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Sample records for models fail compensatory

  1. Representing hybrid compensatory non-compensatory choice set formation in semi-compensatory models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Bekhor, Shlomo; Shigtan, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    Semi-compensatory models represent a choice process consisting of an elimination-based choice set formation upon satisfying criteria thresholds and a utility-based choice. Current semi-compensatory models assume a purely non-compensatory choice set formation and hence do not support multinomial c...

  2. Partially Compensatory Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models: Two Alternate Model Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMars, Christine E.

    2016-01-01

    Partially compensatory models may capture the cognitive skills needed to answer test items more realistically than compensatory models, but estimating the model parameters may be a challenge. Data were simulated to follow two different partially compensatory models, a model with an interaction term and a product model. The model parameters were…

  3. Extending the Compensatory Model of Second Language Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Levi

    2012-01-01

    Bernhardt (2005) proposed a compensatory model of second language reading. This model predicted that 50% of second language (L2) reading scores are attributed to second language knowledge and first-language (L1) reading ability. In this model, these two factors compensate for deficiencies in each other. Although this model explains a significant…

  4. Forward models and state estimation in compensatory eye movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Frens (Maarten); O. Donchin (Opher)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe compensatory eye movement (CEM) system maintains a stable retinal image, integrating information from different sensory modalities to compensate for head movements. Inspired by recent models of the physiology of limb movements, we suggest that CEM can be modeled as a control system w

  5. Forward models and state estimation in compensatory eye movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Frens (Maarten); O. Donchin (Opher)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe compensatory eye movement (CEM) system maintains a stable retinal image, integrating information from different sensory modalities to compensate for head movements. Inspired by recent models of the physiology of limb movements, we suggest that CEM can be modeled as a control system

  6. Compensatory neurofuzzy model for discrete data classification in biomedical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Rahime

    2015-03-01

    Biomedical data is separated to two main sections: signals and discrete data. So, studies in this area are about biomedical signal classification or biomedical discrete data classification. There are artificial intelligence models which are relevant to classification of ECG, EMG or EEG signals. In same way, in literature, many models exist for classification of discrete data taken as value of samples which can be results of blood analysis or biopsy in medical process. Each algorithm could not achieve high accuracy rate on classification of signal and discrete data. In this study, compensatory neurofuzzy network model is presented for classification of discrete data in biomedical pattern recognition area. The compensatory neurofuzzy network has a hybrid and binary classifier. In this system, the parameters of fuzzy systems are updated by backpropagation algorithm. The realized classifier model is conducted to two benchmark datasets (Wisconsin Breast Cancer dataset and Pima Indian Diabetes dataset). Experimental studies show that compensatory neurofuzzy network model achieved 96.11% accuracy rate in classification of breast cancer dataset and 69.08% accuracy rate was obtained in experiments made on diabetes dataset with only 10 iterations.

  7. Forward models and state estimation in compensatory eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten A Frens

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The compensatory eye movement system maintains a stable retinal image, integrating information from different sensory modalities to compensate for head movements. Inspired by recent models of physiology of limb movements, we suggest that compensatory eye movements (CEM can be modeled as a control system with three essential building blocks: a forward model that predicts the effects of motor commands; a state estimator that integrates sensory feedback into this prediction; and, a feedback controller that translates a state estimate into motor commands. We propose a specific mapping of nuclei within the CEM system onto these control functions. Specifically, we suggest that the Flocculus is responsible for generating the forward model prediction and that the Vestibular Nuclei integrate sensory feedback to generate an estimate of current state. Finally, the brainstem motor nuclei – in the case of horizontal compensation this means the Abducens Nucleus and the Nucleus Prepositus Hypoglossi – implement a feedback controller, translating state into motor commands. While these efforts to understand the physiological control system as a feedback control system are in their infancy, there is the intriguing possibility that compensatory eye movements and targeted voluntary movements use the same cerebellar circuitry in fundamentally different ways.

  8. Compensatory versus noncompensatory models for predicting consumer preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Dieckmann

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Standard preference models in consumer research assume that people weigh and add all attributes of the available options to derive a decision, while there is growing evidence for the use of simplifying heuristics. Recently, a greedoid algorithm has been developed (Yee, Dahan, Hauser and Orlin, 2007; Kohli and Jedidi, 2007 to model lexicographic heuristics from preference data. We compare predictive accuracies of the greedoid approach and standard conjoint analysis in an online study with a rating and a ranking task. The lexicographic model derived from the greedoid algorithm was better at predicting ranking compared to rating data, but overall, it achieved lower predictive accuracy for hold-out data than the compensatory model estimated by conjoint analysis. However, a considerable minority of participants was better predicted by lexicographic strategies. We conclude that the new algorithm will not replace standard tools for analyzing preferences, but can boost the study of situational and individual differences in preferential choice processes.

  9. Development and estimation of a semi-compensatory model with flexible error structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Shiftan, Yoram; Bekhor, Shlomo

    -response model and the utility-based choice by alternatively (i) a nested-logit model and (ii) an error-component logit. In order to test the suggested methodology, the model was estimated for a sample of 1,893 ranked choices and respective threshold values from 631 students who participated in a web-based two......, a disadvantage of current semi-compensatory models versus compensatory models is their behaviorally non-realistic assumption of an independent error structure. This study proposes a novel semi-compensatory model incorporating a flexible error structure. Specifically, the model represents a sequence...

  10. Visual search and line bisection in hemianopia: computational modelling of cortical compensatory mechanisms and comparison with hemineglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, Linda J; Barton, Jason J S

    2013-01-01

    Hemianopia patients have lost vision from the contralateral hemifield, but make behavioural adjustments to compensate for this field loss. As a result, their visual performance and behaviour contrast with those of hemineglect patients who fail to attend to objects contralateral to their lesion. These conditions differ in their ocular fixations and perceptual judgments. During visual search, hemianopic patients make more fixations in contralesional space while hemineglect patients make fewer. During line bisection, hemianopic patients fixate the contralesional line segment more and make a small contralesional bisection error, while hemineglect patients make few contralesional fixations and a larger ipsilesional bisection error. Hence, there is an attentional failure for contralesional space in hemineglect but a compensatory adaptation to attend more to the blind side in hemianopia. A challenge for models of visual attentional processes is to show how compensation is achieved in hemianopia, and why such processes are hindered or inaccessible in hemineglect. We used a neurophysiology-derived computational model to examine possible cortical compensatory processes in simulated hemianopia from a V1 lesion and compared results with those obtained with the same processes under conditions of simulated hemineglect from a parietal lesion. A spatial compensatory bias to increase attention contralesionally replicated hemianopic scanning patterns during visual search but not during line bisection. To reproduce the latter required a second process, an extrastriate lateral connectivity facilitating form completion into the blind field: this allowed accurate placement of fixations on contralesional stimuli and reproduced fixation patterns and the contralesional bisection error of hemianopia. Neither of these two cortical compensatory processes was effective in ameliorating the ipsilesional bias in the hemineglect model. Our results replicate normal and pathological patterns of

  11. Visual search and line bisection in hemianopia: computational modelling of cortical compensatory mechanisms and comparison with hemineglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Lanyon

    Full Text Available Hemianopia patients have lost vision from the contralateral hemifield, but make behavioural adjustments to compensate for this field loss. As a result, their visual performance and behaviour contrast with those of hemineglect patients who fail to attend to objects contralateral to their lesion. These conditions differ in their ocular fixations and perceptual judgments. During visual search, hemianopic patients make more fixations in contralesional space while hemineglect patients make fewer. During line bisection, hemianopic patients fixate the contralesional line segment more and make a small contralesional bisection error, while hemineglect patients make few contralesional fixations and a larger ipsilesional bisection error. Hence, there is an attentional failure for contralesional space in hemineglect but a compensatory adaptation to attend more to the blind side in hemianopia. A challenge for models of visual attentional processes is to show how compensation is achieved in hemianopia, and why such processes are hindered or inaccessible in hemineglect. We used a neurophysiology-derived computational model to examine possible cortical compensatory processes in simulated hemianopia from a V1 lesion and compared results with those obtained with the same processes under conditions of simulated hemineglect from a parietal lesion. A spatial compensatory bias to increase attention contralesionally replicated hemianopic scanning patterns during visual search but not during line bisection. To reproduce the latter required a second process, an extrastriate lateral connectivity facilitating form completion into the blind field: this allowed accurate placement of fixations on contralesional stimuli and reproduced fixation patterns and the contralesional bisection error of hemianopia. Neither of these two cortical compensatory processes was effective in ameliorating the ipsilesional bias in the hemineglect model. Our results replicate normal and

  12. Modeling and Compensatory Processes Underlying Involvement in Child Care among Kibbutz-Reared Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Ruth; Bassi, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined modeling and compensatory processes underlying the effects of an early paternal model on father involvement in child care. Drawing on social learning theory, it was hypothesized that father-son relationships would moderate the association between a father's involvement and his own father's involvement. A sample of 136 kibbutz…

  13. Development and estimation of a semi-compensatory model with a flexible error structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Shiftan, Yoram; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    In decisions involving many alternatives, such as residential choice, individuals conduct a two-stage decision process, consisting of eliminating non-viable alternatives and choice from the retained choice set. In light of the potential of semi-compensatory discrete choice models to mathematically...

  14. A Multiobjective Programming Method for Ranking All Units Based on Compensatory DEA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to rank all decision making units (DMUs on the same basis, this paper proposes a multiobjective programming (MOP model based on a compensatory data envelopment analysis (DEA model to derive a common set of weights that can be used for the full ranking of all DMUs. We first revisit a compensatory DEA model for ranking all units, point out the existing problem for solving the model, and present an improved algorithm for which an approximate global optimal solution of the model can be obtained by solving a sequence of linear programming. Then, we applied the key idea of the compensatory DEA model to develop the MOP model in which the objectives are to simultaneously maximize all common weights under constraints that the sum of efficiency values of all DMUs is equal to unity and the sum of all common weights is also equal to unity. In order to solve the MOP model, we transform it into a single objective programming (SOP model using a fuzzy programming method and solve the SOP model using the proposed approximation algorithm. To illustrate the ranking method using the proposed method, two numerical examples are solved.

  15. Hybrid Compensatory-Noncompensatory Choice Sets in Semicompensatory Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Bekhor, Shlomo; Shiftan, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    by a mathematical model that combines multinomial-response and ordered-response thresholds with a utility-based choice. The proposed model is applied to a stated preference experiment of off-campus rental apartment choices by students. Results demonstrate the applicability and feasibility of incorporating...

  16. On compensatory strategies and computational models: the case of pure alexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallice, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The article is concerned with inferences from the behaviour of neurological patients to models of normal function. It takes the letter-by-letter reading strategy common in pure alexic patients as an example of the methodological problems involved in making such inferences that compensatory strategies produce. The evidence is discussed on the possible use of three ways the letter-by-letter reading process might operate: "reversed spelling"; the use of the phonological input buffer as a temporary holding store during word building; and the use of serial input to the visual word-form system entirely within the visual-orthographic domain such as in the model of Plaut [1999. A connectionist approach to word reading and acquired dyslexia: Extension to sequential processing. Cognitive Science, 23, 543-568]. The compensatory strategy used by, at least, one pure alexic patient does not fit with the third of these possibilities. On the more general question, it is argued that even if compensatory strategies are being used, the behaviour of neurological patients can be useful for the development and assessment of first-generation information-processing models of normal function, but they are not likely to be useful for the development and assessment of second-generation computational models.

  17. Altered ATP7A expression and other compensatory responses in a murine model of Menkes disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niciu, Mark J; Ma, Xin-Ming; El Meskini, Rajaâ; Pachter, Joel S; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2007-09-01

    Mutations in the copper-transporter ATP7A lead to severe neurodegeneration in the mottled brindled hemizygous male (MoBr/y) mouse and human patients with Menkes disease. Our earlier studies demonstrated cell-type- and -stage-specific changes in ATP7A protein expression during postnatal neurodevelopment. Here we examined copper and cuproenzyme levels in MoBr/y mice to search for compensatory responses. While all MoBr/y neocortical subcellular fractions had decreased copper levels, the greatest decrease (8-fold) was observed in cytosol. Immunostaining for ATP7A revealed decreased levels in MoBr/y hippocampal pyramidal and cerebellar Purkinje neurons. In contrast, an upregulation of ATP7A protein occurred in MoBr/y endothelial cells, perhaps to compensate for a lack of copper in the neuropil. MoBr/y astrocytes and microglia increased their physical association with the blood-brain barrier. No alterations in ATP7A levels were observed in ependymal cells, arguing for specificity in the alteration observed at the blood-brain barrier. The decreased expression of ATP7A protein in MoBr/y Purkinje cells was associated with impaired synaptogenesis and dramatic cytoskeletal dysfunction. Immunoblotting failed to reveal any compensatory increase in levels of ATP7B. While total levels of several cuproenzymes (peptide-amidating monooxygenase, SOD1, and SOD3) were unaltered in the MoBr/y brain, levels of amidated cholecystokinin (CCK8) and amidated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP38) were reduced in a tissue-specific fashion. The compensatory changes observed in the neurovascular unit provide insight into the success of copper injections within a defined neurodevelopmental period.

  18. The eternal quest for optimal balance between maximizing pleasure and minimizing harm: the compensatory health beliefs model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, Marjorie; Knäuper, Bärbel; Miquelon, Paule

    2006-02-01

    Particularly in the health domain, humans thrive to reach an equilibrium between maximizing pleasure and minimizing harm. We propose that a cognitive strategy people employ to reach this equilibrium is the activation of Compensatory Health Beliefs (CHBs). CHBs are beliefs that the negative effects of an unhealthy behaviour can be compensated for, or "neutralized," by engaging in another, healthy behaviour. "I can eat this piece of cake now because I will exercise this evening" is an example of such beliefs. Our theoretical framework aims at explaining why people create CHBs and how they employ CHBs to regulate their health behaviours. The model extends current health behaviour models by explicitly integrating the motivational conflict that emerges from the interplay between affective states (i.e., cravings or desires) and motivation (i.e., health goals). As predicted by the model, previous research has shown that holding CHBs hinder an individual's success at positive health behaviour change, and may explain why many people fail to adhere to behaviour change programs such as dieting or exercising. Moreover, future research using the model and implications for possible interventions are discussed.

  19. Simple physics-based models of compensatory plant water uptake: concepts and eco-hydrological consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Jarvis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Many land surface schemes and simulation models of plant growth designed for practical use employ simple empirical sub-models of root water uptake that cannot adequately reflect the critical role water uptake from sparsely rooted deep subsoil plays in meeting atmospheric transpiration demand in water-limited environments, especially in the presence of shallow groundwater. A failure to account for this so-called "compensatory" water uptake may have serious consequences for both local and global modeling of water and energy fluxes, carbon balances and climate. Some purely empirical compensatory root water uptake models have been proposed, but they are of limited use in global modeling exercises since their parameters cannot be related to measurable soil and vegetation properties. A parsimonious physics-based model of uptake compensation has been developed that requires no more parameters than empirical approaches. This model is described and some aspects of its behavior are illustrated with the help of example simulations. These analyses demonstrate that hydraulic lift can be considered as an extreme form of compensation and that the degree of compensation is principally a function of soil capillarity and the ratio of total effective root length to potential transpiration. Thus, uptake compensation increases as root to leaf area ratios increase, since potential transpiration depends on leaf area. Results of "scenario" simulations for two case studies, one at the local scale (riparian vegetation growing above shallow water tables in seasonally dry or arid climates and one at a global scale (water balances across an aridity gradient in the continental USA, are presented to illustrate biases in model predictions that arise when water uptake compensation is neglected. In the first case, it is shown that only a compensated model can match the strong relationships between water table depth and leaf area and transpiration observed in riparian forest

  20. Simple physics-based models of compensatory plant water uptake: concepts and eco-hydrological consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Jarvis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many land surface schemes and simulation models of plant growth designed for practical use employ simple empirical sub-models of root water uptake that cannot adequately reflect the critical role water uptake from sparsely rooted deep subsoil plays in meeting atmospheric transpiration demand in water-limited environments, especially in the presence of shallow groundwater. A failure to account for this so-called "compensatory" water uptake may have serious consequences for both local and global modeling of water and energy fluxes, carbon balances and climate. Some purely empirical compensatory root water uptake models have been proposed, but they are of limited use in global modeling exercises since their parameters cannot be related to measurable soil and vegetation properties. Parsimonious physics-based models of uptake compensation have been developed that require no more parameters than empirical approaches. These models are described and compared from a conceptual point of view and some aspects of their behavior, including the phenomenon of hydraulic lift, are illustrated with the help of example simulations. These analyses demonstrate that the degree of compensation is a function of soil capillarity and the ratio of total effective root length to potential transpiration. Thus, uptake compensation increases as root to leaf area ratios increase, since potential transpiration depends on leaf area. Results of "scenario" simulations for two case studies, one at the local scale (riparian vegetation growing above shallow water tables in seasonally dry or arid climates and one at a global scale (water balances across an aridity gradient in the continental USA, are presented to illustrate biases in model predictions that arise when water uptake compensation is neglected. In the first case, it is shown that only a compensated model can match the strong relationships between water table depth and leaf area and transpiration observed in riparian forest

  1. Systematic review of the synergist muscle ablation model for compensatory hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terena, Stella Maris Lins; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalill; Deana, Alessandro Melo; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli

    2017-02-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the experimental synergists muscle ablation model to promote muscle hypertrophy, determine the period of greatest hypertrophy and its influence on muscle fiber types and determine differences in bilateral and unilateral removal to reduce the number of animals used in this model. Following the application of the eligibility criteria for the mechanical overload of the plantar muscle in rats, nineteen papers were included in the review. The results reveal a greatest hypertrophy occurring between days 12 and 15, and based on the findings, synergist muscle ablation is an efficient model for achieving rapid hypertrophy and the contralateral limb can be used as there was no difference between unilateral and bilateral surgery, which reduces the number of animals used in this model. This model differs from other overload models (exercise and training) regarding the characteristics involved in the hypertrophy process (acute) and result in a chronic muscle adaptation with selective regulation and modification of fast-twitch fibers in skeletal muscle. This is an efficient and rapid model for compensatory hypertrophy.

  2. Systematic review of the synergist muscle ablation model for compensatory hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Lins Terena

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the experimental synergists muscle ablation model to promote muscle hypertrophy, determine the period of greatest hypertrophy and its influence on muscle fiber types and determine differences in bilateral and unilateral removal to reduce the number of animals used in this model. Method: Following the application of the eligibility criteria for the mechanical overload of the plantar muscle in rats, nineteen papers were included in the review. Results: The results reveal a greatest hypertrophy occurring between days 12 and 15, and based on the findings, synergist muscle ablation is an efficient model for achieving rapid hypertrophy and the contralateral limb can be used as there was no difference between unilateral and bilateral surgery, which reduces the number of animals used in this model. Conclusion: This model differs from other overload models (exercise and training regarding the characteristics involved in the hypertrophy process (acute and result in a chronic muscle adaptation with selective regulation and modification of fast-twitch fibers in skeletal muscle. This is an efficient and rapid model for compensatory hypertrophy.

  3. Applicability of the Compensatory Encoding Model in Foreign Language Reading: An Investigation with Chinese College English Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feifei

    2017-01-01

    While some first language (L1) reading models suggest that inefficient word recognition and small working memory tend to inhibit higher-level comprehension processes; the Compensatory Encoding Model maintains that slow word recognition and small working memory do not normally hinder reading comprehension, as readers are able to operate metacognitive strategies to compensate for inefficient word recognition and working memory limitation as long as readers process a reading task without time constraint. Although empirical evidence is accumulated for support of the Compensatory Encoding Model in L1 reading, there is lack of research for testing of the Compensatory Encoding Model in foreign language (FL) reading. This research empirically tested the Compensatory Encoding Model in English reading among Chinese college English language learners (ELLs). Two studies were conducted. Study one focused on testing whether reading condition varying time affects the relationship between word recognition, working memory, and reading comprehension. Students were tested on a computerized English word recognition test, a computerized Operation Span task, and reading comprehension in time constraint and non-time constraint reading. The correlation and regression analyses showed that the strength of association was much stronger between word recognition, working memory, and reading comprehension in time constraint than that in non-time constraint reading condition. Study two examined whether FL readers were able to operate metacognitive reading strategies as a compensatory way of reading comprehension for inefficient word recognition and working memory limitation in non-time constraint reading. The participants were tested on the same computerized English word recognition test and Operation Span test. They were required to think aloud while reading and to complete the comprehension questions. The think-aloud protocols were coded for concurrent use of reading strategies, classified

  4. Innovative drugs to treat depression: did animal models fail to be predictive or did clinical trials fail to detect effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzung, Catherine

    2014-04-01

    Over recent decades, encouraging preclinical evidence using rodent models pointed to innovative pharmacological targets to treat major depressive disorder. However, subsequent clinical trials have failed to show convincing results. Two explanations for these rather disappointing results can be put forward, either animal models of psychiatric disorders have failed to predict the clinical effectiveness of treatments or clinical trials have failed to detect the effects of these new drugs. A careful analysis of the literature reveals that both statements are true. Indeed, in some cases, clinical efficacy has been predicted on the basis of inappropriate animal models, although the contrary is also true, as some clinical trials have not targeted the appropriate dose or clinical population. On the one hand, refinement of animal models requires using species that have better homological validity, designing models that rely on experimental manipulations inducing pathological features, and trying to model subtypes of depression. On the other hand, clinical research should consider carefully the results from preclinical studies, in order to study these compounds at the correct dose, in the appropriate psychiatric nosological entity or symptomatology, in relevant subpopulations of patients characterized by specific biomarkers. To achieve these goals, translational research has to strengthen the dialogue between basic and clinical science.

  5. Altered ATP7A expression and other compensatory responses in a murine model of Menkes disease

    OpenAIRE

    Niciu, Mark J.; Ma, Xin-Ming; Meskini, Rajaâ El; Pachter, Joel S.; Mains, Richard E.; Eipper, Betty A.

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in the copper-transporter ATP7A lead to severe neurodegeneration in the mottled brindled hemizygous male (MoBr/y) mouse and human patients with Menkes disease. Our earlier studies demonstrated cell-type and stage-specific changes in ATP7A protein expression during postnatal neurodevelopment. Here we examined copper and cuproenzyme levels in MoBr/y mice to search for compensatory responses. While all MoBr/y neocortical subcellular fractions had decreased copper levels, the greatest d...

  6. African wildlife and people : finding solutions where equilibrium models fail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poshiwa, X.

    2013-01-01

    Grazing systems, covering about half of the terrestrial surface, tend to be either equilibrial or non-equilibrial in nature, largely depending on the environmental stochasticity.The equilibrium model perspective stresses the importance of biotic feedbacks between herbivores and

  7. African wildlife and people : finding solutions where equilibrium models fail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poshiwa, X.

    2013-01-01

    Grazing systems, covering about half of the terrestrial surface, tend to be either equilibrial or non-equilibrial in nature, largely depending on the environmental stochasticity.The equilibrium model perspective stresses the importance of biotic feedbacks between herbivores and thei

  8. African wildlife and people : finding solutions where equilibrium models fail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poshiwa, X.

    2013-01-01

    Grazing systems, covering about half of the terrestrial surface, tend to be either equilibrial or non-equilibrial in nature, largely depending on the environmental stochasticity.The equilibrium model perspective stresses the importance of biotic feedbacks between herbivores and thei

  9. Compensatory renal hypertrophy following uninephrectomy is calcineurin-independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clintoria R; Wynne, Brandi M; Walker, Makeeva; Hoover, Robert S; Gooch, Jennifer L

    2014-12-01

    Calcineurin is a calcium-dependent phosphatase that is involved in many cellular processes including hypertrophy. Inhibition or genetic loss of calcineurin blocks pathological cardiac hypertrophy and diabetic renal hypertrophy. However, calcineurin does not appear to be involved in physiological cardiac hypertrophy induced by exercise. The role of calcineurin in a compensatory, non-pathological model of renal hypertrophy has not been tested. Therefore, in this study, we examined activation of calcineurin and the effect of calcineurin inhibition or knockout on compensatory hypertrophy following uninephrectomy (UNX). UNX induces ~15% increase in the size of the remaining kidney; the data show no change in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Nox4 or transforming growth factor-β expression confirming the model as one of compensatory hypertrophy. Next, analyses of the remaining kidney reveal that total calcineurin activity is increased, and, to a lesser extent, transcriptional activity of the calcineurin substrate nuclear factor of activated T cell is up-regulated following UNX. However, inhibition of calcineurin with cyclosporine failed to prevent compensatory renal hypertrophy. Likewise, hypertrophy was comparable to WT in mice lacking either isoform of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (CnAα-/- or CnAβ-/-). In conclusion, similar to its role in the heart, calcineurin is required for pathological but not compensatory renal hypertrophy. This separation of signalling pathways could therefore help further define key factors necessary for pathological hypertrophy including diabetic nephropathy. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  10. A Deformation Model for Dispersely Failing Elastoplastic Unidirectionally Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagzdins, A.

    2001-09-01

    A calculation model is proposed for unidirectionally reinforced elastoplastic composites capable of gradually accumulating disperse microdamages under loading. The composite is assumed to be a homogeneous transversely isotropic solid. To describe its elastoplastic behavior, an incremental plasticity theory with a nonlinear combined hardening mechanism is invoked. At each point of the solid, its damage is characterized by a centrally symmetric scalar function on a unit sphere. This function is approximated by a fourth-rank tensor, which is used for describing the degradation of the elastic properties of the solid due to the accumulation of disperse microdamages. It is shown how to determine, using the known experimental data, all material constants appearing in the theoretical relations suggested.

  11. Development and estimation of a semi-compensatory model with flexible error structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Shiftan, Yoram; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    , and utility-based choice accommodating alternatively nested substitution patterns across the alternatives and random taste variation across the population. The proposed model is applied to off-campus rental apartment choice of students. Results show (i) the estimated model for a universal realm of 200...

  12. Joint modeling of constrained path enumeration and path choice behavior: a semi-compensatory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    A behavioural and a modelling framework are proposed for representing route choice from a path set that satisfies travellers’ spatiotemporal constraints. Within the proposed framework, travellers’ master sets are constructed by path generation, consideration sets are delimited according to spatio...... constraints are related to travellers’ socio-economic characteristics and that path choice is related to minimizing time and avoiding congestion....

  13. Pleiotropic effect of disrupting a conserved sequence involved in a long-range compensatory interaction in the Drosophila Adh gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, John F; Parsch, John; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental analyses of the evolution of RNA secondary structures suggest a more complex scenario than that typically considered by Kimura's classical model of compensatory evolution. In this study, we examine one such case in more detail. Previous experimental analysis of long-range compensatory interactions between the two ends of Drosophila Adh mRNA failed to fit the classical model of compensatory evolution. To further investigate and verify long-range pairing in Drosophila Adh with respect to models of compensatory evolution and its potential functional role, we introduced site-directed mutations in the Drosophila melanogaster Adh gene. We explore two alternative hypotheses for why previous analysis of long-range compensatory interactions failed to fit the classical model. Specifically, we investigate whether the disruption of a conserved short-range pairing within Adh exon 2 has an effect on Adh expression or if there is a dual functional role of a conserved sequence in the 3'-UTR in both long-range pairing and the negative regulation of Adh expression. We find that a classical result was not observed due to the pleiotropic effect of changing a nucleotide involved in both long-range base pairing and the negative regulation of gene expression. PMID:15020421

  14. Uteroplacental Insufficiency Affects Kidney VEGF Expression in a Model of IUGR with Compensatory Glomerular Hypertrophy and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baserga, Mariana; Bares, Allyson L.; Hale, Merica A.; Callaway, Christopher W.; McKnight, Robert A.; Lane, Pascale H.; Lane, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Low nephron endowment secondary to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results in compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining glomeruli, which in turn is associated with hypertension. However, gender differences exist in the response of the kidney to injury, and IUGR female offspring seems protected from an unfavorable outcome. We previously reported differences in gender-specific gene expression in the IUGR kidney as well as increased circulating corticosterone levels following uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is critical for renal development, is an important candidate in the IUGR kidney since its expression can be regulated by sex-steroids and glucocorticoids. We hypothesize that IUGR leads to altered kidney VEGF expression in a gender-specific manner. Following uterine ligation in the pregnant rat, UPI decreases renal VEGF levels in male and female IUGR animals at birth and through postnatal day 21. However, by day 120 of life, IUGR females have increased kidney VEGF expression, not present in the IUGR males. In addition, IUGR males exhibit increased serum testosterone levels as well as proteinuria. These findings are intriguing in light of the difference in glomerular hypertrophy observed: IUGR males show increased glomerular area when compared to IUGR females. In this model characterized by decreased nephron number and adult onset hypertension, UPI decreases renal VEGF expression during nephrogenesis. Our most intriguing finding is the increased renal VEGF levels in adult IUGR females, associated with a more benign phenotype. We suggest that the mechanisms underlying renal disease in response to IUGR are most likely regulated in a gender specific manner. PMID:19188030

  15. Isolated pulmonary regurgitation causes decreased right ventricular longitudinal function and compensatory increased septal pumping in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopic, S; Stephensen, S S; Heiberg, E; Arheden, H; Bonhoeffer, P; Ersbøll, M; Vejlstrup, N; Søndergaard, L; Carlsson, M

    2017-06-05

    Longitudinal ventricular contraction is a parameter of cardiac performance with predictive power. Right ventricular (RV) longitudinal function is impaired in patients with free pulmonary regurgitation (PR) following corrective surgery for Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). It remains unclear whether this is a consequence of the surgical repair, or whether it is inherent to PR. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between longitudinal, lateral and septal pumping in a porcine model of isolated PR. Piglets were divided into a control (n = 8) group and a treatment (n = 12) group, which received a stent in the pulmonary valve orifice, inducing PR. After 2-3 months, animals were subjected to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A subset of animals (n = 6) then underwent percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with follow-up 1 month later. Longitudinal, lateral and septal contributions to stroke volume (SV) were quantified by measuring volumetric displacements from end-diastole to end-systole in the cardiac short axis and long axis. PR resulted in a lower longitudinal contribution to RV stroke volume, compared to controls (60.0 ± 2.6% vs. 73.6 ± 3.8%; P = 0.012). Furthermore, a compensatory increase in septal contribution to RVSV was observed (11.0 ± 1.6% vs. -3.1 ± 1.5%; P function were reversed by PPVR. These findings suggest that PR contributes to decreased RV longitudinal function in the absence of scarring from cardiac surgery. Measurement of longitudinal RVSV may aid risk stratification and timing for interventional correction of PR in TOF patients. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Physiologica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  16. Compensatory hypertrophy of the teres minor muscle after large rotator cuff tear model in adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Shitara, Hitoshi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Iizuka, Haku; Koibuchi, Noriyuki; Takagishi, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Rotator cuff tear (RCT) is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the elderly. The large RCT is often irreparable due to the retraction and degeneration of the rotator cuff muscle. The integrity of the teres minor (TM) muscle is thought to affect postoperative functional recovery in some surgical treatments. Hypertrophy of the TM is found in some patients with large RCTs; however, the process underlying this hypertrophy is still unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if compensatory hypertrophy of the TM muscle occurs in a large RCT rat model. Twelve Wistar rats underwent transection of the suprascapular nerve and the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons in the left shoulder. The rats were euthanized 4 weeks after the surgery, and the cuff muscles were collected and weighed. The cross-sectional area and the involvement of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling were examined in the remaining TM muscle. The weight and cross-sectional area of the TM muscle was higher in the operated-on side than in the control side. The phosphorylated Akt/Akt protein ratio was not significantly different between these sides. The phosphorylated-mTOR/mTOR protein ratio was significantly higher on the operated-on side. Transection of the suprascapular nerve and the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons activates mTOR signaling in the TM muscle, which results in muscle hypertrophy. The Akt-signaling pathway may not be involved in this process. Nevertheless, activation of mTOR signaling in the TM muscle after RCT may be an effective therapeutic target of a large RCT. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Failing Failed States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Hans-Henrik

    2002-01-01

    When states are failing, when basic state functions are no longer carried out, and when people have no security, humanitarian crises erupt. In confronting this problem, the stronger states have followed an ad hoc policy of intervention and aid. In some cases, humanitarian disasters have resulted ...

  18. Failing Failed States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Hans-Henrik

    2002-01-01

    When states are failing, when basic state functions are no longer carried out, and when people have no security, humanitarian crises erupt. In confronting this problem, the stronger states have followed an ad hoc policy of intervention and aid. In some cases, humanitarian disasters have resulted...

  19. Reverse translation of failed treatments can help improving the validity of preclinical animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hart, Bert A.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in translational research is to reduce the currently high proportion of new candidate treatment agents for neuroinflammatory disease, which fail to reproduce promising effects observed in animal models when tested in patients. This disturbing situation has raised criticism against

  20. Lotka-Volterra pairwise modeling fails to capture diverse pairwise microbial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Babak; Xie, Li; Shou, Wenying

    2017-03-28

    Pairwise models are commonly used to describe many-species communities. In these models, an individual receives additive fitness effects from pairwise interactions with each species in the community ('additivity assumption'). All pairwise interactions are typically represented by a single equation where parameters reflect signs and strengths of fitness effects ('universality assumption'). Here, we show that a single equation fails to qualitatively capture diverse pairwise microbial interactions. We build mechanistic reference models for two microbial species engaging in commonly-found chemical-mediated interactions, and attempt to derive pairwise models. Different equations are appropriate depending on whether a mediator is consumable or reusable, whether an interaction is mediated by one or more mediators, and sometimes even on quantitative details of the community (e.g. relative fitness of the two species, initial conditions). Our results, combined with potential violation of the additivity assumption in many-species communities, suggest that pairwise modeling will often fail to predict microbial dynamics.

  1. Expression of chondro-osteogenic BMPs in ossified failed tendon healing model of tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee Lui, Pauline Po; Wong, Yin Mei; Rui, Yun Feng; Lee, Yuk Wa; Chan, Lai Shan; Chan, Kai Ming

    2011-06-01

    Chondrocytes phenotype/markers were expressed in clinical samples of tendinopathy and calcifying tendinopathy. This study examined the spatial-temporal expression of chondro-osteogenic Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), which might contribute to ectopic chondro-osteogenesis and failed healing process in tendinopathy. Collagenase was injected into patellar tendon of rats to induce ossified failed tendon healing. At week 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16, the patella tendon was harvested for immunohistochemical staining and analysis of BMP-2/4/7. BMP-4/7 showed similar expression patterns, which was different from BMP-2. The expression of BMP-2 in the tendon matrix increased at week 2 and was reduced to nearly undetectable level afterwards except at the chondro-ossification sites. However, the expression of BMP-4/7 in the healing tendon fibroblast-like cells and matrix increased at week 2, reduced at week 4 and 8 and increased again at week 12 and 16, consistent with transient healing at week 8 in this animal model. There was increasing strong expression of BMP-4/7 in the chondrocyte-like cells in the un-ossified and ossified areas from week 8-16. BMP-4/7, besides BMP-2, might also contribute to ectopic chondro-osteogenesis and failed healing in tendon injuries. BMP-4/7, but not BMP-2, might be involved in regulating late events in ossified failed tendon healing.

  2. Bias associated with failing to incorporate dependence on event history in Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tanya G K; Kuntz, Karen M; Ringel, Jeanne S

    2010-01-01

    When using state-transition Markov models to simulate risk of recurrent events over time, incorporating dependence on higher numbers of prior episodes can increase model complexity, yet failing to capture this event history may bias model outcomes. This analysis assessed the tradeoffs between model bias and complexity when evaluating risks of recurrent events in Markov models. The authors developed a generic episode/relapse Markov cohort model, defining bias as the percentage change in events prevented with 2 hypothetical interventions (prevention and treatment) when incorporating 0 to 9 prior episodes in relapse risk versus a model with 10 such episodes. Magnitude and sign of bias were evaluated as a function of event and recovery risks, disease-specific mortality, and risk function. Bias was positive in the base case for a prevention strategy, indicating that failing to fully incorporate dependence on event history overestimated the prevention's predicted impact. For treatment, the bias was negative, indicating an underestimated benefit. Bias approached zero as the number of tracked prior episodes increased, and the average bias over 10 tracked episodes was greater with the exponential compared with linear functions of relapse risk and with treatment compared with prevention strategies. With linear and exponential risk functions, absolute bias reached 33% and 78%, respectively, in prevention and 52% and 85% in treatment. Failing to incorporate dependence on prior event history in subsequent relapse risk in Markov models can greatly affect model outcomes, overestimating the impact of prevention and treatment strategies by up to 85% and underestimating the impact in some treatment models by up to 20%. When at least 4 prior episodes are incorporated, bias does not exceed 26% in prevention or 11% in treatment.

  3. Lotka-Volterra pairwise modeling fails to capture diverse pairwise microbial interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Babak; Xie, Li; Shou, Wenying

    2017-01-01

    Pairwise models are commonly used to describe many-species communities. In these models, an individual receives additive fitness effects from pairwise interactions with each species in the community ('additivity assumption'). All pairwise interactions are typically represented by a single equation where parameters reflect signs and strengths of fitness effects ('universality assumption'). Here, we show that a single equation fails to qualitatively capture diverse pairwise microbial interactions. We build mechanistic reference models for two microbial species engaging in commonly-found chemical-mediated interactions, and attempt to derive pairwise models. Different equations are appropriate depending on whether a mediator is consumable or reusable, whether an interaction is mediated by one or more mediators, and sometimes even on quantitative details of the community (e.g. relative fitness of the two species, initial conditions). Our results, combined with potential violation of the additivity assumption in many-species communities, suggest that pairwise modeling will often fail to predict microbial dynamics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25051.001 PMID:28350295

  4. Web-based survey design for unravelling semi-compensatory choice in transport and urban planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Bekhor, Shlomo; Shiftan, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of semi-compensatory models is gaining momentum in transport planning in recent years. However, traditional survey methodologies focus on collecting solely compensatory choice data, which leads to information loss when semi-compensatory models are estimated. The present study...

  5. Adding propensity scores to pure prediction models fails to improve predictive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S. Nowacki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Propensity score usage seems to be growing in popularity leading researchers to question the possible role of propensity scores in prediction modeling, despite the lack of a theoretical rationale. It is suspected that such requests are due to the lack of differentiation regarding the goals of predictive modeling versus causal inference modeling. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to formally examine the effect of propensity scores on predictive performance. Our hypothesis is that a multivariable regression model that adjusts for all covariates will perform as well as or better than those models utilizing propensity scores with respect to model discrimination and calibration.Methods. The most commonly encountered statistical scenarios for medical prediction (logistic and proportional hazards regression were used to investigate this research question. Random cross-validation was performed 500 times to correct for optimism. The multivariable regression models adjusting for all covariates were compared with models that included adjustment for or weighting with the propensity scores. The methods were compared based on three predictive performance measures: (1 concordance indices; (2 Brier scores; and (3 calibration curves.Results. Multivariable models adjusting for all covariates had the highest average concordance index, the lowest average Brier score, and the best calibration. Propensity score adjustment and inverse probability weighting models without adjustment for all covariates performed worse than full models and failed to improve predictive performance with full covariate adjustment.Conclusion. Propensity score techniques did not improve prediction performance measures beyond multivariable adjustment. Propensity scores are not recommended if the analytical goal is pure prediction modeling.

  6. Muller's ratchet with compensatory mutations

    CERN Document Server

    Pfaffelhuber, Peter; Wakolbinger, Anton

    2011-01-01

    We consider an infinite dimensional system of stochastic differential equations which describes the evolution of type frequencies in a large population. Random reproduction is modeled by a Wright-Fisher noise whose inverse diffusion coefficient $N$ corresponds to the total population size. The type of an individual is the number $k$ of deleterious mutations it carries. We assume that fitness of individuals carrying $k$ mutations is decreased by $\\alpha k$ for some $\\alpha >0$. Along the individual lines of descent, (new) mutations accumulate at rate $\\lambda$ per generation, and each of these mutations has a small probability $\\gamma$ per generation to disappear. While the case $\\gamma =0 $ is known as (the Fleming-Viot version of) {\\em Muller's ratchet}, the case $\\gamma > 0$ is referred to as that of {\\em compensatory mutations} in the biological literature. In the former case ($\\gamma=0$), an ever increasing number of mutations is accumulated over time, while in the latter ($\\gamma > 0$) this is prevented ...

  7. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Alphen (Adriaan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection

  8. Modeling study of the failing heart and its interaction with an implantable rotary blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Deepa P; Luo, Chuan; Ma, Tony S; Clark, John W

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of clinical diagnosis and treatment of heart failure is a direct function of clinical signs that can be measured in a patient within cost and safety constraints. Large-scale mathematical modeling can be a key tool in revealing important, measurable clinical signs of heart failure, furthering medical understanding and development of treatment. In the first part of this study we have created two models of left heart failure--diastolic and systolic, using our human cardiovascular-respiratory system (H-CRS) model, and we present a comparison of the two types with emphasis on novel and differentiating clinical signs, such as tricuspid flow and septal motion. In the event of compromised left ventricular performance, mechanical left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are often implanted to augment or completely replace the pumping action of the left ventricle (LV). One such type is the implantable rotary blood pump (iRBP). Several design issues related to the iRBP are difficult to study experimentally due to procedure complexity and limitations in animal models of heart failure [2]. Therefore, modeling has become a key tool in iRBP development. In the second part of this study, we have introduced an iRBP model based on [1]-[2] in the systolic failing heart to study the interactions. We consider optimal motor settings for different levels of LV assistance, the effects of the iRBP on the right heart, septum, and pulmonary circulation. Our model results align with those reported in [1]-[2]. Improvement in cardiac output, pulmonary congestion, and heart work are seen with the iRBP. We observe lowered septal assistance to RV and LV ejection with increasing pump speeds, elevating right ventricular (RV) work, reducing LVET, and causing ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony in ejection. These results suggest right heart compromise via the septum's reduced role with the introduction of an iRBP. This work emphasizes the critical role of modeling in heart failure and

  9. Failing Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    as a controlled cost for achieving organizational goals. Decisions must fail so the organization can succeed. This chapter uses two cases to elaborate on these ideas. By way of introduction, I will reflect on the notion of ‘failing decisions’ within organization and decision theory. This chapter is also propelled...... deals not with traffic delays, but with failing decisions in organizations. The assumption of this chapter is that failing decisions today are as normal as delayed trains. Instead of being the exception, failure is part of the everyday reproduction of organizations – as an uncontrolled effect but also...... by an interest in failure as one way of improving understanding of present-day decision making in organizations....

  10. Reassessing the HAROLD model: is the hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults a special case of compensatory-related utilisation of neural circuits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlingeri, Manuela; Danelli, Laura; Bottini, Gabriella; Sberna, Maurizio; Paulesu, Eraldo

    2013-02-01

    The HAROLD (hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults) model, proposed by Cabeza in 2002, suggests that age-related neurofunctional changes are characterised by a significant reduction in the functional hemispheric lateralisation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The supporting evidence, however, has been derived from qualitative explorations of the data rather than from explicit statistical assessments of functional lateralisation. In contrast, the CRUNCH (compensation-related utilisation of neural circuits hypothesis) model posits that elderly subjects recruit additional brain regions that do not necessarily belong to the contralateral hemisphere as much as they rely on additional strategies to solve cognitive problems. To better assess the validity and generalisability of the HAROLD model, we analysed the fMRI patterns of twenty-four young subjects (age range: 18-30 years) and twenty-four healthy elderly subjects (age range: 50-80 years) collected during the performance of two linguistic/semantic tasks (a picture-naming task and a sentence judgment task) and two episodic long-term memory (eLTM) recognition tasks for the same materials. The functional hemispheric lateralisation in each group and the ensuing between-group differences were quantitatively assessed using statistical lateralisation maps (SLMs). The number of clusters showing a genuine HAROLD effect was proportional to the level of task demand. In addition, when quantitatively significant, these effects were not restricted to the PFC. We conclude that, in its original version, the HAROLD model captures only some of the age-related brain patterns observed in graceful ageing. The results observed in our study are compatible with the more general CRUNCH model, suggesting that the former patterns can be considered a special manifestation of age-related compensatory processes.

  11. Comparative Study of Compensatory Liver Regeneration in a Rat Model: Portal Vein Ligation Only versus Sequential Ligation of the Portal Vein and Hepatic Artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young [Dept. of Pathology, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Gyeong Sik [Dept. of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, College of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Mo [Dept. of Surgery, Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    To compare the volume change and the regenerative capacity between portal vein ligation (embolization) (PVL) and heterochronous PVL with hepatic artery ligation (HAL) in a rodent model. The animals were separated into three groups: group I, ligation of the left lateral and median portal vein branches; group II, completion of PVL, followed by ligation of the same branches of the hepatic artery after 48 h; control group, laparotomy without ligation was performed. Five rats from each group were sacrificed on 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after the operation. Volume change measurement, liver function tests and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. The volume of the nonligated lobe between groups I and II was not significantly different by day 5 and day 7. Mean alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin levels were significantly higher in group II, while the albumin level was higher in group I. Both c-kit- and MIB-5-positive cells used in the activity detection of regeneration were more prevalent in group I on day 1, 3, and 5, with statistical significance. There was no operation related mortality. PVL alone is safe and effective in compensatory liver regeneration. Performing both PVL and HAL does not confer any additional benefits.

  12. Peripheral elevation of IGF-1 fails to alter Abeta clearance in multiple in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Thomas A; Salatto, Christopher T; Semproni, Anthony R; Marconi, Michael; Brown, Tracy M; Richter, Karl E G; Schmidt, Kari; Nelson, Frederick R; Schachter, Joel B

    2008-03-01

    Increasing beta-amyloid (Abeta) clearance may alter the course of Alzheimer's disease progression and attenuate amyloid plaque pathology. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) augmentation has been suggested to increase Abeta clearance by facilitating transport of Abeta out of the brain. The availability of safe agents that increase IGF-1 levels therefore makes IGF-1 elevation an attractive target for disease modifying therapy in AD. The present series of studies sought to replicate published paradigms in which peripheral IGF-1 administration lowered brain Abeta acutely, with reduction in plaque pathology after chronic treatment. Thus Abeta levels were measured in several animal models following treatments that elevated IGF-1. Administration of IGF-1 to young or old rats for up to 3 days had no effect on Abeta levels in brain, CSF, or plasma. In adult beagles, 4 days of dosing with the growth hormone secretagogue, CP-424391, doubled baseline plasma IGF-1 levels, yet failed to alter CSF or plasma Abeta. 5-day treatment of young Tg2576 mice with IGF-1 produced robust elevations of IGF-1 levels in plasma, but no effects on Abeta were detected in brain, CSF, or plasma. Finally, 11-month-old Tg2576 mice were implanted with subcutaneous minipumps delivering IGF-1 for 1 month. No significant changes in Abeta (by ELISA or Western blot), plaque pathology, or phospho-tau epitopes were detected. These results do not demonstrate acute or chronic actions of peripherally administered IGF-1 on Abeta levels or the phosphorylation state of tau and therefore do not suggest any disease-modifying benefits of IGF-1 restorative therapy for AD through these mechanisms.

  13. Virtual Modeling of Postoperative Alignment Following Adult Spinal Deformity (ASD) Surgery Helps Predict associations between Compensatory Spinopelvic Alignment Changes, Overcorrection and Proximal Junctional Kyphosis (PJK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafage, Renaud; Bess, Shay; Glassman, Steve; Ames, Christopher; Burton, Doug; Hart, Robert; Kim, Han Jo; Klineberg, Eric; Henry, Jensen; Line, Breton; Scheer, Justin; Protopsaltis, Themistocles; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Virginie

    2017-02-09

    Retrospective review of a prospective multicenter database. To develop a method to analyze sagittal alignment, free of PJK's influence, and then compare PJK to non-PJK patients using this method. Proximal Junctional Kyphosis (PJK) following Adult Spinal Deformity (ASD) surgery remains problematic as it alters sagittal alignment. This study proposes a novel virtual modeling technique that attempts to eliminate the confounding effects of PJK on postoperative spinal alignment. A virtual spinal modeling technique was developed on a retrospective ASD cohort of patients with multilevel spinal fusions to the pelvis with at least 2 year post-operative follow-up. The virtual post-op alignment (VIRTUAL) was created from the post-op alignment of the instrumented segments and the pre-op alignment of the unfused segments. VIRTUAL was validated by comparisons to actual 2-year post-op alignment (REAL) in NOPJK patients. Patients were then divided into two groups: PJK and NOPJK based on the presence/absence of PJK at 2 years post-op. PJK and NOPJK patients were compared using VIRTUAL and REAL. 458 patients (78F, mean 57.9y) were analyzed. The validation of VIRTUAL versus REAL demonstrated correlation coefficients above 0.7 for all measures except SVA (r = 0.604). At 2-years, REAL alignment in PJK patients demonstrated a smaller PI-LL and a larger thoracic kyphosis than NOPJK patients, but similar SVA, TPA, and PT. An analysis of VIRTUAL demonstrated that PJK patients had a smaller PI-LL, PT, SVA, and TPA than NOPJK patients (p VIRTUAL alignments revealed that postoperative PJK may develop partially as a compensatory mechanism to the over-correction of sagittal deformities. Future research will evaluate the appropriate thresholds for deformity correction according to age and ASD severity. 3.

  14. Compensatory axon sprouting for very slow axonal die-back in a transgenic model of spinal muscular atrophy type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udina, Esther; Putman, Charles T; Harris, Luke R; Tyreman, Neil; Cook, Victoria E; Gordon, Tessa

    2017-03-01

    Smn(+/-) transgenic mouse is a model of the mildest form of spinal muscular atrophy. Although there is a loss of spinal motoneurons in 11-month-old animals, muscular force is maintained. This maintained muscular force is mediated by reinnervation of the denervated fibres by surviving motoneurons. The spinal motoneurons in these animals do not show an increased susceptibility to death after nerve injury and they retain their regenerative capacity. We conclude that the hypothesized immaturity of the neuromuscular system in this model cannot explain the loss of motoneurons by systematic die-back. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common autosomal recessive disorder in humans and is the leading genetic cause of infantile death. Patients lack the SMN1 gene with the severity of the disease depending on the number of copies of the highly homologous SMN2 gene. Although motoneuron death in the Smn(+/-) transgenic mouse model of the mildest form of SMA, SMA type III, has been reported, we have used retrograde tracing of sciatic and femoral motoneurons in the hindlimb with recording of muscle and motor unit isometric forces to count the number of motoneurons with intact neuromuscular connections. Thereby, we investigated whether incomplete maturation of the neuromuscular system induced by survival motoneuron protein (SMN) defects is responsible for die-back of axons relative to survival of motoneurons. First, a reduction of ∼30% of backlabelled motoneurons began relatively late, at 11 months of age, with a significant loss of 19% at 7 months. Motor axon die-back was affirmed by motor unit number estimation. Loss of functional motor units was fully compensated by axonal sprouting to retain normal contractile force in four hindlimb muscles (three fast-twitch and one slow-twitch) innervated by branches of the sciatic nerve. Second, our evaluation of whether axotomy of motoneurons in the adult Smn(+/-) transgenic mouse increases their susceptibility to cell death

  15. Learning Factor Models of Students at Risk of Failing in the Early Stage of Tertiary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Geraldine; McGuinness, Colm; Owende, Philip; Hofmann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a study to predict students at risk of failing based on data available prior to commencement of first year. The study was conducted over three years, 2010 to 2012, on a student population from a range of academic disciplines, n=1,207. Data was gathered from both student enrollment data and an online, self-reporting,…

  16. A nonparametric urn-based approach to interacting failing systems with an application to credit risk modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Cirillo, Pasquale; Muliere, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new nonparametric approach to interacting failing systems (FS), that is systems whose probability of failure is not negligible in a fixed time horizon, a typical example being firms and financial bonds. The main purpose when studying a FS is to calculate the probability of default and the distribution of the number of failures that may occur during the observation period. A model used to study a failing system is defined default model. In particular, we present a general recursive model constructed by the means of inter- acting urns. After introducing the theoretical model and its properties we show a first application to credit risk modeling, showing how to assess the idiosyncratic probability of default of an obligor and the joint probability of failure of a set of obligors in a portfolio of risks, that are divided into reliability classes.

  17. N-acetylcysteine manipulation fails to elicit an increase in glutathione in a teleost model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Larsen, Martin Hage; Aarestrup, Kim

    2017-01-01

    and vegetable shortening, at two different concentrations (100 and 400 mg/kg), with the appropriate controls and shams, under controlled laboratory settings. We found that NAC failed to elicit an increase in GSH over three time periods and concluded that NAC is not an effective method to enhance GSH levels...... in teleost fish using the concentrations and vehicles tested here. We emphasize the importance of validation studies across all new species/taxa when possible and suggest that more investigation is required with regard toNAC manipulation in fish if this approach is to be used...

  18. Parameter estimation using compensatory neural networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sinha; P K Kalra; K Kumar

    2000-04-01

    Proposed here is a new neuron model, a basis for Compensatory Neural Network Architecture (CNNA), which not only reduces the total number of interconnections among neurons but also reduces the total computing time for training. The suggested model has properties of the basic neuron model as well as the higher neuron model (multiplicative aggregation function). It can adapt to standard neuron and higher order neuron, as well as a combination of the two. This approach is found to estimate the orbit with accuracy significantly better than Kalman Filter (KF) and Feedforward Multilayer Neural Network (FMNN) (also simply referred to as Artificial Neural Network, ANN) with lambda-gamma learning. The typical simulation runs also bring out the superiority of the proposed scheme over Kalman filter from the standpoint of computation time and the amount of data needed for the desired degree of estimated accuracy for the specific problem of orbit determination.

  19. Towards Personalized Cardiology: Multi-Scale Modeling of the Failing Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Ali; Neumann, Dominik; Georgescu, Bogdan; Seegerer, Philipp; Kamen, Ali; Haas, Jan; Frese, Karen S.; Irawati, Maria; Wirsz, Emil; King, Vanessa; Buss, Sebastian; Mereles, Derliz; Zitron, Edgar; Keller, Andreas; Katus, Hugo A.; Comaniciu, Dorin; Meder, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite modern pharmacotherapy and advanced implantable cardiac devices, overall prognosis and quality of life of HF patients remain poor. This is in part due to insufficient patient stratification and lack of individualized therapy planning, resulting in less effective treatments and a significant number of non-responders. Methods and Results State-of-the-art clinical phenotyping was acquired, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biomarker assessment. An individualized, multi-scale model of heart function covering cardiac anatomy, electrophysiology, biomechanics and hemodynamics was estimated using a robust framework. The model was computed on n=46 HF patients, showing for the first time that advanced multi-scale models can be fitted consistently on large cohorts. Novel multi-scale parameters derived from the model of all cases were analyzed and compared against clinical parameters, cardiac imaging, lab tests and survival scores to evaluate the explicative power of the model and its potential for better patient stratification. Model validation was pursued by comparing clinical parameters that were not used in the fitting process against model parameters. Conclusion This paper illustrates how advanced multi-scale models can complement cardiovascular imaging and how they could be applied in patient care. Based on obtained results, it becomes conceivable that, after thorough validation, such heart failure models could be applied for patient management and therapy planning in the future, as we illustrate in one patient of our cohort who received CRT-D implantation. PMID:26230546

  20. The Kimball Free-Cloud Model: A Failed Innovation in Chemical Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    2014-01-01

    This historical review traces the origins of the Kimball free-cloud model of the chemical bond, otherwise known as the charge-cloud or tangent-sphere model, and the central role it played in attempts to reform the introductory chemical curriculum at both the high school and college levels in the 1960s. It also critically evaluates the limitations…

  1. Improvement of preclinical animal models for autoimmune-mediated disorders via reverse translation of failed therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hart, Bert A.; Jagessar, S. Anwar; Kap, Yolanda S.; Haanstra, Krista G.; Philippens, Ingrid H. C. H. M.; Serguera, Che; Langermans, Jan; Vierboom, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The poor translational validity of autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disease (AIMID) models in inbred and specific pathogen-free (SPF) rodents underlies the high attrition of new treatments for the corresponding human disease. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a frequently used precl

  2. Why Most Dieters Fail but Some Succeed: A Goal Conflict Model of Eating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebe, Wolfgang; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M.; Papies, Esther K.; Aarts, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Theories of eating regulation often attribute overweight to a malfunction of homeostatic regulation of body weight. With the goal conflict model of eating, we present a new perspective that attributes the difficulty of chronic dieters (i.e., restrained eaters) in regulating their food intake to a conflict between 2 incompatible goals--namely,…

  3. What Happens when Representations Fail to Represent? Graduate Students' Mental Models of Organic Chemistry Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Amanda M.; Kraft, Adam; Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    As part of our investigations into the development of representational competence, we report results from a study in which we elicited sixteen graduate students' expressed mental models of commonly-used terms for describing organic reactions--functional group, nucleophile/electrophile, acid/base--and for diagrams of transformations and their…

  4. Knightian uncertainty and stock-price movements: Why the REH present-value model failed empirically

    OpenAIRE

    Frydman, Roman; Michael D. Goldberg; Mangee, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Macroeconomic models that are based on either the rational expectations hypothesis (REH) or behavioral considerations share a core premise: All future market outcomes can be characterized ex ante with a single overarching probability distribution. This paper assesses the empirical relevance of this premise using a novel data set. The authors find that Knightian uncertainty, which cannot be reduced to a probability distribution, underpins outcomes in the stock market. This finding reveals the ...

  5. T-tubule disruption promotes calcium alternans in failing ventricular myocytes: mechanistic insights from computational modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivala, Michael; Song, Zhen; Weiss, James N; Qu, Zhilin

    2015-02-01

    In heart failure (HF), T-tubule (TT) disruption contributes to dyssynchronous calcium (Ca) release and impaired contraction, but its role in arrhythmogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the effects of TT disruption and other HF remodeling factors on Ca alternans in ventricular myocytes using computer modeling. A ventricular myocyte model with detailed spatiotemporal Ca cycling modeled by a coupled Ca release unit (CRU) network was used, in which the L-type Ca channels and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels were simulated by random Markov transitions. TT disruption, which removes the L-type Ca channels from the associated CRUs, results in "orphaned" RyR clusters and thus provides increased opportunity for spark-induced Ca sparks to occur. This effect combined with other HF remodeling factors promoted alternans by two distinct mechanisms: 1) for normal sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca ATPase (SERCA) activity, alternans was caused by both CRU refractoriness and coupling. The increased opportunity for spark-induced sparks by TT disruption combined with the enhanced CRU coupling by Ca elevation in the presence or absence of increased RyR leakiness facilitated spark synchronization on alternate beats to promote Ca alternans; 2) for down-regulated SERCA, alternans was caused by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca load-dependent mechanism, independent of CRU refractoriness. TT disruption and increased RyR leakiness shifted and steepened the SR Ca release-load relationship, which combines with down-regulated SERCA to promote Ca alternans. In conclusion, the mechanisms of Ca alternans for normal and down-regulated SERCA are different, and TT disruption promotes Ca alternans by both mechanisms, which may contribute to alternans at different stages of HF.

  6. Compensatory Reading among ESL Learners: A Reading Strategy Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Petras, Yusof Ede; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Eng, Lin Siew

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to gain an insight to the relationship of two different concepts about reading comprehension, namely, the linear model of comprehension and the interactive compensatory theory. Drawing on both the above concepts, a heuristic was constructed about three different reading strategies determined by the specific ways the literal,…

  7. Minocycline fails to exert antiepileptogenic effects in a rat status epilepticus model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russmann, Vera; Goc, Joanna; Boes, Katharina; Ongerth, Tanja; Salvamoser, Josephine D; Siegl, Claudia; Potschka, Heidrun

    2016-01-15

    The tetracycline antibiotic minocycline can exert strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic effects. There is cumulating evidence that epileptogenic brain insults trigger neuroinflammation and anti-inflammatory concepts can modulate the process of epileptogenesis. Based on the mechanisms of action discussed for minocycline, the compound is of interest for intervention studies as it can prevent the polarization of microglia into a pro-inflammatory state. Here, we assessed the efficacy of sub-chronic minocycline administration initiated immediately following an electrically-induced status epilepticus in rats. The treatment did not affect the development of spontaneous seizures. However, minocycline attenuated behavioral long-term consequences of status epilepticus with a reduction in hyperactivity and hyperlocomotion. Furthermore, the compound limited the spatial learning deficits observed in the post-status epilepticus model. The typical status epilepticus-induced neuronal cell loss was evident in the hippocampus and the piriform cortex. Minocycline exposure selectively protected neurons in the piriform cortex and the hilus, but not in the hippocampal pyramidal layer. In conclusion, the data argue against an antiepileptogenic effect of minocycline in adult rats. However, the findings suggest a disease-modifying impact of the tetracycline affecting the development of behavioral co-morbidities, as well as long-term consequences on spatial learning. In addition, minocycline administration resulted in a selective neuroprotective effect. Although strong anti-inflammatory effects have been proposed for minocycline, we could not verify these effects in our experimental model. Considering the multitude of mechanisms claimed to contribute to minocycline's effects, it is of interest to further explore the exact mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects in future studies.

  8. Maternal administration of erythromycin fails to eradicate intrauterine ureaplasma infection in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Samantha J; Nitsos, Ilias; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Moss, Timothy J M; Knox, Christine L

    2010-10-01

    Erythromycin is the standard antibiotic used for treatment of infection with Ureaplasma spp. during pregnancy; however, maternally administered erythromycin may be ineffective at eliminating intra-amniotic ureaplasma infections. We examined whether erythromycin would eradicate intra-amniotic ureaplasma infections in pregnant sheep. At Gestational Day (GD) 50 (term, GD 150), pregnant ewes received intra-amniotic injections of erythromycin-sensitive Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 (n = 16) or 10B medium (n = 16). At GD 100, amniocentesis was performed; five fetal losses (ureaplasma group, n = 4; 10B group, n = 1) had occurred by this time. Remaining ewes were allocated into treatment subgroups: medium only (n = 7), medium and erythromycin (n = 8), ureaplasma only (Up; n = 6), or ureaplasma and erythromycin (Up/E; n = 6). Erythromycin was administered intramuscularly (500 mg) every 8 h for 4 days (GDs 100-104). Amniotic fluid samples were collected at GD 105. At GD 125, preterm fetuses were surgically delivered, and specimens were collected for culture and histology. Erythromycin was quantified in amniotic fluid by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ureaplasmas were isolated from the amniotic fluid, chorioamnion, and fetal lung of animals from the Up and Up/E groups, however, the numbers of U. parvum recovered were not different between these groups. Inflammation in the chorioamnion, cord, and fetal lung was increased in ureaplasma-exposed animals compared to controls but was not different between the Up and Up/E groups. Erythromycin was detected in amniotic fluid samples, although concentrations were low (<10-76 ng/ml). This study demonstrates that maternally administered erythromycin does not eradicate chronic, intra-amniotic ureaplasma infections or improve fetal outcomes in an ovine model, potentially because of the poor placental passage of erythromycin.

  9. Proceedings: Conference on Compensatory/Remedial Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fea, Henry R., Ed.; And Others

    This document presents the papers and discussions from the Conference on Compensatory/Remedial Education. The contents include: "Institutional Programs for the Low Achievers" by Joan G. Roloff; "Communication in Compensatory Education" by Henry R. Fea; "Seminar: Special Programs for Minorities" by Constance Acholonu; "Seminar: Special Programs for…

  10. Protein dynamics associated with failed and rescued learning in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mahiuddin Ahmed

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is caused by an extra copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21. Although it is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID, there are, as yet, no effective pharmacotherapies. The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS is trisomic for orthologs of ∼55% of Hsa21 classical protein coding genes. These mice display many features relevant to those seen in DS, including deficits in learning and memory (L/M tasks requiring a functional hippocampus. Recently, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine, was shown to rescue performance of the Ts65Dn in several L/M tasks. These studies, however, have not been accompanied by molecular analyses. In previous work, we described changes in protein expression induced in hippocampus and cortex in control mice after exposure to context fear conditioning (CFC, with and without memantine treatment. Here, we extend this analysis to Ts65Dn mice, measuring levels of 85 proteins/protein modifications, including components of MAP kinase and MTOR pathways, and subunits of NMDA receptors, in cortex and hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice after failed learning in CFC and after learning was rescued by memantine. We show that, compared with wild type littermate controls, (i of the dynamic responses seen in control mice in normal learning, >40% also occur in Ts65Dn in failed learning or are compensated by baseline abnormalities, and thus are considered necessary but not sufficient for successful learning, and (ii treatment with memantine does not in general normalize the initial protein levels but instead induces direct and indirect responses in approximately half the proteins measured and results in normalization of the endpoint protein levels. Together, these datasets provide a first view of the complexities associated with pharmacological rescue of learning in the Ts65Dn. Extending such studies to additional drugs and mouse models of DS will aid in identifying pharmacotherapies for effective

  11. Can quiet standing posture predict compensatory postural adjustment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bueno Lahóz Moya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze whether quiet standing posture is related to compensatory postural adjustment. INTRODUCTION: The latest data in clinical practice suggests that static posture may play a significant role in musculoskeletal function, even in dynamic activities. However, no evidence exists regarding whether static posture during quiet standing is related to postural adjustment. METHODS: Twenty healthy participants standing on a movable surface underwent unexpected, standardized backward and forward postural perturbations while kinematic data were acquired; ankle, knee, pelvis and trunk positions were then calculated. An initial and a final video frame representing quiet standing posture and the end of the postural perturbation were selected in such a way that postural adjustments had occurred between these frames. The positions of the body segments were calculated in these initial and final frames, together with the displacement of body segments during postural adjustments between the initial and final frames. The relationship between the positions of body segments in the initial and final frames and their displacements over this time period was analyzed using multiple regressions with a significance level of p < 0.05. RESULTS: We failed to identify a relationship between the position of the body segments in the initial and final frames and the associated displacement of the body segments. DISCUSSION: The motion pattern during compensatory postural adjustment is not related to quiet standing posture or to the final posture of compensatory postural adjustment. This fact should be considered when treating balance disturbances and musculoskeletal abnormalities. CONCLUSION: Static posture cannot predict how body segments will behave during compensatory postural adjustment.

  12. Failed Radiatively Accelerated Dusty Outflow Model of the Broad Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Analytical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, B.; Li, Yan-Rong; Hryniewicz, K.; Panda, S.; Wildy, C.; Sniegowska, M.; Wang, J.-M.; Sredzinska, J.; Karas, V.

    2017-09-01

    The physical origin of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei is still unclear despite many years of observational studies. The reason is that the region is unresolved, and the reverberation mapping results imply a complex velocity field. We adopt a theory-motivated approach to identify the principal mechanism responsible for this complex phenomenon. We consider the possibility that the role of dust is essential. We assume that the local radiation pressure acting on the dust in the accretion disk atmosphere launches the outflow of material, but higher above the disk the irradiation from the central parts causes dust evaporation and a subsequent fallback. This failed radiatively accelerated dusty outflow is expected to represent the material forming low ionization lines. In this paper we formulate simple analytical equations to describe the cloud motion, including the evaporation phase. The model is fully described just by the basic parameters of black hole mass, accretion rate, black hole spin, and viewing angle. We study how the spectral line generic profiles correspond to this dynamic. We show that the virial factor calculated from our model strongly depends on the black hole mass in the case of enhanced dust opacity, and thus it then correlates with the line width. This could explain why the virial factor measured in galaxies with pseudobulges differs from that obtained from objects with classical bulges, although the trend predicted by the current version of the model is opposite to the observed trend.

  13. Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Intraspinal Transplants Fail to Improve Motor Outcomes in a Severe Model of Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, John H; Graham, Lori; Staufenberg, Eileen; Collyer, Eileen; Koffler, Jacob; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2016-06-15

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been reported to exert potential neuroprotective properties in models of neurotrauma, although precise mechanisms underlying their benefits are poorly understood. Despite this lack of knowledge, several clinical trials have been initiated using these cells. To determine whether local mechanisms mediate BMSC neuroprotective actions, we grafted allogeneic BMSCs to sites of severe, compressive spinal cord injury (SCI) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Cells were administered 48 h after the original injury. Additional animals received allogeneic MSCs that were genetically modified to secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to further determine whether a locally administered neurotrophic factor provides or extends neuroprotection. When assessed 2 months post-injury in a clinically relevant model of severe SCI, BMSC grafts with or without BDNF secretion failed to improve motor outcomes. Thus, allogeneic grafts of BMSCs do not appear to act through local mechanisms, and future clinical trials that acutely deliver BMSCs to actual sites of injury within days are unlikely to be beneficial. Additional studies should address whether systemic administration of BMSCs alter outcomes from neurotrauma.

  14. Compensatory fuzzy logic for intelligent social network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Y. Leyva-Vázquez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy graph theory has gained in visibility for social network analysis. In this work fuzzy logic and their role in modeling social relational networks is discussed. We present a proposal for extending the fuzzy logic framework to intelligent social network analysis using the good properties of robustness and interpretability of compensatory fuzzy logic. We apply this approach to the concept path importance taking into account the length and strength of the connection. Results obtained with our model are more consistent with the way human make decisions. Additionally a case study to illustrate the applicability of the proposal on a coauthorship network is developed. Our main outcome is a new model for social network analysis based on compensatory fuzzy logic that gives more robust results and allows compensation. Moreover this approach makes emphasis in using language for social network analysis.

  15. Testosterone treatment fails to accelerate disease in a transgenic mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S. Chevalier-Larsen

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from multiple animal models demonstrates that testosterone plays a crucial role in the progression of symptoms in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA, a condition that results in neurodegeneration and muscle atrophy in affected men. Mice bearing a transgene encoding a human androgen receptor (AR that contains a stretch of 112 glutamines (expanded polyglutamine tract; AR112Q mice reproduce several aspects of the human disease. We treated transgenic male AR112Q mice with testosterone for 6 months. Surprisingly, testosterone treatment of AR112Q males did not exacerbate the disease. Although transgenic AR112Q males exhibited functional deficits when compared with non-transgenics, long-term testosterone treatment had no effect on motor function. Testosterone treatment also failed to affect cellular markers of disease, including inclusion formation (the accumulation of large nuclear aggregates of mutant AR protein and levels of unphosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain. These data suggest that the mechanism of disease in SBMA saturates at close to endogenous hormone levels and that individuals with SBMA who take, or have taken, testosterone for its putative therapeutic properties are unlikely to suffer adverse effects.

  16. The genomic landscape of compensatory evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Szamecz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive evolution is generally assumed to progress through the accumulation of beneficial mutations. However, as deleterious mutations are common in natural populations, they generate a strong selection pressure to mitigate their detrimental effects through compensatory genetic changes. This process can potentially influence directions of adaptive evolution by enabling evolutionary routes that are otherwise inaccessible. Therefore, the extent to which compensatory mutations shape genomic evolution is of central importance. Here, we studied the capacity of the baker's yeast genome to compensate the complete loss of genes during evolution, and explored the long-term consequences of this process. We initiated laboratory evolutionary experiments with over 180 haploid baker's yeast genotypes, all of which initially displayed slow growth owing to the deletion of a single gene. Compensatory evolution following gene loss was rapid and pervasive: 68% of the genotypes reached near wild-type fitness through accumulation of adaptive mutations elsewhere in the genome. As compensatory mutations have associated fitness costs, genotypes with especially low fitnesses were more likely to be subjects of compensatory evolution. Genomic analysis revealed that as compensatory mutations were generally specific to the functional defect incurred, convergent evolution at the molecular level was extremely rare. Moreover, the majority of the gene expression changes due to gene deletion remained unrestored. Accordingly, compensatory evolution promoted genomic divergence of parallel evolving populations. However, these different evolutionary outcomes are not phenotypically equivalent, as they generated diverse growth phenotypes across environments. Taken together, these results indicate that gene loss initiates adaptive genomic changes that rapidly restores fitness, but this process has substantial pleiotropic effects on cellular physiology and evolvability upon

  17. 5 CFR 550.1405 - Crediting compensatory time off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1405 Crediting compensatory time off. (a) Upon a... employee is entitled to credit for compensatory time off for travel under the conditions specified in this... employee's request for credit of compensatory time off for travel may be denied if the request is not...

  18. Longitudinal micro-CT provides biomarkers of lung disease that can be used to assess the effect of therapy in preclinical mouse models, and reveal compensatory changes in lung volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Velde, Greetje; Poelmans, Jennifer; De Langhe, Ellen; Hillen, Amy; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Himmelreich, Uwe; Lories, Rik J

    2016-01-01

    In vivo lung micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is being increasingly embraced in pulmonary research because it provides longitudinal information on dynamic disease processes in a field in which ex vivo assessment of experimental disease models is still the gold standard. To optimize the quantitative monitoring of progression and therapy of lung diseases, we evaluated longitudinal changes in four different micro-CT-derived biomarkers [aerated lung volume, lung tissue (including lesions) volume, total lung volume and mean lung density], describing normal development, lung infections, inflammation, fibrosis and therapy. Free-breathing mice underwent micro-CT before and repeatedly after induction of lung disease (bleomycin-induced fibrosis, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, pulmonary cryptococcosis) and therapy (imatinib). The four lung biomarkers were quantified. After the last time point, we performed pulmonary function tests and isolated the lungs for histology. None of the biomarkers remained stable during longitudinal follow-up of adult healthy mouse lungs, implying that biomarkers should be compared with age-matched controls upon intervention. Early inflammation and progressive fibrosis led to a substantial increase in total lung volume, which affects the interpretation of aerated lung volume, tissue volume and mean lung density measures. Upon treatment of fibrotic lung disease, the improvement in aerated lung volume and function was not accompanied by a normalization of the increased total lung volume. Significantly enlarged lungs were also present in models of rapidly and slowly progressing lung infections. The data suggest that total lung volume changes could partly reflect a compensatory mechanism that occurs during disease progression in mice. Our findings underscore the importance of quantifying total lung volume in addition to aerated lung or lesion volumes to accurately document growth and potential compensatory mechanisms in mouse models of lung

  19. LA LÓGICA DIFUSA COMPENSATORIA / THE COMPENSATORY FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cejas-Montero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    La Lógica Difusa Compensatoria es un modelo lógico que permite la modelación simultánea de los procesos deductivos y de toma de decisiones. Sus características más importantes son: la flexibilidad, la tolerancia con la imprecisión, la capacidad para moldear problemas no-lineales y su fundamento en el lenguaje de sentido común. El artículo pretende llevar a la comunidad académico-empresarial las ideas fundamentales de la Lógica Difusa Compensatoria, ilustrándola en sus posibles campos de aplicación para lograr la competitividad de una organización.

    Abstract

    The Compensatory Fuzzy Logic is a logical model that allows the simultaneous modeling of the deductive and decision-making processes. The most important characteristics of Compensatory Fuzzy Logic are: the flexibility, the tolerance with the inaccuracy, the capacity to model no-lineal problems and its foundation in the language of common sense. The article seeks to bring the basic ideas of the Compensatory Fuzzy Logic to the academic–managerial community, illustrating it in its possible fields of application, in order to achieve the competitiveness of an organization.

  20. Failing the market, failing deliberative democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2016-01-01

    Corporate carbon footprint data has become ubiquitous. This data is also highly promissory. But as this paper argues, such data fails both consumers and citizens. The governance of climate change seemingly requires a strong foundation of data on emission sources. Economists approach climate chang...

  1. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  2. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  3. Should Habitat Trading Be Based on Mitigation Ratios Derived from Landscape Indices? A Model-Based Analysis of Compensatory Restoration Options for the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Douglas J.; Jones, Michael L.

    2008-10-01

    Many species of conservation concern are spatially structured and require dispersal to be persistent. For such species, altering the distribution of suitable habitats on the landscape can affect population dynamics in ways that are difficult to predict from simple models. We argue that for such species, individual-based and spatially explicit population models (SEPMs) should be used to determine appropriate levels of off-site restoration to compensate for on-site loss of ecologic resources. Such approaches are necessary when interactions between biologic processes occur at different spatial scales (i.e., local [recruitment] and landscape [migration]). The sites of restoration and habitat loss may be linked to each other, but, more importantly, they may be linked to other resources in the landscape by regional biologic processes, primarily migration. The common management approach for determining appropriate levels of off-site restoration is to derive mitigation ratios based on best professional judgment or pre-existing data. Mitigation ratios assume that the ecologic benefits at the site of restoration are independent of the ecologic costs at the site of habitat loss. Using an SEPM for endangered red-cockaded woodpeckers, we show that the spatial configuration of habitat restoration can simultaneously influence both the rate of recruitment within breeding groups and the rate of migration among groups, implying that simple mitigation ratios may be inadequate.

  4. Vaccination with lipid core peptides fails to induce epitope-specific T cell responses but confers non-specific protective immunity in a malaria model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon H Apte

    Full Text Available Vaccines against many pathogens for which conventional approaches have failed remain an unmet public health priority. Synthetic peptide-based vaccines offer an attractive alternative to whole protein and whole organism vaccines, particularly for complex pathogens that cause chronic infection. Previously, we have reported a promising lipid core peptide (LCP vaccine delivery system that incorporates the antigen, carrier, and adjuvant in a single molecular entity. LCP vaccines have been used to deliver several peptide subunit-based vaccine candidates and induced high titre functional antibodies and protected against Group A streptococcus in mice. Herein, we have evaluated whether LCP constructs incorporating defined CD4(+ and/or CD8(+ T cell epitopes could induce epitope-specific T cell responses and protect against pathogen challenge in a rodent malaria model. We show that LCP vaccines failed to induce an expansion of antigen-specific CD8(+ T cells following primary immunization or by boosting. We further demonstrated that the LCP vaccines induced a non-specific type 2 polarized cytokine response, rather than an epitope-specific canonical CD8(+ T cell type 1 response. Cytotoxic responses of unknown specificity were also induced. These non-specific responses were able to protect against parasite challenge. These data demonstrate that vaccination with lipid core peptides fails to induce canonical epitope-specific T cell responses, at least in our rodent model, but can nonetheless confer non-specific protective immunity against Plasmodium parasite challenge.

  5. Compensatory conscientiousness and health in older couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W; Smith, Jacqui; Jackson, Joshua J; Edmonds, Grant

    2009-05-01

    The present study tested the effect of conscientiousness and neuroticism on health and physical limitations in a representative sample of older couples (N= 2,203) drawn from the Health and Retirement Study. As in past research, conscientiousness predicted better health and physical functioning, whereas neuroticism predicted worse health and physical functioning. Unique to this study was the finding that conscientiousness demonstrated a compensatory effect, such that husbands' conscientiousness predicted wives' health outcomes above and beyond wives' own personality. The same pattern held true for wives' conscientiousness as a predictor of husbands' health outcomes. Furthermore, conscientiousness and neuroticism acted synergistically, such that people who scored high for both traits were healthier than others. Finally, we found that the combination of high conscientiousness and high neuroticism was also compensatory, such that the wives of men with this combination of personality traits reported better health than other women.

  6. Compensatory Hypertrophy After Living Donor Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K W; Wu, M W F; Chen, Z; Tai, B C; Goh, Y S B; Lata, R; Vathsala, A; Tiong, H Y

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that kidney volume enhances the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in kidney donors. This study aimed to describe the phenomenon of compensatory hypertrophy after donor nephrectomy as measured on computerized tomographic (CT) scans. An institutional Domain Specific Review Board (DSRB)-approved study involved approaching kidney donors to have a follow up CT scan from 6 months to 1 year after surgery; 29 patients participated; 55% were female. Clinical chart review was performed, and the patient's remaining kidney volume was measured before and after surgery based on CT scans. eGFR was determined with the use of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Mean parenchymal volume of the remaining kidney for this population (mean age, 44.3 ± 8.5 y) was 204.7 ± 82.5 cc before surgery and 250.5 ± 113.3 cc after donor nephrectomy. Compensatory hypertrophy occurred in 79.3% of patients (n = 23). Mean increase in remaining kidney volume was 22.4 ± 23.2% after donor nephrectomy in healthy individuals. Over a median follow-up of 52.9 ± 19.8 months, mean eGFR was 68.9 ± 12.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), with 24.1% of patients (n = 7) in chronic kidney disease grade 3. Absolute and relative change in kidney volume was not associated with sex, race, surgical approach, or background of hypertension (P = NS). There was a trend of decreased hypertrophy with increasing age (P = .5; Spearman correlation, -0.12). In healthy kidney donors, compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining kidney occurs in 79.3% of the patients, with an average increment of about 22.4%. Older patients may have a blunted compensatory hypertrophy response after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. DECOFF Probabilities of Failed Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas

    A statistical procedure of estimation of Probabilities of Failed Operations is described and exemplified using ECMWF weather forecasts and SIMO output from Rotor Lift test case models. Also safety factor influence is investigated. DECOFF statistical method is benchmarked against standard Alpha...

  8. Use of a stair-step compensatory gain nutritional regimen to program the onset of puberty in beef heifers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cardoso, R C; Alves, B R C; Prezotto, L D; Thorson, J F; Tedeschi, L O; Keisler, D H; Park, C S; Amstalden, M; Williams, G L

    2014-01-01

    It was hypothesized that metabolic programming of processes underlying puberty can be shifted temporally through the use of a stair-step compensatory growth model such that puberty is optimally timed...

  9. A New Animal Model for Investigation of Mechanical Unloading in Hypertrophic and Failing Hearts: Combination of Transverse Aortic Constriction and Heterotopic Heart Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schaefer

    Full Text Available Previous small animal models for simulation of mechanical unloading are solely performed in healthy or infarcted hearts, not representing the pathophysiology of hypertrophic and dilated hearts emerging in heart failure patients. In this article, we present a new and economic small animal model to investigate mechanical unloading in hypertrophic and failing hearts: the combination of transverse aortic constriction (TAC and heterotopic heart transplantation (hHTx in rats.To induce cardiac hypertrophy and failure in rat hearts, three-week old rats underwent TAC procedure. Three and six weeks after TAC, hHTx with hypertrophic and failing hearts in Lewis rats was performed to induce mechanical unloading. After 14 days of mechanical unloading animals were euthanatized and grafts were explanted for further investigations.50 TAC procedures were performed with a survival of 92% (46/50. When compared to healthy rats left ventricular surface decreased to 5.8±1.0 mm² (vs. 9.6± 2.4 mm² (p = 0.001 after three weeks with a fractional shortening (FS of 23.7± 4.3% vs. 28.2± 1.5% (p = 0.01. Six weeks later, systolic function decreased to 17.1± 3.2% vs. 28.2± 1.5% (p = 0.0001 and left ventricular inner surface increased to 19.9±1.1 mm² (p = 0.0001. Intraoperative graft survival during hHTx was 80% with 46 performed procedures (37/46. All transplanted organs survived two weeks of mechanical unloading.Combination of TAC and hHTx in rats offers an economic and reproducible small animal model enabling serial examination of mechanical unloading in a truly hypertrophic and failing heart, representing the typical pressure overloaded and dilated LV, occurring in patients with moderate to severe heart failure.

  10. NS5806 partially restores action potential duration but fails to ameliorate calcium transient dysfunction in a computational model of canine heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maleckar, Mary M; Lines, Glenn T; Koivumäki, Jussi T

    2014-01-01

    ionic processes with a focus on calcium transients (CaT), how these were altered in HF across the ventricular wall, and the subsequent effects of varying compound concentration in HF. Heart failure model variants recapitulated a characteristic increase in AP duration (APD) in the disease...... activation. CONCLUSIONS: Downstream effects of a compound acting exclusively on sarcolemmal ion channels are difficult to predict. Remediation of APD to pre-failing state does not ameliorate dysfunction in CaT; however, restoration of notch depth appears to impart modest benefit and a likelihood...

  11. Hebbian plasticity requires compensatory processes on multiple timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstner, Wulfram

    2017-01-01

    We review a body of theoretical and experimental research on Hebbian and homeostatic plasticity, starting from a puzzling observation: while homeostasis of synapses found in experiments is a slow compensatory process, most mathematical models of synaptic plasticity use rapid compensatory processes (RCPs). Even worse, with the slow homeostatic plasticity reported in experiments, simulations of existing plasticity models cannot maintain network stability unless further control mechanisms are implemented. To solve this paradox, we suggest that in addition to slow forms of homeostatic plasticity there are RCPs which stabilize synaptic plasticity on short timescales. These rapid processes may include heterosynaptic depression triggered by episodes of high postsynaptic firing rate. While slower forms of homeostatic plasticity are not sufficient to stabilize Hebbian plasticity, they are important for fine-tuning neural circuits. Taken together we suggest that learning and memory rely on an intricate interplay of diverse plasticity mechanisms on different timescales which jointly ensure stability and plasticity of neural circuits. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Integrating Hebbian and homeostatic plasticity’. PMID:28093557

  12. Why intended business model innovation fails to deliver: Insights from a longitudinal study in the German smart energy market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastian, Knab; Rohrbeck, René

    This paper aims to explore whether intended business model innovation (BMI) activities enhance exploration capabilities of incumbent firms. We report findings from a longitudinal study that spans from 2010 to 2014. We find that even though incumbent firms generated 21 generic business models...

  13. Heterogeneity in genetic diversity among non-coding loci fails to fit neutral coalescent models of population history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L Peters

    Full Text Available Inferring aspects of the population histories of species using coalescent analyses of non-coding nuclear DNA has grown in popularity. These inferences, such as divergence, gene flow, and changes in population size, assume that genetic data reflect simple population histories and neutral evolutionary processes. However, violating model assumptions can result in a poor fit between empirical data and the models. We sampled 22 nuclear intron sequences from at least 19 different chromosomes (a genomic transect to test for deviations from selective neutrality in the gadwall (Anas strepera, a Holarctic duck. Nucleotide diversity among these loci varied by nearly two orders of magnitude (from 0.0004 to 0.029, and this heterogeneity could not be explained by differences in substitution rates alone. Using two different coalescent methods to infer models of population history and then simulating neutral genetic diversity under these models, we found that the observed among-locus heterogeneity in nucleotide diversity was significantly higher than expected for these simple models. Defining more complex models of population history demonstrated that a pre-divergence bottleneck was also unlikely to explain this heterogeneity. However, both selection and interspecific hybridization could account for the heterogeneity observed among loci. Regardless of the cause of the deviation, our results illustrate that violating key assumptions of coalescent models can mislead inferences of population history.

  14. Running on Empty? The Compensatory Reserve Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Running on empty? The compensatory reserve index Steven L. Moulton, MD, Jane Mulligan , PhD, Greg Z. Grudic, PhD, and Victor A. Convertino, PhD, San...reserve index. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Moulton S. L., Mulligan J., Grudic G. Z., Convertino V...2003;196:679Y684. 25. Convertino VA, Grudic GZ, Mulligan J, Moulton S. Estimation of individual-specific progression to cardiovascular instability using

  15. Failed endotracheal intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheykhol Islami V

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of failed intubation is higher in obstetric than other surgical patients. Failed intubation was the 2nd commonest cause of mortality during anesthesia. Bearing in mind that failre to intubate may be unavoidable in certain circumstances, it is worth reviewing. The factors, which may contribute to a disastrous out come. Priorities of subsequent management must include maintaining oxygenation and preventing aspiration of gastric contents. Fiber optic intubation is now the technique of choice with a high success rate and with least trauma to the patient.

  16. Nutrient compensatory foraging in a free-living social insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Keri L.; Gallacher, Anthony P.; Martin, Lizzie; Tong, Desmond; Elgar, Mark A.

    2010-10-01

    The geometric framework model predicts that animal foraging decisions are influenced by their dietary history, with animals targeting a combination of essential nutrients through compensatory foraging. We provide experimental confirmation of nutrient-specific compensatory foraging in a natural, free-living population of social insects by supplementing their diet with sources of protein- or carbohydrate-rich food. Colonies of the ant Iridomyrmex suchieri were provided with feeders containing food rich in either carbohydrate or protein for 6 days, and were then provided with a feeder containing the same or different diet. The patterns of recruitment were consistent with the geometric framework: while feeders with a carbohydrate diet typically attracted more workers than did feeders with protein diet, the difference in recruitment between the two nutrients was smaller if the colonies had had prior access to carbohydrate than protein. Further, fewer ants visited feeders if the colony had had prior access to protein than to carbohydrates, suggesting that the larvae play a role in worker foraging behaviour.

  17. Characterization and regulation of mechanical loading-induced compensatory muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gregory R; Bamman, Marcas M

    2012-10-01

    In mammalian systems, skeletal muscle exists in a dynamic state that monitors and regulates the physiological investment in muscle size to meet the current level of functional demand. This review attempts to consolidate current knowledge concerning development of the compensatory hypertrophy that occurs in response to a sustained increase in the mechanical loading of skeletal muscle. Topics covered include: defining and measuring compensatory hypertrophy, experimental models, loading stimulus parameters, acute responses to increased loading, hyperplasia, myofiber-type adaptations, the involvement of satellite cells, mRNA translational control, mechanotransduction, and endocrinology. The authors conclude with their impressions of current knowledge gaps in the field that are ripe for future study.

  18. The role of compensatory mutations in the emergence of drug resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Handel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens that evolve resistance to drugs usually have reduced fitness. However, mutations that largely compensate for this reduction in fitness often arise. We investigate how these compensatory mutations affect population-wide resistance emergence as a function of drug treatment. Using a model of gonorrhea transmission dynamics, we obtain generally applicable, qualitative results that show how compensatory mutations lead to more likely and faster resistance emergence. We further show that resistance emergence depends on the level of drug use in a strongly nonlinear fashion. We also discuss what data need to be obtained to allow future quantitative predictions of resistance emergence.

  19. Photoperiodic regulation of compensatory testicular hypertrophy in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Matthew J; Park, Jin Ho; Horton, Teresa H; Alvarez, Maria I; Burke, Morgan K; Place, Ned J; Zucker, Irving

    2006-08-01

    In mammals, removal of one testis results in compensatory testicular hypertrophy (CTH) of the remaining gonad. Although CTH is ubiquitous among juveniles of many species, laboratory rats, laboratory mice, and humans unilaterally castrated in adulthood fail to display CTH. We documented CTH in pre- and postpubertally hemi-castrated Syrian and Siberian hamsters and tested whether day length affects CTH in juvenile and adult Siberian hamsters. Robust CTH was evident in long-day hemi-castrates of both species and was preceded by increased serum FSH concentrations in juvenile Siberian hamsters. In sharp contrast, CTH was undetectable in short-day hemi-castrated Siberian hamsters for several months and only made its appearance with the development of neuroendocrine refractoriness to short day lengths; serum FSH concentrations of juveniles also did not increase above sham-castrate values until the onset of refractoriness. Long-day hemi-castrated Siberian hamsters with hypertrophied testes underwent complete gonadal regression after transfer to short days, albeit at a reduced rate for the first 3 weeks of treatment. Blood testosterone concentrations of adult hamsters did not differ between long-day hemicastrates and sham-castrates 9-12 weeks after surgery. We conclude that CTH is suppressed by short day lengths in Siberian hamsters at all ages and stages of reproductive development; in short day lengths, but not long day lengths, the remaining testis produces sufficient negative feedback inhibition to restrain FSH hypersecretion and prevent CTH.

  20. A Compensatory Control Account of Meritocracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Goode

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Why are people motivated to support social systems that claim to distribute resources based on hard work and effort, even when those systems seem unfair? Recent research on compensatory control shows that lowered perceptions of personal control motivate a greater endorsement of external systems (e.g., God, government that compensate for a lack of personal control. The present studies demonstrate that U.S. citizens’ faith in a popular economic ideology, namely the belief that hard work guarantees success (i.e., meritocracy, similarly increases under conditions of decreased personal control. We found that a threat to personal control increased participants’ endorsement of meritocracy (Studies 1 and 2. Additionally, lowered perceptions of control led to increased feelings of anxiety regarding the future, but the subsequent endorsement of (Study 2 or exposure to (Study 3 meritocracy attenuated this effect. While the compensatory use of meritocracy may be a phenomenon unique to the United States of America, these studies provide important insight into the appeal and persistence of ideologies in general.

  1. Deletion of atrophy enhancing genes fails to ameliorate the phenotype in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Chitra C; McGovern, Vicki L; Wise, Dawnne O; Glass, David J; Burghes, Arthur H M

    2014-05-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease causing degeneration of lower motor neurons and muscle atrophy. One therapeutic avenue for SMA is targeting signaling pathways in muscle to ameliorate atrophy. Muscle Atrophy F-box, MAFbx, and Muscle RING Finger 1, MuRF1, are muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases upregulated in skeletal and cardiac muscle during atrophy. Homozygous knock-out of MAFbx or MuRF1 causes muscle sparing in adult mice subjected to atrophy by denervation. We wished to determine whether blockage of the major muscle atrophy pathways by deletion of MAFbx or MuRF1 in a mouse model of SMA would improve the phenotype. Deletion of MAFbx in the Δ7 SMA mouse model had no effect on the weight and the survival of the mice while deletion of MuRF1 was deleterious. MAFbx(-/-)-SMA mice showed a significant alteration in fiber size distribution tending towards larger fibers. In skeletal and cardiac tissue MAFbx and MuRF1 transcripts were upregulated whereas MuRF2 and MuRF3 levels were unchanged in Δ7 SMA mice. We conclude that deletion of the muscle ubiquitin ligases does not improve the phenotype of a Δ7 SMA mouse. Furthermore, it seems unlikely that the beneficial effect of HDAC inhibitors is mediated through inhibition of MAFbx and MuRF1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Major risk-stratification models fail to predict outcomes in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease undergoing simultaneous hybrid procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao-ran; ZHENG Zhe; XIONG Hui; XU Bo; LI Li-huan; GAO Run-lin; HU Sheng-shou

    2013-01-01

    Background The hybrid procedure for coronary heart disease combines minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is an alternative to revascularization treatment.We sought to assess the predictive value of four risk-stratification models for risk assessment of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in patients with multivessel disease undergoing hybrid coronary revascularization.Methods The data of 120 patients were retrospectively collected and the SYNTAX score,EuroSCORE,SinoSCORE and the Global Risk Classification (GRC) calculated for each patient.The outcomes of interest were 2.7-year incidences of MACCE,including death,myocardial infarction,stroke,and any-vessel revascularization.Results During a mean of 2.7-year follow-up,actuarial survival was 99.17%,and no myocardial infarctions occurred.The discriminatory power (area under curve (AUC)) of the SYNTAX score,EuroSCORE,SinoSCORE and GRC for 2.7-year MACCE was 0.60 (95% confidence interval 0.42-0.77),0.65 (0.47-0.82),0.57 (0.39-0.75) and 0.65 (0.46-0.83),respectively.The calibration characteristics of the SYNTAX score,EuroSCORE,SinoSCORE and GRC were 3.92 (P=0.86),5.39 (P=0.37),13.81 (P=0.32) and 0.02 (P=0.89),respectively.Conclusions In patients with multivessel disease undergoing a hybrid procedure,the SYNTAX score,EuroSCORE,SinoSCORE and GRC were inaccurate in predicting MACCE.Modifying risk-stratification models to improve the predictive value for a hybrid procedure is needed.

  3. Partial deletion of the ROCK2 protein fails to reduce renal fibrosis in a unilateral ureteral obstruction model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Itsuko; Egi, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis is a well‑known cause for the progression of chronic kidney disease. Rho/Rho‑associated coiled‑coil kinase (ROCK) signaling is involved in renal fibrotic processes. Non‑selective ROCK1/2 inhibitors have been reported to reduce renal interstitial fibrosis in a rodent unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model. To clarify the role and contribution of ROCK2 in renal fibrosis, the present study used ROCK2 heterozygous knockout (HKO) mice to assess collagen deposition and fibrosis‑associated gene expression in the kidney of the UUO model. In the ROCK2 HKO mice, the expression level of ROCK2 in the normal kidney was half of that in the kidney of wild‑type (WT) mice. The expression levels of ROCK1 in the ROCK2 HKO mice and WT mice were equivalent. Furthermore, in the ROCK2 HKO and the WT mice, the hydroxyproline content and the gene expression levels of collagen I and transforming growth factor‑β1 in the obstructed kidneys were augmented following UUO. By contrast, the mRNA expression of α‑smooth muscle actin decreased in the ROCK2 HKO mice, compared with that in the WT mice. The activity of ROCK in the obstructed kidneys, indicated by the phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit‑1, which is a non‑selective substrate of ROCK1 and ROCK2, was equivalent among the ROCK2 HKO and WT mice. In conclusion, no differences in renal interstitial fibrosis or UUO‑induced ROCK activity were identified between the ROCK2 HKO and WT mice, indicating that the genetic partial disruption of ROCK2 is insufficient for protecting against renal fibrosis.

  4. Local delivery of a selective androgen receptor modulator failed as an anabolic agent in a rat bone marrow ablation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Hannu T; Kulkova, Julia; Moritz, Niko; Kähkönen, Esa; Mattila, Riina H

    2015-01-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have been developed to have systemic anabolic effects on bones and muscles without the adverse effects of steroidal androgens. One unexplored therapeutic option is the targeted application of SARMs for the enhancement of local new bone formation. We evaluated the osteogenic efficacy of a locally released SARM (ORM-11984). ORM-11984 was mixed with a copolymer of L-lactide and ɛ-caprolactone (PLCL). An in vitro dissolution test confirmed the sustainable release of ORM-11984 from the matrix. A bone marrow ablation model was used in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Implants containing 10%, 30%, or 50% ORM-11984 by weight or pure PLCL were inserted into the medullary canal of the ablated tibia. At 6 and 12 weeks, the volume of intramedullary new bone and the perimeter of bone-implant contact were measured by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was a negative correlation between the amount of new bone around the implant and the dose of ORM-11984. There was only a mild (and not statistically significant) enhancement of bone formation in ablated bones subjected to the lowest dose of the SARM (10%). This study suggests that intramedullary/endosteal osteogenesis had a negative, dose-dependent response to locally released SARM. This result highlights the complexity of androgenic effects on bones and also suggests that there are biological limits to the targeted local application of SARMs.

  5. Apyrase treatment of myocardial infarction according to a clinically applicable protocol fails to reduce myocardial injury in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ectonucleotidase dependent adenosine generation has been implicated in preconditioning related cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, and treatment with a soluble ectonucleotidase has been shown to reduce myocardial infarct size (IS when applied prior to induction of ischemia. However, ectonucleotidase treatment according to a clinically applicable protocol, with administration only after induction of ischemia, has not previously been evaluated. We therefore investigated if treatment with the ectonucleotidase apyrase, according to a clinically applicable protocol, would reduce IS and microvascular obstruction (MO in a large animal model. Methods A percutaneous coronary intervention balloon was inflated in the left anterior descending artery for 40 min, in 16 anesthetized pigs (40-50 kg. The pigs were randomized to 40 min of 1 ml/min intracoronary infusion of apyrase (10 U/ml, n = 8 or saline (0.9 mg/ml, n = 8, twenty minutes after balloon inflation. Area at risk (AAR was evaluated by ex vivo SPECT. IS and MO were evaluated by ex vivo MRI. Results No differences were observed between the apyrase group and saline group with respect to IS/AAR (75.7 ± 4.2% vs 69.4 ± 5.0%, p = NS or MO (10.7 ± 4.8% vs 11.4 ± 4.8%, p = NS, but apyrase prolonged the post-ischemic reactive hyperemia. Conclusion Apyrase treatment according to a clinically applicable protocol, with administration of apyrase after induction of ischemia, does not reduce myocardial infarct size or microvascular obstruction.

  6. Acute neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism fails to dampen airflow limitation or airway eosinophilia in an experimental model of feline asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, Megan; Krumme, Stacy; Outi, Hilton; Dodam, John R; Reinero, Carol R

    2016-02-01

    Feline allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the lower airways that may manifest with acute, life-threatening clinical signs. Tachykinins released from sensory nerves and immune cells binding neurokinin (NK)-1, NK-2 and NK-3 receptors have been implicated in asthma pathogenesis. Maropitant, an NK-1 receptor antagonist, blocks neuroimmune pathways and may be a viable treatment option for cats in asthmatic crisis. Using an experimental chronic allergic feline asthma model, we hypothesized that a single dose of maropitant given immediately after allergen challenge would blunt clinical signs, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway eosinophilia. Cats (n = 7) induced to have an asthmatic phenotype using Bermuda grass allergen (BGA) were enrolled in a prospective, placebo-controlled crossover design study. Cats randomly received maropitant (2 mg/kg SC) or placebo (saline SC) immediately post-BGA challenge, followed 12 h later by pulmonary mechanics testing and measurement of airway eosinophils. After a 2 week washout, cats were crossed-over to the alternate treatment. Study endpoints included subjective clinical scoring systems post-BGA challenge, ventilator-acquired pulmonary mechanics to assess AHR after bronchoprovocation with methacholine and collection of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid to quantify airway eosinophilia. Data were analyzed using a Mann-Whitney rank sum test with P eosinophilia (P = 0.165) compared with placebo. A single injection of maropitant given immediately post-allergen challenge was ineffective at blunting clinical signs, AHR and airway eosinophilia, and cannot be recommended as treatment for feline status asthmaticus. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  7. When physical intuition fails

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the problem solving strategies of physics professors in a case where their physical intuition fails. A non-intuitive introductory-level problem was identified and posed to twenty physics professors. The problem placed the professors in a situation often encountered by students, and their response highlights the importance of intuition and experience in problem solving. While professors had difficulty in solving the problem under the time constraint, they initially employed a system...

  8. Who fails lantern tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, B L; Vingrys, A J

    1983-05-01

    A battery of clinical colour vision tests was given to a group of 100 observers with abnormal colour vision who were also tested on the Farnsworth lantern and the Holmes-Wright lanterns types A and B. It was found that clinical colour vision tests are imperfect predictors of lantern test performance. However, observers classified as having a 'severe' colour vision defect were found to fail the lantern tests but only one half to two-thirds of those who fail the lantern tests can be identified in this way. It is not possible to identify with certainty any of the people likely to pass the lantern tests: about one-third to two-thirds of observers classified as being mildly affected fail the lantern tests. The Farnsworth D-15 and City University tests were found to be the best predictors of lantern test performance but other tests such as the Nagel anomaloscope, the H-16, L'Anthony's desaturated test can also be used. The lack of a strong correlation between clinical tests and the recognition of the small coloured stimuli presented by the lantern tests suggests that clinical tests do not test the same aspect of colour vision that is important to the recognition of signal lights. For this reason lantern tests should be retained for occupational testing of colour vision.

  9. Can compensatory culling offset undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysterud, Atle; Bischof, Richard

    2010-01-01

    1. There is growing concern about the evolutionary consequences of human harvesting on phenotypic trait quality in wild populations. Undesirable consequences are especially likely with trophy hunting because of its strong bias for specific phenotypic trait values, such as large antlers in cervids and horns in bovids. Selective hunting can cause a decline in a trophy trait over time if it is heritable, thereby reducing the long-term sustainability of the activity itself. 2. How can we build a sustainable trophy hunting tradition without the negative trait-altering effects? We used an individual-based model to explore whether selective compensatory culling of 'low quality' individuals at an early life stage can facilitate sustainability, as suggested by information from managed game populations in eastern and central Europe. Our model was rooted in empirical data on red deer, where heritability of sexual ornaments has been confirmed and phenotypic quality can be assessed by antler size in individuals as young as 1 year. 3. Simulations showed that targeted culling of low-quality yearlings could counter the selective effects of trophy hunting on the distribution of the affected trait (e.g. antler or horn size) in prime-aged individuals. Assumptions of trait heritability and young-to-adult correlation were essential for compensation, but the model proved robust to various other assumptions and changes to input parameters. The simulation approach allowed us to verify responses as evolutionary changes in trait values rather than short-term consequences of altered age structure, density and viability selection. 4. We conclude that evolutionarily enlightened management may accommodate trophy hunting. This has far reaching implications as income from trophy hunting is often channelled into local conservation efforts and rural economies. As an essential follow-up, we recommend an analysis of the effects of trophy hunting in conjunction with compensatory culling on the

  10. Compensatory mechanisms activated with intermittent energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; Halset, Eline Holli; Gåsbakk, Sigrid

    2017-01-01

    : 39 ± 9 y) with obesity (BMI: 36 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomized to lose a similar weight with an IER (N = 18) or a CER (N = 17) diet over a 12 week period. Macronutrient composition and overall energy restriction (33% reduction) were similar between groups. Body weight/composition, RMR, fasting......) were measured before and after WL. Results: Changes in body weight (≈12.5% WL) and composition were similar in both groups. Fasting RQ and ExEff at 10 W increased in both groups. Losing weight, either by IER or CER dieting, did not induce significant changes in subjective appetite ratings. RMR......Background & aims: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy...

  11. State-Funded Compensatory/Remedial Program, 1985-1986 Academic Year. Co-Teacher Program: Lafayette Parish School Board. Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresi, Mereline; Lovelace, Terry

    The Lafayette Parish Compensatory/Remedial Program for 1985-86 involved remedial teachers in 31 schools serving 1,022 students in grades 2 through 6 who had previously failed the state Basic Skills Test (BST). A minimum of 70 hours instruction was provided to the children in the area(s) in which each was deficient. Focus was on assessing the…

  12. Endocrine Regulation of Compensatory Growth in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene T. Won

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG is a period of accelerated growth that occurs following the alleviation of growth-stunting conditions during which an organism can make up for lost growth opportunity and potentially catch-up in size with non-stunted cohorts. Fish show a particularly robust capacity for the response and have been the focus of numerous studies that demonstrate their ability to compensate for periods of fasting once food is made available again. Compensatory growth is characterized by an elevated growth rate resulting from enhanced feed intake, mitogen production and feed conversion efficiency. Because little is known about the underlying mechanisms that drive the response, this review describes the sequential endocrine adaptations that lead to CG; namely during the precedent catabolic phase (fasting that taps endogenous energy reserves, and the following hyperanabolic phase (refeeding when accelerated growth occurs. In order to elicit a CG response, endogenous energy reserves must first be moderately depleted, which alters endocrine profiles that enhance appetite and growth potential. During this catabolic phase, elevated ghrelin and growth hormone (GH production increase appetite and protein-sparing lipolysis, while insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are suppressed, primarily due to hepatic GH resistance. During refeeding, temporal hyperphagia provides an influx of energy and metabolic substrates that are then allocated to somatic growth by resumed IGF signaling. Under the right conditions, refeeding results in hyperanabolism and a steepened growth trajectory relative to constantly fed controls. The response wanes as energy reserves are re-accumulated and homeostasis is restored. We ascribe possible roles for select appetite and growth-regulatory hormones in the context of these catabolic and hyperanabolic phases of the CG response in teleosts, with emphasis on GH, IGFs, cortisol, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, ghrelin and leptin.

  13. Compensatory Strategies of First-Language-Attrited Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahdan

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the compensatory strategies used by two Indonesian children who experienced first language attrition when acquiring English in the English-speaking environment. They use compensatory strategies to compensate for their lack of competence in first language. They employ both interlingual strategies and discourse strategies when…

  14. The use of compensatory strategies in adults with ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kysow, Kate; Park, Joanne; Johnston, Charlotte

    2016-09-10

    This study examined the use of compensatory strategies reported by adults with ADHD symptoms and their relation to measures of functioning. Forty-nine adults (55.1 % female) completed a structured diagnostic interview to assess ADHD, and responses were coded for compensatory strategies: Adaptation, Paying Attention, Organization, External Support, and Avoidance. The majority of adults with ADHD symptoms reported using compensatory strategies, and their reported strategy use in childhood was related to their use in adulthood. No gender differences were found in the use of strategies, although Organization and External Support were used more often for inattention than for hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. Use of the compensatory strategy, Adaptation, was significantly related to measures of functioning, and the use of strategies reduced the negative relationship between ADHD symptoms and parenting difficulties. Results encourage the development of compensatory strategies among adults with ADHD symptoms, as well as provide recommendations for treatment programs.

  15. Failed theories of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Schmalian, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Almost half a century passed between the discovery of superconductivity by Kammerlingh Onnes and the theoretical explanation of the phenomenon by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer. During the intervening years the brightest minds in theoretical physics tried and failed to develop a microscopic understanding of the effect. A summary of some of those unsuccessful attempts to understand superconductivity not only demonstrates the extraordinary achievement made by formulating the BCS theory, but also illustrates that mistakes are a natural and healthy part of the scientific discourse, and that inapplicable, even incorrect theories can turn out to be interesting and inspiring.

  16. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  17. Factor analysis of perception of the compensatory policy as fair by workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsimbalyuk Svitlana A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is the study of the essence of the “fair compensatory policy” notion and analysis of factors that influence perception of the compensatory policy as fair by workers. The article formulates conceptual provisions that reveal the essence of the “fair compensatory policy” notion. In the result of the study the article assesses impact on the effective feature “the level of perception of the system of remuneration of labour as fair by employed workers” of such factor features as the level of satisfaction of the worker with the size of remuneration, level of transparency of the system of remuneration of labour, level of dependence of remuneration on complexity of works and duties, and the level of dependence of remuneration on individual results of labour. The article builds a regression model of dependence of the effective feature on factor features. It establishes that only when at least three parameters of the model are positive, the worker can perceive the system of remuneration of labour as fair. Moreover, such a situation is possible also in case of dissatisfaction of the worker with the size of his or her remuneration. Further studies should be directed at development of proposals on planning various components of the aggregate remuneration from the point of view of ensuring social fairness of the compensatory policy.

  18. HuCNS-SC Human NSCs Fail to Differentiate, Form Ectopic Clusters, and Provide No Cognitive Benefits in a Transgenic Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E. Marsh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs can improve cognition in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, AD is a protracted disorder, and prior studies have examined only short-term effects. We therefore used an immune-deficient model of AD (Rag-5xfAD mice to examine long-term transplantation of human NSCs (StemCells Inc.; HuCNS-SCs. Five months after transplantation, HuCNS-SCs had engrafted and migrated throughout the hippocampus and exhibited no differences in survival or migration in response to β-amyloid pathology. Despite robust engraftment, HuCNS-SCs failed to terminally differentiate and over a quarter of the animals exhibited ectopic human cell clusters within the lateral ventricle. Unlike prior short-term experiments with research-grade HuCNS-SCs, we also found no evidence of improved cognition, no changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and no increase in synaptic density. These data, while disappointing, reinforce the notion that individual human NSC lines need to be carefully assessed for efficacy and safety in appropriate long-term models.

  19. Why functional pre-erythrocytic and bloodstage malaria vaccines fail: a meta-analysis of fully protective immunizations and novel immunological model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Lys Guilbride

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinically protective malaria vaccines consistently fail to protect adults and children in endemic settings, and at best only partially protect infants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identify and evaluate 1916 immunization studies between 1965-February 2010, and exclude partially or nonprotective results to find 177 completely protective immunization experiments. Detailed reexamination reveals an unexpectedly mundane basis for selective vaccine failure: live malaria parasites in the skin inhibit vaccine function. We next show published molecular and cellular data support a testable, novel model where parasite-host interactions in the skin induce malaria-specific regulatory T cells, and subvert early antigen-specific immunity to parasite-specific immunotolerance. This ensures infection and tolerance to reinfection. Exposure to Plasmodium-infected mosquito bites therefore systematically triggers immunosuppression of endemic vaccine-elicited responses. The extensive vaccine trial data solidly substantiate this model experimentally. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude skinstage-initiated immunosuppression, unassociated with bloodstage parasites, systematically blocks vaccine function in the field. Our model exposes novel molecular and procedural strategies to significantly and quickly increase protective efficacy in both pipeline and currently ineffective malaria vaccines, and forces fundamental reassessment of central precepts determining vaccine development. This has major implications for accelerated local eliminations of malaria, and significantly increases potential for eradication.

  20. How many studies are necessary to compare niche-based models for geographic distributions? Inductive reasoning may fail at the end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terribile, L C; Diniz-Filho, J A F; De Marco jr, P

    2010-05-01

    The use of ecological niche models (ENM) to generate potential geographic distributions of species has rapidly increased in ecology, conservation and evolutionary biology. Many methods are available and the most used are Maximum Entropy Method (MAXENT) and the Genetic Algorithm for Rule Set Production (GARP). Recent studies have shown that MAXENT perform better than GARP. Here we used the statistics methods of ROC - AUC (area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve) and bootstrap to evaluate the performance of GARP and MAXENT in generate potential distribution models for 39 species of New World coral snakes. We found that values of AUC for GARP ranged from 0.923 to 0.999, whereas those for MAXENT ranged from 0.877 to 0.999. On the whole, the differences in AUC were very small, but for 10 species GARP outperformed MAXENT. Means and standard deviations for 100 bootstrapped samples with sample sizes ranging from 3 to 30 species did not show any trends towards deviations from a zero difference in AUC values of GARP minus AUC values of MAXENT. Ours results suggest that further studies are still necessary to establish under which circumstances the statistical performance of the methods vary. However, it is also important to consider the possibility that this empirical inductive reasoning may fail in the end, because we almost certainly could not establish all potential scenarios generating variation in the relative performance of models.

  1. How many studies are necessary to compare niche-based models for geographic distributions? Inductive reasoning may fail at the end

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Terribile

    Full Text Available The use of ecological niche models (ENM to generate potential geographic distributions of species has rapidly increased in ecology, conservation and evolutionary biology. Many methods are available and the most used are Maximum Entropy Method (MAXENT and the Genetic Algorithm for Rule Set Production (GARP. Recent studies have shown that MAXENT perform better than GARP. Here we used the statistics methods of ROC - AUC (area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve and bootstrap to evaluate the performance of GARP and MAXENT in generate potential distribution models for 39 species of New World coral snakes. We found that values of AUC for GARP ranged from 0.923 to 0.999, whereas those for MAXENT ranged from 0.877 to 0.999. On the whole, the differences in AUC were very small, but for 10 species GARP outperformed MAXENT. Means and standard deviations for 100 bootstrapped samples with sample sizes ranging from 3 to 30 species did not show any trends towards deviations from a zero difference in AUC values of GARP minus AUC values of MAXENT. Ours results suggest that further studies are still necessary to establish under which circumstances the statistical performance of the methods vary. However, it is also important to consider the possibility that this empirical inductive reasoning may fail in the end, because we almost certainly could not establish all potential scenarios generating variation in the relative performance of models.

  2. Conservative compensatory Angle Class III malocclusion treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Costa Sobral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Angle's Class III malocclusion is a dental discrepancy in a sagittal view that may appear or not with an important skeletal discrepancy. Facial esthetics may be affected by this skeletal discrepancy and it is one of the most common complaints of patients who seek orthodontic treatment. Class III treatment, in adults, may be done by compensatory tooth movement, in simple cases, or through an association between orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, in more severe cases. OBJECTIVE: This article describes a non-extraction compensatory Class III treatment case, applying the Tweed-Merrifield mechanical principles with headgear (J-Hook in the mandibular arch. This case was presented at the V Brazilian Association of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (ABOR Meeting, it was evaluated by members of Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and obtained third place in the general classification.INTRODUÇÃO: a má oclusão de Classe III se caracteriza por uma desarmonia dentária anteroposterior, podendo estar ou não acompanhada por discrepâncias esqueléticas. A estética facial pode se apresentar comprometida, em maior ou menor grau, a depender da magnitude da discrepância, constituindo um dos principais fatores motivadores da procura por tratamento ortodôntico. O tratamento da Classe III em pacientes adultos pode ser realizado mediante compensação dentária, nos casos mais simples, ou, em situações mais severas, mediante a associação entre Ortodontia e Cirurgia Ortognática. OBJETIVO: o presente artigo objetiva relatar um caso clínico caracterizado por uma má oclusão de Classe III de Angle, tratado de forma compensatória, com extração dos terceiros molares inferiores, mediante a utilização de aparelhagem extrabucal na arcada inferior (J-hook, aplicando-se princípios da técnica de Tweed-Merrifield. Esse caso foi apresentado no 5º Congresso da Associação Brasileira de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (ABOR, na categoria

  3. When physical intuition fails

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the problem solving strategies of physics professors in a case where their physical intuition fails. A non-intuitive introductory-level problem was identified and posed to twenty physics professors. The problem placed the professors in a situation often encountered by students, and their response highlights the importance of intuition and experience in problem solving. While professors had difficulty in solving the problem under the time constraint, they initially employed a systematic approach, e.g., visualizing the problem, considering various conservation laws, and examining limiting cases. After finding that familiar techniques were not fruitful, they made incorrect predictions based on one of two equally important factors. By contrast, other more familiar problems that require the consideration of two important principles (e.g., conservation of both energy and momentum for a ballistic pendulum) are quickly solved by the same professors. The responses of students who were given the same problem...

  4. Vitamin K supplementation increases vitamin K tissue levels but fails to counteract ectopic calcification in a mouse model for pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgels, Theo G M F; Waarsing, Jan H; Herfs, Marjolein; Versteeg, Daniëlle; Schoensiegel, Frank; Sato, Toshiro; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Ivandic, Boris; Vermeer, Cees; Schurgers, Leon J; Bergen, Arthur A B

    2011-11-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which calcification of connective tissue leads to pathology in skin, eye and blood vessels. PXE is caused by mutations in ABCC6. High expression of this transporter in the basolateral hepatocyte membrane suggests that it secretes an as-yet elusive factor into the circulation which prevents ectopic calcification. Utilizing our Abcc6 (-/-) mouse model for PXE, we tested the hypothesis that this factor is vitamin K (precursor) (Borst et al. 2008, Cell Cycle). For 3 months, Abcc6 (-/-) and wild-type mice were put on diets containing either the minimum dose of vitamin K required for normal blood coagulation or a dose that was 100 times higher. Vitamin K was supplied as menaquinone-7 (MK-7). Ectopic calcification was monitored in vivo by monthly micro-CT scans of the snout, as the PXE mouse model develops a characteristic connective tissue mineralization at the base of the whiskers. In addition, calcification of kidney arteries was measured by histology. Results show that supplemental MK-7 had no effect on ectopic calcification in Abcc6 ( -/- ) mice. MK-7 supplementation increased vitamin K levels (in skin, heart and brain) in wild-type and in Abcc6 (-/-) mice. Vitamin K tissue levels did not depend on Abcc6 genotype. In conclusion, dietary MK-7 supplementation increased vitamin K tissue levels in the PXE mouse model but failed to counteract ectopic calcification. Hence, we obtained no support for the hypothesis that Abcc6 transports vitamin K and that PXE can be cured by increasing tissue levels of vitamin K.

  5. Fail forward: Mitigating failure in energy research and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    on participant observation and empirical field research in three case companies, the OFEI model is developed to identify inappropriate behaviors that cause energy research and innovation to fail. The OFEI model can be used to give failed (or failing) projects a second chance and the article concludes...

  6. When physical intuition fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2002-11-01

    We analyze the problem-solving strategies of physics professors in a case where their physical intuition fails. A nonintuitive introductory-level problem was identified and posed to twenty physics professors. The problem placed the professors in a situation often encountered by students, and their response highlights the importance of intuition and experience in problem solving. Although professors had difficulty in solving the problem under the time constraint, they initially employed a systematic approach, for example, visualizing the problem, considering various conservation laws, and examining limiting cases. After finding that familiar techniques were not fruitful, they made incorrect predictions based on one of two equally important factors. In contrast, other more familiar problems that require the consideration of two important principles (for example, conservation of both energy and momentum for a ballistic pendulum) were quickly solved by the same professors. The responses of students who were given the same problem reflected no overarching strategies or systematic approaches, and a much wider variety of incorrect responses were given. This investigation highlights the importance of teaching effective problem-solving heuristics, and suggests that instructors assess the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of beginning students.

  7. 33 CFR 332.3 - General compensatory mitigation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... importance of landscape position and resource type of compensatory mitigation projects for the sustainability... assurances or long-term financing mechanisms, except as determined by the Corps or other agency to be...

  8. Optimal Control of the Compensatory Eye Movement System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Sibindi (Tafadzwa)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this thesis, we utilized behavioural, electrophysiological, computational and stimulation techniques to delve our knowledge further into the functional neural network of the compensatory eye movement system (CEM). We first investigated the superposition violations and non-lineari

  9. COMPENSATORY STRATEGIES OF FIRST-LANGUAGE-ATTRITED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahdan Syahdan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the compensatory strategies used by two Indonesian children who experienced first language attrition when acquiring English in the English-speaking environment. They use compensatory strategies to compensate for their lack of competence in first language. They employ both interlingual strategies and discourse strategies when they have difficulties in communication. Interlingual strategies used are codeswitching and lexical borrowings and the discourse strategies are overt comments, appeal for assistance, and avoidance.

  10. Evaluating the Correlation between Anteroposterior and Mediolateral Compensatory Curves and their Influence on Dentoskeletal Morphology-An In vitro CBCT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K Suresh; Kumar, A Nanda; Kommi, Pradeep Babu; Krishnan, P Hari; Kumar, M Senthil; Sabapathy, R Senkutvan; Kumar, V Vijay

    2017-08-01

    To date, many orthodontist corrects malocclusion based on patients aesthetic concern and fails to correct the compensatory curves. This scenario is due to less insight on understanding relationship of compensatory curves and its correlation in treatment prognosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the curve of Spee, curve of Monson and curve of Wilson, their influence on dentoskeletal morphology and their contribution to occlusal stability. This study included 104 non-orthodontic models. The study casts were subdivided into two groups, Group-I consist 52 non- orthodontic models with Class-I molar relationship and Group-II consist of 52 non- orthodontic models with Class-II molar relationship. Curve of Spee was measured with digital vernier caliper, curve of Monson estimated using specially made sphere (7″inch, 8″ inch and 9″inch) and curve of Wilson was evaluated using Cone Beam Computed Technology (CBCT). Mean value for curve of Spee obtained for Group I and Group II is 1.844 mm and 3.188 mm. For curve of Monson, the mean value obtained for Group I and Group-II is 7.65 inches and 7.40 inches. The mean degree obtained for the curve of Wilson for Group I and Group-II is 12.05 and 16.49. The result showed positive correlation between curve of Spee and curve of Wilson and no correlation between curve of Monson and curve of Wilson and no correlation between curve of Spee and curve of Monson. The Pearson correlation coefficient analysis from the study confirmed these results. The results showed positive correlation between curve of spee and curve of Wilson. The data found in this study can be applied clinically for Class I and Class II malocclusion patients on diagnosis and treatment planning.

  11. To fail or not to fail : clinical trials in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santen, Gijs Willem Eduard

    2008-01-01

    To fail or not to fail – Clinical trials in depression investigates the causes of the high failure rate of clinical trials in depression research. Apart from the difficulties in the search for new antidepressants during drug discovery, faulty clinical trial designs hinder their evaluation during dru

  12. Compensatory plasticity restores locomotion after chronic removal of descending projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Cynthia M; Reilly, Melissa G; Stewart, Christopher; Schlegel, Chantel; Morley, Emma; Puhl, Joshua G; Nagel, Christian; Crisp, Kevin M; Mesce, Karen A

    2015-06-01

    Homeostatic plasticity is an important attribute of neurons and their networks, enabling functional recovery after perturbation. Furthermore, the directed nature of this plasticity may hold a key to the restoration of locomotion after spinal cord injury. Here we studied the recovery of crawling in the leech Hirudo verbana after descending cephalic fibers were surgically separated from crawl central pattern generators shown previously to be regulated by dopamine. We observed that immediately after nerve cord transection leeches were unable to crawl, but remarkably, after a day to weeks, animals began to show elements of crawling and intersegmental coordination. Over a similar time course, excessive swimming due to the loss of descending inhibition returned to control levels. Additionally, removal of the brain did not prevent crawl recovery, indicating that connectivity of severed descending neurons was not essential. After crawl recovery, a subset of animals received a second transection immediately below the anterior-most ganglion remaining. Similar to their initial transection, a loss of crawling with subsequent recovery was observed. These data, in recovered individuals, support the idea that compensatory plasticity directly below the site of injury is essential for the initiation and coordination of crawling. We maintain that the leech provides a valuable model to understand the neural mechanisms underlying locomotor recovery after injury because of its experimental accessibility, segmental organization, and dependence on higher-order control involved in the initiation, modulation, and coordination of locomotor behavior.

  13. Compensatory canine angulation in angle Class II and III patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of compensation in mesiodistal axial inclinations of canines in skeletal malocclusions patients. The sample consisted of 25 Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion (group 1 and 19 Angle Class III malocclusion patients (group 2. After measurement of dental angulations through a method that associates plaster model photography and AutoCad software, comparisons between the groups were performed by T-test for independent samples. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between groups, when maxillary canine angulations were compared. Regarding the mandibular canines, there was a statistically significant difference in dental angulation, expressed by 3.2° for group 1 and 0.15° for group 2. An upright position tendency for mandibular canines was observed in the Angle Class III sample. This configures a pattern of compensatory coronary positioning, since the angulation of these teeth makes them occupy less space in the dental arch and consequently mandibular incisors can be in a more retracted position in the sagittal plane.

  14. Changes in the muscle proteome after compensatory growth in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lametsch, R; Kristensen, L; Larsen, M R; Therkildsen, M; Oksbjerg, N; Ertbjerg, P

    2006-04-01

    Sixteen female pigs (Duroc x Landrace x Large White) were divided into 2 groups, which had either free access to the diet (control group) or were feed-restricted from d 28 to 80 and then had free access to the diet (compensatory growth group). The sensory analysis showed that the pigs exhibiting compensatory growth produced meat with increased tenderness compared with control pigs (P meat tenderness, the sarcoplasmic protein fraction of muscle tissue was studied at the time of slaughter and 48 h postmortem using proteome analysis. At slaughter, 7 different proteins were found to be affected by compensatory growth: HSC70, HSP27, enolase 3, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase E2, aldehyde dehydrogenase E3, and biphosphoglycerate mutase. The HSC70 and HSP27 both belong to the heat shock family and are known to play a role during muscle development. Hence, they may be affected by compensatory growth and increased protein turnover. Forty-eight hours after slaughter, 8 different proteins were found to be affected by compensatory growth: myosin light chain (MLC) II, MLC III, sulfite oxidase, chloride intracellular channel 1, 14-3-3 protein gamma, elongin B, and phosphohistidine phosphatase 14. The changes observed on MLC II and MLC III could be a consequence of enzymatic cleavage in the neck region of the globular myosin head domain that causes the release of MLC II and MLC III from the actomyosin complex. It has previously been hypothesized that compensatory growth results in an increased postmortem proteolysis; thus it was presumed that the intensity of some protein fragments would be affected by compensatory growth. However, the peptides that were found to be affected at 48 h postmortem were all full-length proteins. The 14-3-3 protein gamma has been proposed to play a role in the contraction of muscle during rigor and may thereby have an effect on meat tenderness. This study reveals some very interesting changes in the muscle proteome affected

  15. Investigation of compensatory postures with videofluoromanometry in dysphagia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio Solazzo; Luigi Monaco; Lucia Del Vecchio; Stefania Tamburrini; Francesca Iacobellis; Daniela Berritto; Nunzia Luisa Pizza

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effectiveness of head compensatory postures to ensure safe oropharyngeal transit.METHODS:A total of 321 dysphagia patients were enrolled and assessed with videofluoromanometry (VFM).The dysphagia patients were classified as follows:safe transit; penetration without aspiration; aspiration before,during or after swallowing; multiple aspirations and no transit.The patients with aspiration or no transit were tested with VFM to determine whether compensatory postures could correct their swallowing disorder.RESULTS:VFM revealed penetration without aspiration in 71 patients (22.1%); aspiration before swallowing in 17 patients (5.3%); aspiration during swallowing in 32 patients (10%); aspiration after swallowing in 21 patients (6.5%); multiple aspirations in six patients (1.9%); no transit in five patients (1.6%); and safe transit in 169 patients (52.6%).Compensatory postures guaranteed a safe transit in 66/75 (88%) patients with aspiration or no transit.A chin-down posture achieved a safe swallow in 42/75 (56%) patients,a head-turned posture in 19/75 (25.3%) and a hyperextended head posture in 5/75 (6.7%).The compensatory postures were not effective in 9/75 (12%) cases.CONCLUSION:VFM allows the speech-language therapist to choose the most effective compensatory posture without a trial-and-error process and check the effectiveness of the posture.

  16. Consequences of biodiversity loss diverge from expectation due to post-extinction compensatory responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Matthias S.; Garcia, Clement; Bolam, Stefan G.; Parker, Ruth; Godbold, Jasmin A.; Solan, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Consensus has been reached that global biodiversity loss impairs ecosystem functioning and the sustainability of services beneficial to humanity. However, the ecosystem consequences of extinction in natural communities are moderated by compensatory species dynamics, yet these processes are rarely accounted for in impact assessments and seldom considered in conservation programmes. Here, we use marine invertebrate communities to parameterise numerical models of sediment bioturbation – a key mediator of biogeochemical cycling – to determine whether post-extinction compensatory mechanisms alter biodiversity-ecosystem function relations following non-random extinctions. We find that compensatory dynamics lead to trajectories of sediment mixing that diverge from those without compensation, and that the form, magnitude and variance of each probabilistic distribution is highly influenced by the type of compensation and the functional composition of surviving species. Our findings indicate that the generalized biodiversity-function relation curve, as derived from multiple empirical investigations of random species loss, is unlikely to yield representative predictions for ecosystem properties in natural systems because the influence of post-extinction community dynamics are under-represented. Recognition of this problem is fundamental to management and conservation efforts, and will be necessary to ensure future plans and adaptation strategies minimize the adverse impacts of the biodiversity crisis.

  17. Consequences of biodiversity loss diverge from expectation due to post-extinction compensatory responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Matthias S.; Garcia, Clement; Bolam, Stefan G.; Parker, Ruth; Godbold, Jasmin A.; Solan, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Consensus has been reached that global biodiversity loss impairs ecosystem functioning and the sustainability of services beneficial to humanity. However, the ecosystem consequences of extinction in natural communities are moderated by compensatory species dynamics, yet these processes are rarely accounted for in impact assessments and seldom considered in conservation programmes. Here, we use marine invertebrate communities to parameterise numerical models of sediment bioturbation – a key mediator of biogeochemical cycling – to determine whether post-extinction compensatory mechanisms alter biodiversity-ecosystem function relations following non-random extinctions. We find that compensatory dynamics lead to trajectories of sediment mixing that diverge from those without compensation, and that the form, magnitude and variance of each probabilistic distribution is highly influenced by the type of compensation and the functional composition of surviving species. Our findings indicate that the generalized biodiversity-function relation curve, as derived from multiple empirical investigations of random species loss, is unlikely to yield representative predictions for ecosystem properties in natural systems because the influence of post-extinction community dynamics are under-represented. Recognition of this problem is fundamental to management and conservation efforts, and will be necessary to ensure future plans and adaptation strategies minimize the adverse impacts of the biodiversity crisis. PMID:28255165

  18. Nutritionally directed compensatory growth enhances heifer development and lactation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J A; Park, C S

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the interactive influence of a compensatory nutrition regimen and lasalocid supplementation on dairy heifer growth performance and 2) to document the extent to which compensatory growth sustains lactation potential over the first two lactation cycles. Twelve Holstein heifers, weighing an average of 160 kg (about 6 mo of age) were randomly assigned to treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Treatment variables were two dietary regimens (control and stair-step compensatory nutrition) and two levels of lasalocid (0 and 200 mg/d). The control heifers were fed a diet containing 12% crude protein (CP) and 2.35 Mcal of metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram of dry matter. The stair-step compensatory nutrition heifers were subjected to a phased nutrition regimen and reared according to an alternating 3-2-4-3-4-2-mo schedule. The first stair-step (prepubertal phase) consisted of energy restriction [17% CP and 2.35 Mcal/kg of ME] for 3 mo followed by realimentation (12% CP and 3.05 Mcal/kg of ME) for 2 mo. The second step (puberty and breeding) consisted of energy restriction for 4 mo followed by realimentation for 3 mo. The third step (gestation period) was energy restriction for 4 mo concluding with realimentation for 2 mo. Dry matter intake of heifers during the restriction phase was limited to 70% of the control intake. Heifers were given ad libitum access to a high energy density diet during realimentation to allow compensatory development. Stair-step heifers supplemented with lasalocid had the highest efficiency of growth (body weight gain/dry matter intake), suggesting synergistic metabolism of lasalocid with compensatory growth action. Compensatory growth induced during the last trimester enhanced metabolic status by increasing circulating insulin and decreasing triglyceride levels. Heifers on the stair-step regimen had a significant increase in milk yield during the first (21%) and second (15%) lactation

  19. Fission product release model for failed plate-type fuel element and storage under water; Modelo para liberacao de produtos de fissao por placa combustivel falhada e armazenada sob agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, L.A.A.; Zeituni, C.A.; Silva, J.E.R. da; Castanheira, M.; Lucki, G.; Silva, A.T. e; Teodoro, C.A.; Damy, M. de A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: laaterre@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    Plate-type fuel elements burned-up inside the core of nuclear research reactors are stored mainly under deionized water of storage pools. When cladding failure occurs in such elements, radioactive fission products are released into the storage pool water. This work proposes a model to describe the release mechanism considering the diffusion through a postulated small cylindrical failure. As a consequence, an analytical expression is obtained for the activity released into the water as a function of the total storage time of a failed fuel plate. The proposed model reproduces the linear increasing of {sup 137}Cs specific activity observed in sipping tests already performed on failed plate-type fuel elements. (author)

  20. Compensatory vs. pseudocompensatory evolution in molecular and developmental interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Eric S

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of molecules, developmental circuits, and new species are all characterized by the accumulation of incompatibilities between ancestors and descendants. When specific interactions between components are necessary at any of these levels, this requires compensatory coevolution. Theoretical treatments of compensatory evolution that only consider the endpoints predict that it should be rare because intermediate states are deleterious. However, empirical data suggest that compensatory evolution is common at all levels of molecular interaction. A general solution to this paradox is provided by plausible neutral or nearly neutral intermediates that possess informational redundancy. These intermediates provide an evolutionary path between coadapted allelic combinations. Although they allow incompatible end points to evolve, at no point was a deleterious mutation ever in need of compensation. As a result, what appears to be compensatory evolution may often actually be "pseudocompensatory." Both theoretical and empirical studies indicate that pseudocompensation can speed the evolution of intergenic incompatibility, especially when driven by adaptation. However, under strong stabilizing selection the rate of pseudocompensatory evolution is still significant. Important examples of this process at work discussed here include the evolution of rRNA secondary structures, intra- and inter-protein interactions, and developmental genetic pathways. Future empirical work in this area should focus on comparing the details of intra- and intergenic interactions in closely related organisms.

  1. Leisure Patterns among Retired Workers: Spillover or Compensatory Trends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Yael; Harpaz, Itzhak

    1982-01-01

    Compared leisure behavior patterns after retirement with those of preretirement. Examined data within the context of the spillover and compensatory hypotheses, with retirement representing a nonwork sphere. Findings revealed a spillover effect, characterized by a high degree of passive, solitary leisure behavior both before and after retirement.…

  2. In doubt and disorderly: Ambivalence promotes compensatory perceptions of order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harreveld, F.; Rutjens, B.T.; Schneider, I.K.; Nohlen, H.U.; Keskinis, K.

    2014-01-01

    Ambivalence is a presumably unpleasant experience, and coming to terms with it is an intricate part of human existence. It is argued that ambivalent attitude holders cope with their ambivalence through compensatory perceptions of order. We first show that ambivalence leads to an increase in (visual)

  3. Patterns of Compensatory Behaviors and Disordered Eating in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Lisa M.; Reilly, Erin; Anderson, Drew A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated rates of endorsement of eating-related compensatory behaviors within a college sample. Participants: This sample included male and female students (N = 1,158). Methods: Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The study defined 3 groups of students: those who did not…

  4. Postural inflexibility in PD: does it affect compensatory stepping?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, K.; Esselink, R.A.J.; Swart, B.J.M. de; Geurts, A.C.H.; Bloem, B.R.; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) impairs the ability to shape postural responses to contextual factors. It is unknown whether such inflexibility pertains to compensatory steps to overcome balance perturbations. Participants were instructed to recover balance in response to a platform translation. A step was

  5. Compensatory Effects of Sibling Support in Preadolescence and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milevsky, Avidan; Levitt, Mary J.

    The current study is an examination of how support from siblings relates to academic competence in early adolescence, with a focus on the compensatory effects of sibling support. Participants were 694 African-American, European-American, and Hispanic-American students, ranging in age from 11 to 15. Participants were interviewed in school regarding…

  6. Older adults can improve compensatory stepping with repeated postural perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Horak, Fay B.; Kamsma, Yvo P. T.; Peterson, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to respond quickly and accurately to an external perturbation with a stepping response is critical to avoid falls and this ability is impaired in older, compared to young adults. However, little is known about whether young and older adults improve compensatory stepping responses similar

  7. 40 CFR 230.93 - General compensatory mitigation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... district engineer must assess the likelihood for ecological success and sustainability, the location of the compensation site relative to the impact site and their significance within the watershed, and the costs of the... position and resource type of compensatory mitigation projects for the sustainability of aquatic...

  8. Stabilization of perturbed Boolean network attractors through compensatory interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding and ameliorating the effects of network damage are of significant interest, due in part to the variety of applications in which network damage is relevant. For example, the effects of genetic mutations can cascade through within-cell signaling and regulatory networks and alter the behavior of cells, possibly leading to a wide variety of diseases. The typical approach to mitigating network perturbations is to consider the compensatory activation or deactivation of system components. Here, we propose a complementary approach wherein interactions are instead modified to alter key regulatory functions and prevent the network damage from triggering a deregulatory cascade. Results We implement this approach in a Boolean dynamic framework, which has been shown to effectively model the behavior of biological regulatory and signaling networks. We show that the method can stabilize any single state (e.g., fixed point attractors or time-averaged representations of multi-state attractors) to be an attractor of the repaired network. We show that the approach is minimalistic in that few modifications are required to provide stability to a chosen attractor and specific in that interventions do not have undesired effects on the attractor. We apply the approach to random Boolean networks, and further show that the method can in some cases successfully repair synchronous limit cycles. We also apply the methodology to case studies from drought-induced signaling in plants and T-LGL leukemia and find that it is successful in both stabilizing desired behavior and in eliminating undesired outcomes. Code is made freely available through the software package BooleanNet. Conclusions The methodology introduced in this report offers a complementary way to manipulating node expression levels. A comprehensive approach to evaluating network manipulation should take an "all of the above" perspective; we anticipate that theoretical studies of interaction modification

  9. Reversible compensatory hypertrophy in rat kidneys: morphometric characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M M; Churchill, M; Bidani, A; Churchill, P C

    1993-03-01

    Functional renal compensatory hypertrophy (RCH) in the uninephrectomized rat is completely reversible by transplantation in Brown Norway (BN) rats, while anatomic RCH is not. To determine the nephron element(s) responsible for persistent anatomic RCH, we performed morphometric analysis on perfusion fixed rat kidneys following renal function studies. In this model the function of renal transplants is not different from contralateral and unmanipulated control kidneys, and there is no histological evidence of rejection. Rats uninephrectomized for three or six weeks had larger glomeruli than controls, and after transplantation of a previously hypertrophied kidney into a rat with a normal or a solitary hypertrophied kidney, glomerular size returned to control levels. Increased glomerular capillary volume (CVCP) in kidneys with RCH was due to increased capillary length (LCP; 13.1 +/- 1.0 mm cf. 10.3 +/- 0.9, P < 0.01) without increase in capillary radius (RCP; 3.26 +/- 0.33 microM cf. 3.28 +/- 0.24). In contrast, return of CVCP to control levels in kidneys undergoing regression was associated with persistently elevated LCP (13.0 +2- 2.9 mm; native previously hypertrophied kidney; 12.2 +/- 0.9; transplanted previously hypertrophied kidney vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9, P < 0.01) and decreased RCP (2.79 +/- 0.10 microM and 2.73 +/- 0.09, cf 3.28 +/- 0.24, P < 0.01). RCH was associated with proportional increases in glomerular, tubular, and vascular-interstitial volumes while only elevated tubular volume persisted during regression. Altered glomerular capillary dimensions and increased tubular volumes acquired during renal RCH induced by unilateral nephrectomy persisted during complete functional regression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. L-carnitine-supplemented parenteral nutrition improves fat metabolism but fails to support compensatory growth in premature Korean infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, So-Hui; Cho, Soo-Chul; Park, Yongsoon; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2010-04-01

    We have previously shown that pregnant Korean mothers often have especially poor carnitine status, which may be responsible for the suboptimal carnitine levels of newborn Korean infants. This study tested the hypothesis that carnitine obtained from premature infant formula alone is adequate in sustaining optimal lipid metabolism and growth in premature infants. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of parenteral carnitine supplementation on carnitine status, growth parameters, and lipid metabolism in premature infants by measuring serum lipid profiles, carnitine and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, and body weight, size, and length. Twenty-five low-birth weight Korean infants were randomly assigned to control (LCNS, n = 12) or L-carnitine-supplemented (10 mg/[kg d], LCS, n = 13) groups. On day 9, the triacylglycerol concentration was lower in the LCS group; but the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and free, acyl, and total carnitine and beta-hydroxybutyrate were significantly increased compared with the LCNS group. The ratio of acyl carnitine to free carnitine was significantly lower on day 5 in the LCS compared with the LCNS group. Body weight, height, Apgar score (1 and 5 minute), head circumference, and chest circumference were recorded on day 0; and body weight was measured again on days 5 and 9. Infant formula intake was recorded every day. There was no significant difference in body weight or growth parameters between the groups from days 0 to 9.Therefore, we concluded that, in low-birth weight infants, the addition of 10 mg/(kg d) supplemental carnitine significantly improves lipid profiles and serum carnitine level but does not enhance growth.

  11. Compensatory activity in the extrastriate body area of Parkinson's disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuenen, B.F.L. van; Helmich, R.C.G.; Buenen, N.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Bloem, B.R.; Toni, I.

    2012-01-01

    Compensatory mechanisms are a crucial component of the cerebral changes triggered by neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying such compensatory mechanisms requires at least two complementary approaches: localizing candidate areas using functional imaging, and showing that interference with these are

  12. Simulation-modeling and Fail-safe of Single-stage Deflector Servo Valve%单级射流偏转板伺服阀失效保护及仿真建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海军

    2015-01-01

    射流偏转板射流口堵塞时可失效对中,但偏转板完全偏向一侧时无法失效对中.该文针对单级射流偏转板伺服阀该故障模式,分析了一种解决方法,并用FLUENT对射流板不同位移进行流体仿真和建模分析.%When a deflector servovalve's jet-orifice is blocked, it can be fail-mid automatic. But If the deflector entirely move to one side, the fail-midfunction does not work. To this mode failure of single-stage deflector servo valve, weanalysis a solution, simulate it by fluent in different displacements and model it withsimulation results.

  13. A compensatory role for declarative memory in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Michael T; Pullman, Mariel Y

    2015-04-01

    Most research on neurodevelopmental disorders has focused on their abnormalities. However, what remains intact may also be important. Increasing evidence suggests that declarative memory, a critical learning and memory system in the brain, remains largely functional in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because declarative memory remains functional in these disorders, and because it can learn and retain numerous types of information, functions, and tasks, this system should be able to play compensatory roles for multiple types of impairments across the disorders. Here, we examine this hypothesis for specific language impairment, dyslexia, autism spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We lay out specific predictions for the hypothesis and review existing behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging evidence. Overall, the evidence suggests that declarative memory indeed plays compensatory roles for a range of impairments across all five disorders. Finally, we discuss diagnostic, therapeutic and other implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Social impairment in conversation: disfluency and compensatory mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Lambrechts, Anna; Weed, Ethan;

    Background: Social impairment is a defining clinical feature of ASD. However, little is known about how it concretely unfolds during social exchanges: how interlocutors pick up and react to disfluency, and how patterns of interaction are affected. A better understanding of the dynamics...... of interactions with adults with ASD will help us understand how social impairment affects the life of people with ASD and which compensatory mechanisms can be used to minimize its effects. Objectives: We want to develop automated quantitative methods to assess dysfluency and compensatory dynamics in conversation....... Using simple measures of conversational turn-taking, we ask the following questions: i) How does autistic social impairment manifest itself in conversations? ii) How does the interlocutor react? iii) Are these dynamics related to specific clinical features? Methods: 17 ASD and 17 matched Typically...

  15. A compensatory role for declarative memory in neurodevelopmental disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Michael T.; Pullman, Mariel Y.

    2015-01-01

    Most research on neurodevelopmental disorders has focused on their abnormalities. However, what remains intact may also be important. Increasing evidence suggests that declarative memory, a critical learning and memory system in the brain, remains largely functional in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because declarative memory remains functional, and because this system can learn and retain numerous types of information, functions, and tasks, it should be able to play compensatory roles for multiple types of impairments across the disorders. Here, we examine this hypothesis for specific language impairment, dyslexia, autism spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We lay out specific predictions for the hypothesis and review existing behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging evidence. Overall, the evidence suggests that declarative memory indeed plays compensatory roles for a range of impairments across all five disorders. Finally, we discuss diagnostic, therapeutic and other implications. PMID:25597655

  16. A Preliminary Examination of a Nonpurging Compensatory Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather A.; Holland, Lauren A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate correlates of a compensatory eating disorder (CED) characterized by recurrent nonpurging compensatory behaviors in the absence of objectively large binge episodes among normal weight individuals who endorse undue influence of weight/shape on self-evaluation as possible indicators of clinical significance and distinctiveness. Method Women with CED (n=20), women with bulimia nervosa (BN) (n=20), and controls (n=20) completed an interview and questionnaires assessing eating disorder and general psychopathology and weight history. Results Compared to controls, women with CED reported significantly greater body image disturbance and disordered eating, higher anxiety proneness, increased perfectionism, and greater weight suppression. Compared to BN, CED was associated with significantly less body image disturbance, disordered eating, weight suppression, and lower likelihood of being overweight in childhood. However, CED and BN did not differ on anxiety proneness or perfectionism. Discussion CED merits further examination to determine whether it is a clinically significant and distinct eating disorder. PMID:24105678

  17. Compensatory Drift and the Evolutionary Dynamics of Dosage-Sensitive Duplicate Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ammon; Zakon, Harold H; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Dosage-balance selection preserves functionally redundant duplicates (paralogs) at the optimum for their combined expression. Here we present a model of the dynamics of duplicate genes coevolving under dosage-balance selection. We call this the compensatory drift model. Results show that even when strong dosage-balance selection constrains total expression to the optimum, expression of each duplicate can diverge by drift from its original level. The rate of divergence slows as the strength of stabilizing selection, the size of the mutation effect, and/or the size of the population increases. We show that dosage-balance selection impedes neofunctionalization early after duplication but can later facilitate it. We fit this model to data from sodium channel duplicates in 10 families of teleost fish; these include two convergent lineages of electric fish in which one of the duplicates neofunctionalized. Using the model, we estimated the strength of dosage-balance selection for these genes. The results indicate that functionally redundant paralogs still may undergo radical functional changes after a prolonged period of compensatory drift.

  18. The Influence of Compensatory Strategies on Ethical Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Mecca, Jensen T.; Medeiros, Kelsey E.; Giorgini, Vincent; Gibson, Carter; Mumford, Michael D.; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D.

    2014-01-01

    Ethical decision making is of concern to researchers across all fields. However, researchers typically focus on the biases that may act to undermine ethical decision making. Taking a new approach, this study focused on identifying the most common compensatory strategies that counteract those biases. These strategies were identified using a series of interviews with university researchers in a variety of areas, including biological, physical, social, and health as well as scholarship and the p...

  19. Cortical hypermetabolism in MCI subjects: a compensatory mechanism?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf, A.; Fan, Z.; Brooks, D.J.; Edison, P. [Imperial College London, Neurology Imaging Unit, Division of Brain Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-30

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with amyloid accumulation that takes place decades before symptoms appear. Cognitive impairment in AD is associated with reduced glucose metabolism. However, neuronal plasticity/compensatory mechanisms might come into play before the onset of dementia. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of cortical hypermetabolism as a compensatory mechanism before amyloid deposition takes place in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Nine AD subjects and ten aMCI subjects had both [{sup 11}C]PIB and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET scans with arterial input in order to quantify the amyloid deposition and glucose metabolism in vivo in comparison with healthy control subjects who underwent either [{sup 11}C]PIB or [{sup 18}F]FDG PET scans. The [{sup 11}C]PIB PET scans were quantified using [{sup 11}C]PIB target region to cerebellum uptake ratio images created by integrating the activity collected from 60 to 90 min, and regional cerebral glucose metabolism was quantified using spectral analysis. In MCI subjects, cortical hypermetabolism was observed in four amyloid-negative subjects and one amyloid-positive subject, while hypometabolism was seen in five other MCI subjects with high amyloid load. Subjects with hypermetabolism and low amyloid did not convert to AD during clinical follow-up for 18 months in contrast to four amyloid-positive hypometabolic subjects who did convert to AD. This preliminary study suggests that compensatory hypermetabolism can occur in aMCI subjects, particularly in those who are amyloid-negative. The increase in metabolic rate in different cortical regions with predominance in the occipital cortex may be a compensatory response to the neuronal damage occurring early in the disease process. It may also reflect recruitment of relatively minimally affected cortical regions to compensate for reduced function in the temporoparietal cortical association areas. (orig.)

  20. Vertical control in the Class III compensatory treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    p. 141-159 Introduction: Compensatory orthodontic treatment, or simply orthodontic camouflage, consists in an important alternative to orthognathic surgery in the resolution of skeletal discrepancies in adult patients. It is important to point that, to be successfully performed, diagnosis must be detailed, to evaluate, specifically, dental and facial features, as well as the limitations imposed by the magnitude of the discrepancy. The main complaint, patient's treatment expectation, period...

  1. Compensatory growth following transient intraguild predation risk in predatory mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Lepp, Natalia; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Compensatory or catch-up growth following growth impairment caused by transient environmental stress, due to adverse abiotic factors or food, is widespread in animals. Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth. They depend on the type of stressor but are unknown for predation risk, a prime selective force shaping life history. Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that transient intraguild predation (IGP) risk induces compensatory or catch-up growth in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Immature P. persimilis were exposed in the larval stage to no, low or high IGP risk, and kept under benign conditions in the next developmental stage, the protonymph. High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that prey may balance developmental costs accruing from anti-predator behaviour by compensatory growth. PMID:26005221

  2. Older adults can improve compensatory stepping with repeated postural perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauke Wybren Dijkstra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to respond quickly and accurately to an external perturbation with a stepping response is critical to avoid falls and this ability is impaired in older, compared to young adults. However, little is known about whether young and older adults improve compensatory stepping responses similarly with practice. This study compares the extent to which young and older adults can improve, retain, and generalize postural compensatory steps in response to external perturbations. Centre of mass displacement, step characteristics and lower leg muscle activation latencies were measured during one training session of compensatory stepping in response to large surface translations in 13 young and 12 older adults. Retention was tested 24 hours later. Older adults decreased their centre of mass displacements over repeated exposure to large surface translations in both the anterior and posterior directions and retained these improvements. In contrast, young adults only showed adaptation and retention of forward stepping responses. Neither group was able to generalize improvements in stepping responses across directions. These results suggest step training may be beneficial for older adults, however additional, multidirectional training may be necessary to facilitate generalization of postural stepping responses for any direction of a slip or trip.

  3. Epidemiological control of drug resistance and compensatory mutation under resistance testing and second-line therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddler, Clare A; Wu, Yue; Valckenborgh, Frank; Tanaka, Mark M

    2013-12-01

    The fitness cost of antibiotic resistance in the absence of treatment raises the possibility that prudent use of drugs may slow or reverse the rise of resistance. Unfortunately, compensatory mutations that lower this cost may lead to entrenched resistance. Here, we develop a mathematical model of resistance evolution and compensatory mutation to determine whether reversion to sensitivity can occur, and how disease control might be facilitated by a second-line therapy. When only a single antibiotic is available, sensitive bacteria reach fixation only under treatment rates so low that hardly any cases are treated. We model a scenario in which drug sensitivity can be accurately tested so that a second-line therapy is administered to resistant cases. Before the rise of resistance to the second drug, disease eradication is possible if resistance testing and second-line treatment are conducted at a high enough rate. However, if double drug resistance arises, the possibility of disease eradication is greatly reduced and compensated resistance prevails in most of the parameter space. The boundary separating eradication from fixation of compensated resistance is strongly influenced by the underlying basic reproductive number of the pathogen and drug efficacy in sensitive cases, but depends less on the resistance cost and compensation. When double resistance is possible, the boundary is affected by the relative strengths of resistance against the two drugs in the double-resistant-compensated strain.

  4. The five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale - I : Confirmatory factor analysis fails to confirm 25 published five-factor solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, Mark; Cuijpers, Anke; Hoffman, Tonko; Remijsen, Mila; Hijman, Ron; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Meijel, Berno; van Harten, Peter N.; Valmaggia, Lucia; de Hert, Marc; Wiersma, Durk

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test the goodness-of-fit of all previously published five-factor models of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Methods: We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with a large data set (N = 5769). Results: The different subsamples were tested for

  5. Endoscopic Lumbar Sympathectomy for Women: Effect on Compensatory Sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Loureiro, Marcelo; de Campos, José Ribas Milanez; Kauffman, Paulo; Jatene, Fábio Biscegli; Weigmann, Sheila; Fontana, Aline

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Plantar hyperhidrosis is present in 50% of patients with hyperhidrosis. Thoracic sympathectomy is an important tool for the treatment of this condition, which is successful in about 60% of patients. For the remaining patients, lumbar sympathectomy is the procedure of choice. As new minimally invasive techniques have been developed, a significant demand for this type of access has led to its adaptation to the lumbar sympathectomy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy in controlling plantar hyperhidrosis and its effects on compensatory sweat. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty female patients with persistent plantar hyperhidrosis after thoracic sympathectomy were enrolled. They were randomly assigned to laparoscopic retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy (Group A) or no surgical intervention (Group B - control) groups. Quality-of-life modifications were assessed by specific questionnaires before and after surgery. In the same manner, direct sweat measurements were also performed pre- and post-intervention by evaluating trans-epidermal water loss. Despite the lack of intervention, the control group was evaluated at similar timepoints. RESULTS In Group A, no major complications occurred in the peri-operative period. During the immediate post-operative period, three patients (20%) experienced prolonged pain (more than ten days). Eight patients suffered from worsened compensatory sweating (53.3%). In Group A, after lumbar sympathectomy, the quality of life significantly improved (psympathectomy resulted in significantly lower values of foot sweat (pre- vs. post-operative periods, psympathectomy diminishes plantar sweat and improves the quality of life of women with plantar hyperhidrosis. However, about half of the patients develop increased compensatory hyperhidrosis in other areas of the body. PMID:18438572

  6. Genomics of Compensatory Adaptation in Experimental Populations of Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R. Dettman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the number and nature of genetic changes responsible for adaptation is essential for understanding and predicting evolutionary trajectories. Here, we study the genomic basis of compensatory adaptation to the fitness cost of fungicide resistance in experimentally evolved strains of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. The original selection experiment tracked the fitness recovery of lines founded by an ancestral strain that was resistant to fludioxonil, but paid a fitness cost in the absence of the fungicide. We obtained whole-genome sequence data for the ancestral A. nidulans strain and eight experimentally evolved strains. We find that fludioxonil resistance in the ancestor was likely conferred by a mutation in histidine kinase nikA, part of the two-component signal transduction system of the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG stress response pathway. To compensate for the pleiotropic negative effects of the resistance mutation, the subsequent fitness gains observed in the evolved lines were likely caused by secondary modification of HOG pathway activity. Candidate genes for the compensatory fitness increases were significantly overrepresented by stress response functions, and some were specifically associated with the HOG pathway itself. Parallel evolution at the gene level was rare among evolved lines. There was a positive relationship between the predicted number of adaptive steps, estimated from fitness data, and the number of genomic mutations, determined by whole-genome sequencing. However, the number of genomic mutations was, on average, 8.45 times greater than the number of adaptive steps inferred from fitness data. This research expands our understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation in multicellular eukaryotes and lays out a framework for future work on the genomics of compensatory adaptation in A. nidulans.

  7. Compensatory renal hypertrophia in patients undergoing unilateral nephrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, P; Munck, O; Tonnesen, K H;

    1977-01-01

    Estimations of the residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were made from renography and GFR measurements before unilateral nephrectomy in 28 patients aged 42-77 years. The GFR was measured one week and three months after the operation and comparisons were made between the function...... of the remaining kidney and the preoperative estimate. In 23 patients where the removed kidney had some function, the mean GFR increased by 32% and 22% after one week and three months, respectively. In 5 patients where the removed kidney had no function, no compensatory hypertrophy occurred....

  8. A failing medical educational model: a self-assessment by physicians at all levels of training of ability and comfort to deliver bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgel, Etan; McCarter, Robert; Jacobs, Shana

    2010-06-01

    Patient surveys consistently show physician communication remains less than ideal. While previous studies have demonstrated a lack of trainee confidence in delivering bad news, our study explores communication skills at all levels of practice and highlights potential barriers to improvement. Pediatric residents, fellows, and attendings involved in direct patient care at a major academic center participated in a voluntary questionnaire, consisting of self-assessed scales of comfort level, knowledge level, amount of training, and attitudes towards communication education. We also elicited barriers to learning and teaching as well as significant experiences. Eligible responses (n = 253) were evenly divided between trainees and faculty. Almost half of attendings and two thirds of fellows did not feel sufficiently knowledgeable to deliver bad news. Many attendings felt disproportionately more comfortable than they felt knowledgeable. All trainees felt insufficiently knowledgeable for independent practice of this skill. Educational barriers centered on time constraints, a deemphasis, a lack of positive modeling, and minimal awareness of existing resources. Poor experiences revolved around inappropriate language and settings as well as insufficient empathy or preparedness. Positive anecdotes highlighted the importance of education and the impact of role models. Independent of level of training, this study reveals a lack of self-assessed preparedness from many responsible for delivering bad news to patients and families. A significant barrier to improvement is the disproportionate level of self-assessed comfort versus knowledge level. Educational models should include both didactics to learn the skills and practice-based learning to refine the techniques.

  9. Programming Saposin-Mediated Compensatory Metabolic Sinks for Enhanced Ubiquinone Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Yuan, Jifeng; Yang, Shuiyun; Ching, Chi-Bun; Liu, Jiankang

    2016-12-16

    Microbial synthesis of ubiquinone by fermentation processes has been emerging in recent years. However, as ubiquinone is a primary metabolite that is tightly regulated by the host central metabolism, tweaking the individual pathway components could only result in a marginal improvement on the ubiquinone production. Given that ubiquinone is stored in the lipid bilayer, we hypothesized that introducing additional metabolic sink for storing ubiquinone might improve the CoQ10 production. As human lipid binding/transfer protein saposin B (hSapB) was reported to extract ubiquinone from the lipid bilayer and form the water-soluble complex, hSapB was chosen to build a compensatory metabolic sink for the ubiquinone storage. As a proof-of-concept, hSapB-mediated metabolic sink systems were devised and systematically investigated in the model organism of Escherichia coli. The hSapB-mediated periplasmic sink resulted in more than 200% improvement of CoQ8 over the wild type strain. Further investigation revealed that hSapB-mediated sink systems could also improve the CoQ10 production in a CoQ10-hyperproducing E. coli strain obtained by a modular pathway rewiring approach. As the design principles and the engineering strategies reported here are generalizable to other microbes, compensatory sink systems will be a method of significant interest to the synthetic biology community.

  10. Compensatory Reserve Index: Performance of a Novel Monitoring Technology to Identify the Bleeding Trauma Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael; Alarhayem, Abdul; Convertino, Victor; Carter, Robert; Chung, Kevin; Stewart, Ronald; Myers, John; Dent, Daniel; Liao, Lilian; Cestero, Ramon; Nicholson, Susannah; Muir, Mark; Schwacha, Martin; Wampler, David; DeRosa, Mark; Eastridge, Brian

    2017-08-01

    Hemorrhage is one of the most substantial causes of death after traumatic injury. Standard measures, including systolic blood pressure (SBP), are poor surrogate indicators of physiologic compromise until compensatory mechanisms have been overwhelmed. Compensatory Reserve Index (CRI) is a novel monitoring technology with the ability to assess physiologic reserve. We hypothesized CRI would be a better predictor of physiologic compromise secondary to hemorrhage than traditional vital signs. A prospective observational study of 89 subjects meeting trauma center activation criteria at a single level I trauma center was conducted from October 2015 to February 2016. Data collected included demographics, SBP, HR, and requirement for hemorrhage-associated, life-saving intervention (LSI) (ie: operation or angiography for hemorrhage, local or tourniquet control of external bleeding and transfusion > 2 u PRBC). Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves were formulated and appropriate thresholds were calculated to compare relative value of the metrics for predictive modeling. For predicting hemorrhage-related LSI, CRI demonstrated a sensitivity of 83% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 91% as compared to SBP with a sensitivity to detect hemorrhage of 26% (p requiring potentially life-saving therapy more reliably than SBP (p < 0.05). The CRI device demonstrated superior capacity over systolic blood pressure in predicting the need for posttraumatic hemorrhage intervention in the acute resuscitation phase after injury.

  11. Failing The Final Exam In Equal Employment And Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Tower

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anglo-American educational global leaders are failing the final exam for overall transparency of EEO activities with over 90% non-disclosure.  Australian entities should be modeled as important communication exemplars.

  12. Juvenile compensatory growth has negative consequences for reproduction in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K; Arendt, Jeffrey D; Chandramouli, Radhika; Reznick, David N

    2010-08-01

    Compensatory or 'catch-up' growth may be an adaptive mechanism that buffers the growth trajectory of young organisms from deviations caused by reduced food availability. Theory generally assumes that rapid juvenile compensatory growth impacts reproduction only through its positive effects on age and size at maturation, but potential reproductive costs to juvenile compensatory growth remain virtually unexplored. We used a food manipulation experiment to examine the reproductive consequences of compensatory growth in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Compensatory growth did not affect adult growth rates, litter production rates or investment in offspring size. However, compensatory growth had negative effects on litter size, independent of the effects of female body length, resulting in a 20% decline in offspring production. We discuss potential mechanisms behind this observed cost to reproduction.

  13. The Failed Image and the Possessed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This article asks if the recurrent queries regarding the value of images in visual anthropology could find new answers by exploring responses to visual media in neo-orthodox Islam. It proposes that the visual display of the photographic image shares a curious resemblance to the bodies of people...... possessed by invisible spirits called jinn. The image as a failed example or model of reality works like the possessed body as an amplifier of invisibility pointing towards that which cannot be seen, depicted visually, or represented in writing. This suggests a negative epistemology in which images obtain...

  14. Age-related dedifferentiation and compensatory changes in the functional network underlying face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burianová, Hana; Lee, Yunjo; Grady, Cheryl L; Moscovitch, Morris

    2013-12-01

    Recent evidence has shown that older adults fail to show adaptation in the right fusiform gyrus (FG) to the same face presented repeatedly, despite accurate detection of the previously presented face. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether this phenomenon is associated with age-related reductions in face specificity in brain activity and whether older adults compensate for these face-processing deficiencies by increasing activity in other areas within the face-processing network, or outside this network. A comparison of brain activity across multiple stimulus categories showed that, unlike young adults who engaged a number of brain regions specific to face processing, older adults generalized these patterns of activity to objects and houses. Also, young adults showed functional connectivity between the right FG and its homologous region during face processing, whereas older adults did not engage the left FG but showed a functional connection between the right FG and left orbitofrontal cortex. Finally, this frontotemporal functional connection was activated more strongly in older adults who performed better on a face-matching task (done outside of the scanner), suggesting increased involvement of this functional link for successful face recognition with increasing age. These findings suggest that 2 neural mechanisms, dedifferentiation and compensatory neural recruitment, underlie age differences in face processing.

  15. Pathomechanisms and compensatory efforts related to Parkinsonian speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Christiane; Gehrig, Johannes; Gispert, Suzana; Seifried, Carola; Kell, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    Voice and speech in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are classically affected by a hypophonia, dysprosody, and dysarthria. The underlying pathomechanisms of these disabling symptoms are not well understood. To identify functional anomalies related to pathophysiology and compensation we compared speech-related brain activity and effective connectivity in early PD patients who did not yet develop voice or speech symptoms and matched controls. During fMRI 20 PD patients ON and OFF levodopa and 20 control participants read 75 sentences covertly, overtly with neutral, or with happy intonation. A cue-target reading paradigm allowed for dissociating task preparation from execution. We found pathologically reduced striato-prefrontal preparatory effective connectivity in early PD patients associated with subcortical (OFF state) or cortical (ON state) compensatory networks. While speaking, PD patients showed signs of diminished monitoring of external auditory feedback. During generation of affective prosody, a reduced functional coupling between the ventral and dorsal striatum was observed. Our results suggest three pathomechanisms affecting speech in PD: While diminished energization on the basis of striato-prefrontal hypo-connectivity together with dysfunctional self-monitoring mechanisms could underlie hypophonia, dysarthria may result from fading speech motor representations given that they are not sufficiently well updated by external auditory feedback. A pathological interplay between the limbic and sensorimotor striatum could interfere with affective modulation of speech routines, which affects emotional prosody generation. However, early PD patients show compensatory mechanisms that could help improve future speech therapies.

  16. Compensatory recombination phenomena of neurological functions in central dysphagia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-dong Yuan; Li-fu Zhou; Shu-juan Wang; Yan-sheng Zhao; Xiao-jie Wang; Li-li Zhang; Shou-hong Wang; Ya-jie Zhang; Li Chen

    2015-01-01

    We speculate that cortical reactions evoked by swallowing activity may be abnormal in patients with central infarction with dysphagia. The present study aimed to detect functional imaging features of cerebral cortex in central dysphagia patients by using blood oxygen level-depen-dent functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The results showed that when normal controls swallowed, primary motor cortex (BA4), insula (BA13), premotor cortex (BA6/8), supramarginal gyrus (BA40), and anterior cingulate cortex (BA24/32) were activated, and that the size of the activated areas were larger in the left hemisphere compared with the right. In re-current cerebral infarction patients with central dysphagia, BA4, BA13, BA40 and BA6/8 areas were activated, while the degree of activation in BA24/32 was decreased. Additionally, more areas were activated, including posterior cingulate cortex (BA23/31), visual association cortex (BA18/19), primary auditory cortex (BA41) and parahippocampal cortex (BA36). Somatosen-sory association cortex (BA7) and left cerebellum in patients with recurrent cerebral infarction with central dysphagia were also activated. Experimental ifndings suggest that the cerebral cortex has obvious hemisphere lateralization in response to swallowing, and patients with recurrent cerebral infarction with central dysphagia show compensatory recombination phenomena of neurological functions. In rehabilitative treatment, using the favorite food of patients can stimu-late swallowing through visual, auditory, and other nerve conduction pathways, thus promoting compensatory recombination of the central cortex functions.

  17. In the Search for the Treatment of Compensatory Sweating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stefaniak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite success of thoracic sympathectomy (ETS, there are patients that develop postoperatively intensive sweating of the trunk. The aim of the study was to present outcomes of three of those methods: removal of the clips, clipping of T6-9, and regional abdomino-lumbar iontophoresis (RALI. Methods. Out of the group of 229 patients treated with ETS, there were 9 that requested removal of the clips, 3 were treated with T6-9 video thoracoscopic block, and 5 were treated with RALI. The intensity of the side effect has been evaluated subjectively (with overall and localized perception of intensity of sweating and objectively (with gravimetry. Results. The removal of the clips resulted in slow (about 12 months diminishing of the intensity of sweating of the trunk; but the symptom did not disappear to the degree satisfactory for the patients. The T6-9 block resulted in partial and transient diminishing of the symptom. The iontophoresis resulted in very promising short-term results. Conclusion. Removal of the clips from the sympathetic trunk does not provide resolution of compensatory sweating in 1 year of observation. T6-9 block does not provide remedy for compensatory hyperhidrosis. Regional abdomino-lumbar iontophoresis seems to be very promising, but further research and followup are mandatory.

  18. Vertical control in the Class III compensatory treatment

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    Márcio Costa Sobral

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compensatory orthodontic treatment, or simply orthodontic camouflage, consists in an important alternative to orthognathic surgery in the resolution of skeletal discrepancies in adult patients. It is important to point that, to be successfully performed, diagnosis must be detailed, to evaluate, specifically, dental and facial features, as well as the limitations imposed by the magnitude of the discrepancy. The main complaint, patient's treatment expectation, periodontal limits, facial pattern and vertical control are some of the items to be explored in the determination of the viability of a compensatory treatment. Hyperdivergent patients who carry a Class III skeletal discrepancy, associated with a vertical facial pattern, with the presence or tendency to anterior open bite, deserve special attention. In these cases, an efficient strategy of vertical control must be planned and executed. OBJECTIVE: The present article aims at illustrating the evolution of efficient alternatives of vertical control in hiperdivergent patients, from the use, in the recent past, of extra-oral appliances on the lower dental arch (J-hook, until nowadays, with the advent of skeletal anchorage. But for patients with a more balanced facial pattern, the conventional mechanics with Class III intermaxillary elastics, associated to an accentuated curve of Spee in the upper arch and a reverse Curve of Spee in the lower arch, and vertical elastics in the anterior region, continues to be an excellent alternative, if there is extreme collaboration in using the elastics.

  19. Colour constancy across the life span: evidence for compensatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuerger, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the peripheral visual system declines with age: the yellowing of the lens causes a selective reduction of short-wavelength light and sensitivity losses occur in the cone receptor mechanisms. At the same time, our subjective experience of colour does not change with age. The main purpose of this large-scale study (n = 185) covering a wide age range of colour-normal observers (18-75 years of age) was to assess the extent to which the human visual system is able to compensate for the changes in the optical media and at which level of processing this compensation is likely to occur. We report two main results: (1) Supra-threshold parafoveal colour perception remains largely unaffected by the age-related changes in the optical media (yellowing of the lens) whereas our ability to discriminate between small colour differences is compromised with an increase in age. (2) Significant changes in colour appearance are only found for unique green settings under daylight viewing condition which is consistent with the idea that the yellow-blue mechanism is most affected by an increase in age due to selective attenuation of short-wavelength light. The data on the invariance of hue perception, in conjunction with the age-related decline in chromatic sensitivity, provides evidence for compensatory mechanisms that enable colour-normal human observers a large degree of colour constancy across the life span. These compensatory mechanisms are likely to originate at cortical sites.

  20. Compensatory recombination phenomena of neurological functions in central dysphagia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-dong Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We speculate that cortical reactions evoked by swallowing activity may be abnormal in patients with central infarction with dysphagia. The present study aimed to detect functional imaging features of cerebral cortex in central dysphagia patients by using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The results showed that when normal controls swallowed, primary motor cortex (BA4, insula (BA13, premotor cortex (BA6/8, supramarginal gyrus (BA40, and anterior cingulate cortex (BA24/32 were activated, and that the size of the activated areas were larger in the left hemisphere compared with the right. In recurrent cerebral infarction patients with central dysphagia, BA4, BA13, BA40 and BA6/8 areas were activated, while the degree of activation in BA24/32 was decreased. Additionally, more areas were activated, including posterior cingulate cortex (BA23/31, visual association cortex (BA18/19, primary auditory cortex (BA41 and parahippocampal cortex (BA36. Somatosensory association cortex (BA7 and left cerebellum in patients with recurrent cerebral infarction with central dysphagia were also activated. Experimental findings suggest that the cerebral cortex has obvious hemisphere lateralization in response to swallowing, and patients with recurrent cerebral infarction with central dysphagia show compensatory recombination phenomena of neurological functions. In rehabilitative treatment, using the favorite food of patients can stimulate swallowing through visual, auditory, and other nerve conduction pathways, thus promoting compensatory recombination of the central cortex functions.

  1. Compensatory placental growth after restricted maternal nutrition in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumey, L H

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the effects of undernutrition in pregnancy on fetal and placental growth among infants born in 1944-1946 in The Netherlands, including infants born during the war-induced Dutch famine of 1944-1945. There was an increase in placental weight, but not in birthweight, in infants whose mothers' nutrition was compromised around conception or in the first trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, the placental index was also increased. Compared to pre-famine controls, the relative increase after first trimester exposure to undernutrition was larger in the northern part of the country (5.2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.4, 9.0) where nutritional deprivation was presumably moderate compared to the west (3.5 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.2, 7.2) where nutritional deprivation was severe. The increase in placental weight is interpreted as compensatory for the reduction in maternal caloric intake. Whereas this suggests that pregnancy undernutrition can stimulate compensatory placental growth, the latter was only seen after first trimester undernutrition, which does not affect infant size at birth. For these infants, therefore, birthweight is not an appropriate proxy measure of undernutrition in pregnancy. These factors need to be considered in future studies relating pregnancy nutrition to adult health outcomes.

  2. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Edward L; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A

    2013-08-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than what the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the subpopulation that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, that is, increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors and to develop strategies to minimize their effect.

  3. Portal vein embolization induces compensatory hypertrophy of remnant liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Yao Huang; Wei-Zhu Yang; Jian-Jun Li; Na Jiang; Qu-Bin Zheng

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different portal vein branch embolization agents in inducing compensatory hypertrophy of the remnant liver and to offer a theoretic basis for clinical portal vein branch embolization.METHODS: Forty-one adult dogs were included in the experiment and divided into four groups. Five dogs served as a control group, 12 as a gelfoam group, 12as a coil-gelfoam group and 12 as an absolute ethanol group. Left portal vein embolization was performed in each group. The results from the embolization in each group using different embolic agents were compared.The safety of portal vein embolization (PVE) was evaluated by liver function test, computed tomography (CT) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of liver and portal veins. Statistical test of variance was performed to analyze the results.RESULTS: Gelfoam used for PVE was inefficient in recanalization of portal vein branch 4 wk after the procedure. The liver volume in groups of coil-gelfoam and absolute ethanol increased 25.1% and 33.18%,respectively. There was no evidence of recanalization of embolized portal vein, hepatic dysfunction, and portal hypertension in coil-gelfoam group and absolute ethanol group.CONCOUSION: Portal vein branch embolization using absolute ethanol and coil-gelfoam could induce atrophy of the embolized lobes and compensatory hypertrophy of the remnant liver. Gelfoam is an inefficient agent.

  4. Chronic administration of a leupeptin-derived calpain inhibitor fails to ameliorate severe muscle pathology in a canine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

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    Martin K Childers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calpains likely play a role in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Accordingly, calpain inhibition may provide therapeutic benefit to DMD patients. In the present study, we sought to measure benefit from administration of a novel calpain inhibitor, C101, in a canine muscular dystrophy model. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that treatment with C101 mitigates progressive weakness and severe muscle pathology observed in young dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD. Young (6 week-old GRMD dogs were treated daily with either C101 (17mg/kg twice daily oral dose, n=9 or placebo (vehicle only, n=7 for 8 weeks. A battery of functional tests, including tibiotarsal joint angle, muscle/fat composition, and pelvic limb muscle strength were performed at baseline and every two weeks during the 8-week study. Results indicate that C101-treated GRMD dogs maintained strength in their cranial pelvic limb muscles (tibiotarsal flexors while placebo-treated dogs progressively lost strength. However, concomitant improvement was not observed in posterior pelvic limb muscles (tibiotarsal extensors. C101 treatment did not mitigate force drop following repeated eccentric contractions and no improvement was seen in the development of joint contractures, lean muscle mass or muscle histopathology. Taken together, these data do not support the hypothesis that treatment with C101 mitigates progressive weakness or ameliorates severe muscle pathology observed in young dogs with GRMD.

  5. Compensatory Mechanisms in C-V Dysfunction, Dysmetric Dyslexia, and Dyspraxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jan; Levinson, Harold N.

    1976-01-01

    Summarized is the complex, wholistic, and dynamic interaction of overlapping neurophysiological and neuropsychological compensatory processes in dysmetric dyslexia and dyspraxia in children. (Author/DB)

  6. Why good projects fail anyway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Nadim F; Ashkenas, Ronald N

    2003-09-01

    Big projects fail at an astonishing rate--more than half the time, by some estimates. It's not hard to understand why. Complicated long-term projects are customarily developed by a series of teams working along parallel tracks. If managers fail to anticipate everything that might fall through the cracks, those tracks will not converge successfully at the end to reach the goal. Take a companywide CRM project. Traditionally, one team might analyze customers, another select the software, a third develop training programs, and so forth. When the project's finally complete, though, it may turn out that the salespeople won't enter in the requisite data because they don't understand why they need to. This very problem has, in fact, derailed many CRM programs at major organizations. There is a way to uncover unanticipated problems while the project is still in development. The key is to inject into the overall plan a series of miniprojects, or "rapid-results initiatives," which each have as their goal a miniature version of the overall goal. In the CRM project, a single team might be charged with increasing the revenues of one sales group in one region by 25% within four months. To reach that goal, team members would have to draw on the work of all the parallel teams. But in just four months, they would discover the salespeople's resistance and probably other unforeseen issues, such as, perhaps, the need to divvy up commissions for joint-selling efforts. The World Bank has used rapid-results initiatives to great effect to keep a sweeping 16-year project on track and deliver visible results years ahead of schedule. In taking an in-depth look at this project, and others, the authors show why this approach is so effective and how the initiatives are managed in conjunction with more traditional project activities.

  7. Endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy for women: effect on compensatory sweat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Paula Loureiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Plantar hyperhidrosis is present in 50% of patients with hyperhidrosis. Thoracic sympathectomy is an important tool for the treatment of this condition, which is successful in about 60% of patients. For the remaining patients, lumbar sympathectomy is the procedure of choice. As new minimally invasive techniques have been developed, a significant demand for this type of access has led to its adaptation to the lumbar sympathectomy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy in controlling plantar hyperhidrosis and its effects on compensatory sweat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty female patients with persistent plantar hyperhidrosis after thoracic sympathectomy were enrolled. They were randomly assigned to laparoscopic retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy (Group A or no surgical intervention (Group B - control groups. Quality-of-life modifications were assessed by specific questionnaires before and after surgery. In the same manner, direct sweat measurements were also performed pre- and post-intervention by evaluating trans-epidermal water loss. Despite the lack of intervention, the control group was evaluated at similar timepoints. RESULTS: In Group A, no major complications occurred in the peri-operative period. During the immediate post-operative period, three patients (20% experienced prolonged pain (more than ten days. Eight patients suffered from worsened compensatory sweating (53.3%. In Group A, after lumbar sympathectomy, the quality of life significantly improved (p<0.05, intra-group comparison beyond that of the control group (p<0.05, inter-group comparison. Also, lumbar sympathectomy resulted in significantly lower values of foot sweat (pre- vs. post-operative periods, p<0.05; Group A vs. Group B, p<0.05. These patients also developed higher values of sweat measurements on specific points of their dorsal and abdominal regions after the procedure (p<0

  8. Pelvic retroversion: a compensatory mechanism for lumbar stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtaheri, Sina; Sharma, Akshay; Savage, Jason; Kalfas, Iain; Mroz, Thomas E; Benzel, Edward; Steinmetz, Michael P

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE The flexed posture of the proximal (L1-3) or distal (L4-S1) lumbar spine increases the diameter of the spinal canal and neuroforamina and can relieve symptoms of neurogenic claudication. Distal lumbar flexion can result in pelvic retroversion; therefore, in cases of flexible sagittal imbalance, pelvic retroversion may be compensatory for lumbar stenosis and not solely compensatory for the sagittal imbalance as previously thought. The authors investigate underlying causes for pelvic retroversion in patients with flexible sagittal imbalance. METHODS One hundred thirty-eight patients with sagittal imbalance who underwent a total of 148 fusion procedures of the thoracolumbar spine were identified from a prospective clinical database. Radiographic parameters were obtained from images preoperatively, intraoperatively, and at 6-month and 2-year follow-up. A cohort of 24 patients with flexible sagittal imbalance was identified and individually matched with a control cohort of 23 patients with fixed deformities. Flexible deformities were defined as a 10° change in lumbar lordosis between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing images. Pelvic retroversion was quantified as the ratio of pelvic tilt (PT) to pelvic incidence (PI). RESULTS The average difference between lumbar lordosis on supine MR images and standing radiographs was 15° in the flexible cohort. Sixty-eight percent of the patients in the flexible cohort were diagnosed preoperatively with lumbar stenosis compared with only 22% in the fixed sagittal imbalance cohort (p = 0.0032). There was no difference between the flexible and fixed cohorts with regard to C-2 sagittal vertical axis (SVA) (p = 0.95) or C-7 SVA (p = 0.43). When assessing for postural compensation by pelvic retroversion in the stenotic patients and nonstenotic patients, the PT/PI ratio was found to be significantly greater in the patients with stenosis (p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS For flexible sagittal imbalance, preoperative attention should

  9. Spatial Climate Patterns Explain Negligible Variation in Strength of Compensatory Density Feedbacks in Birds and Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrando-Pérez, Salvador; Delean, Steven; Brook, Barry W.; Cassey, Phillip; Bradshaw, Corey J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of long-term population data to separate the demographic role of climate from density-modified demographic processes has become a major topic of ecological investigation over the last two decades. Although the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that determine the strength of density feedbacks are now well understood, the degree to which climate gradients shape those processes across taxa and broad spatial scales remains unclear. Intuitively, harsh or highly variable environmental conditions should weaken compensatory density feedbacks because populations are hypothetically unable to achieve or maintain densities at which social and trophic interactions (e.g., competition, parasitism, predation, disease) might systematically reduce population growth. Here we investigate variation in the strength of compensatory density feedback, from long-term time series of abundance over 146 species of birds and mammals, in response to spatial gradients of broad-scale temperature precipitation variables covering 97 localities in 28 countries. We use information-theoretic metrics to rank phylogenetic generalized least-squares regression models that control for sample size (time-series length) and phylogenetic non-independence. Climatic factors explained < 1% of the remaining variation in density-feedback strength across species, with the highest non-control, model-averaged effect sizes related to extreme precipitation variables. We could not link our results directly to other published studies, because ecologists use contrasting responses, predictors and statistical approaches to correlate density feedback and climate – at the expense of comparability in a macroecological context. Censuses of multiple populations within a given species, and a priori knowledge of the spatial scales at which density feedbacks interact with climate, seem to be necessary to determine cross-taxa variation in this phenomenon. Despite the availability of robust modelling tools, the

  10. Misfits in Organization Design: Information Processing as a Compensatory Mechanism

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    Ben Nanfeng Luo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a compensatory misfits theory which holds that an “over-fitting” organization structure can compensate for an “under-fitting” structure, thereby reducing the total misfit. In organizations, over-fit occurs when structural features misfit the core contingencies because the structural level is too high to fit the contingencies. An under-fit occurs when structural features misfit the contingencies because the structural level is too low. When an under-fit is compensated by an over-fit, the combination can produce performance outcomes that approximate those from fit. The reason inheres in information processing being a higher level factor that cuts across different contingencies and structural features that are mis-fitted to each other, so that compensation is possible. We identify the specific conditions that must be fulfilled for compensation to occur, and we discuss implications for organization design theory and practice.

  11. Intraoperative prediction of compensatory sweating for thoracic sympathectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takeo; Mano, Masayuki; Nishi, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2005-09-01

    Postoperative compensatory sweating (PCS) is an important problem impacting on quality of life for patients after endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS). The present study investigated whether intraoperative palmar temperature and blood flow are useful for assessing PCS after ETS. Retrospectively, results were evaluated for ETS in 27 consecutive patients with primary palmar hyperhidrosis between 1996 and 2002. For all patients, bilateral nerve conduction to the palms was interrupted. The relationship between the range of PCS and intraoperative changes in palmar temperature and blood flow was investigated. PCS developed in all cases. After completion of ETS, mean blood flow and temperature increased respectively. Significant correlations were found between the range of PCS and increases in palmar temperature (p<0.05) and blood flow (p<0.05). Intraoperative monitoring of increases in palmar temperature and blood flow may be useful in patients with primary hyperhidrosis, to predict the range of PCS after ETS.

  12. Effectiveness of Compensatory Strategies applied to Cognitive impairment in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Peter; Østergaard, Birte; Nordentoft, Merete

      Background Between 75% and 85% of patients with schizophrenia have cognitive impairments. The impairments have a negative influence on the patient's ability to maintain work, maintain contact with friends, independent living and living in a social relationship. Compared to treatment as usual......, studies using Cognitive Adaptation Training (CAT), including training of compensatory strategies to sequence patient's adaptive behaviours, have shown improvement in social functioning, decreased relapse, better compliance to medical treatment and increased quality of life. However, no studies, up to now......, have investigated the effect of CAT in younger patients with schizophrenia   Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of CAT in comparison with treatment as usual, focusing on social functions, symptoms, relapse, re-hospitalisation, and quality of life in younger outpatients...

  13. Effectiveness of Compensatory Strategies applied to Cognitive impairment in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Peter; Østergaard, Birte; Nordentoft, Merete

    Background Bewteen 75% and 85% of patients with schizophrenia have cognitive impairments. The impairments have a negative influence on the patient's ability to maintain work, maintain contact with friends, independent living and living in a social relationship. Compared to treatment as usual......, studies using Cognitive Adaptation Training (CAT), including training of compensatory strategies to sequence patient's adaptive behaviours, have shown improvement in social functioning, decreased relapse, better compliance to medical treatment and increased quality of life. However, no studies, up to now......, have investigated the effect of CAT in younger patients with schizophrenia     Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of CAT in comparison with treatment as usual, focusing on social functions, symptoms, relapse, re-hospitalisation, and quality of life in younger outpatients...

  14. Teacher-student relationships as compensatory resources for aggressive children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Barbara T; Hughes, Jan N; Cavell, Timothy A

    2003-01-01

    This 2-year prospective investigation examined the association between the quality of teacher-student relationships and children's levels of aggression in a sample of 140 second- and third-grade aggressive children (M age = 8.18). Consistent with the proposed dual-risk compensatory hypothesis, positive teacher-student relationships were more beneficial for aggressive African American and Hispanic children than for aggressive Caucasian children. Data did not support a moderating effect of negative parent-child relationship quality on the association between supportive teacher-student relationships and aggression. Findings underscore the importance of recruiting and preparing teachers capable of establishing supportive relationships with aggressive African American and Hispanic children. Results also suggest the need for multiple reporters of relationship quality in future research.

  15. Drug resistance in cancer: molecular evolution and compensatory proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ran

    2016-03-15

    Targeted therapies have revolutionized cancer treatment. Unfortunately, their success is limited due to the development of drug resistance within the tumor, which is an evolutionary process. Understanding how drug resistance evolves is a prerequisite to a better success of targeted therapies. Resistance is usually explained as a response to evolutionary pressure imposed by treatment. Thus, evolutionary understanding can and should be used in the design and treatment of cancer. In this article, drug-resistance to targeted therapies is reviewed from an evolutionary standpoint. The concept of apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation (AICP) is developed. It is shown that AICP helps to explain some of the phenomena that are observed experimentally in cancers. Finally, potential drug targets are suggested in light of AICP.

  16. Covert anti-compensatory quick eye movements during head impulses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Heuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Catch-up saccades during passive head movements, which compensate for a deficient vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, are a well-known phenomenon. These quick eye movements are directed toward the target in the opposite direction of the head movement. Recently, quick eye movements in the direction of the head movement (covert anti-compensatory quick eye movements, CAQEM were observed in older individuals. Here, we characterize these quick eye movements, their pathophysiology, and clinical relevance during head impulse testing (HIT. METHODS: Video head impulse test data from 266 patients of a tertiary vertigo center were retrospectively analyzed. Forty-three of these patients had been diagnosed with vestibular migraine, and 35 with Menière's disease. RESULTS: CAQEM occurred in 38% of the patients. The mean CAQEM occurrence rate (per HIT trial was 11±10% (mean±SD. Latency was 83±30 ms. CAQEM followed the saccade main sequence characteristics and were compensated by catch-up saccades in the opposite direction. Compensatory saccades did not lead to more false pathological clinical head impulse test assessments (specificity with CAQEM: 87%, and without: 85%. CAQEM on one side were associated with a lower VOR gain on the contralateral side (p<0.004 and helped distinguish Menière's disease from vestibular migraine (p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: CAQEM are a common phenomenon, most likely caused by a saccadic/quick phase mechanism due to gain asymmetries. They could help differentiate two of the most common causes of recurrent vertigo: vestibular migraine and Menière's disease.

  17. Multivariate predictors of failed prehospital endotracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Henry E; Kupas, Douglas F; Paris, Paul M; Bates, Robyn R; Costantino, Joseph P; Yealy, Donald M

    2003-07-01

    Conventionally trained out-of-hospital rescuers (such as paramedics) often fail to accomplish endotracheal intubation (ETI) in patients requiring invasive airway management. Previous studies have identified univariate variables associated with failed out-of-hospital ETI but have not examined the interaction between the numerous factors impacting ETI success. This study sought to use multivariate logistic regression to identify a set of factors associated with failed adult out-of-hospital ETI. The authors obtained clinical and demographic data from the Prehospital Airway Collaborative Evaluation, a prospective, multicentered observational study involving advanced life support (ALS) emergency medical services (EMS) systems in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Providers used standard forms to report details of attempted ETI, including system and patient demographics, methods used, difficulties encountered, and initial outcomes. The authors excluded data from sedation-facilitated and neuromuscular blockade-assisted intubations. The main outcome measure was ETI failure, defined as failure to successfully place an endotracheal tube on the last out-of-hospital laryngoscopy attempt. Logistic regression was performed to develop a multivariate model identifying factors associated with failed ETI. Data were used from 45 ALS systems on 663 adult ETIs attempted during the period June 1, 2001, to November 30, 2001. There were 89 cases of failed ETI (failure rate 13.4%). Of 61 factors potentially related to ETI failure, multivariate logistic regression revealed the following significant covariates associated with ETI failure (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval; likelihood ratio p-value): presence of clenched jaw/trismus (9.718; 95% CI = 4.594 to 20.558; p endotracheal tube through the vocal cords (7.653; 95% CI = 3.561 to 16.447; p < 0.0001); inability to visualize the vocal cords (7.638; 95% CI = 3.966 to 14.707; p < 0.0001); intact gag reflex (7.060; 95% CI = 3.552 to 14

  18. Compensatory Advantage as a Mechanism of Educational Inequality: A Regression Discontinuity Based on Month of Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Compensatory advantage is a mechanism of social stratification that complements cumulative advantage and path dependence. In this article, I first discuss the theoretical foundations of the compensatory advantage and path dependence mechanisms and the methodological challenges that complicate identification of their effects. Next, I present a…

  19. A Solution to ``Too Big to Fail''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-10-01

    Its a tricky business to reconcile simulations of our galaxys formation with our current observations of the Milky Way and its satellites. In a recent study, scientists have addressed one discrepancy between simulations and observations: the so-called to big to fail problem.From Missing Satellites to Too Big to FailThe favored model of the universe is the lambda-cold-dark-matter (CDM) cosmological model. This model does a great job of correctly predicting the large-scale structure of the universe, but there are still a few problems with it on smaller scales.Hubble image of UGC 5497, a dwarf galaxy associated with Messier 81. In the missing satellite problem, simulations of galaxy formation predict that there should be more such satellite galaxies than we observe. [ESA/NASA]The first is the missing satellites problem: CDM cosmology predicts that galaxies like the Milky Way should have significantly more satellite galaxies than we observe. A proposed solution to this problem is the argument that there may exist many more satellites than weve observed, but these dwarf galaxies have had their stars stripped from them during tidal interactions which prevents us from being able to see them.This solution creates a new problem, though: the too big to fail problem. This problem states that many of the satellites predicted by CDM cosmology are simply so massive that theres no way they couldnt have visible stars. Another way of looking at it: the observed satellites of the Milky Way are not massive enough to be consistent with predictions from CDM.Artists illustration of a supernova, a type of stellar feedback that can modify the dark-matter distribution of a satellite galaxy. [NASA/CXC/M. Weiss]Density Profiles and Tidal StirringLed by Mihai Tomozeiu (University of Zurich), a team of scientists has published a study in which they propose a solution to the too big to fail problem. By running detailed cosmological zoom simulations of our galaxys formation, Tomozeiu and

  20. Aging increases compensatory saccade amplitude in the video head impulse test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Anson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rotational vestibular function declines with age resulting in saccades as a compensatory mechanism to improve impaired gaze stability. Small reductions in rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR gain that would be considered clinically normal have been associated with compensatory saccades. We evaluated whether compensatory saccade characteristics varied as a function of age, independent of semicircular canal function as quantified by VOR gain.Methods: Horizontal VOR gain was measured in 243 participants age 27-93 from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging using video head impulse testing (HIT. Latency and amplitude of the first saccade (either covert – occurring during head impulse, or overt – occurring following head impulse were measured for head impulses with compensatory saccades (n = 2230 head impulses. The relationship between age and saccade latency, as well as the relationship between age and saccade amplitude, were evaluated using regression analyses adjusting for VOR gain, gender, and race.Results: Older adults (mean age 75.9 made significantly larger compensatory saccades relative to younger adults (mean age 45.0. In analyses adjusted for VOR gain, there was a significant association between age and amplitude of the first compensatory covert saccade (β = 0.015, p = 0.008. In analyses adjusted for VOR gain, there was a significant association between age and amplitude of the first compensatory overt saccade (β = 0.02, p < 0.001. Compensatory saccade latencies did not vary significantly by age. Conclusions: We observed that aging increases the compensatory catch-up saccade amplitude in healthy adults after controlling for VOR gain. Size of compensatory saccades may be useful in addition to VOR gain for characterizing vestibular function in aging adults.

  1. Etabolism in compensatory growth . III. The urea, glucose and C02 entry rates in animal undergoing compensatory growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pram Mahyudin

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucose (GER, Urea (UER and C02 (C02 ER entry rates were studied at four points in the growth curve viz: before feed restriction (PI after 8 weeks of feed restriction (P2, after 3 weeks (P3 and 15 weeks (P4 following resumption ofad libitum feeding. Sixteen Merino wethers were used and offerred pelleted lucerne (Medicago sativa ad libitum for 3 weeks; then they were divided into 2 groups of eight. Group I continued to be fed ad libitum and Group 11 was fed pelleted lucerne at half maintenance level for 8 weeks and then fed ad libitum until the end of experiment. During feed restriction (P2, UER, urinary urea and urea transferred from the blood to the gut were 74% lower in group II than those in group I due to the reduction of N intake . At P2 GER and C02ER were also lower (53% and 56%, respectively because of the reduction of available glucose precursor and metabolic rate. Similarly AV concentration difference of glucose, glucose taken up by the hind-limb muscle and the percentage of glucose taken up by muscle that was oxidised were reduced by 52%, 86% and 48%, respectively . When animals resumed ad libitum feeding, the components of urea entry rate (except plasma urea concentration, GER and C02ER were markedly increased indicating A switch to the anabolic mode, followed by increased glucose taken up and oxidised by the hind-limb muscle . The significance of glucose in muscle metabolism during compensatory growth was shown in the dramatic increase in the actual rate of glucose oxidation per unit muscle weight . It appears that the priority of usage of glucose taken up by muscle during compensatory growth is for oxidation to both C02 and lactate.

  2. Compensatory Feeding Following a Predator Removal Program : Detection and Mechanisms, 1982-1996 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, James H.

    2002-02-28

    Predator removal is one of the oldest management tools in existence, with evidence that ancient Greeks used a bounty reward for wolves over 3,000 years ago (Anonymous 1964). Efforts to control predators on fish have been documented in scientific journals for at least 60 years (Eschmeyer 1937; Lagler 1939; Foerster and Ricker 1941; Smith and Swingle 1941; Jeppson and Platts 1959), and has likely been attempted for much longer. Complete eradication of a target species from a body of water has rarely been the objective of predator removal programs, which instead have attempted to eliminate predators from specific areas, to reduce the density or standing stock of predators, or to kill the largest individuals in the population (Meronek et al. 1996). In evaluating management programs that remove only part of a predator population, the compensatory response(s) of the remaining predators must be considered. Some potential compensatory responses by remaining individuals include increased reproductive output, increased growth rate, or increased consumption of certain prey species (Jude et al. 1987). If compensation by predators that remain in the system following a removal effort occurs, it may reduce the effectiveness of the predator control program. Northern pike-minnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis (formerly called northern squawfish) consume juvenile salmon in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs in British Columbia, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and California. Northern pikeminnow have been estimated to consume about 11% of all juvenile salmon that migrate through John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River (Rieman et al. 1991). Modeling studies suggested that removal of 20% of the northern pikeminnow population in John Day Reservoir would result in a 50% decrease in predation-related mortality of juvenile salmon migrating through this reach (Beamesderfer et al. 1991). Since the early 1940's, other programs have been implemented to remove northern pikeminnow, with hopes of

  3. Mouse early extra-embryonic lineages activate compensatory endocytosis in response to poor maternal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Congshan; Velazquez, Miguel A; Marfy-Smith, Stephanie; Sheth, Bhavwanti; Cox, Andy; Johnston, David A; Smyth, Neil; Fleming, Tom P

    2014-03-01

    Mammalian extra-embryonic lineages perform the crucial role of nutrient provision during gestation to support embryonic and fetal growth. These lineages derive from outer trophectoderm (TE) and internal primitive endoderm (PE) in the blastocyst and subsequently give rise to chorio-allantoic and visceral yolk sac placentae, respectively. We have shown maternal low protein diet exclusively during mouse preimplantation development (Emb-LPD) is sufficient to cause a compensatory increase in fetal and perinatal growth that correlates positively with increased adult-onset cardiovascular, metabolic and behavioural disease. Here, to investigate early mechanisms of compensatory nutrient provision, we assessed the influence of maternal Emb-LPD on endocytosis within extra-embryonic lineages using quantitative imaging and expression of markers and proteins involved. Blastocysts collected from Emb-LPD mothers within standard culture medium displayed enhanced TE endocytosis compared with embryos from control mothers with respect to the number and collective volume per cell of vesicles with endocytosed ligand and fluid and lysosomes, plus protein expression of megalin (Lrp2) LDL-family receptor. Endocytosis was also stimulated using similar criteria in the outer PE-like lineage of embryoid bodies formed from embryonic stem cell lines generated from Emb-LPD blastocysts. Using an in vitro model replicating the depleted amino acid (AA) composition found within the Emb-LPD uterine luminal fluid, we show TE endocytosis response is activated through reduced branched-chain AAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine). Moreover, activation appears mediated through RhoA GTPase signalling. Our data indicate early embryos regulate and stabilise endocytosis as a mechanism to compensate for poor maternal nutrient provision.

  4. COMPENSATORY OPPORTUNITIES OF THE SMALL INTESTINE AFTER EXTENSIVE DISTAL AND PROXIMAL RESECTION (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Yartsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resection of certain parts of the small intestine is common in clinical practice for various diseases and traumatic injuries. The significant decrease in bowel functioning leads to the development of a specific “short bowel syndrome” (SBS. There is an opinion that the remaining parts of the intestine after resection perform a compensatory function as a result of the development of morphological changes in the intestinal wall. Histological examination of the intestinal wall with evolved compensatory changes is of undoubted interest from the scientific and clinical point of view.Material and Methods. To create the experimental model of SBS, 107 laboratory Wistar male rats were used, weighing 500–600 g, which underwent resection with removal of 1/2 or 2/3 of the small intestine length in proximal or distal parts. The observation period for the animals was 1, 2, 4 and 6 months. Upon expiration of indicated dates, samples of the small intestine and liver were taken from rats for autopsy to be used for histological examination. At the indicated terms, the animals had signs of SBS (diarrhea, weight loss, as well as morphological changes in the intestinal mucosa.Results and Conclusion. According to the results of the study, we concluded that the loss of 1/2 the length of the small intestine is overcome without consequences, and the loss of 2/3 of its length, especially of its proximal part, is accompanied by a longer period of adaptation and more significant morphological alteration of the mucosa, which has to perform not only digestion, but also absorption. 

  5. Compensatory lung growth in NOS3 knockout mice suggests synthase isoform redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokall, Stefan; Maldonado, Arturo R; Klanke, Charles A; Katayama, Shuichi; Morris, Lee M; Vuletin, Jose F; Lim, Foong-Yen; Crombleholme, Timothy M

    2012-04-01

    Nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) produces nitric oxide (NO) in endothelial cells, which stimulates cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production and thereby mediates pulmonary vasodilation. Inhibition of cGMP enzymatic cleavage by sildenafil might be involved in lung growth stimulating processes in pulmonary hypoplasia. The aim of this study was to discover insights into the transcriptional regulation of NOS3 in a mouse model of compensatory lung growth (CLG). CLG was studied in wild type animals (WT) and NOS3 knockout mice (NOS3-/-) by dry weight, DNA, and protein quantification as well as relative quantification of NOS mRNA. All assessments were done on adult female mice, 10 days after left pneumonectomy (PNX) or sham thoracotomy. Weight ratios of right NOS3-/- lungs were no different than controls. There was a compensatory increase in DNA and a noncompensating increase in protein ratios in NOS3-/- mice compared with controls. Pharmacological knockdown with the pan-NOS inhibitor l-NAME (nitro-arginine methyl ester) reduced CLG by only 8% compared with the d-NAME treated control mice. Relative quantification of lung mRNA revealed no up-regulation of NOS3 expression in WT lungs after PNX, but NOS3-/- lungs showed a 2.6-fold higher inducible NOS2 expression compared with shams. These data suggest that NOS3 loss of function alone does not impair CLG in mice, possibly because of redundancy mechanisms involving NOS2. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Gender differences in electrophysiological gene expression in failing and non-failing human hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Ambrosi

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of human cardiac tissues for study are critically important in increasing our understanding of the impact of gender, age, and other parameters, such as medications and cardiac disease, on arrhythmia susceptibility. In this study, we aimed to compare the mRNA expression of 89 ion channel subunits, calcium handling proteins, and transcription factors important in cardiac conduction and arrhythmogenesis in the left atria (LA and ventricles (LV of failing and nonfailing human hearts of both genders. Total RNA samples, prepared from failing male (n = 9 and female (n = 7, and from nonfailing male (n = 9 and female (n = 9 hearts, were probed using custom-designed Taqman gene arrays. Analyses were performed to explore the relationships between gender, failure state, and chamber expression. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed chamber specific expression patterns, but failed to identify disease- or gender-dependent clustering. Gender-specific analysis showed lower expression levels in transcripts encoding for K(v4.3, KChIP2, K(v1.5, and K(ir3.1 in the failing female as compared with the male LA. Analysis of LV transcripts, however, did not reveal significant differences based on gender. Overall, our data highlight the differential expression and transcriptional remodeling of ion channel subunits in the human heart as a function of gender and cardiac disease. Furthermore, the availability of such data sets will allow for the development of disease-, gender-, and, most importantly, patient-specific cardiac models, with the ability to utilize such information as mRNA expression to predict cardiac phenotype.

  7. VOR Gain Is Related to Compensatory Saccades in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Eric R.; Bigelow, Robin T.; Carey, John P.; Xue, Qian-Li; Studenski, Stephanie; Schubert, Michael C.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain is well-suited for identifying rotational vestibular dysfunction, but may miss partial progressive decline in age-related vestibular function. Since compensatory saccades might provide an alternative method for identifying subtle vestibular decline, we describe the relationship between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Methods: Horizontal VOR gain was measured in 243 subjects age 60 and older from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging using video head impulse testing (HIT). Saccades in each HIT were identified as either “compensatory” or “compensatory back-up,” i.e., same or opposite direction as the VOR response respectively. Saccades were also classified as “covert” (occurring during head movement) and “overt” (occurring after head movement). The relationship between VOR gain and percentage of HITs with saccades, as well as the relationship between VOR gain and saccade latency and amplitude, were evaluated using regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and race. Results: In adjusted analyses, the percentage of HITs with compensatory saccades increased 4.5% for every 0.1 decrease in VOR gain (p < 0.0001). Overt compensatory saccade amplitude decreased 0.6° (p < 0.005) and latency increased 90 ms (p < 0.001) for every 0.1 increase in VOR gain. Covert back-up compensatory saccade amplitude increased 0.4° for every 0.1 increase in VOR gain. Conclusion: We observed significant relationships between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Lower VOR gain was associated with larger amplitude, shorter latency compensatory saccades. Compensatory saccades reflect underlying rotational vestibular hypofunction, and may be particularly useful at identifying partial vestibular deficits as occur in aging adults. PMID:27445793

  8. The Failed Metaphors of Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Hargrove, Tracy Y.; Jones, Brett D.

    2003-01-01

    An essay drawn from a book on the unintended effects of high-stakes tests claims that public images of student assessment are influenced significantly by the cultural symbols of the one-room schoolhouse, sports competition, the factory model, and Disney. (Author/MLF)

  9. Compensatory Head Posture Changes in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Maorong; XIA Xirong; Hiroki SAKAKIBARA; Susumu SUETSUGU

    2000-01-01

    The upper airway narrowing and changes in head posture and their relationship with apnea severity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were investigated. In 86 male OSA patients and 37 healthy men, one-night polysomnographic examination was performed and a lateral cephalogram by digital image processing system was taken in each subject. Fifteen variables concerning the upper airway dimensions, area and head postures were measured by using a computer software (NIH Image). The results showed that upper airway dimensions in the OSA group at all levels were significantly smaller than those in the control group and the results hold true when the age and body mass index were well controlled in these two groups. Significant forward inclination of the cervical column was found in the patients with an apnea index (AI) greater than 35episodes/h. And changes in the head posture variables in the whole study group were significantly correlated with AI and airway dimensions at various levels. It was suggested that there exist significant and extensive upper airway narrowing in OSA patients even in upright position and awake state; And as the apnea severity progresses, patients may assume certain compensatory head postures in an attempt to maintain an adequate airway patency.

  10. Compensatory hyperhidrosis following thoracic sympathectomy: a biophysical rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Matthew N; Jay, Ollie

    2012-02-01

    A side-effect of endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) is compensatory hyperhidrosis (CH), characterized by excessive sweating from skin areas with intact sudomotor function. The physiological mechanism of CH is unknown, but may represent an augmented local sweat rate from skin areas with uninterrupted sympathetic innervation based on evaporative heat balance requirements. For a given combination of activity and climate, the same absolute amount of evaporation (if any) is needed to balance the rate of metabolic heat production both pre- and post-ETS. However, the rate of local sweating per unit of skin surface area with intact sudomotor activity must be greater post-ETS as evaporation must be derived from a smaller skin surface area. Under conditions with high evaporative requirements, greater degradations in sweating efficiency associated with an increased dripping of sweat should also occur post-ETS, further pronouncing the sweat rate required for heat balance. In conclusion, in addition to the potential role of psychological stimuli for increased sudomotor activity, the existence of CH post-ETS can be described by the interplay between fundamental thermoregulatory physiology and altered heat balance biophysics and does not require a postoperative alteration in physiological control.

  11. Acute moderate exercise enhances compensatory brain activation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Suwabe, Kazuya; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamada, Yuhki; Akahori, Mitsuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect is also applicable to older adults was examined. Sixteen older adults performed a color-word matching Stroop task before and after 10 minutes of exercise on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity. Cortical hemodynamics of the prefrontal area was monitored with a fNIRS during the Stroop task. We analyzed Stroop interference (incongruent-neutral) as Stroop performance. Though activation for Stroop interference was found in the bilateral prefrontal area before the acute bout of exercise, activation of the right frontopolar area (R-FPA) was enhanced after exercise. In the majority of participants, this coincided with improved performance reflected in Stroop interference results. Thus, an acute bout of moderate exercise improved Stroop performance in older adults, and this was associated with contralateral compensatory activation.

  12. Reasoning and dyslexia: is visual memory a compensatory resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Alison M; Handley, Simon J

    2014-11-01

    Effective reasoning is fundamental to problem solving and achievement in education and employment. Protocol studies have previously suggested that people with dyslexia use reasoning strategies based on visual mental representations, whereas non-dyslexics use abstract verbal strategies. This research presents converging evidence from experimental and individual differences perspectives. In Experiment 1, dyslexic and non-dyslexic participants were similarly accurate on reasoning problems, but scores on a measure of visual memory ability only predicted reasoning accuracy for dyslexics. In Experiment 2, a secondary task loaded visual memory resources during concurrent reasoning. Dyslexics were significantly less accurate when reasoning under conditions of high memory load and showed reduced ability to subsequently recall the visual stimuli, suggesting that the memory and reasoning tasks were competing for the same visual cognitive resource. The results are consistent with an explanation based on limitations in the verbal and executive components of working memory in dyslexia and the use of compensatory visual strategies for reasoning. There are implications for cognitive activities that do not readily support visual thinking, whether in education, employment or less formal everyday settings.

  13. Compensatory mechanisms underlie intact task-switching performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamadar, S; Michie, P; Karayanidis, F

    2010-04-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia tend to perform poorly on many measures of cognitive control. However, recent task-switching studies suggest that they show intact task-switching performance, despite the fact that the regions involved in task-switching are known to be structurally and functionally impaired in the disorder. Behavioral, event-related potential (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures were used to compare the temporal and spatial dynamics of task-switching performance in individuals with schizophrenia and controls. Consistent with previous studies, reaction time (RT) switch cost and its reduction with anticipatory preparation did not differ between groups. There were also no group differences on cue-locked ERP components associated with anticipatory preparation processes. However, both stimulus- and response-locked ERPs were significantly disrupted in schizophrenia, suggesting difficulty with task-set implementation. fMRI analyses indicated that individuals with schizophrenia showed hyperactivity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. RT-fMRI and ERP-fMRI associations suggested that individuals with schizophrenia employ compensatory mechanisms to overcome difficulties in task-set implementation and thereby achieve the same behavioral outcomes as controls.

  14. Role of compensatory meiosis mechanisms in human spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgers, Mareike; Wolter, Martin; Hentrich, Anna; Bergmann, Martin; Stammler, Angelika; Konrad, Lutz

    2014-09-01

    Disturbances of checkpoints in distinct stages of spermatogenesis (mitosis, meiosis, and spermiogenesis) contribute to impaired spermatogenesis; however, the efficiency of meiotic entry has not been investigated in more detail. In this study, we analyzed azoospermic patients with defined spermatogenic defects by the use of octamer-binding protein 2 for type A spermatogonia, sarcoma antigen 1 for mitosis-meiosis transition and SMAD3 for pachytene spermatocytes. Especially patients with maturation arrest (MA) at the level of primary spermatocytes showed significantly reduced numbers of spermatogonia compared with patients with histologically intact spermatogenesis or patients with hypospermatogenesis (Hyp). For a detailed individual classification of the patients, we distinguished between 'high efficiency of meiotic entry' (high numbers of pachytene spermatocytes) and 'low efficiency of meiotic entry' (low numbers of pachytene spermatocytes). Only patients with histologically normal spermatogenesis (Nsp) and patients with Hyp showed normal numbers of spermatogonia and a high efficiency of meiotic entry. Of note, only patients with histologically Nsp or patients with Hyp could compensate low numbers of spermatogonia with a high efficiency of meiotic entry. In contrast, patients with MA always showed a low efficiency of meiotic entry. This is the first report on patients with impaired spermatogenesis, showing that half of the patients with Hyp but all patients with MA cannot compensate reduced numbers in spermatogonia with a highly efficient meiosis. Thus, we suggest that compensatory meiosis mechanisms in human spermatogenesis exist.

  15. Severe compensatory hyperhidrosis following thoracic sympathectomy successfully treated with low doses of botulinum toxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Rodríguez, Norberto; Clavo, Bernardino; Calatayud-Gastardi, Joaquín; García-Castellano, José Manuel; Ponce-González, Miguel A; Olmo-Quintana, Vicente; Llontop, Pedro; Alvarez-Prats, Alejandro; Yordi, Nagib Atallah; Ruíz-Caballero, José Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Compensatory hyperhidrosis is an adverse effect of thoracic sympathectomy that can be debilitating, which is why an efficient treatment is demanded. Botulinum toxin is an emerging treatment, not well known yet. We report two cases of compensatory hyperhidrosis following thoracic sympathectomy which were both treated with low doses of botulinum toxin A. The patients, a male and a female, noted a high level of satisfaction with the abolishment of sweating that was maintained up to 10 months. We consider that low doses of botulinum toxin A is a well tolerated, safe and effective treatment for compensatory hyperhidrosis and should be offered as an alternative treatment.

  16. When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaschke, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Review of: James R. Taylor and Elizabeth J. Van Every / When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters. (New York: Routledge, 2014. 220 pp. ISBN: 978 0415741668)......Review of: James R. Taylor and Elizabeth J. Van Every / When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters. (New York: Routledge, 2014. 220 pp. ISBN: 978 0415741668)...

  17. Is journalism failing on climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    How can we build a reliable and affordable energy supply based on renewables? How rapidly do we need to cut greenhouse gas emissions to keep climate change within manageable bounds? What does it take to maintain a stable common currency of different nations? These are just a few examples of questions that are critical for our future and that require an understanding of complex systems—the energy system, the climate system, the financial system. Finding sound answers to these questions requires sophisticated scientific analysis and expert knowledge; a lay person's intuition will clearly not suffice. Yet, decisions in a democracy are (and should be!) taken by politicians and the voting public who are not usually scientific experts. Hence the well-being of our societies—and even more so the living conditions of future generations, which are defined by the decisions we take today—depends on the wider public being well informed about the state of scientific knowledge and discourse. The media are the most important means by which lay people obtain their information about science. Good science journalism is therefore a decisive factor for the long-term success of modern society. Good science journalism clearly must be critical journalism, and it requires journalists who know what is what, who can put things into a perspective, and who are able to make well-informed judgements. After all, the role of science journalism is not simply to act as a 'translator' who conveys the findings of scientists in a language understandable to lay people. Rather, good science journalism will provide the public with a realistic impression of what is well established in science and what are current 'hot topics', uncertainties and controversies. It will also discuss the methods and social context of the scientific endeavour. There is ample evidence that in the area of climate science, journalism too often is failing to deliver this realistic picture to its audience, despite many good

  18. Numbers Speak Where Words Fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Albert Fei

    2017-01-01

    ’s decision making model, this study posits that the two forms of OCRs (i.e., numerical ratings and opinionated reviews) facilitate consumers’ decisional processes in terms of the effectiveness of constructing consideration sets and the efficiency of arriving at a final decision. Consumers’ performance......Consumers are increasingly relying on online consumer reviews (OCRs) to facilitate their decision making process as a credible source of information. This study seeks to explicate why consumers deem OCRs as helpful and how they make use of OCRs in their decision making process. By drawing on Simon...... outcome justifiability mediates the positive effects of both decisional process effectiveness and decisional process efficiency on decisional outcome confidence. This study contributes to both research and practice by offering a more in depth explanation to consumers’ reliance on OCRs through the lens...

  19. The Development of a Novel Measure to Assess Motives for Compensatory Eating in Response to Exercise: The CEMQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshier, Samantha J; Landau, Aaron J; Hearon, Bridget A; Stein, Aliza T; Greathouse, Lee; Smits, Jasper A J; Otto, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory eating in response to exercise may be an obstacle to achieving weight-loss and fitness goals. In this study we develop and conduct a preliminary examination of the psychometric properties of the Compensatory Eating Motives Questionnaire (CEMQ), a self-report questionnaire of motives for compensatory eating. Development and testing of the CEMQ was conducted in two student samples. Of respondents, 75% reported engaging in compensatory eating. Factor analysis yielded factors representing three domains of motives for compensatory eating: Eating for Reward, Eating for Recovery, and Eating for Relief. Internal consistency of the factors was adequate, and the factor structure was replicated. Correlations between the CEMQ subscales and trait questionnaires supported hypotheses for convergent and divergent validity. These results encourage further investigation of compensatory eating as a potential obstacle to weight loss, and support the continued assessment of the CEMQ as a tool to measure three conceptually distinct motives for compensatory eating.

  20. Consistency in compensatory eating responses following acute exercise in inactive, overweight and obese women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unick, Jessica L; O'Leary, Kevin C; Dorfman, Leah; Thomas, J Graham; Strohacker, Kelley; Wing, Rena R

    2015-01-01

    .... However, it is unclear whether EI post-exercise is stable over time. The present study examined whether compensatory eating responses to a single exercise bout are consistent within individuals across three pairs of trials...

  1. Compensatory mechanisms contributing to keep the sagittal balance of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrey, Cédric; Roussouly, Pierre; Le Huec, Jean-Charles; D'Acunzi, Gennaro; Perrin, Gilles

    2013-11-01

    Aging spine is characterized by facet joints arthritis, degenerative disc disease, bone remodeling and atrophy of extensor muscles resulting in a progressive kyphosis of the lumbar spine. The aim of this paper is to describe the different compensatory mechanisms for patients with severe degenerative lumbar spine. According to the severity of the imbalance, three stages are observed: balanced, balanced with compensatory mechanisms and imbalanced. For the two last stages, the compensatory mechanisms permit to limit the consequences of loss of lumbar lordosis on global sagittal alignment and therefore contribute to keep the sagittal balance of the spine. The basic concept is to extend adjacent segments of the kyphotic spine allowing for compensation of the sagittal unbalance but potentially inducing adverse effects. Finally, we propose a three-step algorithm to analyze the global balance status and take into consideration the presence of the compensatory mechanisms in the spinal, pelvic and lower limb areas.

  2. Perfusion-related stimuli for compensatory lung growth following pneumonectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, D Merrill; Yilmaz, Cuneyt; Gyawali, Dipendra; Iyer, Roshni; Ravikumar, Priya; Estrera, Aaron S; Hsia, Connie C W

    2016-07-01

    Following pneumonectomy (PNX), two separate mechanical forces act on the remaining lung: parenchymal stress caused by lung expansion, and microvascular distension and shear caused by increased perfusion. We previously showed that parenchymal stress and strain explain approximately one-half of overall compensation; the remainder was presumptively attributed to perfusion-related factors. In this study, we directly tested the hypothesis that perturbation of regional pulmonary perfusion modulates post-PNX lung growth. Adult canines underwent banding of the pulmonary artery (PAB) to the left caudal (LCa) lobe, which caused a reduction in basal perfusion to LCa lobe without preventing the subsequent increase in its perfusion following right PNX while simultaneously exaggerating the post-PNX increase in perfusion to the unbanded lobes, thereby creating differential perfusion changes between banded and unbanded lobes. Control animals underwent sham pulmonary artery banding followed by right PNX. Pulmonary function, regional pulmonary perfusion, and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest were analyzed pre-PNX and 3-mo post-PNX. Terminally, the remaining lobes were fixed for detailed morphometric analysis. Results were compared with corresponding lobes in two control (Sham banding and normal unoperated) groups. PAB impaired the indices of post-PNX extravascular alveolar tissue growth by up to 50% in all remaining lobes. PAB enhanced the expected post-PNX increase in alveolar capillary formation, measured by the prevalence of double-capillary profiles, in both unbanded and banded lobes. We conclude that perfusion distribution provides major stimuli for post-PNX compensatory lung growth independent of the stimuli provided by lung expansion and parenchymal stress and strain.

  3. Ketosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus: complication or compensatory mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kruljac

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The exact clinical role of diabetic ketosis in patients presenting to emergency departments with hyperglycemic crises is largely unknown. The aim of this brief review is to provide insights into possible mechanisms and clinical impact of diabetic ketosis in patients with hyperglycemic crises and clinical features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Patients with T2DM have impaired ketogenesis and lower blood ketone levels. High insulin, low glucagon, IGF-I, ghrelin and adiponectin levels are associated with suppressed ketogenesis. Adenosine 5’-monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme expressed in skeletal muscle and seems to have pivotal role in impaired ketogenesis. An increase in ketogenesis is associated with weight loss, increase in insulin sensitivity and serum IGF-I levels, which have beneficial effects on glycemia but also on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Ketone bodies are far more efficient fuel sources than glucose, especially in diabetics with heart failure and kidney disease. In theory, ketogenesis in patients with T2DM can be improved by low- carbohydrate and low-calorie diet, physical activity, moderate alcohol use, metformin, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2 inhibitors. SGLT-2 inhibitors are the most potent inducers of ketogenesis. They induce profound glycosuria with a consequent shift to fatty acid metabolism and increased ketogenesis. This could potentially explain how SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin lowers cardiovascular mortality and slowers progression of kidney disease. Therefore, we believe that diabetic ketosis in patients with hyperglycemic crisis may be a compensatory mechanism, rather than a complication itself. Further prospective studies are needed to test this hypothesis.

  4. Sleep, stress and compensatory behaviors in Australian nurses and midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Dorrian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe sleep, stress and compensatory behaviors in nurses and midwives. METHODS: The study included 41 midwives and 21 nurses working in Australian hospitals between 2005 and 2009. Participation was voluntary. All participants recorded on a daily basis their work and sleep hours, levels of stress and exhaustion, caffeine intake and use of sleep aids for a month (1,736 days, 1,002 work shifts. RESULTS: Participants reported moderate to high levels of stress and exhaustion on 20-40% of work days; experienced sleep disruption on more than 50% of work days; struggled to remain awake on 27% of work days; and suffered extreme drowsiness or experienced a near accident while travelling home on 9% of workdays. Age, perceived sleep duration and work hours were significant predictors of caffeine intake. About 60% of participants reported using sleep aids (about 20% reported taking prescription medications and 44% of nurses and 9% of midwives reported alcohol use as a sleep aid at least once during the study. Stress and workdays were significant predictors of sedative use. Overall, 22% reported being indifferent or mildly dissatisfied with their job. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep problems, high levels of stress and exhaustion and low job satisfaction are prevalent among nurses and midwives. The use of alcohol and sleeping pills as sleep aids, and the use of caffeine to help maintain alertness is also common. Nurses and midwives may use caffeine to compensate for reduced sleep, especially on workdays, and sleeping pills to cope with their daily work-related stress.

  5. Reversible compensatory hypertrophy in transplanted brown Norway rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, M; Churchill, P C; Schwartz, M; Bidani, A; McDonald, F

    1991-07-01

    Recently we described methods for optimizing the function of transplanted rat kidneys. In unilaterally nephrectomized recipients, one week after surgery, the left transplanted kidney was identical to the right native kidney with respect to wet weight and the clearances of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH). The goals of the present experiments were first, to extend the post-surgery period to three weeks (sufficient to allow hypertrophic changes), and second, to study function of transplanted hypertrophied kidneys. Genetically identical Brown Norway rats were used as donor and recipients. Three weeks after transplanting a normal kidney into a unilaterally-nephrectomized recipient, the transplanted kidney had a normal plasma flow and was identical to the contralateral native kidney with respect to wet weight and the clearances of inulin and PAH. Three weeks after transplanting a normal kidney into a bilaterally-nephrectomized recipient, the wet weight, inulin and PAH clearances, and plasma flow of the transplanted kidney were all higher than control, and not significantly different from those observed in unilaterally-nephrectomized control rats. Thus, transplanted and native kidneys exhibited the same degree of compensatory hypertrophy. Hypertrophied donor kidneys (that is, the donor rat had been unilaterally-nephrectomized three weeks previously) remained hypertrophied in bilaterally-nephrectomized recipients, but in unilaterally-nephrectomized recipients, they regressed towards normal (that is, the values of wet weight, inulin and PAH clearances and plasma flow were significantly less than those in rats with only one kidney) while the contralateral native kidney remained normal (values of wet weight and inulin and PAH clearances were not different from control).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Sexual hormones modulate compensatory renal growth and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. Azurmendi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The role played by sexual hormones and vasoactive substances in the compensatory renal growth (CRG that follows uninephrectomy (uNx is still controversial. Intact and gonadectomized adult Wistar rats of both sexes, with and without uNx, performed at 90 days age, were studied at age 150 days. Daily urine volume, electrolyte excretion and kallikrein activity (UKa were determined. Afterwards, glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure were measured, the kidneys weighed and DNA, protein and RNA studied to determine nuclei content and cell size. When the remnant kidney weight at age 150 days was compared with the weight of the kidney removed at the time of uNx, male uNx rats showed the greatest CRG (50% while growth in the other uNx groups was 25%, 15% and 19% in orchidectomized, female and ovariectomized rats, respectively. The small CRG observed in the uNx female rats was accompanied by the lowest glomerular filtration value, 0.56 ± 0.02 ml/min/g kwt compared, with the other uNx groups, p < 0.05. Cell size (protein or RNA/DNA was similar for all the groups except for uNx orchidectomized rats. In this group the cytoplasmatic protein or RNA content was lower than in the other groups while DNA (nuclei content was similar. Some degree of hyperplasia was determined by DNA content in the uNx groups. Male sexual hormones positively influenced CRG and its absence modulated cell size. Female sexual hormones, instead, did not appear to stimulate CRG. The kallikrein kinin system may not be involved in CRG.

  7. Poor compensatory hyperventilation in morbidly obese women at peak exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Murias, Juan M; Kim, Do Jun; Gow, Jennifer; Christou, Nicolas V

    2007-11-15

    This study was designed to compare differences in pulmonary gas exchange at rest and at peak exercise in two groups of women: (1) physically active, non-obese women and (2) women with morbid obesity. Fourteen morbidly obese women (body mass index or BMI=49+/-7 kg/m2; peak oxygen consumption or VO2 peak=14+/-2 ml/(kg min)) and 14 physically active non-obese women (BMI=22+/-2 kg/m2; VO2 peak=50+/-6 ml/(kg min)) performed an incremental, ramped exercise test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Arterial blood was sampled at rest and at peak exercise. At rest, the alveolar to arterial oxygen partial pressure difference was 3x higher in the obese women (14+/-10 mmHg) compared to non-obese women (5+/-4 mmHg). Arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) was identical in both groups at rest (37+/-4 mmHg). Only the non-obese women showed a decrease in PaCO2 rest to peak exercise (-5+/-3 mmHg). The slope between heart rate and VO2 during exercise was higher in the morbidly obese compared to non-obese women indicating that for the same absolute increase in VO2 a larger increase in heart rate is needed, demonstrating poorer cardiac efficiency in obese women. In conclusion, morbidly obese women have poorer exercise capacity, cardiac efficiency, and compensatory hyperventilation at peak exercise, and poorer gas exchange at rest compared to physically active, non-obese women.

  8. Limits to compensatory adaptation and the persistence of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    MacLean, R. Craig; Vogwill, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance carries a fitness cost that could potentially limit the spread of resistance in bacterial pathogens. In spite of this cost, a large number of experimental evolution studies have found that resistance is stably maintained in the absence of antibiotics as a result of compensatory evolution. Clinical studies, on the other hand, have found that resistance in pathogen populations usually declines after antibiotic use is stopped, suggesting that compensatory adaptation is not ...

  9. Compensatory evolution for a gene deletion is not limited to its immediate functional network

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    Bull JJ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic disruption of an important phenotype should favor compensatory mutations that restore the phenotype. If the genetic basis of the phenotype is modular, with a network of interacting genes whose functions are specific to that phenotype, compensatory mutations are expected among the genes of the affected network. This perspective was tested in the bacteriophage T3 using a genome deleted of its DNA ligase gene, disrupting DNA metabolism. Results In two replicate, long-term adaptations, phage compensatory evolution accommodated the low ligase level provided by the host without reinventing its own ligase. In both lines, fitness increased substantially but remained well below that of the intact genome. Each line accumulated over a dozen compensating mutations during long-term adaptation, and as expected, many of the compensatory changes were within the DNA metabolism network. However, several compensatory changes were outside the network and defy any role in DNA metabolism or biochemical connection to the disruption. In one line, these extra-network changes were essential to the recovery. The genes experiencing compensatory changes were moderately conserved between T3 and its relative T7 (25% diverged, but the involvement of extra-network changes was greater in T3. Conclusion Compensatory evolution was only partly limited to the known functionally interacting partners of the deleted gene. Thus gene interactions contributing to fitness were more extensive than suggested by the functional properties currently ascribed to the genes. Compensatory evolution offers an easy method of discovering genome interactions among specific elements that does not rest on an a priori knowledge of those elements or their interactions.

  10. Interspecific variation in compensatory regrowth to herbivory associated with soil nutrients in three Ficus (Moraceae saplings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhao

    Full Text Available Plant compensatory regrowth is an induced process that enhances plant tolerance to herbivory. Plant behavior against herbivores differs between species and depends on resource availability, thus making general predictions related to plant compensatory regrowth difficult. To understand how soil nutrients determine the degree of compensatory regrowth for different plant species, we selected saplings of three Ficus species and treated with herbivore insects and artificial injury in both glasshouse conditions and in the field at two soil nutrient levels. Compensatory regrowth was calculated by biomass, relative growth rate and photosynthetic characteristics. A similar pattern was found in both the glasshouse and in the field for species F. hispida, where overcompensatory regrowth was triggered only under fertile conditions, and full compensatory regrowth occurred under infertile conditions. For F. auriculata, overcompensatory regrowth was stimulated only under infertile conditions and full compensatory regrowth occurred under fertile conditions. Ficus racemosa displayed full compensatory regrowth in both soil nutrient levels, but without overcompensatory regrowth following any of the treatments. The three Ficus species differed in biomass allocation following herbivore damage and artificial injury. The root/shoot ratio of F. hispida decreased largely following herbivore damage and artificial injury, while the root/shoot ratio for F. auriculata increased against damage treatments. The increase of shoot and root size for F. hispida and F. auriculata, respectively, appeared to be caused by a significant increase in photosynthesis. The results indicated that shifts in biomass allocation and increased photosynthesis are two of the mechanisms underlying compensatory regrowth. Contrasting patterns among the three Ficus species suggest that further theoretical and empirical work is necessary to better understand the complexity of the plant responses to

  11. Balance perturbation system to improve balance compensatory responses during walking in old persons

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Ageing commonly disrupts the balance control and compensatory postural responses that contribute to maintaining balance and preventing falls during perturbation of posture. This can lead to increased risk of falling in old adults (65 years old and over). Therefore, improving compensatory postural responses during walking is one of the goals in fall prevention programs. Training is often used to achieve this goal. Most fall prevention programs are usually directed towards improving vo...

  12. Testicular compensatory hypertrophy in the unilaterally adrenalectomized lizard Mabuya carinata (Schn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajurvedi, H N; Chandramohan, K

    1994-05-15

    Unilateral adrenalectomy in recrudescent and breeding phases of the reproductive cycle caused atrophic changes in the ipsilateral testis, shown by inhibition of spermatogenic and steroidogenic activity of the ipsilateral testis. The contralateral testis showed compensatory hypertrophy. Unilateral adrenalectomy in regressing and quiescent phases of the reproductive cycle did not induce compensatory hypertrophy in the contralateral testis although there were atrophic changes in the ipsilateral testis.

  13. Interspecific variation in compensatory regrowth to herbivory associated with soil nutrients in three Ficus (Moraceae) saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin; Chen, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Plant compensatory regrowth is an induced process that enhances plant tolerance to herbivory. Plant behavior against herbivores differs between species and depends on resource availability, thus making general predictions related to plant compensatory regrowth difficult. To understand how soil nutrients determine the degree of compensatory regrowth for different plant species, we selected saplings of three Ficus species and treated with herbivore insects and artificial injury in both glasshouse conditions and in the field at two soil nutrient levels. Compensatory regrowth was calculated by biomass, relative growth rate and photosynthetic characteristics. A similar pattern was found in both the glasshouse and in the field for species F. hispida, where overcompensatory regrowth was triggered only under fertile conditions, and full compensatory regrowth occurred under infertile conditions. For F. auriculata, overcompensatory regrowth was stimulated only under infertile conditions and full compensatory regrowth occurred under fertile conditions. Ficus racemosa displayed full compensatory regrowth in both soil nutrient levels, but without overcompensatory regrowth following any of the treatments. The three Ficus species differed in biomass allocation following herbivore damage and artificial injury. The root/shoot ratio of F. hispida decreased largely following herbivore damage and artificial injury, while the root/shoot ratio for F. auriculata increased against damage treatments. The increase of shoot and root size for F. hispida and F. auriculata, respectively, appeared to be caused by a significant increase in photosynthesis. The results indicated that shifts in biomass allocation and increased photosynthesis are two of the mechanisms underlying compensatory regrowth. Contrasting patterns among the three Ficus species suggest that further theoretical and empirical work is necessary to better understand the complexity of the plant responses to herbivore damage.

  14. Sagittal balance disorders in severe degenerative spine. Can we identify the compensatory mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrey, Cédric; Roussouly, Pierre; Perrin, Gilles; Le Huec, Jean-Charles

    2011-09-01

    Aging of the spine is characterized by facet joints arthritis, degenerative disc disease and atrophy of extensor muscles resulting in a progressive kyphosis. Recent studies confirmed that patients with lumbar degenerative disease were characterized by an anterior sagittal imbalance, a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase of pelvis tilt. The aim of this paper was thus to describe the different compensatory mechanisms which are observed in the spine, pelvis and/or lower limbs areas for patients with severe degenerative spine. We reviewed all the compensatory mechanisms of sagittal unbalance described in the literature. According to the severity of the imbalance, we could identify three different stages: balanced, balanced with compensatory mechanisms and imbalanced. For the two last stages, the compensatory mechanisms permitted to limit consequences of lumbar kyphosis on the global sagittal alignment. Reduction of thoracic kyphosis, intervertebral hyperextension, retrolisthesis, pelvis backtilt, knee flessum and ankle extension were the main mechanisms described in the literature. The basic concept of these compensatory mechanisms was to extend adjacent segments of the kyphotic spine allowing for compensation of anterior translation of the axis of gravity. To avoid underestimate the severity of the degenerative spine disorder, it thus seems important to recognize the different compensatory mechanisms from the upper part of the trunk to the lower limbs. We propose a three steps algorithm to analyse the balance status and determine the presence or not of these compensatory mechanisms: measurement of pelvis incidence, assessment of global sagittal alignment and analysis of compensatory mechanisms successively in the spine, pelvis and lower limbs areas.

  15. The role of anticipatory postural adjustments in compensatory control of posture: 1. Electromyographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcio J; Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2010-06-01

    Anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) postural adjustments are the two principal mechanisms that the central nervous system uses to maintain equilibrium while standing. We studied the role of APAs in compensatory postural adjustments. Eight subjects were exposed to external predictable and unpredictable perturbations induced at the shoulder level, while standing with eyes open and closed. Electrical activity of leg and trunk muscles was recorded and analyzed during four epochs representing the time duration typical for anticipatory and compensatory postural control. No anticipatory activity of the trunk and leg muscles was seen in the case of unpredictable perturbations; instead, significant compensatory activation of muscles was observed. When the perturbations were predictable, strong anticipatory activation was seen in all the muscles: such APAs were associated with significantly smaller compensatory activity of muscles and COP displacements after the perturbations. The outcome of the study highlights the importance of APAs in control of posture and points out the existence of a relationship between the anticipatory and the compensatory components of postural control. It also suggests a possibility to enhance balance control by improving the APAs responses during external perturbations.

  16. Compensatory interactions to stabilize multiple steady states or mitigate the effects of multiple deregulations in biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Campbell, Colin; Albert, Réka

    2016-12-01

    Complex diseases can be modeled as damage to intracellular networks that results in abnormal cell behaviors. Network-based dynamic models such as Boolean models have been employed to model a variety of biological systems including those corresponding to disease. Previous work designed compensatory interactions to stabilize an attractor of a Boolean network after single node damage. We generalize this method to a multinode damage scenario and to the simultaneous stabilization of multiple steady state attractors. We classify the emergent situations, with a special focus on combinatorial effects, and characterize each class through simulation. We explore how the structural and functional properties of the network affect its resilience and its possible repair scenarios. We demonstrate the method's applicability to two intracellular network models relevant to cancer. This work has implications in designing prevention strategies for complex disease.

  17. Neuronal Atrophy Early in Degenerative Ataxia Is a Compensatory Mechanism to Regulate Membrane Excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Orco, James M; Wasserman, Aaron H; Chopra, Ravi; Ingram, Melissa A C; Hu, Yuan-Shih; Singh, Vikrant; Wulff, Heike; Opal, Puneet; Orr, Harry T; Shakkottai, Vikram G

    2015-08-12

    Neuronal atrophy in neurodegenerative diseases is commonly viewed as an early event in a continuum that ultimately results in neuronal loss. In a mouse model of the polyglutamine disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), we tested the hypothesis that cerebellar Purkinje neuron atrophy serves an adaptive role rather than being simply a nonspecific response to injury. In acute cerebellar slices from SCA1 mice, we find that Purkinje neuron pacemaker firing is initially normal but, with the onset of motor dysfunction, becomes disrupted, accompanied by abnormal depolarization. Remarkably, subsequent Purkinje cell atrophy is associated with a restoration of pacemaker firing. The early inability of Purkinje neurons to support repetitive spiking is due to unopposed calcium currents resulting from a reduction in large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) and subthreshold-activated potassium channels. The subsequent restoration of SCA1 Purkinje neuron firing correlates with the recovery of the density of these potassium channels that accompanies cell atrophy. Supporting a critical role for BK channels, viral-mediated increases in BK channel expression in SCA1 Purkinje neurons improves motor dysfunction and partially restores Purkinje neuron morphology. Cerebellar perfusion of flufenamic acid, an agent that restores the depolarized membrane potential of SCA1 Purkinje neurons by activating potassium channels, prevents Purkinje neuron dendritic atrophy. These results suggest that Purkinje neuron dendritic remodeling in ataxia is an adaptive response to increases in intrinsic membrane excitability. Similar adaptive remodeling could apply to other vulnerable neuronal populations in neurodegenerative disease. In neurodegenerative disease, neuronal atrophy has long been assumed to be an early nonspecific event preceding neuronal loss. However, in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), we identify a previously unappreciated compensatory role for neuronal

  18. Probiotic Supplements Failed to Prevent Babies' Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167008.html Probiotic Supplements Failed to Prevent Babies' Infections Benefits of ... 3, 2017 MONDAY, July 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Probiotic supplements may not protect babies from catching colds ...

  19. Commitment escalation to a failing family business

    OpenAIRE

    Chirico, Francesco; Salvato, Carlo; Byrne, Barbara; Akhter, Naveed; Arriaga Múzquiz, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The overarching intent of this manuscript is to heighten awareness to the concept of commitment escalation as it bears on a failing family business. Specifically, drawing on the concept of emotional ownership, together with self-justification arguments, we a) identify factors considered to be most forceful in contributing to the presence of commitment escalation and thus, resistance to change in a failing family business (i.e., emotional ownership, feeling of responsibility, investment of cap...

  20. The role of Compensatory Health Beliefs in eating behavior change: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Melanie A; Rackow, Pamela; Inauen, Jennifer; Radtke, Theda; Scholz, Urte

    2017-09-01

    Compensatory Health Beliefs (CHBs), defined as beliefs that an unhealthy behavior can be compensated for by engaging in another healthy behavior, are assumed to hinder health behavior change. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CHBs for two distinct eating behaviors (increased fruit and vegetable consumption and eating fewer unhealthy snacks) with a mixed method approach. Participants (N = 232, mean age = 27.3 years, 76.3% women) were randomly assigned to a fruit and vegetable or an unhealthy snack condition. For the quantitative approach, path models were fitted to analyze the role of CHBs within a social-cognitive theory of health behavior change, the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). With a content analysis, the qualitative approach investigated the occurrence of CHBs in smartphone chat groups when pursuing an eating goal. Both analyses were conducted for each eating behavior separately. Path models showed that CHBs added predictive value for intention, but not behavior over and above HAPA variables only in the unhealthy snack condition. CHBs were significantly negatively associated with intention and action planning. Content analysis revealed that people generated only a few CHB messages. However, CHBs were more likely to be present and were also more diverse in the unhealthy snack condition compared to the fruit and vegetable condition. Based on a mixed method approach, this study suggests that CHBs play a more important role for eating unhealthy snacks than for fruit and vegetable consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Compensatory Water Effects Link Yearly Global Land CO2 Sink Changes to Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Martin; Reichstein, Markus; Tramontana, Gianluca; Viovy, Nicolas; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Wang, Ying-Ping; Weber, Ulrich; Weber, Ulrich; Zaehle, Soenke; Zeng, Ning; hide

    2017-01-01

    Large interannual variations in the measured growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) originate primarily from fluctuations in carbon uptake by land ecosystems13. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent temperature and water availability control the carbon balance of land ecosystems across spatial and temporal scales314. Here we use empirical models based on eddy covariance data15 and process-based models16,17 to investigate the effect of changes in temperature and water availability on gross primary productivity (GPP), terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at local and global scales. We find that water availability is the dominant driver of the local interannual variability in GPP and TER. To a lesser extent this is true also for NEE at the local scale, but when integrated globally, temporal NEE variability is mostly driven by temperature fluctuations. We suggest that this apparent paradox can be explained by two compensatory water effects. Temporal water-driven GPP and TER variations compensate locally, dampening water-driven NEE variability. Spatial water availability anomalies also compensate, leaving a dominant temperature signal in the year-to-year fluctuations of the land carbon sink. These findings help to reconcile seemingly contradictory reports regarding the importance of temperature and water in controlling the interannual variability of the terrestrial carbon balance36,9,11,12,14. Our study indicates that spatial climate covariation drives the global carbon cycle response.

  2. Identification and characterization of genes required for compensatory growth in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, Abigail R; Richter, Daniel J; Yu, Albert S; Hariharan, Iswar K

    2011-12-01

    To maintain tissue homeostasis, some organs are able to replace dying cells with additional proliferation of surviving cells. Such proliferation can be localized (e.g., a regeneration blastema) or diffuse (compensatory growth). The relationship between such growth and the growth that occurs during development has not been characterized in detail. Drosophila melanogaster larval imaginal discs can recover from extensive damage, producing normally sized adult organs. Here we describe a system using genetic mosaics to screen for recessive mutations that impair compensatory growth. By generating clones of cells that carry a temperature-sensitive cell-lethal mutation, we conditionally ablate patches of tissue in the imaginal disc and assess the ability of the surviving sister clones to replace the lost tissue. We have used this system together with a modified whole-genome resequencing (WGS) strategy to identify several mutations that selectively compromise compensatory growth. We find specific alleles of bunched (bun) and Ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase large subunit (RnrL) reduce compensatory growth in the imaginal disc. Other genes identified in the screen, including two alleles of Topoisomerase 3-alpha (Top3α), while also required for developmental growth, appear to have an enhanced requirement during compensatory growth. Compensatory growth occurs at a higher rate than normal growth and may therefore have features in common with some types of overgrowth. Indeed, the RnrL allele identified compromises both these types of altered growth and mammalian ribonucleotide reductase and topoisomerases are targets of anticancer drugs. Finally, the approach we describe is applicable to the study of compensatory growth in diverse tissues in Drosophila.

  3. RIP3 Inhibits Inflammatory Hepatocarcinogenesis but Promotes Cholestasis by Controlling Caspase-8- and JNK-Dependent Compensatory Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Vucur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For years, the term “apoptosis” was used synonymously with programmed cell death. However, it was recently discovered that receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3-dependent “necroptosis” represents an alternative programmed cell death pathway activated in many inflamed tissues. Here, we show in a genetic model of chronic hepatic inflammation that activation of RIP3 limits immune responses and compensatory proliferation of liver parenchymal cells (LPC by inhibiting Caspase-8-dependent activation of Jun-(N-terminal kinase in LPC and nonparenchymal liver cells. In this way, RIP3 inhibits intrahepatic tumor growth and impedes the Caspase-8-dependent establishment of specific chromosomal aberrations that mediate resistance to tumor-necrosis-factor-induced apoptosis and underlie hepatocarcinogenesis. Moreover, RIP3 promotes the development of jaundice and cholestasis, because its activation suppresses compensatory proliferation of cholangiocytes and hepatic stem cells. These findings demonstrate a function of RIP3 in regulating carcinogenesis and cholestasis. Controlling RIP3 or Caspase-8 might represent a chemopreventive or therapeutic strategy against hepatocellular carcinoma and biliary disease.

  4. Tumor size is associated with compensatory hypertrophy in the contralateral kidney after radical nephrectomy in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bong Hee; Sung, Hyun Hwan; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Ii; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Yong; Jeon, Hwang Gyun

    2016-06-01

    To assess the association between tumor size and postoperative compensatory hypertrophy of the contralateral kidney estimated with preoperative and postoperative CT in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We prospectively identified 728 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy for RCC between 2012 and 2014. Contrast-enhanced CT was done within 3 months preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively. A tissue segmentation tool program with CT images was used to estimate kidney volume. We divided patients into three groups according to tumor size (A: ≤4 cm, B: 4-7 cm, C: >7 cm). Preoperative and postoperative volumetric kidney parameters were compared and multivariable linear regression model was used to analyze predictors associated with postoperative compensatory hypertrophy. The preoperative median contralateral kidney volume was significantly larger in group C than in groups A and B (A: 170.3, B: 176.9, C: 186.8 mL, p hypertrophy after surgery.

  5. Prokineticin-2 upregulation during neuronal injury mediates a compensatory protective response against dopaminergic neuronal degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Richard; Neal, Matthew L.; Luo, Jie; Langley, Monica R.; Harischandra, Dilshan S.; Panicker, Nikhil; Charli, Adhithiya; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Woodruff, Trent M.; Zhou, Qun-Yong; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2016-01-01

    Prokineticin-2 (PK2), a recently discovered secreted protein, regulates important physiological functions including olfactory biogenesis and circadian rhythms in the CNS. Interestingly, although PK2 expression is low in the nigral system, its receptors are constitutively expressed on nigrostriatal neurons. Herein, we demonstrate that PK2 expression is highly induced in nigral dopaminergic neurons during early stages of degeneration in multiple models of Parkinson's disease (PD), including PK2 reporter mice and MitoPark mice. Functional studies demonstrate that PK2 promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and activates ERK and Akt survival signalling pathways, thereby driving neuroprotection. Importantly, PK2 overexpression is protective whereas PK2 receptor antagonism exacerbates dopaminergic degeneration in experimental PD. Furthermore, PK2 expression increased in surviving nigral dopaminergic neurons from PD brains, indicating that PK2 upregulation is clinically relevant to human PD. Collectively, our results identify a paradigm for compensatory neuroprotective PK2 signalling in nigral dopaminergic neurons that could have important therapeutic implications for PD. PMID:27703142

  6. A dual epimorphic and compensatory mode of heart regeneration in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallin, Pauline; de Preux Charles, Anne-Sophie; Duruz, Vincent; Pfefferli, Catherine; Jaźwińska, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Zebrafish heart regeneration relies on the capacity of cardiomyocytes to proliferate upon injury. To understand the principles of this process after cryoinjury-induced myocardial infarction, we established a spatio-temporal map of mitotic cardiomyocytes and their differentiation dynamics. Immunodetection of phosphohistone H3 and embryonic ventricular heavy chain myosin highlighted two distinct regenerative processes during the early phase of regeneration. The injury-abutting zone comprises a population of cardiac cells that reactivates the expression of embryo-specific sarcomeric proteins and it displays a 10-fold higher mitotic activity in comparison to the injury-remote zone. The undifferentiated cardiomyocytes resemble a blastema-like structure between the original and wound tissues. They integrate with the fibrotic tissue through the fibronectin-tenascin C extracellular matrix, and with the mature cardiomyocytes through upregulation of the tight junction marker, connexin 43. During the advanced regenerative phase, the population of undifferentiated cardiomyocytes disperses within the regenerating myocardium and it is not detected after the termination of regeneration. Although the blastema represents a transient landmark of the regenerating ventricle, the remaining mature myocardium also displays an enhanced mitotic index when compared to uninjured hearts. This suggests an unexpected contribution of a global proliferative activity to restore the impaired cardiac function. Based on these findings, we propose a new model of zebrafish heart regeneration that involves a combination of blastema-dependent epimorphosis and a compensatory organ-wide response.

  7. The Failing Heart Relies on Ketone Bodies as a Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Gregory; Martin, Ola J; Horton, Julie L; Lai, Ling; Vega, Rick B; Leone, Teresa C; Koves, Timothy; Gardell, Stephen J; Krüger, Marcus; Hoppel, Charles L; Lewandowski, E Douglas; Crawford, Peter A; Muoio, Deborah M; Kelly, Daniel P

    2016-02-23

    Significant evidence indicates that the failing heart is energy starved. During the development of heart failure, the capacity of the heart to utilize fatty acids, the chief fuel, is diminished. Identification of alternate pathways for myocardial fuel oxidation could unveil novel strategies to treat heart failure. Quantitative mitochondrial proteomics was used to identify energy metabolic derangements that occur during the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in well-defined mouse models. As expected, the amounts of proteins involved in fatty acid utilization were downregulated in myocardial samples from the failing heart. Conversely, expression of β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1, a key enzyme in the ketone oxidation pathway, was increased in the heart failure samples. Studies of relative oxidation in an isolated heart preparation using ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance combined with targeted quantitative myocardial metabolomic profiling using mass spectrometry revealed that the hypertrophied and failing heart shifts to oxidizing ketone bodies as a fuel source in the context of reduced capacity to oxidize fatty acids. Distinct myocardial metabolomic signatures of ketone oxidation were identified. These results indicate that the hypertrophied and failing heart shifts to ketone bodies as a significant fuel source for oxidative ATP production. Specific metabolite biosignatures of in vivo cardiac ketone utilization were identified. Future studies aimed at determining whether this fuel shift is adaptive or maladaptive could unveil new therapeutic strategies for heart failure. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Super-Earths as Failed Cores in Orbital Migration Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-01

    I explore whether close-in super-Earths were formed as rocky bodies that failed to grow fast enough to become the cores of gas giants before the natal protostellar disk dispersed. I model the failed cores’ inward orbital migration in the low-mass or type I regime to stopping points at distances where the tidal interaction with the protostellar disk applies zero net torque. The three kinds of migration traps considered are those due to the dead zone's outer edge, the ice line, and the transition from accretion to starlight as the disk's main heat source. As the disk disperses, the traps move toward final positions near or just outside 1 au. Planets at this location exceeding about 3 M ⊕ open a gap, decouple from their host traps, and migrate inward in the high-mass or type II regime to reach the vicinity of the star. I synthesize the population of planets that formed in this scenario, finding that a fraction of the observed super-Earths could have been failed cores. Most super-Earths that formed this way have more than 4 M ⊕, so their orbits when the disks dispersed were governed by type II migration. These planets have solid cores surrounded by gaseous envelopes. Their subsequent photoevaporative mass loss is most effective for masses originally below about 6 M ⊕. The failed core scenario suggests a division of the observed super-Earth mass-radius diagram into five zones according to the inferred formation history.

  9. Self-esteem threat combined with exposure to thin media images leads to body image compensatory self-enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarry, Josée L; Kossert, Amy L

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the effect of a self-esteem threat combined with exposure to thin images on body image (BI) satisfaction and investment. Female participants (N=94) received a self-esteem threat consisting of false failure feedback or received false success feedback on an intellectual task allegedly highly predictive of academic and professional success. They then viewed media images featuring thin models or products. After viewing thin models, women who had received failure feedback declared themselves more satisfied about their appearance and less invested in it than did women who had received success feedback. These results suggest that exposure to the thin ideal may inspire women experiencing self-esteem threats to use appearance as an alternative source of worth, thus maintaining their global esteem through BI compensatory self-enhancement. Potential long-term implications of this strategy, such as a paradoxical increase in BI investment and the development of eating pathology, are discussed.

  10. Physical activity for weight loss in children: is there any compensatory mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, David; Duché, Pascale

    2014-05-01

    Although physical activity is primarily considered for its effects on energy expenditure for prevention and treatment of both overweight and obesity, its role in the regulation and control of energy balance seems more complex. Not only does physical activity affect energy expenditure, it also leads to modifications in energy intake and appetite that have been identified in children and that should be considered for weight loss. It also appears that it may not systematically favor increased energy expenditure due to individual differences in compensatory responses. This brief paper summarizes the pediatric evidence regarding those potential compensatory responses to physical activity and suggests that these compensatory responses of increasing physical activity levels may depend on children's adiposity status.

  11. Standing genetic variation and compensatory evolution in transgenic organisms: a growth-enhanced salmon simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Robert N M; Devlin, Robert H

    2011-06-01

    Genetically modified strains usually are generated within defined genetic backgrounds to minimize variation for the engineered characteristic in order to facilitate basic research investigations or for commercial application. However, interactions between transgenes and genetic background have been documented in both model and commercial agricultural species, indicating that allelic variation at transgene-modifying loci are not uncommon in genomes. Engineered organisms that have the potential to allow entry of transgenes into natural populations may cause changes to ecosystems via the interaction of their specific phenotypes with ecosystem components and services. A transgene introgressing through natural populations is likely to encounter a range of natural genetic variation (among individuals or sub-populations) that could result in changes in phenotype, concomitant with effects on fitness and ecosystem consequences that differ from that seen in the progenitor transgenic strain. In the present study, using a growth hormone transgenic salmon example, we have modeled selection of modifier loci (single and multiple) in the presence of a transgene and have found that accounting for genetic background can significantly affect the persistence of transgenes in populations, potentially reducing or reversing a "Trojan gene" effect. Influences from altered life history characteristics (e.g., developmental timing, age of maturation) and compensatory demographic/ecosystem controls (e.g., density dependence) also were found to have a strong influence on transgene effects. Further, with the presence of a transgene in a population, genetic backgrounds were found to shift in non-transgenic individuals as well, an effect expected to direct phenotypes away from naturally selected optima. The present model has revealed the importance of understanding effects of selection for background genetics on the evolution of phenotypes in populations harbouring transgenes.

  12. Compensatory Paracrine Mechanisms That Define The Urothelial Response to Injury in Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassuk, James; Lendvay, Thomas S.; Sweet, Robert; Han, Chang-Hee; Soygur, Tarkan; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Plaire, J. Chadwick; Charleston, Jay S.; Charleston, Lynne B.; Bagai, Shelly; Cochrane, Kimberly; Rubio, Eric; Bassuk, James A.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2007-06-21

    Diseases and conditions affecting the lower urinary tract are a leading cause of dysfunctional sexual health, incontinence, infection, and kidney failure. The growth, differentiation, and repair of the bladder's epithelial lining are regulated, in part, by fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-7 and -10 via a paracrine cascade originating in the mesenchyme (lamina propria) and targeting the receptor for FGF-7 and -10 within the transitional epithelium (urothelium). The FGF-7 gene is located at the 15q15-q21.1 locus on chromosome 15 and four exons generate a 3.852-kb mRNA. Five duplicated FGF-7 gene sequences that localized to chromosome 9 were predicted not to generate functional protein products, thus validating the use of FGF-7-null mice as an experimental model. Recombinant FGF-7 and -10 induced proliferation of human urothelial cells in vitro and transitional epithelium of wild-type and FGF-7-null mice in vivo.To determine the extent that induction of urothelial cell proliferation during the bladder response to injury is dependent on FGF-7, an animal model of partial bladder outlet obstruction was developed. Unbiased stereology was used to measure the percentage of proliferating urothelial cells between obstructed groups of wild-type and FGF-7-null mice. The stereological analysis indicated that a statistical significant difference did not exist between the two groups, suggesting that FGF-7 is not essential for urothelial cell proliferation in response to partial outlet obstruction. In contrast, a significant increase in FGF-10 expression was observed in the obstructed FGF-7-null group, indicating that the compensatory pathway that functions in this model results in urothelial repair.

  13. Hyperactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Impairing Deficit or Compensatory Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Dustin E; Rapport, Mark D; Kofler, Michael J; Raiker, Joseph S; Friedman, Lauren M

    2015-10-01

    Excess gross motor activity (hyperactivity) is considered a core diagnostic feature of childhood ADHD that impedes learning. This view has been challenged, however, by recent models that conceptualize excess motor activity as a compensatory mechanism that facilitates neurocognitive functioning in children with ADHD. The current study investigated competing model predictions regarding activity level's relation with working memory (WM) performance and attention in boys aged 8-12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.26) with ADHD (n = 29) and typically developing children (TD; n = 23). Children's phonological WM and attentive behavior were objectively assessed during four counterbalanced WM tasks administered across four separate sessions. These data were then sequenced hierarchically based on behavioral observations of each child's gross motor activity during each task. Analysis of the relations among intra-individual changes in observed activity level, attention, and performance revealed that higher rates of activity level predicted significantly better, but not normalized WM performance for children with ADHD. Conversely, higher rates of activity level predicted somewhat lower WM performance for TD children. Variations in movement did not predict changes in attention for either group. At the individual level, children with ADHD and TD children were more likely to be classified as reliably Improved and Deteriorated, respectively, when comparing their WM performance at their highest versus lowest observed activity level. These findings appear most consistent with models ascribing a functional role to hyperactivity in ADHD, with implications for selecting behavioral treatment targets to avoid overcorrecting gross motor activity during academic tasks that rely on phonological WM.

  14. Merger incentives and the failing firm defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Kort, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merger incentives between profitable firms differ fundamentally from the incentives of a profitable firm to merge with a failing firm. We investigate these incentives under different modes of price competition and Cournot behavior. Our main finding is that firms strictly prefer exit of the faili

  15. Merger incentives and the failing firm defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Kort, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merger incentives between profitable firms differ fundamentally from the incentives of a profitable firm to merge with a failing firm. We investigate these incentives under different modes of price competition and Cournot behavior. Our main finding is that firms strictly prefer exit of the

  16. Examination of a failed fifth wheel coupling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Examination of a fifth wheel coupling which had failed in service showed that it had been modified and that the operating handle had been moved from its original design position. This modification completely eliminated the safety device designed...

  17. Transcatheter Replacement of Failed Bioprosthetic Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonato, Matheus; Webb, John; Kornowski, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Background-Transcatheter valve implantation inside failed bioprosthetic surgical valves (valve-in-valve [ViV]) may offer an advantage over reoperation. Supra-annular transcatheter valve position may be advantageous in achieving better hemodynamics after ViV. Our objective was to define targets fo...

  18. Contested Spaces of a "Failing" Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Roi; Serriere, Stephanie; Mitra, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Amid the recent proliferation of teacher-led movements resisting high-stakes testing across the United States, the authors identify how a "failing" elementary school reclaimed local discourse by taking political action against top-down measures. Framed as competing modes of school reform, the authors offer the sociocultural framework of…

  19. Examination of a Failed Professional Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Rachel L.; Penny, G. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Schools are using various forms of professional learning communities (PLCs) in order to increase student achievement and improve educational practices through enhanced communication and collaboration among teachers. This study examined a PLC that had too narrow a focus and failed therefore to affect student achievement. A critical shortcoming of…

  20. Underachievement, Failing Youth and Moral Panics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emma

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers contemporary "moral panics" around the underachievement of boys in school examinations in the UK and America. In the UK, in particular, the underachievement of boys is central to current "crisis accounts" about falling standards and failing pupils. "Underachievement" is a familiar word to those…

  1. Understanding Failing Schools: Perspectives from the Inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidou, Maria; Ainscow, Mel

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the experience of so-called "failing schools" in order to develop understandings that can inform improvement efforts. It reports on a study of the experiences of a small number of English primary schools placed in "special measures" as a result of being inspected. The study is unusual in that, in the past, researchers have…

  2. Effects of low level laser in the morphology of the skeletal muscle fiber during compensatory hypertrophy in plantar muscle of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terena, Stella Maris Lins; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Kalil, Sandra; Alves, Agnelo Neves; Mesquita Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli

    2015-06-01

    The hypertrophy is known as an increase the cross-sectional area of the muscle as a result of a muscular work against an overload, and it is compensatory because the overload is induced by functional elimination of synergistic muscles. The importance of study the compensatory hypertrophy is understand how this process can be influenced by the irradiation with regard to the weight and muscle cross-sectional area, to assist in the rehabilitation process and the effectiveness functional return. The aim was evaluate the effects of low-level laser irradiation on morphological aspects of muscle tissue, comparing the weight and cross-sectional area in rat skeletal muscle. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, hypertrophy group without irradiation (right plantar muscle) and hypertrophy group and irradiation (left plantar muscle), both analyzed after 7 and 14 days. The irradiation was performed daily immediately after the surgery. The parameters were: λ = 780nm, beam spot of 0.04 cm2, output power of 40mW, power density of 1W/cm2, energy density of 10J / cm2 and 10s exposure time with a total energy of 3.2 J. The results revealed that low level laser irradiation an increase the weight of the plantaris muscle after 7 and 14 days with a difference of 7.06% and 11.51% respectively. In conclusion, low level laser irradiation has an effect on compensatory hypertrophy to produce increased muscle weight and promoted an increase in cross-sectional area of muscle fibers in the compensatory hypertrophy model after 14 days with parameters cited above.

  3. Dynamic compensatory pattern matching in a fuzzy rule-based control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    1991-01-01

    A dynamic compensatory matching procedure is suggested as a method to generate an aggregated measure for evaluating the appropriateness of rules for control systems. It is a dynamic weighted matching technique which takes into account incomplete information under real-time requirements. The initial weights of importance of variables are generated with a generalized neural network architecture and a gradient descent algorithm. An intuitive compensatory scheme based on correlations among input variables of training data is adopted so that the system is coherent to a noisy environment.

  4. Counterterrorism in African Failed States: Challenges and Potential Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    observed in these three failed states were able to operate without attracting the attention or effective sanction of the United States or its allies...anecdotal rather than quantitative in methology .14 Sageman’s two-celled terrorist model discriminates between “hubs” and “nodes” in describing the... observing “its lack of a functioning central government” and “the absence of functioning police, immigration, customs, and intelligence agencies

  5. Compensatory enlargement of Ossabaw miniature swine coronary arteries in diffuse atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny S. Choy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies in human and non-human primates have confirmed the compensatory enlargement or positive remodeling (Glagov phenomenon of coronary vessels in the presence of focal stenosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document arterial enlargement in a metabolic syndrome animal model with diffuse coronary artery disease (DCAD in the absence of severe focal stenosis. Two different groups of Ossabaw miniature pigs were fed a high fat atherogenic diet for 4 months (Group I and 12 months (Group II, respectively. Group I (6 pigs underwent contrast enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CCTA and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS at baseline and after 4 months of high fat diet, whereas Group II (7 pigs underwent only IVUS at 12 months of high fat diet. IVUS measurements of the left anterior descending (LAD, left circumflex (LCX and right coronary (RCA arteries in Group I showed an average increase in their lumen cross-sectional areas (CSA of 25.8%, 11.4%, and 43.4%, respectively, as compared to baseline. The lumen CSA values of LAD in Group II were found to be between the baseline and 4 month values in Group I. IVUS and CCTA measurements showed a similar trend and positive correlation. Fractional flow reserve (FFR was 0.91 ± 0.07 at baseline and 0.93 ± 0.05 at 4 months with only 2.2%, 1.6% and 1% stenosis in the LAD, LCX and RCA, respectively. The relation between percent stenosis and lumen CSA shows a classical Glagov phenomenon in this animal model of DCAD.

  6. The early time course of compensatory face processing in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Stollhoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prosopagnosia is a selective deficit in facial identification which can be either acquired, (e.g., after brain damage, or present from birth (congenital. The face recognition deficit in prosopagnosia is characterized by worse accuracy, longer reaction times, more dispersed gaze behavior and a strong reliance on featural processing. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We introduce a conceptual model of an apperceptive/associative type of congenital prosopagnosia where a deficit in holistic processing is compensated by a serial inspection of isolated, informative features. Based on the model proposed we investigated performance differences in different face and shoe identification tasks between a group of 16 participants with congenital prosopagnosia and a group of 36 age-matched controls. Given enough training and unlimited stimulus presentation prosopagnosics achieved normal face identification accuracy evincing longer reaction times. The latter increase was paralleled by an equally-sized increase in stimulus presentation times needed achieve an accuracy of 80%. When the inspection time of stimuli was limited (50 ms to 750 ms, prosopagnosics only showed worse accuracy but no difference in reaction time. Tested for the ability to generalize from frontal to rotated views, prosopagnosics performed worse than controls across all rotation angles but the magnitude of the deficit didn't change with increasing rotation. All group differences in accuracy, reaction or presentation times were selective to face stimuli and didn't extend to shoes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides a characterization of congenital prosopagnosia in terms of early processing differences. More specifically, compensatory processing in congenital prosopagnosia requires an inspection of faces that is sufficiently long to allow for sequential focusing on informative features. This characterization of dysfunctional processing in prosopagnosia further emphasizes fast

  7. Cerebral pathological and compensatory mechanisms in the premotor phase of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 parkinsonism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuenen, B.F.L. van; Helmich, R.C.G.; Ferraye, M.; Thaler, A.; Hendler, T.; Orr-Urtreger, A.; Mirelman, A.; Bressman, S.; Marder, K.S.; Giladi, N.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Bloem, B.R.; Toni, I.

    2012-01-01

    Compensatory cerebral mechanisms can delay motor symptom onset in Parkinson's disease. We aim to characterize these compensatory mechanisms and early disease-related changes by quantifying movement-related cerebral function in subjects at significantly increased risk of developing Parkinson's diseas

  8. Gravitational wave triggered searches for failed supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, James; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Stellar core collapses occur to all stars of sufficiently high mass and often result in supernovae. A small fraction of supergiant stars, however, are thought to collapse directly into black holes without producing supernovae. A survey of such ``failed'' supernovae would require monitoring millions of supergiants for several years. That is very challenging even for current surveys. With the start of the Advanced LIGO science run, we investigate the possibility of detecting failed supernovae by looking for missing supergiants associated with gravitational wave triggers. We use the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). Our project is a joint effort between the community and the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration. In this talk we report on our ongoing efforts and discuss prospects for future searches.

  9. Transfemoral amputation after failed knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottfriedsen, Tinne B; Morville Schrøder, Henrik; Odgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transfemoral amputation is considered the last treatment option for failed knee arthroplasty. The extent to which this procedure is performed is not well known. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and causes of amputation following failure of knee arthroplasty...... in a nationwide population. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Patient Register, and the Danish Knee Arthroplasty Register. With use of individual data linkage, 92,785 primary knee arthroplasties performed from 1997 to 2013 were identified. Of these, 258...... for causes related to failed knee arthroplasty. The 15-year cumulative incidence of amputation was 0.32% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23% to 0.48%). The annual incidence of amputation following arthroplasties performed from 1997 to 2002 was 0.025% compared with 0.018% following arthroplasties performed...

  10. Systems with randomly failing repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Kiureghian, Armen; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, Junho

    2005-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in time and rep......, or reducing the mean duration of system downtime. Example applications to an electrical substation system demonstrate the use of the formulas developed in the paper....

  11. Compensatory photosynthesis, water-use efficiency, and biomass allocation of defoliated exotic and native bunchgrass seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compensatory increases in net photosynthetic assimilation rates (Anet) following herbivory are well-documented in adult rangeland grasses, but have not been quantified in bunchgrass seedlings, which may be more sensitive to tissue loss than established plants. To address this, we twice removed 30% ...

  12. Compensatory movements during functional activities in ambulatory children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Martini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: During the transitional phase (ambulatory to non-ambulatory, synergies characterize the evolution of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. This study was performed to describe and quantify compensatory movements while sitting down on/rising from the floor and climbing up/down steps. Method: Eighty videos (5 children × 4 assessments × 4 tasks were recorded quarterly in the year prior to gait loss. Compensatory movements from the videos were registered based on the Functional Evaluation Scale for DMD. Results: The most frequently observed compensatory movements were upper limb support on lower limbs/floor/handrail during all the tasks and lumbar hyperlordosis, trunk support on handrail, equinus foot, increased base of support, non-alternated descent, and pauses while climbing up/down steps. Conclusion: Climbing up/down steps showed a higher number of compensatory movements than sitting down on/rising from the floor, which seemed to be lost before climbing up/down steps in ambulatory children with DMD.

  13. What Are the Contributory and Compensatory Relationships between Physical Education and Physical Activity in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Charles F.; Beighle, Aaron; Pangrazi, Robert P.

    2007-01-01

    Limited data are available on the contributory and compensatory relationships between physical education and physical activity in children. Four hundred eighty-five (280 girls) children in first through sixth grades wore sealed pedometers during waking hours, including normally scheduled physical education lessons. The least, moderately, and most…

  14. Compensatory activity in the extrastriate body area of Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nuenen, Bart F L; Helmich, Rick C; Buenen, Noud; van de Warrenburg, Bart P C; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Toni, Ivan

    2012-07-11

    Compensatory mechanisms are a crucial component of the cerebral changes triggered by neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying such compensatory mechanisms requires at least two complementary approaches: localizing candidate areas using functional imaging, and showing that interference with these areas has behavioral consequences. Building on recent imaging evidence, we use this approach to test whether a visual region in the human occipito-temporal cortex-the extrastriate body area-compensates for altered dorsal premotor activity in Parkinson's disease (PD) during motor-related processes. We separately inhibited the extrastriate body area and dorsal premotor cortex in 11 PD patients and 12 healthy subjects, using continuous theta burst stimulation. Our goal was to test whether these areas are involved in motor compensatory processes. We used motor imagery to isolate a fundamental element of motor planning, namely subjects' ability to incorporate the current state of their body into a motor plan (mental hand rotation). We quantified this ability through a posture congruency effect (i.e., the improvement in subjects' performance when their current body posture is congruent to the imagined movement). Following inhibition of the right extrastriate body area, the posture congruency effect was lost in PD patients, but not in healthy subjects. In contrast, inhibition of the left dorsal premotor cortex reduced the posture congruency effect in healthy subjects, but not in PD patients. These findings suggest that the right extrastriate body area plays a compensatory role in PD by supporting a function that is no longer performed by the dorsal premotor cortex.

  15. The role of vowel perceptual cues in compensatory responses to perturbations of speech auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kevin J; Dougherty, Kathleen E

    2013-08-01

    The perturbation of acoustic features in a speaker's auditory feedback elicits rapid compensatory responses that demonstrate the importance of auditory feedback for control of speech output. The current study investigated whether responses to a perturbation of speech auditory feedback vary depending on the importance of the perturbed feature to perception of the vowel being produced. Auditory feedback of speakers' first formant frequency (F1) was shifted upward by 130 mels in randomly selected trials during the speakers' production of consonant-vowel-consonant words containing either the vowel /Λ/ or the vowel /ɝ/. Although these vowels exhibit comparable F1 frequencies, the contribution of F1 to perception of /Λ/ is greater than its contribution to perception of /ɝ/. Compensation to the F1 perturbation was observed during production of both vowels, but compensatory responses during /Λ/ occurred at significantly shorter latencies and exhibited significantly larger magnitudes than compensatory responses during /ɝ/. The finding that perturbation of vowel F1 during /Λ/ and /ɝ/ yielded compensatory differences that mirrored the contributions of F1 to perception of these vowels indicates that some portion of feedback control is weighted toward monitoring and preservation of acoustic cues for speech perception.

  16. Scaling of compensatory eye movements during translations: Virtual versus real depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dits (Joyce); W.M. King; J. van der Steen (Hans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractVestibulo-ocular reflexes are the fastest compensatory reflex systems. One of these is the translational vestibulo-ocular reflex (TVOR) which stabilizes the gaze at a given fixation point during whole body translations. For a proper response of the TVOR the eyes have to counter rotate in

  17. Compensatory growth of the bloom-forming dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense induced by nitrogen stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Zhu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the phenomenon of compensatory growth has been documented in someanimals and higher plants, little information is available on its manifestation in marinemicroalgae. We have conducted the first study on the compensatory growth of the red tide causative dinoflagellate Prorocentrumdonghaiense after its recovery from different nitrogen concentrations.The results showed that NaNO3 concentrations of 0 and 7.5 mg l-1 significantly reduced thegrowth of P. donghaiense, as compared to 37.5 and 75 mg l-1. When the microalgal cells were returned to 75 mg l-1, they exhibited subsequent compensatory growth. The most significant compensatory growth was found in those cells previously experiencing 0 mg dm3, followed by 7.5 mg dm3, indicating thatcompensatory growth depended on the extent of nitrogen stress they had been subjected to. Our results suggest thatcompensatory growth can be induced in the marine microalga P. donghaiense after its recovery from nitrogen fluctuation, and that this should be taken into consideration in the prevalence of P. donghaiense blooms in coastal waters.

  18. Atypical hamstrings electromyographic activity as a compensatory mechanism in anterior cruciate ligament deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerboom, AL; Hof, AL; Halbertsma, JPK; van Raaij, JJAM; Schenk, W; Diercks, RL; van Horn, [No Value; van Horn, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency may cause functional instability of the knee (noncopers), while other patients compensate and perform at the same level as before injury (copers). This pilot study investigated whether there is a compensatory electromyographic (EMG) activity of the hamstri

  19. A Survey of Florida Migratory Compensatory Regional Directors and ESL Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Sheila Devine

    This paper primarily examines the nature of English as a Second Language (ESL) programs within the Florida Migratory Child Compensatory Program (FMCCP). Two surveys were conducted. The first was a survey of regional directors within the FMCCP in order to gather basic information concerning programs, materials, and student and teacher populations.…

  20. Circadian timed wakefulness at dawn opposes compensatory sleep responses after sleep deprivation in Octodon degus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, M J; Edgar, D M

    1999-01-01

    The circadian timing system in mammals is thought to promote wakefulness and oppose sleep drive that accumulates across the activity phase in diurnal and nocturnal species. Whether the circadian system actively opposes compensatory sleep responses in mammals with episodes of alertness consolidated a

  1. Compensatory effects of recruitment and survival when amphibian populations are perturbed by disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The need to increase our understanding of factors that regulate animal population dynamics has been catalysed by recent, observed declines in wildlife populations worldwide. Reliable estimates of demographic parameters are critical for addressing basic and applied ecological questions and understanding the response of parameters to perturbations (e.g. disease, habitat loss, climate change). However, to fully assess the impact of perturbation on population dynamics, all parameters contributing to the response of the target population must be estimated. We applied the reverse-time model of Pradel in Program mark to 6years of capture-recapture data from two populations of Anaxyrus boreas (boreal toad) populations, one with disease and one without. We then assessed a priori hypotheses about differences in survival and recruitment relative to local environmental conditions and the presence of disease. We further explored the relative contribution of survival probability and recruitment rate to population growth and investigated how shifts in these parameters can alter population dynamics when a population is perturbed. High recruitment rates (0??41) are probably compensating for low survival probability (range 0??51-0??54) in the population challenged by an emerging pathogen, resulting in a relatively slow rate of decline. In contrast, the population with no evidence of disease had high survival probability (range 0??75-0??78) but lower recruitment rates (0??25). Synthesis and applications.We suggest that the relationship between survival and recruitment may be compensatory, providing evidence that populations challenged with disease are not necessarily doomed to extinction. A better understanding of these interactions may help to explain, and be used to predict, population regulation and persistence for wildlife threatened with disease. Further, reliable estimates of population parameters such as recruitment and survival can guide the formulation and implementation of

  2. Seasonal variations in ectotherm growth rates: Quantifying growth as an intermittent non steady state compensatory process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, J.-M.; Chauvaud, Laurent; Cloern, J.E.; Clavier, J.; Coston-Guarini, J.; Patry, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Generally, growth rates of living organisms are considered to be at steady state, varying only under environmental forcing factors. For example, these rates may be described as a function of light for plants or organic food resources for animals and these could be regulated (or not) by temperature or other conditions. But, what are the consequences for an individual's growth (and also for the population growth) if growth rate variations are themselves dynamic and not steady state? For organisms presenting phases of dormancy or long periods of stress, this is a crucial question. A dynamic perspective for quantifying short-term growth was explored using the daily growth record of the scallop Pecten maximus (L.). This species is a good biological model for ectotherm growth because the shell records growth striae daily. Independently, a generic mathematical function representing the dynamics of mean daily growth rate (MDGR) was implemented to simulate a diverse set of growth patterns. Once the function was calibrated with the striae patterns, the growth rate dynamics appeared as a forced damped oscillation during the growth period having a basic periodicity during two transitory phases (mean duration 43. days) and appearing at both growth start and growth end. This phase is most likely due to the internal dynamics of energy transfer within the organism rather than to external forcing factors. After growth restart, the transitory regime represents successive phases of over-growth and regulation. This pattern corresponds to a typical representation of compensatory growth, which from an evolutionary perspective can be interpreted as an adaptive strategy to coping with a fluctuating environment. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Chronic stress undermines the compensatory sleep efficiency increase in response to sleep restriction in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astill, Rebecca G; Verhoeven, Dorit; Vijzelaar, Romy L; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effects of real-life stress on the sleep of adolescents, we performed a repeated-measures study on actigraphic sleep estimates and subjective measures during one regular school week, two stressful examination weeks and a week's holiday. Twenty-four adolescents aged 17.63 ± 0.10 years (mean ± standard error of the mean) wore actigraphs and completed diaries on subjective stress, fatigue, sleep quality, number of examinations and consumption of caffeine and alcohol for 4 weeks during their final year of secondary school. The resulting almost 500 assessments were analysed using mixed-effect models to estimate the effects of mere school attendance and additional examination stress on sleep estimates and subjective ratings. Total sleep time decreased from 7:38 h ± 12 min during holidays to 6:40 h ± 12 min during a regular school week. This 13% decrease elicited a partial compensation, as indicated by a 3% increase in sleep efficiency and a 6% decrease in the duration of nocturnal awakenings. During examination weeks total sleep time decreased to 6:23 h ± 8 min, but it was now accompanied by a decrease in sleep efficiency and subjective sleep quality and an increase in wake bout duration. In conclusion, school examination stress affects the sleep of adolescents. The compensatory mechanism of more consolidated sleep, as elicited by the sleep restriction associated with mere school attendance, collapsed during 2 weeks of sustained examination stress.

  4. Brown-fat paucity due to impaired BMP signalling induces compensatory browning of white fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Tim J; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E; Townsend, Kristy L; Cypess, Aaron M; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-03-21

    Maintenance of body temperature is essential for the survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation. Owing to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans, BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and anatomically located in the interscapular region of mice; and recruitable BAT (rBAT), which resides within white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle, and has alternatively been called beige, brite or inducible BAT. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate the formation and thermogenic activity of BAT. Here we use mouse models to provide evidence for a systemically active regulatory mechanism that controls whole-body BAT activity for thermoregulation and energy homeostasis. Genetic ablation of the type 1A BMP receptor (Bmpr1a) in brown adipogenic progenitor cells leads to a severe paucity of cBAT. This in turn increases sympathetic input to WAT, thereby promoting the formation of rBAT within white fat depots. This previously unknown compensatory mechanism, aimed at restoring total brown-fat-mediated thermogenic capacity in the body, is sufficient to maintain normal temperature homeostasis and resistance to diet-induced obesity. These data suggest an important physiological cross-talk between constitutive and recruitable brown fat cells. This sophisticated regulatory mechanism of body temperature may participate in the control of energy balance and metabolic disease.

  5. Compensatory growth strategies are affected by the strength of environmental time constraints in anuran larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orizaola, Germán; Dahl, Emma; Laurila, Anssi

    2014-01-01

    Organisms normally grow at a sub-maximal rate. After experiencing a period of arrested growth, individuals often show compensatory growth responses by modifying their life-history, behaviour and physiology. However, the strength of compensatory responses may vary across broad geographic scales as populations differ in their exposition to varying time constraints. We examined differences in compensatory growth strategies in common frog (Rana temporaria) populations from southern and northern Sweden. Tadpoles from four populations were reared in the laboratory and exposed to low temperature to evaluate the patterns and mechanisms of compensatory growth responses. We determined tadpoles' growth rate, food intake and growth efficiency during the compensation period. In the absence of arrested growth conditions, tadpoles from all the populations showed similar (size-corrected) growth rates, food intake and growth efficiency. After being exposed to low temperature for 1 week, only larvae from the northern populations increased growth rates by increasing both food intake and growth efficiency. These geographic differences in compensatory growth mechanisms suggest that the strategies for recovering after a period of growth deprivation may depend on the strength of time constraints faced by the populations. Due to the costs of fast growth, only populations exposed to the strong time constraints are prone to develop fast recovering strategies in order to metamorphose before conditions deteriorate. Understanding how organisms balance the cost and benefits of growth strategies may help in forecasting the impact of fluctuating environmental conditions on life-history strategies of populations likely to be exposed to increasing environmental variation in the future.

  6. 听力初筛未通过新生儿二次筛查模式探讨%Second hearing screening model in neonates who failed the first screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐玮琼; 王智楠; 陈平; 胡艳玲; 李隽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the significance of the second hearing screening in neonates who failed the first screening during their hospital stay. Methods Screening TEOAE tests were employed in 3849 neonates. The first screen was 3 days after birth. Those who failed were rescreened before discharge (5 -7 days after birth). Neonates who failed the second screening would have a third screening in 30 -42 days. Four types of rates were compared: pass rates of three times, rates of single ear fail and double ear fail, pass rates of left ear and right ear, pass rates of Caesarean birth and that of natural labor. Results The difference between rates of first time and second time is statistically significant( x2 =38. 67, P <0. 01 ).There is no statistically difference between the total pass rate in ward and that of third time( x2 =2. 73, P >0. 05 ). The pass rate of single ear fail is higher than that of double ears ( x2 = 34. 34, P < 0. 01, the difference has statistical signifcance). The pass rate of left ear is higher than that of right ear( x2 =0. 62, P>0. 05, the difference has not statistical signifcance). The first time screen result showed pass rates of natural labor is higher than that of Caesarean birth( x2 =35.37, P <0. 05 ), but the differences of pass rates of the second and third time between two delivery method was no statistical significance ( P > 0. 05 ).Conclusion Two times of screening in ward could decrease false negative and refer rate, thus reheve parent's mental burden.%目的 探讨听力初筛未通过新生儿于出院前进行二次筛查的意义.方法 应用瞬态诱发耳声发射(TEOAE)对3849名新生儿行听力筛查,初次时间为出生3 d,"未通过"者于出院前(生后5~7 d)再次筛查,二次筛查"未通过"者生后30~42 d复查.分别对三次筛查总通过率、不同耳别及分娩方式的通过率进行统计学分析.结果 新生儿出生3 d听力筛查通过率与住院期间两次筛查总通过率相比

  7. Interior's Climate Science Centers: Focus or Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udall, B.

    2012-12-01

    After a whirlwind two years of impressive and critical infrastructure building, the Department of Interior's Climate Science Centers are now in a position to either succeed or fail. The CSCs have a number of difficult structural problems including too many constituencies relative to the available resources, an uneasy relationship among many of the constituencies including the DOI agencies themselves, a need to do science in a new, difficult and non-traditional way, and a short timeframe to produce useful products. The CSCs have built a broad and impressive network of scientists and stakeholders. These entities include science providers of the universities and the USGS, and decision makers from the states, tribes, DOI land managers and other federal agencies and NGOs. Rather than try to support all of these constituencies the CSCs would be better served by refocusing on a core mission of supporting DOI climate related decision making. The CSCs were designed to service the climate science needs of DOI agencies, many of which lost their scientific capabilities in the 1990s due to a well-intentioned but ultimately harmful re-organization at DOI involving the now defunct National Biological Survey. Many of these agencies would like to have their own scientists, have an uneasy relationship with the nominal DOI science provider, the USGS, and don't communicate effectively among themselves. The CSCs must not succumb to pursuing science in either the traditional mode of the USGS or in the traditional mode of the universities, or worse, both of them. These scientific partners will need to be flexible, learn how to collaborate and should expect to see fewer resources. Useful CSC processes and outputs should start with the recommendations of the 2009 NRC Report Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate: (1) begin with users' needs; (2) give priority to process over products; (3) link information producers and users; (4) build connections across disciplines and organizations

  8. Compensatory motor control after stroke: an alternative joint strategy for object-dependent shaping of hand posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Preeti; Santello, Marco; Gordon, Andrew M; Krakauer, John W

    2010-06-01

    Efficient grasping requires planned and accurate coordination of finger movements to approximate the shape of an object before contact. In healthy subjects, hand shaping is known to occur early in reach under predominantly feedforward control. In patients with hemiparesis after stroke, execution of coordinated digit motion during grasping is impaired as a result of damage to the corticospinal tract. The question addressed here is whether patients with hemiparesis are able to compensate for their execution deficit with a qualitatively different grasp strategy that still allows them to differentiate hand posture to object shape. Subjects grasped a rectangular, concave, and convex object while wearing an instrumented glove. Reach-to-grasp was divided into three phases based on wrist kinematics: reach acceleration (reach onset to peak horizontal wrist velocity), reach deceleration (peak horizontal wrist velocity to reach offset), and grasp (reach offset to lift-off). Patients showed reduced finger abduction, proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) flexion, and metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP) extension at object grasp across all three shapes compared with controls; however, they were able to partially differentiate hand posture for the convex and concave shapes using a compensatory strategy that involved increased MCP flexion rather than the PIP flexion seen in controls. Interestingly, shape-specific hand postures did not unfold initially during reach acceleration as seen in controls, but instead evolved later during reach deceleration, which suggests increased reliance on sensory feedback. These results indicate that kinematic analysis can identify and quantify within-limb compensatory motor control strategies after stroke. From a clinical perspective, quantitative study of compensation is important to better understand the process of recovery from brain injury. From a motor control perspective, compensation can be considered a model for how joint redundancy is exploited

  9. Super-Earths as Failed Cores in Orbital Migration Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We explore whether close-in super-Earths were formed as rocky bodies that failed to grow fast enough to become the cores of gas giants before the natal protostellar disk dispersed. We model the failed cores' inward orbital migration in the low-mass or type I regime, to stopping points at distances where the tidal interaction with the protostellar disk applies zero net torque. The three kinds of migration traps considered are those due to the dead zone's outer edge, the ice line, and the transition from accretion to starlight as the disk's main heat source. As the disk disperses, the traps move toward final positions near or just outside 1~au. Planets at this location exceeding about 3~M$_\\oplus$ open a gap, decouple from their host trap, and migrate inward in the high-mass or type II regime to reach the vicinity of the star. We synthesize the population of planets formed in this scenario, finding that some fraction of the observed super-Earths can be failed cores. Most super-Earths formed this way have more t...

  10. Late sodium current in failing heart: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltsev, Victor A; Undrovinas, Albertas

    2008-01-01

    Most cardiac Na+ channels open transiently upon membrane depolarization and then are quickly inactivated. However, some channels remain active, carrying the so-called persistent or late Na+ current (INaL) throughout the action potential (AP) plateau. Experimental data and the results of numerical modeling accumulated over the past decade show the emerging importance of this late current component for the function of both normal and failing myocardium. INaL is produced by special gating modes of the cardiac-specific Na+ channel isoform. Heart failure (HF) slows channel gating and increases INaL, but HF-specific Na+ channel isoform underlying these changes has not been found. Na+ channels represent a multi-protein complex and its activity is determined not only by the pore-forming alpha subunit but also by its auxiliary beta subunits, cytoskeleton, calmodulin, regulatory kinases and phosphatases, and trafficking proteins. Disruption of the integrity of this protein complex may lead to alterations of INaL in pathological conditions. Increased INaL and the corresponding Na+ flux in failing myocardium contribute to abnormal repolarization and an increased cell Ca2+ load. Interventions designed to correct INaL rescue normal repolarization and improve Ca2+ handling and contractility of the failing cardiomyocytes. This review considers (1) quantitative integration of INaL into the established electrophysiological and Ca2+ regulatory mechanisms in normal and failing cardiomyocytes and (2) a new therapeutic strategy utilizing a selective inhibition of INaL to target both arrhythmias and impaired contractility in HF.

  11. Is age really cruel to experts? Compensatory effects of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaci, Nemanja; Gula, Bartosz; Bilalić, Merim

    2015-12-01

    Age-related decline may not be as pronounced in complex activities as it is in basic cognitive processes, but ability deterioration with age is difficult to deny. However, studies disagree on whether age is kinder to more able people than it is to their less able peers. In this article, we investigated the "age is kinder to the more able" hypothesis by using a chess database that contains activity records for both beginners and world-class players. The descriptive data suggested that the skill function across age captures the 3 phases as described in Simonton's model of career trajectories: initial rise to the peak of performance, postpeak decline, and eventual stabilization of decline. We therefore modeled the data with a linear mixed-effect model using the cubic function that captures 3 phases. The results show that age may be kind to the more able in a subtler manner than has previously been assumed. After reaching the peak at around 38 years, the more able players deteriorated more quickly. Their decline, however, started to slow down at around 52 years, earlier than for less able players (57 years). Both the decline and its stabilization were significantly influenced by activity. The more players engaged in playing tournaments, the less they declined and the earlier they started to stabilize. The best experts may not be immune to aging, but their previously acquired expertise and current activity enable them to maintain high levels of skill even at an advanced age.

  12. Intelligent forecasting compensatory control system for profile machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Eric H. K.; Chuen, C. W.; Lee, L. M.

    2000-10-01

    Precision machining is becoming increasingly important in modern industry because many modern products require high form accuracy. An affordable approach to improve the accuracy of the surface profile of a workpiece is to adopt the on-line error forecasting and compensation control (FCC) techniques. In the present study, the consideration of variation of cutting force as a result of piezoactuator movement requires the formulation of ARMAX models. The time-series analysis based on ARMAX technique has an advantage over the traditional spectral method in that the latter can lead to the over-parameterization of the accompanying model. The roundness measurement results obtained from the practical experiments and the derived improvement percentages are grouped under one or more of the system parameters which include the ARMAX orders, feed rate, depth of cut, material, and forgetting factor. An expert system has been successfully developed to implement the rules using the Prolog language for helping the users to select suitable parameters for the FCC system of the lathe machine. Based on the measurement data, it can be shown that the lathe machine, when equipped with the ARMAX-based FCC system, can yield a minimum value of average improvement of 26% under the testing conditions.

  13. Etiologic analysis of 100 anatomically failed dacryocystorhinostomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave TV

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tarjani Vivek Dave, Faraz Ali Mohammed, Mohammad Javed Ali, Milind N Naik The Institute of Dacryology, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India Background: The aim of this study was to assess the etiological factors contributing to the failure of a dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR. Patients and methods: Retrospective review was performed in 100 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with anatomically failed DCR at presentation to a tertiary care hospital over a 5-year period from 2010 to 2015. Patient records were reviewed for demographic data, type of past surgery, preoperative endoscopic findings, previous use of adjuvants such as intubation and mitomycin C, and intraoperative notes during the re-revision. The potential etiological factors for failure were noted. Results: Of the 100 patients with failed DCRs, the primary surgery was an external DCR in 73 and endoscopic DCR in 27 patients. Six patients in each group had multiple revisions. The mean ages at presentation in the external and endoscopic groups were 39.41 years and 37.19 years, respectively. All patients presented with epiphora. The most common causes of failure were inadequate osteotomy (69.8% in the external group and 85.1% in the endoscopic group, P=0.19 followed by inadequate or inappropriate sac marsupialization (60.2% in the external group and 77.7% in the endoscopic group, P=0.16 and cicatricial closure of the ostium (50.6% in the external group and 55.5% in the endoscopic group, P=0.83. The least common causes such as ostium granulomas and paradoxical middle turbinate (1.37%, n=1 were noted in the external group only. Conclusion: Inadequate osteotomy, incomplete sac marsupialization, and cicatricial closure of the ostium were the most common causes of failure and did not significantly differ in the external and endoscopic groups. Meticulous evaluation to identify causative factors for failure and addressing them are crucial for subsequent successful outcomes. Keywords: failed

  14. A Compensatory Approach to Multiobjective Linear Transportation Problem with Fuzzy Cost Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Gonce Kocken

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Multiobjective Linear Transportation Problem that has fuzzy cost coefficients. In the solution procedure, many objectives may conflict with each other; therefore decision-making process becomes complicated. And also due to the fuzziness in the costs, this problem has a nonlinear structure. In this paper, fuzziness in the objective functions is handled with a fuzzy programming technique in the sense of multiobjective approach. And then we present a compensatory approach to solve Multiobjective Linear Transportation Problem with fuzzy cost coefficients by using Werner's and operator. Our approach generates compromise solutions which are both compensatory and Pareto optimal. A numerical example has been provided to illustrate the problem.

  15. Krüppel Expression Levels Are Maintained through Compensatory Evolution of Shadow Enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeba Wunderlich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many developmental genes are controlled by shadow enhancers—pairs of enhancers that drive overlapping expression patterns. We hypothesized that compensatory evolution can maintain the total expression of a gene, while individual shadow enhancers diverge between species. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed expression driven by orthologous pairs of shadow enhancers from Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila yakuba, and Drosophila pseudoobscura that control expression of Krüppel, a transcription factor that patterns the anterior-posterior axis of blastoderm embryos. We found that the expression driven by the pair of enhancers is conserved between these three species, but expression levels driven by the individual enhancers are not. Using sequence analysis and experimental perturbation, we show that each shadow enhancer is regulated by different transcription factors. These results support the hypothesis that compensatory evolution can occur between shadow enhancers, which has implications for mechanistic and evolutionary studies of gene regulation.

  16. International mobility technology research: a Delphi study to identify challenges and compensatory strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferds, Alexandra N; Pearlman, Jon L; Wee, Joy; Cooper, Rory A

    2011-01-01

    We sought to identify logistical and ethical challenges to performing wheelchair-related research in low- and middle-income countries and to generate a list of compensatory strategies to address these challenges. Thirteen individuals with experience in the field participated in an online Delphi study. The surveys asked participants to identify research challenges, suggest strategies to address the selected challenges, and critique each other's strategies. Participants identified challenges in the use of research techniques, compensation for participation that does not result coercion, oral and written translation materials, funding for research, collaboration with local professionals, and "respect for persons." Effective international mobility research requires time, cultural sensitivity, collaboration, and careful planning. An understanding of these requirements can allow researchers to anticipate and compensate for common pitfalls of their work, thus making the research more productive and beneficial to subjects. Future research is required to verify the general effectiveness of compensatory strategies.

  17. A new perspective on behavioral inconsistency and neural noise in aging: Compensatory speeding of neural communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lee Hong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to present a new perspective on the aging brain. Here, we make connections between two key phenomena of brain aging: 1 increased neural noise or random background activity; and 2 slowing of brain activity. Our perspective proposes the possibility that the slowing of neural processing due to decreasing nerve conduction velocities leads to a compensatory speeding of neuron firing rates. These increased firing rates lead to a broader distribution of power in the frequency spectrum of neural oscillations, which we propose, can just as easily be interpreted as neural noise. Compensatory speeding of neural activity, as we present, is constrained by the: A availability of metabolic energy sources; and B competition for frequency bandwidth needed for neural communication. We propose that these constraints lead to the eventual inability to compensate for age-related declines in neural function that are manifested clinically as deficits in cognition, affect, and motor behavior.

  18. Krüppel Expression Levels Are Maintained through Compensatory Evolution of Shadow Enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Zeba; Bragdon, Meghan D J; Vincent, Ben J; White, Jonathan A; Estrada, Javier; DePace, Angela H

    2015-09-22

    Many developmental genes are controlled by shadow enhancers—pairs of enhancers that drive overlapping expression patterns. We hypothesized that compensatory evolution can maintain the total expression of a gene, while individual shadow enhancers diverge between species. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed expression driven by orthologous pairs of shadow enhancers from Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila yakuba, and Drosophila pseudoobscura that control expression of Krüppel, a transcription factor that patterns the anterior-posterior axis of blastoderm embryos. We found that the expression driven by the pair of enhancers is conserved between these three species, but expression levels driven by the individual enhancers are not. Using sequence analysis and experimental perturbation, we show that each shadow enhancer is regulated by different transcription factors. These results support the hypothesis that compensatory evolution can occur between shadow enhancers, which has implications for mechanistic and evolutionary studies of gene regulation.

  19. Detection of Low-volume Blood Loss: Compensatory Reserve Versus Traditional Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Detection of low-volume blood loss: Compensatory reserve versus traditional vital signs Camille L. Stewart, MD, Jane Mulligan , PhD, Greg Z. Grudic... Mulligan J., Grudic G. Z., Convertino V. A., Moulton S. L., 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...Jane Mulligan (own ership), Greg Z. Grudic (ownership), and Steven L. Moulton (owner ship). This work is supported by the US Army Medical Research and

  20. Compensatory striatal–cerebellar connectivity in mild–moderate Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Simioni, Alison C.; Alain Dagher; Fellows, Lesley K

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine depletion in the putamen is associated with altered motor network functional connectivity in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), but the functional significance of these changes remains unclear, attributed to either pathological or compensatory mechanisms in different studies. Here, we examined the effects of PD on dorsal caudal putamen functional connectivity, off and on dopamine replacement therapy (DRT), using resting state fMRI. Motor performance was assessed with the Purdue pe...

  1. Perspective: Identification of genetic variants associated with dopaminergic compensatory mechanisms in early Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is slowly progressive, and heterogeneity of its severity among individuals may be due to endogenous mechanisms that counterbalance the striatal dopamine loss. In this perspective paper, we introduce a neuroimaging-genetic approach to identify genetic variants, which may contribute to this compensation. First, we briefly review current known potential compensatory mechanisms for premotor and early disease PD, located in the striatum and other brain regions. Then, we c...

  2. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Cristina Taubert de Freitas-Swerts; Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz Robazzi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain. METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages...

  3. Krüppel Expression Levels Are Maintained through Compensatory Evolution of Shadow Enhancers

    OpenAIRE

    Zeba Wunderlich; Meghan D.J. Bragdon; Ben J. Vincent; Jonathan A. White; Javier Estrada; Angela H. DePace

    2015-01-01

    Many developmental genes are controlled by shadow enhancers—pairs of enhancers that drive overlapping expression patterns. We hypothesized that compensatory evolution can maintain the total expression of a gene, while individual shadow enhancers diverge between species. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed expression driven by orthologous pairs of shadow enhancers from Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila yakuba, and Drosophila pseudoobscura that control expression of Krüppel, a transcription ...

  4. Anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments in conditions of body asymmetry induced by holding an object

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bing; Lee, Yun-Ju; Aruin, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of body asymmetry on anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments was studied. Ten healthy subjects stood on the force platform and held an object in one hand which induced body asymmetry. Subjects were exposed to external perturbations applied to their shoulders while standing with either normal or narrow base of support. Bilateral electromyographic activity (EMG) of dorsal and ventral trunk and leg muscles and center of pressure displacements were recorded. Data was analyze...

  5. Individual variability in compensatory eating following acute exercise in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Mark; Blundell, John E; King, Neil A

    2014-10-01

    While compensatory eating following acute aerobic exercise is highly variable, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the alterations in exercise-induced eating behaviour. Overweight and obese women (body mass index=29.6±4.0 kg/m(2)) performed a bout of cycling individually tailored to expend 400 kcal (EX) or a time-matched no exercise control condition in a randomised, counter-balanced order. 60 min after the cessation of exercise, an ad libitum test meal was provided. Substrate oxidation and subjective appetite ratings were measured during exercise/time-matched rest, and during the period between the cessation of exercise and food consumption. While ad libitum energy intake (EI) did not differ between EX and the control condition (666.0±203.9 vs 664.6±174.4 kcal, respectively; ns), there was a marked individual variability in compensatory EI. The difference in EI between EX and the control condition ranged from -234.3 to 278.5 kcal. Carbohydrate oxidation during exercise was positively associated with postexercise EI, accounting for 37% of the variance in EI (r=0.57; p=0.02). These data indicate that the capacity of acute exercise to create a short-term energy deficit in overweight and obese women is highly variable. Furthermore, exercise-induced CHO oxidation can explain a part of the variability in acute exercise-induced compensatory eating. Postexercise compensatory eating could serve as an adaptive response to facilitate the restoration of carbohydrate balance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Fail-over file transfer process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semancik, Susan K. (Inventor); Conger, Annette M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides a fail-over file transfer process to handle data file transfer when the transfer is unsuccessful in order to avoid unnecessary network congestion and enhance reliability in an automated data file transfer system. If a file cannot be delivered after attempting to send the file to a receiver up to a preset number of times, and the receiver has indicated the availability of other backup receiving locations, then the file delivery is automatically attempted to one of the backup receiving locations up to the preset number of times. Failure of the file transfer to one of the backup receiving locations results in a failure notification being sent to the receiver, and the receiver may retrieve the file from the location indicated in the failure notification when ready.

  7. Salvage arthrodesis for failed total ankle arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Arthur W

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) has gained popularity in recent years. If it fails, however, salvage arthrodesis must be reliable as a rescue procedure. We therefore investigated the clinical, radiographic, and subjective outcome after salvage arthrodesis in a consecutive group of patients, and concentrated on the influence of the method of fixation on union rate and on salvage in inflammatory joint disease. Patients and methods Between 1994 and 2005, salvage arthrodesis was performed on 18 ankles (18 patients). Diagnosis was inflammatory joint disease (IJD) in 15 cases and osteoarthritis (OA) in 3. Tibio-talar fusion was performed in 7 ankles, and tibio-talocalcaneal fusion in 11. Serial radiographs were studied for time to union. Clinical outcome at latest follow-up was measured by the AOFAS score, the foot function index (FFI) and by VAS scores for pain, function, and satisfaction. Results Blade plates were used in 7 ankles (4 IJD, 3 OA); all united. Nonunion developed in 7 of the 11 rheumatic ankles stabilized by other methods. 11 patients (8 fused ankles, 3 nonunions) were available for clinical evaluation. Their mean AOFAS score was 62 and mean overall FFI was 70. VAS score for pain was 20, for function 64, and for satisfaction 74. The scores were similar in united and non-united ankles. Interpretation Blade plate fixation is successful in salvage arthrodesis for failed TAA. A high nonunion rate was found after salvage ankle arthrodesis in IJD with other methods of fixation. Clinical results were fair to good. PMID:20175648

  8. Revision of Failed Artroscopic Bankart Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiño, José María Silberberg; Gimenez, Martín Alejandro; Salvucci, Mauro Gabriel Maroa; Ferro, Diego; Rullan, Ramón Muiña

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To present our functional outcomes from patients treated arthroscopically for a failed Bankart repair, using suture anchors and capsulolabral tissue only. Methods: Series of 22 patients presented with a recurrence of instability after a previous stabilization surgery (3 Latarjet, Bankart 19). We treated them by a an all-arthroscopic procedure, avoiding bone grafts, when glenoid track was found to be enough to proceed. The failure was associated with trauma in 11 patients, a non-anatomic repair in 6 patients, capsular laxity in 4 patients and a non-union of the coracoid graft in 1 patient. Revision surgery included: Bankart repair with anchors in 17 cases, a posterior-inferior capsulo-labral plication in one case, and 5 remplissages. In 4 cases subscapularis augmentation was used because of poor capsular quality. Screw removal was necessary when treating the non-union case. Patients were followed-up by a minimum of 23 months (range 23-26), and evaluated by the UCLA Test, SS test and Rowe score. Results: Thirteen patients had an excellent result, 6 good, 2 satisfactory and one bad result, according to UCLA score. The mean Rowe score was 90.4, at final follow up. The Simple Shoulder Test went from an 8 preoperative to an 11 postoperative, mean scores. 19 of 22 patients returned to the same level of activity prior to the injury. Complications: recurrence in 2 cases, subluxation in 2 and one shoulder stiffness that required an arthrolysis. Conclusion: An arthroscopic revision surgery, after a failed Bankart repair, presents satisfactory results in selected patients. Arthroscopic vision allows a correct diagnosis of injuries as possible causes of failure and subsequent treatment.

  9. Exclusion and retention of compensatory kosmotropes by HPLC columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, M

    1998-09-16

    With water as the elution solvent, zwitterionic solutes and polyols were retained on HPLC columns, more than was water, by totally hydrophobic packing materials. Relative retentions were systematically affected by oxygen functional groups in the packing material, explicable as specific retention of water. Reproducible elution sequences of 20 solutes at a variety of hydrophobic surfaces (aromatic and both long- and short-alkyl aliphatic surfaces) showed there is a general process, consistent with interactions with hydration water at the surface having solvent properties distinct from bulk water. Early eluting solutes included glycine, sarcosine and taurine. Glycine betaine followed both these and N,N-dimethylglycine. The natural betaines propionobetaine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate also preceded glycine betaine. Dimethylsulfoxide was strongly retained, as (to a lesser extent) was proline betaine. Polyols eluted in the sequence sorbitol, trehalose, glycerol. Changes in the chemical nature of the surface or base material affected relative retentions of water and solutes. The presence of hydrogen-bonding functions increased retention of polyols, as well as water, relative to zwitterionic solutes. Specific effects retention, constraining models based on the formation of low-density water.

  10. Perspective: Identification of genetic variants associated with dopaminergic compensatory mechanisms in early Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior eGreenbaum

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is slowly progressive, and heterogeneity of its severity among individuals may be due to endogenous mechanisms that counterbalance the striatal dopamine loss. In this perspective paper, we introduce a neuroimaging-genetic approach to identify genetic variants, which may contribute to this compensation. First, we briefly review current known potential compensatory mechanisms for premotor and early disease PD, located in the striatum and other brain regions. Then, we claim that a mismatch between mild symptomatic disease, manifested by low motor score on the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS and extensive Nigro-Striatal degeneration, manifested by reduced uptake of [123I]FP-CIT is indicative of compensatory processes. If genetic variants are associated with the severity of motor symptoms, while the level of striatal terminals degeneration measured by ligand uptake is taken into account and controlled in the analysis, then these variants may be involved in functional compensatory mechanisms for striatal dopamine deficit. To demonstrate feasibility of this approach, we performed a small "proof of concept" study (candidate gene design in a sample of 28 Jewish PD patients, and preliminary results are presented.

  11. When Virtual Muscularity Enhances Physical Endurance: Masculinity Threat and Compensatory Avatar Customization Among Young Male Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Won, Roselyn J; Tang, Wai Yen; Kibbe, Mackenzie R

    2017-01-01

    Masculinity-threatened men attempt to resolve the negative states caused by the threat through compensatory behavior such as public display of muscularity, which constitutes one way in which men physically establish masculinity. Avatars serve as a key means for self-presentation in technology-mediated environments, and compensatory motives can drive avatar customization. Noting this, the present research examined whether masculinity-threatened young men engage in compensatory avatar customization and whether such customization can be self-affirming. Specifically, we conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the effects of masculinity threat on customization of avatar muscularity and physical endurance on a task that represents behavioral self-regulation. Data from 238 male college students revealed that masculinity-threatened young men customized their avatar to have greater muscle definition than did their nonthreatened counterparts, and greater muscle definition of the customized avatar predicted greater physical endurance on a handgrip task. Furthermore, muscle definition of the customized avatar significantly mediated the relationship between masculinity threat and physical endurance. None of these effects were moderated by masculine norm conformity, which suggested that the effects overrode individual differences in the extent to which participants conformed to masculine norms and expectations. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Modification of hemiplegic compensatory gait pattern by symmetry-based motion controller of HAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Hiroaki; Kadone, Hideki; Sakurai, Takeru; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    As one of several characteristics of hemiplegic patients after stroke, compensatory gait caused by affected limb is often seen. The purpose of this research is to apply a symmetry-based controller of a wearable type lower limb robot, Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL) to hemiplegic patients with compensatory gait, and to investigate improvement of gait symmetry. The controller is designed respectively for swing phase and support phase according to characteristics of hemiplegic gait pattern. The controller during swing phase stores the motion of the unaffected limb and then provides motion support on the affected limb during the subsequent swing using the stored pattern to realize symmetric gait based on spontaneous limb swing. Moreover, the controller during support phase provides motion to extend hip and knee joints to support wearer's body. Clinical tests were conducted in order to assess the modification of gait symmetry. Our case study involved participation of one chronic stroke patient who performs abnormally-compensatory gait for both of the affected and unaffected limbs. As a result, the patient's gait symmetry was improved by providing motion support during the swing phase on the affected side and motion constraint during the support phase on the unaffected side. The study showed promising basis for the effectiveness of the controller for the future clinical study.

  13. Aging and balance control in response to external perturbations: role of anticipatory and compensatory postural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2014-06-01

    The ability to maintain balance deteriorates with increasing age. Anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments (APAs and CPAs, respectively), both, are known to be affected in the elderly. We examined the effect of aging on the ability of older adults to utilize APAs and its effect on subsequent control of posture (CPAs). Ten elderly individuals were exposed to external predictable and unpredictable perturbations applied to the upper body in the sagittal plane. Body kinematics, electromyographic activity of 13 muscles, and ground reaction forces were analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory phases of postural control. The elderly were capable of recognizing an upcoming predictable perturbation and activated muscles prior to it. However, the older adults used different muscle strategies and sequence of muscle recruitment than that reported in young adults. Additionally, when the perturbations were unpredictable, no APAs were seen which resulted in large CPAs and greater peak displacements of the center of pressure (COP) and center of mass (COM) following perturbations. As opposed to this, when the perturbations were predictable, APAs were seen in older adults resulting in significantly smaller CPAs. The presence and utilization of APAs in older adults also improved postural stability following the perturbation as seen by significantly smaller COP and COM peak displacements. Using APAs in older adults significantly reduces the need for large CPAs, resulting in greater postural stability following a perturbation. The results provide a foundation for investigating the role of training in improving the interplay between anticipatory and compensatory postural control in older adults.

  14. Comparing Two Non-Compensatory Composite Indices to Measure Changes over Time: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Mazziotta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite indices are increasingly recognized as a useful tool to measure socio-economic phenomena such as quality of life, competitiveness, development, and poverty. Considerable attention has been devoted in recent years to the methodological issues associated with composite index construction, particularly non-compensability and comparability of the data over time. In this paper, we compare two non-compensatory composite indices for measuring multidimensional phenomena and monitoring their changes over time: the Adjusted Mazziotta-Pareto Index (AMPI and the Mean-Min Function (MMF. The AMPI is a non-linear composite index that rewards the units with balanced values of the individual indicators. The MMF is a two-parameter function that allows compensability among dimensions with a cost that increases with unbalance and can be seen as an intermediate case between a compensatory and a full non-compensatory index. An application to a set of individual indicators of development in the Italian regions is also presented.

  15. Proteomic analysis of membrane microdomains derived from both failing and non-failing human hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Cristina; Brioschi, Maura; Wait, Robin; Begum, Shajna; Gianazza, Elisabetta; Fratto, Pasquale; Polvani, Gianluca; Vitali, Ettore; Parolari, Alessandro; Mussoni, Luciana; Tremoli, Elena

    2006-03-01

    Eukaryotic cells plasma membranes are organized into microdomains of specialized function such as lipid rafts and caveolae, with a specific lipid composition highly enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. In addition to their role in regulating signal transduction, multiple functions have been proposed, such as anchorage of receptors, trafficking of cholesterol, and regulation of permeability. However, an extensive understanding of their protein composition in human heart, both in failing and non-failing conditions, is not yet available. Membrane microdomains were isolated from left ventricular tissue of both failing (n = 15) and non-failing (n = 15) human hearts. Protein composition and differential protein expression was explored by comparing series of 2-D maps and subsequent identification by LC-MS/MS analysis. Data indicated that heart membrane microdomains are enriched in chaperones, cytoskeletal-associated proteins, enzymes and protein involved in signal transduction pathway. In addition, differential protein expression profile revealed that 30 proteins were specifically up- or down-regulated in human heart failure membrane microdomains. This study resulted in the identification of human heart membrane microdomain protein composition, which was not previously available. Moreover, it allowed the identification of multiple proteins whose expression is altered in heart failure, thus opening new perspectives to determine which role they may play in this disease.

  16. In my Wish List, an Automated Tool for Fail-Secure Design Analysis: an Alloy-Based Feasibility Draft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvan Le Guernic

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A system is said to be fail-secure, sometimes confused with fail-safe, if it maintains its security requirements even in the event of some faults. Fail-secure analyses are required by some validation schemes, such as some Common Criteria or NATO certifications. However, it is an aspect of security which as been overlooked by the community. This paper attempts to shed some light on the fail-secure field of study by: giving a definition of fail-secure as used in those certification schemes, and emphasizing the differences with fail-safe; and exhibiting a first feasibility draft of a fail-secure design analysis tool based on the Alloy model checker.

  17. Intergenerational transmission of occupational status: The role of voluntary association membership as an emerging compensatory strategy of reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, J.M.A. van; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we raised the question as to what extent members from higher status groups effectuated social resources, more specifically voluntary association membership, as a possible new compensatory strategy to guarantee a successful intergenerational transmission of their occupational status.

  18. Recapitulating maladaptive, multiscale remodeling of failing myocardium on a chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Megan L; Sheehy, Sean P; Grosberg, Anna; Goss, Josue A; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2013-06-11

    The lack of a robust pipeline of medical therapeutic agents for the treatment of heart disease may be partially attributed to the lack of in vitro models that recapitulate the essential structure-function relationships of healthy and diseased myocardium. We designed and built a system to mimic mechanical overload in vitro by applying cyclic stretch to engineered laminar ventricular tissue on a stretchable chip. To test our model, we quantified changes in gene expression, myocyte architecture, calcium handling, and contractile function and compared our results vs. several decades of animal studies and clinical observations. Cyclic stretch activated gene expression profiles characteristic of pathological remodeling, including decreased α- to β-myosin heavy chain ratios, and induced maladaptive changes to myocyte shape and sarcomere alignment. In stretched tissues, calcium transients resembled those reported in failing myocytes and peak systolic stress was significantly reduced. Our results suggest that failing myocardium, as defined genetically, structurally, and functionally, can be replicated in an in vitro microsystem by faithfully recapitulating the structural and mechanical microenvironment of the diseased heart.

  19. Compensatory forestation for soil water retention in watersheds of Campos do Jordão municipality, SP, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Getulio Teixeira Batista; Marcelo dos Santos Targa; Agenor Micaeli dos Santos; Nelson Wellausen Dias

    2011-01-01

    Compensatory forestation is an important technique to estimate the necessary forest cover for compensating the water loss due to surface runoff within a watershed and, therefore, guiding forest recovery interventions. The objective of this study was to quantify the forest area needed to compensate water loss caused by surface runoff in Fojo Creek and Perdizes Creek basin areas in the municipality of Campos do Jordão, SP, Brazil. Estimates were based on the Compensatory Forestation Methodology...

  20. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Failed lots/rework procedure. 983.52 Section 983.52..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.52 Failed lots/rework procedure. (a) Substandard pistachios... committee may establish, with the Secretary's approval, appropriate rework procedures. (b) Failed...

  1. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  2. Cognitive emotion regulation fails the stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raio, Candace M; Orederu, Temidayo A; Palazzolo, Laura; Shurick, Ashley A; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-09-10

    Cognitive emotion regulation has been widely shown in the laboratory to be an effective way to alter the nature of emotional responses. Despite its success in experimental contexts, however, we often fail to use these strategies in everyday life where stress is pervasive. The successful execution of cognitive regulation relies on intact executive functioning and engagement of the prefrontal cortex, both of which are rapidly impaired by the deleterious effects of stress. Because it is specifically under stressful conditions that we may benefit most from such deliberate forms of emotion regulation, we tested the efficacy of cognitive regulation after stress exposure. Participants first underwent fear-conditioning, where they learned that one stimulus (CS+) predicted an aversive outcome but another predicted a neutral outcome (CS-). Cognitive regulation training directly followed where participants were taught to regulate fear responses to the aversive stimulus. The next day, participants underwent an acute stress induction or a control task before repeating the fear-conditioning task using these newly acquired regulation skills. Skin conductance served as an index of fear arousal, and salivary α-amylase and cortisol concentrations were assayed as neuroendocrine markers of stress response. Although groups showed no differences in fear arousal during initial fear learning, nonstressed participants demonstrated robust fear reduction following regulation training, whereas stressed participants showed no such reduction. Our results suggest that stress markedly impairs the cognitive regulation of emotion and highlights critical limitations of this technique to control affective responses under stress.

  3. Too many to fail - How bonus taxation prevents gambling for bailouts

    OpenAIRE

    Hilmer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Using a simple symmetric principal-agent model of two banks, this paper studies the effects of both bailouts and bonus taxes on risk taking and managerial compensation. In contrast to existing literature, we assume financial institutions to be systemic only on a collective basis, implying support only if they collectively fail. This too-many-to-fail assumption generates incentives for herding and collective moral hazard. If banks can anticipate bailouts, they can coordinate on equilibrium whe...

  4. Compensatory Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li

    2013-01-01

    China needs to reward local environmental protection efforts East China's Anhui Province received 4 million yuan ($635,000) recently as compensation for river pollution found to have originated from neighboring Henan Province more than three months ago. In mid-January, polluted water spread from

  5. Why Lumbar Artificial Disk Replacements (LADRs) Fail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettine, Kenneth; Ryu, Robert; Techy, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    A retrospective review of prospectively collected data. To determine why artificial disk replacements (ADRs) fail by examining results of 91 patients in FDA studies performed at a single investigational device exemption (IDE) site with minimum 2-year follow-up. Patients following lumbar ADR generally achieve their 24-month follow-up results at 3 months postoperatively. Every patient undergoing ADR at 1 IDE site by 2 surgeons was evaluated for clinical success. Failure was defined as Maverick, 25 patients; Charité, 31 patients; and Kineflex, 35 patients. All procedures were 1-level operations performed at L4-L5 or L5-S1. Demographics and inclusion/exclusion criteria were similar and will be discussed. Overall clinical failure occurred in 26% (24 of 91 patients) at 2-year follow-up. Clinical failure occurred in: 28% (Maverick) (7 of 25 patients), 39% (Charité) (12 of 31 patients), and 14% (Kineflex) (5 of 35 patients). Causes of failure included facet pathology, 50% of failure patients (12 of 24). Implant complications occurred in 5% of total patients and 21% of failure patients (5 of 24). Only 5 patients went from a success to failure after 3 months. Only 1 patient went from a failure to success after a facet rhizotomy 1 year after ADR. Seventy-four percent of patients after ADR met strict clinical success after 2-year follow-up. The clinical success versus failure rate did not change from their 3-month follow-up in 85 of the 91 patients (93%). Overall clinical success may be improved most by patient selection and implant type.

  6. Speech therapy for compensatory articulations and velopharyngeal function: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Nachale Helen Maciel; Whitaker, Melina Evangelista; Aferri, Homero Carneiro; Neves, Josiane Denardi Alves; Dutka, Jeniffer de Cássia Rillo; Pegoraro-Krook, Maria Inês

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the process of intensive speech therapy for a 6-year-old child using compensatory articulations while presenting with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) and a history of cleft lip and palate. The correction of VPI was temporarily done with a pharyngeal obturator since the child presented with very little movement of the pharyngeal walls during speech, compromising the outcome of a possible pharyngeal flap procedure (pharyngoplasty). The program of intensive speech therapy involved 3 phases, each for duration of 2 weeks incorporating 2 daily sessions of 50 minutes of therapy. A total of 60 sessions of intervention were done with the initial goal of eliminating the use of compensatory articulations. Evaluation before the program indicated the use of co-productions (coarticulations) of voiceless plosive and fricative sounds with glottal stops (simultaneous production of 2 places of productions), along with weak intraoral pressure and hypernasality, all compromising speech intelligibility. To address place of articulation, strategies to increase intraoral air pressure were used along with visual, auditory and tactile feedback, emphasizing the therapy target and the air pressure and airflow during plosive and fricative sound productions. After the first two phases of the program, oral place of articulation of the targets were achieved consistently. During the third phase, velopharyngeal closure during speech was systematically addressed using a bulb reduction program with the objective of achieving velopharyngeal closure during speech consistently. After the intensive speech therapy program involving the use of a pharyngeal obturator, we observed absence of hypernasality and compensatory articulation with improved speech intelligibility.

  7. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation enhances compensatory vasodilation during hypoxic exercise in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Darren P; Treichler, David P; Ganger, Charles T; Schneider, Aaron C; Ueda, Kenichi

    2015-01-15

    We have previously demonstrated that aging reduces the compensatory vasodilator response during hypoxic exercise due to blunted nitric oxide (NO) signaling. Recent evidence suggests that NO bioavailability can be augmented by dietary nitrate through the nitrate-nitrite pathway. Thus we tested the hypothesis that acute dietary nitrate supplementation increases the compensatory vasodilator response to hypoxic exercise, particularly in older adults. Thirteen young (25 ± 1 yr) and 12 older (64 ± 2 yr) adults performed rhythmic forearm exercise at 20% of maximum voluntary contraction during normoxia and hypoxia (∼80% O2 saturation); both before (control) and 3 h after beetroot juice (BR) consumption. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; ml·min(-1)·100 mmHg(-1)) was calculated from forearm blood flow (ml/min) and blood pressure (mmHg). Compensatory vasodilation was defined as the relative increase in FVC due to hypoxic exercise (i.e., % increase compared with respective normoxic exercise trial). Plasma nitrite was determined from venous blood samples obtained before the control trials and each of the exercise trials (normoxia and hypoxia) after BR. Consumption of BR increased plasma nitrite in both young and older adults (P vasodilator response to hypoxic exercise was attenuated in older compared with young adults (3.8 ± 1.7% vs. 14.2 ± 1.2%, P vasodilation did not change in young (13.7 ± 3.3%, P = 0.81) adults but was substantially augmented in older adults (11.4 ± 2.1%, P vasodilator response to hypoxic exercise in older but not young adults.

  8. Matrix modulation of compensatory lung regrowth and progenitor cell proliferation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A M; Shifren, A; Mazan, M R; Gruntman, A M; Lascola, K M; Nolen-Walston, R D; Kim, C F; Tsai, L; Pierce, R A; Mecham, R P; Ingenito, E P

    2010-02-01

    Mechanical stress is an important modulator of lung morphogenesis, postnatal lung development, and compensatory lung regrowth. The effect of mechanical stress on stem or progenitor cells is unclear. We examined whether proliferative responses of epithelial progenitor cells, including dually immunoreactive (CCSP and proSP-C) progenitor cells (CCSP+/SP-C+) and type II alveolar epithelial cells (ATII), are affected by physical factors found in the lung of emphysematics, including loss of elastic recoil, reduced elastin content, and alveolar destruction. Mice underwent single lung pneumonectomy (PNY) to modulate transpulmonary pressure (mechanical stress) and to stimulate lung regeneration. Control mice underwent sham thoracotomy. Plombage of different levels was employed to partially or completely abolish this mechanical stress. Responses to graded changes in transpulmonary pressure were assessed in elastin-insufficient mice (elastin +/-, ELN+/-) and elastase-treated mice with elastase-induced emphysema. Physiological regrowth, morphometry (linear mean intercept; Lmi), and the proliferative responses of CCSP+/SP-C+, Clara cells, and ATII were evaluated. Plombage following PNY significantly reduced transpulmonary pressure, regrowth, and CCSP+/SP-C+, Clara cell, and ATII proliferation following PNY. In the ELN+/- group, CCSP+/SP-C+ and ATII proliferation responses were completely abolished, although compensatory lung regrowth was not significantly altered. In contrast, in elastase-injured mice, compensatory lung regrowth was significantly reduced, and ATII but not CCSP+/SP-C+ proliferation responses were impaired. Elastase injury also reduced the baseline abundance of CCSP+/SP-C+, and CCSP+/SP-C+ were found to be displaced from the bronchioalveolar duct junction. These data suggest that qualities of the extracellular matrix including elastin content, mechanical stress, and alveolar integrity strongly influence the regenerative capacity of the lung, and the patterns of

  9. Oligophrenin-1 Connects Exocytotic Fusion to Compensatory Endocytosis in Neuroendocrine Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houy, Sébastien; Estay-Ahumada, Catherine; Croisé, Pauline; Calco, Valérie; Haeberlé, Anne-Marie; Bailly, Yannick; Billuart, Pierre; Vitale, Nicolas; Bader, Marie-France; Ory, Stéphane; Gasman, Stéphane

    2015-08-05

    Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) is a protein with multiple domains including a Rho family GTPase-activating (Rho-GAP) domain, and a Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain. Involved in X-linked intellectual disability, OPHN1 has been reported to control several synaptic functions, including synaptic plasticity, synaptic vesicle trafficking, and endocytosis. In neuroendocrine cells, hormones and neuropeptides stored in large dense core vesicles (secretory granules) are released through calcium-regulated exocytosis, a process that is tightly coupled to compensatory endocytosis, allowing secretory granule recycling. We show here that OPHN1 is expressed and mainly localized at the plasma membrane and in the cytosol in chromaffin cells from adrenal medulla. Using carbon fiber amperometry, we found that exocytosis is impaired at the late stage of membrane fusion in Ophn1 knock-out mice and OPHN1-silenced bovine chromaffin cells. Experiments performed with ectopically expressed OPHN1 mutants indicate that OPHN1 requires its Rho-GAP domain to control fusion pore dynamics. On the other hand, compensatory endocytosis assessed by measuring dopamine-β-hydroxylase (secretory granule membrane) internalization is severely inhibited in Ophn1 knock-out chromaffin cells. This inhibitory effect is mimicked by the expression of a truncated OPHN1 mutant lacking the BAR domain, demonstrating that the BAR domain implicates OPHN1 in granule membrane recapture after exocytosis. These findings reveal for the first time that OPHN1 is a bifunctional protein that is able, through distinct mechanisms, to regulate and most likely link exocytosis to compensatory endocytosis in chromaffin cells.

  10. Environmental heat effects on growth, plasma T3, and postheat compensatory effects on Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccari, F; Johnson, H D; Hahn, G L

    1983-07-01

    Five Holstein heifers, 5 months of age, were housed in the Missouri Climatic Laboratory and subjected to an experiment to measure the effects of heat stress on rates of growth, plasma triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and ability to compensate in rate of gain and thyroid function following the stress period. The experiment consisted of 3 weeks at thermoneutral (TN1), followed by 5 weeks of individually controlled heat stress conditions (32.5 to 34 degrees C) dependent on heat tolerance of individual animals. This was followed by a 4-week thermoneutral, postheat compensatory period (TN2). Average daily gains were significantly depressed during the heat stress period (HS). Following heat stress the average body weights attained the projected or expected levels within a 21- to 28-day period following return of animals to thermoneutral conditions. Ratios of feed intake/body weight (w0.75) were reduced during heat stress treatment indicating the thermal inhibition. Ratios or amount of feed intake per unit of gain were greater during HS treatment indicating less weight gain per unit of daily feed intake. Plasma T3 was reduced during heat treatment similarly to daily weight gain. Following the postheat treatment period (TN2) plasma T3 increased markedly as did daily weight gains to demonstrate strong compensatory responses in both measures. In summary, these results demonstrated parallel and positive changes of plasma T3 with daily weight gain during thermoneutral, heat, and postheat compensatory periods, and an inverse relationship of rectal temperature to weight gain and plasma T3.

  11. Herbivore impacts on marsh production depend upon a compensatory continuum mediated by salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeremy D; Porturas, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Plant communities are disturbed by several stressors and they are expected to be further impacted by increasing anthropogenic stress. The consequences of these stressors will depend, in part, upon the ability of plants to compensate for herbivory. Previous studies found that herbivore impacts on plants can vary from negative to positive because of environmental control of plant compensatory responses, a.k.a. the Compensatory Continuum Hypothesis. While these influential studies enhanced our appreciation of the dynamic nature of plant-herbivore interactions, they largely focused on the impact of resource limitation. This bias limits our ability to predict how other environmental factors will shape the impact of herbivory. We examined the role of salinity stress on herbivory of salt marsh cordgrass, Spartina foliosa, by an herbivore previously hypothesized to influence the success of restoration projects (the scale insect, Haliaspis spartinae). Using a combination of field and mesocosm manipulations of scales and salinity, we measured how these factors affected Spartina growth and timing of senescence. In mesocosm studies, Spartina overcompensated for herbivory by growing taller shoots at low salinities but the impact of scales on plants switched from positive to neutral with increasing salinity stress. In field studies of intermediate salinities, scales reduced Spartina growth and increased the rate of senescence. Experimental salinity additions at this field site returned the impact of scales to neutral. Because salinity decreased scale densities, the switch in impact of scales on Spartina with increasing salinity was not simply a linear function of scale abundance. Thus, the impact of scales on primary production depended strongly upon environmental context because intermediate salinity stress prevented plant compensatory responses to herbivory. Understanding this context-dependency will be required if we are going to successfully predict the success of

  12. Speech therapy for compensatory articulations and velopharyngeal function: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachale Helen Maciel Bispo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the process of intensive speech therapy for a 6-year-old child using compensatory articulations while presenting with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI and a history of cleft lip and palate. The correction of VPI was temporarily done with a pharyngeal obturator since the child presented with very little movement of the pharyngeal walls during speech, compromising the outcome of a possible pharyngeal flap procedure (pharyngoplasty. The program of intensive speech therapy involved 3 phases, each for duration of 2 weeks incorporating 2 daily sessions of 50 minutes of therapy. A total of 60 sessions of intervention were done with the initial goal of eliminating the use of compensatory articulations. Evaluation before the program indicated the use of co-productions (coarticulations of voiceless plosive and fricative sounds with glottal stops (simultaneous production of 2 places of productions, along with weak intraoral pressure and hypernasality, all compromising speech intelligibility. To address place of articulation, strategies to increase intraoral air pressure were used along with visual, auditory and tactile feedback, emphasizing the therapy target and the air pressure and airflow during plosive and fricative sound productions. After the first two phases of the program, oral place of articulation of the targets were achieved consistently. During the third phase, velopharyngeal closure during speech was systematically addressed using a bulb reduction program with the objective of achieving velopharyngeal closure during speech consistently. After the intensive speech therapy program involving the use of a pharyngeal obturator, we observed absence of hypernasality and compensatory articulation with improved speech intelligibility.

  13. Integrated compensatory network is activated in the absence of NCC phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, P Richard; Lazo-Fernandez, Yoskaly; Delpire, Eric; Wall, Susan M; Dorsey, Susan G; Weinman, Edward J; Coleman, Richard; Wade, James B; Welling, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    Thiazide diuretics are used to treat hypertension; however, compensatory processes in the kidney can limit antihypertensive responses to this class of drugs. Here, we evaluated compensatory pathways in SPAK kinase-deficient mice, which are unable to activate the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter NCC (encoded by Slc12a3). Global transcriptional profiling, combined with biochemical, cell biological, and physiological phenotyping, identified the gene expression signature of the response and revealed how it establishes an adaptive physiology. Salt reabsorption pathways were created by the coordinate induction of a multigene transport system, involving solute carriers (encoded by Slc26a4, Slc4a8, and Slc4a9), carbonic anhydrase isoforms, and V-type H⁺-ATPase subunits in pendrin-positive intercalated cells (PP-ICs) and ENaC subunits in principal cells (PCs). A distal nephron remodeling process and induction of jagged 1/NOTCH signaling, which expands the cortical connecting tubule with PCs and replaces acid-secreting α-ICs with PP-ICs, were partly responsible for the compensation. Salt reabsorption was also activated by induction of an α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) paracrine signaling system. Coordinate regulation of a multigene α-KG synthesis and transport pathway resulted in α-KG secretion into pro-urine, as the α-KG-activated GPCR (Oxgr1) increased on the PP-IC apical surface, allowing paracrine delivery of α-KG to stimulate salt transport. Identification of the integrated compensatory NaCl reabsorption mechanisms provides insight into thiazide diuretic efficacy.

  14. Supported employment and compensatory strategies for enhancing vocational outcome following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, J S; Wehman, P; Morton, M V; Stonnington, H H

    1988-01-01

    Epidemiological research clearly indicates that traumatic head injury has reached epidemic proportions. Incidence rates for head injury are greater than those for cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injury combined. Many victims suffer from long-term impairments in functional, neurological, medical, neuropsychological and linguistic status. Emotional and behavioural problems are common as well. Additionally, family problems often ensue as a consequence of the victim's dependency and concomitant emotional changes. Investigations of post-injury vocational status indicate that unemployment rates within the first 7 years post-injury range as high as 70% for those with moderate and severe injuries. Researchers have demonstrated that the emotional and neuropsychological changes arising from injury are the greatest contributors to reduced employability. Relatively high unemployment rates strongly suggest that traditional approaches to physical and vocational rehabilitation have been entirely inadequate. To complement existing services and enhance employment outcome, two approaches have been developed and refined for use with victims of head injury. Supported employment is a unique approach which assists the client to select, obtain and maintain suitable employment on the basis of his/her interests and abilities. Compensatory strategies have been developed to help the individual offset intellectual problems which would otherwise interfere with learning job skills and maintaining production levels. Often, compensatory strategies are used in the context of a comprehensive supported employment programme. The greater use of supported employment and compensatory strategies is likely to enhance employment outcomes for those with traumatic head injury. Nevertheless, additional research is needed to more clearly identify the types of techniques which work best for each unique set of problems.

  15. Compensatory premotor activity during affective face processing in subclinical carriers of a single mutant Parkin allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Silke; Sack, Benjamin; Pohl, Anna; Münte, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter; Klein, Christine; Binkofski, Ferdinand

    2012-04-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease suffer from significant motor impairments and accompanying cognitive and affective dysfunction due to progressive disturbances of basal ganglia-cortical gating loops. Parkinson's disease has a long presymptomatic stage, which indicates a substantial capacity of the human brain to compensate for dopaminergic nerve degeneration before clinical manifestation of the disease. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence that increased motor-related cortical activity can compensate for progressive dopaminergic nerve degeneration in carriers of a single mutant Parkin or PINK1 gene, who show a mild but significant reduction of dopamine metabolism in the basal ganglia in the complete absence of clinical motor signs. However, it is currently unknown whether similar compensatory mechanisms are effective in non-motor basal ganglia-cortical gating loops. Here, we ask whether asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers show altered patterns of brain activity during processing of facial gestures, and whether this might compensate for latent facial emotion recognition deficits. Current theories in social neuroscience assume that execution and perception of facial gestures are linked by a special class of visuomotor neurons ('mirror neurons') in the ventrolateral premotor cortex/pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 44/6). We hypothesized that asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers would show increased activity in this area during processing of affective facial gestures, replicating the compensatory motor effects that have previously been observed in these individuals. Additionally, Parkin mutation carriers might show altered activity in other basal ganglia-cortical gating loops. Eight asymptomatic heterozygous Parkin mutation carriers and eight matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and a subsequent facial emotion recognition task. As predicted, Parkin mutation carriers showed significantly stronger activity in

  16. Long term compensatory sweating results after sympathectomy for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Cecilia; Andreetti, Claudio; Ciccone, Anna Maria; D’Andrilli, Antonio; Maurizi, Giulio; Poggi, Camilla; Rendina, Erino Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Background Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy is currently the best treatment for primary upper extremity hyperhidrosis, but the potential for adverse effects, particularly the development of compensatory sweating, is a concern and often precludes surgery as a definitive therapy. This study aims to evaluate long-term results of two-stage unilateral versus one-stage bilateral thoracoscopic sympathectomy. Methods From November 1995 to February 2011, 261 patients with severe palmar and/or axillary hyperhidrosis underwent endoscopic sympathectomy with a follow-up of at least 4 years. One-hundred and twenty-six patients received one-stage bilateral, single port video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy (one-stage group) and 135 patients underwent two-stage unilateral, single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy, with a mean time interval of four months between the procedures (two-stage group). Results The mean postoperative follow-up period was 7.2 years (range, 4–9 years). Sixteen patients (12.7%) in the one-stage group and 15 patients (11.1%) in the two-stage group suffered from bradycardia (P=0.15). Recurrences occurred in three patients (2.4%) in the one-stage group and one (0.7%) in the two-stage group (P=0,09). Facial flushing or hyperthermia occurred in eight patients (6.3%) in the one-stage group and 11 (8.1%) of the two-stage group. Compensatory sweating occurred in 27 patients (21.4%) in the one-stage group and six patients (4.4%) in the two-stage group (P=0.0001). However, compensatory sweating recovered in five patients (83.3%) in the two-stage group versus nine (33.35%) in one-stage group during the follow-up period (Log-rank test P=0.016; HR, 7.196; 95% CI, 1.431–36.20). An improvement in postoperative quality of life (QoL) scores was observed in at least 90% of patients at three years after surgery in the one-stage group and at least 95% of patients in the two-stage group (P=0.001). Conclusions Compensatory sweating seems to improve during

  17. Autonomous Motivation Is Not Enough: The Role of Compensatory Health Beliefs for the Readiness to Change Stair and Elevator Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theda Radtke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs are beliefs that an unhealthy behavior can be compensated with a healthy behavior. In line with the CHBs model, the aim of this study was twofold. First, the study investigated the relationship between autonomous motivation and CHBs that physical inactivity can be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Second, the study focused on the associations between CHBs and readiness to use the stairs more often and stair and elevator use. Thus, a cross-sectional online questionnaire was designed that was filled out by 135 participants. Path analysis showed that individuals with stronger autonomous motivation to use the stairs strongly agreed that sedentary behavior could be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Moreover, CHBs were positively related to readiness to change behavior, but not to self-reported stair and elevator use. Even though future research is necessary to replicate these findings, autonomous motivation seems to have a positive impact on CHBs which, in turn, might boost an intended behavior change. Thus, promoting possible compensation of physical inactivity might foster the readiness to change the unhealthy behavior.

  18. Conservative and compensatory evolution in oxidative phosphorylation complexes of angiosperms with highly divergent rates of mitochondrial genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havird, Justin C; Whitehill, Nicholas S; Snow, Christopher D; Sloan, Daniel B

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial gene products are critical for eukaryotic cell function. Nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial-targeted proteins (N-mt genes) experience elevated rates of evolution, which has often been interpreted as evidence of nuclear compensation in response to elevated mitochondrial mutation rates. However, N-mt genes may be under relaxed functional constraints, which could also explain observed increases in their evolutionary rate. To disentangle these hypotheses, we examined patterns of sequence and structural evolution in nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded oxidative phosphorylation proteins from species in the angiosperm genus Silene with vastly different mitochondrial mutation rates. We found correlated increases in N-mt gene evolution in species with fast-evolving mitochondrial DNA. Structural modeling revealed an overrepresentation of N-mt substitutions at positions that directly contact mutated residues in mitochondrial-encoded proteins, despite overall patterns of conservative structural evolution. These findings support the hypothesis that selection for compensatory changes in response to mitochondrial mutations contributes to the elevated rate of evolution in N-mt genes. We discuss these results in light of theories implicating mitochondrial mutation rates and mitonuclear coevolution as drivers of speciation and suggest comparative and experimental approaches that could take advantage of heterogeneity in rates of mtDNA evolution across eukaryotes to evaluate such theories. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Autonomous motivation is not enough: the role of compensatory health beliefs for the readiness to change stair and elevator use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Theda; Rackow, Pamela

    2014-11-28

    Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs) are beliefs that an unhealthy behavior can be compensated with a healthy behavior. In line with the CHBs model, the aim of this study was twofold. First, the study investigated the relationship between autonomous motivation and CHBs that physical inactivity can be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Second, the study focused on the associations between CHBs and readiness to use the stairs more often and stair and elevator use. Thus, a cross-sectional online questionnaire was designed that was filled out by 135 participants. Path analysis showed that individuals with stronger autonomous motivation to use the stairs strongly agreed that sedentary behavior could be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Moreover, CHBs were positively related to readiness to change behavior, but not to self-reported stair and elevator use. Even though future research is necessary to replicate these findings, autonomous motivation seems to have a positive impact on CHBs which, in turn, might boost an intended behavior change. Thus, promoting possible compensation of physical inactivity might foster the readiness to change the unhealthy behavior.

  20. The mTOR kinase inhibitor Everolimus decreases S6 kinase phosphorylation but fails to reduce mutant huntingtin levels in brain and is not neuroprotective in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frentzel Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion within the huntingtin gene. Mutant huntingtin protein misfolds and accumulates within neurons where it mediates its toxic effects. Promoting mutant huntingtin clearance by activating macroautophagy is one approach for treating Huntington's disease (HD. In this study, we evaluated the mTOR kinase inhibitor and macroautophagy promoting drug everolimus in the R6/2 mouse model of HD. Results Everolimus decreased phosphorylation of the mTOR target protein S6 kinase indicating brain penetration. However, everolimus did not activate brain macroautophagy as measured by LC3B Western blot analysis. Everolimus protected against early declines in motor performance; however, we found no evidence for neuroprotection as determined by brain pathology. In muscle but not brain, everolimus significantly decreased soluble mutant huntingtin levels. Conclusions Our data suggests that beneficial behavioral effects of everolimus in R6/2 mice result primarily from effects on muscle. Even though everolimus significantly modulated its target brain S6 kinase, this did not decrease mutant huntingtin levels or provide neuroprotection.

  1. Expanded level of sympathetic chain removal does not increase the incidence or severity of compensatory hyperhidrosis after endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Tyler M; Davis, Diane M; Speicher, James E; Rossi, Nicholas P; Parekh, Kalpaj R; Lynch, William R; Iannettoni, Mark D

    2014-12-01

    Compensatory hyperhidrosis is a common devastating adverse effect after endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy for patients undergoing surgical treatment of primary hyperhidrosis. We sought to determine whether a correlation existed in our patient population between the level and extent of sympathetic chain resection and the subsequent development of compensatory hyperhidrosis. All patients undergoing endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy in the T2-T3, T2-T4, T2-T5, or T2-T6 levels for palmar or axillary hyperhidrosis at the University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics (n = 97) from January 2004 to January 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Differences in the preoperative patient characteristics were not statistically significant among the patients receiving T2-T3, T2-T4, T2-T5, or T2-T6 level resections. Of the 97 included patients, 28 (29%) experienced transient compensatory hyperhidrosis and 4 (4%) complained of severe compensatory hyperhidrosis and required additional treatment. No operative mortalities occurred, and the morbidity was similar among the groups. Most patients had successful outcomes after undergoing extensive resection without changes in the incidence of compensatory hyperhidrosis. Therefore, we recommend performing complete and adequate resection for relief of symptoms in patients with primary hyperhidrosis. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Expanded Level of Sympathetic Chain Removal Does Not Increase Incidence or Severity of Compensatory Hyperhidrosis Following Endoscopic Thoracic Sympathectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Tyler M.; Davis, Diane M.; Speicher, James E.; Rossi, Nicholas P.; Parekh, Kalpaj R.; Lynch, William R.; Iannettoni, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Compensatory hyperhidrosis is a common devastating adverse effect following endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy for patients undergoing surgical treatment of primary hyperhidrosis. We sought to determine if there was a correlation in our patient population between the level and extent of sympathetic chain resection and the subsequent development of compensatory hyperhidrosis. Methods All patients undergoing endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy in the T2-3, T2-4, T2-5, or T2-6 levels for palmar or axillary hyperhidrosis at the University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics (n=97) between January 2004 and January 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Results Differences in preoperative patient characteristics were not statistically significant between patients receiving either T2-3, T2-4, T2-5, or T2-6 level resections. Of the ninety-seven patients included in this study, twenty-eight patients (29%) experienced transient compensatory hyperhidrosis and four patients (4%) complained of severe compensatory hyperhidrosis and required further treatment. There were no operative mortalities and morbidity was similar amongst the groups. Conclusions Most patients had successful outcomes after undergoing extensive resection without change in incidence of compensatory hyperhidrosis. Therefore, we recommend performing a complete and adequate resection for relief of symptoms in patients with primary hyperhidrosis. PMID:25131173

  3. Nitrogen balance during compensatory growth when changing the levels of dietary lysine from deficiency to sufficiency in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Aiko; Kyoya, Takahito; Nakashima, Kazuki; Katsumata, Masaya

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to elucidate the nitrogen (N) balance of pigs exhibiting compensatory growth when changing the dietary lysine levels from deficiency to sufficiency. Experiment 1 elucidated whether pigs exhibited compensatory growth with dietary lysine sufficiency. Twenty 6-week-old males were assigned to one of two treatments: control and LC (lysine and control). Control pigs were fed a control diet throughout the 24-day experimental period, whereas LC pigs were fed a low lysine diet until day 21 of the experiment, followed by the control diet until the end of experiment. The dietary lysine sufficiency treatment induced an 80% increase in the growth rate of LC pigs (P pigs that exhibited compensatory growth with dietary lysine sufficiency. Eighteen 6-week-old males were assigned to one of three treatments: control, LC, and LL (low lysine). LL pigs were fed a low lysine diet throughout the 24-day experimental period. Pigs that exhibited compensatory growth with dietary lysine sufficiency tended to retain a higher amount of N than control pigs (P = 0.10). These finding suggest that the compensatory growth induced in pigs by dietary lysine sufficiency was partly attributable to a higher level of N retention.

  4. The Effectiveness and Applicability of Compensatory Cognitive Training for Japanese Patients with Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

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    Sadao Otsuka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cognitive remediation or training for schizophrenia has been developed, few studies on the subject have focused on Japanese patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness and applicability of compensatory cognitive training (CCT in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Twenty-six participants diagnosed with schizophrenia were assigned to either the CCT plus treatment as usual group (n=13 or the treatment as usual alone group (n=13. CCT is a 12-session, manualized, group-based training that coaches compensatory strategies in four cognitive domains (prospective memory, attention, verbal memory, and executive functions. Cognitive, functional, and clinical symptom measures were implemented at baseline, after treatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Mixed design analyses of variance with group and time for each measure demonstrated that effects of CCT on verbal memory, processing speed, and social functioning at postintervention were significant, and the effects on processing speed were maintained at follow-up. Our study suggests that CCT has beneficial effects on cognitive performance, improving functional outcomes in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Additionally, the high degrees of attendance rates and level of satisfaction rated by the CCT participants ensure the applicability of this methodology to this population.

  5. Compensatory relationship between splice sites and exonic splicing signals depending on the length of vertebrate introns

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    Rogozin Igor B

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The signals that determine the specificity and efficiency of splicing are multiple and complex, and are not fully understood. Among other factors, the relative contributions of different mechanisms appear to depend on intron size inasmuch as long introns might hinder the activity of the spliceosome through interference with the proper positioning of the intron-exon junctions. Indeed, it has been shown that the information content of splice sites positively correlates with intron length in the nematode, Drosophila, and fungi. We explored the connections between the length of vertebrate introns, the strength of splice sites, exonic splicing signals, and evolution of flanking exons. Results A compensatory relationship is shown to exist between different types of signals, namely, the splice sites and the exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs. In the range of relatively short introns (approximately, Conclusion Several weak but statistically significant correlations were observed between vertebrate intron length, splice site strength, and potential exonic splicing signals. Taken together, these findings attest to a compensatory relationship between splice sites and exonic splicing signals, depending on intron length.

  6. Neurophysiological Evidence of Compensatory Brain Mechanisms in Early-Stage Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Góngora, Mariana; Escartín, Antonio; Martínez-Horta, Saul; Fernández-Bobadilla, Ramón; Querol, Luis; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; Riba, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic central nervous system disorder characterized by white matter inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration. Although cognitive dysfunction is a common manifestation, it may go unnoticed in recently-diagnosed patients. Prior studies suggest MS patients develop compensatory mechanisms potentially involving enhanced performance monitoring. Here we assessed the performance monitoring system in early-stage MS patients using the error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) observed following behavioral errors. Twenty-seven early-stage MS patients and 31 controls were neuropsychologically assessed. Electroencephalography recordings were obtained while participants performed: a) a stop task and b) an auditory oddball task. Behavior and ERP measures were assessed. No differences in performance were found between groups in most neuropsychological tests or in behavior or ERP components in the auditory oddball task. However, the amplitude of the ERN associated with stop errors in the stop task was significantly higher in patients. ERN amplitude correlated positively with scores on the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score, and negatively with the time since last relapse. Patients showed higher neuronal recruitment in tasks involving performance monitoring. Results suggest the development of compensatory brain mechanisms in early-stage MS and reflect the sensitivity of the ERN to detect these changes. PMID:26322632

  7. Compensatory striatal-cerebellar connectivity in mild-moderate Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Alison C; Dagher, Alain; Fellows, Lesley K

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine depletion in the putamen is associated with altered motor network functional connectivity in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), but the functional significance of these changes remains unclear, attributed to either pathological or compensatory mechanisms in different studies. Here, we examined the effects of PD on dorsal caudal putamen functional connectivity, off and on dopamine replacement therapy (DRT), using resting state fMRI. Motor performance was assessed with the Purdue pegboard task. Twenty-one patients with mild-moderate Parkinson's disease were studied twice, once after an overnight DRT washout and once after the administration of a standard dose of levodopa (Sinemet), and compared to 20 demographically-matched healthy control participants. PD patients off DRT showed increased putamen functional connectivity with both the cerebellum (lobule V) and primary motor cortex (M1), relative to healthy controls. Greater putamen-cerebellar functional connectivity was significantly correlated with better motor performance, whereas greater putamen-M1 functional connectivity was predictive of poorer motor performance. The administration of levodopa improved motor performance in the PD group, as expected, and reduced putamen-cerebellar connectivity to levels comparable to the healthy control group. The strength of putamen-cerebellar functional connectivity continued to predict motor performance in the PD group while on levodopa. These findings argue that increased putamen-M1 functional connectivity reflects a pathological change, deleterious to motor performance. In contrast, increased putamen-cerebellar connectivity reflects a compensatory mechanism.

  8. Compensatory structural adaptive modifications of vagina in response to functional demand in goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Amer M; Zaid, Nazih W; Hussain, S O

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal biopsies and smears were collected from ten adult local healthy goats. Routine histological methods were carried out on vaginal biopsies and then stained with PAS stain. The smears were stained with Methylene blue. All samples were inspected under light microscope. The present study found that many constituents of the wall of the vagina, which have an important functional role, were absent; among these were the vaginal glands, goblet cells, muscularis mucosa, and lymphatic nodules. On the other hand, vagina showed special compensatory histological mechanisms, namely, the deep epithelial folds, the well-developed germinated stratum basale, the apparent basement membrane, and the profuse defensive cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and mast cells. The general stains of this study could not recognize dendritic cells although they play an important functional role. Moreover, the herein study declared also that the vaginal smears showing many adaptive cellular mechanisms among these were, the keratinization, the process of sheet formation that lines the vaginal lumen, the process of metachromasia which is related to the cellular activity in protein synthesis, keratin, and finally the presence of endogenous microorganisms. It was concluded that all the above cellular compensatory adaptive mechanisms may compensate the lacking vaginal constituents and act to raise the immune response of the vagina.

  9. Improvement of machining accuracy in precision micro-boring system by forecasting compensatory control technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents the design of a micro-boring servo system. A piezoelectric actuator is employed to compensate the deflection errors of the cutter in the radial direction to reduce the force-induced errors in the workpiece. In order to bore small and deep holes, the boring bar is designed with a new structure consisting of two concentric bars, one being used for error measuring and the other for error compensation. As a result, the size of the micro-boring bar is not af fected even after the piezoelectric actuator and strain gauges have been incorporated. The outer diameter of the boring bar used is 16 mm and the length to diameter ratio is greater than 9. A Forecasting Compensatory Control (FCC) technique is adopted in this system for error prediction and error compensation. The off-line forecasting compensatory control simulation and on-line cutting results have verified that the roundness form errors in the workpiece can be re duced up to 60 percent with the developed micro-boring servo system.

  10. Land use planning and social equity in North Carolina's compensatory wetland and stream mitigation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDor, Todd; Stewart, Audrey

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Clean Water Act requires compensatory mitigation for wetland and stream damage through restoration of damaged aquatic ecosystems. We evaluate the North Carolina's Ecosystem Enhancement Program (EEP), a state agency responsible for compensatory mitigation. We compare communities gaining and losing aquatic resources during mitigation, finding new types of socioeconomic disparities that contradict previous studies of mitigation program behavior. We find average distances between impact and mitigation sites for streams (43.53 km) and wetlands (50.3 km) to be larger in North Carolina than in off-site mitigation programs in other regions previously studied. We also find that aquatic resources in the State are lost from urbanized areas that are more affluent, white, and highly educated, and mitigated at sites in rural areas that are less affluent, less well educated, and have a higher percentage of minorities. We also analyze the relationship between urban growth indicators and EEP accumulation of compensation sites. Growth indicators and long-term population projections are uncorrelated with both projected transportation impacts and advance mitigation acquired by the EEP, suggesting that growth considerations can be more effectively incorporated into the EEP's planning process. We explore the possibility that spatial mismatches could develop between watersheds that are rapidly growing and those that are gaining mitigation. We make recommendations for ways that regulators incorporate growth indicators into the mitigation planning process.

  11. Clinical severity in Lesch-Nyhan disease: the role of residual enzyme and compensatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rong; Sutcliffe, Diane; Zhao, Hong; Huang, Xinyi; Schretlen, David J; Benkovic, Steve; Jinnah, H A

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the HPRT1 gene, which encodes the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt), cause Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) and more mildly affected Lesch-Nyhan variants. Prior studies have suggested a strong correlation between residual hypoxanthine recycling activity and disease severity. However, the relevance of guanine recycling and compensatory changes in the de novo synthesis of purines has received little attention. In the current studies, fibroblast cultures were established for 21 healthy controls and 36 patients with a broad spectrum of disease severity related to HGprt deficiency. We assessed hypoxanthine recycling, guanine recycling, steady-state purine pools, and de novo purine synthesis. There was a strong correlation between disease severity and either hypoxanthine or guanine recycling. Intracellular purines were normal in the HGprt-deficient fibroblasts, but purine wasting was evident as increased purine metabolites excreted from the cells. The normal intracellular purines in the HGprt-deficient fibroblasts were likely due in part to a compensatory increase in purine synthesis, as demonstrated by a significant increase in purinosomes. However, the increase in purine synthesis did not appear to correlate with disease severity. These results refine our understanding of the potential sources of phenotypic heterogeneity in LND and its variants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A role for platelet-derived growth factor-BB in rat postpneumonectomy compensatory lung growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shizeng; Hannam, Vicky; Belcastro, Rosetta; Cartel, Nicholas; Cabacungan, Judy; Wang, Jinxia; Diambomba, Yenge; Johnstone, Leslie; Post, Martin; Tanswell, A Keith

    2002-07-01

    Unilateral pneumonectomy leads to compensatory growth in the residual lung, the mediators of which are largely unknown. We hypothesized, based on its other known roles in lung cell growth, that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB would be an essential mediator of postpneumonectomy compensatory lung growth. Left-sided pneumonectomies were performed on 21-d-old rats, for comparison with sham-operated or unoperated control animals. Body weights were not different between groups. Right lung weights and DNA content were significantly increased (p < 0.05), compared with controls, by 10 d after pneumonectomy. The rate of DNA synthesis was maximal on d 5 postpneumonectomy. Total right lung PDGF-B mRNA and PDGF-BB protein increased after pneumonectomy, but were apparently tightly regulated, relative to total right lung beta-actin mRNA and protein content, respectively. However, PDGF-BB expression after pneumonectomy was apparently not purely constitutive, in that daily i.p. injections of a truncated soluble PDGF beta-receptor both reduced activation of the native PDGF beta-receptor, and attenuated increased lung DNA synthesis on d 3 after pneumonectomy. These findings are consistent with a critical role for PDGF-BB in postpneumonectomy lung growth.

  13. Compensatory evolution of a precursor messenger RNA secondary structure in the Drosophila melanogaster Adh gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Evidence for the evolutionary maintenance of a hairpin structure possibly involved in intron processing had been found in intron 1 of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh) in diverse Drosophila species. In this study, the putative hairpin structure was evaluated systematically in Drosophila melanogaster by elimination of either side of the stem using site-directed mutagenesis. The effects of these mutations and the compensatory double mutant on intron splicing efficiency and ADH protein production were assayed in Drosophila melanogaster Schneider L2 cells and germ-line transformed adult flies. Mutations that disrupt the putative hairpin structure right upstream of the intron branch point were found to cause a significant reduction in both splicing efficiency and ADH protein production. In contrast, the compensatory double mutant that restores the putative hairpin structure was indistinguishable from the WT in both splicing efficiency and ADH level. It was also observed by mutational analysis that a more stable secondary structure (with a longer stem) in this intron decreases both splicing efficiency and ADH protein production. Implications for RNA secondary structure and intron evolution are discussed. PMID:12972637

  14. Land Use Planning and Social Equity in North Carolina's Compensatory Wetland and Stream Mitigation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendor, Todd; Stewart, Audrey

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Clean Water Act requires compensatory mitigation for wetland and stream damage through restoration of damaged aquatic ecosystems. We evaluate the North Carolina's Ecosystem Enhancement Program (EEP), a state agency responsible for compensatory mitigation. We compare communities gaining and losing aquatic resources during mitigation, finding new types of socioeconomic disparities that contradict previous studies of mitigation program behavior. We find average distances between impact and mitigation sites for streams (43.53 km) and wetlands (50.3 km) to be larger in North Carolina than in off-site mitigation programs in other regions previously studied. We also find that aquatic resources in the State are lost from urbanized areas that are more affluent, white, and highly educated, and mitigated at sites in rural areas that are less affluent, less well educated, and have a higher percentage of minorities. We also analyze the relationship between urban growth indicators and EEP accumulation of compensation sites. Growth indicators and long-term population projections are uncorrelated with both projected transportation impacts and advance mitigation acquired by the EEP, suggesting that growth considerations can be more effectively incorporated into the EEP's planning process. We explore the possibility that spatial mismatches could develop between watersheds that are rapidly growing and those that are gaining mitigation. We make recommendations for ways that regulators incorporate growth indicators into the mitigation planning process.

  15. Compensatory strategies during walking in response to excessive muscle co-contraction at the ankle joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoli; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2014-03-01

    Excessive co-contraction causes inefficient or abnormal movement in several neuromuscular pathologies. How synergistic muscles spanning the ankle, knee and hip adapt to co-contraction of ankle muscles is not well understood. This study aimed to identify the compensation strategies required to retain normal walking with excessive antagonistic ankle muscle co-contraction. Muscle-actuated simulations of normal walking were performed to quantify compensatory mechanisms of ankle and knee muscles during stance in the presence of normal, medium and high levels of co-contraction of antagonistic pairs gastrocnemius+tibialis anterior and soleus+tibialis anterior. The study showed that if co-contraction increases, the synergistic ankle muscles can compensate; with gastrocmemius+tibialis anterior co-contraction, the soleus will increase its contribution to ankle plantarflexion acceleration. At the knee, however, almost all muscles spanning the knee and hip are involved in compensation. We also found that ankle and knee muscles alone can provide sufficient compensation at the ankle joint, but hip muscles must be involved to generate sufficient knee moment. Our findings imply that subjects with a rather high level of dorsiflexor+plantarflexor co-contraction can still perform normal walking. This also suggests that capacity of other lower limb muscles to compensate is important to retain normal walking in co-contracted persons. The compensatory mechanisms can be useful in clinical interpretation of motion analyses, when secondary muscle co-contraction or other deficits may present simultaneously in subjects with motion disorders.

  16. Compensatory striatal–cerebellar connectivity in mild–moderate Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison C. Simioni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine depletion in the putamen is associated with altered motor network functional connectivity in people with Parkinson's disease (PD, but the functional significance of these changes remains unclear, attributed to either pathological or compensatory mechanisms in different studies. Here, we examined the effects of PD on dorsal caudal putamen functional connectivity, off and on dopamine replacement therapy (DRT, using resting state fMRI. Motor performance was assessed with the Purdue pegboard task. Twenty-one patients with mild–moderate Parkinson's disease were studied twice, once after an overnight DRT washout and once after the administration of a standard dose of levodopa (Sinemet, and compared to 20 demographically-matched healthy control participants. PD patients off DRT showed increased putamen functional connectivity with both the cerebellum (lobule V and primary motor cortex (M1, relative to healthy controls. Greater putamen–cerebellar functional connectivity was significantly correlated with better motor performance, whereas greater putamen–M1 functional connectivity was predictive of poorer motor performance. The administration of levodopa improved motor performance in the PD group, as expected, and reduced putamen–cerebellar connectivity to levels comparable to the healthy control group. The strength of putamen–cerebellar functional connectivity continued to predict motor performance in the PD group while on levodopa. These findings argue that increased putamen–M1 functional connectivity reflects a pathological change, deleterious to motor performance. In contrast, increased putamen–cerebellar connectivity reflects a compensatory mechanism.

  17. Anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments in conditions of body asymmetry induced by holding an object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Lee, Yun-Ju; Aruin, Alexander S

    2015-11-01

    The effect of body asymmetry on anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments was studied. Ten healthy subjects stood on the force platform and held an object in one hand which induced body asymmetry. Subjects were exposed to external perturbations applied to their shoulders while standing with either normal or narrow base of support. Bilateral electromyographic activity (EMG) of dorsal and ventral trunk and leg muscles and center-of-pressure displacements were recorded. Data was analyzed within the intervals typical for anticipatory (APA) and compensatory postural adjustments. Integrals of EMG activity and co-contraction and reciprocal activation of muscles were calculated and analyzed. Reciprocal activation of muscles on the target side and co-contraction of muscles on the contralateral side were seen when standing in asymmetrical stance and being subjected to external perturbations. Decreased magnitudes of co-contraction and reciprocal activation of muscles were seen in the APA phase while standing asymmetrically with narrow base of support. The findings highlight the importance of investigating the role of body asymmetry in maintaining control of vertical posture. The outcome of the study provides a foundation for future studies focusing on improvement in postural control in individuals with body asymmetry due to unilateral weakness.

  18. Development of low postural tone compensatory patterns in children - theoretical basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogola, Anna; Saulicz, Edward; Kuszewski, Michał; Matyja, Małgorzata; Myśliwiec, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Neurological literature indicates the existence of children with low postural tone without association with central nervous system damage. This fact induces to think about mechanisms, which allow these children to maintain upright posture. There is a suspicion that compensatory mechanism included in this process, enables to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality. Observations of children's developmental stages caused determination of some postural tone area, which comprise both children with normotonia and with low postural tone without characteristics of central nervous system (CNS) damage. Set of specific qualities allows determination of two types of low postural tone: spastoidal and atetoidal type. Spastoidal type is characterized by deep trunk muscles (local) low postural tone compensated by excessive tension of superficial muscles (global). Atetoidal type includes children with low postural tone in both deep and superficial muscles. At inefficient active subsystem, verticalization proceeds at excessive use of passive subsystem qualities, that is meniscus, ligament, bone shape, and muscles passive features. From neurodevelopmental point of view compensatory mechanisms can be used in children with low postural tone in order to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality.

  19. Development and validation of the Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol Consumption Scale (CEBRACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Collin J; Bryant, Judith B; Darkes, Jack; Menzel, Jessie E; Thompson, J Kevin

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to develop and validate a measure to assess an individual's eating-related behaviors related to alcohol consumption, specifically behaviors intended to compensate for calories so that more alcohol could be consumed or restrict calories to enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol consumption. Two hundred and seventy four undergraduate students (n=51 males; 75.2% Caucasian) completed a newly developed scale, the Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol Consumption Scale (CEBRACS), along with measures of eating restriction, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction. An exploratory factor analysis on the CEBRACS revealed the existence of 4 clear-cut factors: alcohol effects, bulimia, dieting and exercise, and restriction. Internal consistency statistics for all subscales ranged from .79 to .95. Pearson product-moment correlations between the CEBRACS and measures of bulimia, restriction, and body dissatisfaction ranged from .04 to .44. T-tests revealed no gender differences in compensatory eating behaviors. Future research directions and limitations of the current study are discussed.

  20. Rescue of failed filtering blebs with ab interno trephination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihadeh, Wisam A; Ritch, Robert; Liebmann, Jeffrey M

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of ab interno automated trephination as a technique for rescuing failed mature filtering blebs. A retrospective chart review of 40 failed blebs of 38 patients who had a posttrephination follow-up period of at least 3 months was done. With success defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) control with other modalities of management. Complications were few. We believe that ab interno trephination is an excellent option for rescuing selected failed filtering blebs.

  1. Rockwell Fails in Response to Shuttle Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the contingent media relations policy employed by Rockwell International, the prime contractor for the United States space shuttle program, following the January 28, 1986, destruction of the Challenger. Analyzes Rockwell's response through a theoretical model of crisis perception and Rockwell's policy in relation to the mass media. (MS)

  2. Punishing Tobacco Industry Misconduct: The Case for Exceeding a Single Digit Ratio Between Punitive and Compensatory Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara D. Guardino

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In State Farm v. Campbell, the U.S. Supreme Court announced that “few awards exceeding a single-digit ratio between punitive and compensatory damages” will be constitutional. Several appeals courts have mistaken this language to be a strict mandate prohibiting punitive damages awards in excess of nine times the compensatory damages amount. This trend, however, may be changing. For example, in one recent smoking and health case brought against Philip Morris, an Oregon appeals court allowed a punitive damages award that was almost 97 times the compensatory damages award. This decision was based on the court’s finding that Philip Morris “used fraudulent means to continue a highly profitable business knowing that, as a result, it would cause death and injury to large numbers of Oregonians.” This article proposes that such wrongdoing (or, “primary” reprehensibility justifies high punitive damages awards in the context of smoking and health litigation.

  3. 7 CFR 983.152 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Failed lots/rework procedure. 983.152 Section 983.152..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.152 Failed lots/rework procedure. (a) Inshell rework procedure for aflatoxin. If inshell rework is selected as a remedy to meet the aflatoxin regulations of...

  4. mRNA expression levels in failing human hearts predict cellular electrophysiological remodeling: a population-based simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walmsley

    Full Text Available Differences in mRNA expression levels have been observed in failing versus non-failing human hearts for several membrane channel proteins and accessory subunits. These differences may play a causal role in electrophysiological changes observed in human heart failure and atrial fibrillation, such as action potential (AP prolongation, increased AP triangulation, decreased intracellular calcium transient (CaT magnitude and decreased CaT triangulation. Our goal is to investigate whether the information contained in mRNA measurements can be used to predict cardiac electrophysiological remodeling in heart failure using computational modeling. Using mRNA data recently obtained from failing and non-failing human hearts, we construct failing and non-failing cell populations incorporating natural variability and up/down regulation of channel conductivities. Six biomarkers are calculated for each cell in each population, at cycle lengths between 1500 ms and 300 ms. Regression analysis is performed to determine which ion channels drive biomarker variability in failing versus non-failing cardiomyocytes. Our models suggest that reported mRNA expression changes are consistent with AP prolongation, increased AP triangulation, increased CaT duration, decreased CaT triangulation and amplitude, and increased delay between AP and CaT upstrokes in the failing population. Regression analysis reveals that changes in AP biomarkers are driven primarily by reduction in I[Formula: see text], and changes in CaT biomarkers are driven predominantly by reduction in I(Kr and SERCA. In particular, the role of I(CaL is pacing rate dependent. Additionally, alternans developed at fast pacing rates for both failing and non-failing cardiomyocytes, but the underlying mechanisms are different in control and heart failure.

  5. Dendritic sprouting and compensatory synaptogenesis in an identified interneuron follow auditory deprivation in a cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, R R; Nolen, T G; Casaday, G C

    1985-11-01

    We examined the effect of chronic afferent deprivation on an identified interneuron (Int-1) in the auditory system of the Australian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. In normal intact crickets, the auditory afferents from each ear terminate ipsilaterally onto a single Int-1. Each bilaterally paired Int-1 is excited by ultrasound stimulation of its ipsilateral ear but not by the contralateral ear. Unilateral removal of an ear early in postembryonic development deprives the developing Int-1 of ipsilateral auditory innervation. Consequently, the ipsilateral dendrites of the deprived interneuron sprout, grow aberrantly across the ganglionic midline, and terminate specifically in the intact auditory neuropile of the contralateral (unlesioned) side, where they form functional synapses with the contralateral afferents. This unusual compensatory dendritic sprouting restores auditory function to the neuron. Thus, it is demonstrated that the dendritic shape of an identified Int, as well as its synaptic connectivity, is altered as a consequence of chronic sensory deprivation.

  6. COMPENSATORY LUNG GROWTH: LUNG PROTEIN,DNA AND RNA CONTENTS IN TRILOBECTOMIZED RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Lopes Ruiz Junior

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at assessing compensatory lung growth after trilobectomy in rats, 3 groups of animals (control, thoracotomy and trilobectomy were studied over 3 time intervals (7, 30 and 180 days post-operation. Protein, DNA and RNA contents in each lung were evaluated. The study of the left lung protein content reveals that compensatory growth ceased by day 30, whereas it continued to occur in the cranial lobe as long as 180 days post-operation. The lung DNA content in trilobectomized animals remained smaller than in the animals of the other groups demonstrating that compensatory growth was not brought about by hyperplasia. The lung RNA content in trilobectomized animals increased similarly to the lung protein content, demonstrating that the cells of the lung tissue must have had an increase in volume as no significant increase in their number occurred, as shown by the analysis of the lung DNA content. Therefore, it may be concluded that, in our experiment with adult animals, compensatory lung growth after trilobectomy in rats occurred due to an increase in the lung protein content and RNA content, suggesting a cellular volume increase (hypertrophy and a probable increase in the intralveolar septs rather than an important cell multiplicationObjetivando analisar o tipo de crescimento compensatório dos pulmões após trilobectomia no rato, foram analisados três momentos ( sete, trinta e cento e oitenta dias após o tratamento em três grupos de animais (controle, toracotomia e trilobectomia. Foram estudados os seguintes atributos: conteúdo protéico, conteúdo de DNA e conteúdo de RNA em cada um dos pulmões. O crescimento compensatório no pulmão esquerdo, quando analisamos o seu conteúdo protéico, cessou aos trinta dias, enquanto que, no lobo cranial, continuou ocorrendo até os cento e oitenta dias. O conteúdo pulmonar de DNA nos animais trilobectomizados manteve-se sempre abaixo dos outros grupos estudados, mostrando que o crescimento

  7. Using individual interest and conscientiousness to predict academic effort: Additive, synergistic, or compensatory effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Nagy, Nicole; Lenski, Anna; Niggli, Alois; Schnyder, Inge

    2015-07-01

    Although both conscientiousness and domain-specific interest are believed to be major determinants of academic effort, they have rarely been brought together in empirical studies. In the present research, it was hypothesized that both interest and conscientiousness uniquely predict academic effort and statistically interact with each other to predict academic effort. In 4 studies with 2,557, 415, 1,025, and 1,531 students, respectively, conscientiousness and interest meaningfully and uniquely predicted academic effort. In addition, conscientiousness interacted with interest in a compensatory pattern, indicating that conscientiousness is especially important when a student finds a school subject uninteresting and that domain-specific interest plays a particularly important role for students low in conscientiousness.

  8. An Efficient Novel Compensatory Multi-attribute Control Chart for Correlated Multinomial Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadigh Raissi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring multi-attribute processes is an important issue in many quality control environments. Almost all the priory proposed control charts utilize equal weights for each Attribute Quality Characteristics (AQCs. In such condition, there is no priority among AQCs. But in real-world, compensatory may exist. Hence due to some applied reasons such as function or efficiency, unequal weights for each AQC are possible. This study proposed a novel efficient control chart for simultaneous monitoring of weighted AQC when data expressed by linguistic terms. Correspondingly a new procedure to interpret out-of-control signals is presented. Performance and comparison advantage of the proposed control chart is measured in terms of Average Run Length (ARL using a real case which priory was expressed. Consequences displayed that considering weight could efficiently extend the prior research for practical circumstancese.

  9. [Compensatory self-enhancement as a strategy for the multiple audience problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasagi, Yuu; Daibo, Ikuo

    2010-04-01

    This study examined how people can handle the multiple audience problem of self-presentation (Fleming, 1994), when faced with two or more audiences while simultaneously wanting each audience to form or maintain a different impression of the presenter. In the laboratory, female participants had a brief conversation with either an opposite-sex (male) or a same-sex (female) confederate. The results showed that when no one else observed the conversation, the participants presented themselves as physically attractive to the opposite-sex more than to the same-sex audience. On the other hand, when another same-sex individual was observing the conversation, the participants presented themselves to the opposite-sex audience as less physically attractive but more socially desirable and friendly. The importance of this compensatory self-enhancement strategy in the multiple-audience situation is discussed.

  10. Compensatory treatment of Angle Class III malocclusion with anterior open bite and mandibular asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Costa Sobral

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Class III malocclusion is characterized by anterior posterior dental disharmony, either with or without skeletal discrepancies. Facial esthetics may be compromised to a greater or lesser degree, depending on the magnitude of the discrepancy, and is one of the main factors motivating individuals to seek orthodontic treatment. In adult patients, therapy may be performed by means of dental compensation, in simpler cases, or in more severe situations, by means of association between Orthodontics and Orthognathic Surgery. The present article is a clinical case report of a patient with a vertical facial pattern, Angle Class III malocclusion, with open bite and important facial asymmetry. The patient was treated in a compensatory manner with extractions, using extra-oral appliances on the mandibular arch with high pull, applying the principles of the Tweed-Merrifield technique. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requisites for becoming a BBO Diplomate.

  11. Compensatory enlargement in transplant coronary artery disease: an intravascular ultrasound study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background It is unclear to what extent the "Glagov phenomenon" occurs in transplant coronary artery disease (TCAD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between intimal hyperplasia and compensatory enlargement in TCAD. Methods Intravascular ultrasound imaging was performed on 190 cardiac transplant recipients at (1.4±0.6) months and again (12.1±0.7) months after cardiac transplantation. Studies 1 year apart were matched at 625 sites. There were 345 coronary artery sites that had an increase in intimal area >10% from baseline to one year, and this comprised the data set of the present study. Results At the first year, 91% of coronary artery sites with intimal growth had a total cross-sectional area stenosis ≤40%, but 38% of the sites showed a decrease of >10% in lumen area. Receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated that the change in cross-sectional area stenosis cut-off level at year 1 was 8% with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 82% in predicting lumen loss. At a total cross-sectional area stenosis of 20%, sensitivity was 65% with a specificity of 81% in predicting lumen loss. Conclusions In TCAD, vessel enlargement as a compensatory mechanism for plaque growth is generally inadequate. Instead of continued vessel expansion, luminal narrowing develops when there is more than 8% cross-sectional area filled with intimal hyperplasia. In distinction to native coronary artery atherosclerotic disease, the transition point in transplant vasculopathy where the lumen is diminished by increasing intimal growth, occurs at a lower threshold, 20% vs 40% of vessel cross-sectional area.

  12. Belowground fungal associations and water interact to influence the compensatory response of Ipomopsis aggregata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsup, Cassandra M; Paige, Ken N

    2016-02-01

    Although the concept that some plants benefit from being eaten is counterintuitive, there is now considerable evidence demonstrating enhanced fitness following herbivory. It has been assumed that plants growing in high resource conditions are the ones best able to compensate for herbivory. However, just the opposite has been found for dicotyledonous plants exhibiting patterns of overcompensation, with most occurring in resource-poor conditions. Long-term studies of the monocarpic biennial, scarlet gilia, Ipomopsis aggregata growing in resource-poor conditions have shown that ungulate herbivory by mule deer and elk can result in a threefold increase in plant fitness over uneaten controls. These observations led us to hypothesize that fungal associations would facilitate the compensatory response most commonly observed in this Arizona population of scarlet gilia; perhaps mutualistic associations with fungi, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, would explain the phenomenon of overcompensation altogether. Fungal removal experiments, using Captan®, a commercially available fungicide, showed that a reduction in fungal abundance altered the compensatory response following ungulate herbivory, particularly in years in which water was limited, increasing fitness compensation from equal compensation to overcompensation. A multifactorial experiment revealed that the interactive effects of water and fungicide maximized fruit production following herbivory. Our results are counter to the “modification of tolerance hypothesis” in which plants associating with mycorrhizal fungi will have higher tolerance to herbivory. It is likely that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes compete with plants for photosynthates following herbivory, thereby limiting the magnitude of compensation. Thus, fungi appear to be parasitic on scarlet gilia following ungulate herbivory.

  13. Undirected compensatory plasticity contributes to neuronal dysfunction after severe spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauparlant, Janine; van den Brand, Rubia; Barraud, Quentin; Friedli, Lucia; Musienko, Pavel; Dietz, Volker; Courtine, Grégoire

    2013-11-01

    Severe spinal cord injury in humans leads to a progressive neuronal dysfunction in the chronic stage of the injury. This dysfunction is characterized by premature exhaustion of muscle activity during assisted locomotion, which is associated with the emergence of abnormal reflex responses. Here, we hypothesize that undirected compensatory plasticity within neural systems caudal to a severe spinal cord injury contributes to the development of neuronal dysfunction in the chronic stage of the injury. We evaluated alterations in functional, electrophysiological and neuromorphological properties of lumbosacral circuitries in adult rats with a staggered thoracic hemisection injury. In the chronic stage of the injury, rats exhibited significant neuronal dysfunction, which was characterized by co-activation of antagonistic muscles, exhaustion of locomotor muscle activity, and deterioration of electrochemically-enabled gait patterns. As observed in humans, neuronal dysfunction was associated with the emergence of abnormal, long-latency reflex responses in leg muscles. Analyses of circuit, fibre and synapse density in segments caudal to the spinal cord injury revealed an extensive, lamina-specific remodelling of neuronal networks in response to the interruption of supraspinal input. These plastic changes restored a near-normal level of synaptic input within denervated spinal segments in the chronic stage of injury. Syndromic analysis uncovered significant correlations between the development of neuronal dysfunction, emergence of abnormal reflexes, and anatomical remodelling of lumbosacral circuitries. Together, these results suggest that spinal neurons deprived of supraspinal input strive to re-establish their synaptic environment. However, this undirected compensatory plasticity forms aberrant neuronal circuits, which may engage inappropriate combinations of sensorimotor networks during gait execution.

  14. Enhanced brain small-worldness after sleep deprivation: a compensatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Li, Hong; Wang, Yulin; Lei, Xu

    2014-10-01

    Sleep deprivation has a variable impact on extrinsic activities during multiple cognitive tasks, especially on mood and emotion processing. There is also a trait-like individual vulnerability or compensatory effect in cognition. Previous studies have elucidated the altered functional connectivity after sleep deprivation. However, it remains unclear whether the small-world properties of resting-state network are sensitive to sleep deprivation. A small-world network is a type of graph that combines a high local connectivity as well as a few long-range connections, which ensures a higher information-processing efficiency at a low cost. The complex network of the brain can be described as a small-world network, in which a node is a brain region and an edge is present when there is a functional correlation between two nodes. Here, we investigated the topological properties of the human brain networks of 22 healthy subjects under sufficient sleep and sleep-deprived conditions. Specifically, small-worldness is utilized to quantify the small-world property, by comparing the clustering coefficient and path length of a given network to an equivalent random network with same degree distribution. After sufficient sleep, the brain networks showed the property of small-worldness. Compared with the resting state under sufficient sleep, the small-world property was significantly enhanced in the sleep deprivation condition, suggesting a possible compensatory adaptation of the human brain. Specifically, the altered measurements were correlated with the neuroticism of subjects, indicating that individuals with low-levels of neuroticism are more resilient to sleep deprivation.

  15. Maize toxin degrades peritrophic matrix proteins and stimulates compensatory transcriptome responses in fall armyworm midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fescemyer, Howard W; Sandoya, Germán V; Gill, Torrence A; Ozkan, Seval; Marden, James H; Luthe, Dawn S

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying insect compensatory responses to plant defenses could lead to improved plant resistance to herbivores. The Mp708 inbred line of maize produces the maize insect resistant 1-cysteine protease (Mir1-CP) toxin. Reduced feeding and growth of fall armyworm larvae fed on Mp708 was previously linked to impairment of nutrient utilization and degradation of the midgut (MG) peritrophic matrix (PM) by Mir1-CP. Here we examine the biochemical and transcriptional responses of fall armyworm larvae to Mir1-CP. Insect Intestinal Mucin (IIM) was severely depleted from pure PMs treated in vitro with recombinant Mir1-CP. Larvae fed on Mp708 midwhorls excrete frass largely depleted of IIM. Cracks, fissures and increased porosity previously observed in the PM of larvae fed on Mp708 midwhorls could ensue when Mir1-CP degrades the IIM that cross-links chitin fibrils in the PM. Both targeted and global transcriptome analyses were performed to determine how complete dissolution of the structure and function of the PM is prevented, enabling larvae to continue growing in the presence of Mir1-CP. The MGs from fall armyworm fed on Mp708 upregulate expression of genes encoding proteins involved in PM production as an apparent compensation to replace the disrupted PM structure and restore appropriate counter-current MG gradients. Also, several families of digestive enzymes (endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, lipases, amylase) were more highly expressed in MGs from larvae fed on Mp708 than MGs from larvae fed on diets lacking Mir1-CP (artificial diet, midwhorls from Tx601 or B73 maize). Impaired growth of larvae fed on Mp708 probably results from metabolic costs associated with higher production of PM constituents and digestive enzymes in a compensatory attempt to maintain MG function.

  16. The role of anticipatory postural adjustments in compensatory control of posture: 2. Biomechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcio J; Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2010-06-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) utilizes anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) postural adjustments to maintain equilibrium while standing. It is known that these postural adjustments involve displacements of the center of mass (COM) and center of pressure (COP). The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between APAs and CPAs from a kinetic and kinematic perspective. Eight subjects were exposed to external predictable and unpredictable perturbations induced at the shoulder level while standing. Kinematic and kinetic data were recorded and analyzed during the time duration typical for anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments. When the perturbations were unpredictable, the COM and COP displacements were larger compared to predictable conditions with APAs. Thus, the peak of COM displacement, after the pendulum impact, in the posterior direction reached 28+/-9.6mm in the unpredictable conditions with no APAs whereas it was 1.6 times smaller, reaching 17+/-5.5mm during predictable perturbations. Similarly, after the impact, the peak of COP displacement in the posterior direction was 60+/-14 mm for unpredictable conditions and 28+/-3.6mm for predictable conditions. Finally, the times of the peak COM and COP displacements were similar in the predictable and unpredictable conditions. This outcome provides additional knowledge about how body balance is controlled in presence and in absence of information about the forthcoming perturbation. Moreover, it suggests that control of posture could be enhanced by better utilization of APAs and such an approach could be considered as a valuable modality in the rehabilitation of individuals with balance impairment.

  17. The Experience of Failed Humor: Implications for Interpersonal Affect Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michele; Emich, Kyle J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate failed interpersonal affect regulation through the lens of humor. We investigated individual differences that influenced people's affective and cognitive responses to failed humor and their willingness to persist in the interpersonal regulation of positive affect after a failed attempt. Using well-established autobiographical narrative methods and surveys, we collected data at two time points. All participants (n = 127) received identical surveys at time 1. At time 2, they were randomly assigned to complete a narrative about either successful or failed humor as well as a second survey. Using moderated regression analyses and SEM, we found significant differences between our failed and successful humor conditions. Specifically, individual differences, including gender, affective perspective taking, and humor self-efficacy, were associated with negative reactions to failed humor and the willingness of individuals to persist in the interpersonal regulation of positive affect. Moreover, affective perspective taking moderated the effect of gender in both the failed and successful humor conditions. Our results suggest that failed humor is no laughing matter. Understanding individuals' willingness to continue in attempts to regulate the affect of others contributes to the comprehension of an understudied phenomenon that has implications for interpersonal behavior in organizations such as helping, group decision making, and intragroup conflict. Studies of interpersonal affect regulation often focus on people's ability to successfully regulate others' emotions. In contrast, this is the first quantitative study to explore factors that influence individual's willingness to persist in interpersonal affect regulation after failure, and to investigate how individual differences influence the personal outcomes associated with failed attempts.

  18. Revisiting the Coleman Report: Deficit Ideologies and Federal Compensatory Funding in Low-Income Latino School Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Castellanos, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    The essay argues that the Coleman Report helped give credence to contemporary deficit ideologies in education by proclaiming that schools do not make much of a difference in the educational outcomes of students in poverty including Latino communities. Furthermore, the author explores how deficit ideologies influence compensatory funding, in…

  19. Implicit associations and compensatory health beliefs in smokers: Exploring their role for behaviour and their change through warning labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glock, S.; Müller, B.C.N.; Krolak-Schwerdt, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Smokers might think that the negative effects of smoking can be compensated for by other behaviours, such as doing exercise or eating healthily. This phenomenon is known as compensatory health beliefs (CHBs). Graphic warning labels on cigarette packets emphasize the negative effects of sm

  20. A quasi-proportional electoral system 'only for honest men'? The hidden potential for manipulating mixed compensatory electoral systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    , and Venezuela, however, demonstrate a particular loophole for such systems: strategic voting, organized by political parties. Large parties can achieve over-representation by encouraging their voters to split their votes. In this way, they outsmart the compensatory mechanism designed to lead to proportional...

  1. Changes in Weight, Waist Circumference and Compensatory Responses with Different Doses of Exercise among Sedentary, Overweight Postmenopausal Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Church, Timothy S.; Martin, Corby K.; Thompson, Angela M.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Mikus, Catherine R.; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that exercise training results in compensatory mechanisms that attenuate weight loss. However, this has only been examined with large doses of exercise. The goal of this analysis was to examine actual weight loss compared to predicted weight loss (compensation) acro

  2. A quasi-proportional electoral system 'only for honest men'? The hidden potential for manipulating mixed compensatory electoral systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    , and Venezuela, however, demonstrate a particular loophole for such systems: strategic voting, organized by political parties. Large parties can achieve over-representation by encouraging their voters to split their votes. In this way, they outsmart the compensatory mechanism designed to lead to proportional...

  3. Elevated atmospheric CO2 triggers compensatory feeding by root herbivores on a C3 but not a C4 grass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott N Johnson

    Full Text Available Predicted increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations often reduce nutritional quality for herbivores by increasing the C:N ratio of plant tissue. This frequently triggers compensatory feeding by aboveground herbivores, whereby they consume more shoot material in an attempt to meet their nutritional needs. Little, however, is known about how root herbivores respond to such changes. Grasslands are particularly vulnerable to root herbivores, which can collectively exceed the mass of mammals grazing aboveground. Here we provide novel evidence for compensatory feeding by a grass root herbivore, Sericesthis nigrolineata, under elevated atmospheric CO2 (600 µmol mol(-1 on a C3 (Microlaena stipoides but not a C4 (Cymbopogon refractus grass species. At ambient CO2 (400 µmol mol(-1 M. stipoides roots were 44% higher in nitrogen (N and 7% lower in carbon (C concentrations than C. refractus, with insects performing better on M. stipoides. Elevated CO2 decreased N and increased C:N in M. stipoides roots, but had no impact on C. refractus roots. Root-feeders displayed compensatory feeding on M. stipoides at elevated CO2, consuming 118% more tissue than at ambient atmospheric CO2. Despite this, root feeder biomass remained depressed by 24%. These results suggest that compensatory feeding under elevated atmospheric CO2 may make some grass species particularly vulnerable to attack, potentially leading to future shifts in the community composition of grasslands.

  4. Compensatory evolution of pbp mutations restores the fitness cost imposed by β-lactam resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G Albarracín Orio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in pathogenic bacteria is a major challenge to treating many infectious diseases. The spread of these genes is driven by the strong selection imposed by the use of antibacterial drugs. However, in the absence of drug selection, antibiotic resistance genes impose a fitness cost, which can be ameliorated by compensatory mutations. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, β-lactam resistance is caused by mutations in three penicillin-binding proteins, PBP1a, PBP2x, and PBP2b, all of which are implicated in cell wall synthesis and the cell division cycle. We found that the fitness cost and cell division defects conferred by pbp2b mutations (as determined by fitness competitive assays in vitro and in vivo and fluorescence microscopy were fully compensated by the acquisition of pbp2x and pbp1a mutations, apparently by means of an increased stability and a consequent mislocalization of these protein mutants. Thus, these compensatory combinations of pbp mutant alleles resulted in an increase in the level and spectrum of β-lactam resistance. This report describes a direct correlation between antibiotic resistance increase and fitness cost compensation, both caused by the same gene mutations acquired by horizontal transfer. The clinical origin of the pbp mutations suggests that this intergenic compensatory process is involved in the persistence of β-lactam resistance among circulating strains. We propose that this compensatory mechanism is relevant for β-lactam resistance evolution in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  5. Training compensatory viewing strategies : feasiblity and effect on practical fitness to drive in subjects with visual field defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Tanja R.M.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Kooijman, Aart C.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-one subjects with visual field defects were trained to use compensatory viewing strategies.The subjects were referred to the training program by an official driving examiner of the Dutch Central Bureau of Driving Licenses. Three training programs were compared: laboratory training, mobility tr

  6. Practice Brief: Assessing Compensatory Strategies and Motivational Factors in High-Achieving Postsecondary Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Research speculates that high-achieving college students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may demonstrate a set of compensatory strategies and experience areas of difficulty and motivational factors that differ from the general ADHD populace. This Practice Brief used informal surveys with seven undergraduates with ADHD who had…

  7. Compensatory Weight Control Behaviors of Women in Emerging Adulthood: Associations between Childhood Abuse Experiences and Adult Relationship Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Valentine, Sarah E.; Jackson, Michelle A.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Pantalone, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine correlates of compensatory weight control behaviors among women in transition between adolescence and adulthood. Participants: The authors recruited a sample of undergraduate women ("N" = 759) at a large northwestern university during the 2009-2010 academic year. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess…

  8. Synchrony, compensatory dynamics, and the functional trait basis of phenological diversity in a tropical dry forest tree community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasky, Jesse R.; Uriarte, Maria; Muscarella, Robert

    2016-01-01

    among species), while biotic interactions can favor synchrony or compensatory dynamics (negative covariance). We used wavelet analyses to examine phenology of community flower and seed production for 45 tree species across multiple temporal scales in a tropical dry forest in Puerto Rico with marked...

  9. Compensatory Trunk Movements in Patients with Hip Osteoarthritis Accuracy and Reproducibility of a Body-Fixed Sensor-Based Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reininga, Inge H. F.; Stevens, Martin; Wagenmakers, Robert; Boerboom, Alexander L.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2011-01-01

    Reininga IHF, Stevens M, Wagenmakers R, Boerboom AL, Groothoff JW, Bulstra SK, Zijlstra W: Compensatory trunk movements in patients with hip osteoarthritis; Accuracy and reproducibility of a body-fixed sensor-based assessment. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2011;90:681-687. This study examined the accuracy a

  10. Coupled mutation finder: A new entropy-based method quantifying phylogenetic noise for the detection of compensatory mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gültas (Mehmet); M. Haubrock (Martin); N. Tüysüz (Nesrin); S. Waack (Stephan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The detection of significant compensatory mutation signals in multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) is often complicated by noise. A challenging problem in bioinformatics is remains the separation of significant signals between two or more non-conserved residue sites from the p

  11. Childhood obesity: parents fail to recognise, general practitioners fail to act.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, A

    2012-01-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) have an important role to play in recognition of and intervention against childhood obesity in Ireland. Data were collected prospectively on a cohort of children aged 4-14 and their parents (n = 101 pairs) who attended consecutively to a semi-rural group general practice. Parents estimated their child\\'s weight status. Actual weight status was determined for both parent and child using the United States Centres\\' for Disease Control\\'s BMI-for-age references. 15 (14.9%) of the children and 49 (51.6%) of the parents were overweight or obese. While 71 (95.5%) of normal weight status children were correctly identified, parents showed poor concordance in identifying their children as overweight 2 (18.2%) or obese 0 (0%). BMI was only evidently recorded in the clinical records of 1 out of 15 cases of overweight children identified. With parents failing to recognise childhood obesity, GPs have a responsibility in tackling this problem at a family level.

  12. Childhood obesity: parents fail to recognise, general practitioners fail to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A; O'Brien, B; Houlihan, T; Darker, C; O'Shea, B

    2012-01-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) have an important role to play in recognition of and intervention against childhood obesity in Ireland. Data were collected prospectively on a cohort of children aged 4-14 and their parents (n = 101 pairs) who attended consecutively to a semi-rural group general practice. Parents estimated their child's weight status. Actual weight status was determined for both parent and child using the United States Centres' for Disease Control's BMI-for-age references. 15 (14.9%) of the children and 49 (51.6%) of the parents were overweight or obese. While 71 (95.5%) of normal weight status children were correctly identified, parents showed poor concordance in identifying their children as overweight 2 (18.2%) or obese 0 (0%). BMI was only evidently recorded in the clinical records of 1 out of 15 cases of overweight children identified. With parents failing to recognise childhood obesity, GPs have a responsibility in tackling this problem at a family level.

  13. Fail-Safe Magnetic Bearing Controller Demonstrated Successfully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Provenza, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch has successfully demonstrated a fail-safe controller for the Fault-Tolerant Magnetic Bearing rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The rotor is supported by two 8-pole redundant radial bearings, and coil failing situations are simulated by manually shutting down their control current commands from the controller cockpit. The effectiveness of the controller was demonstrated when only two active coils from each radial bearing could be used (that is, 14 coils failed). These remaining two coils still levitated the rotor and spun it without losing stability or desired position up to the maximum allowable speed of 20,000 rpm.

  14. Pictorial essay: Role of ultrasound in failed carpal tunnel decompression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Botchu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available USG has been used for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Scarring and incomplete decompression are the main causes for persistence or recurrence of symptoms. We performed a retrospective study to assess the role of ultrasound in failed carpal tunnel decompression. Of 422 USG studies of the wrist performed at our center over the last 5 years, 14 were for failed carpal tunnel decompression. Scarring was noted in three patients, incomplete decompression in two patients, synovitis in one patient, and an anomalous muscle belly in one patient. No abnormality was detected in seven patients. We present a pictorial review of USG findings in failed carpal tunnel decompression.

  15. When goal pursuit fails: The functions of counterfactual thought in intention formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epstude, K.; Roese, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Counterfactual thoughts predominantly occur in response to failed goal pursuit. The primary function of self-related counterfactuals seems to be correction of specific behaviors and preparation for future successful goal attainment. In the present article we describe a model that outlines this view

  16. When goal pursuit fails: The functions of counterfactual thought in intention formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epstude, K.; Roese, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Counterfactual thoughts predominantly occur in response to failed goal pursuit. The primary function of self-related counterfactuals seems to be correction of specific behaviors and preparation for future successful goal attainment. In the present article we describe a model that outlines this view

  17. Complex network analysis of CA3 transcriptome reveals pathogenic and compensatory pathways in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Yumi Bando

    Full Text Available We previously described - studying transcriptional signatures of hippocampal CA3 explants - that febrile (FS and afebrile (NFS forms of refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy constitute two distinct genomic phenotypes. That network analysis was based on a limited number (hundreds of differentially expressed genes (DE networks among a large set of valid transcripts (close to two tens of thousands. Here we developed a methodology for complex network visualization (3D and analysis that allows the categorization of network nodes according to distinct hierarchical levels of gene-gene connections (node degree and of interconnection between node neighbors (concentric node degree. Hubs are highly connected nodes, VIPs have low node degree but connect only with hubs, and high-hubs have VIP status and high overall number of connections. Studying the whole set of CA3 valid transcripts we: i obtained complete transcriptional networks (CO for FS and NFS phenotypic groups; ii examined how CO and DE networks are related; iii characterized genomic and molecular mechanisms underlying FS and NFS phenotypes, identifying potential novel targets for therapeutic interventions. We found that: i DE hubs and VIPs are evenly distributed inside the CO networks; ii most DE hubs and VIPs are related to synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability whereas most CO hubs, VIPs and high hubs are related to neuronal differentiation, homeostasis and neuroprotection, indicating compensatory mechanisms. Complex network visualization and analysis is a useful tool for systems biology approaches to multifactorial diseases. Network centrality observed for hubs, VIPs and high hubs of CO networks, is consistent with the network disease model, where a group of nodes whose perturbation leads to a disease phenotype occupies a central position in the network. Conceivably, the chance for exerting therapeutic effects through the modulation of particular genes will be higher if these genes

  18. The dilemma of the failed state thesis in post-9/11 world affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schoeman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The 9/11 terrorist attacks shifted the emphasis of failed states as just a regional humanitarian problem to one that could present a global security threat. In this regard US policymakers, especially, identified failed states as possible terrorist threats. However, this renewed attention to the study of state failure has exposed a number of theoretical weaknesses in this body of literature. The latter could mainly be ascribed to the way in which US policy makers have often used generalised definitions of failed states and then applied it to states that are perceived as threats. Another problem is the fact that government sponsored research institutes and think tanks are operating independently from university academics. This situation has caused theoretical confusion as conditions in failed states are often interpreted differently resulting in the development of a number of opposing theories, definitions and confusing classification models. The body of literature is further accused of endorsing a “Weberian” definition (ideal type of the state against which degrees of “failure” in non-complying states are measured. This article will investigate the extent of these theoretical weaknesses and expose the dangers of following an approach that seem to misinterpret the political realities of developing states (often regarded as failed – this despite having an extensive popular following. It will further focus on possible alternative approaches – or the formulation of ideas that are better suited and relevant to the often unique internal political, social and economic dynamics of unstable states.

  19. Acute effects of sildenafil and dobutamine in the hypertrophic and failing right heart in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger; Nielsen, Jan M; Rasalingam, Sivagowry

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate whether acute intravenous administration of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor sildenafil in a single clinically relevant dose improves the in vivo function of the hypertrophic and failing right ventricle (RV). Wistar rats ([Formula...... significant hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and reduction in RV function evaluated by echocardiography (TAPSE) and invasive pressure measurements. Sildenafil did not improve the function of the hypertrophic failing right heart in vivo, measured by TAPSE, RV systolic pressure (RVsP), and dp/dtmax. Dobutamine...... administration of the PDE-5 inhibitor sildenafil in a single clinically relevant dose did not modulate the in vivo function of the hypertrophic failing right heart of the rat measured by echocardiography and invasive hemodynamics. In the same model, dobutamine acutely improved RV function....

  20. Comparison of only T3 and T3-T4 sympathectomy for axillary hyperhidrosis regarding treatment effect and compensatory sweating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuncu, Gökhan; Turk, Figen; Ozturk, Gökhan; Atinkaya, Cansel

    2013-08-01

    Patients diagnosed with axillary hyperhidrosis can face psychosocial issues that can ultimately hinder their quality of life both privately and socially. The routine treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis is T3-T4 sympathectomy, but compensatory sweating is a serious side effect that is commonly seen with this approach. This study was designed to evaluate whether a T3 sympathectomy was effective for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis and whether this treatment led to less compensatory sweating than T3-T4 sympathectomies among our 60-patient population. One hundred and twenty endoscopic thoracic sympathectomies were performed on 60 patients who had axillary hyperhidrosis. The sympathectomies were accomplished by means of a single-lumen endotracheal tube and a single port. The axillary hyperhidrosis patients were randomly divided into two groups with 17 patients in Group 1 undergoing T3-T4 sympathectomies and 43 in Group 2 undergoing only T3 sympathectomies. We analysed the data associated with the resolution of axillary hyperhidrosis, the degree of patient satisfaction with the surgical outcome and the quality of life in parallel with compensatory sweating after the procedure as reported by the patient and confirmed by the examiner. Moreover, the results were compared statistically. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups based on age (P=0.56), gender (P=0.81), duration of the surgery (P=0.35) or postoperative satisfaction levels (P=0.45). However, the incidence and degree of compensatory sweating were lower in the T3 group than the T3-T4 group at the 1-year follow-up (P=0.008). T3 sympathectomy was as effective as T3-T4 sympathectomy for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis based on the patients' reported postoperative satisfaction, and the T3 group demonstrated lower compensatory sweating at the 1-year follow-up.

  1. Cognitive compensatory processes of older, clinically fit patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, Yves; Borghgraef, Cindy; Beguin, Yves; Delvaux, Nicole; Devos, Martine; Doyen, Chantal; Dubruille, Stéphanie; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Liénard, Aurore; Merckaert, Isabelle; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Straetmans, Nicole; Van Den Neste, Eric; Bron, Dominique; Razavi, Darius

    2017-03-18

    Despite the well-known negative impacts of cancer and anticancer therapies on cognitive performance, little is known about the cognitive compensatory processes of older patients with cancer. This study was designed to investigate the cognitive compensatory processes of older, clinically fit patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy. We assessed 89 consecutive patients (age ≥ 65 y) without severe cognitive impairment and 89 age-, sex-, and education level-matched healthy controls. Cognitive compensatory processes were investigated by (1) comparing cognitive performance of patients and healthy controls in novel (first exposure to cognitive tasks) and non-novel (second exposure to the same cognitive tasks) contexts, and (2) assessing psychological factors that may facilitate or inhibit cognitive performance, such as motivation, psychological distress, and perceived cognitive performance. We assessed cognitive performance with the Trail-Making, Digit Span and FCSR-IR tests, psychological distress with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and perceived cognitive performance with the FACT-Cog questionnaire. In novel and non-novel contexts, average cognitive performances of healthy controls were higher than those of patients and were associated with motivation. Cognitive performance of patients was not associated with investigated psychological factors in the novel context but was associated with motivation and psychological distress in the non-novel context. Older, clinically fit patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy demonstrated lower cognitive compensatory processes compared to healthy controls. Reducing distress and increasing motivation may improve cognitive compensatory processes of patients in non-novel contexts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Putative compensatory mutations in the rpoC gene of rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis are associated with ongoing transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, M; Müller, B; Borrell, S; Black, P A; van Helden, P D; Warren, R M; Gagneux, S; Victor, T C

    2013-02-01

    Rifampin resistance in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis arises primarily through the selection of bacterial variants harboring mutations in the 81-bp rifampin resistance-determining region of the rpoB gene. While these mutations were shown to infer a fitness cost in the absence of antibiotic pressure, compensatory mutations in rpoA and rpoC were identified which restore the fitness of rifampin-resistant bacteria carrying mutations in rpoB. To investigate the epidemiological relevance of these compensatory mutations, we analyzed 286 drug-resistant and 54 drug-susceptible clinical M. tuberculosis isolates from the Western Cape, South Africa, a high-incidence setting of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Sequencing of a portion of the RpoA-RpoC interaction region of the rpoC gene revealed that 23.5% of all rifampin-resistant isolates tested carried a nonsynonymous mutation in this region. These putative compensatory mutations in rpoC were associated with transmission, as 30.8% of all rifampin-resistant isolates with an IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern belonging to a recognized RFLP cluster harbored putative rpoC mutations. Such mutations were present in only 9.4% of rifampin-resistant isolates with unique RFLP patterns (P mutations were associated with specific strain genotypes and the rpoB S531L rifampin resistance mutation. Among isolates harboring this rpoB mutation, 44.1% also harbored rpoC mutations, while only 4.1% of the isolates with other rpoB mutations exhibited mutations in rpoC (P mutations in the transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and illustrates how epistatic interactions between drug resistance-conferring mutations, compensatory mutations, and different strain genetic backgrounds might influence compensatory evolution in drug-resistant M. tuberculosis.

  3. Obesity and use of compensatory strategies to perform common daily activities in pre-clinically disabled older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Kelly M; Higgins, Torrance J; Manini, Todd M

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between the use of compensatory strategies to successfully complete common daily activities-an indicator of pre-clinical disability-and body mass in pre-clinically disabled older adults. Cross-sectional observational study. Two hundred and fifty-nine pre-clinically disabled older adults defined as having changed the frequency or manner of performing daily tasks without reporting any difficulty. The use of compensatory strategies were objectively evaluated using the Modification (MOD) scale-a reliable and valid scale for assessing the manner in which common daily activities were completed. Height and weight were measured to classify participants into the following body mass index (BMI) categories: (1) normal: 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2), (2) overweight: 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2), (3) obese class I: 30.0-34.9 kg/m(2), and (4) obese class II: 35.0-39.9 kg/m(2). Compared to other BMI categories, individuals with class II obesity demonstrated a significantly higher probability of using ≥1 compensatory strategies when rising from a chair (30 cm height), kneel to stand, stair ascent, stair descent, and supine to stand tasks. When summarized over all tasks, individuals with class II obesity were 18 times more likely to use extensive compensatory strategies (≥6 on MOD scale) compared to normal weight older adults. Similar trends at a lesser magnitude were found in obese and overweight compared to normal weight older adults. Obesity is associated with extensive use of compensatory strategies when performing common daily tasks prior to the onset of perceived difficulty, thus placing them at higher risk of disability compared to their peers with lower body mass. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Machine-learning-assisted materials discovery using failed experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccuglia, Paul; Elbert, Katherine C.; Adler, Philip D. F.; Falk, Casey; Wenny, Malia B.; Mollo, Aurelio; Zeller, Matthias; Friedler, Sorelle A.; Schrier, Joshua; Norquist, Alexander J.

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid materials such as organically templated metal oxides, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and organohalide perovskites have been studied for decades, and hydrothermal and (non-aqueous) solvothermal syntheses have produced thousands of new materials that collectively contain nearly all the metals in the periodic table. Nevertheless, the formation of these compounds is not fully understood, and development of new compounds relies primarily on exploratory syntheses. Simulation- and data-driven approaches (promoted by efforts such as the Materials Genome Initiative) provide an alternative to experimental trial-and-error. Three major strategies are: simulation-based predictions of physical properties (for example, charge mobility, photovoltaic properties, gas adsorption capacity or lithium-ion intercalation) to identify promising target candidates for synthetic efforts; determination of the structure-property relationship from large bodies of experimental data, enabled by integration with high-throughput synthesis and measurement tools; and clustering on the basis of similar crystallographic structure (for example, zeolite structure classification or gas adsorption properties). Here we demonstrate an alternative approach that uses machine-learning algorithms trained on reaction data to predict reaction outcomes for the crystallization of templated vanadium selenites. We used information on ‘dark’ reactions—failed or unsuccessful hydrothermal syntheses—collected from archived laboratory notebooks from our laboratory, and added physicochemical property descriptions to the raw notebook information using cheminformatics techniques. We used the resulting data to train a machine-learning model to predict reaction success. When carrying out hydrothermal synthesis experiments using previously untested, commercially available organic building blocks, our machine-learning model outperformed traditional human strategies, and successfully predicted

  5. Machine-learning-assisted materials discovery using failed experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccuglia, Paul; Elbert, Katherine C; Adler, Philip D F; Falk, Casey; Wenny, Malia B; Mollo, Aurelio; Zeller, Matthias; Friedler, Sorelle A; Schrier, Joshua; Norquist, Alexander J

    2016-05-05

    Inorganic-organic hybrid materials such as organically templated metal oxides, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and organohalide perovskites have been studied for decades, and hydrothermal and (non-aqueous) solvothermal syntheses have produced thousands of new materials that collectively contain nearly all the metals in the periodic table. Nevertheless, the formation of these compounds is not fully understood, and development of new compounds relies primarily on exploratory syntheses. Simulation- and data-driven approaches (promoted by efforts such as the Materials Genome Initiative) provide an alternative to experimental trial-and-error. Three major strategies are: simulation-based predictions of physical properties (for example, charge mobility, photovoltaic properties, gas adsorption capacity or lithium-ion intercalation) to identify promising target candidates for synthetic efforts; determination of the structure-property relationship from large bodies of experimental data, enabled by integration with high-throughput synthesis and measurement tools; and clustering on the basis of similar crystallographic structure (for example, zeolite structure classification or gas adsorption properties). Here we demonstrate an alternative approach that uses machine-learning algorithms trained on reaction data to predict reaction outcomes for the crystallization of templated vanadium selenites. We used information on 'dark' reactions--failed or unsuccessful hydrothermal syntheses--collected from archived laboratory notebooks from our laboratory, and added physicochemical property descriptions to the raw notebook information using cheminformatics techniques. We used the resulting data to train a machine-learning model to predict reaction success. When carrying out hydrothermal synthesis experiments using previously untested, commercially available organic building blocks, our machine-learning model outperformed traditional human strategies, and successfully predicted conditions

  6. High rate of virological re-suppression among patients failing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [9] In Khayelitsha, where routine viral load (VL) testing is available, targeted genotyping .... plans made were noted in the patient's folder .... n=1. Fig. 2. Flow diagram of outcomes of patients failing second-line antiretroviral therapy enrolled in a.

  7. Heterotopic Pregnancy in a Natural Conception Following Failed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-23

    Feb 23, 2011 ... Heterotopic Pregnancy in a Natural Conception Following Failed. Contraceptive Practice ... her husband vehemently rejected surgical treatment of the ectopic pregnancy ... He also posited that her doctor only referred her for.

  8. Failing the market, failing deliberative democracy: How scaling up corporate carbon reporting proliferates information asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Lippert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporate carbon footprint data has become ubiquitous. This data is also highly promissory. But as this paper argues, such data fails both consumers and citizens. The governance of climate change seemingly requires a strong foundation of data on emission sources. Economists approach climate change as a market failure, where the optimisation of the atmosphere is to be evidence based and data driven. Citizens or consumers, state or private agents of control, all require deep access to information to judge emission realities. Whether we are interested in state-led or in neoliberal ‘solutions’ for either democratic participatory decision-making or for preventing market failure, companies’ emissions need to be known. This paper draws on 20 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a Fortune 50 company’s environmental accounting unit to show how carbon reporting interferes with information symmetry requirements, which further troubles possibilities for contesting data. A material-semiotic analysis of the data practices and infrastructures employed in the context of corporate emissions disclosure details the situated political economies of data labour along the data processing chain. The explicit consideration of how information asymmetries are socially and computationally shaped, how contexts are shifted and how data is systematically straightened out informs a reflexive engagement with Big Data. The paper argues that attempts to automatise environmental accounting’s veracity management by means of computing metadata or to ensure that data quality meets requirements through third-party control are not satisfactory. The crossover of Big Data with corporate environmental governance does not promise to trouble the political economy that hitherto sustained unsustainability.

  9. Failing the market, failing deliberative democracy: How scaling up corporate carbon reporting proliferates information asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Lippert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporate carbon footprint data has become ubiquitous. This data is also highly promissory. But as this paper argues, such data fails both consumers and citizens. The governance of climate change seemingly requires a strong foundation of data on emission sources. Economists approach climate change as a market failure, where the optimisation of the atmosphere is to be evidence based and data driven. Citizens or consumers, state or private agents of control, all require deep access to information to judge emission realities. Whether we are interested in state-led or in neoliberal ‘solutions’ for either democratic participatory decision-making or for preventing market failure, companies’ emissions need to be known. This paper draws on 20 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a Fortune 50 company’s environmental accounting unit to show how carbon reporting interferes with information symmetry requirements, which further troubles possibilities for contesting data. A material-semiotic analysis of the data practices and infrastructures employed in the context of corporate emissions disclosure details the situated political economies of data labour along the data processing chain. The explicit consideration of how information asymmetries are socially and computationally shaped, how contexts are shifted and how data is systematically straightened out informs a reflexive engagement with Big Data. The paper argues that attempts to automatise environmental accounting’s veracity management by means of computing metadata or to ensure that data quality meets requirements through third-party control are not satisfactory. The crossover of Big Data with corporate environmental governance does not promise to trouble the political economy that hitherto sustained unsustainability.

  10. US Intervention in Failed States: Bad Assumptions=Poor Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE STRATEGIC LOGIC ESSAY US INTERVENTION IN FAILED STATES: BAD ASSUMPTIONS = POOR ...2002 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2002 to 00-00-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE US Intervention in Failed States: Bad Assumptions= Poor ...country remains in the grip of poverty , natural disasters, and stagnation. Rwanda Rwanda, another small African country, is populated principally

  11. The Failed State and the State of Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hitchcock

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available What does Marx have to say about the “failed state”? Less than one might think. Peter Hitchcock seizes on the problem of the organic composition of capital to bring theories of state sovereignty and its dissolution into chiastic relation with Marxist political economy. This flexibly-bound double of Marxism and failed-state theory then offers a new perspective on our current moment and its possible futures.

  12. [Predictors of failed trial of labor in obese nulliparous].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassou-Maillan, A; Mulliez, A; Curinier, S; Houlle, C; Canis, M; Lemery, D; Gallot, D

    2014-11-01

    To identify predictors of failed trial of labour (TOL) in obese nulliparous at term. Retrospective study about 213 nulliparous with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30kg/m(2) who delivered a vertex singleton after 37 weeks of gestation (WG). Planned caesarean sections were excluded. Maternal, sonographic, per-partum and neonatal characteristics were analyzed according to the mode of entry into labor and delivery route. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. The cesarean delivery rate was 28%. Induction of labor (aOR=4.3 [1.8-10.7]), prolonged pregnancy (aOR=10.8 [1.7-67.6]), macrosomia (aOR=5.6 [1.1-27.3]), meconium-stained amniotic fluid (aOR: 2.57 [1.03-6.42]), use of trinitrine (aOR=5.5 [1.39-21.6]) and neonatal head circumference greater than 35cm (aOR=3.1 [1.2-8.0]) were predictors of failed TOL. There was no significant correlation between failed TOL and preconceptional BMI. Univariate analysis revealed an association between excessive weight gain and failed TOL. Predictors of failed TOL are the same in obese and non-obese women. Preconceptional BMI does not predict failed TOL in this nulliparous obese population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic analysis of a high-speed train operating on a curved track with failed fasteners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHOU; Zhi-yun SHEN

    2013-01-01

    A high-speed train-track coupling dynamic model is used to investigate the dynamic behavior of a high-speed train operating on a curved track with failed fasteners.The model considers a high-speed train consisting of eight vehicles coupled with a ballasted track.The vehicle is modeled as a multi-body system,and the rail is modeled with a Timoshenko beam resting on the discrete sleepers.The vehicle model considers the effect of the end connections of the neighboring vehicles on the dynamic behavior.The track model takes into account the lateral,vertical,and torsional deformations of the rails and the effect of the discrete sleeper support on the coupling dynamics of the vehicles and the track.The sleepers are assumed to move backward at a constant speed to simulate the vehicle running along the track at the same speed.The train model couples with the track model by using a Hertzian contact model for the wheel/rail normal force calculation,and the nonlinear creep theory by Shen et al.(1984) is used for wheel/rail tangent force calculation.In the analysis,a curved track of 7000-m radius with failed fasteners is selected,and the effects of train operational speed and the number of failed fasteners on the dynamic behaviors of the train and the track are investigated in detail.Furthermore,the wheel/rail forces and derailment coefficient and the wheelset loading reduction are analyzed when the high-speed train passes over the curved track with the different number of continuously failed fasteners at different operational speeds.Through the detailed numerical analysis,it is found that the high-speed train can operate normally on the curved track of 7000-m radius at the speeds of 200 km/h to 350 km/h.

  14. Nutrition-induced differences in body composition, compensatory growth and endocrine status in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Jeaurond, E A; de Lange, C F M

    2009-02-01

    In this experiment, we assessed the effect of amino acid (AA) intake restriction in entire male Yorkshire pigs between 15 and 38 kg BW (restriction phase) on BW gain, body composition and plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cortisol, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), growth hormone (GH) and leptin during the subsequent re-alimentation phase. During the restriction phase, 36 pigs were allotted to one of two dietary treatments: adequate AA intake (control) or AA-limiting diets (AA-30%). Thereafter, pigs were fed common non-limiting diets up to 110 kg BW. Throughout the experiment, pigs were scale-fed at 90% of the estimated voluntary daily digestible energy intake. At the end of the restriction phase, pigs on AA-30% had lesser BW gain (650 v. 784 g/day; P plasma levels of IGF-I (440 v. 640 ng/m; P plasma levels of leptin (2.7 v. 1.8 ng/ml; P = 0.027) and GH (3.3 v. 2.0 ng/ml; P = 0.05) than pigs on control. During the re-alimentation phase, previously restricted pigs showed full compensatory growth (CG) in terms of BW gain (1170 v. 1077 g/day; P composition (whole-body lipid to body protein mass ratio, LB/PB; 1.14 v. 1.15; P > 0.10). Besides GH at 45 kg BW (4.2 v. 2.4 ng/ml; P = 0.066), there were no effects of previous AA intake restriction on leptin, IGF-I and BUN during the re-alimentation phase (P > 0.10). Plasma cortisol and IGF-I levels may act as an indicator of AA-induced restriction in Pd in growing pigs. Plasma BUN level does not appear as a sensitive indicator for compensatory Pd. Plasma leptin and GH levels allow for the involvement of the brain in controlling chemical body composition. Full CG was observed during the energy-dependent phase of Pd in growing pigs and might be driven by a target LB/PB, possibly mediated via plasma leptin, IGF-I and GH levels.

  15. Relationship between oxygen delivery and its compensatory factors and acute mountain sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming LI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the changes in oxygen delivery (DO2 to the body and brain and its compensatory factors to acute hypoxia and their relation to acute mountain sickness (AMS. Methods  One hundred and forty-seven participants were recruited from Chinese young men who had lived in plain all along arrived in Tibet by flight. All of them were asked to complete an AMS questionnaire within 48h after arrival. The resting heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP, cardiac output (CO, oxygen saturation (SaO2, stroke volume (SV and blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv were measured one week before departure from the plain and within 48h after arrival in Tibet. AMS was diagnosed according to Louis Lake Score System (LLS, and the results were then statistically analyzed. Results  AMS was diagnosed in eighty-six subjects (58.5%. After exposure to hypoxia, SaO2 was decreased by 10% and was negatively correlated with AMS score. Systemic DO2, CO and HR were increased by 19%, 32.5% and 31.7%, respectively, and were positively correlated with AMS, while the SV remained unchanged. MCAv accelerated by 10%, and that of AMS subjects was higher than of non-AMS ones. The cerebral DO2 (DO2C was maintained because the MCAv matched with SaO2 changes. The middle cerebral artery resistance units (RMCA decreased obviously with an increase in MBP, and RMCA in AMS subjects was lower than that in non-AMS ones. HR and MCAv, the key compensation factors of DO2, were used as the objective evaluation indices, in collaboration of HR≥85 beat/min and MCAv≥66cm/s, could be a better means to evaluate AMS, with a positive predictive value of 82.4% and specificity of 90.2%. Conclusions  DO2 and its compensatory factors may play a key role in the regulation response to acclimatize to acute hypoxia. Among them, HR and MCAv may relate to the mechanism of AMS development, and indirectly reflect the compensation level to oxygen debt, implying that HR and MCAv are

  16. Targeted gene-silencing reveals the functional significance of myocardin signaling in the failing heart.

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    Mario Torrado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myocardin (MYOCD, a potent transcriptional coactivator of smooth muscle (SM and cardiac genes, is upregulated in failing myocardium in animal models and human end-stage heart failure (HF. However, the molecular and functional consequences of myocd upregulation in HF are still unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The goal of the present study was to investigate if targeted inhibition of upregulated expression of myocd could influence failing heart gene expression and function. To this end, we used the doxorubicin (Dox-induced diastolic HF (DHF model in neonatal piglets, in which, as we show, not only myocd but also myocd-dependent SM-marker genes are highly activated in failing left ventricular (LV myocardium. In this model, intra-myocardial delivery of short-hairpin RNAs, designed to target myocd variants expressed in porcine heart, leads on day 2 post-delivery to: (1 a decrease in the activated expression of myocd and myocd-dependent SM-marker genes in failing myocardium to levels seen in healthy control animals, (2 amelioration of impaired diastolic dysfunction, and (3 higher survival rates of DHF piglets. The posterior restoration of elevated myocd expression (on day 7 post-delivery led to overexpression of myocd-dependent SM-marker genes in failing LV-myocardium that was associated with a return to altered diastolic function. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data provide the first evidence that a moderate inhibition (e.g., normalization of the activated MYOCD signaling in the diseased heart may be promising from a therapeutic point of view.

  17. T3/T4 thoracic sympathictomy and compensatory sweating in treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jie; TAN Jia-ju; YE Guo-lin; GU Wei-quan; WANG Jun; LIU Yan-guo

    2007-01-01

    Background Compensatory sweating (CS) is one of the most common postoperative complications after thoracic sympathectomy, sympathicotomy or endoscopic sympathetic block (ESB) for palmar hyperhidrosis. This study was conducted to examine the relevance between CS and the sympathetic segment being transected in the surgical treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis, and thus to detect the potential mechanism of the occurrence of CS.Methods Between October 2004 and June 2006, 163 patients with primary hyperhidrosis were randomly divided into two groups, T3 sympathicotomy (78 patients) and T4 sympathicotomy(85), who were operated upon under general anesthesia via single lumen intubation and intercostal video-mediastinoscopy (VM).Results No morbidity or mortality occurred. Palmar hyperhidrosis was cured in all patients. Follow-up(mean (13.8±6.2)months) showed no recurrence of palmar hyperhidrosis. The difference of rates of mild CS in groups T3 and T4 was of no statistical significance. The rate of moderate CS was significantly lower in group T4 than in group T3. No severe CS occurred.Conclusion The rates of occurrence and severity of CS are lowered with the lower sympathetic chain being transected.

  18. Body composition and compensatory growth in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus under different feeding intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Wang, Ziwei; Hur, Jun-wook; Lee, Jeong-Yeol

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the growth and body composition of Nile tilapia under five different feeding regimes. A control group was fed to satiation twice daily for 185 days; four treatment groups were fed at intervals of 2, 3, 4 or 7 days (dietary `restricted' period, days 0-80) and then fed to satiation (`refeeding' period, days 80-185). Compensatory growth in weight and length of the feed-restricted groups was observed during the refeeding period. However, the growth of none of the restricted groups caught up with that of the control group over the experimental period. Feed intake upon refeeding increased with the duration of deprivation. There were no significant differences in feed efficiency between the restricted and control groups during the refeeding stage, suggesting that hyperphagia was the mechanism responsible for the increased growth rates during this period. Tilapia preferentially used n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and nonessential amino acids during the restricted-feeding period. Higher production was achieved by higher feed consumption. We suggest that if attainment of market size in minimum time is required, fish should be consistently fed to satiation, while taking care to avoid the possible negative consequences of overfeeding.

  19. Factors predicting compensatory vascular remodelling of the carotid artery affected by atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, D; Oka, T; Kajiyama, A; Ohnishi, N; Shiraki, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate factors predicting the development of outward remodelling of the carotid artery in patients with atherosclerosis. Design: 130 patients with carotid artery stenosis (15–85% of the vessel diameter) were divided into two groups, based on the presence or absence of outward remodelling of the sclerotic carotid segment on high resolution ultrasonography. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of haemodynamic, laboratory, and clinical measurements on the development of remodelling, including age, sex, type of stenosis, extent of plaque, per cent diameter stenosis, underlying disease, selected drug treatment, and plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and uric acid. Results: 64 patients (49%) had outward remodelling. Multivariate regression analysis showed that hypertension, the type of plaque, the thickness of the plaque, and the extent of stenosis were independent factors predicting remodelling. The odds ratios of hypertension, unstable shape of plaque, thickness of plaque, and the extent of the stenosis were 6.70, 3.02, 2.04, and 1.05, respectively. Other measurements did not contribute significantly to the estimation of remodelling. Conclusions: Compensatory enlargement of the vessel occurs in about 50% of carotid artery segments with a diameter stenosis of 15–85%. Hypertension and the shape of the plaque are major determinants of the development of outward remodelling. PMID:11796551

  20. [Unusual behaviors in sleep as "compensatory" reactions, aimed at normalizing sleep-alertness cycles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gol'bin, A Ts; Guzeva, V I; Shepoval'nikov, A N

    2013-01-01

    The present article is an attempt to perform a conceptual clinical and physiological analysis of a large spec- trum of sleep-related phenomena called parasomnias in children, based on data from three independent in- stitutions. Parasonmias appear in the process of falling asleep, at the time of sleep stage changes, and upon awakening. They are common for both healthy children and those with neurological and psychiatric disorders. Brief descriptions of clinical pictures of several groups of parasomnias and their polysomnographic characteristics are presented. Instances of stereotyped rhythmic movements (e.g. head rocking), paroxysmal somatic and behavioral episodes (night terrors and nightmares), "static" phenomena (sleep with open eyes, strange body positions), as well as somnambulism are specifically described. Common features of parasomnias as a group have been identified (the "Parasomnia syndrome"). It was found that sleep architecture frequently normalizes after a parasomnia episode, whereas parasomnias are self-liquidated after sleep matures (self-cure). The significance of gender differences in parasomnias have been reviewed. Possible compensatory physiological functions of parasomnias acting as "switches" or "stabilizers" of sleep stages to "off-set" deviated or immature sleep-wake mechanisms were discussed.

  1. Mineralogical Plasticity Acts as a Compensatory Mechanism to the Impacts of Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jonathan Y S; Russell, Bayden D; Connell, Sean D

    2017-02-15

    Calcifying organisms are considered particularly susceptible to the future impacts of ocean acidification (OA), but recent evidence suggests that they may be able to maintain calcification and overall fitness. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but may be attributed to mineralogical plasticity, which modifies the energetic cost of calcification. To test the hypothesis that mineralogical plasticity enables the maintenance of shell growth and functionality under OA conditions, we assessed the biological performance of a gastropod (respiration rate, feeding rate, somatic growth, and shell growth of Austrocochlea constricta) and analyzed its shell mechanical and geochemical properties (shell hardness, elastic modulus, amorphous calcium carbonate, calcite to aragonite ratio, and magnesium to calcium ratio). Despite minor metabolic depression and no increase in feeding rate, shell growth was faster under OA conditions, probably due to increased precipitation of calcite and trade-offs against inner shell density. In addition, the resulting shell was functionally suitable for increasingly "corrosive" oceans, i.e., harder and less soluble shells. We conclude that mineralogical plasticity may act as a compensatory mechanism to maintain overall performance of calcifying organisms under OA conditions and could be a cornerstone of calcifying organisms to acclimate to and maintain their ecological functions in acidifying oceans.

  2. Compensatory mutations cause excess of antagonistic epistasis in RNA secondary structure folding

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    Adami Christoph

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The rate at which fitness declines as an organism's genome accumulates random mutations is an important variable in several evolutionary theories. At an intuitive level, it might seem natural that random mutations should tend to interact synergistically, such that the rate of mean fitness decline accelerates as the number of random mutations is increased. However, in a number of recent studies, a prevalence of antagonistic epistasis (the tendency of multiple mutations to have a mitigating rather than reinforcing effect has been observed. Results We studied in silico the net amount and form of epistatic interactions in RNA secondary structure folding by measuring the fraction of neutral mutants as a function of mutational distance d. We found a clear prevalence of antagonistic epistasis in RNA secondary structure folding. By relating the fraction of neutral mutants at distance d to the average neutrality at distance d, we showed that this prevalence derives from the existence of many compensatory mutations at larger mutational distances. Conclusions Our findings imply that the average direction of epistasis in simple fitness landscapes is directly related to the density with which fitness peaks are distributed in these landscapes.

  3. COMPENSATORY GROWTH IN MOZAMBIQUE TILAPIA (Oreochromis mossambicus, FED A SUB-OPTIMAL DIET

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    Ewen McLean

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, held in 30%o seawater and at 29-30 °C, were divided into four groups (n = 50/group in replicate, and given one of four feed cycles: 1 control, with continuous feedind, 2 5:5, 3 10:10 and 4 15:15, wherein fish were subjected to starvation and subsequent refeeding cycles of 5, 10 and 15 days respectively. All animals were fed a commercial diet containing 18.4% protein, 6.7% lipid, 58.6% carbohydrate and 7.2% ash, over a 60 day trial period. Growth compensation was observed in the feed cycled groups as increased (P < 0.03 weight specific growth rates during refeeding. However, feed cycled groups were unable to achieve the weghts of control fish. Starvation reduced (P<0.01 haematocrit values when compared to control levels and, in the 15:15 cycled groups, elevated the testicular index (P < 0.02. The results are considered with respect to the commercial application of compensatory growth during production of tilapia.

  4. Effect of compensatory growth on forms of glycogen, postmortem proteolysis, and meat quality in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaosap, C; Parr, T; Wiseman, J

    2011-07-01

    The current experiment was designed to examine if a compensatory feed regimen influenced storage of glycogen forms, activity of proteolytic systems, and meat quality. Female pigs (Large White × Landrace × Duroc cross) with an initial age of 74 d were allocated to 6 feeding treatment groups (n=8 for each group). Groups then consumed feed ad libitum for 40 (A40), 42 (A42), or 82 d (A82). The compensatory growth groups were fed 0.70 of ad libitum intake for 40 d (R40) followed by refeeding for ad libitum intake for 2 (R40A2) or 42 d (R40A42). Pigs were slaughtered at the end of the restriction period (SL1), then after refeeding for 2 (SL2) and 42 d (SL3). The feeding regimen caused restricted animals at SL2 to have a decreased BW (P=0.039), with the refed animals undergoing compensatory growth by SL3 so BW was not different (P=0.829). At SL1 there was a trend for the R40 pigs to have less intramuscular fat than A40 (P=0.084). There was a trend for macroglycogen (MG; P=0.051) and a significant effect for proglycogen (ProG; P=0.014) to be greater at slaughter in R40 than A40, along with a greater postmortem decline in both MG (P=0.033) and ProG (P=0.022) over the first 2 h in R40, which was associated with the R40 having a lower pH at 24 h postmortem (P=0.043). After refeeding for 2 d (SL2), only MG of R40A2 was greater (P=0.030) than A42 and had a trend for a greater difference of decline at 24 h postmortem (P=0.091), which was associated with lower pH at 24 h (P=0.012). The data suggest that the concentrations of ProG are more labile and recovered to the concentrations of pigs fed for ad libitum intake sooner than MG. After full compensation in SL3, there was no difference for MG content (at 0 h, P=0.721; at 2 h, P=0.987; at 24 h, P=0.343), ProG content (at 0 h, P=0.879; at 2 h, P=0.946; at 24 h, P=0.459), and muscle pH (at 45 min, P=0.373; at 24 h, P=0.226). At all slaughter points, there was no difference in shear force (at SL1, P=0.101; at SL2, P=0.420; at SL3, P

  5. Whole genome analysis of linezolid resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae reveals resistance and compensatory mutations

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    Légaré Danielle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several mutations were present in the genome of Streptococcus pneumoniae linezolid-resistant strains but the role of several of these mutations had not been experimentally tested. To analyze the role of these mutations, we reconstituted resistance by serial whole genome transformation of a novel resistant isolate into two strains with sensitive background. We sequenced the parent mutant and two independent transformants exhibiting similar minimum inhibitory concentration to linezolid. Results Comparative genomic analyses revealed that transformants acquired G2576T transversions in every gene copy of 23S rRNA and that the number of altered copies correlated with the level of linezolid resistance and cross-resistance to florfenicol and chloramphenicol. One of the transformants also acquired a mutation present in the parent mutant leading to the overexpression of an ABC transporter (spr1021. The acquisition of these mutations conferred a fitness cost however, which was further enhanced by the acquisition of a mutation in a RNA methyltransferase implicated in resistance. Interestingly, the fitness of the transformants could be restored in part by the acquisition of altered copies of the L3 and L16 ribosomal proteins and by mutations leading to the overexpression of the spr1887 ABC transporter that were present in the original linezolid-resistant mutant. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the usefulness of whole genome approaches at detecting major determinants of resistance as well as compensatory mutations that alleviate the fitness cost associated with resistance.

  6. Coevolution within a transcriptional network by compensatory trans and cis mutations

    KAUST Repository

    Kuo, D.

    2010-10-26

    Transcriptional networks have been shown to evolve very rapidly, prompting questions as to how such changes arise and are tolerated. Recent comparisons of transcriptional networks across species have implicated variations in the cis-acting DNA sequences near genes as the main cause of divergence. What is less clear is how these changes interact with trans-acting changes occurring elsewhere in the genetic circuit. Here, we report the discovery of a system of compensatory trans and cis mutations in the yeast AP-1 transcriptional network that allows for conserved transcriptional regulation despite continued genetic change. We pinpoint a single species, the fungal pathogen Candida glabrata, in which a trans mutation has occurred very recently in a single AP-1 family member, distinguishing it from its Saccharomyces ortholog. Comparison of chromatin immunoprecipitation profiles between Candida and Saccharomyces shows that, despite their different DNA-binding domains, the AP-1 orthologs regulate a conserved block of genes. This conservation is enabled by concomitant changes in the cis-regulatory motifs upstream of each gene. Thus, both trans and cis mutations have perturbed the yeast AP-1 regulatory system in such a way as to compensate for one another. This demonstrates an example of “coevolution” between a DNA-binding transcription factor and its cis-regulatory site, reminiscent of the coevolution of protein binding partners.

  7. Compensatory dilatation of the Azygos Venous system Secondary To Superior Vena Cava Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Francesco; Pellegrino, Valeria; Antonelli, Melissa; Ripani, Umberto; Mosca, Stefano; Durì, Davide; Galzerano, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Superior vena cava (SVC) occlusion can be clinically recognized in the acute setting when the stenosing process does not allow the development of collateral venous channels, which guarantee the venous drainage to the right heart. On the contrary, when the obstruction develops progressively, the diagnosis of SVC obstruction may remain undiagnosed. In the present case, the presence of SVC thrombosis was purely coincidental. In fact, the obstruction was first noticed on diagnostic tests performed because of the malfunction of a totally implantable Porth a Cath placed into the superior vena cava (through right subclavian access), five years before, in a patient suffering from non-Hodgkin disease. Venography is the most appropriate diagnostic methodology which reveals the presence of a dilated azygos vein as a compensatory mechanism. Comparison with computed tomography allows to confirm the diagnosis and to identify the possible causes. Dilatation of the azygos vein, secondary to superior vena cava thrombosis, although a rare event, should be taken into consideration in those patients with CVC and who present with frequent episodes of deep venous thrombosis.

  8. Arterial distensibility as a possible compensatory mechanism in chronic aortic regurgitation

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    Kopel Liliane

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate elastic properties of conduit arteries in asymptomatic patients who have severe chronic aortic regurgitation. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers aged 30±1 years (control group and 14 asymptomatic patients with severe aortic regurgitation aged 29±2 years and left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.61±0.02 (radioisotope ventriculography were studied. High-resolution ultrasonography was performed to measure the systolic and diastolic diameters of the common carotid artery. Simultaneous measurement of blood pressure enabled the calculation of arterial compliance and distensibility. RESULTS: No differences were observed between patients with aortic regurgitation and the control group concerning age, sex, body surface, and mean blood pressure. Pulse pressure was significantly higher in the aortic regurgitation group compared with that in the control group (78±3 versus 48±1mmHg, P<0.01. Arterial compliance and distensibility were significantly greater in the aortic regurgitation group compared with that in the control group (11.0±0.8 versus 8.1±0.7 10-10 N-1 m4, P=0.01 e and 39.3±2.6 versus 31.1±2.0 10-6 N-1 m², P=0.02, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic aortic regurgitation have increased arterial distensibility. Greater vascular compliance, to lessen the impact of systolic volume ejected into conduit arteries, represents a compensatory mechanism in left ventricular and arterial system coupling.

  9. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Cristina Taubert de Freitas-Swerts

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain.METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test.RESULTS: work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet.CONCLUSION: the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress.

  10. Self-regulation of trilobite diversity in Murero (middle Cambrian, Spain) due to compensatory extinction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Villalta, J.S.

    2016-07-01

    As species accumulate in a community, competition for available ecospace is expected to prevent the addition of new species and to facilitate species extinction, thus producing a dynamic equilibrium of diversity. This mechanism remains under debate since its empirical support comes mainly from indirect or partial evidence, with very few direct tests at the species level. Here a new method is described to detect the presence of selfregulation feedbacks between species richness and turnover rates. It consists of Monte Carlo simulations which randomize the distribution of species ranges among stratigraphic intervals, providing predictions which allow the detection of genuine self-regulation feedbacks in the real data. Since the simulations include any potential bias due to preservation, sampling, or change in depositional environment, and these biases would also affect the real dataset, they are thus ruled out as explanations for any difference found. This method is applied to one of the best known fossiliferous sequences worldwide, the Rambla de Valdemiedes in Murero (RV1 section, middle Cambrian, Spain), a classic locality that has been studied for more than 150 years and which stands out due to its excellent sampling density, continuous deposition, and homogeneous fossil preservation. The results show that trilobite species richness was self-regulated due to positive feedback with extinction rate, which implies that compensatory extinction regulated this fauna in spite of the on-going Cambrian radiation. The lack of evidence of any origination feedback suggests ecological opportunities were not limiting for new species to colonize this Cambrian community. (Author)

  11. Compensatory T cell responses in IRG-deficient mice prevent sustained Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Coers

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. In women C. trachomatis can establish persistent genital infections that lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and sterility. In contrast to natural infections in humans, experimentally induced infections with C. trachomatis in mice are rapidly cleared. The cytokine interferon-γ (IFNγ plays a critical role in the clearance of C. trachomatis infections in mice. Because IFNγ induces an antimicrobial defense system in mice but not in humans that is composed of a large family of Immunity Related GTPases (IRGs, we questioned whether mice deficient in IRG immunity would develop persistent infections with C. trachomatis as observed in human patients. We found that IRG-deficient Irgm1/m3((-/- mice transiently develop high bacterial burden post intrauterine infection, but subsequently clear the infection more efficiently than wildtype mice. We show that the delayed but highly effective clearance of intrauterine C. trachomatis infections in Irgm1/m3((-/- mice is dependent on an exacerbated CD4(+ T cell response. These findings indicate that the absence of the predominant murine innate effector mechanism restricting C. trachomatis growth inside epithelial cells results in a compensatory adaptive immune response, which is at least in part driven by CD4(+ T cells and prevents the establishment of a persistent infection in mice.

  12. Anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments in sitting in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigongiari, Aline; de Andrade e Souza, Flávia; Franciulli, Patrícia Martins; Neto, Semaan El Razi; Araujo, Rubens Correa; Mochizuki, Luis

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine postural control in children with cerebral palsy performing a bilateral shoulder flexion to grasp a ball from a sitting posture. The participants were 12 typically developing children (control) without cerebral palsy and 12 children with cerebral palsy (CP). We analyzed the effect of ball mass (1 kg and 0.18 kg), postural adjustment (anticipatory, APA, and compensatory, CPA), and groups (control and CP) on the electrical activity of shoulder and trunk muscles with surface electromyography (EMG). Greater mean iEMG was seen in CPA, with heavy ball, and for posterior trunk muscles (pchildren with CP presented the highest EMG and level of co-activation (pcontrol group, whereas that relationship was negative for participants with CP. We suggest that the main postural control strategy in children is based on corrections after the beginning of the movement. The linear relationship between EMG and aging suggests that postural control development is affected by central nervous disease which may lead to an increase in muscle co-activation.

  13. Both anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments are adapted while catching a ball in unstable standing posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scariot, Vanessa; Rios, Jaqueline L; Claudino, Renato; dos Santos, Eloá C; Angulski, Hanna B B; dos Santos, Marcio J

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the role of balance exercises on anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments in different conditions of postural stability. Sixteen subjects were required to catch a ball while standing on rigid floor, trampoline and foam cushion surfaces. Electromyographic activities (EMG) of postural muscles were analyzed during time windows typical for APAs and CPAs. Overall there were a reciprocal activation of the muscles around the ankle and co-activations between ventral and dorsal muscles of the thigh and trunk during the catching a ball task. Compared to the rigid floor, the tibialis anterior activation was greater during the trampoline condition (CPA: p = 0.006) and the soleus muscle inhibition was higher during foam cushion condition (APA: p = 0.001; CPA: p = 0.007). Thigh and trunk muscle activities were similar across the conditions. These results advance the knowledge in postural control during body perturbations standing on unstable surfaces.

  14. Changes in Compensatory Eye Movements Associated with Simulated Stimulus Conditions of Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Zografos, Linda M.; Skinner, Noel C.; Parker, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    Compensatory vertical eye movement gain (CVEMG) was recorded during pitch oscillation in darkness before, during and immediately after exposures to the stimulus rearrangement produced by the Preflight Adaptation Trainer (PAT) Tilt-Translation Device (TTD). The TTD is designed to elicit adaptive responses that are similar to those observed in microgravity-adapted astronauts. The data from Experiment 1 yielded a statistically significant CVEMG decrease following 15 minutes of exposure to a stimulus rearrangement condition where the phase angle between subject pitch tilt and visual scene translation was 270 degrees; statistically significant gain decreases were not observed following exposures either to a condition where the phase angle between subject pitch and scene translation was 90 degrees or to a no-stimulus-rearrangement condition. Experiment 2 replicated the 270 degree phase condition from Experiment 1 and extended the exposure duration from 30 to 45 minutes. Statistically significant additional changes in CVEMG associated with the increased exposure duration were not observed. The adaptation time constant estimated from the combined data from Experiments 1 and 2 was 29 minutes.

  15. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas-Swerts, Fabiana Cristina Taubert; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain. METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test. RESULTS: work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet. CONCLUSION: the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress. PMID:25296147

  16. Phosphoproteomic analysis reveals compensatory effects in the piriform cortex of VX nerve agent exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirujogi, Raja Sekhar; Wright, James D; Manda, Srikanth S; Zhong, Jun; Na, Chan Hyun; Meyerhoff, James; Benton, Bernard; Jabbour, Rabih; Willis, Kristen; Kim, Min-Sik; Pandey, Akhilesh; Sekowski, Jennifer W

    2015-01-01

    To gain insights into the toxicity induced by the nerve agent VX, an MS-based phosphoproteomic analysis was carried out on the piriform cortex region of brains from VX-treated rats. Using isobaric tag based TMT labeling followed by titanium dioxide enrichment strategy, we identified 9975 unique phosphosites derived from 3287 phosphoproteins. Temporal changes in the phosphorylation status of peptides were observed over a time period of 24 h in rats exposed to a 1× LD50, intravenous (i.v.) dose with the most notable changes occurring at the 1 h postexposure time point. Five major functional classes of proteins exhibited changes in their phosphorylation status: (i) ion channels/transporters, including ATPases, (ii) kinases/phosphatases, (iii) GTPases, (iv) structural proteins, and (v) transcriptional regulatory proteins. This study is the first quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of VX toxicity in the brain. Understanding the toxicity and compensatory signaling mechanisms will improve the understanding of the complex toxicity of VX in the brain and aid in the elucidation of novel molecular targets that would be important for development of improved countermeasures. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001184 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001184).

  17. Compensatory growth of juvenile brown flounder Paralichthys olivaceus following low temperature treatment for different periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yinhui; Liu, Xiujia; Huang, Guoqiang; Wei, Liuzhi; Zhang, Xiumei

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the effects of low temperature (8.5°C) on the growth and feeding rates and feed conversion efficiency of juvenile P. olivaceus with an average initial weight of 3.87 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SE). Fish were exposed to 8.5°C for 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, and then to 20°C for 10, 9, 8, 7 and 6 weeks, respectively. Low temperature clearly led to growth depression. The weight of fish exposed to low temperature for 1 week was restored to that of control, while that of fish exposed to low temperature longer was significantly decreased ( P 0.05). Feeding rate and feed conversion efficiency were reduced at low temperature in juvenile P. olivaceus. The compensatory growth of juvenile P. olivaceus may therefore be attributed to the improvement of feeding rate. Our results suggested that growth depression occurs when juvenile P. olivaceus are exposed to low temperature for more than one week.

  18. Differential gene expression during compensatory sprouting of dendrites in the auditory system of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, H W; McCarthy, S S; Johansen, S L; Harris, J M

    2009-08-01

    Neurones that lose their presynaptic partners because of injury usually retract or die. However, when the auditory interneurones of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus are denervated, dendrites respond by growing across the midline and forming novel synapses with the opposite auditory afferents. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to detect transcriptional changes 3 days after denervation. This is a stage at which we demonstrate robust compensatory dendritic sprouting. Whereas 49 unique candidates were down-regulated, no sufficiently up-regulated candidates were identified at this time point. Several candidates identified in this study are known to influence the translation and degradation of proteins in other systems. The potential role of these factors in the compensatory sprouting of cricket auditory interneurones in response to denervation is discussed.

  19. Value of acoustic perceptual method for analysis of compensatory articulation errors in postoperative patients with cleft palate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To establish an acoustic perceptual method analyzing the compensatory articulation errors in children with operated cleft palate via the formants of Chinese pure vowels. Methods The first three formants which represent vocal transmission character in Chinese pure vowels of 84 subjects with operated cleft palate, were measured by Computerized Speech Signal Processing System (CSSPS). The Chinese vowel graph of postoperative patients with cleft palate was stated by the first formant frequencies (F1) ...

  20. Absence of compensatory vasodilation with perfusion pressure challenge in exercise: evidence for and implications of the non-compensator phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Robert F; Walsh, Jeremy J; Drouin, Patrick J; Velickovic, Aleksandra; Kitner, Sarah J; Fenuta, Alyssa M; Tschakovsky, Michael E

    2017-07-13

    Compromising oxygen delivery (O2D) during exercise requires compensatory vasodilatory and/or pressor responses to protect O2D : demand matching. The purpose of the study was to determine whether compensatory vasodilation is absent in some healthy, young individuals in the face of a sudden reduction in exercising forearm perfusion pressure, and whether this affects the exercise pressor response. 21 healthy, young males (21.6±2.0yrs) completed rhythmic forearm exercise at a work rate equivalent to 70% of their own maximal exercise vasodilation. During steady state exercise, the exercising arm was rapidly adjusted from below to above heart level resulting in a reduction in forearm perfusion pressure of -30.7±0.9 mmHg. Forearm blood flow (FBF (ml/min); brachial artery Doppler and echo ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP (mmHg); finger photoplethysmography), and exercising forearm venous effluent (ante-cubital vein catheter) measurements revealed distinct compensatory vasodilatory differences. 13 individuals responded with compensatory vasodilation (509±128 vs. 632±136 ml/min/100mmHg; Pcompensators (all P>0.05) but not in non-compensators, who therefore suffered compromises to exercise performance (6±14 vs. -36±29 N; P=0.004). Phenotypic differences were not explained by potassium or nitric oxide bioavailability. In conclusion, compensator and non-compensator vasodilator phenotype responses to a perfusion pressure challenge were evident, with non-compensators incurring compromised exercise performance. Our findings highlight the importance of inter-individual differences in O2D : demand matching mechanisms for individual exercise tolerance. Copyright © 2016, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  1. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeituni, C.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; da Silva, J.E.R.

    2004-10-06

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 133}I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for {sup 137}Cs. The nuclear fuels U{sub 3}O{sub 8} - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of {sup 137}Cs.

  2. Predictors of failed attendances in a multi-specialty outpatient centre using electronic databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Mark I

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Failure to keep outpatient medical appointments results in inefficiencies and costs. The objective of this study is to show the factors in an existing electronic database that affect failed appointments and to develop a predictive probability model to increase the effectiveness of interventions. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on outpatient clinic attendances at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore from 2000 to 2004. 22864 patients were randomly sampled for analysis. The outcome measure was failed outpatient appointments according to each patient's latest appointment. Results Failures comprised of 21% of all appointments and 39% when using the patients' latest appointment. Using odds ratios from the mutliple logistic regression analysis, age group (0.75 to 0.84 for groups above 40 years compared to below 20 years, race (1.48 for Malays, 1.61 for Indians compared to Chinese, days from scheduling to appointment (2.38 for more than 21 days compared to less than 7 days, previous failed appointments (1.79 for more than 60% failures and 4.38 for no previous appointments, compared with less than 20% failures, provision of cell phone number (0.10 for providing numbers compared to otherwise and distance from hospital (1.14 for more than 14 km compared to less than 6 km were significantly associated with failed appointments. The predicted probability model's diagnostic accuracy to predict failures is more than 80%. Conclusion A few key variables have shown to adequately account for and predict failed appointments using existing electronic databases. These can be used to develop integrative technological solutions in the outpatient clinic.

  3. Value of acoustic perceptual method for analysis of compensatory articulation errors in postoperative patients with cleft palate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To establish an acoustic perceptual method analyzing the compensatory articulation errors in children with operated cleft palate via the formants of Chinese pure vowels. Methods The first three formants which represent vocal transmission character in Chinese pure vowels of 84 subjects with operated cleft palate, were measured by Computerized Speech Signal Processing System (CSSPS). The Chinese vowel graph of postoperative patients with cleft palate was stated by the first formant frequencies (F1) and the second formant frequencies (F2) of the Chinese pure vowels between the two groups. Results Values of F1 and F2 of vowels except [a] in the poor articulation group (Group A) were significantly different from those in the good articulation group (Group B) (P<0.05 or P<0.01). As compared with that in Group B, the vowel graph demonstrated the decreased perceptual distances in Group A. These findings indicated that there might still be the backward movements of tongue, perverted mandibular movements and disharmonious lip movements in addition to the velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) in Group A. Conclusion The speech articulation of children with repaired cleft palate should be gained by correcting the aberrant compensatory articulation errors in the condition of velopharyngeal competence. Computerized Speech Signal Processing System (CSSPS), which is regarded as the content of objective quantitative measurement, is a precise, simple, reliable and atroumatic technique for children with cleft palate to analyze pathological compensatory articulation errors.

  4. Prognostic indicators for failed nonsurgical reduction of intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorana J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jiraporn Khorana,1 Jesda Singhavejsakul,1 Nuthapong Ukarapol,2 Mongkol Laohapensang,3 Jakraphan Siriwongmongkol,1 Jayanton Patumanond4 1Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, 2Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, 3Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 4Center of Excellence in Applied Epidemiology, Thammasat University Hospital, Pathumthani, Thailand Purpose: To identify the risk factors for failure of nonsurgical reduction of intussusception. Methods: Data from intussusception patients who were treated with nonsurgical reduction in Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital between January 2006 and December 2012 were collected. Patients aged 0–15 years and without contraindications (peritonitis, abdominal X-ray signs of perforation, and/or hemodynamic instability were included for nonsurgical reduction. The success and failure groups were divided according to the results of the reduction. Prognostic indicators for failed reduction were identified by using generalized linear model for exponential risk regression. The risk ratio (RR was used to report each factor. Results: One hundred and ninety cases of intussusception were enrolled. Twenty cases were excluded due to contraindications. A total of 170 cases of intussusception were included for the final analysis. The significant risk factors for reduction failure clustered by an age of 3 years were weight <12 kg (RR =1.48, P=0.004, symptom duration >3 days (RR =1.26, P<0.001, vomiting (RR =1.63, P<0.001, rectal bleeding (RR =1.50, P<0.001, abdominal distension (RR =1.60, P=0.003, temperature >37.8°C (RR =1.51, P<0.001, palpable abdominal mass (RR =1.26, P<0.001, location of mass (left over right side (RR =1.48, P<0.001, poor prognostic signs on ultrasound scans (RR =1.35, P<0.001, and method of reduction (hydrostatic over pneumatic (RR =1

  5. Brief report: Compensatory health beliefs are negatively associated with intentions for regular fruit and vegetable consumption when self-efficacy is low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Vera; Reinwand, Dominique; Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; De Vries, Hein; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-28

    Compensatory health beliefs (the beliefs that an unhealthy behaviour can be compensated by a healthy behaviour) can interfere with adherence to fruit and vegetable consumption recommendations. Fruit and vegetable consumption, social cognitive variables and compensatory health beliefs were investigated via self-report at baseline (T0) and 8-week follow-up (T1) in N = 790 participants. Self-efficacy predicted fruit and vegetable consumption intentions. Planning mediated between intentions and T1 fruit and vegetable consumption. Compensatory health beliefs negatively predicted intentions at low self-efficacy levels only. The results propose the use of self-efficacy interventions to diminish the negative effects of compensatory health beliefs when forming fruit and vegetable consumption intentions and foster planning to translate intentions into behaviour.

  6. Ballooning osteolysis in 71 failed total ankle arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpal; Reichard, Theresa; Hameister, Rita; Awiszus, Friedemann; Schenk, Katja; Feuerstein, Bernd; Roessner, Albert; Lohmann, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Aseptic loosening is a major cause of failure in total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). In contrast to other total joint replacements, large periarticular cysts (ballooning osteolysis) have frequently been observed in this context. We investigated periprosthetic tissue responses in failed TAA, and performed an element analysis of retrieved tissues in failed TAA. Patients and methods - The study cohort consisted of 71 patients undergoing revision surgery for failed TAA, all with hydroxyapatite-coated implants. In addition, 5 patients undergoing primary TAA served as a control group. Radiologically, patients were classified into those with ballooning osteolysis and those without, according to defined criteria. Histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, and elemental analysis of tissues was performed. Von Kossa staining and digital microscopy was performed on all tissue samples. Results - Patients without ballooning osteolysis showed a generally higher expression of lymphocytes, and CD3+, CD11c+, CD20+, and CD68+ cells in a perivascular distribution, compared to diffuse expression. The odds of having ballooning osteolysis was 300 times higher in patients with calcium content >0.5 mg/g in periprosthetic tissue than in patients with calcium content ≤0.5 mg/g (p < 0.001). Interpretation - There have been very few studies investigating the pathomechanisms of failed TAA and the cause-effect nature of ballooning osteolysis in this context. Our data suggest that the hydroxyapatite coating of the implant may be a contributory factor.

  7. Failing Boys! Beyond Crisis, Moral Panic and Limiting Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    For some time now, school boards, Ministries of Education, and the popular media have been expressing concerns about failing boys and how best to meet their needs, framing these concerns in terms of a crisis in which boys are the "new disadvantaged". This perspective does not provide an accurate representation of the problem and, in fact, detracts…

  8. The ugly twins: Failed global sourcing projects and their substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Horn, Philipp; Horn, Philipp; Werner, Welf

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: Analyzing the impact of failed global sourcing projects on the entire commodity group and exploring isomorphism as potential antecedent to the observed phenomenon. The paper is embedded in the global sourcing literature, as well as isomorphism and total

  9. Civil Liability for Failing to Report Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Neil J.

    1977-01-01

    The article examines the Landeros decision (which ruled that a doctor who fails to report a child abuse victim can be held liable for subsequent injuries inflicted on the child) and discusses three theories of proving civil liability for the failure to report child abuse victims. Addressed are the following topics: the problem of child abuse and…

  10. Why Young People Fail To Get and Hold Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Dept. of Labor, Albany.

    This booklet provides advice to young people seeking their first jobs on how to avoid the pitfalls that have caused others to lose jobs or fail to be hired. Topics discussed in short, one-page sections include appearance, attitude and behavior, ignorance of labor market facts, misrepresentation, sensitivity about a physical defect, unrealistic…

  11. Preventing Suicide: A Mission Too Big to Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Preventing Suicide: A Mission Too Big to Fail by Ms. Gloria Duck Lieutenant Colonel Timothy Holman Ms. Jennifer Jessup...Lieutenant Colonel Timothy Holman United States Army Ms. Jennifer Jessup Department of Veterans Affairs Civilian Colonel Keith...Gloria Duck Department of the Army Civilian Lieutenant Colonel Timothy Holman United States Army Ms. Jennifer Jessup Department of Veterans Affairs

  12. Establishing Pass/Fail Criteria for Bronchoscopy Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Clementsen, Paul; Larsen, Klaus Richter;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several tools have been created to assess competence in bronchoscopy. However, educational guidelines still use an arbitrary number of performed procedures to decide when basic competency is acquired. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to define pass/fail scores for two...

  13. Finite element analysis of bone loss around failing implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, J.; Narra, N.; Antalainen, A.K.; Valášek, J.; Kaiser, J.; Sandór, G.K.; Marcián, P.

    2014-01-01

    Dental implants induce diverse forces on their surrounding bone. However, when excessive unphysiological forces are applied, resorption of the neighbouring bone may occur. The aim of this study was to assess possible causes of bone loss around failing dental implants using finite element analysis. A

  14. Evidence of a "Failing Newspaper" under the Newspaper Preservation Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Robert G.

    The Newspaper Preservation Act of 1970 makes it possible for competing newspapers to combine advertising, production, circulation and management functions into a single newspaper corporation. For the attorney general and the courts to authorize a joint operating agreement (JOA) for a "failing newspaper," certain conditions must be met and certain…

  15. "Badminton Player-Coach" Interactions between Failing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascret, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Physical education teachers often use the player-coach dyad in individual opposition sports so that students can obtain information on their actions and then better regulate them. This type of work also develops methodological and social skills. However, the task of observing a partner often poses problems for failing students, who…

  16. 78 FR 54373 - Records of Failed Insured Depository Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    .../individual/failed/pls/ ; www.fdic.gov/regulations/compliance/manual/pdf/II-8.1.pdf . The ``reasonably... instances where the FDIC issues a final rule as defined by the APA (5 U.S.C. 551 et seq.). Because the FDIC is issuing a final rule as defined by the APA, the FDIC will file the reports required by the SBREFA...

  17. Age of failed restorations: A deceptive longevity parameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Cenci, M.S.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Wilson, N.H.F.

    2011-01-01

    There is pressing need to enhance evidence base in respect of longevity of restorations. Currently, there is lack of appreciation of differences between survival data based on the age of failed restorations as compared to gold standard Kaplan-Meier statistics. OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken t

  18. Government failings on energy efficiency and fuel poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A. [Association for the Conservation of Energy (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    The author delivered this year's Melchett Lecture as part of the EI's Energy in transition event in July, having been awarded the 72nd Melchett Award about the organizing for energy efficiency and the Government's current failing on fuel poverty strategy. 3 figs.

  19. "It's All Human Error!": When a School Science Experiment Fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viechnicki, Gail Brendel; Kuipers, Joel

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces the sophisticated negotiations to re-inscribe the authority of Nature when a school science experiment fails during the enactment of a highly rated science curriculum unit. Drawing on transcriptions from classroom videotapes, we identify and describe four primary patterns of interaction that characterize this process, arguing…

  20. Organization Theory: Bright Prospects for a Permanently Failing Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.M.A.R. Heugens (Pursey)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOrganization theory is a paradoxical field of scientific inquiry. It has struggled for more than fifty years to develop a unified theory of organizational effectiveness under girded by a coherent set of assumptions, and it has thus far failed to produce one. Yet, by other standards it is

  1. "It's All Human Error!": When a School Science Experiment Fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viechnicki, Gail Brendel; Kuipers, Joel

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces the sophisticated negotiations to re-inscribe the authority of Nature when a school science experiment fails during the enactment of a highly rated science curriculum unit. Drawing on transcriptions from classroom videotapes, we identify and describe four primary patterns of interaction that characterize this process, arguing…

  2. Alveolar septal patterning during compensatory lung growth: Part II the effect of parenchymal pressure gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Shimon; Weisbord, Michal; Mentzer, Steven J; Tsuda, Akira

    2017-05-21

    In most mammals, compensatory lung growth occurs after the removal of one lung (pneumonectomy). Although the mechanism of alveolar growth is unknown, the patterning of complex alveolar geometry over organ-sized length scales is a central question in regenerative lung biology. Because shear forces appear capable of signaling the differentiation of important cells involved in neoalveolarization (fibroblasts and myofibroblasts), interstitial fluid mechanics provide a potential mechanism for the patterning of alveolar growth. The movement of interstitial fluid is created by two basic mechanisms: 1) the non-uniform motion of the boundary walls, and 2) parenchymal pressure gradients external to the interstitial fluid. In a previous study (Haber et al., Journal of Theoretical Biology 400: 118-128, 2016), we investigated the effects of non-uniform stretching of the primary septum (associated with its heterogeneous mechanical properties) during breathing on generating non-uniform Stokes flow in the interstitial space. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of parenchymal pressure gradients on interstitial flow. Dependent upon lung microarchitecture and physiologic conditions, parenchymal pressure gradients had a significant effect on the shear stress distribution in the interstitial space of primary septa. A dimensionless parameter δ described the ratio between the effects of a pressure gradient and the influence of non-uniform primary septal wall motion. Assuming that secondary septa are formed where shear stresses were the largest, it is shown that the geometry of the newly generated secondary septa was governed by the value of δ. For δ smaller than 0.26, the alveolus size was halved while for higher values its original size was unaltered. We conclude that the movement of interstitial fluid, governed by parenchymal pressure gradients and non-uniform primary septa wall motion, provides a plausible mechanism for the patterning of alveolar growth. Copyright © 2017

  3. Reduced compensatory responses to maintain central blood volume during hypovolemic stress in women with vasovagal syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Johan; Zachrisson, Helene; Länne, Toste; Lindenberger, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Although vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a common clinical condition, the underlying pathophysiology is not fully understood. A decrease in cardiac output has recently been suggested as a factor in orthostatic VVS. The aim was to investigate compensatory mechanisms to maintain central blood volume and venous return during hypovolemic stress in women with VVS. Fourteen VVS women (25.7 ± 5.0 yr) and 15 matched controls (22.8 ± 3.2 yr) were investigated. Single-step and graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope were used to create hypovolemic stress. Peripheral mobilization of venous blood from the arm (capacitance response and net capillary fluid absorption) and lower limb blood pooling (calf capacitance response) were evaluated using a volumetric technique. Cardiovascular responses and plasma norepinephrine (P-NE) were measured. Resting P-NE was elevated in VVS women (P < 0.01). Despite a similar hypovolemic stimulus, the increase in P-NE was blunted (P < 0.01) and the maximal percent increase in total peripheral resistance was reduced (P < 0.05) during graded LBNP in VVS women. The arm capacitance response was slower (P < 0.05) and reduced in VVS women at higher levels of LBNP (P < 0.05). Capillary fluid absorption from extra- to intravascular space was reduced by ∼40% in VVS women (P < 0.05). Accordingly, the reduction in cardiac output was more pronounced (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in VVS women, mobilization of peripheral venous blood and net fluid absorption from tissue to blood during hypovolemic stress were decreased partly as a result of an attenuated vasoconstrictor response. This may seriously impede maintenance of cardiac output during hypovolemic stress and could contribute to the pathogenesis of VVS.

  4. Compensatory extension of gestation length with advance of conception in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Andrés José; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Carrión, Débora; Gaspar-López, Enrique; Gallego, Laureano

    2006-01-01

    Calving date in many mammals is matched to the time of greatest food availability. Out of season calving results in heavy penalties in terms of own and offspring survival or body condition. This study examined whether gestation length is affected by advancing fertilisation. Thirty-six red deer hinds (of the Iberian and Scottish subspecies) were subjected to a synchronisation treatment of oestrus, ovulation, and artificial insemination on three dates, with remaining non-pregnant females mated with an intact male in a last group. Gestation was longer the more the fertilisation was advanced; gestation lasted 241.5+/-1.3 days (d) in the first group, 237.4+/-1.2 d in the second, 235.1+/-1.3 d in the third, and 231.2+/-1.6 d in the last. Mean gestation lasted 234.2+/-0.7 d. Hinds gained less weight during gestation the more the fertilisation was advanced. The difference was due at least in part to net body weight of the hind after calving compared to that at mating, and calves did not differ in birth weight. As early born calves suffer greater mortality in the field, this enlargening of gestation might be a compensatory response of the hinds to match calving with food availability. Under natural conditions, similar small modifications of gestation length may help hinds to overcome short-term adverse conditions for calving. Because calf mortality is correlated with birth weight, hinds may have kept calf birth weight constant at the expense of greater body weight loss.

  5. Developmental dyscalculia: compensatory mechanisms in left intraparietal regions in response to nonsymbolic magnitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starke Marc

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies investigating the neural mechanisms underlying developmental dyscalculia are scarce and results are thus far inconclusive. Main aim of the present study is to investigate the neural correlates of nonsymbolic number magnitude processing in children with and without dyscalculia. Methods 18 children (9 with dyscalculia were asked to solve a non-symbolic number magnitude comparison task (finger patterns during brain scanning. For the spatial control task identical stimuli were employed, instructions varying only (judgment of palm rotation. This design enabled us to present identical stimuli with identical visual processing requirements in the experimental and the control task. Moreover, because numerical and spatial processing relies on parietal brain regions, task-specific contrasts are expected to reveal true number-specific activations. Results Behavioral results during scanning reveal that despite comparable (almost at ceiling performance levels, task-specific activations were stronger in dyscalculic children in inferior parietal cortices bilaterally (intraparietal sulcus, supramarginal gyrus, extending to left angular gyrus. Interestingly, fMRI signal strengths reflected a group × task interaction: relative to baseline, controls produced significant deactivations in (intraparietal regions bilaterally in response to number but not spatial processing, while the opposite pattern emerged in dyscalculics. Moreover, beta weights in response to number processing differed significantly between groups in left – but not right – (intraparietal regions (becoming even positive in dyscalculic children. Conclusion Overall, findings are suggestive of (a less consistent neural activity in right (intraparietal regions upon processing nonsymbolic number magnitudes; and (b compensatory neural activity in left (intraparietal regions in developmental dyscalculia.

  6. Comparison of T2 and T3 sympathectomy for compensatory sweating on palmar hyperhidrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkyilmaz, Atila; Karapolat, Sami; Seyis, Kubra Nur; Tekinbas, Celal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: An otherwise successfully performed endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) to treat palmar hyperhidrosis (PH) often has a serious side effect: compensatory sweating (CS). This side effect occurs in other parts of the body to a disturbing extent. The objective of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between the level of ETS performed on patients with PH, and the occurrence and severity of postoperational CS. Methods: Between January 2014 and January 2015, ETS procedures were performed on 25 randomly selected consecutive subjects (group A) at T2 level, and on another 25 subjects (group B) at T3 level, who all felt severely handicapped due to PH. All subjects were assessed in terms of their demographic characteristics including gender and age, as well as postoperative complications, short-term results, side effects, recurrence of symptoms, and long-term results. Results: The symptoms disappeared in all subjects in short-term, and no recurrence was seen in their short or long-term follow-ups. At the end of year one, CS developed at a rate of 12% in group A and 8% in group B, particularly in their back and abdominal regions. The overall satisfaction with the procedure in year one was 96% in group A and 100% in group B. Conclusion: When an ETS performed at T2 or T3 level for PH involves only the interruption of the sympathetic chain, with a limitation on the range of dissection and avoidance of any damage to ganglia, sweating is stopped completely. No recurrence of PH is encountered, and CS develops only at low rates and severities. PMID:28422886

  7. Concordant pattern of radiologic, morphologic, and genomic changes during compensatory lung growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takamasa; Suzuki, Hidemi; Wada, Hironobu; Fujiwara, Taiki; Nakajima, Takahiro; Iwata, Takekazu; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2017-05-15

    Although compensatory lung growth (CLG) after lung resection has been reported in various mammalian species, it has generally been thought that the lung cannot regenerate in adult humans. We recently developed a method for evaluating lung weight using a radiologic analysis and demonstrated that the lung was heavier than expected in adult humans after pulmonary resection. In this study, we serially evaluated the morphologic, radiologic, and genomic status during CLG in pneumonectomized mice. The serial changes in morphology and gene expression of the remnant right lung after left pneumonectomy were examined in adult male mice. The alveolar density was determined by the mean linear intercept, and the weight was estimated using the Hounsfield value and volumetric data from micro-computed tomography. The parameters were obtained on days 3, 7, and 30 after left pneumonectomy or thoracotomy only (sham control). After left pneumonectomy, the right lung became significantly progressively larger in volume and weight on postoperative days 3, 7, and 30 in comparison to the sham controls (P < 0.01). The estimated weight also significantly increased in association with the real volume on postoperative days 3, 7, and 30 (P < 0.01). The cardiac lobe markedly increased in size. During the observation period, the alveolar density was always lower in the pneumonectomized mice than in controls. A microarray analysis revealed that multiple genes related to proliferation (but not specific alveolar development) were initially upregulated until postoperative day 7 and then returned to normal after 1 mo. The morphologic and genomic changes were more evident in the cardiac lobe than in the upper lobe during the observation period. The morphologic, radiologic, and genomic changes during CLG were related to each other in pneumonectomized mice. The present study revealed an association between the radiologically estimated weight and other parameters, indicating a marked CLG reaction of

  8. Effect of renal denervation on the compensatory renal growth following nephrectomy in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, T; Matsukawa, K; Murata, J; Matsumoto, M; Nakashima, K

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of denervation on the mass of the remaining kidney with or without unilateral nephrectomy using adult cats. The animals were divided into 4 groups: (1) control group, the weights of the right and left kidneys were measured intact in 5 cats; (2) nephrectomy group (Nx, n = 5 cats), the right kidney was removed and the left kidney was weighed 3-5 d after nephrectomy; (3) nephrectomy and denervation group (Nx+Dx, n = 7 cats), the left kidney was weighed on the 7th day after surgery in which the left kidney was denervated and the right kidney was removed; and (4) denervation group (Dx+Dx, n = 5 cats), both kidneys were weighed on the 7th day after denervation of the kidneys. In the control group, the left and right kidney weights per body weight (LKW and RKW) were the same (LKW, 0.74 +/- 0.06%; RKW, 0. 74 +/- 0.07%). In the Nx group, LKW increased to 0.90 +/- 0.03% 3-5 d after nephrectomy, although RKW of the removed kidney was 0.66 +/- 0.01%. In the Nx+Dx group, LKW increased to 0.97 +/- 0.15%, which was similar to that of the Nx group. In the Dx+Dx group, LKW (0.56 +/- 0.05%) and RKW (0.54 +/- 0.05%) were significantly less than those in the control group. We conclude that the renal nerves may contribute to maintaining the renal mass and that the neural effect on compensatory growth following nephrectomy may be covered by other growth factors.

  9. A compensatory mutation provides resistance to disparate HIV fusion inhibitor peptides and enhances membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Wood

    Full Text Available Fusion inhibitors are a class of antiretroviral drugs used to prevent entry of HIV into host cells. Many of the fusion inhibitors being developed, including the drug enfuvirtide, are peptides designed to competitively inhibit the viral fusion protein gp41. With the emergence of drug resistance, there is an increased need for effective and unique alternatives within this class of antivirals. One such alternative is a class of cyclic, cationic, antimicrobial peptides known as θ-defensins, which are produced by many non-human primates and exhibit broad-spectrum antiviral and antibacterial activity. Currently, the θ-defensin analog RC-101 is being developed as a microbicide due to its specific antiviral activity, lack of toxicity to cells and tissues, and safety in animals. Understanding potential RC-101 resistance, and how resistance to other fusion inhibitors affects RC-101 susceptibility, is critical for future development. In previous studies, we identified a mutant, R5-tropic virus that had evolved partial resistance to RC-101 during in vitro selection. Here, we report that a secondary mutation in gp41 was found to restore replicative fitness, membrane fusion, and the rate of viral entry, which were compromised by an initial mutation providing partial RC-101 resistance. Interestingly, we show that RC-101 is effective against two enfuvirtide-resistant mutants, demonstrating the clinical importance of RC-101 as a unique fusion inhibitor. These findings both expand our understanding of HIV drug-resistance to diverse peptide fusion inhibitors and emphasize the significance of compensatory gp41 mutations.

  10. alpha-adrenergic Blockade Unmasks a Greater Compensatory Vasodilation in Hypoperfused Contracting Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren P. Casey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that acute hypoperfusion in exercising human muscle causes an immediate increase in vascular resistance that is followed by a partial restoration (less than 100% recovery of flow. In the current study we examined the contribution of alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction in the initial changes in vascular resistance at the onset of hypoperfusion as well as in the recovery of flow over time. Nine healthy male subjects (29 ± 2 performed rhythmic forearm exercise (20% of maximum during hypoperfusion evoked by intra-arterial balloon inflation. Each trial included; baseline, exercise prior to inflation, exercise with inflation, and exercise after deflation (3 min each. Forearm blood flow (FBF; ultrasound, local (brachial artery, and systemic arterial pressure (MAP; Finometer were measured. The trial was repeated during phentolamine infusion (alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; ml min-1 100 mmHg-1 and resistance (mmHg ml min-1 was calculated from BF (ml min-1 and local MAP (mmHg. Recovery of FBF and FVC (steady state inflation plus exercise value – nadir/ [steady state exercise (control value-nadir] with phentolamine was enhanced compared with the respective control (no drug trial (FBF = 97 ± 5% vs. 81 ± 6%, P < 0.05; FVC = 126 ± 9% vs. 91 ± 5%, P < 0.01. However, the absolute (0.05 ± 0.01 vs. 0.06 ± 0.01 mmHg ml min-1; P = 0.17 and relative (35 ± 5% vs. 31 ± 2%; P = 0.41 increase in vascular resistance at the onset of balloon inflation was not different between the alpha-adrenergic receptor inhibition and control (no drug trials. Therefore, our data indicate that alpha-adrenergic mediated vasoconstriction restricts compensatory vasodilation during forearm exercise with hypoperfusion, but is not responsible for the initial increase in vascular resistance at the onset of hypoperfusion.

  11. Compensatory responses in plant-herbivore interactions: Impacts of insects on leaf water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschiutta, María L.; Bucci, Sandra J.; Scholz, Fabián G.; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2016-05-01

    Herbivore damage to leaves has been typically evaluated in terms of fractions of area removed; however morpho-physiological changes in the remaining tissues can occur in response to removal. We assessed the effects of partial removal of the leaf mesophyll by Caliroa cerasi (Hymenoptera) on leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf), vascular architecture, water relations and leaf size of three Prunus avium cultivars. The insect feeds on the leaf mesophyll leaving the vein network intact (skeletonization). Within each cultivar there were trees without infestations and trees chronically infested, at least over the last three years. Leaf size of intact leaves tended to be similar during leaf expansion before herbivore attack occurs across infested and non-infested trees. However, after herbivore attack and when the leaves were fully expanded, damaged leaves were smaller than leaves from non-infested trees. Damaged area varied between 21 and 31% depending on cultivar. The non-disruption of the vascular system together with either vein density or capacitance increased in damaged leaves resulted in similar Kleaf and stomatal conductance in infested and non-infested trees. Non-stomatal water loss from repeated leaf damage led to lower leaf water potentials in two of the infested cultivars. Lower leaf osmotic potentials and vulnerability to loss of Kleaf were observed in infested plants. Our results show that skeletonization resulted in compensatory changes in terms of water relations and hydraulics traits and in cultivar-specific physiological changes in phylogenetic related P. avium. Our findings indicate that detrimental effects of herbivory on the photosynthetic surface are counterbalanced by changes providing higher drought resistance, which has adaptive significance in ecosystems where water availability is low and furthermore where global climate changes would decrease soil water availability in the future even further.

  12. Compensatory responses to food restriction in juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Alison M; Bjorndal, Karen A; Bolten, Alan B

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the compensatory responses to food restriction and subsequent increased food availability in juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Turtles were fed an ad libitum ration for 12 weeks (AL), a restricted ration for 12 weeks (R), or a restricted ration for 5 weeks and an ad libitum ration for 7 weeks (R-AL). Analysis of covariance was used to test the relationships between (1) growth and body size, (2) intake and body size, and (3) growth and intake for each of the three treatment groups. Body composition of turtles in each group was also evaluated at the beginning of the study and after weeks 5 and 12. After the switch to ad libitum feeding, R-AL turtles consumed comparable amounts of food and grew faster than AL turtles on a size-adjusted basis, but mean body sizes did not converge, although the overlap in their size ranges increased with time. The R-AL turtles also converted food to growth more efficiently and allocated proportionally more nutrients to protein accretion, thereby restoring body composition (except mineral content) to AL levels by the end of the study. Thus, accelerated size-specific growth without hyperphagia restored body condition but not size. These results indicate that (1) intake in juvenile green turtles is maximal when food is readily available and cannot be increased to compensate for a previous period of food limitation, (2) growth rates of ad libitum-fed turtles are only mildly plastic in response to past nutritional history, and (3) priority rules for nutrient allocation favor the attainment of an optimal condition rather than an optimal size. Nutritional setbacks experienced during the vulnerable juvenile stage could therefore have long-lasting consequences for wild turtles in terms of size-specific mortality risk, but these risks may be mitigated by the potential benefits of maintaining sufficient body stores.

  13. Seeking structure in social organization: compensatory control and the psychological advantages of hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Justin P; Kay, Aaron C; Eibach, Richard P; Galinsky, Adam D

    2014-04-01

    Hierarchies are a ubiquitous form of human social organization. We hypothesized that 1 reason for the prevalence of hierarchies is that they offer structure and therefore satisfy the core motivational needs for order and control relative to less structured forms of social organization. This hypothesis is rooted in compensatory control theory, which posits that (a) individuals have a basic need to perceive the world as orderly and structured, and (b) personal and external sources of control are capable of satisfying this need because both serve the comforting belief that the world operates in an orderly fashion. Our first 2 studies confirmed that hierarchies were perceived as more structured and orderly relative to egalitarian arrangements (Study 1) and that working in a hierarchical workplace promotes a feeling of self-efficacy (Study 2). We threatened participants' sense of personal control and measured perceptions of and preferences for hierarchy in 5 subsequent experiments. Participants who lacked control perceived more hierarchy occurring in ambiguous social situations (Study 3) and preferred hierarchy more strongly in workplace contexts (Studies 4-5). We also provide evidence that hierarchies are indeed appealing because of their structure: Preference for hierarchy was higher among individuals high in Personal Need for Structure and a control threat increased preference for hierarchy even among participants low in Personal Need for Structure (Study 5). Framing a hierarchy as unstructured reversed the effect of control threat on hierarchy (Study 6). Finally, hierarchy-enhancing jobs were more appealing after control threat, even when they were low in power and status (Study 7). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Assessment of compensatory renal function and [125I]iothalamate clearance in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippich, L J; English, P B; Ainscow, J

    1985-11-01

    Compensatory renal function and sodium [125I]iothalamate clearance were studied in 4 adult Merino ewes. Renal clearances of inulin (CIN), iothalamate (CIOT), and p-aminohippurate (CPAH) were used to measure renal function before and 7 and 170 days after 50% and 75% reductions in renal mass. Renal mass reduction to 50% of normal was achieved by ligation of the right renal artery, and to 25% of normal by ligating the right renal artery and branches of the left renal artery. Renal function (CIN and CPAH) after 50% renal mass reduction was 78% of normal on postligation day (PLD) 7 and 64% of normal on PLD 170. This decrease in renal function between PLD 7 and 170 was significant (P less than 0.05). Renal function (CIN and CPAH) after 75% renal mass reduction was 55% of normal on PLD 7 and 48% on PLD 170; however, this decrease in renal function between PLD 7 and 170 was not significant. Results indicated that, shortly after 50% renal mass reduction by renal arterial ligation, renal function in ewes was greater than that previously reported after unilateral nephrectomy and that a further decrease in renal function developed within 6 months after ligation. The mean CIOT in healthy ewes was 2.46 ml/min/kg of body weight. In healthy ewes and in ewes after renal mass reduction, regression of the simultaneous CIOT and CIN was CIOT = 0.276 + 1.05 CIN. The CIOT was higher than the corresponding CIN, and remained significantly (P less than 0.01) and consistently higher. Therefore, iothalamate can be used to estimate glomerular filtration rate in sheep, although a correction factor is required.

  15. Why Insurgents Fail: Examining Post-World War II Failed Insurgencies Utilizing the Prerequisites of Successful Insurgencies as a Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Baylis and Son, 1970. Geyer, Georgie A. “Why Guevara Failed: An Interview with Regis Debray.” Saturday Review. August 24, 1968. 156 Gonzalez...1949): 8-11, 34-35. Howard , Harry N. Greece and the United Nations, 1946-1949; A Summary Record. Report of the U.N. Special Committee on the

  16. Contribution of Intronic miR-338-3p and Its Hosting Gene AATK to Compensatory β-Cell Mass Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacovetti, Cécile; Jimenez, Veronica; Ayuso, Eduard; Laybutt, Ross; Peyot, Marie-Line; Prentki, Marc; Bosch, Fatima; Regazzi, Romano

    2015-05-01

    The elucidation of the mechanisms directing β-cell mass regeneration and maintenance is of interest, because the deficit of β-cell mass contributes to diabetes onset and progression. We previously found that the level of the microRNA (miRNA) miR-338-3p is decreased in pancreatic islets from rodent models displaying insulin resistance and compensatory β-cell mass expansion, including pregnant rats, diet-induced obese mice, and db/db mice. Transfection of rat islet cells with oligonucleotides that specifically block miR-338-3p activity increased the fraction of proliferating β-cells in vitro and promoted survival under proapoptotic conditions without affecting the capacity of β-cells to release insulin in response to glucose. Here, we evaluated the role of miR-338-3p in vivo by injecting mice with an adeno-associated viral vector permitting specific sequestration of this miRNA in β-cells. We found that the adeno-associated viral construct increased the fraction of proliferating β-cells confirming the data obtained in vitro. miR-338-3p is generated from an intron of the gene coding for apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase (AATK). Similarly to miR-338-3p, we found that AATK is down-regulated in rat and human islets and INS832/13 β-cells in the presence of the cAMP-raising agents exendin-4, estradiol, and a G-protein-coupled Receptor 30 agonist. Moreover, AATK expression is reduced in islets of insulin resistant animal models and selective silencing of AATK in INS832/13 cells by RNA interference promoted β-cell proliferation. The results point to a coordinated reduction of miR-338-3p and AATK under insulin resistance conditions and provide evidence for a cooperative action of the miRNA and its hosting gene in compensatory β-cell mass expansion.

  17. Looked-but-failed-to-see-errors in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Mai-Britt; Jørgensen, N O

    2003-01-01

    until immediately before the collision even though the bicycle must have been clearly visible.Similar types of accidents have been the subject of studies elsewhere. In literature they are labelled "looked-but-failed-to-see", because it seems clear that in many cases the car drivers have actually been......Danish studies of traffic accidents at priority intersections have shown a particular type of accidents. In these accidents a car driver supposed to give way has collided with a bicycle rider on the priority road. Often the involved car drivers have maintained that they did not see the bicycle...... looking in the direction where the other parties were but have not seen (i.e. perceived the presence of) the other road user. This paper describes two studies approaching this problem.One study is based on 10 self-reported near accidents. It does show that "looked-but-failed-to-see" events do occur...

  18. A survey of failed post-retained restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peutzfeldt, A; Sahafi, A; Asmussen, E

    2008-01-01

    Survival of endodontically treated, post-restored teeth depends on a multitude of factors, all of which are practically impossible to include in a randomized, controlled clinical study. The purpose of this survey was to characterize and analyze reported failures of post-retained restorations...... to identify factors critical to failure and to type of failure. A questionnaire was mailed to private practitioners in Denmark with a request to complete the questionnaire whenever a patient presented with a failed post-retained restoration. Information was gathered on factors related to the patient...... increased with the functioning time until failure. Fracture of the post was more common among male than female patients. On the basis of this survey of failed post-retained restorations, it was concluded that tapered posts were associated with a higher risk of tooth fracture than were parallel-sided posts....

  19. Failed total carpometacarpal joint prosthesis of the thumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Homilius, Morten

    2010-01-01

    . The male:female ratio was 1:4 and the mean duration of observation 32 months (range 6-52). In three patients the revised implant was a MOJE uncemented carpometacarpal joint prosthesis and in seven patients an Elektra uncemented one. At follow-up grip strength was reduced to less than 90% of the other hand...... in eight of 10 patients, but the mean Disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) scores, self-reported pinch-grip-related function, and pain were comparable with our earlier published results with the Elektra carpometacarpal total joint prosthesis.......Total joint prosthesis in carpometacarpal joint arthritis of the thumb often fails. Loosening of the implant is often treated by resection arthroplasty, and we reviewed 10 patients, mean age 54 years (range 47-63) who were treated by resection arthroplasty after a failed total joint prosthesis...

  20. Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Failed SLAP Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Miller, Mark D

    2014-09-01

    In general, favorable outcomes have been achieved with arthroscopic repair of superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears. However, some patients remain dissatisfied or suffer further injury after SLAP repair and may seek additional treatment to alleviate their symptoms. The cause of persistent pain or recurrent symptoms after repair is likely multifactorial; therefore, careful preoperative workup is required to elucidate the cause of pain. Review of the details of previous surgical procedures is crucial because certain fixation methods are prone to failure or can cause additional injury. Failed SLAP repair can be managed with nonsurgical or surgical options. Nonsurgical modalities include physical therapy and strengthening programs, anti-inflammatory agents, and activity modification. Surgical options include revision SLAP repair and biceps tenotomy or tenodesis with or without revision SLAP repair. Outcomes after surgical management of failed SLAP repair are inferior to those of primary repair. Select patients may be better served by primary biceps tenodesis rather than SLAP repair.

  1. Annual Adaptive Management Report for Compensatory Mitigation at Keyport Lagoon: Mitigation of Pier B Development at the Bremerton Naval Facilities - Compensatory Mitigation at Keyport Lagoon - Naval Underwater Warfare Center Division - Keyport, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavrinec, John; Borde, Amy B.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Thom, Ronald M.; Wright, Cynthia L.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2012-06-01

    Unites States Navy capital improvement projects are designed to modernize and improve mission capacity. Such capital improvement projects often result in unavoidable environmental impacts by increasing over-water structures, which results in a loss of subtidal habitat within industrial areas of Navy bases. In the Pacific Northwest, compensatory mitigation often targets alleviating impacts to Endangered Species Act-listed salmon species. The complexity of restoring large systems requires limited resources to target successful and more coordinated mitigation efforts to address habitat loss and improvements in water quality that will clearly contribute to an improvement at the site scale and can then be linked to a cumulative net ecosystem improvement.

  2. Why Do Insurance-Linked Exchange-Traded Derivatives Fail?

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie Bouriaux; Michael J. Tomas III

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the reasons why exchange-traded insurance-linked derivatives like catastrophe insurance futures and options have failed to attract interest from financial market participants. There are various risk components embedded in exchange-traded catastrophe insurance derivatives—namely, basis risk, liquidity risk, and development risk—which may limit their appeal to the hedging and investing communities. Our analysis suggests that the choice of an industry loss index as a trigger ...

  3. Medical Support to Failed States: Start with the Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    population can be significant. In Russia overcrowded prisons have bred new drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis that have proliferated virulently...among the general public.26 Similarly in the early 1990‟s the Los Angeles Jail experienced an outbreak of cerebral meningitis that spread to the local...community.27 In the Failed States of Africa, the spread of drug resistant Tuberculosis and HIV in the prisons now pose a grave threat to the region

  4. Paying for innovation. Failed strategies add to hospitals' reimbursement losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarito, K

    Hospitals across the country are struggling to balance revenue shortfalls and cost increases as the lid on government and private-payer payments closes tighter. They're also grappling with losses on failed physician and HMO investments, the expense of new medical technologies and larger-than-planned costs related to "millennium bug" cures. This is the second part of a two-part series on financial turmoil in healthcare.

  5. Reorganized PKA-AKAP associations in the failing human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thin-Thin; Soni, Siddarth; van Veen, Toon A B; van der Heyden, Marcel A G; Cappadona, Salvatore; Varro, Andras; de Weger, Roel A; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Vos, Marc A; Heck, Albert J R; Scholten, Arjen

    2012-02-01

    Here we reveal that the characterization of large-scale re-arrangements of signaling scaffolds induced by heart failure can serve as a novel concept to identify more specific therapeutic targets. In the mammalian heart, the cAMP pathway, with the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in a central role, acts directly downstream of adrenergic receptors to mediate cardiac contractility and rhythm. Heart failure, characterized by severe alterations in adrenergic stimulation is, amongst other interventions, often treated with β-blockers. Contrasting results, however, have shown both beneficial and detrimental effects of decreased cAMP levels in failing hearts. We hypothesize that the origin of this behavior lies in the complex spatiotemporal organization of the regulatory subunit of PKA (PKA-R), which associates tightly with various A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) to specifically localize PKA's activity. Using chemical proteomics directly applied to human patient and control heart tissue we demonstrate that the association profile of PKA-R with several AKAPs is severely altered in the failing heart, for instance effecting the interaction between PKA and the novel AKAP SPHKAP was 6-fold upregulated upon failing heart conditions. Also a significant increase in captured cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and phosphodiesterase 2 (PDE2) was observed. The observed altered profiles can already explain many aspects of the aberrant cAMP-response in the failing human heart, validating that this dataset may provide a resource for several novel, more specific, treatment options. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Local Signaling in Myocytes".

  6. Fail-safe designs for large capacity battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Smith, Kandler; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad A.; Neubauer, Jeremy

    2016-05-17

    Fail-safe systems and design methodologies for large capacity battery systems are disclosed. The disclosed systems and methodologies serve to locate a faulty cell in a large capacity battery, such as a cell having an internal short circuit, determine whether the fault is evolving, and electrically isolate the faulty cell from the rest of the battery, preventing further electrical energy from feeding into the fault.

  7. Organizational crisis management - crisis communication when IT fails

    OpenAIRE

    Glad, Jutta

    2009-01-01

    HELSINKI SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS ABSTRACT International Business, Master’s Thesis Jutta Glad 08.05.2009 ORGANIZATIONAL CRISIS MANAGEMENT – CRISIS COMMUNICATION WHEN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FAILS Objectives of the thesis The objective of this study is to find out what different factors an organization should consider when responding to an organizational crisis that has been caused by an information technology failure. The study also tries to find out whether crisis communicat...

  8. Why Not Let IT Fail? The IT Project Success Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrose, Paul,; Munro, David

    2013-01-01

    Part 7: Shorter Papers; International audience; Is a focus on information systems or information technology success a myopic view of evaluating IT success and failure? Are success and failure the opposite ends of a continuum for evaluating IT projects? Conventional measures of success such as meeting cost, time, budgets, and user needs do not address positives that can emerge from failures. We contend that a focus on success and failing to factor the possibility of failure actually hamper IT ...

  9. Compensatory Response by Late Embryonic Tubular Epithelium to the Reduction in Pancreatic Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Wataru; Kapoor, Archana; El Khattabi, Ilham; Jin, Wanzhu; Yasuda, Kazuki; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Early in pancreatic development, epithelial cells of pancreatic buds function as primary multipotent progenitor cells (1°MPC) that specify all three pancreatic cell lineages, i.e., endocrine, acinar and duct. Bipotent "Trunk" progenitors derived from 1°MPC are implicated in directly regulating the specification of endocrine progenitors. It is unclear if this specification process is initiated in the 1°MPC where some 1°MPC become competent for later specification of endocrine progenitors. Previously we reported that in Pdx1tTA/+;tetOMafA (bigenic) mice inducing expression of transcription factor MafA in Pdx1-expressing (Pdx1+) cells throughout embryonic development inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of 1°MPC cells, resulting in reduced pancreatic mass and endocrine cells by embryonic day (E) 17.5. Induction of the transgene only until E12.5 in Pdx1+ 1°MPC was sufficient for this inhibition of endocrine cells and pancreatic mass at E17.5. However, by birth (P0), as we now report, such bigenic pups had significantly increased pancreatic and endocrine volumes with endocrine clusters containing all pancreatic endocrine cell types. The increase in endocrine cells resulted from a higher proliferation of tubular epithelial cells expressing the progenitor marker Glut2 in E17.5 bigenic embryos and increased number of Neurog3-expressing cells at E19.5. A BrdU-labeling study demonstrated that inhibiting proliferation of 1°MPC by forced MafA-expression did not lead to retention of those progenitors in E17.5 tubular epithelium. Our data suggest that the forced MafA expression in the 1°MPC inhibits their competency to specify endocrine progenitors only until E17.5, and after that compensatory proliferation of tubular epithelium gives rise to a distinct pool of endocrine progenitors. Thus, these bigenic mice provide a novel way to characterize the competency of 1°MPC for their ability to specify endocrine progenitors, a critical limitation in our

  10. Tolerance and compensatory response of rice to sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, J; Wilson, L T; Longnecker, M T

    2008-06-01

    A 3-yr field experiment was conducted to evaluate the tolerance and compensatory response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to injury caused by sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), as affected by cultivar (Cocodrie, Francis, and Jefferson), stage of crop growth during which the injury occurred (third tiller stage, panicle differentiation stage, and heading stage), and sugarcane borer density. The proportion of rice tillers with sugarcane borer injury (leaf and leaf sheath injury and/or stem injury) was lower when injury occurred at the third tiller stage (0.05) than at panicle differentiation (0.19) and heading (0.18). When injury occurred at the two latter stages, both the proportion of tillers with injury and the proportion of tillers with stem injury were negatively correlated with rainfall. Rainfall resulted in dislodgement and mortality of sugarcane borer eggs and larvae before the larvae entered the stems. Rice plant density in this study (111.1 plants/m2) was higher than recorded for previous research on rice compensation using potted rice or conducted in low-density hill production systems (26.7-51.3 plants/m2). Two mechanisms of within-plant tolerance/compensation were observed. Stem injured plants produced approximately 0.69 more tillers than uninjured plants, whereas tillers with leaf and leaf sheath injury produced larger panicles, up to 39.5 and 21.0% heavier than uninjured tillers, when injury occurred at third tiller stage and at panicle differentiation, respectively. Rice yield was not reduced with up to 23% injured tiller and up to 10% injured stems at the third tiller stage, 42% injured tillers and 17% injured stems at panicle differentiation, and 28% injured tillers and 14% injured stems at heading. Significant between-plant compensation was not detected, suggesting competition between adjacent plants is not significantly reduced by injury. Our results suggest that rice can tolerate and/or compensate for a level of stem borer injury previously

  11. Metallothionein as a compensatory component prevents intermittent hypoxia-induced cardiomyopathy in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Xia; Zhou, Shanshan [The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021 (China); KCHRI at the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, 40202 (United States); Zheng, Yang, E-mail: zhengyang@jlu.edu.cn [The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021 (China); Tan, Yi [KCHRI at the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, 40202 (United States); Chinese–American Research Institute for Diabetic Complications, Wenzhou Medical College School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou, 325035 (China); Kong, Maiying [Department of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Wang, Bo [KCHRI at the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, 40202 (United States); Department of Pathology, Inner Mongolia Forestry General Hospital, Yakeshi, 022150 (China); Feng, Wenke [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, 40202 (United States); Epstein, Paul N. [KCHRI at the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, 40202 (United States); Cai, Jun, E-mail: j0cai002@louisville.edu [KCHRI at the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, 40202 (United States); Cai, Lu [KCHRI at the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, 40202 (United States); Chinese–American Research Institute for Diabetic Complications, Wenzhou Medical College School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou, 325035 (China); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, 40202 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) to induce cardiovascular disease, which may be related to oxidative damage. Metallothionein (MT) has been extensively proved to be an endogenous and highly inducible antioxidant protein expressed in the heart. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that oxidative stress plays a critical role in OSA induced cardiac damage and MT protects the heart from OSA-induced cardiomyopathy. To mimic hypoxia/reoxygenation events that occur in adult OSA patients, mice were exposed to IH for 3 days to 8 weeks. The IH paradigm consisted of alternating cycles of 20.9% O{sub 2}/8% O{sub 2} F{sub I}O{sub 2} (30 episodes per hour) with 20 s at the nadir F{sub I}O{sub 2} for 12 h a day during daylight. IH significantly increased the ratio of heart weight to tibia length at 4 weeks with a decrease in cardiac function from 4 to 8 weeks. Cardiac oxidative damage and fibrosis were observed after 4 and 8 weeks of IH exposures. Endogenous MT expression was up-regulated in response to 3-day IH, but significantly decreased at 4 and 8 weeks of IH. In support of MT as a major compensatory component, mice with cardiac overexpression of MT gene and mice with global MT gene deletion were completely resistant, and highly sensitive, respectively, to chronic IH induced cardiac effects. These findings suggest that chronic IH induces cardiomyopathy characterized by oxidative stress-mediated cardiac damage and the antioxidant MT protects the heart from such pathological and functional changes. - Highlights: • The effect of intermittent hypoxia (IH) on cardiac metallothionein (MT) • Cardiac MT expression was up-regulated in response to 3-day IH. • Exposure to 4- or 8-week IH downregulated cardiac MT expression. • Overexpression of cardiac MT protects from IH-induced cardiac damage. • Global deletion of MT gene made the heart more sensitive to IH damage.

  12. Failing States as Epidemiologic Risk Zones: Implications for Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Katherine

    Failed states commonly experience health and mortality crises that include outbreaks of infectious disease, violent conflict, reductions in life expectancy, and increased infant and maternal mortality. This article draws from recent research in political science, security studies, and international relations to explore how the process of state failure generates health declines and outbreaks of infectious disease. The key innovation of this model is a revised definition of "the state" as a geographically dynamic rather than static political space. This makes it easier to understand how phases of territorial contraction, collapse, and regeneration interrupt public health programs, destabilize the natural environment, reduce human security, and increase risks of epidemic infectious disease and other humanitarian crises. Better understanding of these dynamics will help international health agencies predict and prepare for future health and mortality crises created by failing states.

  13. Study on characteristics of base isolation system with fail-safe devices. ; Fundamental dynamic characteristic of fail-safe devices. Menshin sochi no fail-safe kiko ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Fail-safe sochi no kihon dotokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teramura, A.; Nakamura, T.; Suzuki, T.; Nohata, A.; Tsunoda, T.; Okada, H.; Yasui, Y. (Obayashi, Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-08-10

    This study describes fail-safe mechanisms to be built in the laminated rubber base isolation devices for the purpose of developing a base isolation system necessary for the application to nuclear fuel facilities. There are two types of fail-safe devices developed in the fundamental study; a landing type on which the bottom of the building is supported and a stopper type for restricting excessive development. The basic characteristics of these devices were investigated through static and dynamic fundamental tests and input of earthquake force on a shaking table. As a result of these tests and analyses, it was proved that the whole restoring force characteristics of the two types of fail-safe devices were almost the same as expected, and their earthquake response characteristics met the initially designed performance. Moreover, it was shown that they prevent buckling of rubber bearings under input of excessive earthquake forces and consequently enhance safety of superstructures of the buildings. 4 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Failed magnetic resonance imaging examinations due to claustrophobia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarji, S.A.; Abdullah, B.J.J.; Kumar, G.; Tan, A.H.; Narayanan, P. [University of malaya Centre, Kuala Lumpar (Malaysia). Department of Radiology

    1998-11-01

    A recognised cause of incomplete or cancelled MRI examinations is anxiety and claustrophobic symptoms in patients undergoing MR scanning. This appears to be a problem in many MRI centres in Western Europe and North America, where it is said to be costly in terms of loss of valuable scan time, and has led to researchers suggesting several anxiety reducing approaches for MRI. To determine the incidence of failed MRI examination among our patients and if there are any associations with a patient`s sex, age and education level, we studied claustrophobia that led to premature termination of the MRI examination in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in 3324 patients over 28 months. The incidence of failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia in the UMMC was found to be only 0.54%. There are associations between claustrophobia in MRI with the patients` sex, age and level of education. The majority of those affected were male patients and young patients in the 25-45-year age group. The patients` education level appears to be the strongest association with failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia, where the majority of the affected were highly educated individuals. Claustrophobia in MRI is more of a problem among the educated individuals or patients from a higher socio-economic group, which may explain the higher incidence in Western European and North American patients. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 9 refs.

  15. Palmitoylethanolamide in the Treatment of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome

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    Antonella Paladini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This observational study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA (Normast® administration, as add-on therapy for chronic pain, in the management of pain-resistant patients affected by failed back surgery syndrome. Methods. A total of 35 patients were treated with tapentadol (TPD and pregabalin (PGB. One month after the start of standard treatment, um-PEA was added for the next two months. Pain was evaluated by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS at the time of enrollment (T0 and after one (T1, two (T2, and three (T3 months. Results. After the first month with TDP + PGB treatment only, VAS score decreased significantly from 5.7±0.12 at the time of enrollment (T0 to 4.3 ± 0.11 (T1 (p<0.0001; however, it failed to provide significant subjective improvement in pain symptoms. Addition of um-PEA led to a further and significant decrease in pain intensity, reaching VAS scores of 2.7 ± 0.09 (T2 and 1.7 ± 0.11 (T3, end of treatment (p<0.0001 without showing any side effects. Conclusions. This observational study provides evidence, albeit preliminary, for the efficacy and safety of um-PEA (Normast as part of a multimodal therapeutic regimen in the treatment of pain-resistant patients suffering from failed back surgery syndrome.

  16. Evidence of structural remodeling in the dyssynchronous failing heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Patrick A; Younes, Laurent; Beg, Mirza F; Ennis, Daniel B; Leclercq, Christophe; Faris, Owen P; McVeigh, Elliot; Kass, David; Miller, Michael I; Winslow, Raimond L

    2006-01-01

    Ventricular remodeling of both geometry and fiber structure is a prominent feature of several cardiac pathologies. Advances in MRI and analytical methods now make it possible to measure changes of cardiac geometry, fiber, and sheet orientation at high spatial resolution. In this report, we use diffusion tensor imaging to measure the geometry, fiber, and sheet architecture of eight normal and five dyssynchronous failing canine hearts, which were explanted and fixed in an unloaded state. We apply novel computational methods to identify statistically significant changes of cardiac anatomic structure in the failing and control heart populations. The results demonstrate significant regional differences in geometric remodeling in the dyssynchronous failing heart versus control. Ventricular chamber dilatation and reduction in wall thickness in septal and some posterior and anterior regions are observed. Primary fiber orientation showed no significant change. However, this result coupled with the local wall thinning in the septum implies an altered transmural fiber gradient. Further, we observe that orientation of laminar sheets become more vertical in the early-activated septum, with no significant change of sheet orientation in the late-activated lateral wall. Measured changes in both fiber gradient and sheet structure will affect both the heterogeneity of passive myocardial properties as well as electrical activation of the ventricles.

  17. Compensatory hypertrophy of the contralateral inferior turbinate in patients with unilateral nasal septal deviation. A computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa Estomba, Carlos; Rivera Schmitz, Teresa; Ossa Echeverri, Carla C; Betances Reinoso, Frank A; Osorio Velasquez, Alejandra; Santidrian Hidalgo, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    The compensatory hypertrophy of the inferior turbinate in patients with septal deviation to one of the nostrils is considered to protect the airways from the excess of air that could enter through the nostril and its potential negative effects such as dryness, alteration of air filtration, mucociliary flow, or lung involvement. A prospective, longitudinal, non-randomized study. Patients were divided in two groups: 10 consecutive patients, with nasal septal deviation and compensatory hypertrophy of the inferior turbinate in the contralateral nasal cavity (10 non-hypertrophied turbinates as control and 10 contralateral hypertrophied turbinates as study cases), and the second group with 5 patients without any nasal pathology (10 turbinates without any obvious pathology). In both groups CT scans of the nasal region were performed. A comparison of patients with nasal septal deviation with compensatory hypertrophy of the inferior turbinate in the contralateral nasal cavity and with non-pathological inferior turbinate was carried out. When analyzing the groups of patients with septal deviation, the contralateral hypertrophied turbinate and the non-hypertrophied turbinate side, we found a significant hypertrophy in the anterior portion of the inferior turbinate, at the level of the medial mucosa (P = 0.002) and bone (P = 0.001) in the group of patients with contralateral hypertrophied turbinate. However, when we compared the contralateral hypertrophic turbinate with the turbinate of patients without septal deviation, we found a significant difference in all volumes of the medial and lateral mucosa and the bone portion (P = 0.001, P = 0.005). Surgical correction of the nasal septum and lateralization or reduction of the volume of the inferior turbinate (which may include the medial mucosa, head or part of the bone) is necessary in order to improve air passage into the nasal valve.

  18. Compensatory hyperinsulinemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice is associated with enhanced insulin translation in islets

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    Kanno, Ayumi, E-mail: akanno@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Asahara, Shun-ichiro, E-mail: asahara@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Masuda, Katsuhisa, E-mail: katsuhisa.m.0707@gmail.com [Division of Medical Chemistry, Department of Biophysics, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan); Matsuda, Tomokazu, E-mail: tomokazu@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Kimura-Koyanagi, Maki, E-mail: koyanagi@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Seino, Susumu, E-mail: seino@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Molecular and Metabolic Medicine, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Ogawa, Wataru, E-mail: ogawa@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Kido, Yoshiaki, E-mail: kido@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Medical Chemistry, Department of Biophysics, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan)

    2015-03-13

    A high-fat diet (HF) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia. Animal studies have shown compensatory mechanisms in pancreatic β-cells after high fat load, such as increased pancreatic β-cell mass, enhanced insulin secretion, and exocytosis. However, the effects of high fat intake on insulin synthesis are obscure. Here, we investigated whether insulin synthesis was altered in correlation with an HF diet, for the purpose of obtaining further understanding of the compensatory mechanisms in pancreatic β-cells. Mice fed an HF diet are obese, insulin resistant, hyperinsulinemic, and glucose intolerant. In islets of mice fed an HF diet, more storage of insulin was identified. We analyzed insulin translation in mouse islets, as well as in INS-1 cells, using non-radioisotope chemicals. We found that insulin translational levels were significantly increased in islets of mice fed an HF diet to meet systemic demand, without altering its transcriptional levels. Our data showed that not only increased pancreatic β-cell mass and insulin secretion but also elevated insulin translation is the major compensatory mechanism of pancreatic β-cells. - Highlights: • More stored insulin was recognized in islets of mice fed a high-fat diet. • Insulin translation was not enhanced by fatty acids, but by insulin demand. • Insulin transcription was not altered in islets of mice fed a high-fat diet. • Insulin translation was markedly enhanced in islets of mice fed a high-fat diet. • Non-radioisotope chemicals were used to measure insulin translation in mouse islets.

  19. Spinal fusion limits upper body range of motion during gait without inducing compensatory mechanisms in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holewijn, R M; Kingma, I; de Kleuver, M; Schimmel, J J P; Keijsers, N L W

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies show a limited alteration of gait at normal walking speed after spinal fusion surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), despite the presumed essential role of spinal mobility during gait. This study analyses how spinal fusion affects gait at more challenging walking speeds. More specifically, we investigated whether thoracic-pelvic rotations are reduced to a larger extent at higher gait speeds and whether compensatory mechanisms above and below the stiffened spine are present. 18 AIS patients underwent gait analysis at increasing walking speeds (0.45 to 2.22m/s) before and after spinal fusion. The range of motion (ROM) of the upper (thorax, thoracic-pelvic and pelvis) and lower body (hip, knee and ankle) was determined in all three planes. Spatiotemporal parameters of interest were stride length and cadence. Spinal fusion diminished transverse plane thoracic-pelvic ROM and this difference was more explicit at higher walking speeds. Transversal pelvis ROM was also decreased but this effect was not affected by speed. Lower body ROM, step length and cadence remained unaffected. Despite the reduction of upper body ROM after spine surgery during high speed gait, no altered spatiotemporal parameters or increased compensatory ROM above or below the fusion (i.e. in the shoulder girdle or lower extremities) was identified. Thus, it remains unclear how patients can cope so well with such major surgery. Future studies should focus on analyzing the kinematics of individual spinal levels above and below the fusion during gait to investigate possible compensatory mechanisms within the spine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cerebral pathological and compensatory mechanisms in the premotor phase of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nuenen, Bart F L; Helmich, Rick C; Ferraye, Murielle; Thaler, Avner; Hendler, Talma; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Mirelman, Anat; Bressman, Susan; Marder, Karen S; Giladi, Nir; van de Warrenburg, Bart P C; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Toni, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Compensatory cerebral mechanisms can delay motor symptom onset in Parkinson's disease. We aim to characterize these compensatory mechanisms and early disease-related changes by quantifying movement-related cerebral function in subjects at significantly increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease, namely carriers of a leucine-rich repeat kinase 2-G2019S mutation associated with dominantly inherited parkinsonism. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine cerebral activity evoked during internal selection of motor representations, a core motor deficit in clinically overt Parkinson's disease. Thirty-nine healthy first-degree relatives of Ashkenazi Jewish patients with Parkinson's disease, who carry the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2-G2019S mutation, participated in this study. Twenty-one carriers of the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2-G2019S mutation and 18 non-carriers of this mutation were engaged in a motor imagery task (laterality judgements of left or right hands) known to be sensitive to motor control parameters. Behavioural performance of both groups was matched. Mutation carriers and non-carriers were equally sensitive to the extent and biomechanical constraints of the imagined movements in relation to the current posture of the participants' hands. Cerebral activity differed between groups, such that leucine-rich repeat kinase 2-G2019S carriers had reduced imagery-related activity in the right caudate nucleus and increased activity in the right dorsal premotor cortex. More severe striatal impairment was associated with stronger effective connectivity between the right dorsal premotor cortex and the right extrastriate body area. These findings suggest that altered movement-related activity in the caudate nuclei of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2-G2019S carriers might remain behaviourally latent by virtue of cortical compensatory mechanisms involving long-range connectivity between the dorsal premotor cortex and posterior sensory regions. These