields. Such processes may strongly impact upon waste package and repository design considerations and performance. This paper summarizes important physical phenomena occurring in multiphase and nonisothermal flows, as well as techniques for their mathematical modeling and numerical simulation. Illustrative applications are given for a number of specific fluid and heat flow problems, including: thermohydrologic conditions near heat-generating waste packages in the unsaturated zone; repositorywide convection effects in the unsaturated zone; effects of quartz dissolution and precipitation for disposal in the saturated zone; and gas pressurization and flow effects from corrosion of low-level waste packages
Modeling studies for multiphase fluid and heat flow processes in nuclear waste isolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruess, K.
1988-07-01
Multiphase fluid and heat flow plays an important role in many problems relating to the disposal of nuclear wastes in geologic media. Examples include boiling and condensation processes near heat-generating wastes, flow of water and formation gas in partially saturated formations, evolution of a free gas phase from waste package corrosion in initially water-saturated environments, and redistribution (dissolution, transport, and precipitation) of rock minerals in non-isothermal flow fields. Such processes may strongly impact upon waste package and repository design considerations and performance. This paper summarizes important physical phenomena occurring in multiphase and nonisothermal flows, as well as techniques for their mathematical modeling and numerical simulation. Illustrative applications are given for a number of specific fluid and heat flow problems, including: thermohydrologic conditions near heat-generating waste packages in the unsaturated zone; repository-wide convection effects in the unsaturated zone; effects of quartz dissolution and precipitation for disposal in the saturated zone; and gas pressurization and flow corrosion of low-level waste packages. 34 refs; 7 figs; 2 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boerresen, Knut Arne
1996-12-31
Hydrocarbon recovery from subsurface reservoirs has become increasingly dependent on advanced recovery techniques that require improved understanding of the physics of fluid flow within and across geological units including small-scale heterogeneities and fractures. In this thesis, impacts from heterogeneities on local fluid flow are studied experimentally by means of imaging techniques to visualize fluid flow in two dimensions during flooding of larger reservoir models. Part 1 reflects the multi-disciplinary collaboration, by briefly introducing the relevant geology, the literature on experiments on fluid flow in bedded structures, and outlining the applied numerical simulator and imaging techniques applied to visualize fluid flow. The second part contains a synopsis of displacement experiments in naturally laminated sandstones and in crossbed laboratory models, and of the impact from incipient shear fractures on oil recovery. The detailed results obtained from the experiments and simulations are described in six papers, all included. 215 refs., 108 figs., 16 tabs.
Williamson Fluid Model for the Peristaltic Flow of Chyme in Small Intestine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sohail Nadeem
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Mathematical model for the peristaltic flow of chyme in small intestine along with inserted endoscope is considered. Here, chyme is treated as Williamson fluid, and the flow is considered between the annular region formed by two concentric tubes (i.e., outer tube as small intestine and inner tube as endoscope. Flow is induced by two sinusoidal peristaltic waves of different wave lengths, traveling down the intestinal wall with the same speed. The governing equations of Williamson fluid in cylindrical coordinates have been modeled. The resulting nonlinear momentum equations are simplified using long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. The resulting problem is solved using regular perturbation method in terms of a variant of Weissenberg number We. The numerical solution of the problem is also computed by using shooting method, and comparison of results of both solutions for velocity field is presented. The expressions for axial velocity, frictional force, pressure rise, stream function, and axial pressure gradient are obtained, and the effects of various emerging parameters on the flow characteristics are illustrated graphically. Furthermore, the streamlines pattern is plotted, and it is observed that trapping occurs, and the size of the trapped bolus varies with varying embedded flow parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watanabe, Taro, E-mail: watanabe_t@qe.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-7895 (Japan); Takata, Takashi, E-mail: takata.takashi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-chou, Oarai-machi, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 331-1393 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akira, E-mail: yamaguchi@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)
2017-03-15
Highlights: • Thin liquid film flow under CCFL was modeled and coupled with the VOF method. • The difference of the liquid flow rate in experiments of CCFL was evaluated. • The proposed VOF method can quantitatively predict CCFL with low computational cost. - Abstract: Countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) in a heat transfer tube at a steam generator (SG) of pressurized water reactor (PWR) is one of the important issues on the core cooling under a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In order to improve the prediction accuracy of the CCFL characteristics in numerical simulations using the volume of fluid (VOF) method with less computational cost, a thin liquid film flow in a countercurrent flow is modeled independently and is coupled with the VOF method. The CCFL characteristics is evaluated analytically in condition of a maximizing down-flow rate as a function of a void fraction or a liquid film thickness considering a critical thickness. Then, we have carried out numerical simulations of a countercurrent flow in a vertical tube so as to investigate the CCFL characteristics and compare them with the previous experimental results. As a result, it has been concluded that the effect of liquid film entrainment by upward gas flux will cause the difference in the experiments.
A Numerical Hydro-Chemo-Mechanical Model for Fault Activation under Reactive Fluid Flow
Pouya, A.; Tounsi, H.; Rohmer, J.
2015-12-01
The migration of CO2-rich fluid in fractured rock masses can cause processes such as mineral dissolution and precipitation, chemically induced weakening, which can affect the long-term mechanical and transport properties of the rock mass as well as the stability of fault systems. Some numerical approaches are already available in the literature for modelling the dissolution/precipitation phenomena in fractures (e.g. Yasuhara & Elsworth 2007) as well as subcritical crack propagation (e.g. Park et al. 2007). Generally, the dissolution is supposed to increase the rock porosity and, in this way, decrease the rock strength. Some experimental data are available for the variation of rock strength and stiffness parameters with the porosity and so as a consequence of dissolution process (Bemer et al. 2004). Also the effect of chemical processes on the mechanical stability has been studied and modelled numerically in the framework of continuum materials and the context, in particular, of weathering in underground galleries (Ghabezloo & Pouya 2006). In the context of fault systems, a complete numerical modelling of the stability evolution with the flow of a reactive fluid has not yet been done. In this paper we present a simplified, but complete, set of equations for a whole system of coupled hydro-chemo-mechanical process of reactive fluid flow inside a fault. These equations have been implemented in Porofis, a FEM numerical code specially conceived for HCM processes in porous fractured media. We show how this numerical method allows to model the coupled HCM processes in the fault and the evolution of the mechanical stability in presence of in situ stresses and reactive fluid flow.
Kelly; Humphrey
1998-03-01
Considerable debate has occurred over the use of hydrofoil impellers in large-scale fermentors to improve mixing and mass transfer in highly viscous non-Newtonian systems. Using a computational fluid dynamics software package (Fluent, version 4.30) extensive calculations were performed to study the effect of impeller speed (70-130 rpm), broth rheology (value of power law flow behavior index from 0.2 to 0.6), and distance between the cooling coil bank and the fermentor wall (6-18 in.) on flow near the perimeter of a large (75-m3) fermentor equipped with A315 impellers. A quadratic model utilizing the data was developed in an attempt to correlate the effect of A315 impeller speed, power law flow behavior index, and distance between the cooling coil bank and the fermentor wall on the average axial velocity in the coil bank-wall region. The results suggest that there is a potential for slow or stagnant flow in the coil bank-wall region which could result in poor oxygen and heat transfer for highly viscous fermentations. The results also indicate that there is the potential for slow or stagnant flow in the region between the top impeller and the gas headspace when flow through the coil bank-wall region is slow. Finally, a simple guideline was developed to allow fermentor design engineers to predict the degree of flow behind a bank of helical cooling coils in a large fermentor with hydrofoil flow impellers.
Fedosov, Dmitry A; Karniadakis, George Em; Caswell, Bruce
2010-04-14
Polymer fluids are modeled with dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) as undiluted bead-spring chains and their solutions. The models are assessed by investigating their steady shear-rate properties. Non-Newtonian viscosity and normal stress coefficients, for shear rates from the lower to the upper Newtonian regimes, are calculated from both plane Couette and plane Poiseuille flows. The latter is realized as reverse Poiseuille flow (RPF) generated from two Poiseuille flows driven by uniform body forces in opposite directions along two-halves of a computational domain. Periodic boundary conditions ensure the RPF wall velocity to be zero without density fluctuations. In overlapping shear-rate regimes the RPF properties are confirmed to be in good agreement with those calculated from plane Couette flow with Lees-Edwards periodic boundary conditions (LECs), the standard virtual rheometer for steady shear-rate properties. The concentration and the temperature dependence of the properties of the model fluids are shown to satisfy the principles of concentration and temperature superposition commonly employed in the empirical correlation of real polymer-fluid properties. The thermodynamic validity of the equation of state is found to be a crucial factor for the achievement of time-temperature superposition. With these models, RPF is demonstrated to be an accurate and convenient virtual rheometer for the acquisition of steady shear-rate rheological properties. It complements, confirms, and extends the results obtained with the standard LEC configuration, and it can be used with the output from other particle-based methods, including molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics, smooth particle hydrodynamics, and the lattice Boltzmann method.
Computational fluid dynamics modeling of a lithium/thionyl chloride battery with electrolyte flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gu, W.B.; Wang, C.Y.; Weidner, J.W.; Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.
2000-02-01
A two-dimensional model is developed to simulate discharge of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery. As in earlier one-dimensional models, the model accounts for transport of species and charge, and electrode porosity variations and electrolyte flow induced by the volume reduction caused by electrochemical reactions. Numerical simulations are performed using a finite volume method of computational fluid dynamics. The predicted discharge curves for various temperatures show good agreement with published experimental data, and are essentially identical to results published for one-dimensional models. The detailed two-dimensional flow simulations show that the electrolyte is replenished from the cell head space predominantly through the separator into the front of the cathode during most parts of the discharge, especially for higher cell temperatures.
Yao, Wei; Shen, Zhoufeng; Ding, Guanghong
2013-01-01
In this paper, we use Stokes, Brinkman and Darcy equations to approximate the porous continuum media of ligament tissues respectively, simulate the flow field with FLUENT software, and study the shear stress on the cell surface due to the interstitial fluid flow. Since the Brinkman equation approaches Stokes equation well in high hydraulic permeability (k p) condition (k p ≥1.0×10(-8) m(2) in our numerical simulation), and it is an approximation to Darcy model in low k p condition (k p ≤5.0×10(-12) m(2) in our numerical simulation), we used the Brinkman model to simulate the interstitial fluid flow in the ligament where k p is approximately 1.0×10(-16) m(2). It shows k p and anisotropic property have a little effect on the flow field, but have a great effect on the shear stress on the membrane of interstitial cells (τ cell). There is a linear relationship between τ cell and , when k p =1.0×10(-16) m(2) and the maximum τ cell (τ cell,max) is approximately 10 Pa. The anisotropic property will affect τ cell's distribution on the cell surface. When k x/k y>1, low τ cell dominates the cell, while when k x/k y<1, high τ cell dominants the cell.
Roure, F.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Callot, J.P.; Ferket, H.; Gonzales, E.; Guilhaumou, N.; Hardebol, N.J.; Lacombe, O.; Malandain, J.; Mougin, P.; Muska, K.; Ortuno, S.; Sassi, W.; Swennen, R.; Vilasi, N.
2010-01-01
Basin modelling tools are now more efficient to reconstruct palinspastic structural cross sections and compute the history of temperature, pore-fluid pressure and fluid flow circulations in complex structural settings. In many cases and especially in areas where limited erosion occurred, the use of
Optimization of a Two-Fluid Hydrodynamic Model of Churn-Turbulent Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donna Post Guillen
2009-07-01
A hydrodynamic model of two-phase, churn-turbulent flows is being developed using the computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) code, NPHASE-CMFD. The numerical solutions obtained by this model are compared with experimental data obtained at the TOPFLOW facility of the Institute of Safety Research at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The TOPFLOW data is a high quality experimental database of upward, co-current air-water flows in a vertical pipe suitable for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. A five-field CMFD model was developed for the continuous liquid phase and four bubble size groups using mechanistic closure models for the ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Mechanistic models for the drag and non-drag interfacial forces are implemented to include the governing physics to describe the hydrodynamic forces controlling the gas distribution. The closure models provide the functional form of the interfacial forces, with user defined coefficients to adjust the force magnitude. An optimization strategy was devised for these coefficients using commercial design optimization software. This paper demonstrates an approach to optimizing CMFD model parameters using a design optimization approach. Computed radial void fraction profiles predicted by the NPHASE-CMFD code are compared to experimental data for four bubble size groups.
Sanford, Ward E.; Pearson, S.C.P.; Kiyosugi, K.; Lehto, H.L.; Saballos, J.A.; Connor, C.B.
2012-01-01
We investigate geologic controls on circulation in the shallow hydrothermal system of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, and their relationship to surface diffuse degassing. On a local scale (~250 m), relatively impermeable normal faults dipping at ~60° control the flowpath of water vapor and other gases in the vadose zone. These shallow normal faults are identified by modeling of a NE-SW trending magnetic anomaly of up to 2300 nT that corresponds to a topographic offset. Elevated SP and CO2 to the NW of the faults and an absence of CO2 to the SE suggest that these faults are barriers to flow. TOUGH2 numerical models of fluid circulation show enhanced flow through the footwalls of the faults, and corresponding increased mass flow and temperature at the surface (diffuse degassing zones). On a larger scale, TOUGH2 modeling suggests that groundwater convection may be occurring in a 3-4 km radial fracture zone transecting the entire flank of the volcano. Hot water rising uniformly into the base of the model at 1 x 10-5 kg/m2s results in convection that focuses heat and fluid and can explain the three distinct diffuse degassing zones distributed along the fracture. Our data and models suggest that the unusually active surface degassing zones at Masaya volcano can result purely from uniform heat and fluid flux at depth that is complicated by groundwater convection and permeability variations in the upper few km. Therefore isolating the effects of subsurface geology is vital when trying to interpret diffuse degassing in light of volcanic activity.
A general coarse and fine mesh solution scheme for fluid flow modeling in VHTRS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clifford, I; Ivanov, K; Avramova, M.
2011-01-01
Coarse mesh Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods offer several advantages over traditional coarse mesh methods for the safety analysis of helium-cooled graphite-moderated Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTRs). This relatively new approach opens up the possibility for system-wide calculations to be carried out using a consistent set of field equations throughout the calculation, and subsequently the possibility for hybrid coarse/fine mesh or hierarchical multi scale CFD simulations. To date, a consistent methodology for hierarchical multi-scale CFD has not been developed. This paper describes work carried out in the initial development of a multi scale CFD solver intended to be used for the safety analysis of VHTRs. The VHTR is considered on any scale to consist of a homogenized two-phase mixture of fluid and stationary solid material of varying void fraction. A consistent set of conservation equations was selected such that they reduce to the single-phase conservation equations for the case where void fraction is unity. The discretization of the conservation equations uses a new pressure interpolation scheme capable of capturing the discontinuity in pressure across relatively large changes in void fraction. Based on this, a test solver was developed which supports fully unstructured meshes for three-dimensional time-dependent compressible flow problems, including buoyancy effects. For typical VHTR flow phenomena the new solver shows promise as an effective candidate for predicting the flow behavior on multiple scales, as it is capable of modeling both fine mesh single phase flows as well as coarse mesh flows in homogenized regions containing both fluid and solid materials. (author)
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling of the Diurnal Variation of Flow in a Street Canyon
Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Baik, Jong-Jin; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Ryu, Young-Hee
2011-10-01
Urban surface and radiation processes are incorporated into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to investigate the diurnal variation of flow in a street canyon with an aspect ratio of 1. The developed CFD model predicts surface and substrate temperatures of the roof, walls, and road. One-day simulations are performed with various ambient wind speeds of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 ms-1, with the ambient wind perpendicular to the north-south oriented canyon. During the day, the largest maximum surface temperature for all surfaces is found at the road surface for an ambient wind speed of 3 ms-1 (56.0°C). Two flow regimes are identified by the vortex configuration in the street canyon. Flow regime I is characterized by a primary vortex. Flow regime II is characterized by two counter-rotating vortices, which appears in the presence of strong downwind building-wall heating. Air temperature is relatively low near the downwind building wall in flow regime I and inside the upper vortex in flow regime II. In flow regime II, the upper vortex expands with increasing ambient wind speed, thus enlarging the extent of cool air within the canyon. The canyon wind speed in flow regime II is proportional to the ambient wind speed, but that in flow regime I is not. For weak ambient winds, the dependency of surface sensible heat flux on the ambient wind speed is found to play an essential role in determining the relationship between canyon wind speed and ambient wind speed.
Computational fluid dynamics modeling of two-phase flow in a BWR fuel assembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrey Ioilev; Maskhud Samigulin; Vasily Ustinenko; Simon Lo; Adrian Tentner
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: The goal of this project is to develop an advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computer code (CFD-BWR) that allows the detailed analysis of the two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel bundle under various operating conditions. This code will include more fundamental physical models than the current generation of sub-channel codes and advanced numerical algorithms for improved computational accuracy, robustness, and speed. It is highly desirable to understand the detailed two-phase flow phenomena inside a BWR fuel bundle. These phenomena include coolant phase changes and multiple flow regimes which directly influence the coolant interaction with fuel assembly and, ultimately, the reactor performance. Traditionally, the best analysis tools for the analysis of two-phase flow phenomena inside the BWR fuel assembly have been the sub-channel codes. However, the resolution of these codes is still too coarse for analyzing the detailed intra-assembly flow patterns, such as flow around a spacer element. Recent progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), coupled with the rapidly increasing computational power of massively parallel computers, shows promising potential for the fine-mesh, detailed simulation of fuel assembly two-phase flow phenomena. However, the phenomenological models available in the commercial CFD programs are not as advanced as those currently being used in the sub-channel codes used in the nuclear industry. In particular, there are no models currently available which are able to reliably predict the nature of the flow regimes, and use the appropriate sub-models for those flow regimes. The CFD-BWR code is being developed as a customized module built on the foundation of the commercial CFD Code STAR-CD which provides general two-phase flow modeling capabilities. The paper describes the model development strategy which has been adopted by the development team for the
Computational fluid dynamics modeling of mixed convection flows in buildings enclosures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kayne, Alexander; Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)
2013-07-01
In recent years Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are increasingly used to model the air circulation and temperature environment inside the rooms of residential and office buildings to gain insight into the relative energy consumptions of various HVAC systems for cooling/heating for climate control and thermal comfort. This requires accurate simulation of turbulent flow and heat transfer for various types of ventilation systems using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations of fluid dynamics. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) or Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of Navier-Stokes equations is computationally intensive and expensive for simulations of this kind. As a result, vast majority of CFD simulations employ RANS equations in conjunction with a turbulence model. In order to assess the modeling requirements (mesh, numerical algorithm, turbulence model etc.) for accurate simulations, it is critical to validate the calculations against the experimental data. For this purpose, we use three well known benchmark validation cases, one for natural convection in 2D closed vertical cavity, second for forced convection in a 2D rectangular cavity and the third for mixed convection in a 2D square cavity. The simulations are performed on a number of meshes of different density using a number of turbulence models. It is found that k-epsilon two-equation turbulence model with a second-order algorithm on a reasonable mesh gives the best results. This information is then used to determine the modeling requirements (mesh, numerical algorithm, turbulence model etc.) for flows in 3D enclosures with different ventilation systems. In particular two cases are considered for which the experimental data is available. These cases are (1) air flow and heat transfer in a naturally ventilated room and (2) airflow and temperature distribution in an atrium. Good agreement with the experimental data and computations of other investigators is obtained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heida, T.; Rutten, W.L.C.; Marani, E.
2002-01-01
By application of dielectrophoresis neuronal cells can be trapped successfully. Several trapping experiments have been performed using a quadrupole electrode structure at different amplitudes (1, 3, and 5 V pp ) and frequencies (10-50 MHz). Due to the high conductivity of the suspending medium negative dielectrophoretic forces are created. The dielectrophoretic force is determined by the gradient of the electric field. However, the electrode-liquid interfaces are responsible for decreased electric field strengths, and thus decreased field gradients, inside the medium, especially at lower frequencies. Circuit modelling is used to determine the frequency-dependent electric field inside the medium. The creation of an electric field in high conductivity of the medium results in local heating, which in turn induces fluid flow. This flow also drives the neurons and was found to enhance the trapping effect of the dielectrophoretic force. With the use of finite element modelling, this aspect was investigated. The results show that the dielectrophoretic force is dominating just above the substrate. When the upward dielectrophoretic force is large enough to levitate the cells, they may be dragged along with the fluid flow. The result is that more cells may be trapped than expected on the basis of dielectrophoresis alone. (author)
Assessment of fluid-to-fluid modelling of critical heat flux in horizontal 37-element bundle flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, S.K.
2006-01-01
Fluid-to-fluid modelling laws of critical heat flux (CHF) available in the literature were reviewed. The applicability of the fluid-to-fluid modelling laws was assessed using available data ranging from low to high mass fluxes in horizontal 37-element bundles simulating a CANDU fuel string. Correlations consisting of dimensionless similarity groups were derived using modelling fluid data (Freon-12) to predict water CHF data in horizontal 37-element bundles with uniform and non-uniform axial-heat flux distribution (AFD). The results showed that at mass fluxes higher than ∼4,000 kg/m 2 s (water equivalent value), the vertical fluid-to-fluid modelling laws of Ahmad (1973) and Katto (1979) predict water CHF in horizontal 37-element bundles with non-uniform AFD with average errors of 1.4% and 3.0% and RMS errors of 5.9% and 6.1%, respectively. The Francois and Berthoud (2003) fluid-to-fluid modelling law predicts CHF in non-uniformly heated 37-element bundles in the horizontal orientation with an average error of 0.6% and an RMS error of 10.4% over the available range of 2,000 to 6,200 kg/m 2 s. (author)
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery with Electrolyte Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gu, W.B.; Jungst, Rudolph G.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Wang, C.Y.; Weidner, John.
1999-06-11
A two-dimensional model is developed to simulate discharge of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery. The model accounts for not only transport of species and charge, but also the electrode porosity variations and the electrolyte flow induced by the volume reduction caused by electrochemical reactions. Numerical simulations are performed using a finite volume method of computational fluid dynamics. The predicted discharge curves for various temperatures are compared to the experimental data with excellent agreement. Moreover, the simulation results. in conjunction with computer visualization and animation techniques, confirm that cell utilization in the temperature and current range of interest is limited by pore plugging or clogging of the front side of the cathode as a result of LiCl precipitation. The detailed two-dimensional flow simulation also shows that the electrolyte is replenished from the cell header predominantly through the separator into the front of the cathode during most parts of the discharge, especially for higher cell temperatures.
Modeling of Bio-Fluids Flow with Complex Geometry Using Immersed Boundary Method
Mao, Shaolin; Celik, Ismail
2007-11-01
Fluid dynamics problems in the area of bio-fluids involve complex geometries and moving boundaries in addition to strong transients. The applications of CFD to such problems traditionally employ boundary fitted coordinates, which require generation of complicated computational grids. The alternative approach utilizing Cartesian coordinates with embedded virtual force method (immersed boundary method) avoids the problem of expensive and time consuming boundary fitted grid. The simple orthogonal grids directly benefit numerical accuracy and computational efficiency. An immediate application of immersed boundary method (IB) is to modify in-house CFD DREAM code for bio-engineering applications using domain decomposition methodology. Several benchmarks are tested and numerical results for gas-droplet two-phase flow are shown to examine the transport and dispersion of germ-laden droplets in a room. This modeling effort provides valuable information for ventilation control strategies to improve airflow patterns to reduce indoor airborne infection risk.
Computational Fluid Dynamics model of stratified atmospheric boundary-layer flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koblitz, Tilman; Bechmann, Andreas; Sogachev, Andrey
2015-01-01
For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on computational fluid dynamics models of the neutrally stratified surface-layer. So far, physical processes that are important to the whole atmospheric boundary-layer, such as the Coriolis effect, buoyancy forces and heat...... transport, are mostly ignored. In order to decrease the uncertainty of wind resource assessment, the present work focuses on atmospheric flows that include stability and Coriolis effects. The influence of these effects on the whole atmospheric boundary-layer are examined using a Reynolds-averaged Navier...
Qayyum, Mubashir; Khan, Hamid; Rahim, M Tariq; Ullah, Inayat
2015-01-01
The aim of this article is to model and analyze an unsteady axisymmetric flow of non-conducting, Newtonian fluid squeezed between two circular plates passing through porous medium channel with slip boundary condition. A single fourth order nonlinear ordinary differential equation is obtained using similarity transformation. The resulting boundary value problem is solved using Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) and fourth order Explicit Runge Kutta Method (RK4). Convergence of HPM solution is verified by obtaining various order approximate solutions along with absolute residuals. Validity of HPM solution is confirmed by comparing analytical and numerical solutions. Furthermore, the effects of various dimensionless parameters on the longitudinal and normal velocity profiles are studied graphically.
The primary cilium as sensor of fluid flow: new building blocks to the model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prætorius, Helle
2015-01-01
The primary cilium is an extraordinary organelle. For many years, it had the full attention of only a few dedicated scientists fascinated by its uniqueness. Unexpectedly, after decades of obscurity, it has moved very quickly into the limelight with the increasing evidence of its central role...... transduction has not been explained, largely because of the substantial technical challenges of working with this delicate organelle. The current review considers the recent advances that allow us to fill some of the holes in the model of signal transduction in cilium-mediated responses to fluid flow...
Fluid Flow at Branching Junctions
Sochi, Taha
2013-01-01
The flow of fluids at branching junctions plays important kinematic and dynamic roles in most biological and industrial flow systems. The present paper highlights some key issues related to the flow of fluids at these junctions with special emphasis on the biological flow networks particularly blood transportation vasculature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sahin Ahmed
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This study focuses analytically on the oscillatory hydromagnetic flow of a viscous, incompressible, electrically-conducting, non-Newtonian fluid in an inclined, rotating channel with non-conducting walls, incorporating couple stress effects. The model is then non-dimensionalized with appropriate variables and shown to be controlled by the inverse Ekman number (K2 = 1/Ek, the hydromagnetic body force parameter (M, channel inclination (α, Grashof number (Gr, Prandtl number (Pr, oscillation frequency (ω and time variable (ωT. Analytical solutions are derived using complex variables. Excellent agreement is obtained between both previous and present work. The influence of the governing parameters on the primary velocity, secondary velocity, temperature (θ, primary and secondary flow discharges per unit depth in the channel, and frictional shear stresses due to primary and secondary flow, is studied graphically and using tables. Applications of the study arise in the simulation of the manufacture of electrically-conducting polymeric liquids and hydromagnetic energy systems exploiting rheological working fluids.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papin, M.
2005-06-01
This work dedicated to the study of the hypersonic re-entry of vehicles in the atmosphere crossing clouds of particles implies the study of two-fluid flow and it is shown that some developments can be applied to the two-fluid models used to describe the phase transformation occurring in a target irradiated by laser beams. The calculation of wall fluxes on hypersonic re-entry vehicles requires the modeling of the interactions with clouds. Two-fluid flows posing many physical and mathematical problems, one studies an alternative model due to Abgrall and Saurel: the discrete equation method (DEM). Three axis are chosen. The first proposes a finite volume discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations on hybrid grids adapted to the context. The second extends the DEM within a multi-fluid not-structured N-D framework. A limit study associates an original continuous model to him: it allows to modify usual two-fluid seven equations models to obtain a phasic entropy principle. In spite of good properties, the continuous description of the particles is unsuited to the problem. The last axis is a study of the follow-up of pointwise particles which does not allow realistic calculation of parietal fluxes. An original model, extending the usual hydro-erosion models, however makes it possible to evaluate rebounds, erosion of the body and wall fluxes. The appendices expose approximate and exact Riemann solvers between pure fluids, discretization of the Baer and Nunziato model, and relations describing the atmosphere, water and heat fluxes
Effect of a swirling ladle shroud on fluid flow and mass transfer in a water model of a tundish
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solorio-Diaz, G.; Ramos-Banderas, A. [National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico (Mexico). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering; Morales, R.D. [National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico (Mexico). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering; K and E Technologies, Mexico (Mexico)
2005-08-01
A swirling ladle shroud (SLS) is used to control flow turbulence and to improve flotation of inclusions in a two-strand tundish of a slab caster. To simulate the fluid flow in a swirling flow three turbulence models, {kappa}-{epsilon}, {kappa}-{omega} and RSM were employed. Using the mixing kinetics of a tracer as well as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) determinations it was found that among these three models the model of turbulence RSM predicts with acceptable agreement the velocity fields of swirling flows experimentally measured. The SLS decreases the turbulence of the entering jet and of the complete flow field when it is compared with a conventional ladle shroud. Kinetic energy of fluid is dissipated through recirculating flows in the transversal and horizontal planes of the tundish helping to the flotation of inclusions through buoyancy, drag and inertial forces. The SLS will become in a new generation of flow control devices in continuous casters of steel. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Zhou
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is a useful tool for enhancing rock mass permeability for shale gas development, enhanced geothermal systems, and geological carbon sequestration by the high-pressure injection of a fracturing fluid into tight reservoir rocks. Although significant advances have been made in hydraulic fracturing theory, experiments, and numerical modeling, when it comes to the complexity of geological conditions knowledge is still limited. Mechanisms of fluid injection-induced fracture initiation and propagation should be better understood to take full advantage of hydraulic fracturing. This paper presents the development and application of discrete particle modeling based on two-dimensional particle flow code (PFC2D. Firstly, it is shown that the modeled value of the breakdown pressure for the hydraulic fracturing process is approximately equal to analytically calculated values under varied in situ stress conditions. Furthermore, a series of simulations for hydraulic fracturing in competent rock was performed to examine the influence of the in situ stress ratio, fluid injection rate, and fluid viscosity on the borehole pressure history, the geometry of hydraulic fractures, and the pore-pressure field, respectively. It was found that the hydraulic fractures in an isotropic medium always propagate parallel to the orientation of the maximum principal stress. When a high fluid injection rate is used, higher breakdown pressure is needed for fracture propagation and complex geometries of fractures can develop. When a low viscosity fluid is used, fluid can more easily penetrate from the borehole into the surrounding rock, which causes a reduction of the effective stress and leads to a lower breakdown pressure. Moreover, the geometry of the fractures is not particularly sensitive to the fluid viscosity in the approximate isotropic model.
Computer modeling of fluid flow and combustion in the ISV (In Situ Vitrification) confinement hood
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, R.W.; Paik, S.
1990-09-01
Safety and suitability objectives for the application of the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) technology at the INEL require that the physical processes involved in ISVV be modeled to determine their operational behavior. The mathematical models that have been determined to address the modeling needs adequately for the ISV analysis package are detailed elsewhere. The present report is concerned with the models required for simulating the reacting flow that occurs in the ISV confinement hood. An experimental code named COYOTE has been secured that appears adequate to model the combustion in the confinement hood. The COYOTE code is a two-dimensional, transient, compressible, Eulerian, gas dynamics code for modeling reactive flows. It recognizes nonuniform Cartesian and cylindrical geometry and is based on the ICE (Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) family of solution methods. It includes models for chemical reactions based on chemical kinetics as well as equilibrium chemistry. The mathematical models contained in COYOTE, their discrete analogs, the solution procedure, code structure and some test problems are presented in the report. 12 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.
Computer modeling of fluid flow and combustion in the ISV [In Situ Vitrification] confinement hood
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, R.W.; Paik, S.
1990-09-01
Safety and suitability objectives for the application of the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) technology at the INEL require that the physical processes involved in ISVV be modeled to determine their operational behavior. The mathematical models that have been determined to address the modeling needs adequately for the ISV analysis package are detailed elsewhere. The present report is concerned with the models required for simulating the reacting flow that occurs in the ISV confinement hood. An experimental code named COYOTE has been secured that appears adequate to model the combustion in the confinement hood. The COYOTE code is a two-dimensional, transient, compressible, Eulerian, gas dynamics code for modeling reactive flows. It recognizes nonuniform Cartesian and cylindrical geometry and is based on the ICE (Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) family of solution methods. It includes models for chemical reactions based on chemical kinetics as well as equilibrium chemistry. The mathematical models contained in COYOTE, their discrete analogs, the solution procedure, code structure and some test problems are presented in the report. 12 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mukhopadhyay, S.; Tsang, Y.; Finsterle, S.
2009-01-15
A simple conceptual model has been recently developed for analyzing pressure and temperature data from flowing fluid temperature logging (FFTL) in unsaturated fractured rock. Using this conceptual model, we developed an analytical solution for FFTL pressure response, and a semianalytical solution for FFTL temperature response. We also proposed a method for estimating fracture permeability from FFTL temperature data. The conceptual model was based on some simplifying assumptions, particularly that a single-phase airflow model was used. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive numerical model of multiphase flow and heat transfer associated with FFTL. Using this numerical model, we perform a number of forward simulations to determine the parameters that have the strongest influence on the pressure and temperature response from FFTL. We then use the iTOUGH2 optimization code to estimate these most sensitive parameters through inverse modeling and to quantify the uncertainties associated with these estimated parameters. We conclude that FFTL can be utilized to determine permeability, porosity, and thermal conductivity of the fracture rock. Two other parameters, which are not properties of the fractured rock, have strong influence on FFTL response. These are pressure and temperature in the borehole that were at equilibrium with the fractured rock formation at the beginning of FFTL. We illustrate how these parameters can also be estimated from FFTL data.
Calibration of a Numerical Model for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in an Extruder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hofstätter, Thomas; Pedersen, David Bue; Nielsen, Jakob Skov
2016-01-01
This paper discusses experiments performed in order to validate simulations on a fused deposition modelling (FDM) extruder. The nozzle has been simulated in terms of heat transfer and fluid flow. In order to calibrate and validate these simulations, experiments were performed giving a significant...... look into the physical behaviour of the nozzle, heating and cooling systems. Experiments on the model were performed at different sub-mm diameters of the extruder. Physical parameters of the model – especially temperature dependent parameters – were set into analytical relationships in order to receive...... dynamical parameters. This research sets the foundation for further research within melted extrusion based additive manufacturing. The heating process of the extruder will be described and a note on the material feeding will be given....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Feng-Chen; Wang Lu; Cai Wei-Hua
2015-01-01
A mixed subgrid-scale (SGS) model based on coherent structures and temporal approximate deconvolution (MCT) is proposed for turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluids. The main idea of the MCT SGS model is to perform spatial filtering for the momentum equation and temporal filtering for the conformation tensor transport equation of turbulent flow of viscoelastic fluid, respectively. The MCT model is suitable for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluids in engineering applications since the model parameters can be easily obtained. The LES of forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence (FHIT) with polymer additives and turbulent channel flow with surfactant additives based on MCT SGS model shows excellent agreements with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. Compared with the LES results using the temporal approximate deconvolution model (TADM) for FHIT with polymer additives, this mixed SGS model MCT behaves better, regarding the enhancement of calculating parameters such as the Reynolds number. For scientific and engineering research, turbulent flows at high Reynolds numbers are expected, so the MCT model can be a more suitable model for the LES of turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluid with polymer or surfactant additives. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Hao; Christensen, Erik Damgaard
2017-01-01
In the present work, we developed a numerical model for fluid-structure interaction analysis of flow through and around an aquaculture net cage. The numerical model is based on the coupling between the porous media model and the lumped mass structural model. A novel interface was implemented...
Computational fluid dynamics incompressible turbulent flows
Kajishima, Takeo
2017-01-01
This textbook presents numerical solution techniques for incompressible turbulent flows that occur in a variety of scientific and engineering settings including aerodynamics of ground-based vehicles and low-speed aircraft, fluid flows in energy systems, atmospheric flows, and biological flows. This book encompasses fluid mechanics, partial differential equations, numerical methods, and turbulence models, and emphasizes the foundation on how the governing partial differential equations for incompressible fluid flow can be solved numerically in an accurate and efficient manner. Extensive discussions on incompressible flow solvers and turbulence modeling are also offered. This text is an ideal instructional resource and reference for students, research scientists, and professional engineers interested in analyzing fluid flows using numerical simulations for fundamental research and industrial applications. • Introduces CFD techniques for incompressible flow and turbulence with a comprehensive approach; • Enr...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ninokata, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Deguchi, A. [ENO Mathematical Analysis, Tokyo (Japan); Kawahara, A. [Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)
1995-09-01
A new void drift model for the subchannel analysis method is presented for the thermohydraulics calculation of two-phase flows in rod bundles where the flow model uses a two-fluid formulation for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A void drift model is constructed based on the experimental data obtained in a geometrically simple inter-connected two circular channel test sections using air-water as working fluids. The void drift force is assumed to be an origin of void drift velocity components of the two-phase cross-flow in a gap area between two adjacent rods and to overcome the momentum exchanges at the phase interface and wall-fluid interface. This void drift force is implemented in the cross flow momentum equations. Computational results have been successfully compared to experimental data available including 3x3 rod bundle data.
On Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model for Carreau fluid flow over a slendering sheet
Hashim; Khan, Masood
The underlying intentions of this article are to investigate the impact of non-Fourier heat flux model on the stagnation-point flow of non-Newtonian Carreau fluid. In this study, the innovative Cattaneo-Christov constitutive model is introduced to study the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The flow is impelled by a slendering surface which is of the variable thickness. In the model, the physical mechanism responsible for homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions are further taken into account. Also, the diffusion coefficients of the reactant and auto catalyst are considered to be equal. The governing non-linear partial differential equations consisting of the momentum, energy and concentration equations are reduced to the coupled ordinary differential equations by means of local similarity transformations. The transformed ODEs are tackled numerically by employing an effective shooting algorithm along with the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg scheme. The physical characteristics of the fluid velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are illuminated with the variation of numerous governing factors and are presented graphically. For instance, our result indicates that the temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness are lower in case of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model when compared to classical Fourier's heat model. Meanwhile, the rate of heat transfer is significantly improved by a high wall thickness parameter and an opposite influence is found due to the thermal relaxation parameter. We further noticed that a higher value of homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction parameter corresponds to a deceleration in the concentration field and it shows an inverse relation for the Schmidt number. A correlation with accessible results for specific cases is found with fabulous consent.
Geometric analysis of the solutions of two-phase flows: two-fluid model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kestin, J.; Zeng, D.L.
1984-01-01
This report contains a lightly edited draft of a study of the two-fluid model in two-phase flow. The motivation for the study stems from the authors' conviction that the construction of a computer code for any model should be preceded by a geometrical analysis of the pattern of trajectories in the phase space appropriate for the model. Such a study greatly facilitates the understanding of the phenomenon of choking and anticipates the computational difficulties which arise from the existence of singularities. The report contains a derivation of the six conservation equations of the model which includes a consideration of the simplifications imposed on a one-dimensional treatment by the presence of boundary layers at the wall and between the phases. The model is restricted to one-dimensional adiabatic flows of a single substance present in two phases, but thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases is not assumed. The role of closure conditions is defined but no specific closure conditions, or explicit equations of state, are introduced
A Well-Posed Two Phase Flow Model and its Numerical Solutions for Reactor Thermal-Fluids Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kadioglu, Samet Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Berry, Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Martineau, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2016-08-01
A 7-equation two-phase flow model and its numerical implementation is presented for reactor thermal-fluids applications. The equation system is well-posed and treats both phases as compressible flows. The numerical discretization of the equation system is based on the finite element formalism. The numerical algorithm is implemented in the next generation RELAP-7 code (Idaho National Laboratory (INL)’s thermal-fluids code) built on top of an other INL’s product, the massively parallel multi-implicit multi-physics object oriented code environment (MOOSE). Some preliminary thermal-fluids computations are presented.
Busy period analysis, rare events and transient behavior in fluid flow models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Søren Asmussen
1994-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a process {(Jt,Vt}t≥0 on E×[0,∞, such that {Jt} is a Markov process with finite state space E, and {Vt} has a linear drift ri on intervals where Jt=i and reflection at 0. Such a process arises as a fluid flow model of current interest in telecommunications engineering for the purpose of modeling ATM technology. We compute the mean of the busy period and related first passage times, show that the probability of buffer overflow within a busy cycle is approximately exponential, and give conditioned limit theorems for the busy cycle with implications for quick simulation. Further, various inequalities and approximations for transient behavior are given. Also explicit expressions for the Laplace transform of the busy period are found. Mathematically, the key tool is first passage probabilities and exponential change of measure for Markov additive processes.
Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow and Thermal Transport in Gravity-Dominated 3D Microchannels
Odesola, Isaac F.; Ashaju, Abimbola Ayodeji; Ige, Ebenezer O.
The success recorded by the usage of microchannel in high flux cooling application, has led to several studies aimed at advancement in microchannel fluid flow and heat transfer technology. A recent study area with promising breakthrough is the effects of gravity on microscale flow. Numerical
Modeling Physiological Systems in the Human Body as Networks of Quasi-1D Fluid Flows
Staples, Anne
2008-11-01
Extensive research has been done on modeling human physiology. Most of this work has been aimed at developing detailed, three-dimensional models of specific components of physiological systems, such as a cell, a vein, a molecule, or a heart valve. While efforts such as these are invaluable to our understanding of human biology, if we were to construct a global model of human physiology with this level of detail, computing even a nanosecond in this computational being's life would certainly be prohibitively expensive. With this in mind, we derive the Pulsed Flow Equations, a set of coupled one-dimensional partial differential equations, specifically designed to capture two-dimensional viscous, transport, and other effects, and aimed at providing accurate and fast-to-compute global models for physiological systems represented as networks of quasi one-dimensional fluid flows. Our goal is to be able to perform faster-than-real time simulations of global processes in the human body on desktop computers.
A two-dimensional numerical model of two-phase heat transfer and fluid flow in a kettle reboiler
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edwards, D.P.; Jensen, M.K.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on a numerical model that has been developed to predict the two-dimensional, two-phase flow in a kettle reboiler using a finite difference computer code. The effects of bundle-averaged heat flux, heat transfer mode, weir height, and reboiler size were examined. The recirculation flow rate in the kettle reboiler was found to be strongly dependent upon the bundle-averaged heat flux; the recirculating flow increased with increasing heat flux, reached a plateau, and then decreased with further increases in the heat flux. Differences between the constant wall heat flux and constant wall temperature modes of heat transfer were minimal. The model is an improvement over previous one- and two-dimensional models because; the location of the recirculation center could be predicted, the model included the horizontal flow components within the tube bundle, and the model employed a two-fluid rather than a homogeneous fluid model
Interface model coupling in fluid dynamics: application to two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galie, Th.
2009-03-01
This thesis is devoted to the study of interface model coupling problems in space between different models of compressible flows. We consider one-dimensional problems where the interface is sharp, fixed and separating two regions of space corresponding to the two coupled models. Our goal is to define a coupling condition at the interface and to solve numerically the coupling problem with this condition. After a state of art on the interface model coupling of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, we propose a new coupling condition by adding in the equations of the coupled problem a measure source term at the interface. We first suppose a given constant weight associated to this source term. Two Riemann solvers are developed and one of them is based on a relaxation approach preserving equilibrium solutions of the coupled problem. This relaxation method is then used in an optimization problem, defined by several motivations at the interface, which permits to calculate a time dynamical weight. In a second part, we develop an approached Riemann solver for a two-phase two-pressure model in the particular case of a two-phase isentropic flow. Such a model contains non conservative terms that we write under the form of measure source terms. The previous relaxation method is thus extended to the case of the two-phase two-pressure model with an a priori estimation of the non conservative term contributions. The method allows us to solve, in the next and last chapter, the coupling problem of a two-fluid two-pressure model with a drift-flux model thanks to the father model approach. (authors)
In-situ observation and modelling of solidification and fluid flow on GTAW process
Chiocca, A.; Soulié, F.; Deschaux-Beaume, F.; Bordreuil, C.
2015-06-01
An experimental setup is presented in order to obtain experimental data during solidification of a static weld pool after arc extinction with a GTAW process. Several devices have been set up to extract three kinds of measurements: (i) solidification front velocity (ii) fluid flow velocity at the vicinity of the front (iii) temperature field in the solid part. A high-speed camera is used to film the interface during welding at microscopic level and an infra-red in order to take the temperature field around the weld pool in the solid part. After processing and calibration of the videos, the experimental results are compared to theoritical results founded on an adapted model from the KGT [1] and from the one of Gandin et al. [2]. All the tests are done thin plate of Cu-30wt.%Ni.
Collier, Guilhem J; Kim, Minsuok; Chung, Yongmann; Wild, Jim M
2018-04-06
Knowledge of airflow patterns in the large airways is of interest in obstructive airways disease and in the development of inhaled therapies. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to study airflow in realistic airway models but usually need experimental validation. To develop MRI-based methods to study airway flow in realistic 3D-printed models. Case control. Two 3D-printed lung models. 1.5-3T, flow MRI. Two human airway models, respectively including and excluding the oral cavity and upper airways derived from MR and CT imaging, were 3D-printed. 3D flow MRI was performed at different flow conditions corresponding to slow and steady airflow inhalation rates. Water was used as the working fluid to mimic airflow. Dynamic acquisition of 1D velocity profiles was also performed at different locations in the trachea to observe variability during nonsteady conditions. Linear regression analysis to compare both flow velocity fields and local flow rates from CFD simulations and experimental measurement with flow MRI. A good agreement was obtained between 3D velocity maps measured with flow MRI and predicted by CFD simulations, with linear regression R-squared values ranging from 0.39 to 0.94 when performing a pixel-by-pixel comparison of each velocity component. The flow distribution inside the lung models was also similar, with average slope and R-squared values of 0.96 and 0.99, respectively, when comparing local flow rates assessed at different branching locations. In the model including the upper airways, a turbulent laryngeal jet flow was observed with both methods and affected remarkably the velocity profiles in the trachea. We propose flow MRI using water as a surrogate fluid to air, as a validation tool for CFD simulations of airflow in geometrically realistic models of the human airways. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Modelling of fluid flow in fractured porous media by the singular integral equations method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vu, M.N.
2012-01-01
This thesis aims to develop a method for numerical modelling of fluid flow through fractured porous media and for determination of their effective permeability by taking advantage of recent results based on formulation of the problem by Singular Integral Equations. In parallel, it was also an occasion to continue on the theoretical development and to obtain new results in this area. The governing equations for flow in such materials are reviewed first and mass conservation at the fracture intersections is expressed explicitly. Using the theory of potential, the general potential solutions are proposed in the form of a singular integral equation that describes the steady-state flow in and around several fractures embedded in an infinite porous matrix under a far-field pressure condition. These solutions represent the pressure field in the whole body as functions of the infiltration in the fractures, which fully take into account the fracture interaction and intersections. Closed-form solutions for the fundamental problem of fluid flow around a single fracture are derived, which are considered as the benchmark problems to validate the numerical solutions. In particular, the solution obtained for the case of an elliptical disc-shaped crack obeying to the Poiseuille law has been compared to that obtained for ellipsoidal inclusions with Darcy law.The numerical programs have been developed based on the singular integral equations method to resolve the general potential equations. These allow modeling the fluid flow through a porous medium containing a great number of fractures. Besides, this formulation of the problem also allows obtaining a semi-analytical infiltration solution over a single fracture depending on the matrice permeability, the fracture conductivity and the fracture geometry. This result is the important key to up-scaling the effective permeability of a fractured porous medium by using different homogenisation schemes. The results obtained by the self
Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow
Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory
2010-11-23
An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.
Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow
Ward, Michael W.; Kaduchak, Gregory
2017-08-15
Disclosed herein is a acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow that includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.
Flow of Jeffrey Fluid through Narrow Tubes
Nallapu, Santhosh; Radhakrishnamacharya, G.
2014-01-01
The present paper deals with a two-fluid model for the flow of Jeffrey fluid in tubes of small diameters. It is assumed that the core region consists of Jeffrey fluid and Newtonian fluid in the peripheral region. Analytical expressions for velocity, effective viscosity, core hematocrit and mean hematocrit have been derived. The effects of various parameters, namely, Jeffrey parameter ({\\lambda}1), tube hematocrit (H0) and tube radius (a) on effective viscosity, core hematocrit and mean hemato...
Priyadharshini, S; Ponalagusamy, R
2015-01-01
An analysis of blood flow through a tapered artery with stenosis and dilatation has been carried out where the blood is treated as incompressible Herschel-Bulkley fluid. A comparison between numerical values and analytical values of pressure gradient at the midpoint of stenotic region shows that the analytical expression for pressure gradient works well for the values of yield stress till 2.4. The wall shear stress and flow resistance increase significantly with axial distance and the increase is more in the case of converging tapered artery. A comparison study of velocity profiles, wall shear stress, and flow resistance for Newtonian, power law, Bingham-plastic, and Herschel-Bulkley fluids shows that the variation is greater for Herschel-Bulkley fluid than the other fluids. The obtained velocity profiles have been compared with the experimental data and it is observed that blood behaves like a Herschel-Bulkley fluid rather than power law, Bingham, and Newtonian fluids. It is observed that, in the case of a tapered stenosed tube, the streamline pattern follows a convex pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = 1 and it follows a concave pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = -1. Further, it is of opposite behaviour in the case of a tapered dilatation tube which forms new information that is, for the first time, added to the literature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Priyadharshini
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis of blood flow through a tapered artery with stenosis and dilatation has been carried out where the blood is treated as incompressible Herschel-Bulkley fluid. A comparison between numerical values and analytical values of pressure gradient at the midpoint of stenotic region shows that the analytical expression for pressure gradient works well for the values of yield stress till 2.4. The wall shear stress and flow resistance increase significantly with axial distance and the increase is more in the case of converging tapered artery. A comparison study of velocity profiles, wall shear stress, and flow resistance for Newtonian, power law, Bingham-plastic, and Herschel-Bulkley fluids shows that the variation is greater for Herschel-Bulkley fluid than the other fluids. The obtained velocity profiles have been compared with the experimental data and it is observed that blood behaves like a Herschel-Bulkley fluid rather than power law, Bingham, and Newtonian fluids. It is observed that, in the case of a tapered stenosed tube, the streamline pattern follows a convex pattern when we move from r/R=0 to r/R=1 and it follows a concave pattern when we move from r/R=0 to r/R=-1. Further, it is of opposite behaviour in the case of a tapered dilatation tube which forms new information that is, for the first time, added to the literature.
Fluid dynamics of bubbly flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziegenhein, Thomas
2016-01-01
Bubbly flows can be found in many applications in chemical, biological and power engineering. Reliable simulation tools of such flows that allow the design of new processes and optimization of existing one are therefore highly desirable. CFD-simulations applying the multi-fluid approach are very promising to provide such a design tool for complete facilities. In the multi-fluid approach, however, closure models have to be formulated to model the interaction between the continuous and dispersed phase. Due to the complex nature of bubbly flows, different phenomena have to be taken into account and for every phenomenon different closure models exist. Therefore, reliable predictions of unknown bubbly flows are not yet possible with the multi-fluid approach. A strategy to overcome this problem is to define a baseline model in which the closure models including the model constants are fixed so that the limitations of the modeling can be evaluated by validating it on different experiments. Afterwards, the shortcomings are identified so that the baseline model can be stepwise improved without losing the validity for the already validated cases. This development of a baseline model is done in the present work by validating the baseline model developed at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf mainly basing on experimental data for bubbly pipe flows to bubble columns, bubble plumes and air-lift reactors that are relevant in chemical and biological engineering applications. In the present work, a large variety of such setups is used for validation. The buoyancy driven bubbly flows showed thereby a transient behavior on the scale of the facility. Since such large scales are characterized by the geometry of the facility, turbulence models cannot describe them. Therefore, the transient simulation of bubbly flows with two equation models based on the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is investigated. In combination with the before mentioned baseline model these
Felisa, Giada; Ciriello, Valentina; Longo, Sandro; Di Federico, Vittorio
2017-04-01
Modeling of non-Newtonian flow in fractured media is essential in hydraulic fracturing operations, largely used for optimal exploitation of oil, gas and thermal reservoirs. Complex fluids interact with pre-existing rock fractures also during drilling operations, enhanced oil recovery, environmental remediation, and other natural phenomena such as magma and sand intrusions, and mud volcanoes. A first step in the modeling effort is a detailed understanding of flow in a single fracture, as the fracture aperture is typically spatially variable. A large bibliography exists on Newtonian flow in single, variable aperture fractures. Ultimately, stochastic modeling of aperture variability at the single fracture scale leads to determination of the flowrate under a given pressure gradient as a function of the parameters describing the variability of the aperture field and the fluid rheological behaviour. From the flowrate, a flow, or 'hydraulic', aperture can then be derived. The equivalent flow aperture for non-Newtonian fluids of power-law nature in single, variable aperture fractures has been obtained in the past both for deterministic and stochastic variations. Detailed numerical modeling of power-law fluid flow in a variable aperture fracture demonstrated that pronounced channelization effects are associated to a nonlinear fluid rheology. The availability of an equivalent flow aperture as a function of the parameters describing the fluid rheology and the aperture variability is enticing, as it allows taking their interaction into account when modeling flow in fracture networks at a larger scale. A relevant issue in non-Newtonian fracture flow is the rheological nature of the fluid. The constitutive model routinely used for hydro-fracturing modeling is the simple, two-parameter power-law. Yet this model does not characterize real fluids at low and high shear rates, as it implies, for shear-thinning fluids, an apparent viscosity which becomes unbounded for zero shear rate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pazanin, Igor [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Mathematics; Siddheshwar, Pradeep G. [Bangalore Univ., Bengaluru (India). Dept. of Mathematics
2017-06-01
In this article we investigate the fluid flow through a thin fracture modelled as a fluid-saturated porous medium. We assume that the fracture has constrictions and that the flow is governed by the prescribed pressure drop between the edges of the fracture. The problem is described by the Darcy-Lapwood-Brinkman model acknowledging the Brinkman extension of the Darcy law as well as the flow inertia. Using asymptotic analysis with respect to the thickness of the fracture, we derive the explicit higher-order approximation for the velocity distribution. We make an error analysis to comment on the order of accuracy of the method used and also to provide rigorous justification for the model.
Numerical Modeling of the Fluid Flow in Continuous Casting Tundish with Different Control Devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhu He
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulations were conducted to study the melt flow under the influence of control devices in a T-type two-strand bloom caster tundish via the open source Computational Fluid Dynamics software OpenFOAM. Three different cases were studied: a bare tundish, a tundish with two pairs of baffles, and a tundish equipped with a turbulence inhibitor and a pair of baffles. Turbulence inhibitor and baffles arrangement showed an improvement of the fluid flow characteristics, yielding lower values of dead volume and higher values of plug flow. With a turbulence inhibitor, the velocity of metal which flows directly toward the tundish floor is smaller and the turbulence kinetic energy of the melt top surface is lower than the other two arrangements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, R.D.
1980-01-01
This Bureau of Mines report describes the development and application of a computer model for simulating the hydrological activity associated with in situ leaching. The model is intended to provide uranium resource developers with a description of the flow behavior of leachants and ground water during the development, production, and restoration phases of a leaching operation involving an arbitrary pattern of injection and recovery wells. Different aquifer environments are modeled, using a closed-form solution to the partial differential equation that describes three-dimensional changes in piezometric head as a result of pumping from leachant injection and recovery wells. The computer program can model a maximum of 50 arbitarily located wells. Numerical techniques involving difference quotients and Taylor expansions about time points are used to derive time, velocity, areal sweep, and fluid volume parameters associated with leaching hydraulics. These parameters are output by the program in graphic and tabular formats. Other numeric methods insure that the program running time is minimized without significantly affecting the accuracy of results
Pasquier, Sylvain; Quintard, Michel; Davit, Yohan
2017-10-01
Continuum models that describe two-phase flow of immiscible fluids in porous media often treat momentum exchange between the two phases by simply generalizing the single-phase Darcy law and introducing saturation-dependent permeabilities. Here we study models of creeping flows that include an explicit coupling between both phases via the addition of cross terms in the generalized Darcy law. Using an extension of the Buckley-Leverett theory, we analyze the impact of these cross terms on saturation profiles and pressure drops for different couples of fluids and closure relations of the effective parameters. We show that these cross terms in the macroscale models may significantly impact the flow compared to results obtained with the generalized Darcy laws without cross terms. Analytical solutions, validated against experimental data, suggest that the effect of this coupling on the dynamics of saturation fronts and the steady-state profiles is very sensitive to gravitational effects, the ratio of viscosity between the two phases, and the permeability. Our results indicate that the effects of momentum exchange on two-phase flow may increase with the permeability of the porous medium when the influence of the fluid-fluid interfaces become similar to that of the solid-fluid interfaces.
Fluid flow in porous media using image-based modelling to parametrize Richards' equation
Cooper, L. J.; Daly, K. R.; Hallett, P. D.; Naveed, M.; Koebernick, N.; Bengough, A. G.; George, T. S.; Roose, T.
2017-11-01
The parameters in Richards' equation are usually calculated from experimentally measured values of the soil-water characteristic curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The complex pore structures that often occur in porous media complicate such parametrization due to hysteresis between wetting and drying and the effects of tortuosity. Rather than estimate the parameters in Richards' equation from these indirect measurements, image-based modelling is used to investigate the relationship between the pore structure and the parameters. A three-dimensional, X-ray computed tomography image stack of a soil sample with voxel resolution of 6 μm has been used to create a computational mesh. The Cahn-Hilliard-Stokes equations for two-fluid flow, in this case water and air, were applied to this mesh and solved using the finite-element method in COMSOL Multiphysics. The upscaled parameters in Richards' equation are then obtained via homogenization. The effect on the soil-water retention curve due to three different contact angles, 0°, 20° and 60°, was also investigated. The results show that the pore structure affects the properties of the flow on the large scale, and different contact angles can change the parameters for Richards' equation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parihar, A.; Kulkarni, A.; Stern, F.; Xing, T.; Moeykens, S.
2005-01-01
Flow over an Ahmed body is a key benchmark case for validating the complex turbulent flow field around vehicles. In spite of the simple geometry, the flow field around an Ahmed body retains critical features of real, external vehicular flow. The present study is an attempt to implement such a real life example into the course curriculum for undergraduate engineers. FlowLab, which is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool developed by Fluent Inc. for use in engineering education, allows students to conduct interactive application studies. This paper presents a synopsis of FlowLab, a description of one FlowLab exercise, and an overview of the educational experience gained by students through using FlowLab, which is understood through student surveys and examinations. FlowLab-based CFD exercises were implemented into 57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes and 58:160 Intermediate Mechanics of Fluids courses at the University of Iowa in the fall of 2004, although this report focuses only on experiences with the Ahmed body exercise, which was used only in the intermediate-level fluids class, 58:160. This exercise was developed under National Science Foundation funding by the authors of this paper. The focus of this study does not include validating the various turbulence models used for the Ahmed body simulation, because a two-dimensional simplification was applied. With the two-dimensional simplification, students may setup, run, and post process this model in a 50 minute class period using a single-CPU PC, as required for the 58:160 class at the University of Iowa. It is educational for students to understand the implication of a two- dimensional approximation for essentially a three-dimensional flow field, along with the consequent variation in both qualitative and quantitative results. Additionally, through this exercise, students may realize that the choice of the respective turbulence model will affect simulation prediction. (author)
Stress dependent fluid flow in porous rock: experiments and network modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flornes, Olav
2005-07-01
During the lifetime of a hydrocarbon reservoir, the pore pressure decreases because fluids are drained. Changed pore pressure causes a deformation of the reservoir rock, and the flow channels may be narrowed by the increased weight carried by the rock matrix. Knowledge of how the rocks ability to transport fluids, the permeability, is changed by increased stress can be important for effective reservoir management. In this work, we present experimental results for how permeability changes with applied stress. The materials tested are several different sandstones and one limestone, all having porosities higher than 19 percent. Application of stress is done in a number of different ways. We subject the sample to an isotropic stress, and see how changing this applied stress affects permeability as opposed to changing the pore fluid pressure. This allows for investigating the effective stress law for permeability. Permeability decreased by 10 to 20 percent, when we deformed the materials hydro statically within the elastic regime. For all of our samples, we observed a higher permeability change than predicted by a conventional model for relating porosity and permeability, the Kozeny Carman model. For Red Wildmoor, a sandstone having some clay content, we observed that a change in pore pressure was slightly more important for permeability than a change in the applied stress with the same amount. A sandstone with no clay content, Bad Durckheim, showed the opposite behavior, with applied stress slightly more important than pore pressure. We present a new method for measuring permeability in two directions in the same experiment. We apply different anisotropic stresses, and see if a high stress in one direction causes a difference in permeability changes parallel and perpendicular to maximum stress. We observe that deforming the sample axially, causes a larger decrease in axial permeability than in the radial at low confining pressure. At high confining pressure, the
Review on discretization techniques for complex fluid flow models: past, present and future
Ammar, A.; Chinesta, F.; Cueto, E.; Phillips, T.
2007-04-01
In the last decades several new and advanced numerical strategies have been proposed for solving the flow models of complex fluids. Most of them were based in the classical discretization techniques (finite elements, finite volumes, finite differences, spectral methods, meshless approachesĚ) applied on the macroscopic descriptions of such flows (differential and integral models) where special advances were introduced for accounting for the mixed character of the associated variational formulations as well as for stabilizing the advection terms in the motion and constitutive equations. Recently micro-macro approaches are being the more and more applied. They allows to avoid closure relations and the microscopic physics are better described. These models are based on kinetic theory and their main difficulty concerns the curse of dimension. The microstructure conformation is defined in a multidimensional space where standard discretization techniques fail. To overcome this difficulty stochastic techniques were introduced (inspired in the Monte Carlo techniques) but the control of the statistical noise and the low convergence order are some of their main drawbacks. Other new strategies have been recently proposed, as for example the ones based on the sparse grid and the separated representation that allows circumventing the aforementioned difficulties. However the models are the more and more focused on the microscopic scale, where they are formulated in terms of Brownian or molecular dynamics. They allow describing very precisely the molecular dynamics, but the computing time remains its main drawback. Thus, in the next years new efforts must be paid to reduce the computing time involved in microscopic simulations and the definitions of bridges between the different descriptions scales.
Analysis of the two-fluid model in fully-developed two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azpitarte, Osvaldo Enrique
2003-01-01
The two fluid model is analysed and applied to solve vertical fully-developed bubbly two-phase flows, both in laminar and turbulent conditions.The laminar model is reduced to two differential equations to solve the gas fraction (ε G ) and the velocity (υ L ).For the turbulent condition, a k - ε model for low Reynolds number is implemented, resulting in a set of differential equations to solve the four variables (ε G , υ L , k and ε) along the whole radial domain (including the laminar sub layer).For laminar condition, the system is initially reduced to a single non-dimensional ordinary equation (O D E) to solve ε G in the central region of the duct, without considering the effect of the wall.The equation is solved using Mathematic a.Analysing the solutions it can be concluded that an exact compensation of the applied pressure gradient with the hydrostatic force ρ e ff g occurs (ρ e ff : effective density of the mixture).This compensation implies that the value of ε G at the center of the duct only depends on the applied pressure gradient (dependency is linear), and that the ε G and υ L profiles are necessarily fl ato The complete problem is dealt numerically through the implementation of a finite element co deo The effect of the walls is included via a model of wall force.When the code is applied to a laminar condition, the conclusions previously obtained solving the O D E are confirmed.It is also possible to analyse the regime in which the pressure gradient is greater than the weight of the pure liquid, in which case a region of strictly zero void fraction develops surrounding the axis of the duct (in upward flow).When the code is applied to a turbulent condition, it is shown that the conclusions obtained for laminar condition can also be applied, but within a range of pressure gradient limited by two transition values (θ 1 and θ 2 ).An analysis of transitions θ 1 and θ 2 allows u s to conclude that their origin is a sudden increase of lateral
Relaminarization of fluid flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narasimha, R.; Sreenivasan, K.R.
1979-01-01
The mechanisms of the relaminarization of turbulent flows are investigated with a view to establishing any general principles that might govern them. Three basic archetypes of reverting flows are considered: the dissipative type, the absorptive type, and the Richardson type exemplified by a turbulent boundary layer subjected to severe acceleration. A number of other different reverting flows are then considered in the light of the analysis of these archetypes, including radial Poiseuille flow, convex boundary layers, flows reverting by rotation, injection, and suction, as well as heated horizontal and vertical gas flows. Magnetohydrodynamic duct flows are also examined. Applications of flow reversion for turbulence control are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gama, R.M.S. da; Sampaio, R.
1985-01-01
The flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid through a rigid, homogeneous, isotropic and infinite porous medium which has a given inicial distribuition of the mentioned fluid, is analyzed. It is proposed a model that assumes that the motion is caused by concentration gradient, but it does not consider the friction between the porous medium and the fluid. We solve an onedimensional case where the mathematical problem is reduced to the solution of a non-linear hyperbolic system of differential equations, subjected to an inicial condition given by a step function, called 'Riemann Problem'. (Author) [pt
Reddy, G. Janardhana; Hiremath, Ashwini; Kumar, Mahesh
2018-03-01
The present paper aims to investigate the effect of Prandtl number for unsteady third-grade fluid flow over a uniformly heated vertical cylinder using Bejan's heat function concept. The mathematical model of this problem is given by highly time-dependent non-linear coupled equations and are resolved by an efficient unconditionally stable implicit scheme. The time histories of average values of momentum and heat transport coefficients as well as the steady-state flow variables are displayed graphically for distinct values of non-dimensional control parameters arising in the system. As the non-dimensional parameter value gets amplified, the time taken for the fluid flow variables to attain the time-independent state is decreasing. The dimensionless heat function values are closely associated with an overall rate of heat transfer. Thermal energy transfer visualization implies that the heat function contours are compact in the neighborhood of the leading edge of the hot cylindrical wall. It is noticed that the deviations of flow-field variables from the hot wall for a non-Newtonian third-grade fluid flow are significant compared to the usual Newtonian fluid flow.
Probability model of solid to liquid-like transition of a fluid suspension after a shear flow onset
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Nouar, C.; Říha, Pavel
2008-01-01
Roč. 34, č. 5 (2008), s. 477-483 ISSN 0301-9322 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : laminar suspension flow * liquid-liquid interface * probability model Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.497, year: 2008
Bifurcated SEN with Fluid Flow Conditioners
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Rivera-Perez
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This work evaluates the performance of a novel design for a bifurcated submerged entry nozzle (SEN used for the continuous casting of steel slabs. The proposed design incorporates fluid flow conditioners attached on SEN external wall. The fluid flow conditioners impose a pseudosymmetric pattern in the upper zone of the mold by inhibiting the fluid exchange between the zones created by conditioners. The performance of the SEN with fluid flow conditioners is analyzed through numerical simulations using the CFD technique. Numerical results were validated by means of physical simulations conducted on a scaled cold water model. Numerical and physical simulations confirmed that the performance of the proposed SEN is superior to a traditional one. Fluid flow conditioners reduce the liquid free surface fluctuations and minimize the occurrence of vortexes at the free surface.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-Paul Kone
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A review of published three-dimensional, computational fluid dynamics models for proton exchange membrane fuel cells that accounts for multiphase flow is presented. The models can be categorized as models for transport phenomena, geometry or operating condition effects, and thermal effects. The influences of heat and water management on the fuel cell performance have been repeatedly addressed, and these still remain two central issues in proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology. The strengths and weaknesses of the models, the modelling assumptions, and the model validation are discussed. The salient numerical features of the models are examined, and an overview of the most commonly used computational fluid dynamic codes for the numerical modelling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells is given. Comprehensive three-dimensional multiphase flow computational fluid dynamic models accounting for the major transport phenomena inside a complete cell have been developed. However, it has been noted that more research is required to develop models that include among other things, the detailed composition and structure of the catalyst layers, the effects of water droplets movement in the gas flow channels, the consideration of phase change in both the anode and the cathode sides of the fuel cell, and dissolved water transport.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lahey, Richard T.; Drew, Donald A.
2001-01-01
This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the prediction of multidimensional multiphase flow and heat transfer phenomena using a four field, two-fluid model. It is shown that accurate mechanistic computational fluid dynamic (CFD) predictions are possible for a wide variety of adiabatic and diabatic flows using this computational model. In particular, the model is able to predict the bubbly air/water upflow data of Serizawa (Serizawa, A., 1974. Fluid dynamic characteristics of two-phase flow. Ph.D. thesis, (Nuclear Engineering), Kyoto University, Japan), the downflow data of Wang et al. (Wang, S.K., Lee, S.J., Lahey Jr., R.T., Jones, O.C., 1987. 3-D turbulence structure and phase distribution measurements in bubbly two-phase flows. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 13 (3), 327-343), the isosceles triangle upflow data of Lopez de Bertodano et al. (Lopez de Bertodano, M., Lahey Jr., R.T., Jones, O.C., 1994b. Phase distribution in bubbly two-phase flow in vertical ducts. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 20 (5), 805-818), the heated annular R-113 subcooled boiling data of Velidandala, et al. (Velidandla, V., Pulta, S., Roy, P., Kaira, S.P., 1995. Velocity field in turbulent subcooled boiling flow. ASME Preprint HTD-314, 107-123) and the R-113 CHF data of Hino and Ueda (Hino, R., Ueda, T., 1985. Studies on heat transfer and flow characteristics in subcooled boiling-part 2, flow characteristics. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 11, 283-297). It can also predict external two-phase flows, such as those for spreading two-phase jets (Bonetto, F., Lahey Jr., R.T., 1993. An experimental study on air carryunder due to a plunging liquid jet. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 19 (2), 281-294) and multiphase flows around the hull of naval surface ships (Carrica, P.M., Bonetto, F., Drew, D.A., Lahey, R.T., 1999. A polydispersed model for bubbly two-phase flow around a surface ship. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 25 (2), 257-305)
Thermal convection in a magnetized conducting fluid with the Cattaneo-Christov heat-flow model
Bissell, J. J.
2016-11-01
By substituting the Cattaneo-Christov heat-flow model for the more usual parabolic Fourier law, we consider the impact of hyperbolic heat-flow effects on thermal convection in the classic problem of a magnetized conducting fluid layer heated from below. For stationary convection, the system is equivalent to that studied by Chandrasekhar (Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability, 1961), and with free boundary conditions we recover the classical critical Rayleigh number Rc(c )(Q ) which exhibits inhibition of convection by the field according to Rc(c )→π2Q as Q →∞ , where Q is the Chandrasekhar number. However, for oscillatory convection we find that the critical Rayleigh number Rc(o )(Q ,P1,P2,C ) is given by a more complicated function of the thermal Prandtl number P1, magnetic Prandtl number P2 and Cattaneo number C. To elucidate features of this dependence, we neglect P2 (in which case overstability would be classically forbidden), and thereby obtain an expression for the Rayleigh number that is far less strongly inhibited by the field, with limiting behaviour Rc(o )→π √{Q }/ C , as Q →∞ . One consequence of this weaker dependence is that onset of instability occurs as overstability provided C exceeds a threshold value CT(Q); indeed, crucially we show that when Q is large, CT∝1 / √{Q }, meaning that oscillatory modes are preferred even when C itself is small. Similar behaviour is demonstrated in the case of fixed boundaries by means of a novel numerical solution.
Robust processing of optical flow of fluids.
Doshi, Ashish; Bors, Adrian G
2010-09-01
This paper proposes a new approach, coupling physical models and image estimation techniques, for modelling the movement of fluids. The fluid flow is characterized by turbulent movement and dynamically changing patterns which poses challenges to existing optical flow estimation methods. The proposed methodology, which relies on Navier-Stokes equations, is used for processing fluid optical flow by using a succession of stages such as advection, diffusion and mass conservation. A robust diffusion step jointly considering the local data geometry and its statistics is embedded in the proposed framework. The diffusion kernel is Gaussian with the covariance matrix defined by the local second derivatives. Such an anisotropic kernel is able to implicitly detect changes in the vector field orientation and to diffuse accordingly. A new approach is developed for detecting fluid flow structures such as vortices. The proposed methodology is applied on artificially generated vector fields as well as on various image sequences.
Mathematical Model for Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Processes in Plate Exchanger
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cvete B. Dimitrieska
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Within the analytical solution of the system of equations which solve fluid flow and heat transfer processes, the elliptical and parabolic differential equations based on initial and boundary conditions is usually unfamiliar in a closed form. Numerical solution of equation system is necessarily obtained by discretization of equations. When system of equations relate to estimation of two dimensional stationary problems, the applicable method for estimation in basic two – dimensional form is recommended.
A numerical model of two-phase flow at the micro-scale using the volume-of-fluid method
Shams, Mosayeb; Raeini, Ali Q.; Blunt, Martin J.; Bijeljic, Branko
2018-03-01
This study presents a simple and robust numerical scheme to model two-phase flow in porous media where capillary forces dominate over viscous effects. The volume-of-fluid method is employed to capture the fluid-fluid interface whose dynamics is explicitly described based on a finite volume discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations. Interfacial forces are calculated directly on reconstructed interface elements such that the total curvature is preserved. The computed interfacial forces are explicitly added to the Navier-Stokes equations using a sharp formulation which effectively eliminates spurious currents. The stability and accuracy of the implemented scheme is validated on several two- and three-dimensional test cases, which indicate the capability of the method to model two-phase flow processes at the micro-scale. In particular we show how the co-current flow of two viscous fluids leads to greatly enhanced flow conductance for the wetting phase in corners of the pore space, compared to a case where the non-wetting phase is an inviscid gas.
Modeling Two-Phase Flow and Vapor Cycles Using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program
Smith, Amanda D.; Majumdar, Alok K.
2017-01-01
This work presents three new applications for the general purpose fluid network solver code GFSSP developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center: (1) cooling tower, (2) vapor-compression refrigeration system, and (3) vapor-expansion power generation system. These systems are widely used across engineering disciplines in a variety of energy systems, and these models expand the capabilities and the use of GFSSP to include fluids and features that are not part of its present set of provided examples. GFSSP provides pressure, temperature, and species concentrations at designated locations, or nodes, within a fluid network based on a finite volume formulation of thermodynamics and conservation laws. This paper describes the theoretical basis for the construction of the models, their implementation in the current GFSSP modeling system, and a brief evaluation of the usefulness of the model results, as well as their applicability toward a broader spectrum of analytical problems in both university teaching and engineering research.
Two-phase flow modeling for low concentration spherical particle motion through a Newtonian fluid
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Smit GJF
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Models that are used for the simulation of two-phase flows in coastal dynamics make extensive use of empirical data. The main focus of this investigation is to develop models for specific aspects of two-phase flows that are based on physical...
Nordgaard, Håvard; Swillens, Abigail; Nordhaug, Dag; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar; Van Loo, Denis; Vitale, Nicola; Segers, Patrick; Haaverstad, Rune; Lovstakken, Lasse
2010-12-01
Competitive flow from native coronary vessels is considered a major factor in the failure of coronary bypass grafts. However, the pathophysiological effects are not fully understood. Low and oscillatory wall shear stress (WSS) is known to induce endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease, like atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. The aim was to investigate the impact of competitive flow on WSS in mammary artery bypass grafts. Using computational fluid dynamics, WSS was calculated in a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft to the left anterior descending artery in a three-dimensional in vivo porcine coronary artery bypass graft model. The following conditions were investigated: high competitive flow (non-significant coronary lesion), partial competitive flow (significant coronary lesion), and no competitive flow (totally occluded coronary vessel). Time-averaged WSS of LIMA at high, partial, and no competitive flow were 0.3-0.6, 0.6-3.0, and 0.9-3.0 Pa, respectively. Further, oscillatory WSS quantified as the oscillatory shear index (OSI) ranged from (maximum OSI = 0.5 equals zero net WSS) 0.15 to 0.35, OSI similar to the no competitive flow condition. Graft flow is highly dependent on the degree of competitive flow. High competitive flow was found to produce unfavourable WSS consistent with endothelial dysfunction and subsequent graft narrowing and failure. Partial competitive flow, however, may be better tolerated as it was found to be similar to the ideal condition of no competitive flow.
3D Printing of Fluid Flow Structures
Taira, Kunihiko; Sun, Yiyang; Canuto, Daniel
2017-01-01
We discuss the use of 3D printing to physically visualize (materialize) fluid flow structures. Such 3D models can serve as a refreshing hands-on means to gain deeper physical insights into the formation of complex coherent structures in fluid flows. In this short paper, we present a general procedure for taking 3D flow field data and producing a file format that can be supplied to a 3D printer, with two examples of 3D printed flow structures. A sample code to perform this process is also prov...
Mathematical modelling and numerical resolution of multi-phase compressible fluid flows problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lagoutiere, Frederic
2000-01-01
This work deals with Eulerian compressible multi-species fluid dynamics, the species being either mixed or separated (with interfaces). The document is composed of three parts. The first parts devoted to the numerical resolution of model problems: advection equation, Burgers equation, and Euler equations, in dimensions one and two. The goal is to find a precise method, especially for discontinuous initial conditions, and we develop non dissipative algorithms. They are based on a downwind finite-volume discretization under some stability constraints. The second part treats of the mathematical modelling of fluids mixtures. We construct and analyse a set of multi-temperature and multi-pressure models that are entropy, symmetrizable, hyperbolic, not ever conservative. In the third part, we apply the ideas developed in the first part (downwind discretization) to the numerical resolution of the partial differential problems we have constructed for fluids mixtures in the second part. We present some numerical results in dimensions one and two. (author) [fr
Modeling on Fluid Flow and Inclusion Motion in Centrifugal Continuous Casting Strands
Wang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Lifeng; Sridhar, Seetharaman
2016-08-01
During the centrifugal continuous casting process, unreasonable casting parameters can cause violent level fluctuation, serious gas entrainment, and formation of frozen shell pieces at the meniscus. Thus, in the current study, a three-dimensional multiphase turbulent model was established to study the transport phenomena during centrifugal continuous casting process. The effects of nozzle position, casting and rotational speed on the flow pattern, centrifugal force acting on the molten steel, level fluctuation, gas entrainment, shear stress on mold wall, and motion of inclusions during centrifugal continuous casting process were investigated. Volume of Fluid model was used to simulate the molten steel-air two-phase. The level fluctuation and the gas entrainment during casting were calculated by user-developed subroutines. The trajectory of inclusions in the rotating system was calculated using the Lagrangian approach. The results show that during centrifugal continuous casting, a large amount of gas was entrained into the molten steel, and broken into bubbles of various sizes. The greater the distance to the mold wall, the smaller the centrifugal force. Rotation speed had the most important influence on the centrifugal force distribution at the side region. Angular moving angle of the nozzle with 8° and keeping the rotation speed with 60 revolutions per minute can somehow stabilize the level fluctuation. The increase of angular angle of nozzle from 8 to 18 deg and rotation speed from 40 to 80 revolutions per minute favored to decrease the total volume of entrained bubbles, while the increase of distance of nozzle moving left and casting speed had reverse effects. The trajectories of inclusions in the mold were irregular, and then rotated along the strand length. After penetrating a certain distance, the inclusions gradually moved to the center of billet and gathered there. More work, such as the heat transfer, the solidification, and the inclusions entrapment
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 8. The Challenge of Fluid Flow - The Diversity of Flow Phenomena. Roddam Narasimha. General Article Volume 10 Issue 8 August 2005 pp 67-79. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Modelling of fluid flow and heat transfer in a reciprocating compressor
Tuhovcak, J.; Hejcik, J.; Jicha, M.
2015-08-01
Efficiency of reciprocating compressor is strongly dependent on several parameters. The most important are valve behaviour and heat transfer. Valves affect the flow through the suction and discharge line. Heat flow from the walls to working fluid increases the work of the cycle. Understanding of these phenomena inside the compressor is a necessary step in the development process. Commercial CFD tools offer wide range of opportunities how to simulate the flow inside the reciprocating compressor nowadays, however they are too demanding in terms of computational time and mesh creation. Several approaches using various correlation equation exist to describe the heat transfer inside the cylinder, however none of them was validated by measurements due to the complicated settings. The goal of this paper is to show a comparison between these correlations using in-house code based on energy balance through the cycle.
On the viscous dissipation modeling of thermal fluid flow in a porous medium
Salama, Amgad
2011-02-24
The problem of viscous dissipation and thermal dispersion in saturated porous medium is numerically investigated for the case of non-Darcy flow regime. The fluid is induced to flow upward by natural convection as a result of a semi-infinite vertical wall that is immersed in the porous medium and is kept at constant higher temperature. The boundary layer approximations were used to simplify the set of the governing, nonlinear partial differential equations, which were then non-dimensionalized and solved using the finite elements method. The results for the details of the governing parameters are presented and investigated. It is found that the irreversible process of transforming the kinetic energy of the moving fluid to heat energy via the viscosity of the moving fluid (i.e.; viscous dissipation) resulted in insignificant generation of heat for the range of parameters considered in this study. On the other hand, thermal dispersion has shown to disperse heat energy normal to the wall more effectively compared with the normal diffusion mechanism. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Numerical modeling of fluid flow in a fault zone: a case of study from Majella Mountain (Italy).
Romano, Valentina; Battaglia, Maurizio; Bigi, Sabina; De'Haven Hyman, Jeffrey; Valocchi, Albert J.
2017-04-01
The study of fluid flow in fractured rocks plays a key role in reservoir management, including CO2 sequestration and waste isolation. We present a numerical model of fluid flow in a fault zone, based on field data acquired in Majella Mountain, in the Central Apennines (Italy). This fault zone is considered a good analogue for the massive presence of fluid migration in the form of tar. Faults are mechanical features and cause permeability heterogeneities in the upper crust, so they strongly influence fluid flow. The distribution of the main components (core, damage zone) can lead the fault zone to act as a conduit, a barrier, or a combined conduit-barrier system. We integrated existing information and our own structural surveys of the area to better identify the major fault features (e.g., type of fractures, statistical properties, geometrical and petro-physical characteristics). In our model the damage zones of the fault are described as discretely fractured medium, while the core of the fault as a porous one. Our model utilizes the dfnWorks code, a parallelized computational suite, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), that generates three dimensional Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) of the damage zones of the fault and characterizes its hydraulic parameters. The challenge of the study is the coupling between the discrete domain of the damage zones and the continuum one of the core. The field investigations and the basic computational workflow will be described, along with preliminary results of fluid flow simulation at the scale of the fault.
Numerical analysis of refrigerant flow along non-adiabatic capillary tubes using a two-fluid model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seixlack, A.L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Paulo State University, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: andre@dem.feis.unesp.br; Barbazelli, M.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Paulo State University, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil)
2009-02-15
This work presents a numerical model to simulate steady state refrigerant flow along capillary tube-suction line heat exchangers, commonly used in small refrigeration systems. The flow along the straight and horizontal capillary tube is divided into two regions: a single-phase and a two-phase flow region. The flow is taken as one-dimensional and the metastable flow phenomenon is neglected. The two-fluid model is employed for the two-phase flow region, considering the hydrodynamic and the thermodynamic non-equilibrium between the liquid and vapor phases. Comparisons are made with experimental measurements of the mass flow rate and temperature distribution along capillary tube-suction line heat exchangers working with refrigerant R134a in different operating conditions. The results indicate that the present model provides a good estimation of the refrigerant mass flow rate. Moreover, comparisons with a homogeneous model are also made. Some computational results referring to the quality, void fraction and velocities of each phase are also presented and discussed.
Dynamic simulation of wavy-stratified two-phase flow with the one-dimensional two-fluid model
Fullmer, William D.
The one-dimensional two-fluid model is the basis for the description of the transport of mass, momentum and energy in the thermal-hydraulic codes used for nuclear reactor safety analysis. Unlike other physical transport models, the one-dimensional two-fluid model suffers from the possibility of being ill-posed as an initial-boundary value problem depending on the flow conditions and the relevant physical closure laws. Typically, the ill-posedness is dealt with through either excessive numerical damping or the addition of unphysical closure laws designed for the sole purpose of hyperbolization. Unfortunately both methods eliminate the instability along with the problem of ill-posedness causing the model to undoubtedly lose some of its inherent dynamic capability. In this work, a one-dimensional two-fluid model for horizontal or slightly inclined stratified flow is developed. Higher order physical models that are often neglected, such as surface tension and axial viscous stress, are retained for their short-wavelength stability properties. Characteristic, dispersion and nonlinear analyses are performed to demonstrate that the resulting model is linearly well-posed and nonlinearly well-behaved. While it has been known that higher-order differential terms are able to regularize the short-wavelength problem of ill-posedness without removing the long-wavelength instability, the literature is relatively silent on the consequences of using a model under linearly unstable conditions. Using carefully selected conditions in an idealized infinite domain, it is demonstrated for the first time that the one-dimensional two-fluid model exhibits chaotic behavior in addition to limit cycles and asymptotic stability. The chaotic behavior is a consequence of the long-wavelength linear instability (energy source) the nonlinearity (energy transfer) and the short-wavelength dissipation (energy sink). Since the model is chaotic, solutions exhibit a sensitive dependence on initial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Mushtaq
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Present work studies the well-known Sakiadis flow of Maxwell fluid along a moving plate in a calm fluid by considering the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model. This recently developed model has the tendency to describe the characteristics of relaxation time for heat flux. Some numerical local similarity solutions of the associated problem are computed by two approaches namely (i the shooting method and (ii the Keller-box method. The solution is dependent on some interesting parameters which include the viscoelastic fluid parameter β, the dimensionless thermal relaxation time γ and the Prandtl number Pr. Our simulations indicate that variation in the temperature distribution with an increase in local Deborah number γ is non-monotonic. The results for the Fourier’s heat conduction law can be obtained as special cases of the present study.
Boutsioukis, C; Verhaagen, B; Versluis, M; Kastrinakis, E; van der Sluis, L W M
2010-05-01
To compare the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the irrigant flow within a prepared root canal, during final irrigation with a syringe and a needle, with experimental high-speed visualizations and theoretical calculations of an identical geometry and to evaluate the effect of off-centre positioning of the needle inside the root canal. A CFD model was created to simulate irrigant flow from a side-vented needle inside a prepared root canal. Calculations were carried out for four different positions of the needle inside a prepared root canal. An identical root canal model was made from poly-dimethyl-siloxane (PDMS). High-speed imaging of the flow seeded with particles and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) were combined to obtain the velocity field inside the root canal experimentally. Computational, theoretical and experimental results were compared to assess the validity of the computational model. Comparison between CFD computations and experiments revealed good agreement in the velocity magnitude and vortex location and size. Small lateral displacements of the needle inside the canal had a limited effect on the flow field. High-speed imaging experiments together with PIV of the flow inside a simulated root canal showed a good agreement with the CFD model, even though the flow was unsteady. Therefore, the CFD model is able to predict reliably the flow in similar domains.
Sui, Jize; Zhao, Peng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Zheng, Liancun; Zhang, Xinxin
2017-02-01
The rheological and heat-conduction constitutive models of micropolar fluids (MFs), which are important non-Newtonian fluids, have been, until now, characterized by simple linear expressions, and as a consequence, the non-Newtonian performance of such fluids could not be effectively captured. Here, we establish the novel nonlinear constitutive models of a micropolar fluid and apply them to boundary layer flow and heat transfer problems. The nonlinear power law function of angular velocity is represented in the new models by employing generalized " n -diffusion theory," which has successfully described the characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids, such as shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. These novel models may offer a new approach to the theoretical understanding of shear-thinning behavior and anomalous heat transfer caused by the collective micro-rotation effects in a MF with shear flow according to recent experiments. The nonlinear similarity equations with a power law form are derived and the approximate analytical solutions are obtained by the homotopy analysis method, which is in good agreement with the numerical solutions. The results indicate that non-Newtonian behaviors involving a MF depend substantially on the power exponent n and the modified material parameter [Formula: see text] introduced by us. Furthermore, the relations of the engineering interest parameters, including local boundary layer thickness, local skin friction, and Nusselt number are found to be fitted by a quadratic polynomial to n with high precision, which enables the extraction of the rapid predictions from a complex nonlinear boundary-layer transport system.
Sui, Jize; Zhao, Peng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Zheng, Liancun; Zhang, Xinxin
2017-02-01
The rheological and heat-conduction constitutive models of micropolar fluids (MFs), which are important non-Newtonian fluids, have been, until now, characterized by simple linear expressions, and as a consequence, the non-Newtonian performance of such fluids could not be effectively captured. Here, we establish the novel nonlinear constitutive models of a micropolar fluid and apply them to boundary layer flow and heat transfer problems. The nonlinear power law function of angular velocity is represented in the new models by employing generalized "n-diffusion theory," which has successfully described the characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids, such as shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. These novel models may offer a new approach to the theoretical understanding of shear-thinning behavior and anomalous heat transfer caused by the collective micro-rotation effects in a MF with shear flow according to recent experiments. The nonlinear similarity equations with a power law form are derived and the approximate analytical solutions are obtained by the homotopy analysis method, which is in good agreement with the numerical solutions. The results indicate that non-Newtonian behaviors involving a MF depend substantially on the power exponent n and the modified material parameter K 0 introduced by us. Furthermore, the relations of the engineering interest parameters, including local boundary layer thickness, local skin friction, and Nusselt number are found to be fitted by a quadratic polynomial to n with high precision, which enables the extraction of the rapid predictions from a complex nonlinear boundary-layer transport system.
Decuyper, J.; De Troyer, T.; Runacres, M. C.; Tiels, K.; Schoukens, J.
2018-01-01
The flow-induced vibration of bluff bodies is an important problem of many marine, civil, or mechanical engineers. In the design phase of such structures, it is vital to obtain good predictions of the fluid forces acting on the structure. Current methods rely on computational fluid dynamic simulations (CFD), with a too high computational cost to be effectively used in the design phase or for control applications. Alternative methods use heuristic mathematical models of the fluid forces, but these lack the accuracy (they often assume the system to be linear) or flexibility to be useful over a wide operating range. In this work we show that it is possible to build an accurate, flexible and low-computational-cost mathematical model using nonlinear system identification techniques. This model is data driven: it is trained over a user-defined region of interest using data obtained from experiments or simulations, or both. Here we use a Van der Pol oscillator as well as CFD simulations of an oscillating circular cylinder to generate the training data. Then a discrete-time polynomial nonlinear state-space model is fit to the data. This model relates the oscillation of the cylinder to the force that the fluid exerts on the cylinder. The model is finally validated over a wide range of oscillation frequencies and amplitudes, both inside and outside the so-called lock-in region. We show that forces simulated by the model are in good agreement with the data obtained from CFD.
Simulation based engineering in fluid flow design
Rao, J S
2017-01-01
This volume offers a tool for High Performance Computing (HPC). A brief historical background on the subject is first given. Fluid Statics dealing with Pressure in fluids at rest, Buoyancy and Basics of Thermodynamics are next presented. The Finite Volume Method, the most convenient process for HPC, is explained in one-dimensional approach to diffusion with convection and pressure velocity coupling. Adiabatic, isentropic and supersonic flows in quasi-one dimensional flows in axisymmetric nozzles is considered before applying CFD solutions. Though the theory is restricted to one-dimensional cases, three-dimensional CFD examples are also given. Lastly, nozzle flows with normal shocks are presented using turbulence models. Worked examples and exercises are given in each chapter. Fluids transport thermal energy for its conversion to kinetic energy, thus playing a major role that is central to all heat engines. With the advent of rotating machinery in the 20th century, Fluid Engineering was developed in the form o...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilbois, B.
2003-07-01
In this work, a new model is built which allows to take into consideration the overall mass transfer phenomena (in particular convection) taking place inside a mixture of n{sub c} constituents in a porous medium. This model should allow to foresee the quantitative composition of fluids in oil fields and also to improve the knowledge of the flow of different species inside mixtures. The overall physical phenomena taking place at oil fields is explained in the first chapter. Chapter 2 recalls some thermodynamical notions at the equilibrium and outside equilibrium. These notions, necessary to understand the forecasting methods used by petroleum geologists, are described in chapter 3. This chapter includes also a bibliographic study about the methods of simulation of mass and heat transfers in porous media. In chapter 4, using the thermodynamical relations of irreversible processes described in chapter 2, a new type of macroscopic model allowing to describe the overall phenomena analyzed is developed. The numerical method used to solve this new system of equations is precised. Finally, chapter 5 proposes a set of cases for the validation of the uncoupled phenomena and some qualitative examples of modeling of coupled phenomena. (J.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araujo, Janeo Severino C. de; Dantas, Carlos Costa; Santos, Valdemir A. dos; Souza, Jose Edson G. de; Luna-Finkler, Christine L.
2009-01-01
The fluid dynamic behavior of riser of a cold flow model of a Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU) was investigated. The experimental data were obtained by the nuclear technique of gamma transmission. A gamma source was placed diametrically opposite to a detector in any straight section of the riser. The gas-solid flow through riser was monitored with a source of Americium-241 what allowed obtaining information of the axial solid concentration without flow disturbance and also identifying the dependence of this concentration profile with several independent variables. The MatLab R and Statistica R software were used. Statistica tool employed was the Principal Components Analysis (PCA), that consisted of the job of the data organization, through two-dimensional head offices to allow extract relevant information about the importance of the independent variables on axial solid concentration in a cold flow riser. The variables investigated were mass flow rate of solid, mass flow rate of gas, pressure in the riser base and the relative height in the riser. The first two components reached about 98 % of accumulated percentage of explained variance. (author)
A site-scale model for fluid and heat flow in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada
Wu, Yu-Shu; Haukwa, Charles; Bodvarsson, G. S.
1999-05-01
A three-dimensional unsaturated-zone numerical model has been developed to simulate flow and distribution of moisture, gas and heat at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential repository site for high-level radioactive waste. The model takes into account the simultaneous flow dynamics of liquid water, vapor, air and heat in the highly heterogeneous, fractured porous rock in the unsaturated zone (UZ). This model is intended for use in the prediction of the current and future conditions in the UZ so as to aid in the assessment of the system performance of the proposed repository. The modeling approach is based on a mathematical formulation of coupled multiphase, multicomponent fluid and heat flow through porous and fractured rock. Fracture and matrix flow is treated using both dual-permeability and effective-continuum modeling approaches. The model domain covers a total area of approximately 43 km 2, and uses the land surface and the water table as its top and bottom boundaries. In addition, site-specific data, representative surface infiltration, and geothermal conditions are incorporated into the model. The reliability and accuracy of the model have been the subject of a comprehensive model calibration study, in which the model was calibrated against measured data, including liquid saturation, water potential and temperature. It has been found that the model is generally able to reproduce the overall system behavior at Yucca Mountain with respect to moisture profiles, pneumatic pressure variations in different geological units, and ambient geothermal conditions.
Frolov, S V; Sindeev, S V; Liepsch, D; Balasso, A
2016-05-18
According to the clinical data, flow conditions play a major role in the genesis of intracranial aneurysms. The disorder of the flow structure is the cause of damage of the inner layer of the vessel wall, which leads to the development of cerebral aneurysms. Knowledge of the alteration of the flow field in the aneurysm region is important for treatment. The aim is to study quantitatively the flow structure in an patient-specific aneurysm model of the internal carotid artery using both experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. A patient-specific geometry of aneurysm of the internal carotid artery was used. Patient data was segmented and smoothed to obtain geometrical model. An elastic true-to-scale silicone model was created with stereolithography. For initial investigation of the blood flow, the flow was visualized by adding particles into the silicone model. The precise flow velocity measurements were done using 1D Laser Doppler Anemometer with a spatial resolution of 50 μ m and a temporal resolution of 1 ms. The local velocity measurements were done at a distance of 4 mm to each other. A fluid with non-Newtonian properties was used in the experiment. The CFD simulations for unsteady-state problem were done using constructed hexahedral mesh for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Using 1D laser Doppler Anemometer the minimum velocity magnitude at the end of systole -0.01 m/s was obtained in the aneurysm dome while the maximum velocity 1 m/s was at the center of the outlet segment. On central cross section of the aneurysm the maximum velocity value is only 20% of the average inlet velocity. The average velocity on the cross-section is only 11% of the inlet axial velocity. Using the CFD simulation the wall shear stresses for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid at the end of systolic phase (t= 0.25 s) were computed. The wall shear stress varies from 3.52 mPa (minimum value) to 10.21 Pa (maximum value) for the
Duddu, Ravindra
2009-05-01
We present a two-dimensional biofilm growth model in a continuum framework using an Eulerian description. A computational technique based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and the level set method is used to simulate the growth of the biofilm. The model considers fluid flow around the biofilm surface, the advection-diffusion and reaction of substrate, variable biomass volume fraction and erosion due to the interfacial shear stress at the biofilm-fluid interface. The key assumptions of the model and the governing equations of transport, biofilm kinetics and biofilm mechanics are presented. Our 2D biofilm growth results are in good agreement with those obtained by Picioreanu et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 69(5):504-515, 2000). Detachment due to erosion is modeled using two continuous speed functions based on: (a) interfacial shear stress and (b) biofilm height. A relation between the two detachment models in the case of a 1D biofilm is established and simulated biofilm results with detachment in 2D are presented. The stress in the biofilm due to fluid flow is evaluated and higher stresses are observed close to the substratum where the biofilm is attached. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Two-Phase Acto-Cytosolic Fluid Flow in a Moving Keratocyte: A 2D Continuum Model.
Nikmaneshi, M R; Firoozabadi, B; Saidi, M S
2015-09-01
The F-actin network and cytosol in the lamellipodia of crawling cells flow in a centripetal pattern and spout-like form, respectively. We have numerically studied this two-phase flow in the realistic geometry of a moving keratocyte. Cytosol has been treated as a low viscosity Newtonian fluid flowing through the high viscosity porous medium of F-actin network. Other involved phenomena including myosin activity, adhesion friction, and interphase interaction are also discussed to provide an overall view of this problem. Adopting a two-phase coupled model by myosin concentration, we have found new accurate perspectives of acto-cytosolic flow and pressure fields, myosin distribution, as well as the distribution of effective forces across the lamellipodia of a keratocyte with stationary shape. The order of magnitude method is also used to determine the contribution of forces in the internal dynamics of lamellipodia.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao, W.; Coste, P.; Bestion, D.; Boucker, M.
2003-01-01
In this paper, a local 3D two-fluid model for a turbulent stratified flow with/without condensation, which can be used to predict two-phase pressurized thermal shock, is presented. A modified turbulent K- model is proposed with turbulence production induced by interfacial friction. A model of interfacial friction based on a interfacial sublayer concept and three interfacial heat transfer models, namely, a model based on the small eddies controlled surface renewal concept (HDM, Hughes and Duffey, 1991), a model based on the asymptotic behavior of the Eddy Viscosity (EVM), and a model based on the Interfacial Sublayer concept (ISM) are implemented into a preliminary version of the NEPTUNE code based on the 3D module of the CATHARE code. As a first step to apply the above models to predict the two-phase thermal shock, the models are evaluated by comparison of calculated profiles with several experiments: a turbulent air-water stratified flow without interfacial heat transfer; a turbulent steam-water stratified flow with condensation; turbulence induced by the impact of a water jet in a water pool. The prediction results agree well with the experimental data. In addition, the comparison of three interfacial heat transfer models shows that EVM and ISM gave better prediction results while HDM highly overestimated the interfacial heat transfers compared to the experimental data of a steam water stratified flow
Perfluorocarbon Tracers (PFTs) Complement stable Isotopes and Geochemistry for Verifying, Assessing or Modeling Fluid Flow. Geochemistry, Isotopes and PFT’s complement Geophysics to monitor and verify plume movement, leakage to shallow aquifers or surface
Mosbahi, Selim; Mickaily-Huber, Elizabeth; Charbonnier, Dominique; Hullin, Roger; Burki, Marco; Ferrari, Enrico; von Segesser, Ludwig K; Berdajs, Denis A
2014-10-01
The reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) with valved conduits remains a challenge. The reoperation rate at 5 years can be as high as 25% and depends on age, type of conduit, conduit diameter and principal heart malformation. The aim of this study is to provide a bench model with computer fluid dynamics to analyse the haemodynamics of the RVOT, pulmonary artery, its bifurcation, and left and right pulmonary arteries that in the future may serve as a tool for analysis and prediction of outcome following RVOT reconstruction. Pressure, flow and diameter at the RVOT, pulmonary artery, bifurcation of the pulmonary artery, and left and right pulmonary arteries were measured in five normal pigs with a mean weight of 24.6 ± 0.89 kg. Data obtained were used for a 3D computer fluid-dynamics simulation of flow conditions, focusing on the pressure, flow and shear stress profile of the pulmonary trunk to the level of the left and right pulmonary arteries. Three inlet steady flow profiles were obtained at 0.2, 0.29 and 0.36 m/s that correspond to the flow rates of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 l/min flow at the RVOT. The flow velocity profile was constant at the RVOT down to the bifurcation and decreased at the left and right pulmonary arteries. In all three inlet velocity profiles, low sheer stress and low-velocity areas were detected along the left wall of the pulmonary artery, at the pulmonary artery bifurcation and at the ostia of both pulmonary arteries. This computed fluid real-time model provides us with a realistic picture of fluid dynamics in the pulmonary tract area. Deep shear stress areas correspond to a turbulent flow profile that is a predictive factor for the development of vessel wall arteriosclerosis. We believe that this bench model may be a useful tool for further evaluation of RVOT pathology following surgical reconstructions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 9. The Challenge of Fluid Flow - What One Can and Cannot Do. Roddam Narasimha. General Article Volume 10 Issue 9 September 2005 pp 6-22. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Jong Hark; Chae, Hee Taek; Park, Cheol; Kim, Heon Il
2008-09-15
Since the heat flux of the rod type fuel used in the HANARO, a research reactor being operated in the KAERI, is substantially higher than the heat flux of power reactors, the HANARO fuel has 8 longitudinal fins for enhancing the heat release from the fuel rod surface. This unique shape of a nuclear fuel led us to study the flows and thermal hydraulic characteristics of it. Especially because the flows through the narrow channels built up by these finned rod fuels would be different from the flow characteristics in the coolant channels formed by bare rod fuels, some experimental studies to investigate the flow behaviors and structures in a finned rod bundle were done by other researchers. But because of the very complex geometries of the flow channels in the finned rod bundle only allowed us to obtain limited information about the flow characteristics, a numerical study by a computational fluid dynamics technique has been adopted to elucidate more about such a complicated flow in a finned rod bundle. In this study, for the development of an adequate computational model to simulate such a complex geometry, a mesh sensitivity study and the effects of various turbulence models were examined. The CFD analysis results were compared with the experimental results. Some of them have a good agreement with the experimental results. All linear eddy viscosity turbulence models could hardly predict the secondary flows near the fuel surfaces and in the sub-channel, but the RSM (Reynolds Stress Model) revealed very different results from the eddy viscosity turbulence models. In the transient analysis all turbulence model predicted flow pulsation at the center of a subchannel as well as at the gap between rods in spite of large P/D. The flow pulsation showed different results with turbulence models and the location in the sub-channels.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiangwei Kong
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A dynamic pressure wave velocity model is presented based on momentum equation, mass-balance equation, equation of state, and small perturbation theory. Simultaneously, the drift model was used to analyze the flow characteristics of oil, gas, water, and drilling fluid multiphase flow. In addition, the dynamic model considers the gas dissolution, virtual mass force, drag force, and relative motion of the interphase as well. Finite difference and Newton-Raphson iterative are introduced to the numerical simulation of the dynamic model. The calculation results indicate that the wave velocity is more sensitive to the increase of gas influx rate than the increase of oil/water influx rate. Wave velocity decreases significantly with the increase of gas influx. Influenced by the pressure drop of four-phase fluid flowing along the annulus, wave velocity tends to increase with respect to well depth, contrary to the gradual reduction of gas void fraction at different depths with the increase of backpressure (BP. Analysis also found that the growth of angular frequency will lead to an increase of wave velocity at low range. Comparison with the calculation results without considering virtual mass force demonstrates that the calculated wave velocity is relatively bigger by using the presented model.
Modeling Coupled Processes for Multiphase Fluid Flow in Mechanically Deforming Faults
McKenna, S. A.; Pike, D. Q.
2011-12-01
Modeling of coupled hydrological-mechanical processes in fault zones is critical for understanding the long-term behavior of fluids within the shallow crust. Here we utilize a previously developed cellular-automata (CA) model to define the evolution of permeability within a 2-D fault zone under compressive stress. At each time step, the CA model calculates the increase in fluid pressure within the fault at every grid cell. Pressure surpassing a critical threshold (e.g., lithostatic stress) causes a rupture in that cell, and pressure is then redistributed across the neighboring cells. The rupture can cascade through the spatial domain and continue across multiple time steps. Stress continues to increase and the size and location of rupture events are recorded until a percolating backbone of ruptured cells exists across the fault. Previous applications of this model consider uncorrelated random fields for the compressibility of the fault material. The prior focus on uncorrelated property fields is consistent with development of a number of statistical physics models including percolation processes and fracture propagation. However, geologic materials typically express spatial correlation and this can have a significant impact on the results of the pressure and permeability distributions. We model correlation of the fault material compressibility as a multiGaussian random field with a correlation length defined as the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of the kernel used to create the field. The FWHM is varied from contract DE-AC04-94AL85000
Timmel, K.; Kratzsch, C.; Asad, A.; Schurmann, D.; Schwarze, R.; Eckert, S.
2017-07-01
The present paper reports about numerical simulations and model experiments concerned with the fluid flow in the continuous casting process of steel. This work was carried out in the LIMMCAST project in the framework of the Helmholtz alliance LIMTECH. A brief description of the LIMMCAST facilities used for the experimental modeling at HZDR is given here. Ultrasonic and inductive techniques and the X-ray radioscopy were employed for flow measurements or visualizations of two-phase flow regimes occurring in the submerged entry nozzle and the mold. Corresponding numerical simulations were performed at TUBAF taking into account the dimensions and properties of the model experiments. Numerical models were successfully validated using the experimental data base. The reasonable and in many cases excellent agreement of numerical with experimental data allows to extrapolate the models to real casting configurations. Exemplary results will be presented here showing the effect of electromagnetic brakes or electromagnetic stirrers on the flow in the mold or illustrating the properties of two-phase flows resulting from an Ar injection through the stopper rod.
Topology of helical fluid flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Morten; Brøns, Morten
2014-01-01
Phys. Fluids 25, 1949–1952) contains an infinite sum of modified Bessel functions. Using the approach by Okulov (Okulov, V. L. 1995 Russ. J. Eng. Thermophys. 5, 63–75) we obtain a closed-form approximation which is considerably easier to analyse. Critical points of the stream function can be found from...... function for the topology of the streamline pattern in incompressible flows. On this basis, we perform a comprehensive study of the topology of the flow field generated by a helical vortex filament in an ideal fluid. The classical expression for the stream function obtained by Hardin (Hardin, J. C. 1982...... the zeroes of a single real function of one variable, and we show that three different flow topologies can occur, depending on a single dimensionless parameter. By including the self-induced velocity on the vortex filament by a localised induction approximation, the stream function is slightly modified...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin-Zhou Zhao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This study uses similar construction method of solution (SCMS to solve mathematical models of fluid spherical flow in a fractal reservoir which can avoid the complicated mathematical deduction. The models are presented in three kinds of outer boundary conditions (infinite, constant pressure, and closed. The influence of wellbore storage effect, skin factor, and variable flow rate production is also involved in the inner boundary conditions. The analytical solutions are constructed in the Laplace space and presented in a pattern with one continued fraction—the similar structure of solution. The pattern can bring convenience to well test analysis programming. The mathematical beauty of fractal is that the infinite complexity is formed with relatively simple equations. So the relation of reservoir parameters (wellbore storage effect, the skin factor, fractal dimension, and conductivity index, the formation pressure, and the wellbore pressure can be learnt easily. Type curves of the wellbore pressure and pressure derivative are plotted and analyzed in real domain using the Stehfest numerical invention algorithm. The SCMS and type curves can interpret intuitively transient pressure response of fractal spherical flow reservoir. The results obtained in this study have both theoretical and practical significance in evaluating fluid flow in such a fractal reservoir and embody the convenience of the SCMS.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Limtrakarn
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Natural flow rate and sweet peppers productivity in tropical greenhouse are improved by CFD simulation is the main objective of this research work. Most of the greenhouse types today are in the arch shape. To develop an improved greenhouse structure for the region, the arch type was built and used as the control model. Mae Sar Mai agriculture research station under the royal project foundation was selected as the field test site. Temperature sensors with data logger were installed to monitor variation of temperature inside the greenhouse. The measured temperature data were used as the boundary conditions for the CFD analysis. A new greenhouse model with two-step roof shape was designed and the air flow behavior was simulated by using CFD. Regarding CFD results the air flow rate of the new model is about 39% higher than that of old model. The maximum temperature of the new model is lower than that of the old one. The sweet paper growths in both greenhouse models were measured and compared. Results show that the new model obtains 4°C lower maximum temperature in day time, 97% in number and 90% in weight higher the first grade pepper productivity than the old one.
Modelling turbulent fluid flows in nuclear and fossil-fired power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viollet, P.L.
1995-06-01
The turbulent flows encountered in nuclear reactor thermal hydraulic studies or fossil-fired plant thermo-aerodynamic analyses feature widely varying characteristics, frequently entailing heat transfers and two-phase flows so that modelling these phenomena tends more and more to involve coupling between several branches of engineering. Multi-scale geometries are often encountered, with complex wall shapes, such as a PWR vessel, a reactor coolant pump impeller or a circulating fluidized bed combustion chamber. When it comes to validating physical models of these flows, the analytical process highlights the main descriptive parameters of local flow conditions: tensor characterizing the turbulence anisotropy, characteristic time scales for turbulent flow particle dynamics. Cooperative procedures implemented between national or international working parties can accelerate validation by sharing and exchanging results obtained by the various organizations involved. With this principle accepted, we still have to validate the products themselves, i.e. the software used for the studies. In this context, the ESTET, ASTRID and N3S codes have been subjected to a battery of test cases covering their respective fields of application. These test cases are re-run for each new version, so that the sets of test cases systematically benefit from the gradually upgraded functionalities of the codes. (author). refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khansa Rubab
Full Text Available This letter investigates the MHD three-dimensional flow of upper-convected Maxwell (UCM fluid over a bi-directional stretching surface by considering the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model. This model has tendency to capture the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The governing partial differential equations even after employing the boundary layer approximations are non linear. Accurate analytic solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are computed through well-known homotopy analysis method (HAM. It is noticed that velocity decreases and temperature rises when stronger magnetic field strength is accounted. Penetration depth of temperature is a decreasing function of thermal relaxation time. The analysis for classical Fourier heat conduction law can be obtained as a special case of the present work. To our knowledge, the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model law for three-dimensional viscoelastic flow problem is just introduced here.
Rubab, Khansa; Mustafa, M
2016-01-01
This letter investigates the MHD three-dimensional flow of upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a bi-directional stretching surface by considering the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model. This model has tendency to capture the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The governing partial differential equations even after employing the boundary layer approximations are non linear. Accurate analytic solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are computed through well-known homotopy analysis method (HAM). It is noticed that velocity decreases and temperature rises when stronger magnetic field strength is accounted. Penetration depth of temperature is a decreasing function of thermal relaxation time. The analysis for classical Fourier heat conduction law can be obtained as a special case of the present work. To our knowledge, the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model law for three-dimensional viscoelastic flow problem is just introduced here.
Druhan, J. L.; Maher, K.
2014-12-01
From the point of infiltration to the point of discharge, the chemical signature imparted to fluid flowing through catchments represents the weathering flux from the landscape. The magnitude of this flux is linked to both the time water spends in the system and the time required for reactions to influence fluid chemistry. The ratio of these characteristic times is often represented as a Damköhler number (Da), which links the parameters governing reactivity and flow. Stable isotope ratios are now commonly applied to identify and even quantify the processes and rates of primary mineral weathering, secondary mineral formation and biogeochemical cycling within catchments. Here, we derive a series of fractionation-discharge relationships for a variety of governing chemical rate laws utilizing Da coefficients. These equations can be used to isolate and quantify the effects of (1) fluid travel time distributions and (2) chemical weathering efficiency on observed stable isotope ratios. The analytical solutions are verified against multi-component reactive transport simulations of stable isotope fractionation in homogeneous and spatially correlated heterogeneous flow fields using the CrunchTope code and evaluated against field observations. We demonstrate that for an irreversible reaction, the relationship between stable isotope enrichment and reactant concentration obeys a Rayleigh-type model across a wide range of reaction rates. However, this relationship is violated when a heterogeneous travel time distribution is considered. This observation highlights an important discrepancy in the commonly assumed relationship between fractionation and concentration for irreversible reactions. We further extend our derivation to consider isotope fractionation associated with a reversible reaction (i.e. a kinetically controlled approach to equilibrium) in a steady-state flow field. Due to the dependence of the observed isotope ratio on the flow rate, kinetic enrichment and
Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild
1998-01-01
The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnston, Henry [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Cong [Colorado School of Mines; Winterfeld, Philip [Colorado School of Mines; Wu, Yu-Shu [Colorado School of Mines
2018-02-14
An efficient modeling approach is described for incorporating arbitrary 3D, discrete fractures, such as hydraulic fractures or faults, into modeling fracture-dominated fluid flow and heat transfer in fractured geothermal reservoirs. This technique allows 3D discrete fractures to be discretized independently from surrounding rock volume and inserted explicitly into a primary fracture/matrix grid, generated without including 3D discrete fractures in prior. An effective computational algorithm is developed to discretize these 3D discrete fractures and construct local connections between 3D fractures and fracture/matrix grid blocks of representing the surrounding rock volume. The constructed gridding information on 3D fractures is then added to the primary grid. This embedded fracture modeling approach can be directly implemented into a developed geothermal reservoir simulator via the integral finite difference (IFD) method or with TOUGH2 technology This embedded fracture modeling approach is very promising and computationally efficient to handle realistic 3D discrete fractures with complicated geometries, connections, and spatial distributions. Compared with other fracture modeling approaches, it avoids cumbersome 3D unstructured, local refining procedures, and increases computational efficiency by simplifying Jacobian matrix size and sparsity, while keeps sufficient accuracy. Several numeral simulations are present to demonstrate the utility and robustness of the proposed technique. Our numerical experiments show that this approach captures all the key patterns about fluid flow and heat transfer dominated by fractures in these cases. Thus, this approach is readily available to simulation of fractured geothermal reservoirs with both artificial and natural fractures.
Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Simulation
1999-01-01
These simulations of atmospheric flow use the same experimental parameters but started with slightly different initial conditions in the model. The simulations were part of data analysis for the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC), a planet in a test tube apparatus flown on Spacelab to mimic the atmospheres on gas giant planets and stars. (Credit: Dr. Tim Miller of Global Hydrology and Climate Center at the Marshall Space Flight Center)
Measurements of fluid flow in weld pools
Zhao, C.
2011-01-01
Understanding the fluid flow in weld pools contributes significantly toward controlling the heat distribution in the base material and the mass distribution of molten base and additive materials. Currently, most investigations focus primarily on numerical models, due to the experimental difficulties
Ferroelectric Fluid Flow Control Valve
Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)
1999-01-01
An active valve is controlled and driven by external electrical actuation of a ferroelectric actuator to provide for improved passage of the fluid during certain time periods and to provide positive closure of the valve during other time periods. The valve provides improved passage in the direction of flow and positive closure in the direction against the flow. The actuator is a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature, said dome shaped actuator having a rim and an apex. and a dome height measured from a plane through said rim said apex that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and an outside surface of said dome shaped actuator.
W. Limtrakarn; P. Boonmongkol; A. Chompupoung; K. Rungprateepthaworn; J. Kruenate; P. Dechaumphai
2012-01-01
Natural flow rate and sweet peppers productivity in tropical greenhouse are improved by CFD simulation is the main objective of this research work. Most of the greenhouse types today are in the arch shape. To develop an improved greenhouse structure for the region, the arch type was built and used as the control model. Mae Sar Mai agriculture research station under the royal project foundation was selected as the field test site. Temperature sensors with data logger were installed to monitor ...
On CattaneoâChristov heat flux model for Carreau fluid flow over a slendering sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hashim
Full Text Available The underlying intentions of this article are to investigate the impact of non-Fourier heat flux model on the stagnation-point flow of non-Newtonian Carreau fluid. In this study, the innovative CattaneoâChristov constitutive model is introduced to study the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The flow is impelled by a slendering surface which is of the variable thickness. In the model, the physical mechanism responsible for homogeneousâheterogeneous reactions are further taken into account. Also, the diffusion coefficients of the reactant and auto catalyst are considered to be equal. The governing non-linear partial differential equations consisting of the momentum, energy and concentration equations are reduced to the coupled ordinary differential equations by means of local similarity transformations. The transformed ODEs are tackled numerically by employing an effective shooting algorithm along with the RungeâKutta Fehlberg scheme. The physical characteristics of the fluid velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are illuminated with the variation of numerous governing factors and are presented graphically. For instance, our result indicates that the temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness are lower in case of CattaneoâChristov heat flux model when compared to classical Fourierâs heat model. Meanwhile, the rate of heat transfer is significantly improved by a high wall thickness parameter and an opposite influence is found due to the thermal relaxation parameter. We further noticed that a higher value of homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction parameter corresponds to a deceleration in the concentration field and it shows an inverse relation for the Schmidt number. A correlation with accessible results for specific cases is found with fabulous consent. Keywords: CattaneoâChristov model, Carreau fluid, Slendering sheet, Homogeneousâheterogeneous reactions, RungeâKutta method
Dynamics of fluid mixing in separated flows
Leder, A.
1991-05-01
Separated flows at high Re (>103) are highly turbulent. In some situations the turbulence generation and mixing processes associated with flow separation are desirable, e.g., in heat exchangers or in many chemical engineering applications. In others, e.g., stalled airfoils, separation must be avoided as it causes loss in pressure and kinetic energy. To control the phenomenon effectively, physical mechanisms of flow separation and related aspects, such as the growth of flow instabilities in shear layers, the process of vortex formation, and the dynamics of fluid mixing in recirculating flow regions, must be understood. In many cases numerical procedures, e.g., Navier-Stokes calculations including k-ɛ turbulence modeling, fail to predict real physical mechanisms in separated flows.1,2 Separated flows in the lee of bluff bodies have been studied for many years.3,4 However, accurate measurements of the magnitude and direction of velocities and the magnitude of the terms of the Reynolds stress tensor have been restricted by the unsuitability of the hot-wire anemometer in recirculating flows. The development of the pulsed-wire anemometer, flying hot-wire anemometer, and laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) allows more reliable measurements also in turbulent separated flows.5-8 The aim of this paper is to investigate the dynamics of undisturbed fluid mixing in separated regions of 2-D, incompressible flows with visualization techniques and LDA. Measurements were performed with a vertical flat plate model, mounted in a closed-circuit wind tunnel at low blockage ratio. Because of the noninvasive character, optical techniques like LDA are more suitable to analyze complex fluid motions than pulsed-wire and flying-wire anemometry. The LDA system used to investigate turbulent flow structures consists of a two-channel version operating in backscatter mode and a specifically developed phase detector to extract phase-averaged information from recorded measurement ensembles.9 Endplates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Ying Zheng
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Through embedding an in-house subroutine into FLUENT code by utilizing the functionalization of user-defined function provided by the software, a new numerical simulation methodology on viscoelastic fluid flows has been established. In order to benchmark this methodology, numerical simulations under different viscoelastic fluid solution concentrations (with solvent viscosity ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.9, extensibility parameters (100≤L2≤500, Reynolds numbers (0.1 ≤ Re ≤ 100, and Weissenberg numbers (0 ≤ Wi ≤ 20 are conducted on unsteady laminar flows through a symmetric planar sudden expansion with expansion ratio of 1: 3 for viscoelastic fluid flows. The constitutive model used to describe the viscoelastic effect of viscoelastic fluid flow is FENE-P (finitely extensive nonlinear elastic-Peterlin model. The numerical simulation results show that the influences of elasticity, inertia, and concentration on the flow bifurcation characteristics are more significant than those of extensibility. The present simulation results including the critical Reynolds number for which the flow becomes asymmetric, vortex size, bifurcation diagram, velocity distribution, streamline, and pressure loss show good agreements with some published results. That means the newly established method based on FLUENT software platform for simulating peculiar flow behaviors of viscoelastic fluid is credible and suitable for the study of viscoelastic fluid flows.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mojtaba Darabi
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Considering the fact that a large volume of iron reserve in the Sechahoon Iron Mine in Yazd Province has located under the water table, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive study on water flow within the pit and its surroundings. The conceptual model of the aquifer was created using surface and underground geological information compared with water table data of the area of interest. In the data preparation stages, in order to create the numerical model, Logan and Lufran tests were studied to determine the hydrodynamic coefficients of the layers, precipitation and evaporation were investigated, and fractures and faults of the region, as a medium for flow channels in the hard formation, were also studied. The model was created in a transient state between 2000 and 2014. To validate its results, the water table was measured 4 times in the last 4 months of 2014. Considering the complexities in the heterogeneous fractured aquifer of the study area, numerical modeling results for the basin in a transient state present 90 percent correlation with field studies. Having investigated the water balance in the region, the boundary condition of the model was determined as the input water from the eastern south and the runoff water in the western north of the region. Since the general trend of faults in the area is north-south, variation in the water table is slight on north-south and intense on the east-west direction. On the other hand, due to the fact that the maximum flow is along the faults and fractures, the water table contour lines in different locations over the region are closed.
Fluid Mechanics of Inhalant Siphon Flows
True, A. C.; Crimaldi, J. P.
2016-02-01
Inhalant siphon and suction flows are ubiquitous in marine ecosystems. From biological flows in filter-feeding benthic bivalves and predation by planktivorous fishes, to engineered flows in water samplers and production of hydrodynamic stimuli for laboratory assays, inhalant siphon flows span much of the laminar range (Reynolds number 0.01 - 2,000) and fundamentally influence many transport and exchange processes. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of inhalant siphon flows with varying Reynolds numbers and geometries have informed design and construction of an index of refraction-matched flow facility (mineral oil, borosilicate glass tubing) in which we are employing particle image velocimetry (PIV) to quantify transient and steady-state flow fields outside and inside the siphon tube. Varying siphon diameter, flow rate, and extraction height allows us to evaluate effects of Reynolds number and siphon geometry on local hydrodynamics. This complementary experimental and numerical modeling investigation of siphon flow hydrodynamics was motivated recently by a colleague whose biologically inspired numerical modeling of inhalant siphons using a boundary condition of constant volumetric outflow (as opposed to the classically assumed uniform inlet velocity profile) revealed nontrivial departures from idealized flows: inviscid potential flows (i.e. point sink) and pipe flows (the classical pipe entry problem), particularly in the low Reynolds number regime. Reduced entrance lengths, larger radial inflows, and modifications to fluid capture zones seen numerically at low Reynolds number are being tested experimentally and may have important implications for both biological and engineered siphons.
Modeling fluid flow in open channel with circular cross‐section ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Flow in a closed conduit is regarded as open channel flow, if it has a free surface. This study considers unsteady non]uniform open channel flow in a closed conduit with circular cross]section. We investigate the effects of the flow depth, the cross section area of flow, channel radius, slope of the channel, roughness coefficient ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Soete
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Microcomputed tomography (μCT and Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM simulations were applied to continental carbonates to quantify fluid flow. Fluid flow characteristics in these complex carbonates with multiscale pore networks are unique and the applied method allows studying their heterogeneity and anisotropy. 3D pore network models were introduced to single-phase flow simulations in Palabos, a software tool for particle-based modelling of classic computational fluid dynamics. In addition, permeability simulations were also performed on rock models generated with multiple-point geostatistics (MPS. This allowed assessing the applicability of MPS in upscaling high-resolution porosity patterns into large rock models that exceed the volume limitations of the μCT. Porosity and tortuosity control fluid flow in these porous media. Micro- and mesopores influence flow properties at larger scales in continental carbonates. Upscaling with MPS is therefore necessary to overcome volume-resolution problems of CT scanning equipment. The presented LBM-MPS workflow is applicable to other lithologies, comprising different pore types, shapes, and pore networks altogether. The lack of straightforward porosity-permeability relationships in complex carbonates highlights the necessity for a 3D approach. 3D fluid flow studies provide the best understanding of flow through porous media, which is of crucial importance in reservoir modelling.
An XFEM-based model for fluid flow in fractured porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwenck, Nicolas
2015-01-01
Many fields of applications for porous media flow include geometrically anisotropic inclusions and strongly discontinuous material coefficients which differ in orders of magnitude. If the extension of those heterogeneities is small in normal direction compared to the tangential directions, e.g., long and thin, those features are called fractures. Examples which include such fractured porous-media systems in earth sciences include reservoir engineering, groundwater-resource management, carbon capture and storage (CCS), radioactive-waste reposition, coal bed methane migration in mines, geothermal engineering and hydraulic fracturing. The analysis and prediction of flow in fractured porous-media systems is important for all the aforementioned applications. Experiments are usually too expensive and time consuming to satisfy the demand for fast but accurate decision making information. Many different conceptual and numerical models to treat fractured porous-media systems can be found in the literature. However, even in the time of large supercomputers with massive parallel computing power, the computational efficiency, and therefore the economic efficiency, plays a dominating role in the evaluation of simulation software. In this thesis an efficient method to simulate flow in fractured porous media systems is presented. Darcy flow in fractures and matrix is assumed. The presented method is suited best for flow regimes depending on both, the fractures and the surrounding rock matrix and is able to account for highly conductive but also almost impermeable fractures with respect to the surrounding matrix. The newly developed method is based on a co-dimension one conceptual model for the fracture network which is embedded in the surrounding matrix. The basis for this model reduction is given in Martin et al. (2005). Numerically the fracture network is resolved by its own grid and coupled to the independent matrix grid. The discretization on this matrix grid allows jumps in
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2016-01-01
Tape casting has been used to produce thin layers of ceramics that can be used as single layers or can be stacked and laminated into multilayered structures. Many startup products such as multilayered inductors, multilayered varistors, piezoelectrics, ceramic fuel cells and lithium ion battery...... the physical parameters crucial to the process. A review of the development of the tape casting process with particular focus on modelling the material flow is presented and in this context the current status is examined and future potential discussed....
Hashmi, M. S.; Khan, N.; Ullah Khan, Sami; Rashidi, M. M.
In this study, we have constructed a mathematical model to investigate the heat source/sink effects in mixed convection axisymmetric flow of an incompressible, electrically conducting Oldroyd-B fluid between two infinite isothermal stretching disks. The effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating are also considered in the heat equation. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity variables. The series solution of these dimensionless equations is constructed by using homotopy analysis method. The convergence of the obtained solution is carefully examined. The effects of various involved parameters on pressure, velocity and temperature profiles are comprehensively studied. A graphical analysis has been presented for various values of problem parameters. The numerical values of wall shear stress and Nusselt number are computed at both upper and lower disks. Moreover, a graphical and tabular explanation for critical values of Frank-Kamenetskii regarding other flow parameters.
Tesche, Christian; De Cecco, Carlo N; Baumann, Stefan; Renker, Matthias; McLaurin, Tindal W; Duguay, Taylor M; Bayer, Richard R; Steinberg, Daniel H; Grant, Katharine L; Canstein, Christian; Schwemmer, Chris; Schoebinger, Max; Itu, Lucian M; Rapaka, Saikiran; Sharma, Puneet; Schoepf, U Joseph
2018-04-10
Purpose To compare two technical approaches for determination of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR)-FFR derived from coronary CT angiography based on computational fluid dynamics (hereafter, FFR CFD ) and FFR derived from coronary CT angiography based on machine learning algorithm (hereafter, FFR ML )-against coronary CT angiography and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Materials and Methods A total of 85 patients (mean age, 62 years ± 11 [standard deviation]; 62% men) who had undergone coronary CT angiography followed by invasive FFR were included in this single-center retrospective study. FFR values were derived on-site from coronary CT angiography data sets by using both FFR CFD and FFR ML . The performance of both techniques for detecting lesion-specific ischemia was compared against visual stenosis grading at coronary CT angiography, QCA, and invasive FFR as the reference standard. Results On a per-lesion and per-patient level, FFR ML showed a sensitivity of 79% and 90% and a specificity of 94% and 95%, respectively, for detecting lesion-specific ischemia. Meanwhile, FFR CFD resulted in a sensitivity of 79% and 89% and a specificity of 93% and 93%, respectively, on a per-lesion and per-patient basis (P = .86 and P = .92). On a per-lesion level, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.89 for FFR ML and 0.89 for FFR CFD showed significantly higher discriminatory power for detecting lesion-specific ischemia compared with that of coronary CT angiography (AUC, 0.61) and QCA (AUC, 0.69) (all P < .0001). Also, on a per-patient level, FFR ML (AUC, 0.91) and FFR CFD (AUC, 0.91) performed significantly better than did coronary CT angiography (AUC, 0.65) and QCA (AUC, 0.68) (all P < .0001). Processing time for FFR ML was significantly shorter compared with that of FFR CFD (40.5 minutes ± 6.3 vs 43.4 minutes ± 7.1; P = .042). Conclusion The FFR ML algorithm performs equally in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kataoka, Isao; Tomiyama, Akio
2004-01-01
The simplified and physically reasonable basic equations for the gas-liquid dispersed flow were developed based on some appropriate assumptions and the treatment of dispersed phase as isothermal rigid particles. Based on the local instant formulation of mass, momentum and energy conservation of the dispersed flow, time-averaged equations were obtained assuming that physical quantities in the dispersed phase are uniform. These assumptions are approximately valid when phase change rate and/or chemical reaction rate are not so large at gas-liquid interface and there is no heat generation in within the dispersed phase. Detailed discussions were made on the characteristics of obtained basic equations and physical meanings of terms consisting the basic equations. It is shown that, in the derived averaged momentum equation, the terms of pressure gradient and viscous momentum diffusion do not appear and, in the energy equation, the term of molecular thermal diffusion heat flux does not appear. These characteristics of the derived equations were shown to be very consistent concerning the physical interpretation of the gas-liquid dispersed flow. Furthermore, the obtained basic equations are consistent with experiments for the dispersed flow where most of averaged physical quantities are obtained assuming that the distributions of those are uniform within the dispersed phase. Investigation was made on the problem whether the obtained basic equations are well-posed or ill-posed for the initial value problem. The eigenvalues of the simplified mass and momentum equations are calculated for basic equations obtained here and previous two-fluid basic equations with one pressure model. Well-posedness and ill-posedness are judged whether the eigenvalues are real or imaginary. The result indicated the newly developed basic equations always constitute the well-posed initial value problem while the previous two-fluid basic equations based on one pressure model constitutes ill
Analysis of Fluid Flow over a Surface
McCloud, Peter L. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
A method, apparatus, and computer program product for modeling heat radiated by a structure. The flow of a fluid over a surface of a model of the structure is simulated. The surface has a plurality of surface elements. Heat radiated by the plurality of surface elements in response to the fluid flowing over the surface of the model of the structure is identified. An effect of heat radiated by at least a portion of the plurality of surface elements on each other is identified. A model of the heat radiated by the structure is created using the heat radiated by the plurality of surface elements and the effect of the heat radiated by at least a portion of the plurality of surface elements on each other.
Bisdom, K.; Bertotti, G.; Gauthier, B.D.M.; Hardebol, N.J.
2013-01-01
Fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs is largely controlled by multiscale fracture networks. Significant variations of fracture network porosity and permeability are caused by the 3D heterogeneity of the fracture network characteristics, such as intensity, orientation and size. Characterizing fracture
Intracellular Fluid Mechanics: Coupling Cytoplasmic Flow with Active Cytoskeletal Gel
Mogilner, Alex; Manhart, Angelika
2018-01-01
The cell is a mechanical machine, and continuum mechanics of the fluid cytoplasm and the viscoelastic deforming cytoskeleton play key roles in cell physiology. We review mathematical models of intracellular fluid mechanics, from cytoplasmic fluid flows, to the flow of a viscous active cytoskeletal gel, to models of two-phase poroviscous flows, to poroelastic models. We discuss application of these models to cell biological phenomena, such as organelle positioning, blebbing, and cell motility. We also discuss challenges of understanding fluid mechanics on the cellular scale.
Sandbach, S. D.; Hardy, R. J.; Lane, S. N.; Ashworth, P. J.; Parsons, D. R.
2010-12-01
Our understanding of large rivers is limited due to the difficulties in obtaining field data at these large scales. Data rich results may be obtained using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models permitting the investigation of detailed flow patterns that would otherwise not be available. However, the application of these models to large rivers is not without its own complications and has yet to be fully developed. This is the result of two limiting factors, our inability; i) to design numerically stable meshes for complex topographies at these spatial resolutions; and; ii) to collect high resolution data appropriate for the boundary conditions of the numerical scheme. Here, we demonstrate a five-term mass-flux scaling algorithm (MFSA) for including bed topography in a very large river, where the discretised form of the mass and momentum equations are modified using a numerical blockage. Converged solutions were obtained using the Reynolds-averaged Navier stokes (RANS) equations modelling turbulence with a κ-ɛ RNG turbulence model. The boundary conditions were supplied from a field investigation of the Rio Paraná upstream of the Paraguay-Paraná confluence. A 38 km long reach was investigated where topographic and velocity data was collected using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp) and a single beam echo sounder. The model was validated against the aDcp data and in general showed good agreement. The model was then used to explore the impacts of roughness height upon key characteristics of the 3D flow field in large rivers. The results demonstrate the importance of topographic forcing on determining flow structures including the detection of large helical flow structures.
Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M.; Dimakopoulos, A.; DeLataillade, T.
2015-12-01
Performance analysis and optimization of coastal and navigation structures is becoming feasible due to recent improvements in numerical methods for multiphase flows and the steady increase in capacity and availability of high performance computing resources. Now that the concept of fully three-dimensional air/water flow modelling for real world engineering analysis is achieving acceptance by the wider engineering community, it is critical to expand careful comparative studies on verification,validation, benchmarking, and uncertainty quantification for the variety of competing numerical methods that are continuing to evolve. Furthermore, uncertainty still remains about the relevance of secondary processes such as surface tension, air compressibility, air entrainment, and solid phase (structure) modelling so that questions about continuum mechanical theory and mathematical analysis of multiphase flow are still required. Two of the most popular and practical numerical approaches for large-scale engineering analysis are the Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) and Level Set (LS) approaches. In this work we will present a publically available verification and validation test set for air-water-structure interaction problems as well as computational and physical model results including a hybrid VOF-LS method, traditional VOF methods, and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) results. The test set repository and test problem formats will also be presented in order to facilitate future comparative studies and reproduction of scientific results.
Coupled Model for CO2 Leaks from Geological Storage: Geomechanics, Fluid Flow and Phase Transitions
Gor, G.; Prevost, J.
2013-12-01
Deep saline aquifers are considered as a promising option for long-term storage of carbon dioxide. However, risk of CO2 leakage from the aquifers through faults, natural or induced fractures or abandoned wells cannot be disregarded. Therefore, modeling of various leakage scenarios is crucial when selecting a site for CO2 sequestration and choosing proper operational conditions. Carbon dioxide is injected into wells at supercritical conditions (t > 31.04 C, P > 73.82 bar), and these conditions are maintained in the deep aquifers (at 1-2 km depth) due to hydrostatic pressure and geothermal gradient. However, if CO2 and brine start to migrate from the aquifer upward, both pressure and temperature will decrease, and at the depth of 500-750 m, the conditions for CO2 will become subcritical. At subcritical conditions, CO2 starts boiling and the character of the flow changes dramatically due to appearance of the third (vapor) phase and latent heat effects. When modeling CO2 leaks, one needs to couple the multiphase flow in porous media with geomechanics. These capabilities are provided by Dynaflow, a finite element analysis program [1]; Dynaflow has already showed to be efficient for modeling caprock failure causing CO2 leaks [2, 3]. Currently we have extended the capabilities of Dynaflow with the phase transition module, based on two-phase and three-phase isenthalpic flash calculations [4]. We have also developed and implemented an efficient method for solving heat and mass transport with the phase transition using our flash module. Therefore, we have developed a robust tool for modeling CO2 leaks. In the talk we will give a brief overview of our method and illustrate it with the results of simulations for characteristic test cases. References: [1] J.H. Prevost, DYNAFLOW: A Nonlinear Transient Finite Element Analysis Program. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. http://www.princeton.edu/~dynaflow/ (last update 2013
MOD_FreeSurf2D: a Surface Fluid Flow Simulation Model for Rivers, Streams, and Shallow Estuaries
Martin, N.; Gorelick, S. M.
2003-12-01
The MOD_FreeSurf2D, Modular Free Surface Flow in Two-Dimensions, computer model simulates free surface fluid flow in streams, rivers, and shallow estuaries under the assumptions of a well-mixed water column, a small water depth to width ratio, and a hydrostatic pressure distribution. The dependent variables in the model are free surface elevation, which provides total water depth, and fluid velocity. Primary advantages of MOD_FreeSurf2D relative to other two-dimensional models are a stable and computationally efficient numerical representation and a transparent representation of wetting and drying of the simulation domain. MOD_FreeSurf2D approximates the depth-averaged, shallow water equations with a finite volume, semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian numerical representation similar to the TRIM method (Casulli, 1990; Casulli and Cheng, 1992; Casulli, 1999). The semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian approach is computationally efficient because time steps can exceed the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) stability criterion without significant accuracy degradation (Robert, 1982; Casulli, 1990). The rectangular, Arakawa C-grid, finite-volume layout allows flooding and drying in response to changing flow conditions without prior channel specification or closed boundary specification. Open boundary conditions available in MOD_FreeSurf2D are specified flux, specified total water depth, specified velocity, radiation free surface, and radiation velocity. MOD_FreeSurf2D requires initial topography, undisturbed water depth, and Manning's roughness coefficient. MOD_FreeSurf2D simulated results are shown to converge to the semi-empirical solution for a simple straight channel case. Two applications demonstrate the accuracy of MOD_FreeSurf2D. The first application is the evolution of water depth in the dambreak-style flume experiment of Bellos et al. (1992). In this case, MOD_FreeSurf2D accurately simulates the changing water depth in the flume during the experiment and models the wetting of
Simulation of dendritic growth of magnesium alloys with fluid flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meng-wu Wu
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Fluid flow has a significant impact on the microstructure evolution of alloys during solidification. Based on the previous work relating simulation of the dendritic growth of magnesium alloys with hcp (hexagonal close-packed structure, an extension was made to the formerly established CA (cellular automaton model with the purpose of studying the effect of fluid flow on the dendritic growth of magnesium alloys. The modified projection method was used to solve the transport equations of flow field. By coupling the flow field with the solute field, simulation results of equiaxed and columnar dendritic growth of magnesium alloys with fluid flow were achieved. The simulated results were quantitatively compared with those without fluid flow. Moreover, a comparison was also made between the present work and previous works conducted by others. It can be concluded that a deep understanding of the dendritic growth of magnesium alloys with fluid flow can be obtained by applying the present numerical model.
Coupling ground penetrating radar and fluid flow modeling for oilfield monitoring applications
Miorali, M.; Zhou, F.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.
2011-01-01
The recent introduction of smart well technology allows for new geophysical monitoring opportunities. Smart wells, which allow zonal production control, combined with monitoring techniques capable of capturing the arrival of undesired fluids, have the potential to significantly increase the oil
Transient flows of a Burgers' fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, M.
2005-12-01
An analysis is performed to develop the analytical solutions for some unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of a Burgers' fluid between two plates. A uniform magnetic field is applied transversely to the fluid motion. The exact solutions are given for three problems. Results for the velocity fields are discussed and compared with the flows of Oldroyd-B, Maxwell, second grade and Newtonian fluids. (author)
Volumetric velocimetry for fluid flows
Discetti, Stefano; Coletti, Filippo
2018-04-01
In recent years, several techniques have been introduced that are capable of extracting 3D three-component velocity fields in fluid flows. Fast-paced developments in both hardware and processing algorithms have generated a diverse set of methods, with a growing range of applications in flow diagnostics. This has been further enriched by the increasingly marked trend of hybridization, in which the differences between techniques are fading. In this review, we carry out a survey of the prominent methods, including optical techniques and approaches based on medical imaging. An overview of each is given with an example of an application from the literature, while focusing on their respective strengths and challenges. A framework for the evaluation of velocimetry performance in terms of dynamic spatial range is discussed, along with technological trends and emerging strategies to exploit 3D data. While critical challenges still exist, these observations highlight how volumetric techniques are transforming experimental fluid mechanics, and that the possibilities they offer have just begun to be explored.
Kröger, M; Hess, S
2003-01-01
We review, apply and compare diverse approaches to the theoretical understanding of the dynamical and rheological behaviour of ferrofluids and magnetorheological (MR) fluids subject to external magnetic and flow fields. Simple models are introduced which are directly solvable by nonequilibrium Brownian or molecular dynamics computer simulation. In particular, the numerical results for ferrofluids quantify the domain of validity of uniaxial alignment of magnetic moments (in and) out of equilibrium. A Fokker-Planck equation for the dynamics of the magnetic moments - corresponding to the Brownian dynamics approach - and its implications are analysed under this approximation. The basic approach considers the effect of external fields on the dynamics of ellipsoid shaped permanent ferromagnetic domains (aggregates), whose size should depend on the strength of flow and magnetic field, the magnetic interaction parameter and concentration (or packing fraction). Results from analytic calculations and from simulation ar...
Yang, Jubiao; Krane, Michael; Zhang, Lucy
2013-11-01
Vocal fold vibrations and the glottal jet are successfully simulated using the modified Immersed Finite Element method (mIFEM), a fully coupled dynamics approach to model fluid-structure interactions. A self-sustained and steady vocal fold vibration is captured given a constant pressure input at the glottal entrance. The flow rates at different axial locations in the glottis are calculated, showing small variations among them due to the vocal fold motion and deformation. To further facilitate the understanding of the phonation process, two control volume analyses, specifically with Bernoulli's equation and Newton's 2nd law, are carried out for the glottal flow based on the simulation results. A generalized Bernoulli's equation is derived to interpret the correlations between the velocity and pressure temporally and spatially along the center line which is a streamline using a half-space model with symmetry boundary condition. A specialized Newton's 2nd law equation is developed and divided into terms to help understand the driving mechanism of the glottal flow.
Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects
Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.
2004-01-01
The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.
An analysis of Cattaneo-Christov double-diffusion model for Sisko fluid flow with velocity slip
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rabia Malik
Full Text Available The present frame work examines the characteristics of Cattaneo-Christov double-diffusion model to the Sisko fluid flow over a flat stretching sheet with velocity slip and thermal radiation. Instead of using classical Fourier's law and Fick's law the inclusion of thermal and concentration relaxation times lead us to the Cattaneo-Christov double-diffusion model. Utilization of the suitable transformations makes it convenient to transform our governing partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. Further, the numerical solutions to these normalized ordinary differential equations are obtained by adopting the shooting technique along with Runge-Kutta fourth order method. The results are then plotted for various values of the pertinent parameters and discussed deliberately. Also, a comparison of the present results with the previously reported results as well as analytic results obtained through the homotopy analysis method (HAM helps to ensure their validity. This investigation leads us to the fact that the velocity diminishes with the velocity slip parameter. Also, in temperature and concentration profiles a decline can obviously be verdict with the larger relaxation times. Keywords: Cattaneo-Christov double-diffusion model, Sisko fluid, Velocity slip, Thermal radiation
Fluid flow solidification simulation of molten alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaschnitz, E.
1997-01-01
In an effort to minimize costs and to obtain optimum designs, computer simulation of shape casting processes is more and more used as a development tool. Accurate predictions are possible by means of three dimensional fluid flow and solidification modelling. The bases of the model are the transient laminar Navier-Stokes-equations for a Newtonian fluid including the tracking of the free surface. They are describing the melt flow pattern during the mold filling sequence. Simultaneously, the temperature development in the alloy and mold is calculated using Fourier's heat transfer equation. At OEGI, a commercial software package (MAGMAsoft) with a finite difference equation solver is used for improvement of casting processes. Different examples of industrial applications will be shown. (author)
Flow behaviour of extremely bidisperse magnetizable fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Susan-Resiga, Daniela; Bica, Doina; Vekas, L.
2010-01-01
In this paper we investigated the rheological and magnetorheological behaviours of an extremely bidisperse (nano-micro) magnetizable fluid (sample D1) for comparison of a commercial magnetorheological fluid (MRF-140CG; LORD Co. (USA)) with the same magnetic solid volume fraction, using the Physica MCR-300 rheometer with a 20 mm diameter plate-plate magnetorheological cell (MRD180). D1 sample is a suspension of micrometer range Fe particles in a transformer oil based magnetic fluid as carrier. For both types of samples, the experimental data for zero and non-zero magnetic field conditions were fitted to equations derived from the Newtonian and Cross type flow equations, as well as the Herschel-Bulkley model. The main advantage of both rheological equations for the quantitative description of the magnetic field behaviour of samples is that they can be used in regular CFD codes to compute the flow properties of the magnetorheological fluid and of the bidisperse magnetizable fluid for practical applications.
Fluid Flow Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratory.
Vilimpochapornkul, Viroj; Obot, Nsima T.
1986-01-01
The undergraduate fluid mechanics laboratory at Clarkson University consists of three experiments: mixing; drag measurements; and fluid flow and pressure drop measurements. The latter experiment is described, considering equipment needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained. (JN)
Steady laminar flow of fractal fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balankin, Alexander S., E-mail: abalankin@ipn.mx [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Mena, Baltasar [Laboratorio de Ingeniería y Procesos Costeros, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sisal, Yucatán, 97355 (Mexico); Susarrey, Orlando; Samayoa, Didier [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico)
2017-02-12
We study laminar flow of a fractal fluid in a cylindrical tube. A flow of the fractal fluid is mapped into a homogeneous flow in a fractional dimensional space with metric induced by the fractal topology. The equations of motion for an incompressible Stokes flow of the Newtonian fractal fluid are derived. It is found that the radial distribution for the velocity in a steady Poiseuille flow of a fractal fluid is governed by the fractal metric of the flow, whereas the pressure distribution along the flow direction depends on the fractal topology of flow, as well as on the fractal metric. The radial distribution of the fractal fluid velocity in a steady Couette flow between two concentric cylinders is also derived. - Highlights: • Equations of Stokes flow of Newtonian fractal fluid are derived. • Pressure distribution in the Newtonian fractal fluid is derived. • Velocity distribution in Poiseuille flow of fractal fluid is found. • Velocity distribution in a steady Couette flow is established.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hou, Xiaofei; Rigola, Joaquim; Lehmkuhl, Oriol; Oliva, Assensi
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Two phase flow with free surface is solved by means of two-fluid model (TFM). • Fractional Step method and finite volume technique is used to solve TFM. • Conservative Level Set method reduces interface sharpening diffusion problem. • Cases including high density ratios and high viscosities validate the models. - Abstract: In the present paper, the Fractional Step method usually used in single fluid flow is here extended and applied for the two-fluid model resolution using the finite volume discretization. The use of a projection method resolution instead of the usual pressure-correction method for multi-fluid flow, successfully avoids iteration processes. On the other hand, the main weakness of the two fluid model used for simulations of free surface flows, which is the numerical diffusion of the interface, is also solved by means of the conservative Level Set method (interface sharpening) (Strubelj et al., 2009). Moreover, the use of the algorithm proposed has allowed presenting different free-surface cases with or without Level Set implementation even under coarse meshes under a wide range of density ratios. Thus, the numerical results presented, numerically verified, experimentally validated and converged under high density ratios, shows the capability and reliability of this resolution method for both mixed and unmixed flows
Klocke, F.; Herrig, T.; Zeis, M.; Klink, A.
2017-10-01
Combining the working principle of electrochemical machining (ECM) with a universal rotating tool, like a wire, could manage lots of challenges of the classical ECM sinking process. Such a wire-ECM process could be able to machine flexible and efficient 2.5-dimensional geometries like fir tree slots in turbine discs. Nowadays, established manufacturing technologies for slotting turbine discs are broaching and wire electrical discharge machining (wire EDM). Nevertheless, high requirements on surface integrity of turbine parts need cost intensive process development and - in case of wire-EDM - trim cuts to reduce the heat affected rim zone. Due to the process specific advantages, ECM is an attractive alternative manufacturing technology and is getting more and more relevant for sinking applications within the last few years. But ECM is also opposed with high costs for process development and complex electrolyte flow devices. In the past, few studies dealt with the development of a wire ECM process to meet these challenges. However, previous concepts of wire ECM were only suitable for micro machining applications. Due to insufficient flushing concepts the application of the process for machining macro geometries failed. Therefore, this paper presents the modeling and simulation of a new flushing approach for process assessment. The suitability of a rotating structured wire electrode in combination with an axial flushing for electrodes with high aspect ratios is investigated and discussed.
López, Dina L.; Smith, Leslie; Storey, Michael L.; Nielson, Dennis L.
1994-01-01
The hydrothermal systems of the Basin and Range Province are often located at or near major range bounding normal faults. The flow of fluid and energy at these faults is affected by the advective transfer of heat and fluid from an to the adjacent mountain ranges and valleys, This paper addresses the effect of the exchange of fluid and energy between the country rock, the valley fill sediments, and the fault zone, on the fluid and heat flow regimes at the fault plane. For comparative purposes, the conditions simulated are patterned on Leach Hot Springs in southern Grass Valley, Nevada. Our simulations indicated that convection can exist at the fault plane even when the fault is exchanging significant heat and fluid with the surrounding country rock and valley fill sediments. The temperature at the base of the fault decreased with increasing permeability of the country rock. Higher groundwater discharge from the fault and lower temperatures at the base of the fault are favored by high country rock permabilities and fault transmissivities. Preliminary results suggest that basal temperatures and flow rates for Leach Hot Springs can not be simulated with a fault 3 km deep and an average regional heat flow of 150 mW/m2 because the basal temperature and mass discharge rates are too low. A fault permeable to greater depths or a higher regional heat flow may be indicated for these springs.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Malan, AG
2011-08-01
Full Text Available This work is concerned with the development of an artificial compressibility version of the characteristicbased split (CBS) method proposed by Zienkiewicz and Codina (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 1995; 20:869–885). The technique is applied...
2D numerical model of particle-bed collision in fluid-particle flows over bed
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lukerchenko, Nikolay; Chára, Zdeněk; Vlasák, Pavel
2006-01-01
Roč. 44, č. 1 (2006), s. 70-78 ISSN 0022-1686 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2060201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : saltation * particle-bed collision * collision angle * bed roughness Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.527, year: 2006
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barton, C.C.; Larsen, E.; Page, W.R.; Howard, T.M.
1993-01-01
Fractures have been characterized for fluid-flow, geomechanical, and paleostress modeling at three localities in the vicinity of drill hole USW G-4 at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada. A method for fracture characterization is introduced that integrates mapping fracture-trace networks and quantifying eight fracture parameters: trace length, orientation, connectivity, aperture, roughness, shear offset, trace-length density, and mineralization. A complex network of fractures was exposed on three 214- to 260-m 2 pavements cleared of debris in the upper lithophysal unit of the Tiva Canyon Member of the Miocene Paint-brush Tuff. The pavements are two-dimensional sections through the three-dimensional network of strata-bound fractures. All fractures with trace lengths greater than 0.2 m were mapped and studied
Virtual rheoscopic fluids for flow visualization.
Barth, William; Burns, Christopher
2007-01-01
Physics-based flow visualization techniques seek to mimic laboratory flow visualization methods with virtual analogues. In this work we describe the rendering of a virtual rheoscopic fluid to produce images with results strikingly similar to laboratory experiments with real-world rheoscopic fluids using products such as Kalliroscope. These fluid additives consist of microscopic, anisotropic particles which, when suspended in the flow, align with both the flow velocity and the local shear to produce high-quality depictions of complex flow structures. Our virtual rheoscopic fluid is produced by defining a closed-form formula for the orientation of shear layers in the flow and using this orientation to volume render the flow as a material with anisotropic reflectance and transparency. Examples are presented for natural convection, thermocapillary convection, and Taylor-Couette flow simulations. The latter agree well with photographs of experimental results of Taylor-Couette flows from the literature.
Zhu, Guangpu
2018-04-17
In this paper, we consider the numerical approximation of a binary fluid-surfactant phase field model of two-phase incompressible flow. The nonlinearly coupled model consists of two Cahn-Hilliard type equations and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Using the Invariant Energy Quadratization (IEQ) approach, the governing system is transformed into an equivalent form, which allows the nonlinear potentials to be treated efficiently and semi-explicitly. we construct a first and a second-order time marching schemes, which are extremely efficient and easy-to-implement, for the transformed governing system. At each time step, the schemes involve solving a sequence of linear elliptic equations, and computations of phase variables, velocity and pressure are totally decoupled. We further establish a rigorous proof of unconditional energy stability for the semi-implicit schemes. Numerical results in both two and three dimensions are obtained, which demonstrate that the proposed schemes are accurate, efficient and unconditionally energy stable. Using our schemes, we investigate the effect of surfactants on droplet deformation and collision under a shear flow. The increase of surfactant concentration can enhance droplet deformation and inhibit droplet coalescence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McHugh, P.R.; Ramshaw, J.D.
1991-11-01
MAGMA is a FORTRAN computer code designed to viscous flow in in situ vitrification melt pools. It models three-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flow and heat transfer. The momentum equation is coupled to the temperature field through the buoyancy force terms arising from the Boussinesq approximation. All fluid properties, except density, are assumed variable. Density is assumed constant except in the buoyancy force terms in the momentum equation. A simple melting model based on the enthalpy method allows the study of the melt front progression and latent heat effects. An indirect addressing scheme used in the numerical solution of the momentum equation voids unnecessary calculations in cells devoid of liquid. Two-dimensional calculations can be performed using either rectangular or cylindrical coordinates, while three-dimensional calculations use rectangular coordinates. All derivatives are approximated by finite differences. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a new fully implicit iterative technique, while the energy equation is differenced explicitly in time. Spatial derivatives are written in conservative form using a uniform, rectangular, staggered mesh based on the marker and cell placement of variables. Convective terms are differenced using a weighted average of centered and donor cell differencing to ensure numerical stability. Complete descriptions of MAGMA governing equations, numerics, code structure, and code verification are provided. 14 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McHugh, P.R.; Ramshaw, J.D.
1991-11-01
MAGMA is a FORTRAN computer code designed to viscous flow in in situ vitrification melt pools. It models three-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flow and heat transfer. The momentum equation is coupled to the temperature field through the buoyancy force terms arising from the Boussinesq approximation. All fluid properties, except density, are assumed variable. Density is assumed constant except in the buoyancy force terms in the momentum equation. A simple melting model based on the enthalpy method allows the study of the melt front progression and latent heat effects. An indirect addressing scheme used in the numerical solution of the momentum equation voids unnecessary calculations in cells devoid of liquid. Two-dimensional calculations can be performed using either rectangular or cylindrical coordinates, while three-dimensional calculations use rectangular coordinates. All derivatives are approximated by finite differences. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a new fully implicit iterative technique, while the energy equation is differenced explicitly in time. Spatial derivatives are written in conservative form using a uniform, rectangular, staggered mesh based on the marker and cell placement of variables. Convective terms are differenced using a weighted average of centered and donor cell differencing to ensure numerical stability. Complete descriptions of MAGMA governing equations, numerics, code structure, and code verification are provided. 14 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, J.
2014-01-01
Unconformity-related uranium deposits in sedimentary basins represent the most important and profitable deposits among other types of uranium deposits, however their origin is still not fully understood. To better understand their formation, and in particular to address possible reducing mechanisms in the precipitation of uraninite, we develop a highly conceptualized 2-D model that fully couples fluid flow and heat transfer with reactive mass transport. We consider a series of numerical scenarios and examine the effect of graphite zone and Fe-rich silicates as the carbon-based and the inorganic-based reducing agents on the ore genesis. Our numerical results reveal that both the reducing mechanisms can lead to the precipitation of uraninite below the unconformity interface away from the faulted zone. Physiochemical parameters such as oxygen fugacity and temperature play a significant role in localization of the uraninite. Localization of these deposits is in relation to the decrease of oxygen fugacity, generally resulting from the interaction of oxidized uranium-bearing fluids with the reductants. Uraninites precipitate simultaneously with hematite in the areas experiencing reduction of oxygen fugacity and having a temperature of 180-200°C and a pH of 2.5- 4.5. Wide-spread alteration halos in the basement and around the uranium deposit include hematite, Mg-chlorite, and muscovite associated with minor amounts of pyrite and K-feldspar alteration. These results have important geological and exploration implications. (author)
Boutsioukis, Christos; Lambrianidis, Theodor; Verhaagen, Bram; Versluis, Michel; Kastrinakis, Eleftherios; Wesselink, Paul R.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.
2010-01-01
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of needle-insertion depth on the irrigant flow inside a prepared root canal during final irrigation with a syringe and two different needle types using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Methods: A validated CFD model was used
Sefidgar, Mostafa; Soltani, M; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Bazmara, Hossein
2015-01-01
A solid tumor is investigated as porous media for fluid flow simulation. Most of the studies use Darcy model for porous media. In Darcy model, the fluid friction is neglected and a few simplified assumptions are implemented. In this study, the effect of these assumptions is studied by considering Brinkman model. A multiscale mathematical method which calculates fluid flow to a solid tumor is used in this study to investigate how neglecting fluid friction affects the solid tumor simulation. The mathematical method involves processes such as blood flow through vessels and solute and fluid diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix, and extravasation from blood vessels. The sprouting angiogenesis model is used for generating capillary network and then fluid flow governing equations are implemented to calculate blood flow through the tumor-induced capillary network. Finally, the two models of porous media are used for modeling fluid flow in normal and tumor tissues in three different shapes of tumors. Simulations of interstitial fluid transport in a solid tumor demonstrate that the simplifications used in Darcy model affect the interstitial velocity and Brinkman model predicts a lower value for interstitial velocity than the values that Darcy model predicts.
Xu, Guoxiang; Li, Pengfei; Cao, Qingnan; Hu, Qingxian; Gu, Xiaoyan; Du, Baoshuai
2018-03-01
The present study aims to develop a unified three dimensional numerical model for fiber laser+GMAW hybrid welding, which is used to study the fluid flow phenomena in hybrid welding of aluminum alloy and the influence of laser power on weld pool dynamic behavior. This model takes into account the coupling of gas, liquid and metal phases. Laser heat input is described using a cone heat source model with changing peak power density, its height being determined based on the keyhole size. Arc heat input is modeled as a double ellipsoid heat source. The arc plasma flow and droplet transfer are simulated through the two simplified models. The temperature and velocity fields for different laser powers are calculated. The computed results are in general agreement with the experimental data. Both the peak and average values of fluid flow velocity during hybrid welding are much higher than those of GMAW. At a low level of laser power, both the arc force and droplet impingement force play a relatively large role on fluid flow in the hybrid welding. Keyhole depth always oscillates within a range. With an increase in laser power, the weld pool behavior becomes more complex. An anti-clockwise vortex is generated and the stability of keyhole depth is improved. Besides, the effects of laser power on different driving forces of fluid flow in weld pool are also discussed.
Introduction to compressible fluid flow
Oosthuizen, Patrick H
2013-01-01
IntroductionThe Equations of Steady One-Dimensional Compressible FlowSome Fundamental Aspects of Compressible FlowOne-Dimensional Isentropic FlowNormal Shock WavesOblique Shock WavesExpansion Waves - Prandtl-Meyer FlowVariable Area FlowsAdiabatic Flow with FrictionFlow with Heat TransferLinearized Analysis of Two-Dimensional Compressible FlowsHypersonic and High-Temperature FlowsHigh-Temperature Gas EffectsLow-Density FlowsBibliographyAppendices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faybishenko, Boris; Doughty, Christine; Geller, Jil T.
1999-01-01
DOE faces the remediation of numerous contaminated sites, such as those at Hanford, INEEL, LLNL, and LBNL, where organic and/or radioactive wastes were intentionally or accidentally released to the vadose zone from surface spills, underground tanks, cribs, shallow ponds, and deep wells. Migration of these contaminants through the vadose zone has led to the contamination of (or threatens to contaminate) underlying groundwater. A key issue in choosing a corrective action plan to clean up contaminated sites is the determination of the location, total mass, mobility and travel time to receptors for contaminants moving in the vadose zone. These problems are difficult to solve in a technically defensible and accurate manner because contaminants travel downward intermittently, through narrow pathways, driven by variations in environmental conditions. These preferential flow pathways can be difficult to find and predict. The primary objective of this project is to determine if and when dynamical chaos theory can be used to investigate infiltration of fluid and contaminant transport in heterogeneous soils and fractured rocks. The objective of this project is being achieved through the following activities: Development of multi scale conceptual models and mathematical and numerical algorithms for flow and transport, which incorporate both (a) the spatial variability of heterogeneous porous and fractured media and (b) the temporal dynamics of flow and transport; Development of appropriate experimental field and laboratory techniques needed to detect diagnostic parameters for chaotic behavior of flow; Evaluation of chaotic behavior of flow in laboratory and field experiments using methods from non-linear dynamics; Evaluation of the impact these dynamics may have on contaminant transport through heterogeneous fractured rocks and soils and remediation efforts. This approach is based on the consideration of multi scale spatial heterogeneity and flow phenomena that are affected by
Non-Newtonian fluid flow in 2D fracture networks
Zou, L.; Håkansson, U.; Cvetkovic, V.
2017-12-01
Modeling of non-Newtonian fluid (e.g., drilling fluids and cement grouts) flow in fractured rocks is of interest in many geophysical and industrial practices, such as drilling operations, enhanced oil recovery and rock grouting. In fractured rock masses, the flow paths are dominated by fractures, which are often represented as discrete fracture networks (DFN). In the literature, many studies have been devoted to Newtonian fluid (e.g., groundwater) flow in fractured rock using the DFN concept, but few works are dedicated to non-Newtonian fluids.In this study, a generalized flow equation for common non-Newtonian fluids (such as Bingham, power-law and Herschel-Bulkley) in a single fracture is obtained from the analytical solutions for non-Newtonian fluid discharge between smooth parallel plates. Using Monte Carlo sampling based on site characterization data for the distribution of geometrical features (e.g., density, length, aperture and orientations) in crystalline fractured rock, a two dimensional (2D) DFN model is constructed for generic flow simulations. Due to complex properties of non-Newtonian fluids, the relationship between fluid discharge and the pressure gradient is nonlinear. A Galerkin finite element method solver is developed to iteratively solve the obtained nonlinear governing equations for the 2D DFN model. Using DFN realizations, simulation results for different geometrical distributions of the fracture network and different non-Newtonian fluid properties are presented to illustrate the spatial discharge distributions. The impact of geometrical structures and the fluid properties on the non-Newtonian fluid flow in 2D DFN is examined statistically. The results generally show that modeling non-Newtonian fluid flow in fractured rock as a DFN is feasible, and that the discharge distribution may be significantly affected by the geometrical structures as well as by the fluid constitutive properties.
Labonte, Alison Louise
Detecting seafloor deformation events in the offshore convergent margin environment is of particular importance considering the significant seismic hazard at subduction zones. Efforts to gain insight into the earthquake cycle have been made at the Cascadia and Costa Rica subduction margins through recent expansions of onshore GPS and seismic networks. While these studies have given scientists the ability to quantify and locate slip events in the seismogenic zone, there is little technology available for adequately measuring offshore aseismic slip. This dissertation introduces an improved flow meter for detecting seismic and aseismic deformation in submarine environments. The value of such hydrologic measurements for quantifying the geodetics at offshore margins is verified through a finite element modeling (FEM) study in which the character of deformation in the shallow subduction zone is determined from previously recorded hydrologic events at the Costa Rica Pacific margin. Accurately sensing aseismic events is one key to determining the stress state in subduction zones as these slow-slip events act to load or unload the seismogenic zone during the interseismic period. One method for detecting seismic and aseismic strain events is to monitor the hydrogeologic response to strain events using fluid flow meters. Previous instrumentation, the Chemical Aqueous Transport (CAT) meter which measures flow rates through the sediment-water interface, can detect transient events at very low flowrates, down to 0.0001 m/yr. The CAT meter performs well in low flow rate environments and can capture gradual changes in flow rate, as might be expected during ultra slow slip events. However, it cannot accurately quantify high flow rates through fractures and conduits, nor does it have the temporal resolution and accuracy required for detecting transient flow events associated with rapid deformation. The Optical Tracer Injection System (OTIS) developed for this purpose is an
Modelling flow and heat transfer around a seated human body by computational fluid dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard
2003-01-01
A database (http://www.ie.dtu.dk/manikin) containing a detailed representation of the surface geometry of a seated female human body was created from a surface scan of a thermal manikin (minus clothing and hair). The radiative heat transfer coefficient and the natural convection flow around...
Numerical Modelling of Non-Newtonian Fluid in a Rotational Cross-Flow MBR
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Ratkovic, Nicolas Rios; Rasmussen, Michael R.
2011-01-01
Fouling is the main bottleneck of the widespread of MBR systems. One way to decrease and/or control fouling is by process hydrodynamics. This can be achieved by the increase of liquid crossflow velocity. In rotational cross-flow MBR systems, this is attained by the spinning of e.g. impellers...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heo, B. G.; Jung, C. H.; Yoon, H. Y.; Yeo, D. J.; Song, C. H.
2002-01-01
A multidimensional numerical code for solving incompressible two-fluid is presented based on the Finite Volume Method (FVM) and the Simplified Marker And Cell (SMAC) method. Details of the present method and comparisons between the calculation and experiment are described for two-dimensional flow patterns of bubbly flow which show good agreement. Further implementations of the interfacial correlations are required for the application of the present code to various two-phase problems
Fluid Flow Nozzle Energy Harvesters
Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Winn, Tyler; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim
2015-01-01
Power generation schemes that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce about 1 Watt average power with long-life (decades) are actively being developed. A variety of proposed energy harvesting schemes could be used to extract energy from this environment but each of these has their own limitations that limit their practical use. Since vibrating piezoelectric structures are solid state and can be driven below their fatigue limit, harvesters based on these structures are capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades); thereby, possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. An initial survey identified that spline nozzle configurations can be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to convert the abundant flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. This paper presents current flow energy harvesting designs and experimental results of specific spline nozzle/ bimorph design configurations which have generated suitable power per nozzle at or above well production analogous flow rates. Theoretical models for non-dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical model are also presented in this paper to optimize the flow harvesting system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.S. Hashmi
Full Text Available In this study, we have constructed a mathematical model to investigate the heat source/sink effects in mixed convection axisymmetric flow of an incompressible, electrically conducting Oldroyd-B fluid between two infinite isothermal stretching disks. The effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating are also considered in the heat equation. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity variables. The series solution of these dimensionless equations is constructed by using homotopy analysis method. The convergence of the obtained solution is carefully examined. The effects of various involved parameters on pressure, velocity and temperature profiles are comprehensively studied. A graphical analysis has been presented for various values of problem parameters. The numerical values of wall shear stress and Nusselt number are computed at both upper and lower disks. Moreover, a graphical and tabular explanation for critical values of Frank-Kamenetskii regarding other flow parameters. Keywords: Isothermal stretching disk, Mixed convection, Viscous dissipation, Joule heating
Clauser, Johanna; Knieps, Marius S; Büsen, Martin; Ding, Andreas; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta; Cattaneo, Giorgio
2018-02-27
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a commonly used method for in vitro investigation of fluid dynamics in biomedical devices, such as flow diverters for intracranial aneurysm treatment. Since it is limited to transparent blood substituting fluids like water-glycerol mixture, the influence of coagulation and platelet aggregation is neglected. We aimed at the development and the application of a modified platelet rich plasma as a new PIV fluid with blood-like rheological and coagulation properties. In standardized intracranial aneurysm silicone models, the effect of this new PIV plasma on the fluid dynamics before and after flow diverter implantation was evaluated and compared with water-glycerol measurements. The flow diverting effect was strongly dependent on the used fluid, with considerably lower velocities achieved using PIV plasma, despite the same starting viscosity of both fluids. Moreover, triggering coagulation of PIV plasma allowed for intra-aneurysmal clot formation. We presented the first in vitro PIV investigation using a non-Newtonian, clottable PIV plasma, demonstrating a mismatch to a standard PIV fluid and allowing for thrombus formation.
Modelling flow and heat transfer around a seated human body by computational fluid dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard
2003-01-01
A database (http://www.ie.dtu.dk/manikin) containing a detailed representation of the surface geometry of a seated female human body was created from a surface scan of a thermal manikin (minus clothing and hair). The radiative heat transfer coefficient and the natural convection flow around...... of the computational manikin has all surface features of a human being; (2) the geometry is an exact copy of an experimental thermal manikin, enabling detailed comparisons between calculations and experiments....
George, David L.; Iverson, Richard M.
2011-01-01
Pore-fluid pressure plays a crucial role in debris flows because it counteracts normal stresses at grain contacts and thereby reduces intergranular friction. Pore-pressure feedback accompanying debris deformation is particularly important during the onset of debrisflow motion, when it can dramatically influence the balance of forces governing downslope acceleration. We consider further effects of this feedback by formulating a new, depth-averaged mathematical model that simulates coupled evolution of granular dilatancy, solid and fluid volume fractions, pore-fluid pressure, and flow depth and velocity during all stages of debris-flow motion. To illustrate implications of the model, we use a finite-volume method to compute one-dimensional motion of a debris flow descending a rigid, uniformly inclined slope, and we compare model predictions with data obtained in large-scale experiments at the USGS debris-flow flume. Predictions for the first 1 s of motion show that increasing pore pressures (due to debris contraction) cause liquefaction that enhances flow acceleration. As acceleration continues, however, debris dilation causes dissipation of pore pressures, and this dissipation helps stabilize debris-flow motion. Our numerical predictions of this process match experimental data reasonably well, but predictions might be improved by accounting for the effects of grain-size segregation.
Boutsioukis, C.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Kastrinakis, E.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.
2010-01-01
Aim To compare the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the irrigant flow within a prepared root canal, during final irrigation with a syringe and a needle, with experimental high-speed visualizations and theoretical calculations of an identical geometry and to evaluate the
Boutsioukis, C.; Boutsioukis, C.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, Michel; Kastrinakis, E.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.
2010-01-01
Aim To compare the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the irrigant flow within a prepared root canal, during final irrigation with a syringe and a needle, with experimental high-speed visualizations and theoretical calculations of an identical geometry and to evaluate the
Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in Internal Fluid Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyeong Jae Lee
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph’s clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Runchal, A.K.; Sagar, B.; Baca, R.G.; Kline, N.W.
1985-09-01
Postclosure performance assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository in flood basalts at Hanford requires that the processes of fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transport be numerically modeled at appropriate space and time scales. A suite of computer models has been developed to meet this objective. The theory of one of these models, named PORFLO, is described in this report. Also presented are a discussion of the numerical techniques in the PORFLO computer code and a few computational test cases. Three two-dimensional equations, one each for fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transport, are numerically solved in PORFLO. The governing equations are derived from the principle of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in a stationary control volume that is assumed to contain a heterogeneous, anisotropic porous medium. Broad discrete features can be accommodated by specifying zones with distinct properties, or these can be included by defining an equivalent porous medium. The governing equations are parabolic differential equations that are coupled through time-varying parameters. Computational tests of the model are done by comparisons of simulation results with analytic solutions, with results from other independently developed numerical models, and with available laboratory and/or field data. In this report, in addition to the theory of the model, results from three test cases are discussed. A users' manual for the computer code resulting from this model has been prepared and is available as a separate document. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs
Fluid dynamics and vibration of tube banks in fluid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zukauskas, A.; Ulinskas, R.; Katinas, V.
1988-01-01
This work presents results derived in fluid dynamics, hydraulic drag and flow-induced vibrations within transverse and yawed tube banks. The studies encompass banks of smooth, rough and finned tubes at Reynolds numbers from 1 to 2x10/sup 6/. Highlighted in the text are fluid dynamic parameters of tube banks measured at inter-tube spaces and tube surfaces
Modeling Fluid Structure Interaction
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Benaroya, Haym
2000-01-01
The principal goal of this program is on integrating experiments with analytical modeling to develop physics-based reduced-order analytical models of nonlinear fluid-structure interactions in articulated naval platforms...
Numerical Modeling of the Side Flow in Tape Casting of a Non-Newtonian Fluid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jabbari, Masoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2013-01-01
in the tape casting process is modeled numerically with ANSYS FLUENT in combination with an Ostwald-de Waele power law constitutive equation. Based on rheometer experiments, the constants in the Ostwald-de Waele power law are identified for the considered LSM material and applied in the numerical modeling...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian
2014-01-01
This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat generation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the maximum temperature in LiFePO4 battery cells. The model is constructed by coupling a one-dimensional electro-chemical model with a two-dimensional thermal model and fluid...
Radiotracer techniques for measuring fluid flow and calibrating flow meters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, E.L.
1987-08-01
Radiotracer techniques can be used to measure accurately both gas and liquid flow rates under operating conditions in a wide range of flow systems. They are ideally suited for calibrating flow meters as well as for measuring unmetered flows in industrial plants. Applications of these techniques range from measuring the flows of fuels and process fluids for energy and mass balance studies to measuring the flows of liquid and airborne effluents for pollution control. This report describes the various radiotracer techniques which can be used to measure fluid flows. The range of application and inherent accuracy of each technique is discussed
An improved heat conduction and mass diffusion models for rotating flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid
Khan, W. A.; Irfan, M.; Khan, M.
An analysis is presented to inspect the steady three-dimensional boundary layer flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid over a stretching surface. Heat and mass transfer analysis are scrutinized by utilizing the non-Fourier's and non-Fick's models in rotating frame. The expressions of heat and mass fluxes are based upon the Cattaneo-Christov theory. The Cattaneo-Christov heat and mass flux models are used for the development of energy and concentration equations which account the contribution of thermal and concentration relaxation times. Additionally, temperature dependent thermal conductivity is also considered here. Apposite transformations are betrothed to obtain the ordinary differential equations with high nonlinearity. The analytical solutions are established for the resulting ordinary differential system by utilizing the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Our observations reveal that the rotation parameter serves to diminish the primary velocity f‧ (η) and associated momentum boundary layer thickness and similar trend is observed for the secondary velocity g (η) . It is also observed that the thermal and concentration relaxation time parameters reduce the temperature and concentration profiles. For endorsement of the current relation, the attained consequences are eminent with former exploration in precise cases and splendid agreement has been distinguished.
Simulated fluid flow in feature enhancement
Liebowitz, David; Aghdasi, Farzin
1998-10-01
This paper describes a technique for enhancing certain features in grayscale images. Of particular interest are the class of objects that are reasonably large in extent, but are only faintly darker or lighter than the background. An example of such objects is the mandibular canal which appears in panoramic dental X-ray images. Identification of this canal is required in some dental and orthodontal investigations. Traditional image segmentation techniques often fail to detect the full extent of the canal due to the large amount of structural noise in the image. We propose a new method for the enhancement of this class of objects and the subsequent segmentation task. The flow of a fluid is simulated over the image topology, allowing fluid to settle in local minima and, by application of a difference image, enhancing the visibility of features that are characterized by a significant spatially-distributed local minimum. The procedure is similar to the watershed algorithm in concept, visualizing the movement of fluid over the image surface to draw conclusions about significant local minima. Our approach is different however since it is not aimed at segmenting the image, but enhancing distributed local minima. We consider the flow of fluid from high lying to lower lying areas under gravity. This is analogous to the rain fall method of filling the catchment basins in watershed segmentation. Various models of flow, based on co- operative networks are presented and discussed. Post processing is applied to reduce the amount of false outputs. We demonstrate that our proposed method is more suitable than simple edge detection or the watershed algorithms for the enhancement and segmentation of the mandibular canal.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, R.
2012-01-01
The aim of this research dissertation is at studying natural and mixed convections of fluid flows, and to develop and validate numerical schemes for interface tracking in order to treat incompressible and immiscible fluid flows, later. In a first step, an original numerical method, based on Finite Volume discretizations, is developed for modeling low Mach number flows with large temperature gaps. Three physical applications on air flowing through vertical heated parallel plates were investigated. We showed that the optimum spacing corresponding to the peak heat flux transferred from an array of isothermal parallel plates cooled by mixed convection is smaller than those for natural or forced convections when the pressure drop at the outlet keeps constant. We also proved that mixed convection flows resulting from an imposed flow rate may exhibit unexpected physical solutions; alternative model based on prescribed total pressure at inlet and fixed pressure at outlet sections gives more realistic results. For channels heated by heat flux on one wall only, surface radiation tends to suppress the onset of re-circulations at the outlet and to unify the walls temperature. In a second step, the mathematical model coupling the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the Level-Set method for interface tracking is derived. Improvements in fluid volume conservation by using high order discretization (ENO-WENO) schemes for the transport equation and variants of the signed distance equation are discussed. (author)
Measurement-Based Hybrid Fluid-Flow Models for Fast Multi-Scale Simulation and Control
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Sohraby, Khosrow
2004-01-01
.... We point out that traditional queuing models are intractable or provide poor fit to real-life networks, while discrete-event simulation at the packet level can consume prohibitive amounts of CPU times...
Hibi, Yoshihiko; Tomigashi, Akira
2015-09-01
Numerical simulations that couple flow in a surface fluid with that in a porous medium are useful for examining problems of pollution that involve interactions among atmosphere, water, and groundwater, including saltwater intrusion along coasts. Coupled numerical simulations of such problems must consider both vertical flow between the surface fluid and the porous medium and complicated boundary conditions at their interface. In this study, a numerical simulation method coupling Navier-Stokes equations for surface fluid flow and Darcy equations for flow in a porous medium was developed. Then, the basic ability of the coupled model to reproduce (1) the drawdown of a surface fluid observed in square-pillar experiments, using pillars filled with only fluid or with fluid and a porous medium and (2) the migration of saltwater (salt concentration 0.5%) in the porous medium using the pillar filled with fluid and a porous medium was evaluated. Simulations that assumed slippery walls reproduced well the results with drawdowns of 10-30 cm when the pillars were filled with packed sand, gas, and water. Moreover, in the simulation of saltwater infiltration by the method developed in this study, velocity was precisely reproduced because the experimental salt concentration in the porous medium after saltwater infiltration was similar to that obtained in the simulation. Furthermore, conditions across the boundary between the porous medium and the surface fluid were satisfied in these numerical simulations of square-pillar experiments in which vertical flow predominated. Similarly, the velocity obtained by the simulation for a system coupling flow in surface fluid with that in a porous medium when horizontal flow predominated satisfied the conditions across the boundary. Finally, it was confirmed that the present simulation method was able to simulate a practical-scale surface fluid and porous medium system. All of these numerical simulations, however, required a great deal of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bajovic, V.S.
1995-01-01
A Faraday ideally segmented (the absence of the Hall electric current I x =0) MHD generator channel, with a weakly ionized plasma as a working fluid, is considered. The magnetic field is applied along the z axis and the working fluid flows along the x axis. The stationary state of the flow and the stationary electric current are considered. The new quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) electrodynamical part of a model is developed. The main assumption (besides j z = 0, E z = 0) taken in the whole working fluid flow, is j x = 0. It means that the bending of the electric current pattern in the working fluid, due to the nonmassive electrodes and the presence of the magnetic field, is not explicitly considered. In the frame of the assumption taken, the legitimacy regarding the equation of conservation of charges: div rvec j = 0 suggests that the straight electric current pattern in the model should be narrow. In other words, it suggests replacing of a rather complicated electric current pattern in a working fluid by an artificially straight and narrow one in the modeling, promising that it would still be possible to describe the global channel parameters - its electrical output, the influence of the shape and the size of the channel on the generator performance etc
Fluid Flow in a Porous Tree-Shaped Network
Miguel, A. F.
2014-01-01
Tree-shaped flow networks connect one point to an inﬁnity of points and are everywhere in Nature. These networks often own minimal flow resistance and vessel sizes obey to scaling power-laws. In this paper presents a model for fluid flow through a tree-shaped network with porous tubes. Hagen–Poiseuille flow is assumed for tubes and Darcy flow for the porous wall.
Oscillating flow of a Burgers' fluid in a pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, M.; Asghar, S.; Hayat, T.
2005-12-01
An analysis is made to see the influences of Hall current on the flow of a Burgers' fluid. The velocity field corresponding to flow in a pipe is determined. The closed form analytical solutions for several Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid models can be obtained from the present analysis as the limiting cases. The purpose of this work is twofold. Firstly, to investigate the oscillating flow in a pipe using Burgers? fluid model. Secondly, to see the effects of Hall current on the velocity field. The flow in a pipe is induced due to imposition of an oscillating pressure gradient. An exact analytical solution to the governing problem is given using the Fourier transform technique. The obtained expression for the velocity field shows that there are pronounced effects of Hall and rheological parameters. The considered fluid model is a viscoelastic model and has been used to characterize food products such as cheese, soil, asphalt and asphalt mixes etc. (author)
Numerical analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in a helical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
DR OKE
exchanger and analysis is done on ten helical ducts by changing the flow rates of four different fluids like water, ethanol, kerosene and Nano ... numerical study on double-pipe helical heat exchanger modeled for laminar fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics under different fluid flow .... Dynamic viscosity of fluid. Q. Heat ...
Geophysical models of heat and fluid flow in damageable poro-elastic continua
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Roubíček, Tomáš
2017-01-01
Roč. 29, č. 2 (2017), s. 625-646 ISSN 0935-1175 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03823S; GA ČR GA14-15264S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : poro-elastic rocks * damage * biot model Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 2.529, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00161-016-0547-5
Aspects of developed heat and mass flux models on 3D flow of Eyring-Powell fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tanzila Hayat
Full Text Available The variable thermal conductivity impacts and generalized Fourier’s and Fick’s laws over an exponentially stretching surface are reported in this paper. Another heat flux idea involving mystery of heat conduction is exploited which is not quite the same as the usual literature. Such idea has been utilized as a part of perspective of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux theory. The characteristic of temperature and concentration relaxation features are described. Other than this, chemical reactions are additionally considered.To solve the system of six highly non-linear coupled differential equations, a numerical technique bvp4c is adopted. The skin friction coefficient for three dimensional Eyring-Powell fluid model is calculated. From the present analysis we observe that the temperature and concentration profiles declines for higher values of thermal and concentration relaxation parameters. Also, for higher values of strength of reaction parameters, the concentration profile decreases. Current effort for three dimensional Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions over an exponentially stretching surface does not yet exist in the literature. Keywords: Three dimensional flow, Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion, Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions, Variable thermal conductivity, Exponentially stretching surface
Li, Xin; Gao, Deli; Chen, Xuyue
2017-06-08
Hydraulic extended-reach limit (HERL) model of horizontal extended-reach well (ERW) can predict the maximum measured depth (MMD) of the horizontal ERW. The HERL refers to the well's MMD when drilling fluid cannot be normally circulated by drilling pump. Previous model analyzed the following two constraint conditions, drilling pump rated pressure and rated power. However, effects of the allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate (Q min ≤ Q ≤ Q max ) were not considered. In this study, three cases of HERL model are proposed according to the relationship between allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate and rated flow rate of drilling pump (Q r ). A horizontal ERW is analyzed to predict its HERL, especially its horizontal-section limit (L h ). Results show that when Q min ≤ Q r ≤ Q max (Case I), L h depends both on horizontal-section limit based on rated pump pressure (L h1 ) and horizontal-section limit based on rated pump power (L h2 ); when Q min < Q max < Q r (Case II), L h is exclusively controlled by L h1 ; while L h is only determined by L h2 when Q r < Q min < Q max (Case III). Furthermore, L h1 first increases and then decreases with the increase in drilling fluid flow rate, while L h2 keeps decreasing as the drilling fluid flow rate increases. The comprehensive model provides a more accurate prediction on HERL.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Jong Hark; Chae, Hee Taek; Park, Cheol; Kim, Heon Il; Lee, Doo Jeong; Seo, Kyoung Woo; Oh, Jae Min; Yoon, Ju Hyeon; Ha, Jae Joo
2009-08-15
This is a study on the modeling method for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to analyze and to predict primary coolant flow behavior in a tank-in-pool type research reactor at the conceptual design stage. It is very hard to conduct a CFD analysis on an enormous complex equipment integrated system like a nuclear reactor with no simplification and alternative model treatment, so it is required a new methodological approach to be adopted to such an enormous CFD model. In this study it is proposed a new modeling method to solve a nuclear reactor employing plate type nuclear fuel assemblies. The idea attributes fuel assembly modeling to simplification, but the effect and the influence to a flow by fuel assembly can be reproduced as close as possible to physical phenomena. The idea is applied to CFD analysis model for a tank-in-pool type research reactor. A careful evaluation of the CFD analysis result is carried out whether the CFD model can provide a reasonable prediction or not. According to the evaluation it can be said that the proposed modeling method is so useful idea for the CFD analysis model to solve the whole nuclear reactor. The CFD result provides valuable predictions to the flow phenomena in the tank-in-pool type research reactor, which contributes to the more understanding of flow characteristics of primary coolant flow in the reactor. It is shown by the CFD analysis that the reactor core would have even flow distribution within {+-}3% deviation to the design flow rate, and that the primary coolant of PCHT(Primary Coolant Hold-up Tank) would flow out to reactor pool via the NC flow gates. The outstanding grasping of the flow in the PCHT leads to a remedy to reduce the flowing out from the NC flow gates.
Beneš, Michal; Pažanin, Igor
2017-11-01
This paper reports an analytical investigation of non-isothermal fluid flow in a thin (or long) vertical pipe filled with porous medium via asymptotic analysis. We assume that the fluid inside the pipe is cooled (or heated) by the surrounding medium and that the flow is governed by the prescribed pressure drop between pipe's ends. Starting from the dimensionless Darcy-Brinkman-Boussinesq system, we formally derive a macroscopic model describing the effective flow at small Brinkman-Darcy number. The asymptotic approximation is given by the explicit formulae for the velocity, pressure and temperature clearly acknowledging the effects of the cooling (heating) and porous structure. The theoretical error analysis is carried out to indicate the order of accuracy and to provide a rigorous justification of the effective model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. V. Ramana Reddy
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The blood flow through an overlapping clogged tapered artery in the presence of catheter is discussed. Since cholesterol deposition is resulting in the stenosis formation, velocity slip at the arterial wall is considered. The equations governing the fluid flow have been solved analytically under the assumption of the mild stenosis. The analysis with respect to various parameters arising out of fluid and geometry considered, on physiological parameters such as impedance and wall shear stress at the maximum height of the stenosis as well as across the entire length of the stenosis has been reported. A table summarizing the locations of extreme heights and the corresponding annular radii is provided. It is observed that the wall shear stress is the same at both the locations corresponding to the maximum height of the stenosis in case of nontapered artery while it varies in case of tapered artery. It is also observed that slip velocity and diverging tapered artery facilitate the fluid flow. Shear stress at the wall is increasing as micropolar parameter is decreasing and the trend is reversed in case of coupling number. The results obtained are validated by comparing them with the experimental and theoretical results.
Huber, F. M.; Enzmann, F.; Wenka, A.; Dentz, M.; Schaefer, T.
2010-12-01
Fluid flow and solute transport through fractures are a key process in both industrial and scientific issues ranging from e.g. geothermal energy production to the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic formations. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the various interdependent processes governing fluid flow and solute transport in fractures over a broad range of length and time scales is of utmost importance. Numerous studies have shown the importance of fracture geometry on flow and solute transport. More recently, significance of so called recirculation zones which are accessible for solutes and colloids through hydrodynamic dispersion and molecular diffusion have been identified [1,2] which can be responsible for pronounced late time solute breakthrough (tailing). Unfortunately, these studies are mostly focused on 2D. Thus, the intention of the prevailing study is to investigate the influence of fracture geometry on solute transport under a broad range of flow conditions (Pe number from 0.1 up to 1000) and as a function of flow direction (that is, reversed flow direction) both in 2D and 3D. We present µXCT measurements with a spatial resolution of 80 µm of a natural single fracture in a diorite drill core from Äspö, Sweden, which serves as direct input for computational mesh generation in order to obtain a realistic 3D model. Besides, a 2D model was produced by projecting the 3D mesh into the x-y-plane to completely exclude the fracture aperture information. Computational fluid dynamic simulations in 2D and 3D have been conducted to study fluid flow and conservative tracer (HTO) transport by means of the finite volume code FLUENT. The natural fracture exhibits a very complex geometry with asperities, rough side walls and a heterogenous aperture distribution. Furthermore, the µXCT data clearly shows that the fracture is not filled with fault gauge material. Simulation results confirm the impact of fracture geometry/roughness on fluid flow causing
Conjugate Compressible Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Ducts
Cross, M. F.
2011-01-01
A computational approach to modeling transient, compressible fluid flow with heat transfer in long, narrow ducts is presented. The primary application of the model is for analyzing fluid flow and heat transfer in solid propellant rocket motor nozzle joints during motor start-up, but the approach is relevant to a wide range of analyses involving rapid pressurization and filling of ducts. Fluid flow is modeled through solution of the spatially one-dimensional, transient Euler equations. Source terms are included in the governing equations to account for the effects of wall friction and heat transfer. The equation solver is fully-implicit, thus providing greater flexibility than an explicit solver. This approach allows for resolution of pressure wave effects on the flow as well as for fast calculation of the steady-state solution when a quasi-steady approach is sufficient. Solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations with source terms significantly reduces computational run times compared to general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages solving the Navier-Stokes equations with resolved boundary layers. In addition, conjugate heat transfer is more readily implemented using the approach described in this paper than with most general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages. The compressible flow code has been integrated with a transient heat transfer solver to analyze heat transfer between the fluid and surrounding structure. Conjugate fluid flow and heat transfer solutions are presented. The author is unaware of any previous work available in the open literature which uses the same approach described in this paper.
Computational modelling in fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hauguel, A.
1985-01-01
The modelling of the greatest part of environmental or industrial flow problems gives very similar types of equations. The considerable increase in computing capacity over the last ten years consequently allowed numerical models of growing complexity to be processed. The varied group of computer codes presented are now a complementary tool of experimental facilities to achieve studies in the field of fluid mechanics. Several codes applied in the nuclear field (reactors, cooling towers, exchangers, plumes...) are presented among others [fr
Thermohydrodynamic analysis of cryogenic liquid turbulent flow fluid film bearings
Andres, Luis San
1993-01-01
A thermohydrodynamic analysis is presented and a computer code developed for prediction of the static and dynamic force response of hydrostatic journal bearings (HJB's), annular seals or damper bearing seals, and fixed arc pad bearings for cryogenic liquid applications. The study includes the most important flow characteristics found in cryogenic fluid film bearings such as flow turbulence, fluid inertia, liquid compressibility and thermal effects. The analysis and computational model devised allow the determination of the flow field in cryogenic fluid film bearings along with the dynamic force coefficients for rotor-bearing stability analysis.
López-Aguilar, J. E.; Webster, M. F.; Tamaddon-Jahromi, H. R.; Manero, O.; Binding, D. M.; Walters, K.
2017-12-01
Over recent years, there has been slow but steady progress towards the qualitative numerical prediction of observed behaviour when highly elastic Boger fluids flow in contraction geometries. This has led to an obvious desire to seek quantitative agreement between prediction and experiment, a subject which is addressed in the current paper. We conclude that constitutive models of non-trivial complexity are required to make headway in this regard. However, we suggest that the desire to move from qualitative to quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is making real progress. In the present case with differential models, this has involved the introduction of a generalized continuous spectrum model. This is based on direct data input from material functions and rheometrical measurements. The class of such models assumes functional separability across shear and extensional deformation, through two master functions, governing independently material-time and viscous-response. The consequences of such a continuous spectrum representation are compared and contrasted against discrete-mode alternatives, via an averaged single-mode approximation and a multi-modal approximation. The effectiveness of each chosen form is gauged by the quality of match to complex flow response and experimental measurement. Here, this is interpreted in circular contraction-type flows with Boger fluids, where large experimental pressure-drop data are available and wide disparity between different fluid responses has been recorded in the past. Findings are then back-correlated to base-material response from ideal viscometric flow.
Bonzanini, Arianna; Picchi, Davide; Ferrari, Marco; Poesio, Pietro
2017-01-01
In previous works, (Ferrari et al., 2017) have shown that a onedimensional, hyperbolic, transient five equations two-fluid model is able to numerically describe stratified, wavy, and slug flow in horizontal and near-horizontal pipes. Slug statistical characteristics, such as slug velocity, frequency, and length can be numerically predicted with results in good agreement with experimental data and well-known empirical relations. In this model some approximated and simplified assumptions are ad...
Method and device for measuring fluid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atherton, R.; Marinkovich, P.S.; Spadaro, P.R.; Stout, J.W.
1976-01-01
The invention is a fluid flow measuring device for determining the coolant flow at the entrance to a specific nuclear reactor fuel region. The device comprises a plurality of venturis having the upstream inlet and throat pressure of each respectively manifolded together to provide one static pressure signal for each region monitored. The device provides accurate flow measurement with low pressure losses and uniform entrance and discharge flow distribution. 1 claim, 7 figures
Fluid Mechanics An Introduction to the Theory of Fluid Flows
Durst, Franz
2008-01-01
Advancements of fluid flow measuring techniques and of computational methods have led to new ways to treat laminar and turbulent flows. These methods are extensively used these days in research and engineering practise. This also requires new ways to teach the subject to students at higher educational institutions in an introductory manner. The book provides the knowledge to students in engineering and natural science needed to enter fluid mechanics applications in various fields. Analytical treatments are provided, based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Introductions are also given into numerical and experimental methods applied to flows. The main benefit the reader will derive from the book is a sound introduction into all aspects of fluid mechanics covering all relevant subfields.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Song Yidan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The flow over four square cylinders in an in-line, square arrangement was numerically investigated by using the finite volume method with CFD techniques. The working fluid is an incompressible ideal gas. The length of the sides of the array, L, is equal. The analysis is carried out for a Reynolds number of 300, with center-to-center distance ratios, L/D, ranging from 1.5 to 8.0. To fully understand the flow mechanism, details in terms of lift and drag coefficients and Strouhal numbers of the unsteady wake frequencies are analyzed, and the vortex shedding patterns around the four square cylinders are described. It is concluded that L/D has important effects on the drag and lift coefficients, vortex shedding frequencies, and flow field characteristics.
Complex fluids modeling and algorithms
Saramito, Pierre
2016-01-01
This book presents a comprehensive overview of the modeling of complex fluids, including many common substances, such as toothpaste, hair gel, mayonnaise, liquid foam, cement and blood, which cannot be described by Navier-Stokes equations. It also offers an up-to-date mathematical and numerical analysis of the corresponding equations, as well as several practical numerical algorithms and software solutions for the approximation of the solutions. It discusses industrial (molten plastics, forming process), geophysical (mud flows, volcanic lava, glaciers and snow avalanches), and biological (blood flows, tissues) modeling applications. This book is a valuable resource for undergraduate students and researchers in applied mathematics, mechanical engineering and physics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souza Netto, Wilson F. de; Brito, Marcio F. P.; Dantas, Carlos C.; Silva, Jose Marcos F. da; Freitas, Romero B., E-mail: wilson.netto@ufpe.br, E-mail: jmfs5@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: romero.borgesf@gmail.com, E-mail: ccd@ufpe.br, E-mail: marciopaixaobrito@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Valdemir A. dos, E-mail: vas@unicap.br [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Barbosa, Enivaldo S., E-mail: enivaldo@dem.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Mecanica
2013-07-01
An one-dimensional model was previously used to describe solid flow and operational conditions tests. By radial gamma ray profile a two-dimensional model was evaluated taken volumetric solid fraction as experimental parameters. Literature data provide a first test for solution of the two-dimensional model equations. Then, Axial and radial catalyst profiles were measured by gamma ray transmission in the riser of the Cold Flow Pilot Unit. For fluid flow, the mathematical model is established based on the equations of conservation of momentum and mass. However, in multicomponent flows, one should have a correction factor in these equations taking into account the influence of each component in the flow. This factor is the volumetric fraction of each component. The volumetric fraction of solids was obtained by measuring the pressure profile and calculating the solids specific mass relative to riser volume. With the technique of gamma transmission radiation could be measured in one single point of the riser, direct measurement, then several points to get a more precise axial profile and better definition. The data obtained were used as parameters for the differential equations of fluid dynamic model and MATLAB solved. (author)
Apparatus for measuring fluid flow
Smith, J.E.; Thomas, D.G.
Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.
Thermo-Fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow
Ishii, Mamrou
2011-01-01
"Thermo-fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow, Second Edition" is focused on the fundamental physics of two-phase flow. The authors present the detailed theoretical foundation of multi-phase flow thermo-fluid dynamics as they apply to: Nuclear reactor transient and accident analysis; Energy systems; Power generation systems; Chemical reactors and process systems; Space propulsion; Transport processes. This edition features updates on two-phase flow formulation and constitutive equations and CFD simulation codes such as FLUENT and CFX, new coverage of the lift force model, which is of part
van Rijt, Leonie S.; Kuipers, Harmjan; Vos, Nanda; Hijdra, Daniëlle; Hoogsteden, Henk C.; Lambrecht, Bart N.
2004-01-01
Mouse models of allergic asthma are increasingly used to study the immunopathology of this complex disorder. The degree and type of airway inflammation is often studied by determination of differential cell counts on cytospins of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells stained with May-Grünwald
Electromagnetic Probe Technique for Fluid Flow Measurements
Arndt, G. D.; Carl, J. R.; Nguyen, T. X.
1994-01-01
The probes described herein, in various configurations, permit the measurement of the volume fraction of two or more fluids flowing through a pipe. Each probe measures the instantaneous relative dielectric constant of the fluid in immediate proximity. As long as separation of the relative dielectric constants of each fluid is possible, several or even many fluids can be measured in the same flow steam. By using multiple probes, the velocity of each fluid can generally be determined as well as the distribution of each constituent in the pipe. The values are determined by statistical computation. There are many potential applications for probes of this type in industry and government. Possible NASA applications include measurements of helium/hydrazine flow during rocket tests at White Sands, liquid/gas flow in hydrogen or oxygen lines in Orbiter engines, and liquid/gaseous Freon flow in zero gravity tests with the KS135 aircraft at JSC. Much interest has been shown recently by the oil industry. In this industry, a good method is needed to measure the fractions of oil, water, and natural gas flowing in a pipeline and the velocity of each. This particular problem involves an extension of what has been developed to date and our plans and program to solve this problem will be discussed herein.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchiyama, Tomomi; Minemura, Kiyoshi
1996-01-01
A two-dimensional finite element method for an incompressible two-fluid model is developed in order to enhance the applicability of the two-fluid model to the analyses in arbitrarily shaped channels. The solution algorithm is based on the SMAC method for incompressible single-phase flows. Quadrilateral element with four nodes is employed. The velocities and volumetric fractions of both phases are defined on the nodes. The pressure is defined at a centroid of each element and assumed to be constant within the element. The Galerkin method is applied to the finite element formulations. Air-water two-phase flow around a circular cylinder is analyzed by the finite element method. The calculated distributions of the volumetric fraction of the gas-phase show good agreement with measurements. (author)
Topological fluid mechanics of Axisymmetric Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brøns, Morten
1998-01-01
Topological fluid mechanics in the sense of the present paper is the study and classification of flow patterns close to a critical point. Here we discuss the topology of steady viscous incompressible axisymmetric flows in the vicinity of the axis. Following previous studies the velocity field v...... to the authors knowledge has not been used systematically to high orders in topological fluid mechanics. We compare the general results with experimental and computational results on the Vogel-Ronneberg flow. We show that the topology changes observed when recirculating bubbles on the vortex axis are created...
DYNAMICS OF FLUID IN OSCILLATORY FLOW: THE Z COMPONENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. C. -C. LEE
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In an oscillatory flow, the resistance to flow, more appropriately defined as the impedance to flow, is a function of oscillating frequency, which refers to the harmonic composition of the driving pressure wave. Flow in an elastic tube may be resisted in numerous ways such as the fluid viscosity, fluid inertia and tube elasticity. The concept of impedance arises in the dynamics of the ResistanceInductance-Capacitance. In oscillating flow, these represent the fluid viscosity, inertia and tube elasticity. This paper describes the effects of impedance, or the Z component as described in-text of an oscillating flow in a valveless impedance pump using numerical simulation. A one-dimensional lumpedsystem model is chosen to perform the analysis in this study. The simulation domain is a mimic to known experimental model previously conducted by Lee et.al. [18-21]. Impedance-induced flow has shown to be combined effects of fluid viscosity, inertia and tube elasticity. Results presented are in reasonable agreement with experimental results presented in Ref [21] with an estimate of 16% variance. This simple model has shown to predict results with significant values, using simple approximations; and further the understanding of fluid impedance’s role in a valveless impedance pump.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of hot air flow ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of air flow distribution, air velocity and pressure field pattern as it will affect moisture transient in a cabinet tray dryer is performed using SolidWorks Flow Simulation (SWFS) 2014 SP 4.0 program. The model used for the drying process in this experiment was designed with Solid ...
Stability of fluid flow through deformable tubes and channels: An ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S¯adhan¯a Vol. 40, Part 3, May 2015, pp. 925–943. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Stability of fluid flow through deformable tubes and channels: An overview ... tic solid models. All these studies predict several types of instabilities in flow past deformable surfaces. This paper will attempt to place the various theoretical ...
Mathematical theory of compressible fluid flow
von Mises, Richard
2004-01-01
A pioneer in the fields of statistics and probability theory, Richard von Mises (1883-1953) made notable advances in boundary-layer-flow theory and airfoil design. This text on compressible flow, unfinished upon his sudden death, was subsequently completed in accordance with his plans, and von Mises' first three chapters were augmented with a survey of the theory of steady plane flow. Suitable as a text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students - as well as a reference for professionals - Mathematical Theory of Compressible Fluid Flow examines the fundamentals of high-speed flows, with
Analysis of the two-fluid model and the drift-flux model for numerical calculation of two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munkejord, Svend Tollak
2006-05-11
This thesis analyses models for two-phase flows and methods for the numerical resolution of these models. It is therefore one contribution to the development of reliable design tools for multiphase applications. Such tools are needed and expected by engineers in a range of fields, including in the oil and gas industry. The approximate Riemann solver of Roe has been studied. Roe schemes for three different two-phase flow models have been implemented in the framework of a standard numerical algorithm for the solution of hyperbolic conservation laws. The schemes have been analysed by calculation of benchmark tests from the literature, and by comparison with each other. A Roe scheme for the four-equation one-pressure two-fluid model has been implemented, and a second-order extension based on wave decomposition and flux-difference splitting was shown to work well and to give improved results compared to the first-order scheme. The convergence properties of the scheme were tested on smooth and discontinuous solutions. A Roe scheme has been proposed for a five-equation two-pressure two-fluid model with pressure relaxation. The use of analogous numerical methods for the five-equation and four-equation models allowed for a direct comparison of a method with and without pressure relaxation. Numerical experiments demonstrated that the two approaches converged to the same results, but that the five-equation pressure-relaxation method was significantly more dissipative, particularly for contact discontinuities. Furthermore, even though the five-equation model with instantaneous pressure relaxation has real eigenvalues, the calculations showed that it produced oscillations for cases where the four-equation model had complex eigenvalues. A Roe scheme has been constructed for the drift-flux model with general closure laws. For the case of the Zuber-Findlay slip law describing bubbly flows, the Roe matrix is completely analytical. Hence the present Roe scheme is more efficient than
Drift flux model as approximation of two fluid model for two phase dispersed and slug flow in tube
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nigmatulin, R.I.
1995-09-01
The analysis of one-dimensional schematizing for non-steady two-phase dispersed and slug flow in tube is presented. Quasi-static approximation, when inertia forces because of the accelerations of the phases may be neglected, is considered. Gas-liquid bubbly and slug vertical upward flows are analyzed. Non-trivial theoretical equations for slip velocity for these flows are derived. Juxtaposition of the derived equations for slip velocity with the famous Zuber-Findlay correlation as cross correlation coefficients is criticized. The generalization of non-steady drift flux Wallis theory taking into account influence of wall friction on the bubbly or slug flows for kinematical waves is considered.
Fundamental Processes of Atomization in Fluid-Fluid Flows
McCready, M. J.; Chang, H.-C.; Leighton, D. T.
2001-01-01
This report outlines the major results of the grant "Fundamental Processes of Atomization in Fluid-Fluid Flows." These include: 1) the demonstration that atomization in liquid/liquid shear flow is driven by a viscous shear instability that triggers the formation of a long thin sheet; 2) discovery of a new mode of interfacial instability for oscillatory two-layer systems whereby a mode that originates within the less viscous liquid phase causes interfacial deformation as the oscillation proceeds; 3) the demonstration that rivulet formation from gravity front occurs because the local front shape specified by gravity and surface tension changes from a nose to a wedge geometry, thus triggering a large increase in viscous resistance; and 4) extension of the studies on nonlinear wave evolution on falling films and in stratified flow, particularly the evolution towards large-amplitude solitary waves that tend to generate drops.
Stier, Bernd; Falco, R. E.
1994-01-01
Optical measurements on an axisymmetrical quartz component engine research model were made to evaluate the flow field encountered during induction. The measurement technique is LIPA (Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry), a non-intrusive velocimetry concept that provides an investigator of fluid flow with a tool to attain planar information about three-dimensional velocity and vorticity vectors in a single measurement step. The goal of this investigation is to further develop this measurement technique and apply it to study the induction stroke of a water analog model of a four-stroke internal combustion engine. The research conducted in the water analog model is a fundamental scientific inquiry into the flow fields that develop in the induction stroke of an engine at idling engine speeds. As this is the first investigation of its kind using LIPA technique, our goal has been to quantify, in a preliminary manner, the flow field features that develop during the intake stroke. In the process a more comprehensive understanding of the flow field features was developed, and tied to the quantification. The study evaluated the flow field of the intake stroke by estimating fields of velocity and vorticity. On the basis of these data, information about fluid dynamics during induction at engine speeds of 10, 20, and 30 RPM (corresponding to 170, 340, and 510 RPM respectively, when air is the flowing medium) for three different valve lifts was obtained. The overall development of the flow field, its energy content (kinetic, fluctuation) for the different settings of the engine parameters, vorticity information, and cyclic variations have been quantified. These have been discussed in terms of mixing performance.
Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael
2009-09-01
This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.
Anwar, Md Rajib; Camarda, Kyle V; Kieweg, Sarah L
2015-06-25
Topically applied microbicide gels can provide a self-administered and effective strategy to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We have investigated the interplay between vaginal tissue elasticity and the yield-stress of non-Newtonian fluids during microbicide deployment. We have developed a mathematical model of tissue deformation driven spreading of microbicidal gels based on thin film lubrication approximation and demonstrated the effect of tissue elasticity and fluid yield-stress on the spreading dynamics. Our results show that both elasticity of tissue and yield-stress rheology of gel are strong determinants of the coating behavior. An optimization framework has been demonstrated which leverages the flow dynamics of yield-stress fluid during deployment to maximize retention while reaching target coating length for a given tissue elasticity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Ju Yeop; In, Wang Kee; Chun, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)
2000-02-01
The development of orthogonal 2-dimensional numerical code is made. The present code contains 9 kinds of turbulence models that are widely used. They include a standard k-{epsilon} model and 8 kinds of low Reynolds number ones. They also include 6 kinds of numerical schemes including 5 kinds of low order schemes and 1 kind of high order scheme such as QUICK. To verify the present numerical code, pipe flow, channel flow and expansion pipe flow are solved by this code with various options of turbulence models and numerical schemes and the calculated outputs are compared to experimental data. Furthermore, the discretization error that originates from the use of standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model with wall function is much more diminished by introducing a new grid system than a conventional one in the present code. 23 refs., 58 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)
Resolution of through tubing fluid flow and behind casing fluid flow in multiple completion wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, D.M.
1977-01-01
A method is provided for resolving undesired fluid flow in cement channels behind casing in one producing zone of a multi zone completion well operating on gas lift from the fluid flow from lower producing zones in the same well which is contained in production tubing passing through the producing zone being investigated. Gamma rays which are characteristic of the decay of the unstable isotope nitrogen 16 produced by activation of elemental oxygen nuclei comprising the molecular structure of both the tubing fluid flow and the undesired fluid flow are detected in at least two energy bonds at two longitudinally spaced detectors in a well borehole. By appropriately combining the four count rate signals so producing according to predetermined relationships the two fluid flow components in the same direction may be uniquely distinguished on the basis of their differing distances from the gamma ray detectors. 9 claims, 17 figures
Barker, C.E.; Bone, Y.; Lewan, M.D.
1999-01-01
Nine basalt dikes, ranging from 6 cm to 40 m thick, intruding the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Strzelecki Group, western onshore Gippsland Basin, were used to study maximum temperatures (Tmax) reached next to dikes. Tmax was estimated from fluid inclusion and vitrinitereflectance geothermometry and compared to temperatures calculated using heat-flow models of contact metamorphism. Thermal history reconstruction suggests that at the time of dike intrusion the host rock was at a temperature of 100-135??C. Fracture-bound fluid inclusions in the host rocks next to thin dikes ( 1.5, using a normalized distance ratio used for comparing measurements between dikes regardless of their thickness. In contrast, the pattern seen next to the thin dikes is a relatively narrow zone of elevated Rv-r. Heat-flow modeling, along with whole rock elemental and isotopic data, suggests that the extended zone of elevated Rv-r is caused by a convection cell with local recharge of the hydrothermal fluids. The narrow zone of elevated Rv-r found next to thin dikes is attributed to the rise of the less dense, heated fluids at the dike contact causing a flow of cooler groundwater towards the dike and thereby limiting its heating effects. The lack of extended heating effects suggests that next to thin dikes an incipient convection system may form in which the heated fluid starts to travel upward along the dike but cooling occurs before a complete convection cell can form. Close to the dike contact at X/D 1.5. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.
2010-12-01
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Portland District (CENWP) has ongoing work to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids (smolt) migrating past The Dalles Dam. As part of that effort, a spillwall was constructed to improve juvenile egress through the tailrace downstream of the stilling basin. The spillwall was designed to improve smolt survival by decreasing smolt retention time in the spillway tailrace and the exposure to predators on the spillway shelf. The spillwall guides spillway flows, and hence smolt, more quickly into the thalweg. In this study, an existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was modified and used to characterize tailrace hydraulics between the new spillwall and the Washington shore for six different total river flows. The effect of spillway flow distribution was simulated for three spill patterns at the lowest total river flow. The commercial CFD solver, STAR-CD version 4.1, was used to solve the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations together with the k-epsilon turbulence model. Free surface motion was simulated using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique. The model results were used in two ways. First, results graphics were provided to CENWP and regional fisheries agency representatives for use and comparison to the same flow conditions at a reduced-scale physical model. The CFD results were very similar in flow pattern to that produced by the reduced-scale physical model but these graphics provided a quantitative view of velocity distribution. During the physical model work, an additional spill pattern was tested. Subsequently, that spill pattern was also simulated in the numerical model. The CFD streamlines showed that the hydraulic conditions were likely to be beneficial to fish egress at the higher total river flows (120 kcfs and greater, uniform flow distribution). At the lowest flow case, 90 kcfs, it was necessary to use a non-uniform distribution. Of the three distributions tested, splitting the flow evenly between
Generalized Crane flows of micropolar fluids
Magyari, E.; Kumaran, V.
2010-11-01
The hydromagnetic flow induced by a continuous stretching surface in a quiescent micropolar fluid is revisited in this Note. It is shown that the problem admits an exact analytical solution for arbitrary differentiable stretching velocities when the surface is permeable and a suitable lateral suction/injection of the fluid is applied. This result generalizes the classical Crane-type solutions which hold for linear stretching velocities only.
Gilmore, M.; Fisher, D. M.; Kelly, R. F.; Hatch, M. W.; Rogers, B. N.
2017-10-01
Ongoing experiments and numerical modeling of the dynamics of electrostatic turbulence and transport in the presence of flow shear are being conducted in helicon plasmas in the linear HelCat (Helicon-Cathode) device. Modeling is being done using GBS, a 3D, global two-fluid Braginskii code that solves self-consistently for plasma equilibrium as well as fluctuations. Past experimental measurements of flows have been difficult to reconcile with simple expectations, such as azimuthal flows being dominated by Er x Bz rotation. Therefore, recent measurements have focused on understanding plasma flows, and the role of neutral dynamics. In the model, a set of two-fluid drift-reduced Braginskii equations are evolved using the Global Braginskii Solver Code (GBS). For low-field helicon-sourced Ar plasmas a non-negligible cross-field thermal collisional term must be added to shift the electric potential in the ion momentum and vorticity equations as the ions are unmagnetized. Significant radially and axially dependent neutral profiles are also included in the simulations to try and match those observed in HelCat. Ongoing simulations show a mode dependence on the axial magnetic field along with strong axial variations that suggest drift waves may be important in the low-field case. Supported by U.S. National Science Foundation Award 1500423.
Analysis of anisotropic shells containing flowing fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lakis, A.A.
1983-01-01
A general theory for the dynamic analysis of anisotropic thin cylindrical shells containing flowing fluid is presented. The shell may be uniform or non-uniform, provided it is geometrically axially symmetric. This is a finite- element theory, using cylindrical finite elements, but the displacement functions are determined by using classical shell theory. A new solution of the wave equation of the liquid finite element leads to an expression of the fluid pressure, p, as a function of the nodal displacements of the element and three operative forces (inertia, centrifugal and Coriolis) of the moving fluid. (Author) [pt
Two-fluid model of two-phase flow in a pin bundle of a nuclear reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chawla, T.C.; Ishii, M.
1980-01-01
By considering two-phase flow as a field which is subdivided into two turbulent single-phase regions with moving boundaries separating the two constituent phases, such that the differential balances for three-dimensional turbulent flow hold for each subregion and for the interface, we perform the Eulerian area averaging over the cross-sectional area of each phase in a given channel and segment averaging of transverse momentum equation along the phase intercepts at the interchannel boundaries. To simplify the governing equations obtained as a result of these operations, we invoke the assumption that the motion of the fluid in each phase is dominantly in axial direction, that is the transverse components of velocity are small compared to axial components. We further assume that the variation of axial component of velocity within a channel is much stronger than the variation along the axial direction. We also assume that similar arguments can also be applied to the variation of enthalpy in a channel. As a result of these considerations, we obtain two sets of continuity, momentum, and energy equations describing motion of each phase in the axial direction. The phasic interaction terms which appear in these equations are governed by interfacial transfer conditions obtained from interface balances. The segment-averaged transverse-momentum equation for each phase provides the governing equation for cross flow. (author)
Bout, B.
2018-04-09
An integrated, modeling method for shallow landslides, debris flows and catchment hydrology is developed and presented in this paper. Existing two-phase debris flow equations and an adaptation on the infinite slope method are coupled with a full hydrological catchment model. We test the approach on the 4 km2 Scaletta catchment, North-Eastern Sicily, where the 1-10-2009 convective storm caused debris flooding after 395 shallow landslides. Validation is done based on the landslide inventory and photographic evidence from the days after the event. Results show that the model can recreate the impact of both shallow landslides, debris flow runout, and debris floods with acceptable accuracy (91 percent inventory overlap with a 0.22 Cohens Kappa). General patterns in slope failure and runout are well-predicted, leading to a fully physically based prediction of rainfall induced debris flood behavior in the downstream areas, such as the creation of a debris fan at the coastal outlet.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sausse, J.
1998-10-15
the modelization of the space-time evolution of the Brezouard granite crack permeability during fluid-rock interactions. The two used permeability models (geometrical or statistical) remain very dependent on the definition of the characteristic opening of fracture or fissure. Real fractures in a rocky mass are characterised by non parallel, flat and thus overlapped walls. The study of these natural fracture surfaces at micro and macroscopic scale is completed by a theoretical modelization of their hydro-mechanical behaviour. This work indicates the influence of the surface roughness on the fluid flow as well as the propagation of the alteration. These fractures were formed and percolated under a particular tectonic regime that controls their orientation. Numerous quartz veins in the Soultz granite are opened and sealed during the Oligocene extension. The characteristic fluid pressure of these opening - sealing stages are quantified thanks to fluid inclusion studies. These inclusions are located in secondary quartz which seal the veins. A new method of paleo-stress quantification is proposed, based on the knowledge of this fluid pressure. It takes i) the geometrical distribution of the vein poles, ii) some empirical considerations of rupture criteria, and iii) the fluid pressures into account. (author)
Yin, Xiaoguang
2018-01-01
We present direct simulations of several experiments with different geometries using Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. Pressure-flow rate correspondence and flow patterns are compared between numerical and experimental data. For a simple geometry, wecan reproduce experimental results satisfactorily,
Optimum solar collector fluid flow rates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan
1996-01-01
Experiments showed that by means of a standard electronically controlled pump, type UPE 2000 from Grundfos it is possible to control the flow rate in a solar collector loop in such a way that the flow rate is strongly influenced by the temperature of the solar collector fluid passing the pump....... The flow rate is increasing for increasing temperature.The flow rate at the high temperature level is typically 70 % greater than the flow rate at the low temperature level.Further, the energy consumption for the electronically controlled pump in a solar heating system will be somewhat smaller than...... the energy consumption of a normal ciculation pump in the solar heating system.Calculations showed that the highest thermal performances for small SDHW systems based on mantle tanks with constant volume flow rates in the solar collector loops are achieved if the flow rate is situated in the interval from 0...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Istvan Farkas
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate the thermohydraulic consequences of a main steam line break and to compare the obtained results with Rossendorf Coolant Mixing Model (ROCOM 1.1 experimental results. The objective is to utilize data from steady-state mixing experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD calculations to determine the flow distribution and the effect of thermal mixing phenomena in the primary loops for the improvement of normal operation conditions and structural integrity assessment of pressurized water reactors. The numerical model of ROCOM was developed using the FLUENT code. The positions of the inlet and outlet boundary conditions and the distribution of detailed velocity/turbulence parameters were determined by preliminary calculations. The temperature fields of transient calculation were averaged in time and compared with time-averaged experimental data. The perforated barrel under the core inlet homogenizes the flow, and therefore, a uniform temperature distribution is formed in the pressure vessel bottom. The calculated and measured values of lowest temperature were equal. The inlet temperature is an essential parameter for safety assessment. The calculation predicts precisely the experimental results at the core inlet central region. CFD results showed a good agreement (both qualitatively and quantitatively with experimental results.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Singh, Ashok
2015-01-01
The present book provides guidance to understanding complicated coupled processes based on the experimental data available and implementation of developed algorithms in numerical codes. Results of selected test cases in the fields of closed-form solutions (e.g., deformation processes), single pro...... processes (such as groundwater flow) as well as coupled processes are presented. It is part of the OpenGeoSys initiative - an open source project to share knowledge and experience in environmental analysis and scientific computation with the community....
Yuen, Po Ki
2013-05-07
This article presents a simple method for controlling fluid in microfluidic devices without the need for valves or pumps. A fluid conveyance extension is fluidly coupled to the enclosed outlet chamber of a microfluidic device. After a fluid is introduced into the microfluidic device and saturates the fluid conveyance extension, a fluid flow in the microfluidic device is generated by contacting an absorbent microfluidic flow modulator with the fluid conveyance extension to absorb the fluid from the fluid conveyance extension through capillary action. Since the fluid in the microfluidic device is fluidly coupled with the fluid conveyance extension and the fluid conveyance extension is fluidly coupled with the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator, the absorption rate of the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator, which is the rate at which the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator absorbs fluid, matches the fluid flow rate in the microfluidic device. Thus, the fluid flow rate in the microfluidic device is set by the absorption rate of the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator. Sheath flow and fluid switching applications are demonstrated using this simple fluid control method without the need for valves or pumps. Also, the ability to control the fluid flow rate in the microfluidic device is demonstrated using absorbent microfluidic flow modulators with various absorbent characteristics and dimensions.
Topological fluid dynamics of interfacial flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brøns, Morten
1994-01-01
The topological description of flows in the vicinity of a solid boundary, that is familiar from the aerodynamics literature, has recently been extended to the case of flow at a liquid–gas interface or a free surface by Lugt [Phys. Fluids 30, 3647 (1987)]. Lugt's work is revisited in a more general...... setting, including nonconstant curvature of the interface and gradients of surface tension, using tools of modern nonlinear dynamics. Bifurcations of the flow pattern occur at degenerate configurations. Using the theory of unfolding, this paper gives a complete description of the bifurcations that depend...... on terms up to the second order. The general theory of this paper is applied to the topology of streamlines during the breaking of a wave and to the flow below a stagnant surface film. Physics of Fluids is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....
Measurement of flow in viscous fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mills, Chris [NEL Technology for Life (Mexico)
2011-07-01
Taking accurate flow measurements of viscous fluids can prove to be a difficult task. The process faces a number of challenges which include pressure losses, varying velocity profiles, higher viscous friction, and the presence of solids or gas. In this presentation NEL, holder of UK's National Standards for flow measurement, shares a test that was conducted to identify the influencing factors of flow measurements for viscous fluids. The test, which was conducted at NEL's National Standards oil flow facility, utilizes three test meters. The first test meter used was a multi-path ultrasonic meter, the other two were twin-tube coriolis meters of different sizes. Readings were taken from each meter for kerosene and primol at varying degrees of viscosity. Adjustments in flowrate and temperature were also made and recorded throughout the test. From the tests, NEL was able to generate data regarding the factors impacting mass flowrate, density, and pressure.
Akbarzadeh, Pooria
2018-02-01
In this paper, the heat and flow characteristic of third-grade non-Newtonian biofluids flow through a vertical porous human vessel due to peristaltic wall motion are studied. The third-grade model can describe shear thinning (or shear thickening) and normal stress differences, which is acceptable for biofluids modeling. In order to solve the governing equations, the assumption of long-wavelength approximation is utilized. This hypothesis emphasizes that the wavelength of the peristaltic wall motion is large in comparison with the radius of the human vessel, which is widely acceptable in biological investigations. The analytical perturbation method is employed to solve the governing equations. Consequently, analytical expressions for the velocity profile, shear stress, temperature field, and biofluid flow rate are obtained. In addition, the effects of the governing parameters such as the third-grade non-Newtonian parameter, Grashof Number, Eckert number, and porosity, on the results are examined.
Garven, G.; Dumoulin, J. A.; Bradley, D. A.; Young, L. E.; Kelley, K. D.; Leach, D. L.
2002-12-01
Crustal heat flow can provide a strong mechanism for driving groundwater flow, particularly in submarine basins where other mechanisms for driving pore fluid flow such as topography, compaction and crustal deformation are too weak or too slow to have a significant effect on disturbing conductive heat flow. Fault zones appear to play a crucial role in focusing fluid migration in basins, as inferred in ancient rocks by many examples of hydrothermal deposits of sediment-hosted ores worldwide. Many rift-hosted deposits of lead, zinc, and barite ore appear to have formed at or near the seafloor by focused venting of hot basinal fluids and modified seawater, although the geophysical nature of these systems is not so well known. For example, the upper Kuna Formation, a finely laminated, black, organic-rich siliceous mudstone and shale in the Western Brooks Range of northwest Alaska, is host to the largest resources of zinc yet discovered in the Earth's crust, containing ore reserves in excess of 175 Mt averaging about 16% Zn and 5% Pb. Although situated today in a highly-deformed series of structural allocthonous plates thrusted during the Jurassic to Cretaceous Brookian Orogeny, the stratiform ores are thought to have formed much earlier in the anoxic, mud-rich Carboniferous-age Kuna Basin when adjacent carbonate platforms were drowned by rifting and tectonic subsidence. Fluid inclusion studies of ore-stage sphalerite and gangue minerals indicate sub-seafloor mineralization temperatures less than 200oC and most likely between 120 to 150 oC, during a period of sediment diagenesis and extensional faulting. We have constructed fully-coupled numerical models of heat and fluid flow to test hydrologic theories for free convection, submarine venting and subsequent ore formation, as constrained by paleoheat flow and petrologic observations. A finite element grid was designed and adapted for a cross section of the Kuna Basin, geologically restored to latest Mississippian time
Pedersen, Jenny M.; Shim, Yoo-Sik; Hans, Vaibhav; Phillips, Martin B.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.; Walker, Glenn; Andersen, Melvin E.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Yoon, Miyoung
2016-01-01
Accurate prediction of metabolism is a significant outstanding challenge in toxicology. The best predictions are based on experimental data from in vitro systems using primary hepatocytes. The predictivity of the primary hepatocyte-based culture systems, however, is still limited due to well-known phenotypic instability and rapid decline of metabolic competence within a few hours. Dynamic flow bioreactors for three-dimensional cell cultures are thought to be better at recapitulating tissue microenvironments and show potential to improve in vivo extrapolations of chemical or drug toxicity based on in vitro test results. These more physiologically relevant culture systems hold potential for extending metabolic competence of primary hepatocyte cultures as well. In this investigation, we used computational fluid dynamics to determine the optimal design of a flow-based hepatocyte culture system for evaluating chemical metabolism in vitro. The main design goals were (1) minimization of shear stress experienced by the cells to maximize viability, (2) rapid establishment of a uniform distribution of test compound in the chamber, and (3) delivery of sufficient oxygen to cells to support aerobic respiration. Two commercially available flow devices – RealBio® and QuasiVivo® (QV) – and a custom developed fluidized bed bioreactor were simulated, and turbulence, flow characteristics, test compound distribution, oxygen distribution, and cellular oxygen consumption were analyzed. Experimental results from the bioreactors were used to validate the simulation results. Our results indicate that maintaining adequate oxygen supply is the most important factor to the long-term viability of liver bioreactor cultures. Cell density and system flow patterns were the major determinants of local oxygen concentrations. The experimental results closely corresponded to the in silico predictions. Of the three bioreactors examined in this study, we were able to optimize the experimental
Ma, Baoshun; Ruwet, Vincent; Corieri, Patricia; Theunissen, Raf; Riethmuller, Michel; Darquenne, Chantal
2009-05-01
Accurate modeling of air flow and aerosol transport in the alveolated airways is essential for quantitative predictions of pulmonary aerosol deposition. However, experimental validation of such modeling studies has been scarce. The objective of this study is to validate CFD predictions of flow field and particle trajectory with experiments within a scaled-up model of alveolated airways. Steady flow (Re = 0.13) of silicone oil was captured by particle image velocimetry (PIV), and the trajectories of 0.5 mm and 1.2 mm spherical iron beads (representing 0.7 to 14.6 mum aerosol in vivo) were obtained by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). At twelve selected cross sections, the velocity profiles obtained by CFD matched well with those by PIV (within 1.7% on average). The CFD predicted trajectories also matched well with PTV experiments. These results showed that air flow and aerosol transport in models of human alveolated airways can be simulated by CFD techniques with reasonable accuracy.
COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL
LORZ, ALEXANDER
2010-06-01
We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Corner Flow of Power Law Fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, P.; Hassager, Ole
1989-01-01
A local analysis of the flow of power law fluids near corners is performed. The equation for the stream function is shown to allow separated solutions in plane polar coordinates. The radial behavior is shown to be algebraic and results are given for the exponent for different values of corner angle...
Computational fluid dynamics using in vivo ultrasound blood flow measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Traberg, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian
2012-01-01
This paper presents a model environment for construction of patient-specific computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models for the abdominal aorta (AA). Realistic pulsatile velocity waveforms are employed by using in vivo ultrasound blood flow measurements. Ultrasound is suitable for acquisition...
14 CFR 23.1095 - Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. 23.1095... Induction System § 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. (a) If a carburetor deicing fluid system is used, it must be able to simultaneously supply each engine with a rate of fluid flow, expressed in...
Understanding heat and fluid flow in linear GTA welds
Zacharia, T.; David, S. A.; Vitek, J. M.
A transient heat flow and fluid flow model was used to predict the development of gas tungsten arc (GTA) weld pools in 1.5 mm thick AISI 304 SS. The welding parameters were chosen so as to correspond to an earlier experimental study which produced high-resolution surface temperature maps. The motivation of the present study was to verify the predictive capability of the computational model. Comparison of the numerical predictions and experimental observations indicate good agreement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, S.L., E-mail: sharma55@purdue.edu [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Schlegel, J.P. [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Buchanan, J.R.; Hogan, K.J. [Bettis Laboratory, Naval Nuclear Laboratory, West Mifflin, PA (United States); Guilbert, P.W. [ANSYS UK Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Closure form of the interfacial shear term in three-dimensional form is investigated. • Assessment against adiabatic upward bubbly air–water flow data using CFD. • Effect of addition of the interfacial shear term on the phase distribution. - Abstract: In commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes such as ANSYS CFX and Fluent, the interfacial shear term is missing in the field momentum equations. The derivation of the two-fluid model (Ishii and Hibiki, 2011) indicates the presence of this term as a momentum source in the right hand side of the field momentum equation. The inclusion of this term is considered important for proper modeling of the interfacial momentum coupling between phases. For separated flows, such as annular flow, the importance of the shear term is understood in the one-dimensional (1-D) form as the major mechanism by which the wall shear is transferred to the gas phase (Ishii and Mishima, 1984). For gas dispersed two-phase flow CFD simulations, it is important to assess the significance of this term in the prediction of phase distributions. In the first part of this work, the closure of this term in three-dimensional (3-D) form in a CFD code is investigated. For dispersed gas–liquid flow, such as bubbly or churn-turbulent flow, bubbles are dispersed in the shear layer of the continuous phase. The continuous phase shear stress is mainly due to the presence of the wall and the modeling of turbulence through the Boussinesq hypothesis. In a 3-D simulation, the continuous phase shear stress can be calculated from the continuous fluid velocity gradient, so that the interfacial shear term can be closed using the local values of the volume fraction and the total stress of liquid phase. This form also assures that the term acts as an action-reaction force for multiple phases. In the second part of this work, the effect of this term on the volume fraction distribution is investigated. For testing the model two
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sung, Chang Kyung; Chun, Moon Hyun
1996-01-01
A two-step approach has been used to obtain a new criterion for the onset of slug formation : (1) In the first step, a more general expression than the existing models for the onset of slug flow criterion has been derived from the analysis of singular points and neutral stability conditions of the transient one-dimensional two-phase flow equations of two-fluid model. (2) In the second step, introducing simplifications and incorporating a parameter into the general expression obtained in the first step to satisfy a number of physical conditions a priori specified, a new simple criterion for the onset of slug flow has been derived. Comparisons of the present model with existing models and experimental data show that the present model agree very closely with Taitel and Dukler's model and experimental data in horizontal pipes. In an inclined pipe (θ=50 deg ), however, the difference between the predictions of the present model and those of existing models is appreciably large and the present model gives the best agreement with Ohnuki et al.'s data. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (author)
Fluid flow for chemical and process engineers
Holland, F
1995-01-01
This major new edition of a popular undergraduate text covers topics of interest to chemical engineers taking courses on fluid flow. These topics include non-Newtonian flow, gas-liquid two-phase flow, pumping and mixing. It expands on the explanations of principles given in the first edition and is more self-contained. Two strong features of the first edition were the extensive derivation of equations and worked examples to illustrate calculation procedures. These have been retained. A new extended introductory chapter has been provided to give the student a thorough basis to understand the methods covered in subsequent chapters.
Interfacial Fluid Mechanics A Mathematical Modeling Approach
Ajaev, Vladimir S
2012-01-01
Interfacial Fluid Mechanics: A Mathematical Modeling Approach provides an introduction to mathematical models of viscous flow used in rapidly developing fields of microfluidics and microscale heat transfer. The basic physical effects are first introduced in the context of simple configurations and their relative importance in typical microscale applications is discussed. Then,several configurations of importance to microfluidics, most notably thin films/droplets on substrates and confined bubbles, are discussed in detail. Topics from current research on electrokinetic phenomena, liquid flow near structured solid surfaces, evaporation/condensation, and surfactant phenomena are discussed in the later chapters. This book also: Discusses mathematical models in the context of actual applications such as electrowetting Includes unique material on fluid flow near structured surfaces and phase change phenomena Shows readers how to solve modeling problems related to microscale multiphase flows Interfacial Fluid Me...
Simultaneous Rotational and Axial Flow of Nonlinear Fluids
Ashrafi, Nariman; Yektapour, Mehdi; Shafahi, Mehdi
2017-11-01
An axial flow is introduced to the rotational flow of pseudoplastic fluids in the gap between concentric cylinders. The outer cylinder is fixed while the inner one has simultaneous and independent rotational and translational motions. The fluid follows the Carreau-Bird model and mixed boundary conditions are imposed. The four-dimensional low-order equations resulted from Galerkin projection of the conservation of mass and momentum equations, includes highly non-linear terms in the velocity components. Without axial flow, stability of the base radial flow is lost to the vortex structure at a lower critical Taylor number, with increase of the fluid pseudoplasticity. The vortices imply onset of a supercritical bifurcation which occurs in the rotational flow of linear fluids as well. In contrast to the Newtonian case, pseudoplastic Taylor vortices lose their stability at a second critical Taylor number is reached a second critical number that corresponds to the onset of a Hopf bifurcation. The axial flow, caused by the translational motion of the inner cylinder advance each critical point on the bifurcation diagram. The flow field and viscosity maps are provided for major stability regions.
Generation of zonal flows in rotating fluids and magnetized plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Rasmussen, J.; Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.
2006-01-01
contribution the generation of zonal flows will be illustrated in a simple fluid experiment performed in a rotating container with radial symmetric bottom topography. An effective mixing that homogenizes the potential vorticity in the fluid layer will lead to the replacement of the high-potential vorticity......The spontaneous generation of large-scale flows by the rectification of small-scale turbulent fluctuations is of great importance both in geophysical flows and in magnetically confined plasmas. These flows regulate the turbulence and may set up effective transport barriers. In the present...... near the centre with low potential vorticity from the outside, which will imply the formation of a large-scale flow. The experimental results are supported by direct numerical solutions of the quasi-geostrophic vorticity equation in the beta-plane approximation modelling the experimental situation...
Gray, William G; Miller, Cass T
2009-05-01
This work is the fifth in a series of papers on the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) approach for modeling flow and transport phenomena in multiscale porous medium systems. The general TCAT framework and the mathematical foundation presented in previous works are used to develop models that describe species transport and single-fluid-phase flow through a porous medium system in varying physical regimes. Classical irreversible thermodynamics formulations for species in fluids, solids, and interfaces are developed. Two different approaches are presented, one that makes use of a momentum equation for each entity along with constitutive relations for species diffusion and dispersion, and a second approach that makes use of a momentum equation for each species in an entity. The alternative models are developed by relying upon different approaches to constrain an entropy inequality using mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations. The resultant constrained entropy inequality is simplified and used to guide the development of closed models. Specific instances of dilute and non-dilute systems are examined and compared to alternative formulation approaches.
Nylén, P.; Wigren, J.; Pejryd, L.; Hansson, M.-O.
1999-09-01
The plasma sprya deposition of a zirconia thermal barrier coating (TBC) on a gas turbine component was examined using analytical and experimental techniques. The coating thickness was simulated by the use of commercial off-line software. The impinging jet was modeled by means of a finite difference elliptic code using a simplified turbulence model. Powder particle velocity, temperature history, and trajectory were calculated using a stochastic discrete particle model. The heat transfer and fluid flow model were then used to calculate transient coating and substrate temperatures using the finite element method. The predicted thickness, temperature, and velocity of the particles and the coating temperatures were compared with these measurements, and good correlations were obtained. The coating microstructure was evaluated by optical and scanning microscopy techniques. Special attention was paid to the crack structures within the top coating. Finally, the correlation between the modeled parameters and the deposit microstructure was studied.
Parametric Modeling for Fluid Systems
Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Martinez, Jonathan
2013-01-01
Fluid Systems involves different projects that require parametric modeling, which is a model that maintains consistent relationships between elements as is manipulated. One of these projects is the Neo Liquid Propellant Testbed, which is part of Rocket U. As part of Rocket U (Rocket University), engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida have the opportunity to develop critical flight skills as they design, build and launch high-powered rockets. To build the Neo testbed; hardware from the Space Shuttle Program was repurposed. Modeling for Neo, included: fittings, valves, frames and tubing, between others. These models help in the review process, to make sure regulations are being followed. Another fluid systems project that required modeling is Plant Habitat's TCUI test project. Plant Habitat is a plan to develop a large growth chamber to learn the effects of long-duration microgravity exposure to plants in space. Work for this project included the design and modeling of a duct vent for flow test. Parametric Modeling for these projects was done using Creo Parametric 2.0.
Phenomenological friction equation for turbulent flow of Bingham fluids.
Anbarlooei, H R; Cruz, D O A; Ramos, F; Santos, Cecilia M M; Silva Freire, A P
2017-08-01
Most discussions in the literature on the friction coefficient of turbulent flows of fluids with complex rheology are empirical. As a rule, theoretical frameworks are not available even for some relatively simple constitutive models. In the present work, a formula is proposed for the evaluation of the friction coefficient of turbulent flows of Bingham fluids. The developments combine a fresh analysis for the description of the microscales of Kolmogorov and the phenomenological turbulence model of Gioia and Chakraborty [G. Gioia and P. Chakraborty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 044502 (2006)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.96.044502]. The resulting Blasius-type friction equation is tested against some experimental data and shows good agreement over a significant range of Hedstrom and Reynolds numbers. Comments on pressure measurements in yielding fluids are made. The limits of the proposed model are also discussed.
Numerical solution of Newtonian fluids flow through the branching channel
Keslerová, R.; Kozel, K.; Louda, P.
2012-09-01
In this paper the laminar viscous incompressible flow for Newtonian fluids in the branching channel with two outlets is considered. The governing system of equations is based on the system of balance laws for mass and momentum. Steady numerical solution of the described model is based on cell-centered finite volume method using explicit Runge-Kutta time integration. Steady state solution is achieved for t → ∞. In this case the artificial compressibility method can be applied. Channels considered in presented calculations are of constant square or circular cross-sections. The numerical results of Newtonian fluids flow are presented.
Numerical computational of fluid flow through a detached retina
Jiann, Lim Yeou; Ismail, Zuhaila; Shafie, Sharidan; Fitt, Alistair
2015-02-01
In this paper, a phenomenon of fluid flow through a detached retina is studied. Rhegmatogeneous retinal detachment happens when vitreous humour flow through a detached retina. The exact mechanism of Rhegmatogeneous retinal detachment is complex and remains incomplete. To understand the fluid flow, a paradigm mathematical model is developed and is approximated by the lubrication theory. The numerical results of the velocity profile and pressure distribution are computed by using Finite Element Method. The effects of fluid mechanical on the retinal detachment is discussed and analyzed. Based on the analysis, it is found that the retinal detachment deformation affects the pressure distribution. It is important to comprehend the development of the retinal detachment so that a new treatment method can be developed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berning, Torsten; Odgaard, Madeleine; Kær, Søren Knudsen
2010-01-01
This work presents a study of multi-phase flow through the cathode side of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell employing an interdigitated flow field plate. A previously published model has been extended in order to account for phase change kinetics, and a comparison between the interdigitated....... The additional compressor work due to the increased pressure loss will only slightly increase, and this may be offset by operating at lower stoichiometries as the interdigitated design is less mass transfer controlled, which means that the overall efficiency of the interdigitated arrangement will be higher...
Non-Newtonian fluid flow in annular pipes and entropy generation ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Non-Newtonian fluid; third-grade fluid; variable viscosity; entropy; entropy generation number. 1. Introduction. Flow through annular pipes finds application in the process industry. In some cases, the fluid may consist of two phases such as coal particles–water mixture (coal slurries) and the numerical modelling of such flow ...
Flow acoustics in solid-fluid structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Willatzen, Morten; Mads, Mikhail Vladimirovich Deryabin
2008-01-01
The governing two-dimensional equations of a heterogeneous material composed of a fluid (allowed to flow in the absence of acoustic excitations) and a crystalline piezoelectric cubic solid stacked one-dimensionally (along the z direction) are derived and special emphasis is given to the discussion...... of acoustic group velocity for the structure as a function of the wavenumber component perpendicular to the stacking direction (being the x axis). Variations in physical parameters with y are neglected assuming infinite material homogeneity along the y direction and the flow velocity is assumed to be directed...
Hayat, Tanzila; Nadeem, S.
2018-03-01
This paper examines the three dimensional Eyring-Powell fluid flow over an exponentially stretching surface with heterogeneous-homogeneous chemical reactions. A new model of heat flux suggested by Cattaneo and Christov is employed to study the properties of relaxation time. From the present analysis we observe that there is an inverse relationship between temperature and thermal relaxation time. The temperature in Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model is lesser than the classical Fourier's model. In this paper the three dimensional Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model over an exponentially stretching surface is calculated first time in the literature. For negative values of temperature exponent, temperature profile firstly intensifies to its most extreme esteem and after that gradually declines to zero, which shows the occurrence of phenomenon (SGH) "Sparrow-Gregg hill". Also, for higher values of strength of reaction parameters, the concentration profile decreases.
On boundary layer flow of a sisko fluid over a stretching sheet | Khan ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, the steady boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian fluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet is investigated. The Sisko fluid model, which is combination of power-law and Newtonian fluids in which the fluid may exhibit shear thinning/thickening behaviors, is considered. The boundary layer equations are derived ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garven, Grant [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)
2015-08-11
Our studies have had an important impact on societal issues. Experimental and field observations show that CO_{2} degassing, such as might occur from stored CO_{2} reservoir gas, can result in significant stable isotopic disequilibrium. In the offshore South Ellwood field of the Santa Barbara channel, we show how oil production has reduced natural seep rates in the area, thereby reducing greenhouse gases. Permeability is calculated to be ~20-30 millidarcys for km-scale fault-focused fluid flow, using changes in natural gas seepage rates from well production, and poroelastic changes in formation pore-water pressure. In the Los Angeles (LA) basin, our characterization of formation water chemistry, including stable isotopic studies, allows the distinction between deep and shallow formations waters. Our multiphase computational-based modeling of petroleum migration demonstrates the important role of major faults on geological-scale fluid migration in the LA basin, and show how petroleum was dammed up against the Newport-Inglewood fault zone in a “geologically fast” interval of time (less than 0.5 million years). Furthermore, these fluid studies also will allow evaluation of potential cross-formational mixing of formation fluids. Lastly, our new study of helium isotopes in the LA basin shows a significant leakage of mantle helium along the Newport Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ), at flow rates up to 2 cm/yr. Crustal-scale fault permeability (~60 microdarcys) and advective versus conductive heat transport rates have been estimated using the observed helium isotopic data. The NIFZ is an important deep-seated fault that may crosscut a proposed basin decollement fault in this heavily populated area, and appears to allow seepage of helium from the mantle sources about 30 km beneath Los Angeles. The helium study has been widely cited in recent weeks by the news media, both in radio and on numerous web sites.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boles, James R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Garven, Grant [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)
2015-08-04
Our studies have had an important impact on societal issues. Experimental and field observations show that CO_{2} degassing, such as might occur from stored CO_{2} reservoir gas, can result in significant stable isotopic disequilibrium. In the offshore South Ellwood field of the Santa Barbara channel, we show how oil production has reduced natural seep rates in the area, thereby reducing greenhouse gases. Permeability is calculated to be ~20-30 millidarcys for km-scale fault-focused fluid flow, using changes in natural gas seepage rates from well production, and poroelastic changes in formation pore-water pressure. In the Los Angeles (LA) basin, our characterization of formation water chemistry, including stable isotopic studies, allows the distinction between deep and shallow formations waters. Our multiphase computational-based modeling of petroleum migration demonstrates the important role of major faults on geological-scale fluid migration in the LA basin, and show how petroleum was dammed up against the Newport-Inglewood fault zone in a “geologically fast” interval of time (less than 0.5 million years). Furthermore, these fluid studies also will allow evaluation of potential cross-formational mixing of formation fluids. Lastly, our new study of helium isotopes in the LA basin shows a significant leakage of mantle helium along the Newport Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ), at flow rates up to 2 cm/yr. Crustal-scale fault permeability (~60 microdarcys) and advective versus conductive heat transport rates have been estimated using the observed helium isotopic data. The NIFZ is an important deep-seated fault that may crosscut a proposed basin decollement fault in this heavily populated area, and appears to allow seepage of helium from the mantle sources about 30 km beneath Los Angeles. The helium study has been widely cited in recent weeks by the news media, both in radio and on numerous web sites.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubo, S; Ishioka, T; Fukutomi, J; Shigemitsu, T
2012-01-01
Fluid machines for fluid food have been used in wide variety of fields i.e. transportation, the filling, and for the improvement of quality of fluid foods. However, flow conditions of it are quite complicated because fluid foods are different from water. Therefore, design methods based on internal flow conditions have not been conducted. In this research, turbo-pumps having a small number of blades were used to decrease shear loss and keep wide flow passage. The influence of the tip clearance was investigated by the numerical analysis using the model with and without the tip clearance. In this paper, the influence of tip clearance on performances and internal flow conditions of turbo-pump using low viscous fluid were clarified by experimental and numerical analysis results. In addition, design methods based on the internal flow were considered. Further, the influences of viscosity on the performance characteristic and internal flow were investigated.
Squeeze flow of a Carreau fluid during sphere impact
Uddin, J.
2012-07-19
We present results from a combined numerical and experimental investigation into the squeeze flow induced when a solid sphere impacts onto a thin, ultra-viscous film of non-Newtonian fluid. We examine both the sphere motion through the liquid as well as the fluid flow field in the region directly beneath the sphere during approach to a solid plate. In the experiments we use silicone oil as the model fluid, which is well-described by the Carreau model. We use high-speed imaging and particle tracking to achieve flow visualisation within the film itself and derive the corresponding velocity fields. We show that the radial velocity either diverges as the gap between the sphere and the wall diminishes (Z tip → 0) or that it reaches a maximum value and then decays rapidly to zero as the sphere comes to rest at a non-zero distance (Z tip = Z min ) away from the wall. The horizontal shear rate is calculated and is responsible for significant viscosity reduction during the approach of the sphere. Our model of this flow, based on lubrication theory, is solved numerically and compared to experimental trials. We show that our model is able to correctly describe the physical features of the flow observed in the experiments.
Wolterbeek, Timotheus K T; Raoof, Amir
2018-03-20
Defects along wellbore interfaces constitute potential pathways for CO 2 to leak from geological storage systems. In previous experimental work, we demonstrated that CO 2 -induced reaction over length-scales of several meters can lead to self-sealing of such defects. In the present work, we develop a reactive transport model that, on the one hand, enables μm-mm scale exploration of reactions along debonding defects and, on the other hand, allows simulation of the large, 6 m-long samples used in our experiments. At these lengths, we find that interplay between flow velocity and reaction rate strongly affects opening/sealing of interfacial defects, and depth of chemical alteration. Carbonate precipitation in initially open defects decreases flow rate, leading to a transition from advection-dominated to diffusion-dominated reactive transport, with acidic conditions becoming progressively more confined upstream. We investigate how reaction kinetics, portlandite content, and the nature of the carbonate products impact the extent of cement alteration and permeability reduction. Notably, we observe that nonuniformity of the initial defect geometry has a profound effect on the self-sealing behavior and permeability evolution as observed on the meter scale. We infer that future wellbore models need to consider the effects of such aperture variations to obtain reliable upscaling relations.
Martin, R.
2001-12-01
In many volcanoes like the Popocatepetl, it is not well known if seismicity induces explosive eruptions, or inversely if the dynamics induces seismicity, or how both mechanisms trigger each other. In order to understand this mechanisms we numerically simulate, at greater scales than in laboratory, the behaviour of highly viscous magmas submitted to an incoming PSV wave involving high stresses. For that purpose we use a finite volume scheme of second order with a semi implicit algorithm in time for the fluid and a classical velocity/stress formulation at the second order to describe the elastic waves. The magma is considered as compressible and consists in a high viscous fluid and volatile gases. The gas fractions are computed following a power state law of the pressure. The disturbance of the fluid by the wave causes the pressure to increase and the gas to exsolve. The magma is then submitted to a convection behaviour and can arise through the conduit till reaching a certain depth which defines the location of fragmentation of the mixture. These simulations allow us to conclude that, depending on the magnitude of the wave, a viscous compressible fluid like a magma can be highly disturbed and differ strongly then from the quasistatic and acoustic behaviour classically taken into account in classical modelling of waves travelling through acoustic fluid/elastic solid structures. Depending on the Reynolds number, from laminar to turbulent, the fluid can not any longer be assumed incompressible, irrotational and non viscous. Inversely, when the magma has reached the fragmentation depth in the conduit, the fluid becomes multiphasic with specific exit velocities, pressures, temperatures, particle fractions. It is modelled with one particle phase and one gas phase interacting with drag forces and heat exchange terms. With a similar algorithm as described before, we show that the flow can be expelled at shock speeds and produce travelling elastic waves in the ground through
Ghosh, Pranay; Vahedipour, Kaveh; Lin, Min; Vogel, Jens H; Haynes, Charles; von Lieres, Eric
2013-08-30
Membrane chromatography (MC) is increasingly being used as a purification platform for large biomolecules due to higher operational flow rates. The zonal rate model (ZRM) has previously been applied to accurately characterize the hydrodynamic behavior in commercial MC capsules at different configurations and scales. Explorations of capsule size, geometry and operating conditions using the model and experiment were used to identify possible causes of inhomogeneous flow and their contributions to band broadening. In the present study, the hydrodynamics within membrane chromatography capsules are more rigorously investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD models are defined according to precisely measured capsule geometries in order to avoid the estimation of geometry related model parameters. In addition to validating the assumptions and hypotheses regarding non-ideal flow mechanisms encoded in the ZRM, we show that CFD simulations can be used to mechanistically understand and predict non-binding breakthrough curves without need for estimation of any parameters. When applied to a small-scale axial flow MC capsules, CFD simulations identify non-ideal flows in the distribution (hold-up) volumes upstream and downstream of the membrane stack as the major source of band broadening. For the large-scale radial flow capsule, the CFD model quantitatively predicts breakthrough data using binding parameters independently determined using the small-scale axial flow capsule, identifying structural irregularities within the membrane pleats as an important source of band broadening. The modeling and parameter determination scheme described here therefore facilitates a holistic mechanistic-based method for model based scale-up, obviating the need of performing expensive large-scale experiments under binding conditions. As the CFD model described provides a rich mechanistic analysis of membrane chromatography systems and the ability to explore operational space, but
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamamoto, Yoshinobu, E-mail: yamamotoy@yamanashi.ac.jp [Division of Mechanical Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Kunugi, Tomoaki, E-mail: kunugi@nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, C3-d2S06, Kyoto-Daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-Ku 615-8540, Kyoto (Japan)
2016-11-01
Highlights: • We show the applicability to predict the heat transfer imposed on a uniform wall-normal magnetic field by means of the zero-equation heat transfer model. • Quasi-theoretical turbulent Prandtl numbers with various molecular Prandtl number fluids were obtained. • Improvements of the prediction accuracy in turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation rate under the magnetic fields were accomplished. - Abstract: Zero-equation heat transfer models based on the constant turbulent Prandtl number are evaluated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data for fully developed channel flows imposed on a uniform wall-normal magnetic field. Quasi-theoretical turbulent Prandtl numbers are estimated by DNS data of various molecular Prandtl number fluids. From the viewpoint of highly-accurate magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) heat transfer prediction, the parameters of the turbulent eddy viscosity of the k–É› model are optimized under the magnetic fields. Consequently, we use the zero-equation model based on a constant turbulent Prandtl number to demonstrate MHD heat transfer, and show the applicability of using this model to predict the heat transfer.
Zhang, Yan-Hong; Ye, Shu-Jun; Wu, Ji-Chun
2014-06-01
Based on light transmission method in quantification of liquid saturation and its application in two-phase flow system, two groups of sandbox experiments were set up to study the migration of gas or Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) in water saturated porous media. The migration of gas or DNAPL was monitored in the study. Two modified Light Intensity-Saturation (LIS) models for water/gas two-phase system were applied and verified by the experiment data. Moreover two new LIS models for NAPL/water system were developed and applied to simulate the DNAPL infiltration experiment data. The gas injection experiment showed that gas moved upward to the top of the sandbox in the form of 'fingering' and finally formed continuous distribution. The results of DNAPL infiltration experiment showed that TCE mainly moved downward as the result of its gravity, eventually formed irregular plume and accumulated at the bottom of the sandbox. The outcomes of two LIS models for water/gas system (WG-A and WG-B) were consistent to the measured data. The results of two LIS models for NAPL/water system (NW-A and NW-B) fit well with the observations, and Model NW-A based on assumption of individual drainage gave better results. It could be a useful reference for quantification of NAPL/water saturation in porous media system.
Thermodynamics of Fluids Under Flow Second Edition
Jou, David; Criado-Sancho, Manuel
2011-01-01
This is the second edition of the book “Thermodynamics of Fluids under Flow,” which was published in 2000 and has now been corrected, expanded and updated. This is a companion book to our other title Extended irreversible thermodynamics (D. Jou, J. Casas-Vázquez and G. Lebon, Springer, 4th edition 2010), and of the textbook Understanding non-equilibrium thermodynamics (G. Lebon, D. Jou and J. Casas-Vázquez, Springer, 2008. The present book is more specialized than its counterpart, as it focuses its attention on the non-equilibrium thermodynamics of flowing fluids, incorporating non-trivial thermodynamic contributions of the flow, going beyond local equilibrium theories, i.e., including the effects of internal variables and of external forcing due to the flow. Whereas the book's first edition was much more focused on polymer solutions, with brief glimpses into ideal and real gases, the present edition covers a much wider variety of systems, such as: diluted and concentrated polymer solutions, polymer ble...
Aspects of developed heat and mass flux models on 3D flow of Eyring-Powell fluid
Hayat, Tanzila; Nadeem, S.
The variable thermal conductivity impacts and generalized Fourier's and Fick's laws over an exponentially stretching surface are reported in this paper. Another heat flux idea involving mystery of heat conduction is exploited which is not quite the same as the usual literature. Such idea has been utilized as a part of perspective of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux theory. The characteristic of temperature and concentration relaxation features are described. Other than this, chemical reactions are additionally considered. To solve the system of six highly non-linear coupled differential equations, a numerical technique bvp4c is adopted. The skin friction coefficient for three dimensional Eyring-Powell fluid model is calculated. From the present analysis we observe that the temperature and concentration profiles declines for higher values of thermal and concentration relaxation parameters. Also, for higher values of strength of reaction parameters, the concentration profile decreases. Current effort for three dimensional Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions over an exponentially stretching surface does not yet exist in the literature.
Kafi, Oualid; Khatib, Nader El; Tiago, Jorge; Sequeira, Adelia
2017-02-01
The inflammatory process of atherosclerosis leads to the formation of an atheromatous plaque in the intima of the blood vessel. The plaque rupture may result from the interaction between the blood and the plaque. In each cardiac cycle, blood interacts with the vessel, considered as a compliant nonlinear hyperelastic. A three dimensional idealized fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model is constructed to perform the blood-plaque and blood-vessel wall interaction studies. An absorbing boundary condition (BC) is imposed directly on the outflow in order to cope with the spurious reflexions due to the truncation of the computational domain. The difference between the Newtonian and non-Newtonian effects is highlighted. It is shown that the von Mises and wall shear stresses are significantly affected according to the rigidity of the wall. The numerical results have shown that the risk of plaque rupture is higher in the case of a moving wall, while in the case of a fixed wall the risk of progression of the atheromatous plaque is higher.
Computational modeling of concrete flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roussel, Nicolas; Geiker, Mette Rica; Dufour, Frederic
2007-01-01
This paper provides a general overview of the present status regarding computational modeling of the flow of fresh concrete. The computational modeling techniques that can be found in the literature may be divided into three main families: single fluid simulations, numerical modeling of discrete...
Garven, G.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Dumoulin, J.A.; Bradley, D.A.; Young, L.E.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.
2003-01-01
The Red Dog deposit is a giant 175 Mton (16% Zn, 5% Pb), shale-hosted Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district situated in the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Western Brooks Range, Alaska. These SEDEX-type ores are thought to have formed in calcareous turbidites and black mudstone at elevated sub-seafloor temperatures (120-150??C) within a hydrogeologic framework of submarine convection that was structurally organized by large normal faults. The theory for modeling brine migration and heat transport in the Kuna Basin is discussed with application to evaluating flow patterns and heat transport in faulted rift basins and the effects of buoyancy-driven free convection on reactive flow and ore genesis. Finite element simulations show that hydrothermal fluid was discharged into the Red Dog subbasin during a period of basin-wide crustal heat flow of 150-160 mW/m2. Basinal brines circulated to depths as great as 1-3 km along multiple normal faults flowed laterally through thick clastic aquifers acquiring metals and heat, and then rapidly ascended a single discharge fault zone at rates ??? 5 m/year to mix with seafloor sulfur and precipitate massive sulfide ores. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Fluid flow through anisotropic porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Telles, A.S.; Massarani, G.
1975-01-01
Darcy's equation represents a simplified form of the equation of motion for the fluid flowing through a porous medium. The simplifications concern the elimination of the acceleration, the divergence of the extra stress terms, and the assumption of existence of a linear form in the velocity for the resistive force the fluid exerts upon the solid. This hypothesis may not be valid for all anisotropic media. In some instances, measurements of directional resistivity suggest existence of the resistivity tensor, leaving entirely open the question of symmetry. In connection with this important question, an experimental scheme for the determination of the antisymmetric part of this tensor is suggested. The conclusion is that material symmetries is the only macroscopic concept that imposes restrictions on the form of the resistivity and extra stress tensors [pt
Fluid and particulate suspension flows at fracture junctions
Lo, Tak S.; Koplik, Joel
2015-03-01
Suspended particles can be a serious problem in geological contexts such as fluid recovery from reservoirs because they alter the rheology of the flowing liquids and may obstruct transport by narrowing flow channels due to deposition or gravitational sedimentation. In particular, the irregular geometry of the fracture walls can trap particles, induce jamming and cause unwanted channeling effects. We have investigated particle suspension flows in tight geological fractures using lattice Boltzmann method in the past. In this work we extend these studies to flows at a junction where two fractures intersect, an essential step towards a complete understanding of flows in fracture networks. The fracture walls are modeled as realistic self-affine fractal surfaces, and we focus on the case of tight fractures, where the wall roughness, the aperture and the particle size are all comparable. The simulations provide complete detail on the particle configurations and the fluid flow field, from which the stresses in the fluid and the forces acting on the bounding walls can be computed. With these information, phenomena such as particle mixing and dispersion, mechanical responses of the solid walls, possible jamming and release at junctions, and other situations of interest can be investigated. Work supported by NERSC and DOE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pradeep, Chaminda; Yan, Ru; Mylvaganam, Saba; Vestøl, Sondre; Melaaen, Morten C
2014-01-01
The electrical capacitance tomographic (ECT) approach is increasingly seen as attractive for measurement and control applications in the process industries. Recently, there is increased interest in using the tomographic details from ECT for comparing with and validating and tuning CFD models of multiphase flow. Collaboration with researchers working in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of multiphase flows gives valuable information for both groups of researchers in the field of ECT and CFD. By studying the ECT tomograms of multiphase flows under carefully monitored inflow conditions of the different media and by obtaining the capacitance values, C(i, j, t) with i = 1…N, j = 1, 2,…N and i ≠ j obtained from ECT modules with N electrodes, it is shown how the interface heights in a pipe with stratified flow of oil and air can be fruitfully compared to the values of those obtained from ECT and gamma radiation meter (GRM) for improving CFD modeling. Monitored inflow conditions in this study are flow rates of air, water and oil into a pipe which can be positioned at varying inclinations to the horizontal, thus emulating the pipelines laid in subsea installations. It is found that ECT-based tomograms show most of the features seen in the GRM-based visualizations with nearly one-to-one correspondence to interface heights obtained from these two methods, albeit some anomalies at the pipe wall. However, there are some interesting features the ECT manages to capture: features which the GRM or the CFD modeling apparently do not show, possibly due to parameters not defined in the inputs to the CFD model or much slower response of the GRM. Results presented in this paper indicate that a combination of ECT and GRM and preferably with other modalities with enhanced data fusion and analysis combined with CFD modeling can help to improve the modeling, measurement and control of multiphase flow in the oil and gas industries and in the process industries
Pradeep, Chaminda; Yan, Ru; Vestøl, Sondre; Melaaen, Morten C.; Mylvaganam, Saba
2014-07-01
The electrical capacitance tomographic (ECT) approach is increasingly seen as attractive for measurement and control applications in the process industries. Recently, there is increased interest in using the tomographic details from ECT for comparing with and validating and tuning CFD models of multiphase flow. Collaboration with researchers working in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of multiphase flows gives valuable information for both groups of researchers in the field of ECT and CFD. By studying the ECT tomograms of multiphase flows under carefully monitored inflow conditions of the different media and by obtaining the capacitance values, C(i, j, t) with i = 1…N, j = 1, 2,…N and i ≠ j obtained from ECT modules with N electrodes, it is shown how the interface heights in a pipe with stratified flow of oil and air can be fruitfully compared to the values of those obtained from ECT and gamma radiation meter (GRM) for improving CFD modeling. Monitored inflow conditions in this study are flow rates of air, water and oil into a pipe which can be positioned at varying inclinations to the horizontal, thus emulating the pipelines laid in subsea installations. It is found that ECT-based tomograms show most of the features seen in the GRM-based visualizations with nearly one-to-one correspondence to interface heights obtained from these two methods, albeit some anomalies at the pipe wall. However, there are some interesting features the ECT manages to capture: features which the GRM or the CFD modeling apparently do not show, possibly due to parameters not defined in the inputs to the CFD model or much slower response of the GRM. Results presented in this paper indicate that a combination of ECT and GRM and preferably with other modalities with enhanced data fusion and analysis combined with CFD modeling can help to improve the modeling, measurement and control of multiphase flow in the oil and gas industries and in the process industries
Coupling Two-Phase Fluid Flow with Two-Phase Darcy Flow in Anisotropic Porous Media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie Chen
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper reports a numerical study of coupling two-phase fluid flow in a free fluid region with two-phase Darcy flow in a homogeneous and anisotropic porous medium region. The model consists of coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations in the free fluid region and the two-phase Darcy law in the anisotropic porous medium region. A Robin-Robin domain decomposition method is used for the coupled Navier-Stokes and Darcy system with the generalized Beavers-Joseph-Saffman condition on the interface between the free flow and the porous media regions. Obtained results have shown the anisotropic properties effect on the velocity and pressure of the two-phase flow.
Coupling two-phase fluid flow with two-phase darcy flow in anisotropic porous media
Chen, J.
2014-06-03
This paper reports a numerical study of coupling two-phase fluid flow in a free fluid region with two-phase Darcy flow in a homogeneous and anisotropic porous medium region. The model consists of coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations in the free fluid region and the two-phase Darcy law in the anisotropic porous medium region. A Robin-Robin domain decomposition method is used for the coupled Navier-Stokes and Darcy system with the generalized Beavers-Joseph-Saffman condition on the interface between the free flow and the porous media regions. Obtained results have shown the anisotropic properties effect on the velocity and pressure of the two-phase flow. 2014 Jie Chen et al.
Flow Diode and Method for Controlling Fluid Flow Origin of the Invention
Dyson, Rodger W (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A flow diode configured to permit fluid flow in a first direction while preventing fluid flow in a second direction opposite the first direction is disclosed. The flow diode prevents fluid flow without use of mechanical closures or moving parts. The flow diode utilizes a bypass flowline whereby all fluid flow in the second direction moves into the bypass flowline having a plurality of tortuous portions providing high fluidic resistance. The portions decrease in diameter such that debris in the fluid is trapped. As fluid only travels in one direction through the portions, the debris remains trapped in the portions.
Fluid Physics of Foam Evolution and Flow
Aref, H.; Thoroddsen, S. T.; Sullivan, J. M.
2003-01-01
The grant supported theoretical, numerical and experimental work focused on the elucidation of the fluid physics of foam structure, evolution and flow. The experimental work concentrated on these subject areas: (a) Measurements of the speed of reconnections within a foam; (b) statistics of bubble rearrangements; and (c) three-dimensional reconstruction of the foam structure. On the numerical simulation and theory side our efforts concentrated on the subjects: (a) simulation techniques for 2D and 3D foams; (b) phase transition in a compressible foam; and (c) TCP structures.
Hu, Mei-Hua; Chan, Wei-Hung; Chen, Yao-Chang; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Lin, Chih-Kung; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Chou, Yu-Ching; Huang, Go-Shine
2016-01-01
The effects of intravenous (IV) catheter gauge and pressurization of IV fluid (IVF) bags on fluid flow rate have been studied. However, the pressure needed to achieve a flow rate equivalent to that of a 16 gauge (G) catheter through smaller G catheters and the potential for endothelial damage from the increased kinetic energy produced by higher pressurization are unclear. Constant pressure on an IVF bag was maintained by an automatic adjustable pneumatic pressure regulator of our own design. Fluids running through 16 G, 18 G, 20 G, and 22 G catheters were assessed while using IV bag pressurization to achieve the flow rate equivalent to that of a 16 G catheter. We assessed flow rates, kinetic energy, and flow injury to rabbit inferior vena cava endothelium. By applying sufficient external constant pressure to an IVF bag, all fluids could be run through smaller (G) catheters at the flow rate in a 16 G catheter. However, the kinetic energy increased significantly as the catheter G increased. Damage to the venous endothelium was negligible or minimal/patchy cell loss. We designed a new rapid infusion system, which provides a constant pressure that compresses the fluid volume until it is free from visible residual fluid. When large-bore venous access cannot be obtained, multiple smaller catheters, external pressure, or both should be considered. However, caution should be exercised when fluid pressurized to reach a flow rate equivalent to that in a 16 G catheter is run through a smaller G catheter because of the profound increase in kinetic energy that can lead to venous endothelium injury.
Jung, Sung-Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum; Moon, Jin-Ho; Park, Jang-Guen; Kim, Chan-Hyeong; Kim, Hey-Suk
2012-10-01
The industrial Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT) system comprised of 30 sets of lead collimated 2 in. NaI(Tl) detectors was built and utilized for measuring the spatial distribution of radiotracers as a function of time at a predefined cross-sectional level of a tank with a diameter of 300 mm and a height of 780 mm. In a stable flow condition, a radiotracer was injected into the upstream of a tank and then the measurement data were processed for the two dimensional concentration mapping of the radiotracers with a time step of 1s. The images were compared with numerical simulation results obtained from the Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling that has been incorporated with several different kinds of turbulence models. The comparison shows one model gives a better result than any others in terms of the similarity of the radiotracer distribution pattern. This study demonstrates the significant possibility of industrial SPECT technology for visualizing flow characteristics in a multi-dimensional way and for validating the CFD modeling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul
2009-06-21
Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is an effective mesoscopic particle model with a lower computational cost than molecular dynamics because of the soft potentials that it employs. However, the soft potential is not strong enough to prevent the DPD particles that are used to represent the fluid from penetrating solid boundaries represented by stationary DPD particles. A phase-field variable, phi(x,t), is used to indicate the phase at point x and time t, with a smooth transition from -1 (phase 1) to +1 (phase 2) across the interface. We describe an efficient implementation of no-slip boundary conditions in DPD models that combines solid-liquid particle-particle interactions with reflection at a sharp boundary located with subgrid scale accuracy using the phase field. This approach can be used for arbitrarily complex flow geometries and other similar particle models (such as smoothed particle hydrodynamics), and the validity of the model is demonstrated by DPD simulations of flow in confined systems with various geometries.
Fluid flow analysis in horizontal continuous casting tundish
Kam, Dong Heon; Lee, Hwang Ku; Han, Jeong Whan; You, Byung Don
2002-11-01
Water model studies were carried out to analyze fluid flow characteristics in a horizontal continuous casting tundish. The effects of LSN (ladle submerged nozzle) and dams on the flow pattems in a tundish were investigated and casting speeds were also changed as experimental parameters. Dye injection experiments were made to observe qualitative flow patterns and mixing characteristics in a continuous flowing tundish. And quantitative analyses of RTD (residence time distribution) curves using tracer pulse injection were also made to calculate the dead volume fraction in the water model tundish under consideration. From the results it was found that flow modification devices with an open stream have little effect on the flow patterns in the tundish, whether the dam is installed or not. This was confirmed by the flow visualization method showing upward flow near falling stream driven by the buoyancy force caused by air entrapment during liquid falling. However when LSN was installed between a ladle and a tundish there was a great change in flow pattern and a bypassing flow that existed in bare tundish was decreased with the use of dams. Especially, dead volume fraction was decreased with the increase of dam height.
Lattice Boltzmann simulation of fluid flow induced by thermal effect in heterogeneity porous media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hou Peng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a coupled lattice Boltzmann model is used to visually study fluid flow induced by thermal effect in heterogeneity porous media reconstructed by the quartet structure generation set. The fluid flow behavior inside porous media is presented and analyzed under different conditions. The simulation results indicate that the pore morphological properties of porous media and the Rayleigh number have noticeable impact on the velocity distribution and flow rate of fluid.
Local invariants in non-ideal flows of neutral fluids and two-fluid plasmas
Zhu, Jian-Zhou
2018-03-01
The main objective is the locally invariant geometric object of any (magneto-)fluid dynamics with forcing and damping (nonideal), while more attention is paid to the untouched dynamical properties of two-fluid fashion. Specifically, local structures, beyond the well-known "frozen-in" to the barotropic flows of the generalized vorticities, of the two-fluid model of plasma flows are presented. More general non-barotropic situations are also considered. A modified Euler equation [T. Tao, "Finite time blowup for Lagrangian modifications of the three-dimensional Euler equation," Ann. PDE 2, 9 (2016)] is also accordingly analyzed and remarked from the angle of view of the two-fluid model, with emphasis on the local structures. The local constraints of high-order differential forms such as helicity, among others, find simple formulation for possible practices in modeling the dynamics. Thus, the Cauchy invariants equation [N. Besse and U. Frisch, "Geometric formulation of the Cauchy invariants for incompressible Euler flow in flat and curved spaces," J. Fluid Mech. 825, 412 (2017)] may be enabled to find applications in non-ideal flows. Some formal examples are offered to demonstrate the calculations, and particularly interestingly the two-dimensional-three-component (2D3C) or the 2D passive scalar problem presents that a locally invariant Θ = 2θζ, with θ and ζ being, respectively, the scalar value of the "vertical velocity" (or the passive scalar) and the "vertical vorticity," may be used as if it were the spatial density of the globally invariant helicity, providing a Lagrangian prescription to control the latter in some situations of studying its physical effects in rapidly rotating flows (ubiquitous in atmosphere of astrophysical objects) with marked 2D3C vortical modes or in purely 2D passive scalars.
Study on flow parameters of fractal porous media in the high-velocity fluid flow regime
Qi, Mei; Xu, Hui; Yang, Chao; Qu, Tailai; Kong, lingxiao; Wu, Shucheng; Zeng, Baoquan; Xu, Haixia
2017-12-01
High-velocity fluid flow, which will result in the region of the wellbore or fracture, is generally in the turbulent flow regime and has drawn tremendous attention in petroleum engineering field. Turbulent factor is the key parameter, which is widely used to describe high-velocity flow in porous media. In this work, a theoretical model for turbulent factor in fractal porous media in the high-velocity fluid flow regime is developed. Moreover, a novel analytical expression for the permeability in porous media based on Wu's resistance model is also derived. Then, the analytical Kozeny-Carman constant with no empirical constant is obtained. The predictions of permeability-porosity relation by the current mathematical models have been validated by comparing with available experimental data. Furthermore, the effects of structural parameters of porous media on the curve of velocity and pressure drop are discussed in detail.
Numerical computation of fluid flow in different nonferrous metallurgical reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lackner, A.
1996-10-01
Heat, mass and fluid flow phenomena in metallurgical reactor systems such as smelting cyclones or electrolytic cells are complex and intricately linked through the governing equations of fluid flow, chemical reaction kinetics and chemical thermodynamics. The challenges for the representation of flow phenomena in such reactors as well as the transfers of these concepts to non-specialist modelers (e.g. plant operators and management personnel) can be met through scientific flow visualization techniques. In the first example the fluid flow of the gas phase and of concentrate particles in a smelting cyclone for copper production are calculated three dimensionally. The effect of design parameters (length and diameter of reactor, concentrate feeding tangentially or from the top, ..) and operating conditions are investigated. Single particle traces show, how to increase particle retention time before the particles reach the liquid film flowing down the cyclone wall. Cyclone separators are widely used in the metallurgical and chemical industry for collection of large quantities of dust. Most of the empirical models, which today are applied for the design, are lacking in being valid in the high temperature region. Therefore the numerical prediction of the collection efficiency of dust particles is done. The particle behavior close to the wall is considered by applying a particle restitution model, which calculates individual particle restitution coefficients as functions of impact velocity and impact angle. The effect of design parameters and operating are studied. Moreover, the fluid flow inside a copper refining electrolysis cell is modeled. The simulation is based on density variations in the boundary layer at the electrode surface. Density and thickness of the boundary layer are compared to measurements in a parametric study. The actual inhibitor concentration in the cell is calculated, too. Moreover, a two-phase flow approach is developed to simulate the behavior of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salahuddin, T., E-mail: taimoor_salahuddin@yahoo.com; Malik, M.Y.; Hussain, Arif; Bilal, S.; Awais, M.
2016-03-01
The present analysis inspects the numerical investigation of MHD flow of Williamson fluid model over a sheet with variable thickness. Cattaneo–Christov heat flux model, an amended form of Fourier's law, is used to explore the heat transfer phenomena. The governing non-linear problem is presented and transformed into self-similar form by using similarity approach. The developed non-linear problem is solved numerically by using implicit finite difference scheme known as Keller box method. The effects of relevant physical parameters on velocity and temperature profiles are taken into consideration. The important finds are as follows: influence of Hartmann number M on velocity and temperature profile is opposite. Large values of wall thickness parameter α and Weissenberg number λ are suitable for reduction of velocity profile. A comparative investigation between the previously published results and the present results is found to be in good agreement. - Highlights: • Cattanneo–Christov heat flux model is used instead of Fourier's law. • Two-dimensional MHD flow is discussed. • The non-linear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using finite difference scheme known as Keller box method. • Graphical behavior is presented for each physical parameter.
Chhantyal, Khim; Viumdal, Håkon; Mylvaganam, Saba
2017-10-26
In oil and gas and geothermal installations, open channels followed by sieves for removal of drill cuttings, are used to monitor the quality and quantity of the drilling fluids. Drilling fluid flow rate is difficult to measure due to the varying flow conditions (e.g., wavy, turbulent and irregular) and the presence of drilling cuttings and gas bubbles. Inclusion of a Venturi section in the open channel and an array of ultrasonic level sensors above it at locations in the vicinity of and above the Venturi constriction gives the varying levels of the drilling fluid in the channel. The time series of the levels from this array of ultrasonic level sensors are used to estimate the drilling fluid flow rate, which is compared with Coriolis meter measurements. Fuzzy logic, neural networks and support vector regression algorithms applied to the data from temporal and spatial ultrasonic level measurements of the drilling fluid in the open channel give estimates of its flow rate with sufficient reliability, repeatability and uncertainty, providing a novel soft sensing of an important process variable. Simulations, cross-validations and experimental results show that feedforward neural networks with the Bayesian regularization learning algorithm provide the best flow rate estimates. Finally, the benefits of using this soft sensing technique combined with Venturi constriction in open channels are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khim Chhantyal
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In oil and gas and geothermal installations, open channels followed by sieves for removal of drill cuttings, are used to monitor the quality and quantity of the drilling fluids. Drilling fluid flow rate is difficult to measure due to the varying flow conditions (e.g., wavy, turbulent and irregular and the presence of drilling cuttings and gas bubbles. Inclusion of a Venturi section in the open channel and an array of ultrasonic level sensors above it at locations in the vicinity of and above the Venturi constriction gives the varying levels of the drilling fluid in the channel. The time series of the levels from this array of ultrasonic level sensors are used to estimate the drilling fluid flow rate, which is compared with Coriolis meter measurements. Fuzzy logic, neural networks and support vector regression algorithms applied to the data from temporal and spatial ultrasonic level measurements of the drilling fluid in the open channel give estimates of its flow rate with sufficient reliability, repeatability and uncertainty, providing a novel soft sensing of an important process variable. Simulations, cross-validations and experimental results show that feedforward neural networks with the Bayesian regularization learning algorithm provide the best flow rate estimates. Finally, the benefits of using this soft sensing technique combined with Venturi constriction in open channels are discussed.
Pattern palette for complex fluid flows
Sandnes, B.
2012-04-01
From landslides to oil and gas recovery to the squeeze of a toothpaste tube, flowing complex fluids are everywhere around us in nature and engineering. That is not to say, though, that they are always well understood. The dissipative interactions, through friction and inelastic collisions, often give rise to nonlinear dynamics and complexity manifested in pattern formation on large scales. The images displayed on this poster illustrate the diverse morphologies found in multiphase flows involving wet granular material: Air is injected into a generic mixture of granular material and fluid contained in a 500 µm gap between two parallel glass plates. At low injection rates, friction between the grains - glass beads averaging 100 µm in diameter - dominates the rheology, producing "stick-slip bubbles" and labyrinthine frictional fingering. A transition to various other morphologies, including "corals" and viscous fingers, emerges for increasing injection rate. At sufficiently high granular packing fractions, the material behaves like a deformable, porous solid, and the air rips through in sudden fractures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seignole, V.
2005-01-01
This report presents the work of thesis realized under the direction of Jean-Michel Ghidaglia (thesis director, ENS-Cachan) and of Anela Kumbaro (tutor, CEA) within the framework of the modeling of two-phase flows with OAP code. The report consists of two parts of unequal size: the first part concentrates on aspects related exclusively to two-phase flows, while the second one is devoted to the study of a numerical problem inherent to the resolution of two-phase flow systems, but whose action has a broader framework. (author)
Fluid Flow Technology that Measures Up
2004-01-01
From 1994 to 1996, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a Center Director's Discretionary Fund research effort to apply artificial intelligence technologies to the health management of plant equipment and space propulsion systems. Through this effort, NASA established a business relationship with Quality Monitoring and Control (QMC), of Kingwood, Texas, to provide hardware modeling and artificial intelligence tools. Very detailed and accurate Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) analysis and algorithms were jointly created, which identified several missing, critical instrumentation needs for adequately evaluating the engine health status. One of the missing instruments was a liquid oxygen (LOX) flow measurement. This instrument was missing since the original SSME included a LOX turbine flow meter that failed during a ground test, resulting in considerable damage for NASA. New balanced flow meter technology addresses this need with robust, safe, and accurate flow metering hardware.
The friction control of magnetic fluid in the Couette flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Labkovich, O.N., E-mail: olji@tut.by; Reks, A.G.; Chernobai, V.A.
2017-06-01
In the work characteristic areas of magnetic fluid flow are experimentally determined in the gap between the cylinders: the area of strong dipole-dipole interaction between magnetite particles 0
Fluid flow and solute migration within the capillary fringe.
Silliman, Stephen E; Berkowitz, Brian; Simunek, Jirka; van Genuchten, M Th
2002-01-01
Laboratory experiments involving both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media are used to demonstrate that fluid flow and solute transport will occur regularly in the capillary fringe (CF), including both vertical (upward as well as downward) and horizontal flow velocities. Horizontal flow above the water table appears to be limited primarily to the region of high water saturation (i.e., the CF), an observation supported by numerical modeling and consistent with the literature. Beyond observations presented in prior literature, it was observed that exchange of water within the CF with water below the water table is active, with flux both from the CF downward across the water table and from the region below the water table, upward into the CF. This flux is enhanced by the presence of physical heterogeneity. These findings strongly contrast the common conceptualization of predominantly downward vertical fluid flow through the unsaturated zone, with transition to fully three-dimensional flow only below the water table. Based on these observations, it is suggested that the CF may affect, far more significantly than is usually assumed, the natural geochemical and microbial conditions present in the region of transition from unsaturated to saturated ground water flow.
Divergence instability of pipes conveying fluid with uncertain flow velocity
Rahmati, Mehdi; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza; Goli, Sareh
2018-02-01
This article deals with investigation of probabilistic stability of pipes conveying fluid with stochastic flow velocity in time domain. As a matter of fact, this study has focused on the randomness effects of flow velocity on stability of pipes conveying fluid while most of research efforts have only focused on the influences of deterministic parameters on the system stability. The Euler-Bernoulli beam and plug flow theory are employed to model pipe structure and internal flow, respectively. In addition, flow velocity is considered as a stationary random process with Gaussian distribution. Afterwards, the stochastic averaging method and Routh's stability criterion are used so as to investigate the stability conditions of system. Consequently, the effects of boundary conditions, viscoelastic damping, mass ratio, and elastic foundation on the stability regions are discussed. Results delineate that the critical mean flow velocity decreases by increasing power spectral density (PSD) of the random velocity. Moreover, by increasing PSD from zero, the type effects of boundary condition and presence of elastic foundation are diminished, while the influences of viscoelastic damping and mass ratio could increase. Finally, to have a more applicable study, regression analysis is utilized to develop design equations and facilitate further analyses for design purposes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spangenberg, J.; Roussel, N.; Hattel, J.H.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we describe and compare the various physical phenomena which potentially lead to flow induced particle migration in concrete. We show that, in the case of industrial casting of concrete, gravity induced particle migration dominates all other potential sources of heterogeneities ind...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jabbari, Masoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2014-01-01
and casting speed (belt velocity). In the present work, the flow in both doctor blade regions of a slurry is described with a steady state momentum equation in combination with a Bingham plastic constitutive equation, and this is integrated to a closed form analytical solution for both reservoirs based...
Improving flow distribution in influent channels using computational fluid dynamics.
Park, No-Suk; Yoon, Sukmin; Jeong, Woochang; Lee, Seungjae
2016-10-01
Although the flow distribution in an influent channel where the inflow is split into each treatment process in a wastewater treatment plant greatly affects the efficiency of the process, and a weir is the typical structure for the flow distribution, to the authors' knowledge, there is a paucity of research on the flow distribution in an open channel with a weir. In this study, the influent channel of a real-scale wastewater treatment plant was used, installing a suppressed rectangular weir that has a horizontal crest to cross the full channel width. The flow distribution in the influent channel was analyzed using a validated computational fluid dynamics model to investigate (1) the comparison of single-phase and two-phase simulation, (2) the improved procedure of the prototype channel, and (3) the effect of the inflow rate on flow distribution. The results show that two-phase simulation is more reliable due to the description of the free-surface fluctuations. It should first be considered for improving flow distribution to prevent a short-circuit flow, and the difference in the kinetic energy with the inflow rate makes flow distribution trends different. The authors believe that this case study is helpful for improving flow distribution in an influent channel.
Henry, Pierre-Yves; Aberle, Jochen; Dijkstra, Jasper; Myrhaug, Dag
2016-04-01
Aquatic vegetation plays a vital role in ecohydrological systems regulating many physical, chemical, and biological processes across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. As a consequence, plant-flow interactions are of particular interest to a wide range of disciplines. While early studies of the interactions between vegetation and flowing water employed simplified and non-flexible structures such as rigid cylinders, recent studies have included flexible plants to identify the main characteristics of the hydrodynamics of vegetated flows. However, the description of plant reconfiguration has often been based on a static approach, i.e. considering the plant's deformation under a static load and neglecting turbulent fluctuations. Correlations between drag fluctuations, plant movements, and upstream turbulence were recently established showing that shear layer turbulence at the surface of the different plant elements (such as blades or stems) can contribute significantly to the dynamic behaviour of the plant. However, the relations between plant movement and force fluctuations might change under varying flow velocities, and although this point is crucial for mixing processes and plant dislodgement by fatigue, these aspects of fluid-structure interactions applied to aquatic vegetation remain largely unexplored. Using an innovative combination of sensing techniques in one set of experiments, this study investigates the relations between turbulence, fluctuating fluid forces and movements of a flexible cylindrical plant surrogate. A silicone-based flexible cylinder was attached at the bottom of a 1m wide flume in fully-developed uniform flow. The lower 22 cm of the plant surrogate were made of plain flexible silicone, while the higher 13cm included a casted rigid sensor, measuring accelerations at the tip of the surrogate. Forces were sampled at high frequencies at the surrogate's base by a 6-degrees-of-freedom force/torque sensor measuring down to the gram
Output analysis of multiclass fluid models with static priorities
Tzenova, E.I.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Kulkarni, V.G.
2008-01-01
We consider a stochastic fluid flow model with a single server and K infinite capacity buffers. The input to the k-th buffer is a Markovian on-off process that transmits fluid at a constant rate p(k) while it is on and at rate 0 while it is off. The fluid is emptied from the buffers by a single
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
P. Dixon
2004-02-11
The purpose of this Model Report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid flow and tracer transport models and submodels as well as the flow fields generated utilizing the UZ Flow and Transport Model of Yucca Mountain (UZ Model), Nevada. This work was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.10, Work Package AUZM06). The UZ Model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ Flow Model REV 00 ICN 01 (BSC 2001 [158726]) by incorporation of the conceptual repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These 3-D UZ flow fields are used directly by Performance Assessment (PA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, this Model Report supports several PA activities, including abstractions, particle-tracking transport simulations, and the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dixon, P.
2004-01-01
The purpose of this Model Report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid flow and tracer transport models and submodels as well as the flow fields generated utilizing the UZ Flow and Transport Model of Yucca Mountain (UZ Model), Nevada. This work was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.10, Work Package AUZM06). The UZ Model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ Flow Model REV 00 ICN 01 (BSC 2001 [158726]) by incorporation of the conceptual repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These 3-D UZ flow fields are used directly by Performance Assessment (PA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, this Model Report supports several PA activities, including abstractions, particle-tracking transport simulations, and the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model
Fluid flows of mixed regimes in porous media
Celik, Emine; Hoang, Luan; Ibragimov, Akif; Kieu, Thinh
2017-02-01
In porous media, there are three known regimes of fluid flows, namely, pre-Darcy, Darcy, and post-Darcy. Because of their different natures, these are usually treated separately in the literature. To study complex flows when all three regimes may be present in different portions of a same domain, we use a single equation of motion to unify them. Several scenarios and models are then considered for slightly compressible fluids. A nonlinear parabolic equation for the pressure is derived, which is degenerate when the pressure gradient is either small or large. We estimate the pressure and its gradient for all time in terms of initial and boundary data. We also obtain their particular bounds for large time which depend on the asymptotic behavior of the boundary data but not on the initial one. Moreover, the continuous dependence of the solutions on initial and boundary data and the structural stability for the equation are established.
Immiscible two-phase fluid flows in deformable porous media
Lo, Wei-Cheng; Sposito, Garrison; Majer, Ernest
Macroscopic differential equations of mass and momentum balance for two immiscible fluids in a deformable porous medium are derived in an Eulerian framework using the continuum theory of mixtures. After inclusion of constitutive relationships, the resulting momentum balance equations feature terms characterizing the coupling among the fluid phases and the solid matrix caused by their relative accelerations. These terms, which imply a number of interesting phenomena, do not appear in current hydrologic models of subsurface multiphase flow. Our equations of momentum balance are shown to reduce to the Berryman-Thigpen-Chen model of bulk elastic wave propagation through unsaturated porous media after simplification (e.g., isothermal conditions, neglect of gravity, etc.) and under the assumption of constant volume fractions and material densities. When specialized to the case of a porous medium containing a single fluid and an elastic solid, our momentum balance equations reduce to the well-known Biot model of poroelasticity. We also show that mass balance alone is sufficient to derive the Biot model stress-strain relations, provided that a closure condition for porosity change suggested by de la Cruz and Spanos is invoked. Finally, a relation between elastic parameters and inertial coupling coefficients is derived that permits the partial differential equations of the Biot model to be decoupled into a telegraph equation and a wave equation whose respective dependent variables are two different linear combinations of the dilatations of the solid and the fluid.
Laborie, Benoit; Rouyer, Florence; Angelescu, Dan E; Lorenceau, Elise
2016-11-23
We study the formation of yield-stress fluid foams in millifluidic flow-focusing and T-junction devices. First, we provide a phase diagram for the unsteady operating regimes of bubble production when the gas pressure and the yield-stress fluid flow rate are imposed. Three regimes are identified: a co-flow of gas and yield-stress fluid, a transient production of bubble and a flow of yield-stress fluid only. Taking wall slip into account, we provide a model for the pressure at the onset of bubble formation. Then, we detail and compare two simple methods to ensure steady bubble production: regulation of the gas pressure or flow-rate. These techniques, which are easy to implement, thus open pathways for controlled production of dry yield-stress fluid foams as shown at the end of this article.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doughty, C.; Dragila, M.I.; Faybishenko, B.; Podgorney, R.K.; Stoops, T.M.; Wheatcraft, S.W.; Wood, T.R.
1998-01-01
'DOE faces the remediation of numerous contaminated sites, such as those at Hanford, INEEL, LLNL, and LBNL, where organic and/or radioactive wastes were intentionally or accidentally released to the vadose zone from surface spills, underground tanks, cribs, shallow ponds, and deep wells. Migration of these contaminants through the vadose zone has lead to the contamination of or threatens to contaminate underlying groundwater. A key issue in choosing a corrective action plan to clean up contaminated sites is to determine the location, total mass, mobility and travel time to receptors for contaminants moving in the vadose zone. These problems are difficult to solve in a technically defensible and accurate manner because contaminants travel downward intermittently through narrow pathways driven by variations in environmental conditions. These preferential pathways can be difficult to find and predict. The primary objective of this project is to determine if and when dynamical chaos theory can be used to investigate infiltration of fluid and contaminant transport in heterogeneous soils and fractured rocks. The objective of this project is being achieved through the following Activities (1) Evaluation of chaotic behavior of flow in laboratory and field experiments using methods from non-linear dynamics; (2) Evaluation of the impact these dynamics may have on contaminant transport through heterogeneous fractured rocks and soils, and how it can be used to guide remediation efforts; (3) Development of a conceptual model and mathematical and numerical algorithms for flow and transport, which incorporate both: (a) the spatial variability of heterogeneous porous and fractured media, and (b) the description of the temporal dynamics of flow and transport, which may be chaotic; and (4) Development of appropriate experimental field and laboratory techniques needed to detect diagnostic parameters for chaotic behavior of flow. This approach is based on the assumption that spatial
De Boever, Wesley; Bultreys, Tom; Derluyn, Hannelore; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cnudde, Veerle
2016-06-01
In this paper, we examine the possibility to use on-site permeability measurements for cultural heritage applications as an alternative for traditional laboratory tests such as determination of the capillary absorption coefficient. These on-site measurements, performed with a portable air permeameter, were correlated with the pore network properties of eight sandstones and one granular limestone that are discussed in this paper. The network properties of the 9 materials tested in this study were obtained from micro-computed tomography (μCT) and compared to measurements and calculations of permeability and the capillary absorption rate of the stones under investigation, in order to find the correlation between pore network characteristics and fluid management characteristics of these sandstones. Results show a good correlation between capillary absorption, permeability and network properties, opening the possibility of using on-site permeability measurements as a standard method in cultural heritage applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dynamics of a fluid flow on Mars: Lava or mud?
Wilson, Lionel; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.
2014-05-01
A distinctive flow deposit southwest of Cerberus Fossae on Mars is analyzed. The flow source is a ∼20 m deep, ∼12 × 1.5 km wide depression within a yardang associated with the Medusae Fossae Formation. The flow traveled for ∼40 km following topographic lows to leave a deposit on average 3-4 km wide. The surface morphology of the deposit suggests that it was produced by the emplacement of a fluid flowing in a laminar fashion and possessing a finite yield strength. We use topographic data from a digital elevation model (DEM) to model the dynamics of the motion and infer that the fluid had a Bingham rheology with a plastic viscosity of ∼1 Pa s and a yield strength of ∼185 Pa. Although the low viscosity is consistent with the properties of komatiite-like lava, the combination of values of viscosity and yield strength, as well as the surface morphology of the flow, suggests that this was a mud flow. Comparison with published experimental data implies a solids content close to 60% by volume and a grain size dominated by silt-size particles. Comparison of the ∼1.5 km3 deposit volume with the ∼0.03 km3 volume of the source depression implies that ∼98% of the flow material was derived from depth in the crust. There are similarities between the deposit studied here, which we infer to be mud, and other flow deposits on Mars currently widely held to be lavas. This suggests that a re-appraisal of many of these deposits is now in order.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Rusanov
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The results of numerical investigation of spatial flow of viscous incompressible fluid in flow part of Kaplan turbine PL20 Kremenchug HPP at optimum setting angle of runner blade φb = 15° and at maximum setting angle φb = 35° are shown. The flow simulation has been carried out on basis of numerical integration of the Reynolds equations with an additional term containing artificial compressibility. The differential two-parameter model of Menter (SST has been applied to take into account turbulent effects. Numerical integration of the equations is carried out using an implicit quasi-monotone Godunov type scheme of second - order accuracy in space and time. The calculations have been conducted with the help of the software system IPMFlow. The analysis of fluid flow in the flow part elements is shown and the values of hydraulic losses and local cavitation coefficient have been obtained. Comparison of calculated and experimental results has been carried out.
Fluid flow plate for decreased density of fuel cell assembly
Vitale, Nicholas G.
1999-01-01
A fluid flow plate includes first and second outward faces. Each of the outward faces has a flow channel thereon for carrying respective fluid. At least one of the fluids serves as reactant fluid for a fuel cell of a fuel cell assembly. One or more pockets are formed between the first and second outward faces for decreasing density of the fluid flow plate. A given flow channel can include one or more end sections and an intermediate section. An interposed member can be positioned between the outward faces at an interface between an intermediate section, of one of the outward faces, and an end section, of that outward face. The interposed member can serve to isolate the reactant fluid from the opposing outward face. The intermediate section(s) of flow channel(s) on an outward face are preferably formed as a folded expanse.
Poiseuille Flow of Fluid Whose Viscosity is Temperature Dependent ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We discuss a fluid flowing between two parallel plates. We assume a Poiseuille flow. Furthermore, we assume that the viscosity μ, depends on temperature T. We show that the velocity equation has two solutions. Graph features prominently in the presentation.
Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations for Realistic Flows (Preprint)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Davoudzadeh, Farhad
2007-01-01
Strategies used to verify and validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations are described via case studies of realistic flow simulations, each representing a complex flow physics and complex geometry...
Mesoscopic model for binary fluids
Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.
2017-10-01
We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bachmann, P.; Suender, D.
1998-01-01
1D and time-dependent multi-fluid plasma models are derived from multi-fluid MHD equations. Including neutral particles and their ionization stages as fluids increases the number of equations to be solved and the indeterminacy of the results considerably. For this reason, especially for the case of high-Z materials, the impurities are described by distinct approaches without restricting the impurity densities to be small compared with the hydrogen plasma density. Using the approach of the average ion model, neglecting the effect of the neutral particles, equalizing the plasma temperatures and adopting the condition of quasi-neutrality, we arrive at a three-fluid description and analyze wave front solution of the self-consistent system of equations obtained. This system is reduced to a two-fluid description assuming the flow velocities of the electrons and ions to be equal. This model can be reduced further to a currentless, modified one-fluid approach if the impurity density in dependence on the model functions is known. Introducing Lagrangian coordinates and assuming a constant total pressure a single reaction-diffusion equation for the temperature is obtained. A differential equation for the impurity density in dependence of the temperature has to be included. It determines the influence of the impurities on the reaction-diffusion process which affect not only the radiation loss but also the heat conduction. This is demonstrated for carbon, beryllium and high-Z impurities. (orig.)
Dynamics of linear polymers in a microchannel fluid flow
Bose, Prasenjit; Fodor, Petru; Kaufman, Miron
2010-10-01
Examination of the dynamics of polymers in a fluid flow is an important topic of research because of potential biomedical applications. We simulated the motion of a linear polymer caried in a laminar fluid flow inside a rectangular channel. Our model polymer is made up of beads which are connected by springs. When the polymer is released in the fluid elastic and advection forces act on each bead. The Newton's 2nd law for each bead is integrated numerically using 4th order Runge-Kutta technique. The dynamics of this nonlinear mechanical system depends on the values of the spring equilibrium distance (a), mass of a bead (m), the initial fluid inflow constant (B), and the spring constant (k). Various trials were conducted by varying some of these parameters and the results were recorded and plotted. It was observed that the motion of the polymer was more noisy for higher values of a and k. The variation of time periods with the changing parameters was studied numerically.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Boever, Wesley, E-mail: Wesley.deboever@ugent.be [UGCT/PProGRess, Dept. of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Bultreys, Tom; Derluyn, Hannelore [UGCT/PProGRess, Dept. of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoorebeke, Luc [UGCT/Radiation Physics, Dept. of Physics & Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Cnudde, Veerle [UGCT/PProGRess, Dept. of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)
2016-06-01
In this paper, we examine the possibility to use on-site permeability measurements for cultural heritage applications as an alternative for traditional laboratory tests such as determination of the capillary absorption coefficient. These on-site measurements, performed with a portable air permeameter, were correlated with the pore network properties of eight sandstones and one granular limestone that are discussed in this paper. The network properties of the 9 materials tested in this study were obtained from micro-computed tomography (μCT) and compared to measurements and calculations of permeability and the capillary absorption rate of the stones under investigation, in order to find the correlation between pore network characteristics and fluid management characteristics of these sandstones. Results show a good correlation between capillary absorption, permeability and network properties, opening the possibility of using on-site permeability measurements as a standard method in cultural heritage applications. - Highlights: • Measurements of capillary absorption are compared to in-situ permeability. • We obtain pore size distribution and connectivity by using micro-CT. • These properties explain correlation between permeability and capillarity. • Correlation between both methods is good to excellent. • Permeability measurements could be a good alternative to capillarity measurement.
Rodriguez, David L. (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)
2013-01-01
Fluid-flow simulation over a computer-generated aircraft surface is generated using inviscid and viscous simulations. A fluid-flow mesh of fluid cells is obtained. At least one inviscid fluid property for the fluid cells is determined using an inviscid fluid simulation that does not simulate fluid viscous effects. A set of intersecting fluid cells that intersects the aircraft surface are identified. One surface mesh polygon of the surface mesh is identified for each intersecting fluid cell. A boundary-layer prediction point for each identified surface mesh polygon is determined. At least one boundary-layer fluid property for each boundary-layer prediction point is determined using the at least one inviscid fluid property of the corresponding intersecting fluid cell and a boundary-layer simulation that simulates fluid viscous effects. At least one updated fluid property for at least one fluid cell is determined using the at least one boundary-layer fluid property and the inviscid fluid simulation.
Characterization of Fluid Flow in Paper-Based Microfluidic Systems
Walji, Noosheen; MacDonald, Brendan
2014-11-01
Paper-based microfluidic devices have been presented as a viable low-cost alternative with the versatility to accommodate many applications in disease diagnosis and environmental monitoring. Current microfluidic designs focus on the use of silicone and PDMS structures, and several models have been developed to describe these systems; however, the design process for paper-based devices is hindered by a lack of prediction capability. In this work we simplify the complex underlying physics of the capillary-driven flow mechanism in a porous medium and generate a practical numerical model capable of predicting the flow behaviour. We present our key insights regarding the properties that dictate the behaviour of fluid wicking in paper-based microfluidic devices. We compare the results from our model to experiments and discuss the application of our model to design of paper-based microfluidic devices for arsenic detection in drinking water in Bangladesh.
Keslerová, Radka; Trdlička, David
2015-09-01
This work deals with the numerical modelling of steady flows of incompressible viscous and viscoelastic fluids through the three dimensional channel with T-junction. The fundamental system of equations is the system of generalized Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluids. This system is based on the system of balance laws of mass and momentum for incompressible fluids. Two different mathematical models for the stress tensor are used for simulation of Newtonian and Oldroyd-B fluids flow. Numerical solution of the described models is based on cetral finite volume method using explicit Runge-Kutta time integration.
The fluid mechanics of continuous flow electrophoresis
Saville, D. A.
1990-01-01
The overall objective is to establish theoretically and confirm experimentally the ultimate capabilities of continuous flow electrophoresis chambers operating in an environment essentially free of particle sedimentation and buoyancy. The efforts are devoted to: (1) studying the effects of particle concentration on sample conductivity and dielectric constant. The dielectric constant and conductivity were identified as playing crucial roles in the behavior of the sample and on the resolving power and throughput of continuous flow devices; and (2) improving the extant mathematical models to predict flow fields and particle trajectories in continuous flow electrophoresis. A dielectric spectrometer was designed and built to measure the complex dielectric constant of a colloidal dispersion as a function of frequency between 500 Hz and 200 kHz. The real part of the signal can be related to the sample's conductivity and the imaginary part to its dielectric constant. Measurements of the dielectric constants of several different dispersions disclosed that the dielectric constants of dilute systems of the sort encountered in particle electrophoresis are much larger than would be expected based on the extant theory. Experiments were carried out to show that, in many cases, this behavior is due to the presence of a filamentary structure of small hairs on the particle surface. A technique for producing electrokinetically ideal synthetic latex particles by heat treating was developed. Given the ubiquitous nature of hairy surfaces with both cells and synthetic particles, it was deemed necessary to develop a theory to explain their behavior. A theory for electrophoretic mobility of hairy particles was developed. Finally, the extant computer programs for predicting the structure of electro-osmotically driven flows were extended to encompass flow channels with variable wall mobilities.
Numerical simulation of wave-induced fluid flow seismic attenuation based on the Cole-Cole model.
Picotti, Stefano; Carcione, José M
2017-07-01
The acoustic behavior of porous media can be simulated more realistically using a stress-strain relation based on the Cole-Cole model. In particular, seismic velocity dispersion and attenuation in porous rocks is well described by mesoscopic-loss models. Using the Zener model to simulate wave propagation is a rough approximation, while the Cole-Cole model provides an optimal description of the physics. Here, a time-domain algorithm is proposed based on the Grünwald-Letnikov numerical approximation of the fractional derivative involved in the time-domain representation of the Cole-Cole model, while the spatial derivatives are computed with the Fourier pseudospectral method. The numerical solution is successfully tested against an analytical solution. The methodology is applied to a model of saline aquifer, where carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is injected. To follow the migration of the gas and detect possible leakages, seismic monitoring surveys should be carried out periodically. To this aim, the sensitivity of the seismic method must be carefully assessed for the specific case. The simulated test considers a possible leakage in the overburden, above the caprock, where the sandstone is partially saturated with gas and brine. The numerical examples illustrate the implementation of the theory.
Fluid pumping: Some exploratory numerical models
Ord, A.; Henley, S.
The concept of fluid pumping evolved from considerations of fluid behaviour within and surrounding faults and shear zones, particularly associated with earthquake initiation and propagation. Further, the interpretation of specific vein textures as originating from a crack-seal mechanism requires precipitation of material during pumping cycles. We explore here a new simple model for fluid pumping initiating within a dilatant, pressure dependant material, and the mechanical consequences of such a model, including the predicted behaviour of a fluid within the SiO2-H2O system. Changes in various properties such as permeability and mechanical properties are allowed according to rules based on defined geological processes. For example, porosity may increase with increasing shear and dilatancy of the rock, and both porosity and permeability decrease when and where the rock ‘seals’ as a result of pressure decrease and the resultant precipitation of SiO2. Histories of any variable may be explored for any part of the model. We may therefore test in a quantitative manner hypotheses for fluid pumping, and the deposition of quartz, and ultimately gold, in a deforming rock mass. Through exploring the feedback links between deformation, fluid flow, chemical transport, thermal transfer, we have the opportunity to test conceptually and quantitatively the various hypotheses for the formation of world class ore deposits.
Boundary control of fluid flow through porous media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hasan, Agus; Foss, Bjarne; Sagatun, Svein Ivar
2010-01-01
The flow of fluids through porous media can be described by the Boussinesq’s equation with mixed boundary conditions; a Neumann’s boundary condition and a nonlinear boundary condition. The nonlinear boundary condition provides a means to control the fluid flow through porous media. In this paper...
Simulations of flow induced ordering in viscoelastic fluids
Santos de Oliveira, I.S.
2012-01-01
In this thesis we report on simulations of colloidal ordering phenomena in shearthinning viscoelastic fluids under shear flow. Depending on the characteristics of the fluid, the colloids are observed to align in the direction of the flow. These string-like structures remain stable as long as the
Free Convective Flow of a Reacting Fluid between Vertical Porous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Free Convective Flow of a Reacting Fluid between Vertical Porous Plates. ... written in dimensionless forms. The resulting second order equations are solved to obtain expressions for the velocity, temperature, mass transfer skin friction, and rate of heat transfer. Keywords: Convective flow, reacting fluid, vertical porous plates ...
Computations of incompressible fluid flow around a long square ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
DEEPAK KUMAR
13th Australasian. Fluid Mechanics Conference, pp. 943–946. [6] Reichl P, Hourigan K and Thompson M C 2003 The unsteady wake of a circular cylinder near a free surface. Flow. Turbul. Combust. 71: 347–359. [7] Reichl P, Hourigan K and Thompson M C 2005 Flow past a cylinder close to a free surface. J. Fluid Mech.
Ludwig Prandtl and Boundary Layers in Fluid Flow
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
paper by L Prandtl who showed that viscous effects, no ... Reynolds number or nearly frictionless flows, for exam- ple the flow past a .... Just past the leading edge, only the fluid next to the wall is slowed down. Further down the plate the random motion of the molecules slow down adj acent fluid layers away from the.
Nuñez, R. C.; Griffith, W. A.; Mitchell, T. M.; Marquardt, C.; Iturrieta, P. C.; Cembrano, J. M.
2017-12-01
Obliquely convergent subduction orogens show both margin-parallel and margin-oblique fault systems that are spatially and temporally associated with ore deposits and geothermal systems within the volcanic arc. Fault orientation and mechanical interaction among different fault systems influence the stress field in these arrangements, thus playing a first order control on the regional to local-scale fluid migration paths as documented by the spatial distribution of fault-vein arrays. Our selected case study is a Miocene porphyry copper-type system that crops out in the precordillera of the Maule region along the Teno river Valley (ca. 35°S). Several regional to local faults were recognized in the field: (1) Two first-order, N-striking subvertical dextral faults overlapping at a right stepover; (2) Second-order, N60°E-striking steeply-dipping, dextral-normal faults located at the stepover, and (3) N40°-60°W striking subvertical, sinistral faults crossing the stepover zone. The regional and local scale geology is characterized by volcano-sedimentary rocks (Upper Eocene- Lower Miocene), intruded by Miocene granodioritic plutons (U-Pb zircon age of 18.2 ± 0.11 Ma) and coeval dikes. We implement a 2D boundary element displacement discontinuity method (BEM) model to test the mechanical feasibility of kinematic model of the structural development of the porphyry copper-type system in the stepover between N-striking faults. The model yields the stress field within the stepover region and shows slip and potential opening distribution along the N-striking master faults under a regionally imposed stress field. The model shows that σ1 rotates clockwise where the main faults approach each other, becoming EW when they overlap. This, in turn leads to the generation of both NE- and NW-striking faults within the stepover area. Model results are consistent with the structural and kinematic data collected in the field attesting for enhanced permeability and fluid flow transport
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azadeh Hashemian
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Enhanced surface heat exchangers are commonly used all worldwide. If applicable, due to their complicated geometry, simulating corrugated plate heat exchangers is a time-consuming process. In the present study, first we simulate the heat transfer in a sharp V-shape corrugation cell with constant temperature walls; then, we use a Locally Linear Neuro-Fuzzy method based on a radial basis function (RBFs to model the temperature field in the whole channel. New approach is developed to deal with fast computational and low memory resources that can be used with the largest available data sets. The purpose of the research is to reveal the advantages of proposed Neuro-Fuzzy model as a powerful modeling system designed for predicting and to make a fair comparison between it and the successful FLUENT simulated approaches in its best structures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kreider, J.F.
1985-01-01
This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements
Keken, P.E. van
1993-01-01
In the 25 years after the general acceptance of the concept of plate tectonics we have witnessed large progress in observational, laboratory, forward modelling and inversion techniques. These provide a clear view of the immense complexities that are facing us when studying the dynamics of the
Intermittent Flow In Yield Stress Fluids Slows Down Chaotic Mixing
Boujlel, Jalila; Wendell, Dawn; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Pigeonneau, Franck; Jop, Pierre; Laboratoire Surface du Verre et Interfaces Team
2013-11-01
Many mixing situations involve fluids with non-Newtonian properties: mixing of building materials such as concrete or mortar are based on fluids that have shear- thinning rheological properties. Lack of correct mixing can waste time and money, or lead to products with defects. When fluids are stirred and mixed together at low Reynolds number, the fluid particles should undergo chaotic trajectories to be well mixed by the so-called chaotic advection resulting from the flow. Previous work to characterize chaotic mixing in many different geometries has primarily focused on Newtonian fluids. First studies into non-Newtonian chaotic advection often utilize idealized mixing geometries such as cavity flows or journal bearing flows for numerical studies. Here, we present experimental results of chaotic mixing of yield stress fluids with non-Newtonian fluids using rod-stirring protocol with rotating vessel. We describe the various steps of the mixing and determine their dependence on the fluid rheology and speeds of rotation of the rods and the vessel. We show how the mixing of yield-stress fluids by chaotic advection is reduced compared to the mixing of Newtonian fluids and explain our results, bringing to light the relevant mechanisms: the presence of fluid that only flows intermittently, a phenomenon enhanced by the yield stress, and the importance of the peripheral region. This result is confirmed via numerical simulations.
Flow of viscoplastic fluids in a rotating concentric annulus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassager, Ole; Bittleston, Simon H.
1992-01-01
A difficulty in any flow calculation with viscoplastic fluids such as Bingham fluids is the determination of possible plug zones in which no deformation occurs. This paper investigates the flow in a concentric annulus when there is both an axial and tangential flow, the tangent flow arising from...... pressure gradient is small compared to the yield stress of the fluid then the full solution predicts the existence of plugs attached to the outer wall of the annulus. The slot approximation fails to predict this feature. For larger pressure gradients the two solutions are in good agreement. The analytical...
Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow
Heath, William O.; Virden, Jr., Judson W.; Richardson, R. L.; Bergsman, Theresa M.
1993-01-01
The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stigler, J
2010-01-01
The new mathematical model of the fluid flow in T-part with adjacent branch of the arbitrary angle is introduced in this article. This paper relates to the previous author's research. The previous work was focused only on the case with the angle of the adjacent branch 90 0 . The aim of this work is to explain main ideas applied during the derivation of the mathematical model of T-part. This mathematical model can be used as a tool for solution of steady and unsteady flow in pipeline systems. The coefficients describing fluid flow in the T-part are specified in this model. They can be used in the designing of the optimal shape of the pipe bifurcation as a criterion for the different T-part designs comparison. This research is in the process now therefore only theory of extended mathematical model is presented in this paper. The measurements and the numerical modeling of the fluid flow in this T-part are going to be done soon.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandesris, M
2006-12-15
This work deals with the numerical simulation of turbulent flows in the whole nuclear reactor core, using multi-scale approaches. First, a macroscopic turbulence model is built, based on a porous media approach, to describe the flow in the fuel assemblies part of the nuclear core. Then, we study the jump conditions that have to be applied at a free fluid/porous interface. A thorough analytical study is carried out for laminar flows. This study allows to answer some fundamental questions about the physical meaning of the jump conditions, the values of the jump parameters and the location of the interface. Using these results, jump conditions for turbulent flows are proposed. The model is then applied to the simulation of a turbulent flow in a simplified model of a reactor core. (author)
Heat transfer and fluid flow in biological processes advances and applications
Becker, Sid
2015-01-01
Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes covers emerging areas in fluid flow and heat transfer relevant to biosystems and medical technology. This book uses an interdisciplinary approach to provide a comprehensive prospective on biofluid mechanics and heat transfer advances and includes reviews of the most recent methods in modeling of flows in biological media, such as CFD. Written by internationally recognized researchers in the field, each chapter provides a strong introductory section that is useful to both readers currently in the field and readers interested in learning more about these areas. Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes is an indispensable reference for professors, graduate students, professionals, and clinical researchers in the fields of biology, biomedical engineering, chemistry and medicine working on applications of fluid flow, heat transfer, and transport phenomena in biomedical technology. Provides a wide range of biological and clinical applications of fluid...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knowles, M.K.; Hurtado, L.D.; Dale, Tim
1997-12-01
The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a planned geologic repository for permanent disposal of transuranic waste generated by the U.S. Department of Energy. Disposal regions consist of panels and drifts mined from the bedded salt of the Salado Formation at a depth of approximately 650 m below the surface. This lithology is part of the 225 million year old Delaware Basin, and is geographically located in southeastern New Mexico. Four shafts service the facility needs for air intake, exhaust, waste handling, and salt handling. As the science advisor for the project, Sandia National Laboratories developed the WIPP shaft sealing system design. This design is a fundamental component of the application process for facility licensing, and has been found acceptable by stakeholders and regulatory agencies. The seal system design is founded on results obtained from laboratory and field experiments, numerical modeling, and engineering judgment. This paper describes a field test program to characterize the fluid flow properties in the WIPP shafts at representative seal locations. This work was conducted by Duke Engineering and Services under contract to Sandia National Laboratories in support of the seal system design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fang Wang
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The vibrating electrode method was proposed in the electro-slag remelting (ESR process in this paper, and the effect of vibrating electrode on the solidification structure of ingot was studied. A transient three-dimensional (3D coupled mathematical model was established to simulate the electromagnetic phenomenon, fluid flow as well as pool shape in the ESR process with the vibrating electrode. The finite element volume method is developed to solve the electromagnetic field using ANSYS mechanical APDL software. Moreover, the electromagnetic force and Joule heating are interpolated as the source term of the momentum and energy equations. The multi-physical fields have been investigated and compared between the traditional electrode and the vibrating electrode in the ESR process. The results show that the drop process of metal droplets with the traditional electrode is scattered randomly. However, the drop process of metal droplets with the vibrating electrode is periodic. The highest temperature of slag layer with the vibrating electrode is higher than that with the traditional electrode, which can increase the melting rate due to the enhanced heat transfer in the vicinity of the electrode tip. The results also show that when the amplitude and frequency of the vibrating electrode increase, the cycle of drop process of metal droplets decreases significantly.
Dinarvand, Saeed
2011-10-01
In this article, the problem of laminar, isothermal, incompressible and viscous flow in a rectangular domain bounded by two moving porous walls, which enable the fluid to enter or exit during successive expansions or contractions, is investigated. The governing non-linear equations and their associated boundary conditions are transformed into a highly non-linear ordinary differential equation. The series solution of the problem is obtained by utilising the homotopy perturbation method. Graphical results are presented to investigate the influence of the non-dimensional wall dilation rate and seepage Reynolds number (Re) on the velocity, normal pressure distribution and wall shear stress. Since the transport of biological fluids through contracting or expanding vessels is characterised by low seepage Res, the current study focuses on the viscous flow driven by small wall contractions and expansions of two weakly permeable walls.
Energetic Variational Approach to Multi-Component Fluid Flows
Kirshtein, Arkadz; Liu, Chun; Brannick, James
2017-11-01
In this talk I will introduce the systematic energetic variational approach for dissipative systems applied to multi-component fluid flows. These variational approaches are motivated by the seminal works of Rayleigh and Onsager. The advantage of this approach is that we have to postulate only energy law and some kinematic relations based on fundamental physical principles. The method gives a clear, quick and consistent way to derive the PDE system. I will compare different approaches to three-component flows using diffusive interface method and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. The diffusive interface method is an approach for modeling interactions among complex substances. The main idea behind this method is to introduce phase field labeling functions in order to model the contact line by smooth change from one type of material to another. The work of Arkadz Kirshtein and Chun Liu is partially supported by NSF Grants DMS-141200 and DMS-1216938.
Numerical Solution of Laminar Incompressible Generalized Newtonian Fluids Flow
Keslerová, R.; Kozel, K.
2009-09-01
This paper deals with the numerical solution of laminar viscous incompressible flows for generalized Newtonian (Newtonian and non-Newtonian) fluids in the branching channel. The mathematical model is the generalized system of Navier-Stokes equations. The right hand side of this system is defined by power-law model. The finite volume method combined with an artificial compressibility method is used for spatial discretization. For time discretization the explicit multistage Runge-Kutta numerical scheme is considered. Numerical solution is divided into two parts, steady and unsteady. Steady state solution is achieved for t→∞ using steady boundary conditions and followed by steady residual behavior. For unsteady solution a dual-time stepping method is considered. Numerical results for flows in two dimensional and three dimensional branching channel are presented.
Hydrodynamic cavitation in Stokes flow of anisotropic fluids.
Stieger, Tillmann; Agha, Hakam; Schoen, Martin; Mazza, Marco G; Sengupta, Anupam
2017-05-30
Cavitation, the nucleation of vapour in liquids, is ubiquitous in fluid dynamics, and is often implicated in a myriad of industrial and biomedical applications. Although extensively studied in isotropic liquids, corresponding investigations in anisotropic liquids are largely lacking. Here, by combining liquid crystal microfluidic experiments, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments, we report flow-induced cavitation in an anisotropic fluid. The cavitation domain nucleates due to sudden pressure drop upon flow past a cylindrical obstacle within a microchannel. For an anisotropic fluid, the inception and growth of the cavitation domain ensued in the Stokes regime, while no cavitation was observed in isotropic liquids flowing under similar hydrodynamic parameters. Using simulations we identify a critical value of the Reynolds number for cavitation inception that scales inversely with the order parameter of the fluid. Strikingly, the critical Reynolds number for anisotropic fluids can be 50% lower than that of isotropic fluids.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2016-01-01
behaviour is assumed in the simulation of the ceramic slurry flow.A local variation of the viscosity (LVOV) model as a function of the particle volume fraction is introduced and taken into account in the advection and the settling of the particles inthe flow field. The results show that using the LVOV model...
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Heyns, Johan A
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a weakly compressible volume-of-fluid formulation for modelling immiscible high density ratio two-fluid flow under low Mach number conditions. This follows findings of experimental analyses that concluded the compressibility...
Visualization periodic flows in a continuously stratified fluid.
Bardakov, R.; Vasiliev, A.
2012-04-01
To visualize the flow pattern of viscous continuously stratified fluid both experimental and computational methods were developed. Computational procedures were based on exact solutions of set of the fundamental equations. Solutions of the problems of flows producing by periodically oscillating disk (linear and torsion oscillations) were visualized with a high resolutions to distinguish small-scale the singular components on the background of strong internal waves. Numerical algorithm of visualization allows to represent both the scalar and vector fields, such as velocity, density, pressure, vorticity, stream function. The size of the source, buoyancy and oscillation frequency, kinematic viscosity of the medium effects were traced in 2D an 3D posing problems. Precision schlieren instrument was used to visualize the flow pattern produced by linear and torsion oscillations of strip and disk in a continuously stratified fluid. Uniform stratification was created by the continuous displacement method. The buoyancy period ranged from 7.5 to 14 s. In the experiments disks with diameters from 9 to 30 cm and a thickness of 1 mm to 10 mm were used. Different schlieren methods that are conventional vertical slit - Foucault knife, vertical slit - filament (Maksoutov's method) and horizontal slit - horizontal grating (natural "rainbow" schlieren method) help to produce supplementing flow patterns. Both internal wave beams and fine flow components were visualized in vicinity and far from the source. Intensity of high gradient envelopes increased proportionally the amplitude of the source. In domains of envelopes convergence isolated small scale vortices and extended mushroom like jets were formed. Experiments have shown that in the case of torsion oscillations pattern of currents is more complicated than in case of forced linear oscillations. Comparison with known theoretical model shows that nonlinear interactions between the regular and singular flow components must be taken
Taetz, Stephan; John, Timm; Bröcker, Michael; Spandler, Carl; Stracke, Andreas
2018-01-01
A better understanding of the subduction zone fluid cycle and its chemical-mechanical feedback requires in-depth knowledge about how fluids flow within and out of descending slabs. Relicts of fluid-flow systems in exhumed rocks of fossil subduction zones allow for identification of the general relationships between dehydration reactions, fluid pathway formation, the dimensions and timescales of distinct fluid flow events; all of which are required for quantitative models for fluid-induced subduction zone processes. Two types of garnet-quartz-phengite veins can be distinguished in an eclogite-facies mélange block from the Pouébo Eclogite Mélange, New Caledonia. These veins record synmetamorphic internal fluid release by mineral breakdown reactions (type I veins), and infiltration of an external fluid (type II veins) with the associated formation of a reaction selvage. The dehydration and fluid migration documented by the type I veins likely occurred on a timescale of 105-106 years, based on average subduction rates and metamorphic conditions required for mineral dehydration and fluid flow. The timeframe of fluid-rock interaction between the external fluid and the wall-rock of the type II veins is quantified using a continuous bulk-rock Li-diffusion profile perpendicular to a vein and its metasomatic selvage. Differences in Li concentration between the internal and external fluid reservoirs resulted in a distinct diffusion profile (decreasing Li concentration and increasing δ7 Li) as the reaction front propagated into the host rock. Li-chronometric constraints indicate that the timescales of fluid-rock interaction associated with type II vein formation are on the order of 1 to 4 months (0.150-0.08+0.14 years). The short-lived, pulse-like character of this process is consistent with the notion that fluid flow caused by oceanic crust dehydration at the blueschist-to-eclogite transition contributes to or even dominates episodic pore fluid pressure increases at the
Persistent Homology to describe Solid and Fluid Structures during Multiphase Flow
Herring, A. L.; Robins, V.; Liu, Z.; Armstrong, R. T.; Sheppard, A.
2017-12-01
The question of how to accurately and effectively characterize essential fluid and solid distributions and structures is a long-standing topic within the field of porous media and fluid transport. For multiphase flow applications, considerable research effort has been made to describe fluid distributions under a range of conditions; including quantification of saturation levels, fluid-fluid pressure differences and interfacial areas, and fluid connectivity. Recent research has effectively used topological metrics to describe pore space and fluid connectivity, with researchers demonstrating links between pore-scale nonwetting phase topology to fluid mobilization and displacement mechanisms, relative permeability, fluid flow regimes, and thermodynamic models of multiphase flow. While topology is clearly a powerful tool to describe fluid distribution, topological metrics by definition provide information only on the connectivity of a phase, not its geometry (shape or size). Physical flow characteristics, e.g. the permeability of a fluid phase within a porous medium, are dependent on the connectivity of the pore space or fluid phase as well as the size of connections. Persistent homology is a technique which provides a direct link between topology and geometry via measurement of topological features and their persistence from the signed Euclidean distance transform of a segmented digital image (Figure 1). We apply persistent homology analysis to measure the occurrence and size of pore-scale topological features in a variety of sandstones, for both the dry state and the nonwetting phase fluid during two-phase fluid flow (drainage and imbibition) experiments, visualized with 3D X-ray microtomography. The results provide key insights into the dominant topological features and length scales of a media which control relevant field-scale engineering properties such as fluid trapping, absolute permeability, and relative permeability.
Flow of viscoplastic fluids in a rotating concentric annulus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassager, Ole; Bittleston, Simon H.
1992-01-01
A difficulty in any flow calculation with viscoplastic fluids such as Bingham fluids is the determination of possible plug zones in which no deformation occurs. This paper investigates the flow in a concentric annulus when there is both an axial and tangential flow, the tangent flow arising from...... rotation of the inner cylinder of the annulus. The flow is analyzed by considering flow in a slot, for which an analytical solution is given, and by solving the full problem numerically. It is shown that when the boundary is set in motion an applied pressure gradient will always cause flow. If the applied...... pressure gradient is small compared to the yield stress of the fluid then the full solution predicts the existence of plugs attached to the outer wall of the annulus. The slot approximation fails to predict this feature. For larger pressure gradients the two solutions are in good agreement. The analytical...
Flow of a non-Newtonian fluid through channels with permeable wall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martins-Costa, Maria Laura [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Matematica Teorica e Aplicada]. E-mail: laura@mec.uff.br; Gama, Rogerio M. Saldanha da [Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica (LNCC), Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rsgama@domain.com.br; Frey, Sergio [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Grupo de Estudos Termicos e Energeticos
2000-07-01
In the present work the momentum transport in two adjacent flow regions is described by means of a continuum theory of mixtures, specially developed to model multiphase phenomena. A generalized Newtonian fluid flows through the permeable wall channel, originating a pure fluid region and a mixture region - where the fluid saturates the porous matrix. The fluid and the porous matrix are treated as continuous constituents of a binary mixture coexisting superposed, each of them occupying simultaneously the whole volume of the mixture. An Ostwald-de Waele behavior is assumed for both the fluid constituent (in the mixture region) and the fluid (in the so-called pure fluid region), while the porous matrix, represented by the solid constituent, is assumed rigid, homogeneous, isotropic and at rest. Compatibility conditions at the interface (pure fluid-mixture) for momentum transfer are proposed and discussed. Assuming no flow across the interface, the velocity should be zero on the solid parts of the boundary and should match the fluid diffusing velocity on the fluid parts of the boundary. Also the shear stress at the pure fluid region is to be balanced by a multiple of the partial shear stress at the mixture region. A minimum principle for the above-described problem, assuming fully developed flow in both regions, is presented, providing an easy and reliable way for carrying out numerical simulations. (author)
Tracing fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rose, P.E.; Adams, M.C. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
1997-12-31
A family of fluorescent compounds, the polycyclic aromatic sulfonates, were evaluated for application in intermediate- and high-temperature geothermal reservoirs. Whereas the naphthalene sulfonates were found to be very thermally stable and reasonably detectable, the amino-substituted naphthalene sulfonates were found to be somewhat less thermally stable, but much more detectable. A tracer test was conducted at the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal reservoir using one of the substituted naphthalene sulfonates, amino G, and fluorescein. Four of 9 production wells showed tracer breakthrough during the first 200 days of the test. Reconstructed tracer return curves are presented that correct for the thermal decay of tracer assuming an average reservoir temperature of 227{degrees}C. In order to examine the feasibility of using numerical simulation to model tracer flow, we developed simple, two-dimensional models of the geothermal reservoir using the numerical simulation programs TETRAD and TOUGH2. By fitting model outputs to measured return curves, we show that numerical reservoir simulations can be calibrated with the tracer data. Both models predict the same order of elution, approximate tracer concentrations, and return curve shapes. Using these results, we propose a method for using numerical models to design a tracer test.
Estimation of fluid flow fields and their stagnation points
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Rasmus
Given a temporal sequence of images of fluids we will use local polynomials to regularise obser-vations of normal flows into smooth flow fields. This technique furthermore allows us to give a qualitative local description of the flow field and to estimate the position of stagnation points...
A variational approach to estimate incompressible fluid flows
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A variational approach is used to recover fluid motion governed by Stokes and Navier–Stokes equations. Unlike previous approaches where optical flow method is used to track rigid body motion, this new framework aims at investigating incompressible flows using optical flow techniques. We formulate a minimization ...
Microfluidic-SANS: flow processing of complex fluids.
Lopez, Carlos G; Watanabe, Takaichi; Martel, Anne; Porcar, Lionel; Cabral, João T
2015-01-12
Understanding and engineering the flow-response of complex and non-Newtonian fluids at a molecular level is a key challenge for their practical utilisation. Here we demonstrate the coupling of microfluidics with small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Microdevices with high neutron transmission (up to 98%), low scattering background (≲10⁻² cm⁻¹), broad solvent compatibility and high pressure tolerance (≈3-15 bar) are rapidly prototyped via frontal photo polymerisation. Scattering from single microchannels of widths down to 60 μm, with beam footprint of 500 μm diameter, was successfully obtained in the scattering vector range 0.01-0.3 Å(-1), corresponding to real space dimensions of ≃10-600 Å. We demonstrate our approach by investigating the molecular re-orientation and alignment underpinning the flow response of two model complex fluids, namely cetyl trimethylammonium chloride/pentanol/D₂O and sodium lauryl sulfate/octanol/brine lamellar systems. Finally, we assess the applicability and outlook of microfluidic-SANS for high-throughput and flow processing studies, with emphasis of soft matter.
Numerical simulation of fluid flow in a rotational bioreactor
Ganimedov, V. L.; Papaeva, E. O.; Maslov, N. A.; Larionov, P. M.
2017-10-01
Application of scaffold technology for the problem of bone tissue regeneration has great prospects in modern medicine. The influence of fluid shear stress on stem cells cultivation and its differentiation into osteoblasts is the subject of intensive research. Mathematical modeling of fluid flow in bioreactor allowed us to determine the structure of flow and estimate the level of mechanical stress on cells. The series of computations for different rotation frequencies (0.083, 0.124, 0.167, 0.2 and 0.233 Hz) was performed for the laminar flow regime approximation. It was shown that the Taylor vortices in the gap between the cylinders qualitatively change the distribution of static pressure and shear stress in the region of vortices connection. It was shown that an increase in the rotation frequency leads to an increase of the unevenness in distribution of the above mentioned functions. The obtained shear stress and static pressure dependence on the rotational frequency make it possible to choose the operating mode of the reactor depending on the provided requirements. It was shown that in the range of rotation frequencies chosen in this work (0.083 < f < 0.233 Hz), the shear stress does not exceed the known literature data (0.002 - 0.1 Pa).
Acceleration of coupled granular flow and fluid flow simulations in pebble bed energy systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Yanheng, E-mail: liy19@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY (United States); Ji, Wei, E-mail: jiw2@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY (United States)
2013-05-15
Highlights: ► Fast simulation of coupled pebble flow and coolant flow in PBR systems is studied. ► Dimension reduction based on axisymmetric geometry shows significant speedup. ► Relaxation of coupling frequency is investigated and an optimal range is determined. ► A total of 80% efficiency increase is achieved by the two fast strategies. ► Fast strategies can be applied to simulating other general fluidized bed systems. -- Abstract: Fast and accurate approaches to simulating the coupled particle flow and fluid flow are of importance to the analysis of large particle-fluid systems. This is especially needed when one tries to simulate pebble flow and coolant flow in Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) energy systems on a routine basis. As one of the Generation IV designs, the PBR design is a promising nuclear energy system with high fuel performance and inherent safety. A typical PBR core can be modeled as a particle-fluid system with strong interactions among pebbles, coolants and reactor walls. In previous works, the coupled Discrete Element Method (DEM)-Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach has been investigated and applied to modeling PBR systems. However, the DEM-CFD approach is computationally expensive due to large amounts of pebbles in PBR systems. This greatly restricts the PBR analysis for the real time prediction and inclusion of more physics. In this work, based on the symmetry of the PBR geometry and the slow motion characteristics of the pebble flow, two acceleration strategies are proposed. First, a simplified 3D-DEM/2D-CFD approach is proposed to speed up the DEM-CFD simulation without loss of accuracy. Pebble flow is simulated by a full 3D DEM, while the coolant flow field is calculated with a 2D CFD simulation by averaging variables along the annular direction in the cylindrical and annular geometries. Second, based on the slow motion of pebble flow, the impact of the coupling frequency on the computation accuracy and efficiency is
Acceleration of coupled granular flow and fluid flow simulations in pebble bed energy systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Yanheng; Ji, Wei
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Fast simulation of coupled pebble flow and coolant flow in PBR systems is studied. ► Dimension reduction based on axisymmetric geometry shows significant speedup. ► Relaxation of coupling frequency is investigated and an optimal range is determined. ► A total of 80% efficiency increase is achieved by the two fast strategies. ► Fast strategies can be applied to simulating other general fluidized bed systems. -- Abstract: Fast and accurate approaches to simulating the coupled particle flow and fluid flow are of importance to the analysis of large particle-fluid systems. This is especially needed when one tries to simulate pebble flow and coolant flow in Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) energy systems on a routine basis. As one of the Generation IV designs, the PBR design is a promising nuclear energy system with high fuel performance and inherent safety. A typical PBR core can be modeled as a particle-fluid system with strong interactions among pebbles, coolants and reactor walls. In previous works, the coupled Discrete Element Method (DEM)-Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach has been investigated and applied to modeling PBR systems. However, the DEM-CFD approach is computationally expensive due to large amounts of pebbles in PBR systems. This greatly restricts the PBR analysis for the real time prediction and inclusion of more physics. In this work, based on the symmetry of the PBR geometry and the slow motion characteristics of the pebble flow, two acceleration strategies are proposed. First, a simplified 3D-DEM/2D-CFD approach is proposed to speed up the DEM-CFD simulation without loss of accuracy. Pebble flow is simulated by a full 3D DEM, while the coolant flow field is calculated with a 2D CFD simulation by averaging variables along the annular direction in the cylindrical and annular geometries. Second, based on the slow motion of pebble flow, the impact of the coupling frequency on the computation accuracy and efficiency is
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faybishenko, B.; Doughty, C.; Geller, J.
1998-07-01
Understanding subsurface flow and transport processes is critical for effective assessment, decision-making, and remediation activities for contaminated sites. However, for fluid flow and contaminant transport through fractured vadose zones, traditional hydrogeological approaches are often found to be inadequate. In this project, the authors examine flow and transport through a fractured vadose zone as a deterministic chaotic dynamical process, and develop a model of it in these terms. Initially, the authors examine separately the geometric model of fractured rock and the flow dynamics model needed to describe chaotic behavior. Ultimately they will put the geometry and flow dynamics together to develop a chaotic-dynamical model of flow and transport in a fractured vadose zone. They investigate water flow and contaminant transport on several scales, ranging from small-scale laboratory experiments in fracture replicas and fractured cores, to field experiments conducted in a single exposed fracture at a basalt outcrop, and finally to a ponded infiltration test using a pond of 7 by 8 m. In the field experiments, they measure the time-variation of water flux, moisture content, and hydraulic head at various locations, as well as the total inflow rate to the subsurface. Such variations reflect the changes in the geometry and physics of water flow that display chaotic behavior, which they try to reconstruct using the data obtained. In the analysis of experimental data, a chaotic model can be used to predict the long-term bounds on fluid flow and transport behavior, known as the attractor of the system, and to examine the limits of short-term predictability within these bounds. This approach is especially well suited to the need for short-term predictions to support remediation decisions and long-term bounding studies. View-graphs from ten presentations made at the annual meeting held December 3--4, 1997 are included in an appendix to this report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faybishenko, B.; Doughty, C.; Geller, J. [and others
1998-07-01
Understanding subsurface flow and transport processes is critical for effective assessment, decision-making, and remediation activities for contaminated sites. However, for fluid flow and contaminant transport through fractured vadose zones, traditional hydrogeological approaches are often found to be inadequate. In this project, the authors examine flow and transport through a fractured vadose zone as a deterministic chaotic dynamical process, and develop a model of it in these terms. Initially, the authors examine separately the geometric model of fractured rock and the flow dynamics model needed to describe chaotic behavior. Ultimately they will put the geometry and flow dynamics together to develop a chaotic-dynamical model of flow and transport in a fractured vadose zone. They investigate water flow and contaminant transport on several scales, ranging from small-scale laboratory experiments in fracture replicas and fractured cores, to field experiments conducted in a single exposed fracture at a basalt outcrop, and finally to a ponded infiltration test using a pond of 7 by 8 m. In the field experiments, they measure the time-variation of water flux, moisture content, and hydraulic head at various locations, as well as the total inflow rate to the subsurface. Such variations reflect the changes in the geometry and physics of water flow that display chaotic behavior, which they try to reconstruct using the data obtained. In the analysis of experimental data, a chaotic model can be used to predict the long-term bounds on fluid flow and transport behavior, known as the attractor of the system, and to examine the limits of short-term predictability within these bounds. This approach is especially well suited to the need for short-term predictions to support remediation decisions and long-term bounding studies. View-graphs from ten presentations made at the annual meeting held December 3--4, 1997 are included in an appendix to this report.
Heuristic optimality criterion algorithm for shape design of fluid flow
Wang, Limin; Fan, Yilin; Luo, Lingai
2010-10-01
This paper presents a heuristic optimality criterion algorithm for shape design of fluid flow. In this algorithm, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is utilized to calculate the flow field of a fluid domain which is divided into elemental cells. A heuristic optimality criterion is applied for cells at the solid-fluid interface, i.e. the dynamic pressure for fluid cells and the viscous stress on their neighboring solid cells. An automatic program is processed step by step to exchange the positions of solid and fluid cells identified by the optimality criterion, with the objective of decreasing the flow resistance at the constraint of constant fluid volume. To illustrate the procedure of this algorithm for shape design of fluid flow, two simple examples are presented: one with fluid flowing through a right angle elbow and the other through a converging T-junction. Numerical results show that this algorithm can successfully reduce the total pressure drop of the system, demonstrating its potential applications in engineering optimal design.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Juarez, R.; Flores, A.; Macias, E.; Reyes, N.
2009-07-01
A fluid flow analysis and particle trajectory in a 5 t molten capacity scaled 1.2 model of a reverberatory furnace was performed using both physical and numerical simulation. The design of the system allowed studying the behavior of the liquid in a system agitated by impellers. The parameters studied were, rotating shape and height, of the impeller. The physical and numerical simulations were used to determine circulation and mixing times, fluid flow patters and velocity profiles in the agitation and melting chambers. Using experimental data, it was possible to establish the interaction between turbulent flow and circulating solid particles. The original design of the reverberatory furnace was modified based on the physical and numerical simulation analysis. The new design showed an increased magnesium removal rate by means of a more efficient and faster mixing. (Author) 18 refs.
Coating Of Model Rheological Fluids In Microchannels
Koelling, Kurt; Boehm, Michael
2008-07-01
Researchers have strived to understand and quantify the dynamics within the myriad micro/nano-devices proposed and developed within the last decade. Concepts such as fluid flow, mass transfer, molecule manipulation, and reaction kinetics must be understood in order to intelligently design and operate these devices. In addition to general engineering principles, intelligent design should also focus on material properties (e.g. density, viscosity, conductivity). One key property, viscosity, will play a large part of any fluidic device, including biomedical devices, because the fluids used will, most likely, be non-Newtonian and therefore highly dependent upon the shear rate. Be it a biomedical or macromolecule separation device, or simply the processing of polymeric material, select model polymers and simple flow schemes can be used to investigate the dynamics within micro-devices. Here, we present results for the processing of Newtonian and non-Newtonian polymeric fluids in micro-channels during two-phase penetrating flow. The system investigated is a circular capillary 100 microns in diameter, which is pre-filled with a polymeric liquid. The polymeric liquid is either of Newtonian viscosity, or the same liquid with dispersed high molecular weight polystyrene, which exhibits viscoelastic behavior. A second, immiscible phase, silicone oil of low Newtonian viscosity, is pumped into the system and subsequently cores the polymeric liquid. The dynamics of bubble flow (e.g. bubble velocity and bubble shape) as well as the influence of rheology on coating will be investigated. By studying these model systems, we will learn how complex fluids behave on progressively smaller size scales.
Direct modeling for computational fluid dynamics
Xu, Kun
2015-06-01
All fluid dynamic equations are valid under their modeling scales, such as the particle mean free path and mean collision time scale of the Boltzmann equation and the hydrodynamic scale of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) focuses on the numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs), and its aim is to get the accurate solution of these governing equations. Under such a CFD practice, it is hard to develop a unified scheme that covers flow physics from kinetic to hydrodynamic scales continuously because there is no such governing equation which could make a smooth transition from the Boltzmann to the NS modeling. The study of fluid dynamics needs to go beyond the traditional numerical partial differential equations. The emerging engineering applications, such as air-vehicle design for near-space flight and flow and heat transfer in micro-devices, do require further expansion of the concept of gas dynamics to a larger domain of physical reality, rather than the traditional distinguishable governing equations. At the current stage, the non-equilibrium flow physics has not yet been well explored or clearly understood due to the lack of appropriate tools. Unfortunately, under the current numerical PDE approach, it is hard to develop such a meaningful tool due to the absence of valid PDEs. In order to construct multiscale and multiphysics simulation methods similar to the modeling process of constructing the Boltzmann or the NS governing equations, the development of a numerical algorithm should be based on the first principle of physical modeling. In this paper, instead of following the traditional numerical PDE path, we introduce direct modeling as a principle for CFD algorithm development. Since all computations are conducted in a discretized space with limited cell resolution, the flow physics to be modeled has to be done in the mesh size and time step scales. Here, the CFD is more or less a direct
Motion estimation under location uncertainty for turbulent fluid flows
Cai, Shengze; Mémin, Etienne; Dérian, Pierre; Xu, Chao
2018-01-01
In this paper, we propose a novel optical flow formulation for estimating two-dimensional velocity fields from an image sequence depicting the evolution of a passive scalar transported by a fluid flow. This motion estimator relies on a stochastic representation of the flow allowing to incorporate naturally a notion of uncertainty in the flow measurement. In this context, the Eulerian fluid flow velocity field is decomposed into two components: a large-scale motion field and a small-scale uncertainty component. We define the small-scale component as a random field. Subsequently, the data term of the optical flow formulation is based on a stochastic transport equation, derived from the formalism under location uncertainty proposed in Mémin (Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dyn 108(2):119-146, 2014) and Resseguier et al. (Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dyn 111(3):149-176, 2017a). In addition, a specific regularization term built from the assumption of constant kinetic energy involves the very same diffusion tensor as the one appearing in the data transport term. Opposite to the classical motion estimators, this enables us to devise an optical flow method dedicated to fluid flows in which the regularization parameter has now a clear physical interpretation and can be easily estimated. Experimental evaluations are presented on both synthetic and real world image sequences. Results and comparisons indicate very good performance of the proposed formulation for turbulent flow motion estimation.
Unbalanced-flow, fluid-mixing plug with metering capabilities
England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Van Buskirk, Paul D. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A fluid mixer plug has holes formed therethrough such that a remaining portion is closed to fluid flow. The plug's inlet face defines a central circuit region and a ring-shaped region with the ring-shaped region including at least some of the plug's remaining portion so-closed to fluid flow. This remaining portion or closed region at each radius R of the ring shaped region satisfies a radius independent, flow-based relationship. Entry openings are defined in the plug's inlet face in correspondence with the holes. The entry openings define an open flow area at each radius of the ring-shaped region. The open flow area at each such radius satisfies the inverse of the flow-based relationship defining the closed regions of the plug.
Apparatus for irradiating a continuously flowing stream of fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Speir, L.G.; Adams, E.L.
1984-01-01
An apparatus for irradiating a continuously flowing stream of fluid is disclosed. The apparatus consists of a housing having a spherical cavity and a spherical moderator containing a radiation source positioned within the spherical cavity. The spherical moderator is of lesser diameter than the spherical cavity so as to define a spherical annular volume around the moderator. The housing includes fluid intake and output conduits which open onto the spherical cavity at diametrically opposite positions. Fluid flows through the cavity around the spherical moderator and is uniformly irradiated due to the 4π radiation geometry. The irradiation source, for example a 252 CF neutron source, is removable from the spherical moderator through a radial bore which extends outwardly to an opening on the outside of the housing. The radiation source may be routinely removed without interrupting the flow of fluid or breaching the containment of the fluid
Fluid mechanics experiments in oscillatory flow. Volume 1: Report
Seume, J.; Friedman, G.; Simon, T. W.
1992-01-01
Results of a fluid mechanics measurement program in oscillating flow within a circular duct are presented. The program began with a survey of transition behavior over a range of oscillation frequency and magnitude and continued with a detailed study at a single operating point. Such measurements were made in support of Stirling engine development. Values of three dimensionless parameters, Re(sub max), Re(sub w), and A(sub R), embody the velocity amplitude, frequency of oscillation and mean fluid displacement of the cycle, respectively. Measurements were first made over a range of these parameters which included operating points of all Stirling engines. Next, a case was studied with values of these parameters that are representative of the heat exchanger tubes in the heater section of NASA's Stirling cycle Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Measurements were taken of the axial and radial components of ensemble-averaged velocity and rms-velocity fluctuation and the dominant Reynolds shear stress, at various radial positions for each of four axial stations. In each run, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and its reverse, were identified and sufficient data was gathered to propose the transition mechanism. Models of laminar and turbulent boundary layers were used to process the data into wall coordinates and to evaluate skin friction coefficients. Such data aids in validating computational models and is useful in comparing oscillatory flow characteristics to those of fully-developed steady flow. Data were taken with a contoured entry to each end of the test section and with flush square inlets so that the effects of test section inlet geometry on transition and turbulence are documented. Volume 1 contains the text of the report including figures and supporting appendices. Volume 2 contains data reduction program listings and tabulated data (including its graphical presentation).
Fluid mechanics experiments in oscillatory flow. Volume 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seume, J.; Friedman, G.; Simon, T.W.
1992-03-01
Results of a fluid mechanics measurement program is oscillating flow within a circular duct are present. The program began with a survey of transition behavior over a range of oscillation frequency and magnitude and continued with a detailed study at a single operating point. Such measurements were made in support of Stirling engine development. Values of three dimensionless parameters, Re max , Re W , and A R , embody the velocity amplitude, frequency of oscillation and mean fluid displacement of the cycle, respectively. Measurements were first made over a range of these parameters which included operating points of all Stirling engines. Next, a case was studied with values of these parameters that are representative of the heat exchanger tubes in the heater section of NASA's Stirling cycle Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Measurements were taken of the axial and radical components of ensemble-averaged velocity and rms-velocity fluctuation and the dominant Reynolds shear stress, at various radial positions for each of four axial stations. In each run, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and in reverse, were identified and sufficient data was gathered to propose the transition mechanism. Models of laminar and turbulent boundary layers were used to process the data into wall coordinates and to evaluate skin friction coefficients. Such data aids in validating computational models and is useful in comparing oscillatory flow characteristics to those of fully-developed steady flow. Data were taken with a contoured entry to each end of the test section and with flush square inlets so that the effects of test section inlet geometry on transition and turbulence are documented. The following is presented in two-volumes. Volume I contains the text of the report including figures and supporting appendices. Volume II contains data reduction program listings and tabulated data (including its graphical presentation)
Sensor for Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow
Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Chang, Zensheu; Trease, Brian P.; Kerenyi, Kornel; Widholm, Scott E.; Ostlund, Patrick N.
2012-01-01
The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex and lead to low-fidelity results. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear stress, normal stress, and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, most direct-measurement shear sensors are bulky in size or not compatible to fluid flow. A sensor has been developed that consists of a floating plate with folded beam support and an optical grid on the back, combined with a high-resolution optical position probe. The folded beam support makes the floating plate more flexible in the sensing direction within a small footprint, while maintaining high stiffness in the other directions. The floating plate converts the shear force to displacement, and the optical probe detects the plate s position with nanometer resolution by sensing the pattern of the diffraction field of the grid through a glass window. This configuration makes the sensor compatible with liquid flow applications.
Superconfinement tailors fluid flow at microscales.
Setu, Siti Aminah
2015-06-15
Understanding fluid dynamics under extreme confinement, where device and intrinsic fluid length scales become comparable, is essential to successfully develop the coming generations of fluidic devices. Here we report measurements of advancing fluid fronts in such a regime, which we dub superconfinement. We find that the strong coupling between contact-line friction and geometric confinement gives rise to a new stability regime where the maximum speed for a stable moving front exhibits a distinctive response to changes in the bounding geometry. Unstable fronts develop into drop-emitting jets controlled by thermal fluctuations. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics in superconfined systems is dominated by interfacial forces. Henceforth, we present a theory that quantifies our experiments in terms of the relevant interfacial length scale, which in our system is the intrinsic contact-line slip length. Our findings show that length-scale overlap can be used as a new fluid-control mechanism in strongly confined systems.
A flow meter for ultrasonically measuring the flow velocity of fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
The invention regards a flow meter for ultrasonically measuring the flow velocity of fluids comprising a duct having a flow channel with an internal cross section comprising variation configured to generate at least one acoustic resonance within the flow channel for a specific ultrasonic frequency......, and at least two transducers for generating and sensing ultrasonic pulses, configured to transmit ultrasonic pulses at least at said specific ultrasonic frequency into the flow channel such that the ultrasonic pulses propagate through a fluid flowing in the flow channel, wherein the flow meter is configured...... to determine the flow velocity of the fluid flowing in the flow channel based on a change in transit time, phase and/or pulse such as amplitude and/or form, of the ultrasonic pulses....
Flow of viscoplastic fluids in eccentric annular geometries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Szabo, Peter; Hassager, Ole
1992-01-01
A classification of flowfields for the flow of a Bingham fluid in general eccentric annular geometries is presented. Simple arguments show that a singularity can exist in the stress gradient on boundaries between zones with yielded and un-yielded fluid respectively. A Finite Element code is used...... to verify this property of the Bingham fluid. An analytical solution for the flowfield in case of small eccentricities is derived....
Laminar Flow Processes of Fluid Energy Carries in Pipe Lines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. I. Еsman
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The paper proposes methodology for analysis and calculation of laminar fluid flows in pipes and channels. Various regimes of fluid motion in pipelines of heat-power units and equipment are considered in the paper.The presented dependencies can be used for practical calculations while transporting energy carriers for various application.
Vortex Breakdown under Laminar Flow of Pseudoplastic Fluid
Kadyirov, A. I.; Abaydullin, B. R.
2017-09-01
The numerical investigation was carried out to study vortex breakdown for pseudoplastic fluid flow in circular pipe with twisted tape inserts. 0.67%, 1.5% and 3% aqueous solutions of Na-CMC are chosen as a pseudoplastic fluid. The numerical results are compared with available data in literature.
Nanoscale Fluid Flows in the Vicinity of Patterned Surfaces
Cieplak, Marek; Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.
2006-03-01
Molecular dynamics simulations of dense and rarefied fluids comprising small chain molecules in chemically patterned nanochannels predict a novel switching from Poiseuille to plug flow along the channel. We also demonstrate behavior akin to the lotus effect for a nanodrop on a chemically patterned substrate. Our results show that one can control and exploit the behavior of fluids at the nanoscale using chemical patterning.
Stability and dynamics of fluid flow past deformable solid media
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Objective of our work: To uncover qualitatively new instabilities in flow past deformable solid media. (Will not consider tube collapse due to external pressure changes.) Page 5. Introduction. 5. Fluid Governing equations. Incompressible; both Newtonian and Viscoelastic fluids. $%' & (. )0&01)243. 5&26(. &08720. Newtonian ...
Mechanical stimulation of bone cells using fluid flow
Huesa, C.; Bakker, A.D.
2012-01-01
This chapter describes several methods suitable for mechanically stimulating monolayers of bone cells by fluid shear stress (FSS) in vitro. Fluid flow is generated by pumping culture medium through two parallel plates, one of which contains a monolayer of cells. Methods for measuring nitric oxide
Streamline topology: Patterns in fluid flows and their bifurcations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brøns, Morten
2007-01-01
Using dynamical systems theory, we consider structures such as vortices and separation in the streamline patterns of fluid flows. Bifurcation of patterns under variation of external parameters is studied using simplifying normal form transformations. Flows away from boundaries, flows close to fix...... walls, and axisymmetric flows are analyzed in detail. We show how to apply the ideas from the theory to analyze numerical simulations of the vortex breakdown in a closed cylindrical container....
Nonlinear transport processes and fluid dynamics: Cylindrical Couette flow of Lennard-Jones fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khayat, R.E.; Eu, B.C.
1988-01-01
In this paper we report on calculations of flow profiles for cylindrical Couette flow of a Lennard-Jones fluid. The flow is subjected to a temperature gradient and thermoviscous effects are taken into consideration. We apply the generalized fluid dynamic equations which are provided by the modified moment method for the Boltzmann equation reported previously. The results of calculations are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo direct simulation method by K. Nanbu [Phys. Fluids 27, 2632 (1984)] for most of Knudsen numbers for which the simulation data are available
Deformation, Fluid Flow and Mantle Serpentinization at Oceanic Transform Faults
Rupke, L.; Hasenclever, J.
2017-12-01
Oceanic transform faults (OTF) and fracture zones have long been hypothesized to be sites of enhanced fluid flow and biogeochemical exchange. In this context, the serpentine forming interaction between seawater and cold lithospheric mantle rocks is particularly interesting. The transformation of peridotite to serpentinite not only leads to hydration of oceanic plates and is thereby an important agent of the geological water cycle, it is also a mechanism of abiotic hydrogen and methane formation, which can support archeal and bacterial communities at the seafloor. Inferring the likely amount of mantle undergoing serpentinization reactions therefore allows estimating the amount of biomass that may be autotrophically produced at and around oceanic transform faults and mid-ocean ridges Here we present results of 3-D geodynamic model simulations that explore the interrelations between deformation, fluid flow, and mantle serpentinization at oceanic transform faults. We investigate how slip rate and fault offset affect the predicted patterns of mantle serpentinization around oceanic transform faults. Global rates of mantle serpentinization and associated H2 production are calculated by integrating the modeling results with plate boundary data. The global additional OTF-related production of H2 is found to be between 6.1 and 10.7 x 1011 mol per year, which is comparable to the predicted background mid-ocean ridge rate of 4.1 - 15.0 x 1011 mol H2/yr. This points to oceanic transform faults as potential sites of intense fluid-rock interaction, where chemosynthetic life could be sustained by serpentinization reactions.
Deployable Emergency Shutoff Device Blocks High-Velocity Fluid Flows
Nabors, Sammy A.
2015-01-01
NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a device and method for blocking the flow of fluid from an open pipe. Motivated by the sea-bed oil-drilling catastrophe in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, NASA innovators designed the device to plug, control, and meter the flow of gases and liquids. Anchored with friction fittings, spikes, or explosively activated fasteners, the device is well-suited for harsh environments and high fluid velocities and pressures. With the addition of instrumentation, it can also be used as a variable area flow metering valve that can be set based upon flow conditions. With robotic additions, this patent-pending innovation can be configured to crawl into a pipe then anchor and activate itself to block or control fluid flow.
Tanaka, H.; Shiomi, Y.; Ma, K.-F.
2017-11-01
To understand the fault zone fluid flow-like structure, namely the ductile deformation structure, often observed in the geological field (e.g., Ramsay and Huber The techniques of modern structure geology, vol. 1: strain analysis, Academia Press, London, 1983; Hobbs and Ord Structure geology: the mechanics of deforming metamorphic rocks, Vol. I: principles, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2015), we applied a theoretical approach to estimate the rate of deformation, the shear stress and the time to form a streak-line pattern in the boundary layer of viscous fluids. We model the dynamics of streak lines in laminar boundary layers for Newtonian and pseudoplastic fluids and compare the results to those obtained via laboratory experiments. The structure of deformed streak lines obtained using our model is consistent with experimental observations, indicating that our model is appropriate for understanding the shear rate, flow time and shear stress based on the profile of deformed streak lines in the boundary layer in Newtonian and pseudoplastic viscous materials. This study improves our understanding of the transportation processes in fluids and of the transformation processes in fluid-like materials. Further application of this model could facilitate understanding the shear stress and time history of the fluid flow-like structure of fault zones observed in the field.[Figure not available: see fulltext.
Dynamic stability of a spinning tube conveying a flowing fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benedetti, G.A.
1985-02-01
When a fluid flows inside a tube, the deformations of the tube can interact with the fluid flowing within it and these dynamic interactions can result in significant lateral motions of the tube and the flowing fluid. The purpose of this report is to examine the dynamic stability of a spinning tube through which an incompressible fluid is flowing. The tube can be considered as either a hollow beam or as a hollow cable. The analytical results can be applied to spinning or stationary tubes through which fluids are transferred; e.g., liquid coolants, fuels and lubricants, slurry solutions, high explosives in past form, etc. The coupled partial differential equations are determined for the lateral motion of a spinning Bernoulli-Euler beam or a spinning cable carrying an incompressible flowing fluid. The beam, which spins about an axis parallel to its longitudinal axis and which can also be loaded by a constant axial force, is straight, uniform, simply supported, and rests on a massless, uniform elastic foundation. Damping for the beam and foundation is considered by using a combined uniform viscous damping coefficient. The fluid, in addition to being incompressible, is frictionless, has a constant density, and flows at a constant speed relative to the longitudinal beam axis. The Galerkin method is used to reduce the coupled partial differential equations for the lateral motion of the spinning beam to a coupled set of 2N, second order, ordinary differential equations for the generalized beam coordinates. By simplifying these equations and examining the roots of the characteristic equation, an analytical solution is obtained for the lateral dynamic instability of the beam or cable. The analytical solutions determine the critical fluid speed and the critical spin speeds, for a specified fluid speed, in terms of the physical parameters of the system
Bone tissue engineering: the role of interstitial fluid flow
Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.
1994-01-01
It is well established that vascularization is required for effective bone healing. This implies that blood flow and interstitial fluid (ISF) flow are required for healing and maintenance of bone. The fact that changes in bone blood flow and ISF flow are associated with changes in bone remodeling and formation support this theory. ISF flow in bone results from transcortical pressure gradients produced by vascular and hydrostatic pressure, and mechanical loading. Conditions observed to alter flow rates include increases in venous pressure in hypertension, fluid shifts occurring in bedrest and microgravity, increases in vascularization during the injury-healing response, and mechanical compression and bending of bone during exercise. These conditions also induce changes in bone remodeling. Previously, we hypothesized that interstitial fluid flow in bone, and in particular fluid shear stress, serves to mediate signal transduction in mechanical loading- and injury-induced remodeling. In addition, we proposed that a lack or decrease of ISF flow results in the bone loss observed in disuse and microgravity. The purpose of this article is to review ISF flow in bone and its role in osteogenesis.
Stokes flow of micropolar fluid past a viscous fluid spheroid with non ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The Stokes axisymmetric flow of an incompressible micropolar fluid past a viscous fluid spheroid whose shape deviates slightly from that of a sphere is studied analytically. The boundary conditions used are the vanishing of the normal velocities, the continuity of the tangential velocities, continuity of shear stresses and ...
Fluid Flow and Solidification Under Combined Action of Magnetic Fields and Microgravity
Li, B. Q.; Shu, Y.; Li, K.; deGroh, H. C.
2002-01-01
Mathematical models, both 2-D and 3-D, are developed to represent g-jitter induced fluid flows and their effects on solidification under combined action of magnetic fields and microgravity. The numerical model development is based on the finite element solution of governing equations describing the transient g-jitter driven fluid flows, heat transfer and solutal transport during crystal growth with and without an applied magnetic field in space vehicles. To validate the model predictions, a ground-based g-jitter simulator is developed using the oscillating wall temperatures where timely oscillating fluid flows are measured using a laser PIV system. The measurements are compared well with numerical results obtained from the numerical models. Results show that a combined action derived from magnetic damping and microgravity can be an effective means to control the melt flow and solutal transport in space single crystal growth systems.
Mixing of non-Newtonian fluids in wavy serpentine microchannel using electrokinetically driven flow.
Cho, Ching-Chang; Chen, Chieh-Li; Chen, Cha'o-Kuang
2012-03-01
A numerical investigation is performed into the mixing performance of electrokinetically driven non-Newtonian fluids in a wavy serpentine microchannel. The flow behavior of the non-Newtonian fluids is described using a power-law model. The simulations examine the effects of the flow behavior index, the wave amplitude, the wavy-wall section length, and the applied electric field strength on the mixing performance. The results show that the volumetric flow rate of shear-thinning fluids is higher than that of shear-thickening fluids, and therefore results in a poorer mixing performance. It is shown that for both types of fluid, the mixing performance can be enhanced by increasing the wave amplitude, extending the length of the wavy-wall section, and reducing the strength of the electric field. Thus, although the mixing efficiency of shear-thinning fluids is lower than that of shear-thickening fluids, the mixing performance can be improved through an appropriate specification of the flow and geometry parameters. For example, given a shear-thinning fluid with a flow behavior index of 0.8, a mixing efficiency of 87% can be obtained by specifying the wave amplitude as 0.7, the wavy-wall section length as five times the characteristic length, the nondimensional Debye-Huckel parameter as 100, and the applied electric field strength as 43.5 V/cm. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Hydraulic study of drilling fluid flow in circular and annular tubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheid, C.M.; Calcada, L.A.; Braga, E.R.; Paraiso, E.C.H. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (PPGEQ/UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica. Dept. de Engenharia Qumica], E-mail: calcada@ufrrj.br; Martins, A. L. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas
2011-10-15
This study investigates the drilling fluid flow behavior of two water-based drilling fluids in circular and annular tubes. The study has four main objectives: 1) to evaluate correlations between the Power Law and the Casson rheological models, 2) to characterize the flow behavior, 3) to evaluate five hydraulic-diameter equations, and 4) to evaluate the correlations of five turbulent flow-friction factors. The experimental fluid flow loop consisted of one positive displacement pump of 25 HP connected to a 500-liter tank agitated by a 3-HP mixer. The fluids passed through six meters long tubes, arranged in three horizontal rows with independent inlets and outlets. The circular tubes had a 1 inch diameter and were configured as two concentric annular tubes. Annular Tube I had an outer diameter of 1 1/4 inch and an inner diameter of 1/2 inch. Annular Tube II had an outer diameter of 2 inches and an inner diameter of 3/4 inch. The results show that, for the fluids in exam, correlations proposed in the literature were inaccurate as far as predicting hydraulic diameter, estimating pressure drop, and defining the flow regime. In general, the performance of those correlations depended on the fluid properties and on the system's geometry. Finally, literature parameters for some of the correlations were estimated for the two drilling fluids studied. These estimations improved the predictive capacity of calculating the friction factor for real drilling fluids applications for both circular and annular tubes. (author)
Multiphase flow of immiscible fluids on unstructured moving meshes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Erleben, Kenny; Bargteil, Adam
2012-01-01
In this paper, we present a method for animating multiphase flow of immiscible fluids using unstructured moving meshes. Our underlying discretization is an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, the deformable simplicial complex (DSC), that moves with the flow in a Lagrangian manner. Mesh optimization...... operations improve element quality and avoid element inversion. In the context of multiphase flow, we guarantee that every element is occupied by a single fluid and, consequently, the interface between fluids is represented by a set of faces in the simplicial complex. This approach ensures...... that the underlying discretization matches the physics and avoids the additional book-keeping required in grid-based methods where multiple fluids may occupy the same cell. Our Lagrangian approach naturally leads us to adopt a finite element approach to simulation, in contrast to the finite volume approaches adopted...
Analytical and numerical study of the electro-osmotic annular flow of viscoelastic fluids.
Ferrás, L L; Afonso, A M; Alves, M A; Nóbrega, J M; Pinho, F T
2014-04-15
In this work we present semi-analytical solutions for the electro-osmotic annular flow of viscoelastic fluids modeled by the Linear and Exponential PTT models. The viscoelastic fluid flows in the axial direction between two concentric cylinders under the combined influences of electrokinetic and pressure forcings. The analysis invokes the Debye-Hückel approximation and includes the limit case of pure electro-osmotic flow. The solution is valid for both no slip and slip velocity at the walls and the chosen slip boundary condition is the linear Navier slip velocity model. The combined effects of fluid rheology, electro-osmotic and pressure gradient forcings on the fluid velocity distribution are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Elkhateeb, Esraa
2018-01-01
We consider a cosmological model based on a generalization of the equation of state proposed by Nojiri and Odintsov (2004) and Štefančić (2005, 2006). We argue that this model works as a dark fluid model which can interpolate between dust equation of state and the dark energy equation of state. We show how the asymptotic behavior of the equation of state constrained the parameters of the model. The causality condition for the model is also studied to constrain the parameters and the fixed points are tested to determine different solution classes. Observations of Hubble diagram of SNe Ia supernovae are used to further constrain the model. We present an exact solution of the model and calculate the luminosity distance and the energy density evolution. We also calculate the deceleration parameter to test the state of the universe expansion.
Multiphase Flow of Immiscible Fluids on Unstructured Moving Meshes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Erleben, Kenny; Bargteil, Adam
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present a method for animating multiphase flow of immiscible fluids using unstructured moving meshes. Our underlying discretization is an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, the deformable simplicial complex (DSC), that moves with the flow in a Lagrangian manner. Mesh optimization op...
Numerical Investigation on Fluid Flow in a 90-Degree Curved Pipe with Large Curvature Ratio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In order to understand the mechanism of fluid flows in curved pipes, a large number of theoretical and experimental researches have been performed. As a critical parameter of curved pipe, the curvature ratio δ has received much attention, but most of the values of δ are very small (δ<0.1 or relatively small (δ≤0.5. As a preliminary study and simulation this research studied the fluid flow in a 90-degree curved pipe of large curvature ratio. The Detached Eddy Simulation (DES turbulence model was employed to investigate the fluid flows at the Reynolds number range from 5000 to 20000. After validation of the numerical strategy, the pressure and velocity distribution, pressure drop, fluid flow, and secondary flow along the curved pipe were illustrated. The results show that the fluid flow in a curved pipe with large curvature ratio seems to be unlike that in a curved pipe with small curvature ratio. Large curvature ratio makes the internal flow more complicated; thus, the flow patterns, the separation region, and the oscillatory flow are different.
Mixed Finite Element Formulation for Magnetic Fluid Oil Flow in Electromagnetic Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tan Phey Hoon
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Pressure depletion and high viscosity of crude oil in oil reservoir are the main challenges in oil recovery process. A potential solution is to employ electromagnetic heating coupled with magnetic fluid injection. The present work delivers a fundamental study on the interaction between magnetic fluid flow with electromagnetic field. The two-dimensional, incompressible flow is solved numerically using mixed finite element method. The velocity fields, temperature and pressure are the variables of interest, to be obtained by solving mass, momentum and energy equations coupled with Maxwell’ equations. The fluid stress arises simultaneously with the external magnetic force which mobilises and increases the temperature of the oil flow. Verification is made against available data obtained from different numerical method reported in literature. The results justify feasibility of the mixed finite element formulation as an alternative for the modelling of the magnetic fluid flow.
Numerical solution of the start-up of well drilling fluid flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, Gabriel Merhy de; Negrao, Cezar Otaviano Ribeiro; Franco, Admilson Teixeira [UTFPR - Federal University of Technology - Parana - Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mails: gabrielm@utfpr.edu.br, negrao@utfpr.edu.br, admilson@utfpr.edu.br; Martins, Andre Leibsohn; Gandelman, Roni Abensur [TEP/CENPES - PETROBRAS S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: aleibsohn@petrobras.com.br, roniag@petrobras.com.br
2010-07-01
The drilling fluid is designed to build up a gel-like structure, when at rest, in order to avoid cuttings to drop at the bore bottom and therefore to prevent the bit obstruction. As consequence, high pressures, which can be larger than the formation pressure and can damage the well, are needed to break up the gel when circulation resumes. Due to its thixotropic effect, the gel viscosity remains high for a while after the circulation restarts. The gelation may have significant importance, specially, in deep waters where high pressures and low temperatures take place. The current work presents a compressible transient flow model of the start-up flow of drilling fluids, in order to predict borehole pressures. The model comprises one-dimensional conservation equations of mass and momentum and one state equation for the calculation of the fluid density as a function of the pressure. The considered geometry is a concentric annular pipe of length L. Its internal diameter is D1 and external one, D2. For a circular pipe, the internal diameter is made equal to zero. The main difference from previous model was the type of boundary condition: Constant flow rate at the pipe inlet rather than the constant pressure. Both Newtonian and non-Newtonian Bingham fluid flows are considered. The governing equations are discretized by the Finite Volume Method using the fully implicit formulation and the first-order upwind scheme. The resulting non-linear algebraic equations are iteratively solved. The model results were corroborated with an analytical solution for Newtonian flows. Case studies are conducted to evaluate the effect of fluid flow properties, well geometry and flow rate on borehole pressures. For Bingham fluid flow one can observe that large pressures (compared with Newtonian fluid flow) are observed when constant flow rate are input as boundary condition. Pressure peaks caused by the acoustic wave propagation can be more intense in low compressible fluid flow, low viscosity
Direct observation of cerebrospinal fluid bulk flow in the brain
Mestre, Humberto; Tithof, Jeffrey; Thomas, John; Kelley, Douglas; Nedergaard, Maiken
2017-11-01
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves a vital role in normal brain function. Its adequate flow and exchange with interstitial fluid through perivascular spaces (PVS) has been shown to be important in the clearance of toxic metabolites like amyloid- β, and its disturbance can cause severe neurological diseases. It has long been suspected that bulk flow may transport CSF, but limitations in imaging techniques have prevented direct observation of such flows in the PVS. In this talk, we describe a novel approach using high speed two photon laser scanning microscopy which has allowed for the first ever direct observation of CSF flow in the PVS of a mouse brain. By performing particle tracking velocimetry, we quantify the CSF bulk flow speeds and PVS geometry. This technique enables future studies of CSF flow disturbances on a new scale and will pave the way for evaluating the role of these fl