WorldWideScience

Sample records for models exhibit high

  1. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... experience to be self-explanatory. Observations of different visitor reactions to the unmanned VR experience compared with visitor reactions at guided tours with personal instructions are evaluated. Data on perception of realism, spatial quality and light in the VR model were collected with qualitative...

  2. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... and quantitative methods at two different occasions and setups after the exhibition, both showing a high degree of immersion and experience of reality....

  3. A model for the scattering of high-frequency electromagnetic fields from dielectrics exhibiting thermally-activated electrical losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Raiford E.

    1991-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model (ECM) approach is used to predict the scattering behavior of temperature-activated, electrically lossy dielectric layers. The total electrical response of the dielectric (relaxation + conductive) is given by the ECM and used in combination with transmission line theory to compute reflectance spectra for a Dallenbach layer configuration. The effects of thermally-activated relaxation processes on the scattering properties is discussed. Also, the effect of relaxation and conduction activation energy on the electrical properties of the dielectric is described.

  4. Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China[Guangzheu] International Trade Fair for Home Textiles Date:March 18th- March 21st,2011 Venue:China Import and Export Fair Complex(Guangzhou,China) Organizers:China National Textile&Apparel Council China Foreign Trade Center(Group) China Home Textile Association China Foreign Trade Guangzhou Exhibition Corp.

  5. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacu...

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  7. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  8. Experimentally constrained CA1 fast-firing parvalbumin-positive interneuron network models exhibit sharp transitions into coherent high frequency rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie A Ferguson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of high frequency oscillations (HFOs; >100 Hz and theta oscillations (3-12 Hz in the CA1 region of rats increases during REM sleep, indicating that it may play a role in memory processing. However, it is unclear whether the CA1 region itself is capable of providing major contributions to the generation of HFOs, or if they are strictly driven through input projections. Parvalbumin-positive (PV+ interneurons may play an essential role in these oscillations due to their extensive connections with neighbouring pyramidal cells, and their characteristic fast-spiking. Thus, we created mathematical network models to investigate the conditions under which networks of CA1 fast-spiking PV+ interneurons are capable of producing high frequency population rhythms.We used whole-cell patch clamp recordings of fast-spiking, PV+ cells in the CA1 region of an intact hippocampal preparation in vitro to derive cellular properties, from which we constrained an Izhikevich-type model. Novel, biologically constrained network models were constructed with these individual cell models, and we investigated networks across a range of experimentally determined excitatory inputs and inhibitory synaptic strengths. For each network, we determined network frequency and coherence.Network simulations produce coherent firing at high frequencies (> 90 Hz for parameter ranges in which PV-PV inhibitory synaptic conductances are necessarily small and external excitatory inputs are relatively large. Interestingly, our networks produce sharp transitions between random and coherent firing, and this sharpness is lost when connectivity is increased beyond biological estimates. Our work suggests that CA1 networks may be designed with mechanisms for quickly gating in and out of high frequency coherent population rhythms, which may be essential in the generation of nested theta/high frequency rhythms.

  9. A content-oriented model for science exhibit engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    : as a means to operationalize the link between exhibit features and visitor activities; and as a template to transform scientists’ practices in the research context into visitors’ activities in the exhibit context. The resulting model of science exhibit engineering is presented and exemplified, and its...... in prompting visitors to carry out intended actions, exhibits do not necessarily promote the intended interpretations of these actions among visitors. Here, the notion of praxeology from didactics research is suggested as a model to remedy this shortcoming. The suggested role of praxeology is twofold......Recently, science museums have begun to review their educational purposes and redesign their pedagogies. At the most basic level, this entails accounting for the performance of individual exhibits, and indeed, in some cases, research indicates shortcomings in exhibit design: While often successful...

  10. A new MOF-505 analog exhibiting high acetylene storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yunxia; Xiang, Shengchang; Zhang, Wenwei; Zhang, Zhuxiu; Wang, Lei; Bai, Junfeng; Chen, Banglin

    2009-12-28

    A new microporous metal-organic framework Cu(2)(EBTC)(H(2)O)(2) x xG (EBTC = 1,1'-ethynebenzene-3,3',5,5'-tetracarboxylate; G = guest molecule) was rationally designed with a NbO net, exhibiting significantly high acetylene storage of 252 and 160 cm(3) g(-1) at 273 and 295 K under 1 bar, respectively.

  11. Fenofibrate exhibits a high potential to suppress the formation of squamous cell carcinoma in an oral-specific 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide/arecoline mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Nai Wen; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Lin, Chingju; Hsu, Hui Ting; Chu, Pei-Yi; Yeh, Chung-Min; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Yeh, Kun-Tu

    2011-04-01

    The excessive use of areca nut and/or tobacco may induce the production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, which affect the lipid contents of the cell membrane and are possibly involved in tumorigenic processes in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of fenofibrate (0.1% or 0.3%, w/w), a ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), in a 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)/arecoline-induced oral cancer mouse model. The carcinogen, 4-NQO/arecoline, was administrated to C57BL/6JNarl mice for 8weeks followed by fenofibrate treatment for 12 or 20weeks. After 28weeks, changes in serum lipids, the multiplicity of tumor lesions, and tumor sizes were determined together with changes in the immunohistochemical expressions of PPARα, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2). The results showed that when compared to the 4-NQO/arecoline only group, 0.3% fenofibrate treatment increased serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. 0.3% fenofibrate treatment suppressed the incidence rate of tongue lesions, reduced the multiplicity of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), decreased the tumor size, and increased the immunoreactivity of EGFR and COX2 in oral dysplasia but decreased EGFR and COX2 expressions in SCC. These findings indicated that fenofibrate reduced the tumor incidence rate and suppressed the tumor progression into SCC and that these molecular events might be linked to the EGFR and COX2 regulatory pathways. We suggest that fenofibrate provides a new strategy for preventing oral tumor progression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N6 Viruses Exhibit Enhanced Affinity for Human Type Sialic Acid Receptor and In-Contact Transmission in Model Ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Honglei; Pu, Juan; Wei, Yandi; Sun, Yipeng; Hu, Jiao; Liu, Litao; Xu, Guanlong; Gao, Weihua; Li, Chong; Zhang, Xuxiao; Huang, Yinhua; Chang, Kin-Chow; Liu, Xiufan; Liu, Jinhua

    2016-07-15

    Since May 2014, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 virus has been reported to cause six severe human infections three of which were fatal. The biological properties of this subtype, in particular its relative pathogenicity and transmissibility in mammals, are not known. We characterized the virus receptor-binding affinity, pathogenicity, and transmissibility in mice and ferrets of four H5N6 isolates derived from waterfowl in China from 2013-2014. All four H5N6 viruses have acquired a binding affinity for human-like SAα2,6Gal-linked receptor to be able to attach to human tracheal epithelial and alveolar cells. The emergent H5N6 viruses, which share high sequence similarity with the human isolate A/Guangzhou/39715/2014 (H5N6), were fully infective and highly transmissible by direct contact in ferrets but showed less-severe pathogenicity than the parental H5N1 virus. The present results highlight the threat of emergent H5N6 viruses to poultry and human health and the need to closely track their continual adaptation in humans. Extended epizootics and panzootics of H5N1 viruses have led to the emergence of the novel 2.3.4.4 clade of H5 virus subtypes, including H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8 reassortants. Avian H5N6 viruses from this clade have caused three fatalities out of six severe human infections in China since the first case in 2014. However, the biological properties of this subtype, especially the pathogenicity and transmission in mammals, are not known. Here, we found that natural avian H5N6 viruses have acquired a high affinity for human-type virus receptor. Compared to the parental clade 2.3.4 H5N1 virus, emergent H5N6 isolates showed less severe pathogenicity in mice and ferrets but acquired efficient in-contact transmission in ferrets. These findings suggest that the threat of avian H5N6 viruses to humans should not be ignored. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Commercial chicken breeds exhibit highly divergent patterns of linkage disequilibrium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R J Pengelly; A A Gheyas; R Kuo; E Mossotto; E G Seaby; D W Burt; S Ennis; A Collins

    2016-01-01

    ... mechanisms such as those driving recombination and the impact of selection. We apply the Malécot-Morton model of LD to create additive LD maps that describe the high-resolution LD landscape of commercial chickens...

  14. Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

  15. A Social Network Model Exhibiting Tunable Overlapping Community Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, D.; Blenn, N.; Van Mieghem, P.F.A.

    2012-01-01

    Social networks, as well as many other real-world networks, exhibit overlapping community structure. In this paper, we present formulas which facilitate the computation for characterizing the overlapping community structure of networks. A hypergraph representation of networks with overlapping

  16. Magnetization direction in the Heisenberg model exhibiting fractional Brownian motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhengping; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Zuckermann, Martin J.

    1993-01-01

    The temporal magnetization-direction fluctuations in the three-dimensional classical ferromagnetic Heisenberg model have been generated by Monte Carlo simulation and analyzed by the rescaled-range method to yield the Hurst exponent H. A value of H congruent-to 1 has been found to apply...

  17. Technology for Tomorrow---High-Tech Exhibition Held in HONG KONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Lin

    1997-01-01

    @@ "Technology for Tomorrow"--- High-Tech Exhibition has been held by Hong Kong Science & Technology Sector for Celebration of Return of Sovereignty Association and China Association Science & Technology on June 28 to July 4, 1997 in Hong Kong.

  18. Puerto Rico Experimental Model Dental Auxiliary Training Program. The Comprehensive Report, Exhibits A to F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan. School of Dentistry.

    This annex supplements the Puerto Rico Experimental Model Dental Training Program Comprehensive Report (CE 028 213) and is comprised of exhibits A through F. Among the information included in the exhibits is the experimental model schedule, the schematic representation, the content display, and the course outlines for all courses in the program.…

  19. High- compared to low-arched athletes exhibit smaller knee abduction moments in walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas W; Andrews, Samantha; Stickley, Cris; Williams, D S Blaise

    2016-12-01

    High- (HA) and low-arched athletes (LA) experience distinct injury patterns. These injuries are the result of the interaction of structure and biomechanics. A suggested mechanism of patellofemoral pain pertains to frontal plane knee moments which may be exaggerated in LA athletes. We hypothesize that LA athletes will exhibit greater peak knee abduction moments than high-arched athletes.

  20. Puerto Rico Experimental Model Dental Auxiliary Training Program. The Comprehensive Report, Exhibits G to L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan. School of Dentistry.

    This annex supplements the Puerto Rico Experimental Model Dental Training Program Comprehensive Report (CE 028 213) and is comprised of exhibits G through L. Among the information included in the exhibits is the evaluation reports of the commission on accreditation, the detailed curriculum, and the accredited program's scope, sequence, and course…

  1. An Investigation into the Life Experiences and Beliefs of Teachers Exhibiting Highly Effective Classroom Management Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Chuck; Hargrove, Pauline; Harris, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the life experiences and beliefs of highly effective teachers exhibiting effective classroom management. This study explores the beliefs, background, and experiences of exemplary teachers in the area of classroom management. The goal of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of how individuals…

  2. An Investigation into the Life Experiences and Beliefs of Teachers Exhibiting Highly Effective Classroom Management Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Chuck; Hargrove, Pauline; Harris, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the life experiences and beliefs of highly effective teachers exhibiting effective classroom management. This study explores the beliefs, background, and experiences of exemplary teachers in the area of classroom management. The goal of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of how individuals…

  3. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    ) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another perspective...

  4. Characterization of Catalase from Psychrotolerant Psychrobacter piscatorii T-3 Exhibiting High Catalase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hidetoshi Matsuyma; Isao Yumoto; Hideyuki Kimoto; Kazuaki Yoshimune

    2012-01-01

    A psychrotolerant bacterium, strain T-3 (identified as Psychrobacter piscatorii), that exhibited an extraordinarily high catalase activity was isolated from the drain pool of a plant that uses H2O2 as a bleaching agent. Its cell extract exhibited a catalase activity (19,700 U·mg protein−1) that was higher than that of Micrococcus luteus used for industrial catalase production. Catalase was approximately 10% of the total proteins in the cell extract of the strain. The catalase (PktA) was purif...

  5. Characterization of Catalase from Psychrotolerant Psychrobacter piscatorii T-3 Exhibiting High Catalase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Matsuyma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A psychrotolerant bacterium, strain T-3 (identified as Psychrobacter piscatorii, that exhibited an extraordinarily high catalase activity was isolated from the drain pool of a plant that uses H2O2 as a bleaching agent. Its cell extract exhibited a catalase activity (19,700 U·mg protein−1 that was higher than that of Micrococcus luteus used for industrial catalase production. Catalase was approximately 10% of the total proteins in the cell extract of the strain. The catalase (PktA was purified homogeneously by only two purification steps, anion exchange and hydrophobic chromatographies. The purified catalase exhibited higher catalytic efficiency and higher sensitivity of activity at high temperatures than M. luteus catalase. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest homology with catalase of Psycrobacter cryohalolentis, a psychrotolelant bacterium obtained from Siberian permafrost. These findings suggest that the characteristics of the PktA molecule reflected the taxonomic relationship of the isolate as well as the environmental conditions (low temperatures and high concentrations of H2O2 under which the bacterium survives. Strain T-3 efficiently produces a catalase (PktA at a higher rate than Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans, which produces a very strong activity of catalase (EktA at a moderate rate, in order to adapt to high concentration of H2O2.

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aggregate Formation in an Alginate Bead Model System Exhibits In Vivo-Like Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sønderholm, Majken; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Koren, Klaus; Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Darch, Sophie E; Alhede, Maria; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Whiteley, Marvin; Kühl, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Alginate beads represent a simple and highly reproducible in vitro model system for diffusion-limited bacterial growth. In this study, alginate beads were inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and followed for up to 72 h. Confocal microscopy revealed that P. aeruginosa formed dense clusters similar in size to in vivo aggregates observed ex vivo in cystic fibrosis lungs and chronic wounds. Bacterial aggregates primarily grew in the bead periphery and decreased in size and abundance toward the center of the bead. Microsensor measurements showed that the O2 concentration decreased rapidly and reached anoxia ∼100 μm below the alginate bead surface. This gradient was relieved in beads supplemented with NO3(-) as an alternative electron acceptor allowing for deeper growth into the beads. A comparison of gene expression profiles between planktonic and alginate-encapsulated P. aeruginosa confirmed that the bacteria experienced hypoxic and anoxic growth conditions. Furthermore, alginate-encapsulated P. aeruginosa exhibited a lower respiration rate than the planktonic counterpart and showed a high tolerance toward antibiotics. The inoculation and growth of P. aeruginosa in alginate beads represent a simple and flexible in vivo-like biofilm model system, wherein bacterial growth exhibits central features of in vivo biofilms. This was observed by the formation of small cell aggregates in a secondary matrix with O2-limited growth, which was alleviated by the addition of NO3(-) as an alternative electron acceptor, and by reduced respiration rates, as well as an enhanced tolerance to antibiotic treatment.IMPORTANCEPseudomonas aeruginosa has been studied intensively for decades due to its involvement in chronic infections, such as cystic fibrosis and chronic wounds, where it forms biofilms. Much research has been dedicated to biofilm formation on surfaces; however, in chronic infections, most biofilms form small aggregates of cells not attached to a surface, but embedded in

  7. Obese rats exhibit high levels of fat necrosis and isoprostanes in taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pereda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a prognostic factor for severity in acute pancreatitis in humans. Our aim was to assess the role of oxidative stress and abdominal fat in the increased severity of acute pancreatitis in obese rats. METHODOLOGY: Taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis was performed in lean and obese Zucker rats. Levels of reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, L-cysteine, cystine, and S-adenosylmethionine were measured in pancreas as well as the activities of serine/threonine protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A and tyrosin phosphatases. Isoprostane, malondialdehyde, triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels and lipase activity were measured in plasma and ascites. Lipase activity was measured in white adipose tissue with and without necrosis and confirmed by western blotting. FINDINGS: Under basal conditions obese rats exhibited lower reduced glutathione levels in pancreas and higher triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in plasma than lean rats. S-adenosyl methionine levels were markedly increased in pancreas of obese rats. Acute pancreatitis in obese rats led to glutathione oxidation and lower reduced glutathione levels in pancreas together with decreased activities of redox-sensitive phosphatases PP1, and PP2A. S-adenosyl methionine levels decreased but cystine levels increased markedly in pancreas upon pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis triggered an increase in isoprostane levels in plasma and ascites in obese rats. Free fatty acid levels were extremely high in pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid from obese rats and lipase was bound with great affinity to white adipose tissue, especially to areas of necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that oxidative stress occurs locally and systemically in obese rats with pancreatitis favouring inactivation of protein phosphatases in pancreas, which would promote up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the increase of isoprostanes which might cause powerful pulmonary and renal

  8. Identification of a high-affinity ligand that exhibits complete aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kayla J; Murray, Iain A; Tanos, Rachel; Tellew, John; Boitano, Anthony E; Bisson, William H; Kolluri, Siva K; Cooke, Michael P; Perdew, Gary H

    2011-07-01

    The biological functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) can be delineated into dioxin response element (DRE)-dependent or -independent activities. Ligands exhibiting either full or partial agonist activity, e.g., 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and α-naphthoflavone, have been demonstrated to potentiate both DRE-dependent and -independent AHR function. In contrast, the recently identified selective AHR modulators (SAhRMs), e.g., 1-allyl-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-indazole (SGA360), bias AHR toward DRE-independent functionality while displaying antagonism with regard to ligand-induced DRE-dependent transcription. Recent studies have expanded the physiological role of AHR to include modulation of hematopoietic progenitor expansion and immunoregulation. It remains to be established whether such physiological roles are mediated through DRE-dependent or -independent pathways. Here, we present evidence for a third class of AHR ligand, "pure" or complete antagonists with the capacity to suppress both DRE-dependent and -independent AHR functions, which may facilitate dissection of physiological AHR function with regard to DRE or non-DRE-mediated signaling. Competitive ligand binding assays together with in silico modeling identify N-(2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)-9-isopropyl-2-(5-methylpyridin-3-yl)-9H-purin-6-amine (GNF351) as a high-affinity AHR ligand. DRE-dependent reporter assays, in conjunction with quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of AHR targets, reveal GNF351 as a potent AHR antagonist that demonstrates efficacy in the nanomolar range. Furthermore, unlike many currently used AHR antagonists, e.g., α-naphthoflavone, GNF351 is devoid of partial agonist potential. It is noteworthy that in a model of AHR-mediated DRE-independent function, i.e., suppression of cytokine-induced acute-phase gene expression, GNF351 has the capacity to antagonize agonist and SAhRM-mediated suppression of SAA1. Such data indicate that GNF351 is a

  9. Point Processes Modeling of Time Series Exhibiting Power-Law Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaulakys, B; Gontis, V

    2010-01-01

    We consider stochastic point processes generating time series exhibiting power laws of spectrum and distribution density (Phys. Rev. E 71, 051105 (2005)) and apply them for modeling the trading activity in the financial markets and for the frequencies of word occurrences in the language.

  10. On the modelling of strength differential and anisotropy exhibited by titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manopulo, Niko; Raemy, Christian; Hora, Pavel

    2016-08-01

    Modelling the response of titanium alloys under plastic deformation is challenging. In addition to strong anisotropy, these materials exhibit tension-compression asymmetry as well as anisotropic hardening even under monotonous loading conditions. The present contribution aims to propose a new modelling approach for titanium materials, by a homogeneous introduction of asymmetry into existing symmetric yield functions. Furthermore, anisotropic hardening effects are tracked describing the strain dependant yield surface evolution. The results are validated using the earing profile of deep drawn cups.

  11. Impressive electromagnetic shielding effects exhibited by highly ordered, micrometer thick polyaniline films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Ranjini R.; Varma, Sreekanth J.; Sankaran, Jayalekshmi

    2016-04-01

    The present work highlights the remarkably high shielding effectiveness of about 68 dB, exhibited by highly ordered and doped polyaniline films, in the microwave frequency range 4-12 GHz, obtained by self-stabilized dispersion polymerization as the synthesis route. The observed shielding effectiveness is found to depend quite sensitively on the electrical conducting properties, which are predominantly controlled by the nature and concentration of the dopants. The structural and morphological characterization of the films using XRD and TEM techniques reveals surprisingly high extent of crystallinity, which contributes significantly towards enhancing the electrical conductivity of the films. Most of the available reports on the microwave response of conducting polymer film samples deal with much thicker films, compared to the micrometer thick films of the present studies. The shielding effectiveness of acid doped, micrometer thick polyaniline films reported in the present work far exceeds most of the previously reported values and meets the commercial requirements.

  12. Highly selective sorting of semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes exhibiting light emission at telecom wavelengths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Sarti; Francesco Biccari; Federica Fioravanti; Ughetta Torrini; Anna Vinattieri; Vincent Derycke; Massimo Gurioli

    2016-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are known for their exceptional electronic properties.However,most of the synthesis methods lead to the production of a mixture of carbon nanotubes having different chiralities associated with metallic (m-SWNTs) and semiconducting (s-SWNTs) characteristics.For application purposes,effective methods for separating these species are highly desired.Here,we report a protocol for achieving a highly selective separation of s-SWNTs that exhibit a fundamental optical transition centered at 1,550 nm.We employ a polymer assisted sorting approach,and the influence of preparation methods on the optical and transport performances of the separated nanotubes is analyzed.As even traces of m-SWNTs can critically affect performances,we aim to produce samples that do not contain any detectable fraction of residual m-SWNTs.

  13. Human PHOSPHO1 exhibits high specific phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine phosphatase activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Human PHOSPHO1 is a phosphatase enzyme for which expression is upregulated in mineralizing cells. This enzyme has been implicated in the generation of Pi for matrix mineralization, a process central to skeletal development. PHOSPHO1 is a member of the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily of Mg2+-dependent hydrolases. However, substrates for PHOSPHO1 are, as yet, unidentified and little is known about its activity. We show here that PHOSPHO1 exhibits high specific activities toward phosphoethanolamine (PEA) and phosphocholine (PCho). Optimal enzymic activity was observed at approx. pH 6.7. The enzyme shows a high specific Mg2+-dependence, with apparent Km values of 3.0 μM for PEA and 11.4 μM for PCho. These results provide a novel mechanism for the generation of Pi in mineralizing cells from PEA and PCho. PMID:15175005

  14. Microbial eukaryote plankton communities of high-mountain lakes from three continents exhibit strong biogeographic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filker, Sabine; Sommaruga, Ruben; Vila, Irma; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2016-05-01

    Microbial eukaryotes hold a key role in aquatic ecosystem functioning. Yet, their diversity in freshwater lakes, particularly in high-mountain lakes, is relatively unknown compared with the marine environment. Low nutrient availability, low water temperature and high ultraviolet radiation make most high-mountain lakes extremely challenging habitats for life and require specific molecular and physiological adaptations. We therefore expected that these ecosystems support a plankton diversity that differs notably from other freshwater lakes. In addition, we hypothesized that the communities under study exhibit geographic structuring. Our rationale was that geographic dispersal of small-sized eukaryotes in high-mountain lakes over continental distances seems difficult. We analysed hypervariable V4 fragments of the SSU rRNA gene to compare the genetic microbial eukaryote diversity in high-mountain lakes located in the European Alps, the Chilean Altiplano and the Ethiopian Bale Mountains. Microbial eukaryotes were not globally distributed corroborating patterns found for bacteria, multicellular animals and plants. Instead, the plankton community composition emerged as a highly specific fingerprint of a geographic region even on higher taxonomic levels. The intraregional heterogeneity of the investigated lakes was mirrored in shifts in microbial eukaryote community structure, which, however, was much less pronounced compared with interregional beta-diversity. Statistical analyses revealed that on a regional scale, environmental factors are strong predictors for plankton community structures in high-mountain lakes. While on long-distance scales (>10 000 km), isolation by distance is the most plausible scenario, on intermediate scales (up to 6000 km), both contemporary environmental factors and historical contingencies interact to shift plankton community structures.

  15. Subcorneal Pustular Dermatosis Exhibiting a High Serum TARC/CCL17 Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Ono

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Subcorneal pustular dermatosis (SPD is a rare, relapsing, symmetric sterile pustular eruption that dominantly involves flexural areas. It is considered one form of neutrophilic dermatoses, which are associated with interleukin (IL-17-producing T helper (Th 17 cells that induce IL-8 production. We have previously reported that Th17 might be involved in the pathomechanism of Th2-dominant atopic dermatitis [Koga et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2008;128:2625-2630]. On the other hand, it has been a debate whether Th2 is involved in the etiology of neutrophilic dermatoses. Herein, we report a case of SPD that exhibited a high serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/chemokine (C-C motif ligand 17 level, thereby raising the possibility of a Th2 association in its pathogenesis. Although it was limited to a single observation, our case raised the possibility that SPD may possess Th2 properties.

  16. Burst analysis tool for developing neuronal networks exhibiting highly varying action potential dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Emre eKapucu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a firing statistics based neuronal network burst detection algorithm for neuronal networks exhibiting highly variable action potential dynamics. Electrical activity of neuronal networks is generally analyzed by the occurrences of spikes and bursts both in time and space. Commonly accepted analysis tools employ burst detection algorithms based on predefined criteria. However, maturing neuronal networks, such as those originating from human embryonic stem cells (hESC, exhibit highly variable network structure and time-varying dynamics. To explore the developing burst/spike activities of such networks, we propose a burst detection algorithm which utilizes the firing statistics based on interspike interval (ISI histograms. Moreover, the algorithm calculates interspike interval thresholds for burst spikes as well as for pre-burst spikes and burst tails by evaluating the cumulative moving average and skewness of the ISI histogram. Because of the adaptive nature of the proposed algorithm, its analysis power is not limited by the type of neuronal cell network at hand. We demonstrate the functionality of our algorithm with two different types of microelectrode array (MEA data recorded from spontaneously active hESC-derived neuronal cell networks. The same data was also analyzed by two commonly employed burst detection algorithms and the differences in burst detection results are illustrated. The results demonstrate that our method is both adaptive to the firing statistics of the network and yields successful burst detection from the data. In conclusion, the proposed method is a potential tool for analyzing of hESC-derived neuronal cell networks and thus can be utilized in studies aiming to understand the development and functioning of human neuronal networks and as an analysis tool for in vitro drug screening and neurotoxicity assays.

  17. Burst analysis tool for developing neuronal networks exhibiting highly varying action potential dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Fikret E; Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Narkilahti, Susanna; Hyttinen, Jari A K

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a firing statistics based neuronal network burst detection algorithm for neuronal networks exhibiting highly variable action potential dynamics. Electrical activity of neuronal networks is generally analyzed by the occurrences of spikes and bursts both in time and space. Commonly accepted analysis tools employ burst detection algorithms based on predefined criteria. However, maturing neuronal networks, such as those originating from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), exhibit highly variable network structure and time-varying dynamics. To explore the developing burst/spike activities of such networks, we propose a burst detection algorithm which utilizes the firing statistics based on interspike interval (ISI) histograms. Moreover, the algorithm calculates ISI thresholds for burst spikes as well as for pre-burst spikes and burst tails by evaluating the cumulative moving average (CMA) and skewness of the ISI histogram. Because of the adaptive nature of the proposed algorithm, its analysis power is not limited by the type of neuronal cell network at hand. We demonstrate the functionality of our algorithm with two different types of microelectrode array (MEA) data recorded from spontaneously active hESC-derived neuronal cell networks. The same data was also analyzed by two commonly employed burst detection algorithms and the differences in burst detection results are illustrated. The results demonstrate that our method is both adaptive to the firing statistics of the network and yields successful burst detection from the data. In conclusion, the proposed method is a potential tool for analyzing of hESC-derived neuronal cell networks and thus can be utilized in studies aiming to understand the development and functioning of human neuronal networks and as an analysis tool for in vitro drug screening and neurotoxicity assays.

  18. Modelling the equilibrium bed topography of submarine meanders that exhibit reversed secondary flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Stephen E.; Peakall, Jeff

    2012-08-01

    Submarine meandering channels formed by turbidity currents are common; however, their location on the ocean floor and their inactive status make it difficult to measure process dynamics and bed morphology. Conceptual models have, therefore, instead been developed by analogy with the well understood mechanics of fluvial bends. However, unlike fluvial currents, in turbidity currents the downstream velocity maximum typically occurs near the bed and recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that, under certain hydraulic and morphological conditions, this forces the secondary flow to exhibit the reverse sense to that encountered in fluvial bends. Herein the possible morphological implications of a reversal of secondary flow are explored by modelling the force balance on sediment grains moving through either (i) field and laboratory submarine meander bends that are known to exhibit ‘reversed' secondary flows, or (ii) inactive submarine meander bends where the nature of the secondary flow in the formative turbidity currents can be inferred to be reversed. Exploratory simulations are undertaken for a single hypothetical submarine bend with morphological properties based on nine relic meanders observed on the floor of the Gulf of Alaska. Reconstructions of secondary flow properties within the Gulf of Alaska bends indicate that they likely exhibited reversed secondary flows. Results of the exploratory simulations indicate that, unlike typical fluvial meanders, the transverse bed profile gradient of the hypothetical bend is very low and the point bar is located downstream of the bend apex.

  19. An Initial Analysis of Learning Styles Exhibited by High School Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, Frederick; Bensel, H.; Miller, D.; Seebode, S.; Ciardi, D. R.; Howell, S. B.

    2014-01-01

    Educational research magazines are filled with information on learning styles and how they affect the learning process, but few studies have been conducted to specifically look at learning styles exhibited by high school science students. This project attempted to obtain a general “snapshot” of learning styles found in the high school science classroom, and then compare that to one derived from a subgroup of highly motivated science students involved in a NITARP student team. Control students (N=54) from elective science courses at four high schools (urban, suburban, and rural) were administered the Felder Learning Style (FLS) assessment and rated on Likert scales in four learning constructs: Active/Reflective, Sensing/Intuitive, Visual/Verbal, and Sequential/Global. NITARP student team members (N=7) were given the FLS before project work began, and then re-tested approximately three months later, after project work concluded. Chi Square Analysis showed no clear significant difference between the general group and the NITARP group (p = .52). Both groups tended to be very visual and sequential, but more reflective than active. The results suggest several concerns that science teachers may need to address: (1) Research shows best practice science classes often are hands on, yet a majority of students are more reflective than active; (2) Big ideas tend to be better understood by global students, but a majority are more sequential; (3) Since a majority of students are visual, information given verbally may not be very effective. Further research is indicated for these areas of discontinuity. This research was conducted as part of the NASA/IPAC Training in Archival Research Project (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program and Archive Outreach funds.

  20. Design and creating model and interactive presentation of GEM for Microcosm Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Lakdee, Natthaphop

    2017-01-01

    GEM or Gas Electron Multiplier is the newer and easier way to amplify electron signal than conventional CSS. It was first created by Fabio Sauli at CERN in 1997 and was developed to get better efficiency over time. Right now, it was brought to use in many detector stations at CERN. To make GEM more publicly known, one of the ways is show in Microcosm Exhibition which is always visited by people from around the world everyday, so my main project as summer student is to design and create the model and interactive presentation which make GEM interesting and easy to understand by ordinary people.

  1. New Derivatives of Pyridoxine Exhibit High Antibacterial Activity against Biofilm-Embedded Staphylococcus Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumov, Airat R; Nureeva, Aliya A; Trizna, Elena Yu; Gazizova, Guzel R; Bogachev, Mikhail I; Shtyrlin, Nikita V; Pugachev, Mikhail V; Sapozhnikov, Sergey V; Shtyrlin, Yurii G

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis often form rigid biofilms on tissues and inorganic surfaces. In the biofilm bacterial cells are embedded in a self-produced polysaccharide matrix and thereby are inaccessible to biocides, antibiotics, or host immune system. Here we show the antibacterial activity of newly synthesized cationic biocides, the quaternary ammonium, and bisphosphonium salts of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) against biofilm-embedded Staphylococci. The derivatives of 6-hydroxymethylpyridoxine were ineffective against biofilm-embedded S. aureus and S. epidermidis at concentrations up to 64 μg/mL, although all compounds tested exhibited low MICs (2 μg/mL) against planktonic cells. In contrast, the quaternary ammonium salt of pyridoxine (N,N-dimethyl-N-((2,2,8-trimethyl-4H-[1,3]dioxino[4,5-c]pyridin-5-yl)methyl)octadecan-1-aminium chloride (3)) demonstrated high biocidal activity against both planktonic and biofilm-embedded bacteria. Thus, the complete death of biofilm-embedded S. aureus and S. epidermidis cells was obtained at concentrations of 64 and 16 μg/mL, respectively. We suggest that the quaternary ammonium salts of pyridoxine are perspective to design new synthetic antibiotics and disinfectants for external application against biofilm-embedded cells.

  2. Halogenated pentamethine cyanine dyes exhibiting high fidelity for G-quadruplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjunda, Rupesh; Owens, Eric A; Mickelson, Leah; Alyabyev, Sergey; Kilpatrick, Nancy; Wang, Siming; Henary, Maged; Wilson, W David

    2012-12-15

    Design and optimization of quadruplex-specific small molecules is developing into an attractive strategy for anti-cancer therapeutics with some promising candidates in clinical trials. A number of therapeutically favorable features of cyanine molecules can be effectively exploited to develop them as promising quadruplex-targeting agents. Herein, the design, synthesis and evaluation of a series of dimethylindolenine cyanine dyes with varying halogen substitutions are reported. Their interactions with telomeric and c-myc quadruplexes as well as a reference duplex sequence have been evaluated using thermal melting, biosensor-surface plasmon resonance, circular dichroism, isothermal titration calorimetry and mass spectrometry. Thermal melting analysis indicates that these ligands exhibit significant quadruplex stabilization and a very low duplex binding, with the dimethyl incorporation of paramount importance for decreased duplex affinity. Circular dichroism studies showed that the interaction of cyanines with quadruplex structures are primarily through stacking at one or both ends of the terminal tetrads with the two (trimethylammonium)propyl groups interacting in the accessible quadruplex grooves. Surface plasmon resonance and mass spectral studies shows the formation of an initial strong 1:1 complex followed by a significantly weaker secondary binding. Isothermal calorimetry studies show that the interaction of cyanines is predominantly entropy driven. In line with the design principles, this work provides new insights for further developing potent, highly selective cyanines as promising quadruplex-specific agents.

  3. New Derivatives of Pyridoxine Exhibit High Antibacterial Activity against Biofilm-Embedded Staphylococcus Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airat R. Kayumov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis often form rigid biofilms on tissues and inorganic surfaces. In the biofilm bacterial cells are embedded in a self-produced polysaccharide matrix and thereby are inaccessible to biocides, antibiotics, or host immune system. Here we show the antibacterial activity of newly synthesized cationic biocides, the quaternary ammonium, and bisphosphonium salts of pyridoxine (vitamin B6 against biofilm-embedded Staphylococci. The derivatives of 6-hydroxymethylpyridoxine were ineffective against biofilm-embedded S. aureus and S. epidermidis at concentrations up to 64 μg/mL, although all compounds tested exhibited low MICs (2 μg/mL against planktonic cells. In contrast, the quaternary ammonium salt of pyridoxine (N,N-dimethyl-N-((2,2,8-trimethyl-4H-[1,3]dioxino[4,5-c]pyridin-5-ylmethyloctadecan-1-aminium chloride (3 demonstrated high biocidal activity against both planktonic and biofilm-embedded bacteria. Thus, the complete death of biofilm-embedded S. aureus and S. epidermidis cells was obtained at concentrations of 64 and 16 μg/mL, respectively. We suggest that the quaternary ammonium salts of pyridoxine are perspective to design new synthetic antibiotics and disinfectants for external application against biofilm-embedded cells.

  4. Activity of ceftobiprole against Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates exhibiting high-level resistance to ceftriaxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Todd A; Flamm, Robert K; Lynch, A Simon

    2012-06-01

    Tracking Resistance in the US Today (TRUST) 2008 surveillance data showed that 6% of Streptococcus pneumoniae were non-susceptible to ceftriaxone [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 2 μg/mL] and that 8% of the ceftriaxone-non-susceptible isolates exhibited high-level resistance (MIC ≥ 8 μg/mL). Here we describe the activity of ceftobiprole against ceftriaxone-resistant isolates and characterise the genotypic traits associated with resistance. Thirty isolates with ceftriaxone MICs ≥ 8 μg/mL were analysed by sequencing of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) and murM genes. Sequencing of pbp1a, pbp2b and pbp2x showed nine PBP patterns, with the most common (n=17) being: PBP1a T371S (STMK motif), P432T (SRNVP motif); PBP2b T446A (SSNT motif), A619G (KTGTA motif); and PBP2x T338A and M339F (STMK motif), L364F, I371T, R384G, M400T, L546V (LKSGT motif); six isolates had the same pattern without the PBP2b A619G change. For these 23 isolates, MICs were 8 μg/mL for ceftriaxone, 4-8 μg/mL for penicillin and 0.5-2 μg/mL for ceftobiprole. The remaining seven isolates with higher MICs (ceftriaxone 8-32 μg/mL, penicillin 4-32 μg/mL and ceftobiprole 2-4 μg/mL) had fewer PBP active-site motif substitutions. The majority of isolates (17/30) had murM alleles similar to the wild-type, whilst the rest had alleles reflecting a mosaic structure. No murM alleles were associated with higher MICs. Against these 30 isolates, ceftobiprole was 4-16-fold more active than ceftriaxone. Widely described PBP and MurM substitutions probably account for the high ceftriaxone MICs (8 μg/mL) in the majority of isolates. However, seven isolates with ceftriaxone MICs of 8-32 μg/mL had fewer PBP substitutions in active-site motifs, suggesting either that there is another resistance mechanism or that unique PBP mutations may contribute to high-level β-lactam resistance.

  5. GpIIb/IIIa+ subpopulation of rat megakaryocyte progenitor cells exhibits high responsiveness to human thrombopoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T; Horie, K; Hagiwara, T; Maeda, E; Tsumura, H; Ohashi, H; Miyazaki, H

    1996-08-01

    The recently cloned factor thrombopoietin (TPO) has been shown to exhibit megakaryocyte colony-stimulating activity in vitro. In this investigation, to further evaluate the action of TPO on megakaryocyte progenitor cells (colony-forming units-megakaryocyte [CFU-MK]), GpIIb/IIIa+ and GpIIb/IIIa- populations of CFU-MK were prepared from rat bone marrow cells based on their reactivity with P55 antibody, a monoclonal antibody against rat GpIIb/IIIa, and their responsiveness to recombinant human TPO (rhTPO) and recombinant rat interleukin-3 (rrIL-3) was examined using a megakaryocyte colony-forming assay (Meg-CSA). rhTPO supported only megakaryocyte colony growth from both fractions in a dose-dependent fashion. The mean colony size observed with the GpIIb/IIIa+ population was smaller than that seen with the GpIIb/IIIa- population. With the optimal concentration of either rhTPO or rrIL-3, similar numbers of megakaryocyte colonies were formed from the GpIIb/IIIa+ population previously shown to be highly enriched for CFU-MK. In contrast, the maximum number of megakaryocyte colonies from the GpIIb/IIIa- population stimulated by rhTPO was only 24.2% of that achieved with rrIL-3. Morphologic analysis of rhTPO-promoted megakaryocyte colonies from the GpIIb/IIIa+ population showed that the average colony size was smaller but that the mean diameter of individual megakaryocytes was larger than in megakaryocyte colonies promoted with rrIL-3. rhTPO plus rrIL-3, each at suboptimal concentrations, had an additive effect on proliferation of CFU-MK in the GpIIb/IIIa+ fraction, whereas rhTPO plus murine IL-6 or murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mG-M-CSF) modestly but significantly reduced megakaryocyte colony growth. These results indicate that TPO preferentially acts on GpIIb/IIIa+ late CFU-MK with lower proliferative capacity and interacts with some other cytokines in CFU-MK development.

  6. Modeling Information for Three-Dimensional Space: Lessons Learned from Museum Exhibit Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carliner, Saul

    2001-01-01

    Reports results of an observational study of museum exhibit design. Suggests eight communication practices from successful museum exhibit design that could be transferred to information design for the Web. (SR)

  7. Stochastic Model of Gap Junctions Exhibiting Rectification and Multiple Closed States of Slow Gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipas, Mindaugas; Kraujalis, Tadas; Paulauskas, Nerijus; Maciunas, Kestutis; Bukauskas, Feliksas F

    2016-03-29

    Gap-junction (GJ) channels formed from connexin (Cx) proteins provide direct pathways for electrical and metabolic cell-cell communication. Earlier, we developed a stochastic 16-state model (S16SM) of voltage gating of the GJ channel containing two pairs of fast and slow gates, each operating between open (o) and closed (c) states. However, experimental data suggest that gates may in fact contain two or more closed states. We developed a model in which the slow gate operates according to a linear reaction scheme, o↔c1↔c2, where c1 and c2 are initial-closed and deep-closed states that both close the channel fully, whereas the fast gate operates between the open state and the closed state and exhibits a residual conductance. Thus, we developed a stochastic 36-state model (S36SM) of GJ channel gating that is sensitive to transjunctional voltage (Vj). To accelerate simulation and eliminate noise in simulated junctional conductance (gj) records, we transformed an S36SM into a Markov chain 36-state model (MC36SM) of GJ channel gating. This model provides an explanation for well-established experimental data, such as delayed gj recovery after Vj gating, hysteresis of gj-Vj dependence, and the low ratio of functional channels to the total number of GJ channels clustered in junctional plaques, and it has the potential to describe chemically mediated gating, which cannot be reflected using an S16SM. The MC36SM, when combined with global optimization algorithms, can be used for automated estimation of gating parameters including probabilities of c1↔c2 transitions from experimental gj-time and gj-Vj dependencies.

  8. Boechera species exhibit species-specific responses to combined heat and high light stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas, Genna; Waters, Elizabeth R

    2015-01-01

    As sessile organisms, plants must be able to complete their life cycle in place and therefore tolerance to abiotic stress has had a major role in shaping biogeographical patterns. However, much of what we know about plant tolerance to abiotic stresses is based on studies of just a few plant species, most notably the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study we examine natural variation in the stress responses of five diverse Boechera (Brassicaceae) species. Boechera plants were exposed to basal and acquired combined heat and high light stress. Plant response to these stresses was evaluated based on chlorophyll fluorescence measurements, induction of leaf chlorosis, and gene expression. Many of the Boechera species were more tolerant to heat and high light stress than A. thaliana. Gene expression data indicates that two important marker genes for stress responses: APX2 (Ascorbate peroxidase 2) and HsfA2 (Heat shock transcription factor A2) have distinct species-specific expression patterns. The findings of species-specific responses and tolerance to stress indicate that stress pathways are evolutionarily labile even among closely related species.

  9. Highly reduced double-decker single-molecule magnets exhibiting slow magnetic relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonidec, Mathieu; Krivokapic, Itana; Vidal-Gancedo, Jose; Davies, E Stephen; McMaster, Jonathan; Gorun, Sergiu M; Veciana, Jaume

    2013-04-15

    F64Pc2Ln (1Ln, Ln = Tb or Lu) represent the first halogenated phthalocyanine double-decker lanthanide complexes, and 1Tb exhibits single-molecule magnet properties as revealed by solid-state magnetometry. The fluorine substituents of the phthalocyanine rings have a dramatic effect on the redox properties of the F64Pc2Ln complexes, namely, a stabilization of their reduced states. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical measurements demonstrate that the 1Tb(-/2-) and 1Tb(2-/3-) couples exhibit redox reversibility and that the 1Tb(-), 1Tb(2-) and 1Tb(3-) species may be prepared by bulk electrolysis in acetone. Low-temperature MCD studies reveal for the first time magnetization hystereses for the super-reduced dianionic and trianionic states of Pc2Ln.

  10. Fabrication of single cylindrical Au-coated nanopores with non-homogeneous fixed charge distribution exhibiting high current rectifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Saima; Ali, Mubarak; Ramirez, Patricio; Gómez, Vicente; Oschmann, Bernd; Muench, Falk; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Zentel, Rudolf; Mafe, Salvador; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2014-08-13

    We designed and characterized a cylindrical nanopore that exhibits high electrochemical current rectification ratios at low and intermediate electrolyte concentrations. For this purpose, the track-etched single cylindrical nanopore in polymer membrane was coated with a gold (Au) layer via electroless plating technique. Then, a non-homogeneous fixed charge distribution inside the Au-coated nanopore was obtained by incorporating thiol-terminated uncharged poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) chains in series to poly(4-vinylpyridine) chains, which were positively charged at acidic pH values. The functionalization reaction was checked by measuring the current-voltage curves prior to and after the chemisorption of polymer chains. The experimental nanopore characterization included the effects of temperature, adsorption of chloride ions, electrolyte concentration, and pH of the external solutions. The results obtained are further explained in terms of a theoretical continuous model. The combination of well-established chemical procedures (thiol and self-assembled monolayer formation chemistry, electroless plating, ion track etching) and physical models (two-region pore and Nernst-Planck equations) permits the obtainment of a new nanopore with high current rectification ratios. The single pore could be scaled up to multipore membranes of potential interest for pH sensing and chemical actuators.

  11. Towards a model for research-based exhibition development using design-based research as a framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Maria; Magnussen, Rikke; Thiel Sandholdt, Cathrina

    2016-01-01

    practices. A research-based approach can expand understanding of exhibitions as a media, encouraging a more systematised, theory-based and documented practice. This premise forms the basis for creating a model for collaboration between research and exhibition development in a science centre context......This paper argues that a higher level of research activity is necessary at all levels in the creation of science centre exhibitions. Science centres focus greatly on their role as an informal learning space but rarely integrate learning theories or develop documented knowledge in their exhibition...... that facilitates an iterative research-based development process and that emphasises focusing on learning elements. We present a new model for developing research-based exhibitions and provide an accompanying analysis based on PULSE, a four-year project involving the development of a health promotion exhibition...

  12. Hepatoma SK Hep-1 cells exhibit characteristics of oncogenic mesenchymal stem cells with highly metastatic capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Ryeol Eun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SK Hep-1 cells (SK cells derived from a patient with liver adenocarcinoma have been considered a human hepatoma cell line with mesenchymal origin characteristics, however, SK cells do not express liver genes and exhibit liver function, thus, we hypothesized whether mesenchymal cells might contribute to human liver primary cancers. Here, we characterized SK cells and its tumourigenicity. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that classical mesenchymal stem cell (MSC markers were presented on SK cells, but endothelial marker CD31, hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45 were negative. SK cells are capable of differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts as adipose-derived MSC (Ad-MSC and bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC do. Importantly, a single SK cell exhibited a substantial tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity in immunodefficient mice. Metastasis not only occurred in circulating organs such as lung, liver, and kidneys, but also in muscle, outer abdomen, and skin. SK cells presented greater in vitro invasive capacity than those of Ad-MSC and BM-MSC. The xenograft cells from subcutaneous and metastatic tumors exhibited a similar tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity, and showed the same relatively homogenous population with MSC characteristics when compared to parental SK cells. SK cells could unlimitedly expand in vitro without losing MSC characteristics, its tumuorigenicity and metastatic capacity, indicating that SK cells are oncogenic MSC with enhanced self-renewal capacity. We believe that this is the first report that human MSC appear to be transformed into cancer stem cells (CSC, and that their derivatives also function as CSCs. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that SK cells represent a transformation mechanism of normal MSC into an enhanced self-renewal CSC with metastasis capacity, SK cells and their xenografts represent a same relative homogeneity of CSC with substantial metastatic capacity. Thus, it represents a

  13. An Investigation of the Life Experiences and Beliefs of High School Teachers Exhibiting Effective Classroom Management Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Byron

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the life experiences and beliefs of high school teachers exhibiting highly effective classroom management skills. The research for this phenomenological study utilized the narrative inquiry method of data collection. This study investigates the life experiences and beliefs of nine teachers…

  14. Low and High-Frequency Field Potentials of Cortical Networks Exhibit Distinct Responses to Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural networks grown on microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have become an important, high content in vitro assay for assessing neuronal function. MEA experiments typically examine high- frequency (HF) (>200 Hz) spikes, and bursts which can be used to discriminate between differ...

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregate formation in an alginate bead model system exhibits In Vivo-like characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Majken; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Koren, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Alginate beads represent a simple and highly reproducible in vitro model system for diffusion-limited bacterial growth. In this study, alginate beads were inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and followed for up to 72 h. Confocal microscopy revealed that P. aeruginosa formed dense clusters...... and reached anoxia ∼100 μm below the alginate bead surface. This gradient was relieved in beads supplemented with NO3− as an alternative electron acceptor allowing for deeper growth into the beads. A comparison of gene expression profiles between planktonic and alginate-encapsulated P. aeruginosa confirmed...... that the bacteria experienced hypoxic and anoxic growth conditions. Furthermore, alginate-encapsulated P. aeruginosa exhibited a lower respiration rate than the planktonic counterpart and showed a high tolerance toward antibiotics. The inoculation and growth of P. aeruginosa in alginate beads represent a simple...

  16. LEAP-1, a novel highly disulfide-bonded human peptide, exhibits antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, A; Neitz, S; Mägert, H J; Schulz, A; Forssmann, W G; Schulz-Knappe, P; Adermann, K

    2000-09-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of a novel human peptide with antimicrobial activity, termed LEAP-1 (liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide). Using a mass spectrometric assay detecting cysteine-rich peptides, a 25-residue peptide containing four disulfide bonds was identified in human blood ultrafiltrate. LEAP-1 expression was predominantly detected in the liver, and, to a much lower extent, in the heart. In radial diffusion assays, Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus carnosus, and Gram-negative Neisseria cinerea as well as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae dose-dependently exhibited sensitivity upon treatment with synthetic LEAP-1. The discovery of LEAP-1 extends the known families of mammalian peptides with antimicrobial activity by its novel disulfide motif and distinct expression pattern.

  17. ISPA - a high accuracy X-ray and gamma camera Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    ISPA offers ... Ten times better resolution than Anger cameras High efficiency single gamma counting Noise reduction by sensitivity to gamma energy ...for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)

  18. Fission Gas Release in LWR Fuel Rods Exhibiting Very High Burn-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, H.

    1980-01-01

    Two UO2Zr BWR type test fuel rods were irradiated to a burn-up of about 38000 MWd/tUO2. After non-destructive characterization, the fission gas released to the internal free volume was extracted and analysed. The irradiation was simulated by means of the Danish fuel performance code WAFER-2, which...... uses an empirical gas release model combined with a strongly burn-up dependent correction term, developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The paper presents the experimental results and the code calculations. It is concluded that the model predictions are in reasonable agreement (within 15...

  19. Yersinia pestis intracellular parasitism of macrophages from hosts exhibiting high and low severity of plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Ponnusamy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis causes severe disease in natural rodent hosts, but mild to inapparent disease in certain rodent predators such as dogs. Y. pestis initiates infection in susceptible hosts by parasitizing and multiplying intracellularly in local macrophages prior to systemic dissemination. Thus, we hypothesize that Y. pestis disease severity may depend on the degree to which intracellular Y. pestis overcomes the initial host macrophage imposed stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis, the progression of in vitro infection by Y. pestis KIM62053.1+ of mouse splenic and RAW264.7 tissue culture macrophages and dog peripheral blood-derived and DH82 tissue culture macrophages was studied using microscopy and various parameters of infection. The study showed that during the early stage of infection, intracellular Y. pestis assumed filamentous cellular morphology with multiple copies of the genome per bacterium in both mouse and dog macrophages. Later, in mouse macrophages, the infection elicited spacious vacuolar extension of Yersinia containing vacuoles (YCV, and the filamentous Y. pestis reverted to coccobacillary morphology with genomic equivalents approximately equaling colony forming units. In contrast, Y. pestis infected dog macrophages did not show noticeable extension of YCV, and intracellular Y. pestis retained the filamentous cellular morphology for the entire experiment in DH82 cells or were killed by blood-derived macrophages. In addition, during the later stage of infection, Y. pestis infected mouse macrophages exhibited cell lysis whereas dog macrophages did not. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Y. pestis in mouse macrophages can overcome the initial intracellular stress necessary for subsequent systemic infection. However, in dogs, failure of Y. pestis to overcome macrophage imposed stress may result in mild or in apparent disease in dogs.

  20. Characterization and growth of epitaxial layers of Gs exhibiting high resistivity for ionic implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Either classical or low temperature epitaxial growth techniques can be used to control the deposition of buffer layers of GaAs on semiconducting substrates and to obtain the resistivity and purity desired. Techniques developed to study, as a function of thickness, the evolution of mobilities by photoHall, and the spectroscopy of shallow and deep centers by cathodoluminescence and current transients reveal one very pure layer of medium resistivity and high mobility, and another "dead layer" of elevated resistivity far from the surface. The highly resistive layer remains pure over several microns, which appears interesting for implantation.

  1. The GSK461364 PLK1 inhibitor exhibits strong antitumoral activity in preclinical neuroblastoma models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajtler, Kristian W; Sadowski, Natalie; Ackermann, Sandra; Althoff, Kristina; Schönbeck, Kerstin; Batzke, Katharina; Sch, Simonäfers; Odersky, Andrea; Heukamp, Lukas; Astrahantseff, Kathy; Künkele, Annette; Deubzer, Hedwig E; Schramm, Alexander; Spr, Annikaüssel; Thor, Theresa; Lindner, Sven; Eggert, Angelika; Fischer, Matthias; Schulte, Johannes H

    2017-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that promotes G2/M-phase transition, is expressed in elevated levels in high-risk neuroblastomas and correlates with unfavorable patient outcome. Recently, we and others have presented PLK1 as a potential drug target for neuroblastoma, and reported that the BI2536 PLK1 inhibitor showed antitumoral actvity in preclinical neuroblastoma models. Here we analyzed the effects of GSK461364, a competitive inhibitor for ATP binding to PLK1, on typical tumorigenic properties of preclinical in vitro and in vivo neuroblastoma models. GSK461364 treatment of neuroblastoma cell lines reduced cell viability and proliferative capacity, caused cell cycle arrest and massively induced apoptosis. These phenotypic consequences were induced by treatment in the low-dose nanomolar range, and were independent of MYCN copy number status. GSK461364 treatment strongly delayed established xenograft tumor growth in nude mice, and significantly increased survival time in the treatment group. These preclinical findings indicate PLK1 inhibitors may be effective for patients with high-risk or relapsed neuroblastomas with upregulated PLK1 and might be considered for entry into early phase clinical trials in pediatric patients. PMID:28036269

  2. Isolation of Anti-Ricin Protective Antibodies Exhibiting High Affinity from Immunized Non-Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Noy-Porat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, derived from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most potent and lethal toxins known, against which there is no available antidote. To date, the use of neutralizing antibodies is the most promising post-exposure treatment for ricin intoxication. The aim of this study was to isolate high affinity anti-ricin antibodies that possess potent toxin-neutralization capabilities. Two non-human primates were immunized with either a ricin-holotoxin- or subunit-based vaccine, to ensure the elicitation of diverse high affinity antibodies. By using a comprehensive set of primers, immune scFv phage-displayed libraries were constructed and panned. A panel of 10 antibodies (five directed against the A subunit of ricin and five against the B subunit was isolated and reformatted into a full-length chimeric IgG. All of these antibodies were found to neutralize ricin in vitro, and several conferred full protection to ricin-intoxicated mice when given six hours after exposure. Six antibodies were found to possess exceptionally high affinity toward the toxin, with KD values below pM (koff < 1 × 10−7 s−1 that were well correlated with their ability to neutralize ricin. These antibodies, alone or in combination, could be used for the development of a highly-effective therapeutic preparation for post-exposure treatment of ricin intoxication.

  3. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    From 1870s to 1910s, more than 50 exhibitions of so-called exotic people took place in Denmark. Here large numbers of people of Asian and African origin were exhibited for the entertainment and ‘education’ of a mass audience. Several of these exhibitions took place in Copenhagen Zoo. Here different...... light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...... of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...

  4. Penicillin V acylase from Pectobacterium atrosepticum exhibits high specific activity and unique kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, V S; Ramasamy, Sureshkumar; Suresh, C G; Pundle, Archana

    2015-08-01

    Penicillin V acylases (PVAs, E.C.3.5.11) belong to the Ntn hydrolase super family of enzymes that catalyze the deacylation of the side chain from phenoxymethyl penicillin (penicillin V). Penicillin acylases find use in the pharmaceutical industry for the production of semi-synthetic antibiotics. PVAs employ the N-terminal cysteine residue as catalytic nucleophile and are structurally and evolutionarily related to bile salt hydrolases (BSHs). Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a PVA enzyme from the Gram-negative plant pathogen, Pectobacterium atrosepticum (PaPVA). The enzyme was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli attaining a very high yield (250 mg/l) and a comparatively high specific activity (430 IU/mg). The enzyme showed marginally better pH and thermo-stability over PVAs characterized from Gram-positive bacteria. The enzyme also showed enhanced activity in presence of organic solvents and detergents. The enzyme kinetics turned out to be significantly different from that of previously reported PVAs, displaying positive cooperativity and substrate inhibition. The presence of bile salts had a modulating effect on PaPVA activity. Sequence analysis and characterization reveal the distinctive nature of these enzymes and underscore the need to study PVAs from Gram-negative bacteria.

  5. Highly and moderately aggressive mouse ovarian cancer cell lines exhibit differential gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Kale, Shubha P.; McFerrin, Harris; Davenport, Ian; Wang, Guangdi; Skripnikova, Elena; Li, Xiao-Lin; Bowen, Nathan J.; McDaniels, Leticia B; Meng, Yuan-Xiang; Polk, Paula; Liu, Yong-Yu; Zhang, Qian-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer often experience disease recurrence after standard therapies, a critical factor in determining their five-year survival rate. Recent reports indicated that long-term or short-term survival is associated with varied gene expression of cancer cells. Thus, identification of novel prognostic biomarkers should be considered. Since the mouse genome is similar to the human genome, we explored potential prognostic biomarkers using two groups of mouse ovarian cancer cell lines (group 1: IG-10, IG-10pw, and IG-10pw/agar; group 2: IG-10 clones 2, 3, and 11) which display highly and moderately aggressive phenotypes in vivo. Mice injected with these cell lines have different survival time and rates, capacities of tumor, and ascites formations, reflecting different prognostic potentials. Using an Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array, a total of 181 genes were differentially expressed (Pdeath. None of the genes from a set of the 72 genes overexpressed in the moderately aggressive cell lines had a function annotation in the David database. Our results suggested that the overexpressed MYC and 109 gene set represented highly aggressive ovarian cancer potential biomarkers while overexpressed AR and 72 gene set represented moderately aggressive ovarian cancer potential biomarkers. Based on our knowledge, the current study is first time to report the potential biomarkers relevant to different aggressive ovarian cancer. These potential biomarkers provide important information for investigating human ovarian cancer prognosis. PMID:26935058

  6. Do highly body dissatisfied women exhibit attentional biases towards thin and overweight figures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Body dissatisfaction has been linked as a direct precursor for life threatening eating disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. Current research indicates that attentional bias may play a key role in the development and maintenance of body dissatisfaction in women due to the constant exposure to media depicted images. Therefore, we conducted an eye-tracking study to investigate whether individuals with high body dissatisfaction show a heightened attentional bias towards images of thin and overweight bodies compared to low body dissatisfied individuals. We also examined whether there was a general tendency for participants to show an attentional bias towards overweight bodies opposed to medium bodies and thin bodies opposed to medium bodies. Method: Thirty six participants completed a body dissatisfaction scale, and subsequently took part in an eye-tracking study. An eye-tracker was used to measure and record both gaze direction and gaze duration frequencies whilst exposing participants to images of females presented for 2000ms. Each trial compared either thin with medium images, or overweight with medium images. Results: Results indicated that overall participants viewed the thin images for a significantly longer time (M=.451, M= .534 respectively than the overweight images F(1, 34= 9.806, p = .04, ηp2= .224. However, there were no significant effects of gaze direction towards the thin or overweight bodies. Similarly, no significant effects were obtained for direction or duration bias towards the thin or overweight bodies across the high and low body dissatisfied groups. Conclusions: These data show that overall, participants orient their attention more towards thin body images. However, body dissatisfaction level appears to have no effect on such attentional biases.

  7. Novel class of glutathione transferases from cyanobacteria exhibit high catalytic activities towards naturally occurring isothiocyanates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktelius, Eric; Stenberg, Gun

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, we report a novel class of GSTs (glutathione transferases), called the Chi class, originating from cyanobacteria and with properties not observed previously in prokaryotic enzymes. GSTs constitute a widespread multifunctional group of proteins, of which mammalian enzymes are the best characterized. Although GSTs have their origin in prokaryotes, few bacterial representatives have been characterized in detail, and the catalytic activities and substrate specificities observed have generally been very modest. The few well-studied bacterial GSTs have largely unknown physiological functions. Genome databases reveal that cyanobacteria have an extensive arsenal of glutathione-associated proteins. We have studied two cyanobacterial GSTs which are the first examples of bacterial enzymes that are as catalytically efficient as the best mammalian enzymes. GSTs from the thermophile Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 and from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301 were found to catalyse the conjugation of naturally occurring plant-derived isothiocyanates to glutathione at high rates. The cyanobacterial GSTs studied are smaller than previously described members of this enzyme family, but display many of the typical structural features that are characteristics of GSTs. They are also active towards several classical substrates, but at the same moderate rates that have been observed for other GSTs derived from prokaryotes. The cloning, expression and characterization of two cyanobacterial GSTs are described. The possible significance of the observed catalytic properties is discussed in the context of physiological relevance and GST evolution. PMID:17484723

  8. Canine parvovirus NS1 protein exhibits anti-tumor activity in a mouse mammary tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Yadav, Pavan Kumar; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Sahoo, A P; Harish, D R; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Tiwari, A K

    2016-02-02

    Many viral proteins have the ability to kill tumor cells specifically without harming the normal cells. These proteins, on ectopic expression, cause lysis or induction of apoptosis in the target tumor cells. Parvovirus NS1 is one of such proteins, which is known to kill high proliferating tumor cells. In the present study, we assessed the apoptosis inducing ability of canine parvovirus type 2 NS1 protein (CPV2.NS1) in vitro in 4T1 cells, and found it to cause significant cell death due to induction of apoptosis through intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway. Further, we also evaluated the oncolytic activity of CPV2.NS1 protein in a mouse mammary tumor model. The results suggested that CPV2.NS1 was able to inhibit the growth of 4T1 induced mouse mammary tumor as indicated by significantly reduced tumor volume, mitotic, AgNOR and PCNA indices. Further, inhibition of tumor growth was found to be because of induction of apoptosis in the tumor cells, which was evident by a significant increase in the number of TUNEL positive cells. Further, CPV2.NS1 was also able to stimulate the immune cells against the tumor antigens as indicated by the increased CD4+ and CD8+ counts in the blood of CVP2.NS1 treated mice. Further optimization of the delivery of NS1 protein and use of an adjuvant may further enhance its anti-tumor activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    of tools and processes to guide the design of educational science exhibits. The guiding paradigm for this development is design-based research, which is characterised by an iterative cycle of design, enactment, and analysis. In the design phase, an educational intervention is planned and carried out based...... on a hypothesised learning process and the means of supporting it. In the enactment phase, the educational intervention is implemented (i.e. the planned lesson is taught, or the museum exhibit is opened to the public). Finally, the analysis phase establishes causality between emergent characteristics...... of the learning outcomes and the design characteristics of the intervention. The analysis process can yield two types of outcomes: Suggestions for the refinement of the specific design in question, and “humble” theory, which is theory that can guide the design of a category of educational interventions...

  10. A PVC-foam material model based on a thermodynamically elasto-plastic-damage framework exhibiting failure and crushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    A well known foam for naval sandwiches is PVC (polyvinyl chloride) foam. This foam exhibits elasto-damage behavior under tension and elasto-plastic behavior under compression. A proper material model is required for the prediction of the failure and post-failure behavior of these sandwiches during (

  11. Cardiac Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Exhibit High Differentiation Potential to Cardiovascular Cells in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Hiroki; Ii, Masaaki; Kohbayashi, Eiko; Hoshiga, Masaaki; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Asahi, Michio

    2016-02-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (AdSCs) have recently been shown to differentiate into cardiovascular lineage cells. However, little is known about the fat tissue origin-dependent differences in AdSC function and differentiation potential. AdSC-rich cells were isolated from subcutaneous, visceral, cardiac (CA), and subscapular adipose tissue from mice and their characteristics analyzed. After four different AdSC types were cultured with specific differentiation medium, immunocytochemical analysis was performed for the assessment of differentiation into cardiovascular cells. We then examined the in vitro differentiation capacity and therapeutic potential of AdSCs in ischemic myocardium using a mouse myocardial infarction model. The cell density and proliferation activity of CA-derived AdSCs were significantly increased compared with the other adipose tissue-derived AdSCs. Immunocytochemistry showed that CA-derived AdSCs had the highest appearance rates of markers for endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes among the AdSCs. Systemic transfusion of CA-derived AdSCs exhibited the highest cardiac functional recovery after myocardial infarction and the high frequency of the recruitment to ischemic myocardium. Moreover, long-term follow-up of the recruited CA-derived AdSCs frequently expressed cardiovascular cell markers compared with the other adipose tissue-derived AdSCs. Cardiac adipose tissue could be an ideal source for isolation of therapeutically effective AdSCs for cardiac regeneration in ischemic heart diseases. Significance: The present study found that cardiac adipose-derived stem cells have a high potential to differentiate into cardiovascular lineage cells (i.e., cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells) compared with stem cells derived from other adipose tissue such as subcutaneous, visceral, and subscapular adipose tissue. Notably, only a small number of supracardiac adipose-derived stem cells that were

  12. A spiking network model of cerebellar Purkinje cells and molecular layer interneurons exhibiting irregular firing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eLennon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the anatomy of the cerebellar microcircuit is well studied, how it implements cerebellar function is not understood. A number of models have been proposed to describe this mechanism but few emphasize the role of the vast network Purkinje cells (PKJs form with the molecular layer interneurons (MLIs – the stellate and basket cells. We propose a model of the MLI-PKJ network composed of simple spiking neurons incorporating the major anatomical and physiological features. In computer simulations, the model reproduces the irregular firing patterns observed in PKJs and MLIs in vitro and a shift toward faster, more regular firing patterns when inhibitory synaptic currents are blocked. In the model, the time between PKJ spikes is shown to be proportional to the amount of feedforward inhibition from an MLI on average. The two key elements of the model are: (1 spontaneously active PKJs and MLIs due to an endogenous depolarizing current, and (2 adherence to known anatomical connectivity along a parasagittal strip of cerebellar cortex. We propose this model to extend previous spiking network models of the cerebellum and for further computational investigation into the role of irregular firing and MLIs in cerebellar learning and function.

  13. Preclinical computational models: predictors of tibial insert damage patterns in total knee arthroplasty: AAOS exhibit selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Edward A; Heim, Christine S; Greenwald, A Seth

    2012-09-19

    Computational models that predict clinical surface damage of the tibial insert during activities of daily living are emerging as powerful tools to assess the safety and efficacy of contemporary total knee arthroplasty designs. These models have the advantage of quickly determining the performance of new designs at low cost, and they allow direct comparison with the performance of classic, clinically successful designs. This study validated finite element and kinematic modeling predictions through comparison with preclinical physical testing results, damage patterns on retrieved tibial inserts, and clinically measured knee motion. There is a mounting body of evidence to support the role of computational modeling as a preclinical tool that enables the optimization of total knee arthroplasty designs and the auditing of component quality control before large-scale manufacturing is undertaken.

  14. Model-Based Fatigue Prognosis of Fiber-Reinforced Laminates Exhibiting Concurrent Damage Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbetta, M.; Sbarufatti, C.; Saxena, A.; Giglio, M.; Goebel, K.

    2016-01-01

    Prognostics of large composite structures is a topic of increasing interest in the field of structural health monitoring for aerospace, civil, and mechanical systems. Along with recent advancements in real-time structural health data acquisition and processing for damage detection and characterization, model-based stochastic methods for life prediction are showing promising results in the literature. Among various model-based approaches, particle-filtering algorithms are particularly capable in coping with uncertainties associated with the process. These include uncertainties about information on the damage extent and the inherent uncertainties of the damage propagation process. Some efforts have shown successful applications of particle filtering-based frameworks for predicting the matrix crack evolution and structural stiffness degradation caused by repetitive fatigue loads. Effects of other damage modes such as delamination, however, are not incorporated in these works. It is well established that delamination and matrix cracks not only co-exist in most laminate structures during the fatigue degradation process but also affect each other's progression. Furthermore, delamination significantly alters the stress-state in the laminates and accelerates the material degradation leading to catastrophic failure. Therefore, the work presented herein proposes a particle filtering-based framework for predicting a structure's remaining useful life with consideration of multiple co-existing damage-mechanisms. The framework uses an energy-based model from the composite modeling literature. The multiple damage-mode model has been shown to suitably estimate the energy release rate of cross-ply laminates as affected by matrix cracks and delamination modes. The model is also able to estimate the reduction in stiffness of the damaged laminate. This information is then used in the algorithms for life prediction capabilities. First, a brief summary of the energy-based damage model

  15. A Bounding Surface Plasticity Model for Intact Rock Exhibiting Size-Dependent Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Hossein; Douglas, Kurt J.; Russell, Adrian R.

    2016-01-01

    A new constitutive model for intact rock is presented recognising that rock strength, stiffness and stress-strain behaviour are affected by the size of the rock being subjected to loading. The model is formulated using bounding surface plasticity theory. It is validated against a new and extensive set of unconfined compression and triaxial compression test results for Gosford sandstone. The samples tested had diameters ranging from 19 to 145 mm and length-to-diameter ratios of 2. The model captures the continuous nonlinear stress-strain behaviour from initial loading, through peak strength to large shear strains, including transition from brittle to ductile behaviour. The size dependency was accounted for through a unified size effect law applied to the unconfined compressive strength—a key model input parameter. The unconfined compressive strength increases with sample size before peaking and then decreasing with further increasing sample size. Inside the constitutive model two hardening laws act simultaneously, each driven by plastic shear strains. The elasticity is stress level dependent. Simple linear loading and bounding surfaces are adopted, defined using the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, along with a non-associated flow rule. The model simulates well the stress-strain behaviour of Gosford sandstone at confining pressures ranging from 0 to 30 MPa for the variety of sample sizes considered.

  16. Dolichos biflorus exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in an acute inflammatory model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limi Elizabeth Mathew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dolichos biflorus (Muthira is a branched, suberect, and downing herb, native to most parts of India, and found at altitudes of up to 1000 m, whose seeds can be cooked and eaten. Nutrition plays a key role in building immunity and preventing noncommunicable diseases to a certain extent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of 70% methanolic extract of seeds of D. biflorus (DME in carrageenan-induced inflammation. DME exhibited maximum percentage of oedema inhibition at a dose of 50 mg/kg at the 3rd hour of carrageenan induction. The effect was higher than that of the standard drug Voveran. The activities of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, nitric oxide synthase, myeloperoxidase, and malondialdehyde showed significant (p < 0.05 reduction whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins C, and reduced glutathione level were increased significantly (p < 0.05 on treatment with DME. Also levels of the acute phase protein, ceruloplasmin, were brought to their normal range in DME-treated rats. Phytochemical analysis showed that the extract contains alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins, and tannins, which may contribute to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Thus the results demonstrate the potential beneficiary effect of DME on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.

  17. A Stochastic model for two-station hydraulics exhibiting transient impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Judith L.; Madsen, Henrik; Harremoës, Poul

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to interpret data on water level variation in a river affected by overflow from a sewer system during rain. The simplest possible, hydraulic description is combined with stochastic methods for data analysis and model parameter estimation. This combination of determin......The objective of the paper is to interpret data on water level variation in a river affected by overflow from a sewer system during rain. The simplest possible, hydraulic description is combined with stochastic methods for data analysis and model parameter estimation. This combination...

  18. Parallel plate model for trabecular bone exhibits volume fraction-dependant bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, J; Ding, Ming; Odgaard, A;

    2000-01-01

    Unbiased stereological methods were used in conjunction with microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT) scans of human and animal bone to investigate errors created when the parallel plate model was used to calculate morphometric parameters. Bone samples were obtained from the human proximal tibia......, canine distal femur, rat tail, and pig spine and scanned in a micro-CT scanner. Trabecular thickness, trabecular spacing, and trabecular number were calculated using the parallel plate model. Direct thickness, and spacing and connectivity density were calculated using unbiased three-dimensional methods...

  19. High-energy coordination polymers (CPs) exhibiting good catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition of ammonium dinitramide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Han, Jing; Zhang, Sheng; Zhai, Lianjie; Wang, Bozhou; Yang, Qi; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Chen, Sanping; Gao, Shengli

    2017-09-01

    High-energy coordination polymers (CPs) not only exhibit good energetic performances but also have a good catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition of energetic materials. In this contribution, two high-energy CPs Cu2(DNBT)2(CH3OH)(H2O)3·3H2O (1) and [Cu3(DDT)2(H2O)2]n (2) (H2DNBT = 3,3‧-dinitro-5,5‧-bis(1H-1,2,4-triazole and H3DDT = 4,5-bis(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole) were synthesized and structurally characterized. Furthermore, 1 was thermos-dehydrated to produce Cu2(DNBT)2(CH3OH)(H2O)3 (1a). The thermal decomposition kinetics of 1, 1a and 2 were studied by Kissinger's method and Ozawa's method. Thermal analyses and sensitivity tests show that all compounds exhibit high thermal stability and low sensitivity for external stimuli. Meanwhile, all compounds have large positive enthalpy of formation, which are calculated as being (1067.67 ± 2.62) kJ mol-1 (1), (1464.12 ± 3.12) kJ mol-1 (1a) and (3877.82 ± 2.75) kJ mol-1 (2), respectively. The catalytic effects of 1a and 2 on the thermal decomposition of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) were also investigated.

  20. Modeling cavities exhibiting strong lateral confinement using open geometry Fourier modal method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häyrynen, Teppo; Gregersen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a computationally efficient Fourier-Bessel expansion based open geometry formalism for modeling the optical properties of rotationally symmetric photonic nanostructures. The lateral computation domain is assumed infinite so that no artificial boundary conditions are needed. Instead...

  1. Parallel plate model for trabecular bone exhibits volume fraction-dependent bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Day (Judd); M. Ding; A. Odgaard; D.R. Sumner (Dale); I. Hvid (Ivan); H.H. Weinans (Harrie)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractUnbiased stereological methods were used in conjunction with microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT) scans of human and animal bone to investigate errors created when the parallel plate model was used to calculate morphometric parameters. Bone samples were obtained from the human proximal t

  2. A mathematical model of muscle containing heterogeneous half-sarcomeres exhibits residual force enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart G; Hatfield, P Chris; Campbell, Kenneth S

    2011-09-01

    A skeletal muscle fiber that is stimulated to contract and then stretched from L₁ to L₂ produces more force after the initial transient decays than if it is stimulated at L₂. This behavior has been well studied experimentally, and is known as residual force enhancement. The underlying mechanism remains controversial. We hypothesized that residual force enhancement could reflect mechanical interactions between heterogeneous half-sarcomeres. To test this hypothesis, we subjected a computational model of interacting heterogeneous half-sarcomeres to the same activation and stretch protocols that produce residual force enhancement in real preparations. Following a transient period of elevated force associated with active stretching, the model predicted a slowly decaying force enhancement lasting >30 seconds after stretch. Enhancement was on the order of 13% above isometric tension at the post-stretch muscle length, which agrees well with experimental measurements. Force enhancement in the model was proportional to stretch magnitude but did not depend strongly on the velocity of stretch, also in agreement with experiments. Even small variability in the strength of half-sarcomeres (2.1% standard deviation, normally distributed) was sufficient to produce a 5% force enhancement over isometric tension. Analysis of the model suggests that heterogeneity in half-sarcomeres leads to residual force enhancement by storing strain energy introduced during active stretch in distributions of bound cross-bridges. Complex interactions between the heterogeneous half-sarcomeres then dissipate this stored energy at a rate much slower than isolated cross-bridges would cycle. Given the variations in half-sarcomere length that have been observed in real muscle preparations and the stochastic variability inherent in all biological systems, half-sarcomere heterogeneity cannot be excluded as a contributing source of residual force enhancement.

  3. Fit model between participation statement of exhibitors and visitors to improve the exhibition performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina García Magro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aims of the paper is offers a model of analysis which allows to measure the impact on the performance of fairs, as well as the knowledge or not of the motives of participation of the visitors on the part of the exhibitors. Design/methodology: A review of the literature is established concerning two of the principal interested agents, exhibitors and visitors, focusing. The study is focused on the line of investigation referred to the motives of participation or not in a trade show. According to the information thrown by each perspectives of study, a comparative analysis is carried out in order to determine the degree of existing understanding between both. Findings: The trade shows allow to be studied from an integrated strategic marketing approach. The fit model between the reasons for participation of exhibitors and visitors offer information on the lack of an understanding between exhibitors and visitors, leading to dissatisfaction with the participation, a fact that is reflected in the fair success. The model identified shows that a strategic plan must be designed in which the reason for participation of visitor was incorporated as moderating variable of the reason for participation of exhibitors. The article concludes with the contribution of a series of proposals for the improvement of fairground results. Social implications: The fit model that improve the performance of trade shows, implicitly leads to successful achievement of targets for multiple stakeholders beyond the consideration of visitors and exhibitors. Originality/value: The integrated perspective of stakeholders allows the study of the existing relationships between the principal groups of interest, in such a way that, having knowledge on the condition of the question of the trade shows facilitates the task of the investigator in future academic works and allows that the interested groups obtain a better performance to the participation in fairs, as visitor or as

  4. Carbamate nerve agent prophylatics exhibit distinct toxicological effects in the zebrafish embryo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Audrey; Wolman, Marc; Granato, Michael; Parsons, Michael; McCallion, Andrew S; Proescher, Jody; English, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of myasthenia gravis and a prophylactic pre-treatment for organophosphate nerve agent poisoning. Current methods for evaluating nerve agent treatments include enzymatic studies and mammalian models. Rapid whole animal screening tools for assessing the effects of nerve agent pre-treatment and post-exposure drugs represent an underdeveloped area of research. We used zebrafish as a model for acute and chronic developmental exposure to PB and two related carbamate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, neostigmine bromide (NB) and physostigmine (PS). Lethal doses and gross morphological phenotypes resulting from exposure to sub-lethal doses of these compounds were determined. Quantitative analyses of motility impairment and AChE enzyme inhibition were used to determine optimal dosing conditions for evaluation of the effects of carbamate exposures on neuronal development; ~50% impairment of response to startle stimuli and >50% inhibition of AChE activity were observed at 80 mMPB, 20 mM NB and 0.1 mM PS. PB induced stunted somite length, but no other phenotypic effects were observed. In contrast, NB and PS induced more severe phenotypic morphological defects than PB as well as neurite outgrowth mislocalization. Additionally, NB induced mislocalization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, resulting in impaired synapse formation. Taken together, these data suggest that altered patterns of neuronal connectivity contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity of carbamates and demonstrate the utility of the zebrafish model for distinguishing subtle structure-based differential effects of AChE inhibitors, which include nerve agents, pesticides and drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel human neuronal tau model exhibiting neurofibrillary tangles and transcellular propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Patrick; Winston, Charisse N; Baron, Kelsey R; Trejo, Margarita; Rockenstein, Edward M; Akers, Johnny C; Kfoury, Najla; Diamond, Marc; Masliah, Eliezer; Rissman, Robert A; Yuan, Shauna H

    2017-10-01

    Tauopathies are a class of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia and progressive supranuclear palsy, which are associated with the pathological aggregation of tau protein into neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). Studies have characterized tau as a "prion-like" protein given its ability to form distinct, stable amyloid conformations capable of transcellular and multigenerational propagation in clonal fashion. It has been proposed that progression of tauopathy could be due to the prion-like propagation of tau, suggesting the possibility that end-stage pathologies, like NFT formation, may require an instigating event such as tau seeding. To investigate this, we applied a novel human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) system we have developed to serve as a human neuronal model. We introduced the tau repeat domain (tau-RD) with P301L and V337M (tau-RD-LM) mutations into hiPSC-derived neurons and observed expression of tau-RD at levels similar to total tau in postmortem AD brains. Tau aggregation occurred without the addition of recombinant tau fibrils. The conditioned media from tau-RD cultures contained tau-RD seeds, which were capable of inducing aggregate formation in homotypic mode in non-transduced recipient neuronal cultures. The resultant NFTs were thioflavin-positive, silver stain-positive, and assumed fibrillary appearance on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with immunogold, which revealed paired helical filament 1 (PHF1)-positive NFTs, representing possible recruitment of endogenous tau in the aggregates. Functionally, expression of tau-RD caused neurotoxicity that manifested as axon retraction, synaptic density reduction, and enlargement of lysosomes. The results of our hiPSC study were reinforced by the observation that Tau-RD-LM is excreted in exosomes, which mediated the transfer of human tau to wild-type mouse neurons in vivo. Our hiPSC human neuronal system provides a model for further studies of tau

  6. Ts65Dn, a mouse model of Down syndrome, exhibits increased GABAB-induced potassium current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Tyler K; Siarey, Richard J; Galdzicki, Zygmunt

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common nonheritable cause of mental retardation. DS is the result of the presence of an extra chromosome 21 and its phenotype may be a consequence of overexpressed genes from that chromosome. One such gene is Kcnj6/Girk2, which encodes the G-protein-coupled inward rectifying potassium channel subunit 2 (GIRK2). We have recently shown that the DS mouse model, Ts65Dn, overexpresses GIRK2 throughout the brain and in particular the hippocampus. Here we report that this overexpression leads to a significant increase ( approximately 2-fold) in GABA(B)-mediated GIRK current in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. The dose response curves for peak and steady-state GIRK current density is significantly shifted left toward lower concentrations of baclofen in Ts65Dn neurons compared with diploid controls, consistent with increased functional expression of GIRK channels. Stationary fluctuation analysis of baclofen-induced GIRK current from Ts65Dn neurons indicated no significant change in single-channel conductance compared with diploid. However, significant increases in GIRK channel density was found in Ts65Dn neurons. In normalized baclofen-induced GIRK current and GIRK current kinetics no difference was found between diploid and Ts65Dn neurons, which suggests unimpaired mechanisms of interaction between GIRK channel and GABA(B) receptor. These results indicate that increased expression of GIRK2 containing channels have functional consequences that likely affect the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neuronal transmission.

  7. Cost-effective alternative to nano-encapsulation: Amorphous curcumin-chitosan nanoparticle complex exhibiting high payload and supersaturation generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Hiep; Yu, Hong; Kiew, Tie Yi; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2015-10-01

    While the wide-ranging therapeutic activities of curcumin have been well established, its successful delivery to realize its true therapeutic potentials faces a major challenge due to its low oral bioavailability. Even though nano-encapsulation has been widely demonstrated to be effective in enhancing the bioavailability of curcumin, it is not without drawbacks (i.e. low payload and costly preparation). Herein we present a cost-effective bioavailability enhancement strategy of curcumin in the form of amorphous curcumin-chitosan nanoparticle complex (or curcumin nanoplex in short) exhibiting a high payload (>80%). The curcumin nanoplex was prepared by a simple yet highly efficient drug-polysaccharide complexation method that required only mixing of the curcumin and chitosan solutions under ambient condition. The effects of (1) pH and (2) charge ratio of chitosan to curcumin on the (i) physical characteristics of the nanoplex (i.e. size, colloidal stability and payload), (ii) complexation efficiency, and (iii) production yield were investigated from which the optimal preparation condition was determined. The nanoplex formation was found to favor low acidic pH and charge ratio below unity. At the optimal condition (i.e. pH 4.4. and charge ratio=0.8), stable curcumin nanoplex (≈260nm) was prepared at >90% complexation efficiency and ≈50% production yield. The amorphous state stability, colloidal stability, and in vitro non-cytotoxicity of the nanoplex were successfully established. The curcumin nanoplex produced prolonged supersaturation (3h) in the presence of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) at five times of the saturation solubility of curcumin. In addition, curcumin released from the nanoplex exhibited improved chemical stability owed to the presence of chitosan. Both results (i.e. high supersaturation and improved chemical stability) bode well for the ability of the curcumin nanoplex to enhance the bioavailability of curcumin clinically. Copyright © 2015

  8. DELPHI Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    DELPHI (Detector for Lepton, Photon and Hadron Identification) is a detector for e+e- physics, with special emphasis on powerful particle identification, three-dimensional information, high granularity and precise vertex determination. It is installed at LEP (Large Electron and Positron collider) at CERN where it has operated since 1989. The present collaboration consists of about 550 physicists from 56 participating universities and institutes in 22 countries.

  9. 7 CFR Exhibit M to Subpart G of... - Implementation Procedures for the Conservation of Wetlands and Highly Erodible Land Affecting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Corporations M Exhibit M to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. M Exhibit M to Subpart G of Part 1940—Implementation Procedures... Form Letter 1940-G-1, “Notification of The Requirements of exhibit M of FmHA Instruction 1940-G,”...

  10. Efficient Pd@MIL-101(Cr) hetero-catalysts for 2-butyne-1,4-diol hydrogenation exhibiting high selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Dongdong

    2017-01-05

    Pd@MIL-101(Cr) hetero-catalysts have been successfully prepared using the metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) approach, by choosing [Pd(η-CH)(η-CH)] as a volatile precursor, and the hydrothermally stable metal-organic framework, MIL-101(Cr) as a support. The prepared Pd@MIL-101(Cr) hetero-catalysts characterized with various analytical techniques, exhibited highly monodispersed immobilized Pd nanoparticles in the MIL-101(Cr) cavities, while retaining the pristine crystallinity and porosity. The intact hybrid Pd@MIL-101(Cr) has been demonstrated to be an efficient catalyst for 2-butyne-1,4-diol hydrogenation with excellent activity, stability and selectivity (2-butene-1,4-diol (>94%)).

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly luminescent blue-emitting ZnSe(S) quantum dots exhibiting low toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirnajafizadeh, Fatemeh; Ramsey, Deborah; McAlpine, Shelli [School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Wang, Fan; Reece, Peter [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Stride, John Arron, E-mail: j.stride@unsw.edu.au [School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2016-07-01

    Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) that emit in the visible spectrum are of interest to a number of imaging technologies, not least that of biological samples. One issue that hinders the application of luminescent markers in biology is the potential toxicity of the fluorophore. Here we show that hydrothermally synthesized ZnSe(S) QDs have low cytotoxicity to both human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT-116) and human skin fibroblast cells (WS1). The QDs exhibited a high degree of crystallinity, with a strong blue photoluminescence at up to 29% quantum yield relative to 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) without post-synthetic UV-irradiation. Confocal microscopy images obtained of HCT-116 cells after incubation with the QDs highlighted the stability of the particles in cell media. Cytotoxicity studies showed that both HCT-116 and WS1 cells retain 100% viability after treatment with the QDs at concentrations up to 0.5 g/L, which makes them of potential use in biological imaging applications. - Highlights: • Highly luminescent ZnSe(S) QDs were synthesized using a simple, one-step hydrothermal method. • The as-synthesized QDs were found to be nontoxic in the presence of biological cells. • The QDs were stable in biological media with identical emission profile to that in water.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly luminescent blue-emitting ZnSe(S) quantum dots exhibiting low toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnajafizadeh, Fatemeh; Ramsey, Deborah; McAlpine, Shelli; Wang, Fan; Reece, Peter; Stride, John Arron

    2016-07-01

    Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) that emit in the visible spectrum are of interest to a number of imaging technologies, not least that of biological samples. One issue that hinders the application of luminescent markers in biology is the potential toxicity of the fluorophore. Here we show that hydrothermally synthesized ZnSe(S) QDs have low cytotoxicity to both human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT-116) and human skin fibroblast cells (WS1). The QDs exhibited a high degree of crystallinity, with a strong blue photoluminescence at up to 29% quantum yield relative to 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) without post-synthetic UV-irradiation. Confocal microscopy images obtained of HCT-116 cells after incubation with the QDs highlighted the stability of the particles in cell media. Cytotoxicity studies showed that both HCT-116 and WS1 cells retain 100% viability after treatment with the QDs at concentrations up to 0.5g/L, which makes them of potential use in biological imaging applications.

  13. Characteristics of spring wheat genotypes exhibiting high resistance to FHB in terms of their resistance to other fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Kurasiak-Popowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2012 at the Dłoń Agricultural Research Station, the Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland. The study was designed to evaluate the degree of infection by powdery mildew, brown rust, and septoria leaf blotch in 61 spring wheat genotypes differing in their resistance to Fusarium ssp. The vast majority of spring wheat genotypes in the collection of gene resources in the USA defined as resistant to Fusarium ssp. confirmed their resistance under Polish climatic conditions. The B .graminis infection rate of genotypes that are considered to be resistant to Fusarium head blight was high. The resistance ranged from 7 for Sumai 3 (PL2 up to 8.8 for Ning 8331 (in a 9-point scale. Most of the genotypes (56.5% were infected by Puccinia recondita at a level of 1–3 (in a 9-point scale. The genotypes of Sumai 3 exhibited high resistance to septoria leaf blotch, amounting to 1–2 in a 9-point scale; the resistance of Frontana ranged from 1 to 3.5, while the genotypes of Ning were infected by Mycosphaerella graminicola at 5–6.

  14. An expanded Notch-Delta model exhibiting long-range patterning and incorporating MicroRNA regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry S Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Notch-Delta signaling is a fundamental cell-cell communication mechanism that governs the differentiation of many cell types. Most existing mathematical models of Notch-Delta signaling are based on a feedback loop between Notch and Delta leading to lateral inhibition of neighboring cells. These models result in a checkerboard spatial pattern whereby adjacent cells express opposing levels of Notch and Delta, leading to alternate cell fates. However, a growing body of biological evidence suggests that Notch-Delta signaling produces other patterns that are not checkerboard, and therefore a new model is needed. Here, we present an expanded Notch-Delta model that builds upon previous models, adding a local Notch activity gradient, which affects long-range patterning, and the activity of a regulatory microRNA. This model is motivated by our experiments in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis showing that the peripheral sensory neurons, whose specification is in part regulated by the coordinate activity of Notch-Delta signaling and the microRNA miR-124, exhibit a sparse spatial pattern whereby consecutive neurons may be spaced over a dozen cells apart. We perform rigorous stability and bifurcation analyses, and demonstrate that our model is able to accurately explain and reproduce the neuronal pattern in Ciona. Using Monte Carlo simulations of our model along with miR-124 transgene over-expression assays, we demonstrate that the activity of miR-124 can be incorporated into the Notch decay rate parameter of our model. Finally, we motivate the general applicability of our model to Notch-Delta signaling in other animals by providing evidence that microRNAs regulate Notch-Delta signaling in analogous cell types in other organisms, and by discussing evidence in other organisms of sparse spatial patterns in tissues where Notch-Delta signaling is active.

  15. Transgenic rice plants expressing the snowdrop lectin gene (gna) exhibit high-level resistance to the whitebacked planthopper (Sogatella furcifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagadhara, D; Ramesh, S; Pasalu, I C; Rao, Y Kondala; Sarma, N P; Reddy, V D; Rao, K V

    2004-11-01

    Transgenic rice plants, expressing snowdrop lectin [Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)], obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, were evaluated for resistance against the insect, the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). The transgene gna was driven by the phloem-specific, rice-sucrose synthase promoter RSs1, and the bar was driven by the CaMV 35S promoter. In our previous study, the transgenic status of these lines was confirmed by Southern, Northern and Western blot analyses. Both the transgenes, gna and bar, were stably inherited and co-segregated into progenies in T1 to T5 generations. Insect bioassays on transgenic plants revealed the potent entomotoxic effects of GNA on the WBPH. Also, significant decreases were observed in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects fed on transgenic plants. Furthermore, intact GNA was detected in the total proteins of WBPHs fed on these plants. Western blot analysis revealed stable and consistent expression of GNA throughout the growth and development of transgenic plants. Transgenic lines expressing GNA exhibited high-level resistance against the WBPH. As reported earlier, these transgenics also showed substantial resistance against the brown planthopper and green leafhopper.

  16. Fischer-344 Tp53-knockout rats exhibit a high rate of bone and brain neoplasia with frequent metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sarah A; Hart, Marcia L; Busi, Susheel; Parker, Taybor; Goerndt, Angela; Jones, Kevin; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2016-10-01

    Somatic mutations in the Tp53 tumor suppressor gene are the most commonly seen genetic alterations in cancer, and germline mutations in Tp53 predispose individuals to a variety of early-onset cancers. Development of appropriate translational animal models that carry mutations in Tp53 and recapitulate human disease are important for drug discovery, biomarker development and disease modeling. Current Tp53 mouse and rat models have significant phenotypic and genetic limitations, and often do not recapitulate certain aspects of human disease. We used a marker-assisted speed congenic approach to transfer a well-characterized Tp53-mutant allele from an outbred rat to the genetically inbred Fischer-344 (F344) rat to create the F344-Tp53(tm1(EGFP-Pac)Qly)/Rrrc (F344-Tp53) strain. On the F344 genetic background, the tumor spectrum shifted, with the primary tumor types being osteosarcomas and meningeal sarcomas, compared to the hepatic hemangiosarcoma and lymphoma identified in the original outbred stock model. The Fischer model is more consistent with the early onset of bone and central nervous system sarcomas found in humans with germline Tp53 mutations. The frequency of osteosarcomas in F344-Tp53 homozygous and heterozygous animals was 57% and 36%, respectively. Tumors were highly representative of human disease radiographically and histologically, with tumors found primarily on long bones with frequent pulmonary metastases. Importantly, the rapid onset of osteosarcomas in this promising new model fills a current void in animal models that recapitulate human pediatric osteosarcomas and could facilitate studies to identify therapeutic targets.

  17. Fischer-344 Tp53-knockout rats exhibit a high rate of bone and brain neoplasia with frequent metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Hansen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Somatic mutations in the Tp53 tumor suppressor gene are the most commonly seen genetic alterations in cancer, and germline mutations in Tp53 predispose individuals to a variety of early-onset cancers. Development of appropriate translational animal models that carry mutations in Tp53 and recapitulate human disease are important for drug discovery, biomarker development and disease modeling. Current Tp53 mouse and rat models have significant phenotypic and genetic limitations, and often do not recapitulate certain aspects of human disease. We used a marker-assisted speed congenic approach to transfer a well-characterized Tp53-mutant allele from an outbred rat to the genetically inbred Fischer-344 (F344 rat to create the F344-Tp53tm1(EGFP-PacQly/Rrrc (F344-Tp53 strain. On the F344 genetic background, the tumor spectrum shifted, with the primary tumor types being osteosarcomas and meningeal sarcomas, compared to the hepatic hemangiosarcoma and lymphoma identified in the original outbred stock model. The Fischer model is more consistent with the early onset of bone and central nervous system sarcomas found in humans with germline Tp53 mutations. The frequency of osteosarcomas in F344-Tp53 homozygous and heterozygous animals was 57% and 36%, respectively. Tumors were highly representative of human disease radiographically and histologically, with tumors found primarily on long bones with frequent pulmonary metastases. Importantly, the rapid onset of osteosarcomas in this promising new model fills a current void in animal models that recapitulate human pediatric osteosarcomas and could facilitate studies to identify therapeutic targets.

  18. Ex vivo human skin and SZ95 sebocytes exhibit a homoeostatic interaction in a novel coculture contact model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Seltmann, Holger; Hossini, Amir M; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Knolle, Jürgen; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2015-07-01

    The sebaceous gland displays key functions of the human skin, such as hormone synthesis in situ, antimicrobial activity and participation to inflammatory responses. Consequently, there is an emerging need of advanced in vitro models to study complex interactions between the sebaceous gland and the other skin compartments. Despite the evolution of both full-skin organ culture and reconstructed three-dimensional skin models, no satisfactory solutions have been provided for the integration of sebaceous glands and/or sebaceous gland cells in those models, probably due to their problematic maintenance both in vitro and ex vivo. We have developed a coculture model of explant skin in direct contact with immortalized SZ95 sebocytes, which resulted in overall improved structural integrity of the epidermis, higher percentage of proliferating basal epidermal cells and reduced apoptosis of differentiating keratinocytes after 6 days, as detected by Ki67 and TUNEL staining, respectively. Furthermore SZ95 sebocytes exhibited morphological and biochemical signs of normal differentiation and lipid accumulation, while interleukin-6 expression in the supernatant of the cocultures was decreased in comparison with the control. The data provide evidence of a beneficial interaction between sebocytes and skin explants and provide the rationale for their integration in future three-dimensional skin models.

  19. Evidence that high-migration drug-surviving MOLT4 leukemia cells exhibit cancer stem cell-like properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxing; Xiong, Meng; Jin, Yujie; Deng, Chaohua; Xu, Hui; An, Changqing; Hao, Ling; Yang, Xiangyong; Deng, Xinzhou; Tu, Zhenbo; Li, Xinran; Xiao, Ruijing; Zhang, Qiuping

    2016-07-01

    Leukemia represents a spectrum of hematological malignancies threatening human health. Resistance to treatments and metastasis of leukemia are the main causes of death in patients. Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are the initiating cells of leukemia as well as the main source of drug resistance, invasion and metastasis. Consequently, eliminating LSCs is a prerequisite to eradicate leukemia. Preliminary studies in our laboratory have shown that chemokines and their related receptors play an important role in the drug resistance and metastasis of leukemic cells. In this study, we obtained high migration drug-surviving (short term) MOLT4 cells (hMDSCs-MOLT4) with treatment of doxorubicin (DOX) after Transwell assay. Then we detected stem cell-associated molecular markers on hMDSCs-MOLT4 cells and the parental MOLT4 cells by FCM, QPCR, western blotting, H&E staining and immunohisto-chemistry experimental techniques in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we explored its impact on drug resistance and tumor formation. Then we found that compared with the parental MOLT4 cells, the mRNA expression levels of stem cell-related factors Sox2, Oct4, C-myc, Klf4, Nanog, Bmi-1, CXCR4 are increased in hMDSCs-MOLT4 cells, together with the protein expression levels of Sox2, Oct4, Klf4, Nanog, CXCR4 and CD34. Our results indicated that hMDSCs-MOLT4 cells exhibited strong drug resistance and certain cancer stem cell-like characteristics. It is the first indication that the targeting stemness factors such as Sox2, Oct4, Klf4, Nanog and CXCR4 may represent plausible options for eliminating T-ALL stem-like cells. The present findings shed light on the relationship between drug-tolerant leukemic cells and cancer stem cells.

  20. Fibroblasts from phenotypically normal palmar fascia exhibit molecular profiles highly similar to fibroblasts from active disease in Dupuytren's Contracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Latha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dupuytren's contracture (DC is a fibroproliferative disorder characterized by the progressive development of a scar-like collagen-rich cord that affects the palmar fascia of the hand and leads to digital flexion contractures. DC is most commonly treated by surgical resection of the diseased tissue, but has a high reported recurrence rate ranging from 27% to 80%. We sought to determine if the transcriptomic profiles of fibroblasts derived from DC-affected palmar fascia, adjacent phenotypically normal palmar fascia, and non-DC palmar fascial tissues might provide mechanistic clues to understanding the puzzle of disease predisposition and recurrence in DC. Methods To achieve this, total RNA was obtained from fibroblasts derived from primary DC-affected palmar fascia, patient-matched unaffected palmar fascia, and palmar fascia from non-DC patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (6 patients in each group. These cells were grown on a type-1 collagen substrate (to better mimic their in vivo environments. Microarray analyses were subsequently performed using Illumina BeadChip arrays to compare the transcriptomic profiles of these three cell populations. Data were analyzed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM v3.02, hierarchical clustering, concordance mapping and Venn diagram. Results We found that the transcriptomic profiles of DC-disease fibroblasts and fibroblasts from unaffected fascia of DC patients exhibited a much greater overlap than fibroblasts derived from the palmar fascia of patients undergoing carpal tunnel release. Quantitative real time RT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of select genes validating the microarray data analyses. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that predisposition and recurrence in DC may stem, at least in part, from intrinsic similarities in the basal gene expression of diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia fibroblasts. These data also demonstrate that

  1. Fibroblasts from phenotypically normal palmar fascia exhibit molecular profiles highly similar to fibroblasts from active disease in Dupuytren's Contracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dupuytren's contracture (DC) is a fibroproliferative disorder characterized by the progressive development of a scar-like collagen-rich cord that affects the palmar fascia of the hand and leads to digital flexion contractures. DC is most commonly treated by surgical resection of the diseased tissue, but has a high reported recurrence rate ranging from 27% to 80%. We sought to determine if the transcriptomic profiles of fibroblasts derived from DC-affected palmar fascia, adjacent phenotypically normal palmar fascia, and non-DC palmar fascial tissues might provide mechanistic clues to understanding the puzzle of disease predisposition and recurrence in DC. Methods To achieve this, total RNA was obtained from fibroblasts derived from primary DC-affected palmar fascia, patient-matched unaffected palmar fascia, and palmar fascia from non-DC patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (6 patients in each group). These cells were grown on a type-1 collagen substrate (to better mimic their in vivo environments). Microarray analyses were subsequently performed using Illumina BeadChip arrays to compare the transcriptomic profiles of these three cell populations. Data were analyzed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM v3.02), hierarchical clustering, concordance mapping and Venn diagram. Results We found that the transcriptomic profiles of DC-disease fibroblasts and fibroblasts from unaffected fascia of DC patients exhibited a much greater overlap than fibroblasts derived from the palmar fascia of patients undergoing carpal tunnel release. Quantitative real time RT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of select genes validating the microarray data analyses. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that predisposition and recurrence in DC may stem, at least in part, from intrinsic similarities in the basal gene expression of diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia fibroblasts. These data also demonstrate that a collagen

  2. Motor neurons and glia exhibit specific individualized responses to TDP-43 expression in a Drosophila model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Patricia S.; Daniel, Scott G.; Mccallum, Abigail P.; Boehringer, Ashley V.; Sukhina, Alona S.; Zwick, Rebecca A.; Zarnescu, Daniela C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease characterized by complex neuronal and glial phenotypes. Recently, RNA-based mechanisms have been linked to ALS via RNA-binding proteins such as TDP-43, which has been studied in vivo using models ranging from yeast to rodents. We have developed a Drosophila model of ALS based on TDP-43 that recapitulates several aspects of pathology, including motor neuron loss, locomotor dysfunction and reduced survival. Here we report the phenotypic consequences of expressing wild-type and four different ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations in neurons and glia. We show that TDP-43-driven neurodegeneration phenotypes are dose- and age-dependent. In motor neurons, TDP-43 appears restricted to nuclei, which are significantly misshapen due to mutant but not wild-type protein expression. In glia and in the developing neuroepithelium, TDP-43 associates with cytoplasmic puncta. TDP-43-containing RNA granules are motile in cultured motor neurons, although wild-type and mutant variants exhibit different kinetic properties. At the neuromuscular junction, the expression of TDP-43 in motor neurons versus glia leads to seemingly opposite synaptic phenotypes that, surprisingly, translate into comparable locomotor defects. Finally, we explore sleep as a behavioral readout of TDP-43 expression and find evidence of sleep fragmentation consistent with hyperexcitability, a suggested mechanism in ALS. These findings support the notion that although motor neurons and glia are both involved in ALS pathology, at the cellular level they can exhibit different responses to TDP-43. In addition, our data suggest that individual TDP-43 alleles utilize distinct molecular mechanisms, which will be important for developing therapeutic strategies. PMID:23471911

  3. Motor neurons and glia exhibit specific individualized responses to TDP-43 expression in a Drosophila model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia S. Estes

    2013-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal disease characterized by complex neuronal and glial phenotypes. Recently, RNA-based mechanisms have been linked to ALS via RNA-binding proteins such as TDP-43, which has been studied in vivo using models ranging from yeast to rodents. We have developed a Drosophila model of ALS based on TDP-43 that recapitulates several aspects of pathology, including motor neuron loss, locomotor dysfunction and reduced survival. Here we report the phenotypic consequences of expressing wild-type and four different ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations in neurons and glia. We show that TDP-43-driven neurodegeneration phenotypes are dose- and age-dependent. In motor neurons, TDP-43 appears restricted to nuclei, which are significantly misshapen due to mutant but not wild-type protein expression. In glia and in the developing neuroepithelium, TDP-43 associates with cytoplasmic puncta. TDP-43-containing RNA granules are motile in cultured motor neurons, although wild-type and mutant variants exhibit different kinetic properties. At the neuromuscular junction, the expression of TDP-43 in motor neurons versus glia leads to seemingly opposite synaptic phenotypes that, surprisingly, translate into comparable locomotor defects. Finally, we explore sleep as a behavioral readout of TDP-43 expression and find evidence of sleep fragmentation consistent with hyperexcitability, a suggested mechanism in ALS. These findings support the notion that although motor neurons and glia are both involved in ALS pathology, at the cellular level they can exhibit different responses to TDP-43. In addition, our data suggest that individual TDP-43 alleles utilize distinct molecular mechanisms, which will be important for developing therapeutic strategies.

  4. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vudem Dasavantha

    2008-10-01

    plants, bestowed with high entomotoxic effects, imparted appreciable resistance against three major sap-sucking insects. Our results amply demonstrate that transgenic indica rice harbouring asal exhibit surpassing resistance against BPH, GLH and WBPH insects. The prototypic asal transgenic rice lines appear promising for direct commercial cultivation besides serving as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding.

  5. High resolution genotyping by restriction enzyme-phased sequencing of advanced backcross lines of rice exhibiting differential cold stress recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advanced backcross rice lines MIb 4853-9 and 6885-2 harbor major seedling cold tolerance QTL qCTS4 and qCTS12 from the temperate japonica M202 in the genetic background of the indica IR50. Previous studies have shown that these lines exhibit the same tolerance, based on visual ratings, under constan...

  6. Dietary Phenolic Acids Act as Effective Antioxidants in Membrane Models and in Cultured Cells, Exhibiting Proapoptotic Effects in Leukaemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zambonin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic, syringic, and protocatechuic acids are phenolic acids derived directly from food intake or come from the gut metabolism of polyphenols. In this study, the antioxidant activity of these compounds was at first evaluated in membrane models, where caffeic acid behaved as a very effective chain-breaking antioxidant, whereas syringic and protocatechuic acids were only retardants of lipid peroxidation. However, all three compounds acted as good scavengers of reactive species in cultured cells subjected to exogenous oxidative stress produced by low level of H2O2. Many tumour cells are characterised by increased ROS levels compared with their noncancerous counterparts. Therefore, we investigated whether phenolic acids, at low concentrations, comparable to those present in human plasma, were able to decrease basal reactive species. Results show that phenolic acids reduced ROS in a leukaemia cell line (HEL, whereas no effect was observed in normal cells, such as HUVEC. The compounds exhibited no toxicity to normal cells while they decreased proliferation in leukaemia cells, inducing apoptosis. In the debate on optimal ROS-manipulating strategies in cancer therapy, our work in leukaemia cells supports the antioxidant ROS-depleting approach.

  7. In vitro and in vivo characterization of A-796260: a selective cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist exhibiting analgesic activity in rodent pain models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, B B; Hsieh, G C; Frost, J M; Fan, Y; Garrison, T R; Daza, A V; Grayson, G K; Zhu, C Z; Pai, M; Chandran, P; Salyers, A K; Wensink, E J; Honore, P; Sullivan, J P; Dart, M J; Meyer, M D

    2008-01-01

    Selective cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists have demonstrated analgesic activity across multiple preclinical pain models. AM1241 is an indole derivative that exhibits high affinity and selectivity for the CB2 binding site and broad spectrum analgesic activity in rodent models, but is not an antagonist of CB2 in vitro functional assays. Additionally, its analgesic effects are mu-opioid receptor-dependent. Herein, we describe the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of A-796260, a novel CB2 agonist. A-796260 was characterized in radioligand binding and in vitro functional assays at rat and human CB1 and CB2 receptors. The behavioural profile of A-796260 was assessed in models of inflammatory, post-operative, neuropathic, and osteoarthritic (OA) pain, as well as its effects on motor activity. The receptor specificity was confirmed using selective CB1, CB2 and mu-opioid receptor antagonists. A-796260 exhibited high affinity and agonist efficacy at human and rat CB2 receptors, and was selective for the CB2 vs CB1 subtype. Efficacy in models of inflammatory, post-operative, neuropathic and OA pain was demonstrated, and these activities were selectively blocked by CB2, but not CB1 or mu-opioid receptor-selective antagonists. Efficacy was achieved at doses that had no significant effects on motor activity. These results further confirm the therapeutic potential of CB2 receptor-selective agonists for the treatment of pain. In addition, they demonstrate that A-796260 may be a useful new pharmacological compound for further studying CB2 receptor pharmacology and for evaluating its role in the modulation of pain.

  8. The population genetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from different patient populations exhibits high-level host specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa van Mansfeld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether highly prevalent P. aeruginosa sequence types (ST in Dutch cystic fibrosis (CF patients are specifically linked to CF patients we investigated the population structure of P. aeruginosa from different clinical backgrounds. We first selected the optimal genotyping method by comparing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST and multilocus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. METHODS: Selected P. aeruginosa isolates (n = 60 were genotyped with PFGE, MLST and MLVA to determine the diversity index (DI and congruence (adjusted Rand and Wallace coefficients. Subsequently, isolates from patients admitted to two different ICUs (n = 205, from CF patients (n = 100 and from non-ICU, non-CF patients (n = 58, of which 19 were community acquired were genotyped with MLVA to determine distribution of genotypes and genetic diversity. RESULTS: Congruence between the typing methods was >79% and DIs were similar and all >0.963. Based on costs, ease, speed and possibilities to compare results between labs an adapted MLVA scheme called MLVA9-Utrecht was selected as the preferred typing method. In 363 clinical isolates 252 different MLVA types (MTs were identified, indicating a highly diverse population (DI  = 0.995; CI  = 0.993-0.997. DI levels were similarly high in the diverse clinical sources (all >0.981 and only eight genotypes were shared. MTs were highly specific (>80% for the different patient populations, even for similar patient groups (ICU patients in two distinct geographic regions, with only three of 142 ICU genotypes detected in both ICUs. The two major CF clones were unique to CF patients. CONCLUSION: The population structure of P. aeruginosa isolates is highly diverse and population specific without evidence for a core lineage in which major CF, hospital or community clones co-cluster. The two genotypes highly prevalent among Dutch CF patients appeared unique to CF patients

  9. Solar Fireworks - Integrating an Exhibit on Solar Physics and Space Science into the Science and Astronomy Curriculum of High-School and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, C.; Wang, H.; Conod, K. D.; Wintemberg, T.; Calderon, I.

    2005-05-01

    Astronomers at The Newark Museum's Alice and Leonard Dreyfuss Planetarium teamed up with the New Jersey Institute of Technology's (NJIT) Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR) and the Big Bear Solar Observatory in presenting Solar Fireworks. The exhibit opened on May 15, 2004 and features two exhibition kiosks with interactive touch screen displays, where students and other visitors can take "virtual tours" in the fields of solar physics, solar activity, Sun-Earth connection, and geo-sciences. Planetarium and museum visits are an integral part of the introductory physics and astronomy classes at NJIT and the exhibition has been integrated in the astronomy curriculum. For example, NJIT students of the Astronomy Club and regular astronomy courses were closely involved in the design and development of the exhibit. The exhibit is the latest addition to the long-running natural science exhibit "Dynamic Earth: Revealing Nature's Secrets" at the museum. More than 30,000 people per year attend various programs offered by the planetarium including public shows, more than a dozen programs for school groups, after school activities, portable planetarium outreach, outdoor sky watches, solar observing and other family events. More than 1,000 high school students visited the planetarium in 2004. The exhibit is accompanied by a yearly teacher workshop (the first one was held on October 18-20, 2004) to enhance the learning experience of classes visiting the Newark Museum. The planetarium and museum staff has been working with teachers of Newark high schools and has presented many workshops for educators on a wide range of topics from astronomy to zoology. At the conclusion of the exhibit in December 2005, the exhibit will go "on the road" and will be made available to schools or other museums. Finally, the exhibit will find its permanent home at the new office complex of CSTR at NJIT. Acknowledgements: Solar Fireworks was organized by The Newark Museum and the New Jersey

  10. The population genetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from different patient populations exhibits high-level host specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mansfeld, R.; Jongerden, I.P.; Bootsma, M.C.; Buiting, A.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Willems, R.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether highly prevalent P. aeruginosa sequence types (ST) in Dutch cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are specifically linked to CF patients we investigated the population structure of P. aeruginosa from different clinical backgrounds. We first selected the optimal genotyping meth

  11. Weak localization of electromagnetic waves and opposition phenomena exhibited by high-albedo atmosphereless solar system objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I; Rosenbush, Vera K; Kiselev, Nikolai N

    2006-06-20

    The totality of new and previous optical observations of a class of high-albedo solar system objects at small phase angles reveals a unique combination of extremely narrow brightness and polarization features centered at exactly the opposition. The specific morphological parameters of these features provide an almost unequivocal evidence that they are caused by the renowned effect of coherent backscattering.

  12. The population genetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from different patient populations exhibits high-level host specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mansfeld, R.; Jongerden, I.P.; Bootsma, M.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830305; Buiting, A.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Willems, R.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether highly prevalent P. aeruginosa sequence types (ST) in Dutch cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are specifically linked to CF patients we investigated the population structure of P. aeruginosa from different clinical backgrounds. We first selected the optimal genotyping meth

  13. Droplet Lamp Design exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Unver, Ertu; Dean, Lionel Theodore

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experiments in the use of digital fluid simulation techniques within a\\ud product design context. It discusses the adoption and adaptation of virtual modelling tools in\\ud 3D creative practice. This work is exhibited at EuroMold, the world-wide fair in Germany for\\ud mold making, tooling, design and application development with around 60.000 visitors and lasts\\ud 4 days. The fair brings together professionals from design, prototyping and manufacturing.

  14. Young men with low birthweight exhibit decreased plasticity of genome-wide muscle DNA methylation by high-fat overfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Stine C; Gillberg, Linn; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Lara, Ester; Calvanese, Vincenzo; Ling, Charlotte; Fernandez, Agustin F; Fraga, Mario F; Poulsen, Pernille; Brøns, Charlotte; Vaag, Allan

    2014-06-01

    The association between low birthweight (LBW) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes may involve epigenetic mechanisms, with skeletal muscle being a prime target tissue. Differential DNA methylation patterns have been observed in single genes in muscle tissue from type 2 diabetic and LBW individuals, and we recently showed multiple DNA methylation changes during short-term high-fat overfeeding in muscle of healthy people. In a randomised crossover study, we analysed genome-wide DNA promoter methylation in skeletal muscle of 17 young LBW men and 23 matched normal birthweight (NBW) men after a control and a 5 day high-fat overfeeding diet. DNA methylation was measured using Illumina's Infinium BeadArray covering 27,578 CpG sites representing 14,475 different genes. After correction for multiple comparisons, DNA methylation levels were found to be similar in the LBW and NBW groups during the control diet. Whereas widespread DNA methylation changes were observed in the NBW group in response to high-fat overfeeding, only a few methylation changes were seen in the LBW group (χ(2), p muscle from LBW vs NBW men, potentially contributing to understanding the link between LBW and increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

  15. Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Exhibits Antidiabetic Activities in a Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda M. Eid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium vitis-idaea, commonly known as lingonberry, has been identified among species used by the Cree of Eeyou Istchee of northern Quebec to treat symptoms of diabetes. In a previous study, the ethanol extract of berries of V. vitis-idaea enhanced glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle cells via stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK pathway. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of plant extract in a dietary mouse model of mild type 2 diabetes. C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, ∼35% lipids for 8 weeks that become obese and insulin-resistant (diet-induced obesity, DIO were used. Treatment began by adding V. vitis-idaea extract to HFD at 3 different concentrations (125, 250, and 500 mg/Kg for a subsequent period of 8 weeks (total HFD, 16 weeks. The plant extract significantly decreased glycemia and strongly tended to decrease insulin levels in this model. This was correlated with a significant increase in GLUT4 content and activation of the AMPK and Akt pathways in skeletal muscle. V. vitis-idaea treatment also improved hepatic steatosis by decreasing hepatic triglyceride levels and significantly activated liver AMPK and Akt pathways. The results of the present study confirm that V. vitis-idaea represents a culturally relevant treatment option for Cree diabetics and pave the way to clinical studies.

  16. Tendon exhibits complex poroelastic behavior at the nanoscale as revealed by high-frequency AFM-based rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connizzo, Brianne K; Grodzinsky, Alan J

    2017-03-21

    Tendons transmit load from muscle to bone by utilizing their unique static and viscoelastic tensile properties. These properties are highly dependent on the composition and structure of the tissue matrix, including the collagen I hierarchy, proteoglycans, and water. While the role of matrix constituents in the tensile response has been studied, their role in compression, particularly in matrix pressurization via regulation of fluid flow, is not well understood. Injured or diseased tendons and tendon regions that naturally experience compression are known to have alterations in glycosaminoglycan content, which could modulate fluid flow and ultimately mechanical function. While recent theoretical studies have predicted tendon mechanics using poroelastic theory, no experimental data have directly demonstrated such behavior. In this study, we use high-bandwidth AFM-based rheology to determine the dynamic response of tendons to compressive loading at the nanoscale and to determine the presence of poroelastic behavior. Tendons are found to have significant characteristic dynamic relaxation behavior occurring at both low and high frequencies. Classic poroelastic behavior is observed, although we hypothesize that the full dynamic response is caused by a combination of flow-dependent poroelasticity as well as flow-independent viscoelasticity. Tendons also demonstrate regional dependence in their dynamic response, particularly near the junction of tendon and bone, suggesting that the structural and compositional heterogeneity in tendon may be responsible for regional poroelastic behavior. Overall, these experiments provide the foundation for understanding fluid-flow-dependent poroelastic mechanics of tendon, and the methodology is valuable for assessing changes in tendon matrix compressive behavior at the nanoscale.

  17. Patients With High Bone Mass Phenotype Exhibit Enhanced Osteoblast Differentiation and Inhibition of Adipogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Weimin; Andersen, Tom; Bollerslev, Jens

    2007-01-01

    to osteoporosis), or LRP5T253 (hMSC-LRP5T253, activation mutation leading to high bone mass). We characterized Wnt signaling activation using a dual luciferase assay, cell proliferation, lineage biomarkers using real-time PCR, and in vivo bone formation. Results: In bone biopsies, we found increased trabecular...... mineralized bone when implanted subcutaneously with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate in SCID/NOD mice. Conclusions: LRP5 mutations and the level of Wnt signaling determine differentiation fate of hMSCs into osteoblasts or adipocytes. Activation of Wnt signaling can thus provide a novel approach to increase...

  18. Young men with low birthweight exhibit decreased plasticity of genome-wide muscle DNA methylation by high-fat overfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine C; Gillberg, Linn; Bork-Jensen, Jette

    2014-01-01

    individuals, and we recently showed multiple DNA methylation changes during short-term high-fat overfeeding in muscle of healthy people. In a randomised crossover study, we analysed genome-wide DNA promoter methylation in skeletal muscle of 17 young LBW men and 23 matched normal birthweight (NBW) men after......The association between low birthweight (LBW) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes may involve epigenetic mechanisms, with skeletal muscle being a prime target tissue. Differential DNA methylation patterns have been observed in single genes in muscle tissue from type 2 diabetic and LBW...

  19. Naphthacenodithiophene Based Polymers-New Members of the Acenodithiophene Family Exhibiting High Mobility and Power Conversion Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Knall, Astrid Caroline

    2016-08-18

    Wide-bandgap conjugated polymers with a linear naphthacenodithiophene (NDT) donor unit are herein reported along with their performance in both transistor and solar cell devices. The monomer is synthesized starting from 2,6-dihydroxynaphthalene with a double Fries rearrangement as the key step. By copolymerization with 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BT) via a palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction, NDT-BT co-polymers with high molecular weights and narrow polydispersities are afforded. These novel wide-bandgap polymers are evaluated as the semiconducting polymer in both organic field effect transistor and organic photovoltaic applications. The synthesized polymers reveal an optical bandgap in the range of 1.8 eV with an electron affinity of 3.6 eV which provides sufficient energy offset for electron transfer to PC70BM acceptors. In organic field effect transistors, the synthesized polymers demonstrate high hole mobilities of around 0.4 cm2 V–1 s–1. By using a blend of NDT-BT with PC70BM as absorber layer in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, power conversion efficiencies of 7.5% are obtained. This value is among the highest obtained for polymers with a wider bandgap (larger than 1.7 eV), making this polymer also interesting for application in tandem or multijunction solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana leaves with altered chloroplast numbers and chloroplast movement exhibit impaired adjustments to both low and high light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königer, Martina; Delamaide, Joy A; Marlow, Elizabeth D; Harris, Gary C

    2008-01-01

    The effects of chloroplast number and size on the capacity for blue light-dependent chloroplast movement, the ability to increase light absorption under low light, and the susceptibility to photoinhibition were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Leaves of wild-type and chloroplast number mutants with mean chloroplast numbers ranging from 120 to two per mesophyll cell were analysed. Chloroplast movement was monitored as changes in light transmission through the leaves. Light transmission was used as an indicator of the ability of leaves to optimize light absorption. The ability of leaves to deal with 3 h of high light stress at 10 degrees C and their capacity to recover in low light was determined by measuring photochemical efficiencies of PSII using chlorophyll a fluorescence. Chloroplast movement was comparable in leaves ranging in chloroplast numbers from 120 to 30 per mesophyll cell: the final light transmission levels after exposure to 0.1 (accumulation response) and 100 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) (avoidance response) were indistinguishable, the chloroplasts responded quickly to small increases in light intensity and the kinetics of movement were similar. However, when chloroplast numbers per mesophyll cell decreased to 18 or below, the accumulation response was significantly reduced. The avoidance response was only impaired in mutants with nine or fewer chloroplasts, both in terms of final transmission levels and the speed of movement. Only mutants lacking both blue light receptors (phot1/phot2) or those with drastically reduced chloroplast numbers and severely impacted avoidance responses showed a reduced ability to recover from high light stress.

  1. Mice deficient in cryptochrome 1 (Cry1-/- exhibit resistance to obesity induced by a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eGriebel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of circadian clock enhances the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Circadian clocks rely on a highly regulated network of transcriptional and translational loops that drive clock-controlled gene expression. Among these transcribed clock genes are cryptochrome (CRY family members, which comprise Cry1 and Cry2. While the metabolic effects of deletion of several core components of the clock gene machinery have been well characterized, those of selective inactivation of Cry1 or Cry2 genes have not been described. In this study we demonstrate that ablation of Cry1, but not Cry2, prevents high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity in mice. Despite similar caloric intake, Cry1-/- mice on HFD gained markedly less weight (-18 % at the end of the 16-week experiment and displayed reduced fat accumulation compared to wild-type (WT littermates (-61 %, suggesting increased energy expenditure. Analysis of serum lipid and glucose profiles showed no difference between Cry1-/- and WT mice. Both Cry1-/- and Cry2-/- mice are indistinguishable from WT controls in body weight, fat and protein contents, and food consumption when they are allowed unlimited access to a standard rodent diet. We conclude that although CRY signaling may not be essential for the maintenance of energy homeostasis under steady-state nutritional conditions, Cry1 may play a role in readjusting energy balance under changing nutritional circumstances. These studies reinforce the important role of circadian clock genes in energy homeostasis and suggest that Cry1 is a plausible target for antiobesity therapy.

  2. Biofilm-Forming Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Survive in Kupffer Cells and Exhibit High Virulence in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuto Oyama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although Staphylococcus aureus is part of the normal body flora, heavy usage of antibiotics has resulted in the emergence of methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA. MRSA can form biofilms and cause indwelling foreign body infections, bacteremia, soft tissue infections, endocarditis, and osteomyelitis. Using an in vitro assay, we screened 173 clinical blood isolates of MRSA and selected 20 high-biofilm formers (H-BF and low-biofilm formers (L-BF. These were intravenously administered to mice and the general condition of mice, the distribution of bacteria, and biofilm in the liver, lung, spleen, and kidney were investigated. MRSA count was the highest in the liver, especially within Kupffer cells, which were positive for acid polysaccharides that are associated with intracellular biofilm. After 24 h, the general condition of the mice worsened significantly in the H-BF group. In the liver, bacterial deposition and aggregation and the biofilm-forming spot number were all significantly greater for H-BF group than for L-BF. CFU analysis revealed that bacteria in the H-BF group survived for long periods in the liver. These results indicate that the biofilm-forming ability of MRSA is a crucial factor for intracellular persistence, which could lead to chronic infections.

  3. Select small core structure carbamates exhibit high contact toxicity to "carbamate-resistant" strain malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae (Akron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Wong

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is a proven target for control of the malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae. Unfortunately, a single amino acid mutation (G119S in An. gambiae AChE-1 (AgAChE confers resistance to the AChE inhibitors currently approved by the World Health Organization for indoor residual spraying. In this report, we describe several carbamate inhibitors that potently inhibit G119S AgAChE and that are contact-toxic to carbamate-resistant An. gambiae. PCR-RFLP analysis was used to confirm that carbamate-susceptible G3 and carbamate-resistant Akron strains of An. gambiae carry wild-type (WT and G119S AChE, respectively. G119S AgAChE was expressed and purified for the first time, and was shown to have only 3% of the turnover number (k(cat of the WT enzyme. Twelve carbamates were then assayed for inhibition of these enzymes. High resistance ratios (>2,500-fold were observed for carbamates bearing a benzene ring core, consistent with the carbamate-resistant phenotype of the G119S enzyme. Interestingly, resistance ratios for two oxime methylcarbamates, and for five pyrazol-4-yl methylcarbamates were found to be much lower (4- to 65-fold. The toxicities of these carbamates to live G3 and Akron strain An. gambiae were determined. As expected from the enzyme resistance ratios, carbamates bearing a benzene ring core showed low toxicity to Akron strain An. gambiae (LC(50>5,000 μg/mL. However, one oxime methylcarbamate (aldicarb and five pyrazol-4-yl methylcarbamates (4a-e showed good to excellent toxicity to the Akron strain (LC(50 = 32-650 μg/mL. These results suggest that appropriately functionalized "small-core" carbamates could function as a resistance-breaking anticholinesterase insecticides against the malaria mosquito.

  4. Select small core structure carbamates exhibit high contact toxicity to "carbamate-resistant" strain malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae (Akron).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dawn M; Li, Jianyong; Chen, Qiao-Hong; Han, Qian; Mutunga, James M; Wysinski, Ania; Anderson, Troy D; Ding, Haizhen; Carpenetti, Tiffany L; Verma, Astha; Islam, Rafique; Paulson, Sally L; Lam, Polo C-H; Totrov, Maxim; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Carlier, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a proven target for control of the malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae). Unfortunately, a single amino acid mutation (G119S) in An. gambiae AChE-1 (AgAChE) confers resistance to the AChE inhibitors currently approved by the World Health Organization for indoor residual spraying. In this report, we describe several carbamate inhibitors that potently inhibit G119S AgAChE and that are contact-toxic to carbamate-resistant An. gambiae. PCR-RFLP analysis was used to confirm that carbamate-susceptible G3 and carbamate-resistant Akron strains of An. gambiae carry wild-type (WT) and G119S AChE, respectively. G119S AgAChE was expressed and purified for the first time, and was shown to have only 3% of the turnover number (k(cat)) of the WT enzyme. Twelve carbamates were then assayed for inhibition of these enzymes. High resistance ratios (>2,500-fold) were observed for carbamates bearing a benzene ring core, consistent with the carbamate-resistant phenotype of the G119S enzyme. Interestingly, resistance ratios for two oxime methylcarbamates, and for five pyrazol-4-yl methylcarbamates were found to be much lower (4- to 65-fold). The toxicities of these carbamates to live G3 and Akron strain An. gambiae were determined. As expected from the enzyme resistance ratios, carbamates bearing a benzene ring core showed low toxicity to Akron strain An. gambiae (LC(50)>5,000 μg/mL). However, one oxime methylcarbamate (aldicarb) and five pyrazol-4-yl methylcarbamates (4a-e) showed good to excellent toxicity to the Akron strain (LC(50) = 32-650 μg/mL). These results suggest that appropriately functionalized "small-core" carbamates could function as a resistance-breaking anticholinesterase insecticides against the malaria mosquito.

  5. Select Small Core Structure Carbamates Exhibit High Contact Toxicity to “Carbamate-Resistant” Strain Malaria Mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae (Akron)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dawn M.; Li, Jianyong; Chen, Qiao-Hong; Han, Qian; Mutunga, James M.; Wysinski, Ania; Anderson, Troy D.; Ding, Haizhen; Carpenetti, Tiffany L.; Verma, Astha; Islam, Rafique; Paulson, Sally L.; Lam, Polo C.-H.; Totrov, Maxim; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R.; Carlier, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a proven target for control of the malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae). Unfortunately, a single amino acid mutation (G119S) in An. gambiae AChE-1 (AgAChE) confers resistance to the AChE inhibitors currently approved by the World Health Organization for indoor residual spraying. In this report, we describe several carbamate inhibitors that potently inhibit G119S AgAChE and that are contact-toxic to carbamate-resistant An. gambiae. PCR-RFLP analysis was used to confirm that carbamate-susceptible G3 and carbamate-resistant Akron strains of An. gambiae carry wild-type (WT) and G119S AChE, respectively. G119S AgAChE was expressed and purified for the first time, and was shown to have only 3% of the turnover number (kcat) of the WT enzyme. Twelve carbamates were then assayed for inhibition of these enzymes. High resistance ratios (>2,500-fold) were observed for carbamates bearing a benzene ring core, consistent with the carbamate-resistant phenotype of the G119S enzyme. Interestingly, resistance ratios for two oxime methylcarbamates, and for five pyrazol-4-yl methylcarbamates were found to be much lower (4- to 65-fold). The toxicities of these carbamates to live G3 and Akron strain An. gambiae were determined. As expected from the enzyme resistance ratios, carbamates bearing a benzene ring core showed low toxicity to Akron strain An. gambiae (LC50>5,000 μg/mL). However, one oxime methylcarbamate (aldicarb) and five pyrazol-4-yl methylcarbamates (4a–e) showed good to excellent toxicity to the Akron strain (LC50 = 32–650 μg/mL). These results suggest that appropriately functionalized “small-core” carbamates could function as a resistance-breaking anticholinesterase insecticides against the malaria mosquito. PMID:23049714

  6. Pseudouridine synthase 1 deficient mice, a model for Mitochondrial Myopathy with Sideroblastic Anemia, exhibit muscle morphology and physiology alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Joshua E.; Hardee, Justin P.; Fix, Dennis K.; Puppa, Melissa J.; Elkes, Johnathon; Altomare, Diego; Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Campagna, Dean R.; Schmidt, Paul J.; Sendamarai, Anoop K.; Lidov, Hart G. W.; Barlow, Shayne C.; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Fleming, Mark D.; Carson, James A.; Patton, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy with lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) is an oxidative phosphorylation disorder, with primary clinical manifestations of myopathic exercise intolerance and a macrocytic sideroblastic anemia. One cause of MLASA is recessive mutations in PUS1, which encodes pseudouridine (Ψ) synthase 1 (Pus1p). Here we describe a mouse model of MLASA due to mutations in PUS1. As expected, certain Ψ modifications were missing in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs from Pus1−/− animals. Pus1−/− mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequency and were non-dysmorphic. At 14 weeks the mutants displayed reduced exercise capacity. Examination of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle morphology and histochemistry demonstrated an increase in the cross sectional area and proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIB and low succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) expressing myofibers, without a change in the size of MHC IIA positive or high SDH myofibers. Cytochrome c oxidase activity was significantly reduced in extracts from red gastrocnemius muscle from Pus1−/− mice. Transmission electron microscopy on red gastrocnemius muscle demonstrated that Pus1−/− mice also had lower intermyofibrillar mitochondrial density and smaller mitochondria. Collectively, these results suggest that alterations in muscle metabolism related to mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity may account for the reduced exercise capacity in Pus1−/− mice. PMID:27197761

  7. Parallel Exhibits: Combining Physical and Virtual Exhibits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Lischke; T. Dingler; S. Schneegaß; A. Schmidt; M. van der Vaart; P. Wozniak

    2014-01-01

    People have a special fascination for original physical objects, their texture, and visible history. However, the digitization of exhibits and the use of these data is a current challenge for museums. We believe that museums need to capitalize on the affordances of physical exhibits to help users na

  8. A mouse model for triple-negative breast cancer tumor-initiating cells (TNBC-TICs exhibits similar aggressive phenotype to the human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kau Punit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC exhibit characteristics quite distinct from other kinds of breast cancer, presenting as an aggressive disease--recurring and metastasizing more often than other kinds of breast cancer, without tumor-specific treatment options and accounts for 15% of all types of breast cancer with higher percentages in premenopausal African-American and Hispanic women. The reason for this aggressive phenotype is currently the focus of intensive research. However, progress is hampered by the lack of suitable TNBC cell model systems. Methods To understand the mechanistic basis for the aggressiveness of TNBC, we produced a stable TNBC cell line by sorting for 4T1 cells that do not express the estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR or the gene for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. As a control, we produced a stable triple-positive breast cancer (TPBC cell line by transfecting 4T1 cells with rat HER2, ER and PgR genes and sorted for cells with high expression of ER and PgR by flow cytometry and high expression of the HER2 gene by Western blot analysis. Results We isolated tumor-initiating cells (TICs by sorting for CD24+/CD44high/ALDH1+ cells from TNBC (TNBC-TICs and TPBC (TPBC-TICs stable cell lines. Limiting dilution transplantation experiments revealed that CD24+/CD44high/ALDH1+ cells derived from TNBC (TNBC-TICs and TPBC (TPBC-TICs were significantly more effective at repopulating the mammary glands of naïve female BALB/c mice than CD24-/CD44-/ALDH1- cells. Implantation of the TNBC-TICs resulted in significantly larger tumors, which metastasized to the lungs to a significantly greater extent than TNBC, TPBC-TICs, TPBC or parental 4T1 cells. We further demonstrated that the increased aggressiveness of TNBC-TICs correlates with the presence of high levels of mouse twenty-five kDa heat shock protein (Hsp25/mouse HspB1 and seventy-two kDa heat shock protein (Hsp72/HspA1A. Conclusions

  9. The homozygote VCP(R¹⁵⁵H/R¹⁵⁵H mouse model exhibits accelerated human VCP-associated disease pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angèle Nalbandian

    Full Text Available Valosin containing protein (VCP mutations are the cause of hereditary inclusion body myopathy, Paget's disease of bone, frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD. VCP gene mutations have also been linked to 2% of isolated familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. VCP is at the intersection of disrupted ubiquitin proteasome and autophagy pathways, mechanisms responsible for the intracellular protein degradation and abnormal pathology seen in muscle, brain and spinal cord. We have developed the homozygous knock-in VCP mouse (VCP(R155H/R155H model carrying the common R155H mutations, which develops many clinical features typical of the VCP-associated human diseases. Homozygote VCP(R155H/R155H mice typically survive less than 21 days, exhibit weakness and myopathic changes on EMG. MicroCT imaging of the bones reveal non-symmetrical radiolucencies of the proximal tibiae and bone, highly suggestive of PDB. The VCP(R155H/R155H mice manifest prominent muscle, heart, brain and spinal cord pathology, including striking mitochondrial abnormalities, in addition to disrupted autophagy and ubiquitin pathologies. The VCP(R155H/R155H homozygous mouse thus represents an accelerated model of VCP disease and can be utilized to elucidate the intricate molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of VCP-associated neurodegenerative diseases and for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  10. Citrobacter amalonaticus Phytase on the Cell Surface of Pichia pastoris Exhibits High pH Stability as a Promising Potential Feed Supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Li; Ying Lin; Yuanyuan Huang; Xiaoxiao Liu; Shuli Liang

    2014-01-01

    Phytase expressed and anchored on the cell surface of Pichia pastoris avoids the expensive and time-consuming steps of protein purification and separation. Furthermore, yeast cells with anchored phytase can be used as a whole-cell biocatalyst. In this study, the phytase gene of Citrobacter amalonaticus was fused with the Pichia pastoris glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein homologue GCW61. Phytase exposed on the cell surface exhibits a high activity of 6413.5 U/g, with an ...

  11. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  12. Skeletal muscle-specific HMG-CoA reductase knockout mice exhibit rhabdomyolysis: A model for statin-induced myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Yoshinori; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Miyahara, Shoko; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Ishii, Akiko; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yatoh, Shigeru; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Yahagi, Naoya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Sone, Hirohito; Ohashi, Ken; Ishibashi, Shun; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2015-10-23

    HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid (MVA); this is the rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that synthesizes cholesterol. Statins, HMGCR inhibitors, are widely used as cholesterol-reducing drugs. However, statin-induced myopathy is the most adverse side effect of statins. To eludicate the mechanisms underlying statin the myotoxicity and HMGCR function in the skeletal muscle, we developed the skeletal muscle-specific HMGCR knockout mice. Knockout mice exhibited postnatal myopathy with elevated serum creatine kinase levels and necrosis. Myopathy in knockout mice was completely rescued by the oral administration of MVA. These results suggest that skeletal muscle toxicity caused by statins is dependent on the deficiencies of HMGCR enzyme activity and downstream metabolites of the mevalonate pathway in skeletal muscles rather than the liver or other organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An Xpd mouse model for the combined xeroderma pigmentosum/Cockayne syndrome exhibiting both cancer predisposition and segmental progeria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andressoo, Jaan-Olle; Mitchell, James R; Wit, Jan de; Hoogstraten, Deborah; Volker, Marcel; Toussaint, Wendy; Speksnijder, Ewoud; Beems, Rudolf B; Steeg, Harry van; Jans, Judith; Zeeuw, Chris I de; Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; Raams, Anja; Lehmann, Alan R; Vermeulen, Wim; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Horst, Gijsbertus T J van der

    2006-01-01

    Inborn defects in nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) can paradoxically result in elevated cancer incidence (xeroderma pigmentosum [XP]) or segmental progeria without cancer predisposition (Cockayne syndrome [CS] and trichothiodystrophy [TTD]). We report generation of a knockin mouse model for the

  14. An Xpd mouse model for the combined xeroderma pigmentosum/Cockayne syndrome exhibiting both cancer predisposition and segmental progeria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andressoo, Jaan-Olle; Mitchell, James R; Wit, Jan de; Hoogstraten, Deborah; Volker, Marcel; Toussaint, Wendy; Speksnijder, Ewoud; Beems, Rudolf B; Steeg, Harry van; Jans, Judith; Zeeuw, Chris I de; Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; Raams, Anja; Lehmann, Alan R; Vermeulen, Wim; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Horst, Gijsbertus T J van der

    2006-01-01

    Inborn defects in nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) can paradoxically result in elevated cancer incidence (xeroderma pigmentosum [XP]) or segmental progeria without cancer predisposition (Cockayne syndrome [CS] and trichothiodystrophy [TTD]). We report generation of a knockin mouse model for the

  15. Yessotoxin, a Marine Toxin, Exhibits Anti-Allergic and Anti-Tumoural Activities Inhibiting Melanoma Tumour Growth in a Preclinical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobío, Araceli; Alfonso, Amparo; Madera-Salcedo, Iris; Botana, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Yessotoxins (YTXs) are a group of marine toxins produced by the dinoflagellates Protoceratium reticulatum, Lingulodinium polyedrum and Gonyaulax spinifera. They may have medical interest due to their potential role as anti-allergic but also anti-cancer compounds. However, their biological activities remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that the small molecular compound YTX causes a slight but significant reduction of the ability of mast cells to degranulate. Strikingly, further examination revealed that YTX had a marked and selective cytotoxicity for the RBL-2H3 mast cell line inducing apoptosis, while primary bone marrow derived mast cells were highly resistant. In addition, YTX exhibited strong cytotoxicity against the human B-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cell line MEC1 and the murine melanoma cell line B16F10. To analyse the potential role of YTX as an anti-cancer drug in vivo we used the well-established B16F10 melanoma preclinical mouse model. Our results demonstrate that a few local application of YTX around established tumours dramatically diminished tumour growth in the absence of any significant toxicity as determined by the absence of weight loss and haematological alterations. Our data support that YTX may have a minor role as an anti-allergic drug, but reveals an important potential for its use as an anti-cancer drug. PMID:27973568

  16. A novel high-spin tridecanuclear Ni(II) cluster with an azido-bridged core exhibiting disk-like topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Gabriel; Habib, Fatemah; Cook, Cyril; Pathmalingam, Thushan; Loiseau, Francis; Korobkov, Ilia; Burchell, Tara J; Beauchemin, André M; Murugesu, Muralee

    2012-01-30

    A high-spin tridecanuclear Ni(II) cluster, [Ni(II)(13)(N(3))(18)(dpo)(4)(Hdpo)(2)(H(2)hpo)(4)(H(2)O)(MeOH)] [Ni(II)(13)(N(3))(18)(dpo)(4)(Hdpo)(2)(H(2)hpo)(4)(H(2)O)(2)] (1) (Hdpo = 1-(dimethylamino)propan-2-one oxime and H(2)hpo = 1-(hydroxyamino)propan-2-one oxime) with a purely azido-bridged core, is reported with dominant ferromagnetic coupling between Ni(II) ions. The latter molecule exhibits a unique planar core topology with the largest N(3)(-):Ni(II) ratio reported to date.

  17. A novel transgenic mouse model of CBS-deficient homocystinuria does not incur hepatic steatosis or fibrosis and exhibits a hypercoagulative phenotype that is ameliorated by betaine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Kenneth N; Sikora, Jakub; Kožich, Viktor; Jiang, Hua; Greiner, Lori S; Kraus, Eva; Krijt, Jakub; Overdier, Katherine H; Collard, Renata; Brodsky, Gary L; Meltesen, Lynne; Crnic, Linda S; Allen, Robert H; Stabler, Sally P; Elleder, Milan; Rozen, Rima; Patterson, David; Kraus, Jan P

    2010-01-01

    Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) catalyzes the condensation of homocysteine (Hcy) and serine to cystathionine, which is then hydrolyzed to cysteine by cystathionine gamma-lyase. Inactivation of CBS results in CBS-deficient homocystinuria more commonly referred to as classical homocystinuria, which, if untreated, results in mental retardation, thromboembolic complications, and a range of connective tissue disorders. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathology of this disease are poorly understood. We report here the generation of a new mouse model of classical homocystinuria in which the mouse cbs gene is inactivated and that exhibits low-level expression of the human CBS transgene under the control of the human CBS promoter. This mouse model, designated "human only" (HO), exhibits severe elevations in both plasma and tissue levels of Hcy, methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, and S-adenosylhomocysteine and a concomitant decrease in plasma and hepatic levels of cysteine. HO mice exhibit mild hepatopathy but, in contrast to previous models of classical homocystinuria, do not incur hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, or neonatal death with approximately 90% of HO mice living for at least 6months. Tail bleeding determinations indicate that HO mice are in a hypercoagulative state that is significantly ameliorated by betaine treatment in a manner that recapitulates the disease as it occurs in humans. Our findings indicate that this mouse model will be a valuable tool in the study of pathogenesis in classical homocystinuria and the rational design of novel treatments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An in vitro model for dengue virus infection that exhibits human monocyte infection, multiple cytokine production and dexamethasone immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Regina Nogueira Ignácio Reis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An important cytokine role in dengue fever pathogenesis has been described. These molecules can be associated with haemorrhagic manifestations, coagulation disorders, hypotension and shock, all symptoms implicated in vascular permeability and disease worsening conditions. Several immunological diseases have been treated by cytokine modulation and dexamethasone is utilized clinically to treat pathologies with inflammatory and autoimmune ethiologies. We established an in vitro model with human monocytes infected by dengue virus-2 for evaluating immunomodulatory and antiviral activities of potential pharmaceutical products. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated significant dengue antigen detection in target cells two days after infection. TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 are produced by in vitro infected monocytes and are significantly detected in cell culture supernatants by multiplex microbead immunoassay. Dexamethasone action was tested for the first time for its modulation in dengue infection, presenting optimistic results in both decreasing cell infection rates and inhibiting TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha and IL-10 production. This model is proposed for novel drug trials yet to be applyed for dengue fever.

  19. An in vitro model for dengue virus infection that exhibits human monocyte infection, multiple cytokine production and dexamethasone immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sônia Regina Nogueira Ignácio; Sampaio, André Luiz Franco; Henriques, Maria das Graças Muller; Gandini, Mariana; Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    An important cytokine role in dengue fever pathogenesis has been described. These molecules can be associated with haemorrhagic manifestations, coagulation disorders, hypotension and shock, all symptoms implicated in vascular permeability and disease worsening conditions. Several immunological diseases have been treated by cytokine modulation and dexamethasone is utilized clinically to treat pathologies with inflammatory and autoimmune etiologies. We established an in vitro model with human monocytes infected by dengue virus-2 for evaluating immunomodulatory and antiviral activities of potential pharmaceutical products. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated significant dengue antigen detection in target cells two days after infection. TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 are produced by in vitro infected monocytes and are significantly detected in cell culture supernatants by multiplex microbead immunoassay. Dexamethasone action was tested for the first time for its modulation in dengue infection, presenting optimistic results in both decreasing cell infection rates and inhibiting TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha and IL-10 production. This model is proposed for novel drug trials yet to be applied for dengue fever.

  20. Quantifying Stress Using mDFA: Heartbeats Exhibit Stress/Fear/Anxiety in Animal Model and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Yazawa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress has not been fully defined in terms of neuroscience. But, it might be possible to quantify it, like body temperature. The aim of this study was to develop a method to quantify stress, fear and anxiety that has not been accomplished. In the present study, we present a method to quantify them using the biomedical vital information, i.e., the timing of heartbeat. Here electrocardiograms of both animal models and humans were analyzed by modified detrended fluctuation analysis (mDFA, which calculates a scaling exponent (SI from the heartbeat interval time series. The SI was able to numerically distinguish between normal and abnormal hearts. SI values varied with heart conditions, i.e., healthy basal or stressful conditions. This study suggests that mDFA has potential as a practical method for the construction of a device for health management.

  1. Chiral mercaptoacetamides display enantioselective inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 and exhibit neuroprotection in cortical neuron models of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Jay H; Zhang, Hankun; Gaudrel-Grosay, Sophie; Vistoli, Giulio; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2012-03-05

    Mercaptoacetamide-based ligands have been designed as a new class of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors for possible use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The thiol group of these compounds provides a key binding element for interaction with the catalytic zinc ion, and thus differs from the more typically employed hydroxamic acid based zinc binding groups. Herein we disclose the chemistry and biology of some substituted mercaptoacetamides with the intention of increasing HDAC6 isoform selectivity while maintaining potency similar to their hydroxamic acid analogues. The introduction of a stereocenter α to the thiol group was found to have a considerable impact on HDAC inhibitor potency. These new compounds were also profiled for their therapeutic potential in an in vitro model of stress-induced neuronal injury and were found to act as nontoxic neuroprotective agents. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Photonics of a conjugated organometallic Pt-Ir polymer and its model compounds exhibiting hybrid CT excited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Fortin, Daniel; Zysman-Colman, Eli; Harvey, Pierre D

    2012-04-13

    Trans- dichlorobis(tri-n-butylphosphine)platinum(II) reacts with bis(2- phenylpyridinato)-(5,5'-diethynyl-2,2'-bipyridine)iridium(III) hexafluorophosphate to form the luminescent conjugated polymer poly[trans-[(5,5'-ethynyl-2,2'-bipyridine)bis(2- phenylpyridinato)-iridium(III)]bis(tri-n-butylphosphine)platinum(II)] hexafluorophosphate ([Pt]-[Ir])n. Gel permeation chromatography indicates a degree of polymerization of 9 inferring the presence of an oligomer. Comparison of the absorption and emission band positions and their temperature dependence, emission quantum yields, and lifetimes with those for models containing only the [Pt] or the [Ir] units indicates hybrid excited states including features from both chromophores.

  3. The antineoplastic antibiotic taurolidine promotes lung and liver metastasis in two syngeneic osteosarcoma mouse models and exhibits severe liver toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Matthias J E; Walters, Denise K; Banke, Ingo J; Steinmann, Patrick; Puskas, Gabor J; Bertz, Josefine; Rentsch, Katharina M; Ehrensperger, Felix; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent primary bone tumor. Despite multiagent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, patients with metastatic disease have a poor prognosis. Moreover, currently used chemotherapeutics have severe toxic side effects. Thus, novel agents with improved antimetastatic activity and reduced toxicity are needed. Taurolidine, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial, has recently been shown to have antineoplastic properties against a variety of tumors and low systemic toxicity. Consequently, we investigated in our study the antineoplastic potential of taurolidine against OS in two different mouse models. Although both OS cell lines, K7M2 and LM8, were sensitive for the compound in vitro, intraperitoneal application of taurolidine failed to inhibit primary tumor growth. Moreover, it enhanced the metastatic load in both models 1.7- to 20-fold and caused severe liver deformations and up to 40% mortality. Thus, systemic toxicity was further investigated in tumor-free mice histologically, by electron microscopy and by measurements of representative liver enzymes. Taurolidine dose-dependent fibrous thickening of the liver capsule and adhesions and atrophies of the liver lobes were comparable in healthy and tumor-bearing mice. Liver toxicity was further indicated by up to eightfold elevated levels of the liver enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and GLDH in the circulation. Ultrastructural analysis of affected liver tissue showed swollen mitochondria with cristolysis and numerous lipid vacuoles in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. The findings of our study question the applicability of taurolidine for OS treatment and may suggest the need for caution regarding the widespread clinical use of taurolidine as an antineoplastic agent.

  4. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  5. Trinucleotide repeat variants in the promoter of the thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene of patients exhibiting ultra-high enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rebecca L; Gearry, Richard B; Bland, Michael V; Sies, Christiaan W; George, Peter M; Burt, Michael; Marinaki, Anthony M; Arenas, Monica; Barclay, Murray L; Kennedy, Martin A

    2008-05-01

    Thiopurine S-methyl transferase (TPMT) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyses the S-methylation of the thiopurine immunosuppressants. To date, 22 variants have been identified that are predictive of decreased TPMT activity. In contrast, no molecular explanation has been found for the 1-2% of Caucasians who exhibit ultra-high TPMT activity. Here, we report the characterization of polymorphisms within a trinucleotide (GCC) repeat element of the TPMT promoter in two patients with inflammatory bowel disease exhibiting the highest TPMT activity from two testing centres. The first patient was heterozygous for a variant allele carrying seven GCC repeats [(GCC)7], whereas the second patient was heterozygous for a variant allele containing five GCC repeats [(GCC)5]. Fifty patients with inflammatory bowel disease with normal TPMT activity were all homozygous for six GCC repeats [(GCC)6]. Of 200 healthy controls, five were found to be heterozygous for the (GCC)7 variant. Within in vitro reporter gene assays, the mean luciferase activities of the (GCC)6, (GCC)7, and (GCC)5 constructs were 8.0+/-0.26, 13.2+/-0.10 and 12.3+/-0.12, respectively. The significant increase in activity observed for (GCC)5 and (GCC)7 compared with (GCC)6 (P-value high TPMT activity observed in these patients.

  6. Pentiptycene-Based Luminescent Cu (II) MOF Exhibiting Selective Gas Adsorption and Unprecedentedly High-Sensitivity Detection of Nitroaromatic Compounds (NACs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minghui; Zhang, Liangliang; Xiao, Zhenyu; Zhang, Qinhui; Wang, Rongming; Dai, Fangna; Sun, Daofeng

    2016-02-01

    The assembly of a fluorescent pentiptycene-based ligand with copper ion resulted in the formation of a 3D porous metal-organic framework (UPC-21) based on well-known paddlewheel SBUs. UPC-21 exhibits selective adsorption of CO2 over CH4 and N2 at 273 K and 295 K, C2H2 over CH4 at 273 K. The most significant performance of UPC-21 is its highly efficient detection of NACs such as 4-NP, 1,4-DNB, NB, and 1,3-DNB with the calculated quenching constants, Ksv, being 3.097 × 106, 1.406 × 106, 4.420 × 105, and 1.498 × 105 M-1 for 4-NP, 1,4-DNB, NB, 1,3-DNB, respectively, which keeps a record on the fluorescence detection of NACs. This is the first porous Cu(II) MOF that exhibits fluorescent detection of NACs with high sensitivities.

  7. Pentiptycene-Based Luminescent Cu (II) MOF Exhibiting Selective Gas Adsorption and Unprecedentedly High-Sensitivity Detection of Nitroaromatic Compounds (NACs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minghui; Zhang, Liangliang; Xiao, Zhenyu; Zhang, Qinhui; Wang, Rongming; Dai, Fangna; Sun, Daofeng

    2016-01-01

    The assembly of a fluorescent pentiptycene-based ligand with copper ion resulted in the formation of a 3D porous metal-organic framework (UPC-21) based on well-known paddlewheel SBUs. UPC-21 exhibits selective adsorption of CO2 over CH4 and N2 at 273 K and 295 K, C2H2 over CH4 at 273 K. The most significant performance of UPC-21 is its highly efficient detection of NACs such as 4-NP, 1,4-DNB, NB, and 1,3-DNB with the calculated quenching constants, Ksv, being 3.097 × 106, 1.406 × 106, 4.420 × 105, and 1.498 × 105 M−1 for 4-NP, 1,4-DNB, NB, 1,3-DNB, respectively, which keeps a record on the fluorescence detection of NACs. This is the first porous Cu(II) MOF that exhibits fluorescent detection of NACs with high sensitivities. PMID:26857592

  8. Etruscan Culture Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    EARLY this year an exhibition on the ancient civilization of Etruria was held at the Beijing-based China Millennium Monument.The theme of the exhibition was Etruscan Culture and on show were the most representative cultural and historical relics of this ancient civilization unearthed in the past 20 years. The 349 exhibits from various

  9. Ethics on Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  10. Muscle spindles exhibit core lesions and extensive degeneration of intrafusal fibers in the Ryr1{sup I4895T/wt} mouse model of core myopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvaritch, Elena; MacLennan, David H., E-mail: david.maclennan@utoronto.ca

    2015-04-24

    Muscle spindles from the hind limb muscles of adult Ryr1{sup I4895T/wt} (IT/+) mice exhibit severe structural abnormalities. Up to 85% of the spindles are separated from skeletal muscle fascicles by a thick layer of connective tissue. Many intrafusal fibers exhibit degeneration, with Z-line streaming, compaction and collapse of myofibrillar bundles, mitochondrial clumping, nuclear shrinkage and pyknosis. The lesions resemble cores observed in the extrafusal myofibers of this animal model and of core myopathy patients. Spindle abnormalities precede those in extrafusal fibers, indicating that they are a primary pathological feature in this murine Ryr1-related core myopathy. Muscle spindle involvement, if confirmed for human core myopathy patients, would provide an explanation for an array of devastating clinical features characteristic of these diseases and provide novel insights into the pathology of RYR1-related myopathies. - Highlights: • Muscle spindles exhibit structural abnormalities in a mouse model of core myopathy. • Myofibrillar collapse and mitochondrial clumping is observed in intrafusal fibers. • Myofibrillar degeneration follows a pattern similar to core formation in extrafusal myofibers. • Muscle spindle abnormalities are a part of the pathological phenotype in the mouse model of core myopathy. • Direct involvement of muscle spindles in the pathology of human RYR1-related myopathies is proposed.

  11. Colon-available raspberry polyphenols exhibit anti-cancer effects on in vitro models of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougall Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a probable association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and reduced risk of cancer, particularly cancer of the digestive tract. This anti-cancer activity has been attributed in part to anti-oxidants present in these foods. Raspberries in particular are a rich source of the anti-oxidant compounds, such as polyphenols, anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Methods A "colon-available" raspberry extract (CARE was prepared that contained phytochemicals surviving a digestion procedure that mimicked the physiochemical conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The polyphenolic-rich extract was assessed for anti-cancer properties in a series of in vitro systems that model important stages of colon carcinogenesis, initiation, promotion and invasion. Results The phytochemical composition of CARE was monitored using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The colon-available raspberry extract was reduced in anthocyanins and ellagitannins compared to the original raspberry juice but enriched in other polyphenols and polyphenol breakdown products that were more stable to gastrointestinal digestion. Initiation – CARE caused significant protective effects against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in HT29 colon cancer cells measured using single cell microgelelectrophoresis. Promotion – CARE significantly decreased the population of HT29 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, effectively reducing the number of cells entering the cell cycle. However, CARE had no effect on epithelial integrity (barrier function assessed by recording the trans-epithelial resistance (TER of CACO-2 cell monolayers. Invasion – CARE caused significant inhibition of HT115 colon cancer cell invasion using the matrigel invasion assay. Conclusion The results indicate that raspberry phytochemicals likely to reach the colon are capable of inhibiting several important stages in colon carcinogenesis in vitro.

  12. Avian influenza viruses that cause highly virulent infections in humans exhibit distinct replicative properties in contrast to human H1N1 viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Philippe F.; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Paradis, Éric; Mendoza, Emelissa; Coombs, Kevin M.; Kobasa, Darwyn; Beauchemin, Catherine A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Avian influenza viruses present an emerging epidemiological concern as some strains of H5N1 avian influenza can cause severe infections in humans with lethality rates of up to 60%. These have been in circulation since 1997 and recently a novel H7N9-subtyped virus has been causing epizootics in China with lethality rates around 20%. To better understand the replication kinetics of these viruses, we combined several extensive viral kinetics experiments with mathematical modelling of in vitro infections in human A549 cells. We extracted fundamental replication parameters revealing that, while both the H5N1 and H7N9 viruses replicate faster and to higher titers than two low-pathogenicity H1N1 strains, they accomplish this via different mechanisms. While the H7N9 virions exhibit a faster rate of infection, the H5N1 virions are produced at a higher rate. Of the two H1N1 strains studied, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain exhibits the longest eclipse phase, possibly indicative of a less effective neuraminidase activity, but causes infection more rapidly than the seasonal strain. This explains, in part, the pandemic strain’s generally slower growth kinetics and permissiveness to accept mutations causing neuraminidase inhibitor resistance without significant loss in fitness. Our results highlight differential growth properties of H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses.

  13. Citrobacter amalonaticus phytase on the cell surface of Pichia pastoris exhibits high pH stability as a promising potential feed supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Lin, Ying; Huang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Liang, Shuli

    2014-01-01

    Phytase expressed and anchored on the cell surface of Pichia pastoris avoids the expensive and time-consuming steps of protein purification and separation. Furthermore, yeast cells with anchored phytase can be used as a whole-cell biocatalyst. In this study, the phytase gene of Citrobacter amalonaticus was fused with the Pichia pastoris glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein homologue GCW61. Phytase exposed on the cell surface exhibits a high activity of 6413.5 U/g, with an optimal temperature of 60°C. In contrast to secreted phytase, which has an optimal pH of 5.0, phytase presented on the cell surface is characterized by an optimal pH of 3.0. Moreover, our data demonstrate that phytase anchored on the cell surface exhibits higher pH stability than its secreted counterpart. Interestingly, our in vitro digestion experiments demonstrate that phytase attached to the cell surface is a more efficient enzyme than secreted phytase.

  14. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  15. Muscle spindles exhibit core lesions and extensive degeneration of intrafusal fibers in the Ryr1(I4895T/wt) mouse model of core myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvaritch, Elena; MacLennan, David H

    2015-04-24

    Muscle spindles from the hind limb muscles of adult Ryr1(I4895T/wt) (IT/+) mice exhibit severe structural abnormalities. Up to 85% of the spindles are separated from skeletal muscle fascicles by a thick layer of connective tissue. Many intrafusal fibers exhibit degeneration, with Z-line streaming, compaction and collapse of myofibrillar bundles, mitochondrial clumping, nuclear shrinkage and pyknosis. The lesions resemble cores observed in the extrafusal myofibers of this animal model and of core myopathy patients. Spindle abnormalities precede those in extrafusal fibers, indicating that they are a primary pathological feature in this murine Ryr1-related core myopathy. Muscle spindle involvement, if confirmed for human core myopathy patients, would provide an explanation for an array of devastating clinical features characteristic of these diseases and provide novel insights into the pathology of RYR1-related myopathies.

  16. Pentiptycene-Based Luminescent Cu (II) MOF Exhibiting Selective Gas Adsorption and Unprecedentedly High-Sensitivity Detection of Nitroaromatic Compounds (NACs)

    OpenAIRE

    Minghui Zhang; Liangliang Zhang; Zhenyu Xiao; Qinhui Zhang; Rongming Wang; Fangna Dai; Daofeng Sun

    2016-01-01

    The assembly of a fluorescent pentiptycene-based ligand with copper ion resulted in the formation of a 3D porous metal-organic framework (UPC-21) based on well-known paddlewheel SBUs. UPC-21 exhibits selective adsorption of CO2 over CH4 and N2 at 273 K and 295 K, C2H2 over CH4 at 273 K. The most significant performance of UPC-21 is its highly efficient detection of NACs such as 4-NP, 1,4-DNB, NB, and 1,3-DNB with the calculated quenching constants, K sv, being 3.097 × 106, 1.406 × 106, 4.420 ...

  17. Exhibiting Mozart: Rethinking Biography

    OpenAIRE

    Spring, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The article analyses the new permanent exhibition in the composer Wolfgang A. Mozart’s apartment in Vienna, opened in 2006, from the curator’s perspective. The exhibition presents an approach to biographical display in which the exhibited person becomes part of a multifaceted web of contexts, and the article argues for the active deployment of the polysemic character of objects as a means of grasping the complexity of a person’s biography. Presenting a concept for the...

  18. Classical sickle beta-globin haplotypes exhibit a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity in African and Afro-Caribbean populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jallow Muminatou

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sickle (βs mutation in the beta-globin gene (HBB occurs on five "classical" βs haplotype backgrounds in ethnic groups of African ancestry. Strong selection in favour of the βs allele – a consequence of protection from severe malarial infection afforded by heterozygotes – has been associated with a high degree of extended haplotype similarity. The relationship between classical βs haplotypes and long-range haplotype similarity may have both anthropological and clinical implications, but to date has not been explored. Here we evaluate the haplotype similarity of classical βs haplotypes over 400 kb in population samples from Jamaica, The Gambia, and among the Yoruba of Nigeria (Hapmap YRI. Results The most common βs sub-haplotype among Jamaicans and the Yoruba was the Benin haplotype, while in The Gambia the Senegal haplotype was observed most commonly. Both subtypes exhibited a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity extending across approximately 400 kb in all three populations. This long-range similarity was significantly greater than that seen for other haplotypes sampled in these populations (P s mutation. Conclusion Two different classical βs haplotypes, sampled from different populations, exhibit comparable and extensive long-range haplotype similarity and strong LD. This LD extends across the adjacent recombination hotspot, and is discernable at distances in excess of 400 kb. Although the multi-centric geographic distribution of βs haplotypes indicates strong subdivision among early Holocene sub-Saharan populations, we find no evidence that selective pressures imposed by falciparum malaria varied in intensity or timing between these subpopulations. Our observations also suggest that cis-acting loci, which may influence outcomes in sickle cell disease, could lie considerable distances away from β-globin.

  19. Modelling to very high strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, P. D.; Jessell, M. W.; Griera, A.; Evans, L. A.; Wilson, C. J. L.

    2009-04-01

    Ductile strains in shear zones often reach extreme values, resulting in typical structures, such as winged porphyroclasts and several types of shear bands. The numerical simulation of the development of such structures has so far been inhibited by the low maximum strains that numerical models can normally achieve. Typical numerical models collapse at shear strains in the order of one to three. We have implemented a number of new functionalities in the numerical platform "Elle" (Jessell et al. 2001), which significantly increases the amount of strain that can be achieved and simultaneously reduces boundary effects that become increasingly disturbing at higher strain. Constant remeshing, while maintaining the polygonal phase regions, is the first step to avoid collapse of the finite-element grid required by finite-element solvers, such as Basil (Houseman et al. 2008). The second step is to apply a grain-growth routine to the boundaries of polygons that represent phase regions. This way, the development of sharp angles is avoided. A second advantage is that phase regions may merge or become separated (boudinage). Such topological changes are normally not possible in finite element deformation codes. The third step is the use of wrapping vertical model boundaries, with which optimal and unchanging model boundaries are maintained for the application of stress or velocity boundary conditions. The fourth step is to shift the model by a random amount in the vertical direction every time step. This way, the fixed horizontal boundary conditions are applied to different material points within the model every time step. Disturbing boundary effects are thus averaged out over the whole model and not localised to e.g. top and bottom of the model. Reduction of boundary effects has the additional advantage that model can be smaller and, therefore, numerically more efficient. Owing to the combination of these existing and new functionalities it is now possible to simulate the

  20. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  1. Mice Deficient in Proglucagon-Derived Peptides Exhibit Glucose Intolerance on a High-Fat Diet but Are Resistant to Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Takagi

    Full Text Available Homozygous glucagon-GFP knock-in mice (Gcggfp/gfp lack proglucagon derived-peptides including glucagon and GLP-1, and are normoglycemic. We have previously shown that Gcggfp/gfp show improved glucose tolerance with enhanced insulin secretion. Here, we studied glucose and energy metabolism in Gcggfp/gfp mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Male Gcggfp/gfp and Gcggfp/+ mice were fed either a normal chow diet (NCD or an HFD for 15-20 weeks. Regardless of the genotype, mice on an HFD showed glucose intolerance, and Gcggfp/gfp mice on HFD exhibited impaired insulin secretion whereas Gcggfp/+ mice on HFD exhibited increased insulin secretion. A compensatory increase in β-cell mass was observed in Gcggfp/+mice on HFD, but not in Gcggfp/gfp mice on the same diet. Weight gain was significantly lower in Gcggfp/gfp mice than in Gcggfp/+mice. Oxygen consumption was enhanced in Gcggfp/gfp mice compared to Gcggfp/+ mice on an HFD. HFD feeding significantly increased uncoupling protein 1 mRNA expression in brown adipose and inguinal white adipose tissues of Gcggfp/gfp mice, but not of Gcggfp/+mice. Treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide (200 mg/kg improved glucose tolerance in Gcggfp/gfp mice and insulin content in Gcggfp/gfp and Gcggfp/+ mice was similar after liraglutide treatment. Our findings demonstrate that Gcggfp/gfp mice develop diabetes upon HFD-feeding in the absence of proglucagon-derived peptides, although they are resistant to diet-induced obesity.

  2. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and derived hepatocyte-like cells exhibit similar therapeutic effects on an acute liver failure mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiping Zhou

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have exhibited therapeutic effects in multiple animal models so that are promising liver substitute for transplantation treatment of end-stage liver diseases. However, it has been shown that over-manipulation of these cells increased their tumorigenic potential, and that reducing the in vitro culture time could minimize the risk. In this study, we used a D-galactosamine plus lipopolysaccharide (Gal/LPS-induced acute liver failure mouse model, which caused death of about 50% of the mice with necrosis of more than 50% hepatocytes, to compare the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord MSCs (hUCMSCs before and after induction of differentiation into hepatocyte (i-Heps. Induction of hUCMSCs to become i-Heps was achieved by treatment of the cells with a group of growth factors within 4 weeks. The resulted i-Heps exhibited a panel of human hepatocyte biomarkers including cytokeratin (hCK-18, α-fetoprotein (hAFP, albumin (hALB, and hepatocyte-specific functions glycogen storage and urea metabolism. We demonstrated that transplantation of both cell types through tail vein injection rescued almost all of the Gal/LPS-intoxicated mice. Although both cell types exhibited similar ability in homing at the mouse livers, the populations of the hUCMSCs-derived cells, as judged by expressing hAFP, hCK-18 and human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF, were small. These observations let us to conclude that the hUCMSCs was as effective as the i-Heps in treatment of the mouse acute liver failure, and that the therapeutic effects of hUCMSCs were mediated largely via stimulation of host hepatocyte regeneration, and that delivery of the cells through intravenous injection was effective.

  3. Test Control Center exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how the engineers at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., test fire a Space Shuttle Main Engine? The Test Control Center exhibit at StenniSphere can answer your questions by simulating the test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine. A recreation of one of NASA's test control centers, the exhibit explains and portrays the 'shake, rattle and roar' that happens during a real test firing.

  4. The Isoenzyme 7 of Tobacco NAD(H)-Dependent Glutamate Dehydrogenase Exhibits High Deaminating and Low Aminating Activities in Vivo1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopelitis, Damianos S.; Paranychianakis, Nikolaos V.; Kouvarakis, Antonios; Spyros, Apostolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A.

    2007-01-01

    Following the discovery of glutamine synthetase/glutamate (Glu) synthase, the physiological roles of Glu dehydrogenase (GDH) in nitrogen metabolism in plants remain obscure and is the subject of considerable controversy. Recently, transgenics were used to overexpress the gene encoding for the β-subunit polypeptide of GDH, resulting in the GDH-isoenzyme 1 deaminating in vivo Glu. In this work, we present transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing the plant gdh gene encoding for the α-subunit polypeptide of GDH. The levels of transcript correlated well with the levels of total GDH protein, the α-subunit polypeptide, and the abundance of GDH-anionic isoenzymes. Assays of transgenic plant extracts revealed high in vitro aminating and low deaminating activities. However, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the metabolic fate of 15NH4 or [15N]Glu revealed that GDH-isoenzyme 7 mostly deaminates Glu and also exhibits low ammonium assimilating activity. These and previous results firmly establish the direction of the reactions catalyzed by the anionic and cationic isoenzymes of GDH in vivo under normal growth conditions and reveal a paradox between the in vitro and in vivo enzyme activities. PMID:17932305

  5. Novel BAC mouse model of Huntington’s disease with 225 CAG repeats exhibits an early widespread and stable degenerative phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzynowicz, Michal; Bichell, Terry Jo; Soares, Barbara D.; Loth, Meredith K.; McGlothan, Jennifer L.; Alikhan, Fatima S.; Hua, Kegang; Coughlin, Jennifer M.; Holt, Hunter K.; Jetter, Christopher S.; Mori, Susumu; Pomper, Martin G.; Osmand, Alexander P.; Guilarte, Tomás R.; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Unusually large CAG repeat expansions (>60) in exon one of Huntingtin (HTT) are invariably associated with a juvenile-onset form of Huntington’s disease (HD), characterized by a more extensive and rapidly progressing neuropathology than the more prevalent adult-onset form. However, existing mouse models of HD that express the full-length Htt gene with CAG repeat lengths associated with juvenile HD (ranging between ~75 to ~150 repeats in published models) exhibit selective neurodegenerative phenotypes more consistent with adult-onset HD. OBJECTIVE To determine if a very large CAG repeat (>200) in full-length Htt elicits neurodegenerative phenotypes consistent with juvenile HD. METHODS Using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system, we generated mice expressing full-length mouse Htt with ~225 CAG repeats under control of the mouse Htt promoter. Mice were characterized using behavioral, neuropathological, biochemical and brain imaging methods. RESULTS BAC-225Q mice exhibit phenotypes consistent with a subset of features seen in juvenile-onset HD: very early motor behavior abnormalities, reduced body weight, widespread and progressive increase in Htt aggregates, gliosis, and neurodegeneration. Early striatal pathology was observed, including reactive gliosis and loss of dopamine receptors, prior to detectable volume loss. HD-related blood markers of impaired energy metabolism and systemic inflammation were also increased. Aside from an age-dependent progression of diffuse nuclear aggregates at 6 months of age to abundant neuropil aggregates at 12 months of age, other pathological and motor phenotypes showed little to no progression. CONCLUSIONS The HD phenotypes present in animals 3 to 12 months of age make the BAC-225Q mice a unique and stable model of full-length mutant Htt associated phenotypes, including body weight loss, behavioral impairment and HD-like neurodegenerative phenotypes characteristic of juvenile-onset HD and/or late-stage adult

  6. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  7. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  8. Immune activation, CD4+ T cell counts, and viremia exhibit oscillatory patterns over time in patients with highly resistant HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M R Kitchen

    Full Text Available The rates of immunologic and clinical progression are lower in patients with drug-resistant HIV compared to wild-type HIV. This difference is not fully explained by viral load. It has been argued that reductions in T cell activation and/or viral fitness might result in preserved target cells and an altered relationship between the level of viremia and the rate of CD4+ T cell loss. We tested this hypothesis over time in a cohort of patients with highly resistant HIV. Fifty-four antiretroviral-treated patients with multi-drug resistant HIV and detectable plasma HIV RNA were followed longitudinally. CD4+ T cell counts and HIV RNA levels were measured every 4 weeks and T cell activation (CD38/HLA-DR was measured every 16 weeks. We found that the levels of CD4+ T cell activation over time were a strong independent predictor of CD4+ T cell counts while CD8+ T cell activation was more strongly associated with viremia. Using spectral analysis, we found strong evidence for oscillatory (or cyclic behavior in CD4+ T cell counts, HIV RNA levels, and T cell activation. Each of the cell populations exhibited an oscillatory behavior with similar frequencies. Collectively, these data suggest that there may be a mechanistic link between T cell activation, CD4+ T cell counts, and viremia and lends support for the hypothesis of altered predator-prey dynamics as a possible explanation of the stability of CD4+ T cell counts in the presence of sustained multi-drug resistant viremia.

  9. Functional α7β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in hippocampal interneurons exhibit high sensitivity to pathological level of amyloid β peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qiang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-amyloid (Aβ accumulation is described as a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Aβ perturbs a number of synaptic components including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α7 subunits (α7-nAChRs, which are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus and found on GABAergic interneurons. We have previously demonstrated the existence of a novel, heteromeric α7β2-nAChR in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons that exhibits high sensitivity to acute Aβ exposure. To extend our previous work, we evaluated the expression and pharmacology of α7β2-nAChRs in hippocampal interneurons and their sensitivity to Aβ. Results GABAergic interneurons in the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus expressed functional α7β2-nAChRs, which were characterized by relatively slow whole-cell current kinetics, pharmacological sensitivity to dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE, a nAChR β2* subunit selective blocker, and α7 and β2 subunit interaction using immunoprecipitation assay. In addition, α7β2-nAChRs were sensitive to 1 nM oligomeric Aβ. Similar effects were observed in identified hippocampal interneurons prepared from GFP-GAD mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that Aβ modulation of cholinergic signaling in hippocampal GABAergic interneurons via α7β2-nAChRs could be an early and critical event in Aβ-induced functional abnormalities of hippocampal function, which may be relevant to learning and memory deficits in AD.

  10. Exhibition in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is known primarily as an architect. However, he also designed chairs and tables. Discusses an exhibit held in New York City a few months ago which showed how well the famous architect achieved his goals in the area of furniture design. (Author/RK)

  11. Exhibitions in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Burton

    1977-01-01

    Today, few artists make serving vessels on a monumental scale. Here artists compete in this unique area of specialization prompted by the Campbell Museum in Camden, New Jersey, which is dedicated to collecting and exhibiting the very best in soup tureens. (Author/RK)

  12. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  13. CERN permanent exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. And if you have more time on site, follow the LHC circuit at ground level to understand in situ this giant machine. Enter our exhibitions. Welcome!

  14. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  15. 会展管理专业培养模式探索%An Inquiry into the Cultivation Model of Exhibition Management Major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐

    2011-01-01

    China's exhibition industry is now in its rapid development period,but it is in a serious shortage of talent supply.Exhibition teaching is in its exploration period,how to accurately position the personnel and to set a reasonable course system is a crucial problem to be solved.Faith to the guiding ideology of "based on practical situation,business-oriented,school-enterprise cooperation,practical leadership," this paper hopes to form a set of new cultivation model that is able to cultivate hightech applied talents able to meet the needs of the society and realize the cohesion of actual situation with enterprises.%我国会展业目前正处在飞速发展时期,而会展人才的供应却严重匮乏。会展专业教学正处于探索期,如何准确地进行人才定位,设置合理的课程体系,培养出会展企业可以"拿来就用"的人才,是目前会展教育亟待解决的问题。秉着"立足实际、面向企业、校企共建、实用领先"的指导思想,希望通过探索,在课程体系设置、实训基地建设、师资队伍建设、毕业生就业引导等方面,形成一套能够培养出符合社会需求的、能实现与企业零距离对接的高技能应用型人才的会展专业培养新模式。

  16. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  17. Award-Winning Castings and Enterprises in "High Quality Casting Appraisement" at the 6th International Non-Ferrous & Special Casting Exhibition (China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The International Non-ferrous & Special Casting Exhibition is a professional foundry fair organized by China Foundry Association since 1998, which has taken advantage of the solid foundation in foundry industry in Shanghai metropolitan zone as well as its suburban ring.

  18. The Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg model of absence epilepsy exhibits alterations in fear conditioning and latent inhibition consistent with psychiatric comorbidities in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Wendie N; Cavanagh, Mary E; Greba, Quentin; Cain, Stuart M; Snutch, Terrance P; Howland, John G

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural, neurological, and genetic similarities exist in epilepsies, their psychiatric comorbidities, and various psychiatric illnesses, suggesting common aetiological factors. Rodent models of epilepsy are used to characterize the comorbid symptoms apparent in epilepsy and their neurobiological mechanisms. The present study was designed to assess Pavlovian fear conditioning and latent inhibition in a polygenetic rat model of absence epilepsy, i.e. Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) and the non-epileptic control (NEC) strain. Electrophysiological recordings confirmed the presence of spike-wave discharges in young adult GAERS but not NEC rats. A series of behavioural tests designed to assess anxiety-like behaviour (elevated plus maze, open field, acoustic startle response) and cognition (Pavlovian conditioning and latent inhibition) was subsequently conducted on male and female offspring. Results showed that GAERS exhibited significantly higher anxiety-like behaviour, a characteristic reported previously. In addition, using two protocols that differed in shock intensity, we found that both sexes of GAERS displayed exaggerated cued and contextual Pavlovian fear conditioning and impaired fear extinction. Fear reinstatement to the conditioned stimuli following unsignalled footshocks did not differ between the strains. Male GAERS also showed impaired latent inhibition in a paradigm using Pavlovian fear conditioning, suggesting that they may have altered attention, particularly related to previously irrelevant stimuli in the environment. Neither the female GAERS nor NEC rats showed evidence of latent inhibition in our paradigm. Together, the results suggest that GAERS may be a particularly useful model for assessing therapeutics designed to improve the emotional and cognitive disturbances associated with absence epilepsy.

  19. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  20. Singlet model interference effects with high scale UV physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S.; Lewis, I. M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the simplest extensions of the Standard Model (SM) is the addition of a scalar gauge singlet, S . If S is not forbidden by a symmetry from mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson, the mixing will generate non-SM rates for Higgs production and decays. In general, there could also be unknown high energy physics that generates additional effective low energy interactions. We show that interference effects between the scalar resonance of the singlet model and the effective field theory (EFT) operators can have significant effects in the Higgs sector. We examine a non-Z2 symmetric scalar singlet model and demonstrate that a fit to the 125 GeV Higgs boson couplings and to limits on high mass resonances, S , exhibit an interesting structure and possible large cancellations of effects between the resonance contribution and the new EFT interactions, that invalidate conclusions based on the renormalizable singlet model alone.

  1. Ts1Cje Down syndrome model mice exhibit environmental stimuli-triggered locomotor hyperactivity and sociability concurrent with increased flux through central dopamine and serotonin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimohata, Atsushi; Ishihara, Keiichi; Hattori, Satoko; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Hiromasa; Ornthanalai, Guy; Raveau, Matthieu; Ebrahim, Abdul Shukkur; Amano, Kenji; Yamada, Kazuyuki; Sago, Haruhiko; Akiba, Satoshi; Mataga, Nobuko; Murphy, Niall P; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro

    2017-07-01

    Ts1Cje mice have a segmental trisomy of chromosome 16 that is orthologous to human chromosome 21 and display Down syndrome-like cognitive impairments. Despite the occurrence of affective and emotional impairments in patients with Down syndrome, these parameters are poorly documented in Down syndrome mouse models, including Ts1Cje mice. Here, we conducted comprehensive behavioral analyses, including anxiety-, sociability-, and depression-related tasks, and biochemical analyses of monoamines and their metabolites in Ts1Cje mice. Ts1Cje mice showed enhanced locomotor activity in novel environments and increased social contact with unfamiliar partners when compared with wild-type littermates, but a significantly lower activity in familiar environments. Ts1Cje mice also exhibited some signs of decreased depression like-behavior. Furthermore, Ts1Cje mice showed monoamine abnormalities, including increased extracellular dopamine and serotonin, and enhanced catabolism in the striatum and ventral forebrain. This study constitutes the first report of deviated monoamine metabolism that may help explain the basis for abnormal behaviors, including the environmental stimuli-triggered hyperactivity, increased sociability and decreased depression-like behavior in Ts1Cje mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Superposition model analysis of nickel(II) ions in trigonal bipyramidal complexes exhibiting huge zero field splitting (aka 'giant magnetic anisotropy')

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudowicz, Czesław; Açıkgöz, Muhammed; Gnutek, Paweł

    2017-07-01

    Potential single-ion magnet Ni2+ systems: [Ni(Me6tren)Cl](ClO4) and [Ni(Me6tren)Br](Br) reveal unusually high zero field splitting (ZFS). The ZFS parameter (ZFSP) Dexpt = -120 to -180 cm-1 was determined indirectly by high-magnetic field, high-frequency electron magnetic resonance (HMF-EMR). Modeling ZFSPs using the density functional theory (DFT) codes predicts D values: -100 to -200 cm-1. Such ZFSP values may seem controversial in view of the D values usually not exceeding several tens of cm-1 for Ni2+ ions. To corroborate or otherwise these results and elucidate the origin of the huge ZFS (named inappropriately as 'giant uniaxial magnetic anisotropy') and respective wavefunctions, we have undertaken semiempirical modeling based on the crystal field (CF) and spin Hamiltonians (SH) theory. In this paper, a feasibility study is carried out to ascertain if superposition model (SPM) calculations may yield such huge D values for these Ni2+ systems. Using crystal structure data for [Ni(Me6tren)Cl](ClO4) and [Ni(Me6tren)Br](Br) as well as taking into account the Jahn-Teller distortions of five-fold coordinated Ni-complexes revealed by DFT geometry optimization, the ZFSPs are predicted for several structural models and wide ranges of model parameters. The results indicate that in the presence of the Jahn-Teller distortions, the SPM-predicted ZFSP D may achieve the observed magnitudes, whereas the positive as well as negative D-signs are obtainable. Further studies based on SPM calculations of CF parameters and diagonalization of the Hamiltonian (Hfree ion + HCF) will allow considering the wavefunctions compositions and thus actual origin of the splitting between the ground and first excited state.

  3. Multi-step cure kinetic model of ultra-thin glass fiber epoxy prepreg exhibiting both autocatalytic and diffusion-controlled regimes under isothermal and dynamic-heating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye Chan; Min, Hyunsung; Hong, Sungyong; Wang, Mei; Sun, Hanna; Park, In-Kyung; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon; Moon, Hyungpil; Kim, Kwang J.; Suhr, Jonghwan; Nam, Jae-Do

    2017-08-01

    As packaging technologies are demanded that reduce the assembly area of substrate, thin composite laminate substrates require the utmost high performance in such material properties as the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and stiffness. Accordingly, thermosetting resin systems, which consist of multiple fillers, monomers and/or catalysts in thermoset-based glass fiber prepregs, are extremely complicated and closely associated with rheological properties, which depend on the temperature cycles for cure. For the process control of these complex systems, it is usually required to obtain a reliable kinetic model that could be used for the complex thermal cycles, which usually includes both the isothermal and dynamic-heating segments. In this study, an ultra-thin prepreg with highly loaded silica beads and glass fibers in the epoxy/amine resin system was investigated as a model system by isothermal/dynamic heating experiments. The maximum degree of cure was obtained as a function of temperature. The curing kinetics of the model prepreg system exhibited a multi-step reaction and a limited conversion as a function of isothermal curing temperatures, which are often observed in epoxy cure system because of the rate-determining diffusion of polymer chain growth. The modified kinetic equation accurately described the isothermal behavior and the beginning of the dynamic-heating behavior by integrating the obtained maximum degree of cure into the kinetic model development.

  4. Extended nonlinear feedback model for describing episodes of high inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Szybisz, M A; Szybisz, L.

    2016-01-01

    An extension of the nonlinear feedback (NLF) formalism to describe regimes of hyper- and high-inflation in economy is proposed in the present work. In the NLF model the consumer price index (CPI) exhibits a finite time singularity of the type $1/(t_c -t)^{(1- \\beta)/\\beta}$, with $\\beta>0$, predicting a blow up of the economy at a critical time $t_c$. However, this model fails in determining $t_c$ in the case of weak hyperinflation regimes like, e.g., that occurred in Israel. To overcome this...

  5. Extended nonlinear feedback model for describing episodes of high inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    An extension of the nonlinear feedback (NLF) formalism to describe regimes of hyper- and high-inflation in economy is proposed in the present work. In the NLF model the consumer price index (CPI) exhibits a finite time singularity of the type 1 /(tc - t) (1 - β) / β, with β > 0, predicting a blow up of the economy at a critical time tc. However, this model fails in determining tc in the case of weak hyperinflation regimes like, e.g., that occurred in Israel. To overcome this trouble, the NLF model is extended by introducing a parameter γ, which multiplies all terms with past growth rate index (GRI). In this novel approach the solution for CPI is also analytic being proportional to the Gaussian hypergeometric function 2F1(1 / β , 1 / β , 1 + 1 / β ; z) , where z is a function of β, γ, and tc. For z → 1 this hypergeometric function diverges leading to a finite time singularity, from which a value of tc can be determined. This singularity is also present in GRI. It is shown that the interplay between parameters β and γ may produce phenomena of multiple equilibria. An analysis of the severe hyperinflation occurred in Hungary proves that the novel model is robust. When this model is used for examining data of Israel a reasonable tc is got. High-inflation regimes in Mexico and Iceland, which exhibit weaker inflations than that of Israel, are also successfully described.

  6. 2007Fairs & Exhibitions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 6th China (Guangzhou) International Seasoning Exhibition Date: May 11-13 Founded in: 2003.05 Venues: Guangzhou Int'l Convention &Exhibition Center (Pazhou) Exhibits: Seasonings, food additives, relevant material,equipment, service and publications

  7. 2005 Fairs & Exhibitions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Harbin China International Winter Goods Exhibition DATE: Jan. 5-9 FREQUENCY: Annual FOUNDED TIME: Dec. 2001 VENUE: Harbin China International Conference & Exhibition Center EXHIBITS: winter sports goods and outdoor devices

  8. Pyridine analogues of curcumin exhibit high activity for inhibiting CWR-22Rv1 human prostate cancer cell growth and androgen receptor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHOU, DAI-YING; ZHAO, SU-QING; DU, ZHI-YUN; ZHENG, XI; ZHANG, KUN

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations required for curcumin to exert its anticancer activity (IC50, 20 µM) are difficult to achieve in the blood plasma of patients, due to the low bioavailability of the compound. Therefore, much effort has been devoted to the development of curcumin analogues that exhibit stronger anticancer activity and a lower IC50 than curcumin. The present study investigated twelve pyridine analogues of curcumin, labeled as groups AN, BN, EN and FN, to determine their effects in CWR-22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells. The inhibitory effects of these compounds on testosterone (TT)-induced androgen receptor (AR) activity was determined by performing an AR-linked luciferase assay and by TT-induced expression of prostate-specific antigen. The results of the current study suggested that the FN group of analogues had the strongest inhibitory effect of growth on CWR-22Rv1 cultured cells, and were the most potent inhibitor of AR activity compared with curcumin, and the AN, BN and EN analogues. Thus, the results of the present study indicate the inhibition of the AR pathways as a potential mechanism for the anticancer effect of curcumin analogues in human prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, curcumin analogues with pyridine as a distal ring and tetrahydrothiopyran-4-one as a linker may be good candidates for the development of novel drugs for the treatment of prostate cancer, by targeting the AR signaling pathway. PMID:27313760

  9. An intravenous clarithromycin lipid emulsion with a high drug loading, H-bonding and a hydrogen-bonded ion pair complex exhibiting excellent antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyu Gong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an intravenous clarithromycin lipid emulsion (CLE with good stability and excellent antibacterial activity. The CLE was prepared by the thin-film dispersed homogenization method. The interaction between clarithromycin (CLA and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS was confirmed by DSC, FT-IR and 1H NMR analysis. The interfacial drug loading, thermal sterilization, freeze–thaw stability, and in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity were investigated systematically. DSC, FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra showed that CHEMS (CLA: CHEMS, M ratio 1:2 could interact with CLA through H-bonding and a hydrogen-bonded ion pair. The CHEMS was found necessary to maintain the stability of CLE. Ultracentrifugation showed that almost 88% CLA could be loaded into the interfacial layer. The optimized CLE formulation could withstand autoclaving at 121 °C for 10 min and remain stable after three freeze–thaw cycles. The in vitro susceptibility test revealed that the CLA–CHEMS ion-pair and CLE have similar activity to the parent drug against many different bacterial strains. The in vivo antibacterial activity showed that the ED50 of intravenous CLE was markedly lower than that of CLA solution administrated orally. CLE exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity and might be a candidate for a new nanocarrier for CLA with potential advantages over the current commercial formulation.

  10. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  11. Activatable Water-Soluble Probes Enhance Tumor Imaging by Responding to Dysregulated pH and Exhibiting High Tumor-to-Liver Fluorescence Emission Contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hu; Kos, Petra; Yan, Yunfeng; Zhou, Kejin; Miller, Jason B; Elkassih, Sussana; Siegwart, Daniel J

    2016-07-20

    Dysregulated pH has been recognized as a universal tumor microenvironment signature that can delineate tumors from normal tissues. Existing fluorescent probes that activate in response to pH are hindered by either fast clearance (in the case of small molecules) or high liver background emission (in the case of large particles). There remains a need to design water-soluble, long circulating, pH-responsive nanoprobes with high tumor-to-liver contrast. Herein, we report a modular chemical strategy to create acidic pH-sensitive and water-soluble fluorescent probes for high in vivo tumor detection and minimal liver activation. A combination of a modified Knoevenagel reaction and PEGylation yielded a series of NIR BODIPY fluorophores with tunable pKas, high quantum yield, and optimal orbital energies to enable photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) activation in response to pH. After intravenous administration, Probe 5c localized to tumors and provided excellent tumor-to-liver contrast (apparent T/L = 3) because it minimally activates in the liver. This phenomenon was further confirmed by direct ex vivo imaging experiments on harvested organs. Because no targeting ligands were required, we believe that this report introduces a versatile strategy to directly synthesize soluble probes with broad potential utility including fluorescence-based image-guided surgery, cancer diagnosis, and theranostic nanomedicine.

  12. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) reared in brood combs containing high levels of pesticide residues exhibit increased susceptibility to Nosema (Microsporidia) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Judy Y; Smart, Matthew D; Anelli, Carol M; Sheppard, Walter S

    2012-03-01

    Nosema ceranae and pesticide exposure can contribute to honey bee health decline. Bees reared from brood comb containing high or low levels of pesticide residues were placed in two common colony environments. One colony was inoculated weekly with N. ceranae spores in sugar syrup and the other colony received sugar syrup only. Worker honey bees were sampled weekly from the treatment and control colonies and analyzed for Nosema spore levels. Regardless of the colony environment (spores+syrup added or syrup only added), a higher proportion of bees reared from the high pesticide residue brood comb became infected with N. ceranae, and at a younger age, compared to those reared in low residue brood combs. These data suggest that developmental exposure to pesticides in brood comb increases the susceptibility of bees to N. ceranae infection.

  13. An aluminum-based rat model for Alzheimer's disease exhibits oxidative damage, inhibition of PP2A activity, hyperphosphorylated tau, and granulovacuolar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J R

    2007-09-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), oxidative damage leads to the formation of amyloid plaques while low PP2A activity results in hyperphosphorylated tau that polymerizes to form neurofibrillary tangles. We probed these early events, using brain tissue from a rat model for AD that develops memory deterioration and AD-like behaviors in old age after chronically ingesting 1.6 mg aluminum/kg bodyweight/day, equivalent to the high end of the human dietary aluminum range. A control group consumed 0.4 mg aluminum/kg/day. We stained brain sections from the cognitively-damaged rats for evidence of amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, aluminum, oxidative damage, and hyperphosphorylated tau. PP2A activity levels measured 238.71+/-17.56 pmol P(i)/microg protein and 580.67+/-111.70 pmol P(i)/microg protein (paluminum-loading occurs in some aged rat neurons as in some aged human neurons; (2) aluminum-loading in rat neurons is accompanied by oxidative damage, hyperphosphorylated tau, neuropil threads, and granulovacuolar degeneration; and (3) amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles were absent from all rat brain sections examined. Known species difference can reasonably explain why plaques and tangles are unable to form in brains of genetically-normal rats despite developing the same pathological changes that lead to their formation in human brain. As neuronal aluminum can account for early stages of plaque and tangle formation in an animal model for AD, neuronal aluminum could also initiate plaque and tangle formation in humans with AD.

  14. CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) hybrid magnetic nanoparticles exhibit fast and selective adsorption of arsenic with high adsorption capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Chun; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis and application of mesoporous CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) hybrid magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for the simultaneous removal of inorganic arsenic (iAs). The hybrid adsorbent had a core-shell and mesoporous structure with an average diameter of 260 nm. The nanoscale size and mesoporous character impart a fast adsorption rate and high adsorption capacity for iAs. In total, 0.1 mg L−1 As(V) and As(III) could be adsorbed within 2 min, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 114.8 mg g−1 for As(V) and 143.6 mg g−1 for As(III), higher than most previously reported adsorbents. The anti-interference capacity for iAs adsorption was improved by the electrostatic repulsion and size exclusion effects of the MIL-100(Fe) shell, which also decreased the zero-charge point of the hybrid absorbent for a broad pH adsorption range. The adsorption mechanisms of iAs on the MNPs are proposed. An Fe-O-As structure was formed on CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) through hydroxyl substitution with the deprotonated iAs species. Monolayer adsorption of As(V) was observed, while hydrogen bonding led to the multi-layer adsorption of neutral As(III) for its high adsorption capacity. The high efficiency and the excellent pH- and interference-tolerance capacities of CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) allowed effective iAs removal from natural water samples, as validated with batch magnetic separation mode and a portable filtration strategy. PMID:28102334

  15. CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) hybrid magnetic nanoparticles exhibit fast and selective adsorption of arsenic with high adsorption capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Chun; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis and application of mesoporous CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) hybrid magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for the simultaneous removal of inorganic arsenic (iAs). The hybrid adsorbent had a core-shell and mesoporous structure with an average diameter of 260 nm. The nanoscale size and mesoporous character impart a fast adsorption rate and high adsorption capacity for iAs. In total, 0.1 mg L‑1 As(V) and As(III) could be adsorbed within 2 min, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 114.8 mg g‑1 for As(V) and 143.6 mg g‑1 for As(III), higher than most previously reported adsorbents. The anti-interference capacity for iAs adsorption was improved by the electrostatic repulsion and size exclusion effects of the MIL-100(Fe) shell, which also decreased the zero-charge point of the hybrid absorbent for a broad pH adsorption range. The adsorption mechanisms of iAs on the MNPs are proposed. An Fe-O-As structure was formed on CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) through hydroxyl substitution with the deprotonated iAs species. Monolayer adsorption of As(V) was observed, while hydrogen bonding led to the multi-layer adsorption of neutral As(III) for its high adsorption capacity. The high efficiency and the excellent pH- and interference-tolerance capacities of CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) allowed effective iAs removal from natural water samples, as validated with batch magnetic separation mode and a portable filtration strategy.

  16. An improved Graves' disease model established by using in vivo electroporation exhibited long-term immunity to hyperthyroidism in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Toshio; Honda, Asako; Hakozaki, Atsushi; Fuse, Tetsuya; Muto, Akihiro; Yoshida, Tadashi

    2007-05-01

    In Graves' disease, the overstimulation of the thyroid gland and hyperthyroidism are caused by autoantibodies directed against the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimics the action of TSH. The establishment of an animal model is an important step to study the pathophysiology of autoimmune hyperthyroidism and for immunological analysis. In this study, we adopted the technique of electroporation (EP) for genetic immunization to achieve considerable enhancement of in vivo human TSHR (hTSHR) expression and efficient induction of hyperthyroidism in mice. In a preliminary study using beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) expression vectors, beta-gal introduced into the muscle by EP showed over 40-fold higher enzymatic activity than that introduced via previous direct gene transfer methods. The sustained hTSHR mRNA expression derived from cDNA transferred by EP was detectable in muscle tissue for at least 2 wk by RT-PCR. Based on these results, we induced hyperthyroidism via two expression vectors inserted with hTSHR or hTSHR289His cDNA. Consequently, 12.0-31.8% BALB/c mice immunized with hTSHR and 79.2-95.7% immunized with hTSHR289His showed high total T(4) levels due to the TSHR-stimulating antibody after three to four times repeated immunization by EP, and thyroid follicles of which were hyperplastic and had highly irregular epithelium. Moreover, TSHR-stimulating antibody surprisingly persisted more than 8 months after the last immunization. These results demonstrate that genetic immunization by in vivo EP is more efficient than previous procedures, and that it is useful for delineating the pathophysiology of Graves' disease.

  17. Red blood cells of sickle cell disease patients exhibit abnormally high abundance of N-methyl D-aspartate receptors mediating excessive calcium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Pascal; Makhro, Asya; Gassmann, Max; Schmugge, Markus; Goede, Jeroen S; Speer, Oliver; Bogdanova, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Recently we showed that N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are expressed in erythroid precursors (EPCs) and present in the circulating red blood cells (RBCs) of healthy humans, regulating intracellular Ca(2+) in these cells. This study focuses on investigating the possible role of NMDARs in abnormally high Ca(2+) permeability in the RBCs of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Protein levels of the NMDAR subunits in the EPCs of SCD patients did not differ from those in EPCs of healthy humans. However, the number and activity of the NMDARs in circulating SCD-RBCs was substantially up-regulated, being particularly high during haemolytic crises. The number of active NMDARs correlated negatively with haematocrit and haemoglobin levels in the blood of SCD patients. Calcium uptake via these non-selective cation channels was induced by RBC treatment with glycine, glutamate and homocysteine and was facilitated by de-oxygenation of SCD-RBCs. Oxidative stress and RBC dehydration followed receptor stimulation and Ca(2+) uptake. Inhibition of the NMDARs with an antagonist memantine caused re-hydration and largely prevented hypoxia-induced sickling. The EPCs of SCD patients showed higher tolerance to memantine than those of healthy subjects. Consequently, NMDARs in the RBCs of SCD patients appear to be an attractive target for pharmacological intervention.

  18. Estimating High-Dimensional Time Series Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medeiros, Marcelo C.; Mendes, Eduardo F.

    We study the asymptotic properties of the Adaptive LASSO (adaLASSO) in sparse, high-dimensional, linear time-series models. We assume both the number of covariates in the model and candidate variables can increase with the number of observations and the number of candidate variables is, possibly...

  19. High Accuracy Transistor Compact Model Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hembree, Charles E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mar, Alan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Typically, transistors are modeled by the application of calibrated nominal and range models. These models consists of differing parameter values that describe the location and the upper and lower limits of a distribution of some transistor characteristic such as current capacity. Correspond- ingly, when using this approach, high degrees of accuracy of the transistor models are not expected since the set of models is a surrogate for a statistical description of the devices. The use of these types of models describes expected performances considering the extremes of process or transistor deviations. In contrast, circuits that have very stringent accuracy requirements require modeling techniques with higher accuracy. Since these accurate models have low error in transistor descriptions, these models can be used to describe part to part variations as well as an accurate description of a single circuit instance. Thus, models that meet these stipulations also enable the calculation of quantifi- cation of margins with respect to a functional threshold and uncertainties in these margins. Given this need, new model high accuracy calibration techniques for bipolar junction transis- tors have been developed and are described in this report.

  20. Pseudo 5D HN(C)N Experiment to Facilitate the Assignment of Backbone Resonances in Proteins Exhibiting High Backbone Shift Degeneracy

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Dinesh; Shukla, Vaibhav Kumar; Pandey, Himanshu; Arora, Ashish; Guleria, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    Assignment of protein backbone resonances is most routinely carried out using triple resonance three dimensional NMR experiments involving amide 1H and 15N resonances. However for intrinsically unstructured proteins, alpha-helical proteins or proteins containing several disordered fragments, the assignment becomes problematic because of high degree of backbone shift degeneracy. In this backdrop, a novel reduced dimensionality (RD) experiment -(5,3)D-hNCO-CANH- is presented to facilitate (and/or to validate) the sequential backbone resonance assignment in such proteins. The proposed 3D NMR experiment makes use of the modulated amide 15N chemical shifts (resulting from the joint sampling along both its indirect dimensions) to resolve the ambiguity involved in connecting the neighboring amide resonances (i.e. HiNi and Hi-1Ni-1) for overlapping amide NH peaks. The experiment -encoding 5D spectral information- leads to a conventional 3D spectrum with significantly reduced spectral crowding and complexity. The impr...

  1. Modeling of long High Voltage AC Underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the work and findings of a PhD project focused on accurate high frequency modelling of long High Voltage AC Underground cables. The project is cooperation between Aalborg University and Energinet.dk. The objective of the project is to investigate the accuracy of most up to date...

  2. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Gaïa Manuella Cany Du 10 au 28 avril 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Oiseau - Manuella Cany. Tableaux abstraits inspirés de vues satellites ou photos prises du ciel. Certains sont à la frontière du figuratif alors que d'autres permettent de laisser libre cours à son imagination. Aux détails infinis, ces tableaux sont faits pour être vus de loin et de près grâce à une attention toute particulière apportée aux effets de matières et aux couleurs le long de volutes tantôt nuancées tantôt contrastées.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  3. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Parallels vision Astronomical subjects which evoke extrasensory kinetic visions Alberto Di Fabio From 8 to 10 October, CERN Meyrin, Main Building In the framework of Italy@cern, the Staff Association presents Alberto Di Fabio. Di Fabio’s work is inspired by the fundamental laws of the physical world, as well as organic elements and their interrelation. His paintings and works on paper merge the worlds of art and science, depicting natural forms and biological structures in vivid colour and imaginative detail. For all additional information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  4. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Jan Hladky, physicien de l'Institut de Physique de l'Académie des Sciences de la République tchèque, et membre de la collaboration Alice, expose ses œuvres au Bâtiment principal du 20 avril au 6 mai. Son exposition est dédiée aux victimes du séisme de Sendai. Des copies de ses œuvres seront mises en vente et les sommes récoltées seront versées au profit des victimes.

  5. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Elementary Particles of Painting Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi and Ermanno Imbergamo From September 26 to October 7, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building With intentions similar to those of CERN physicists, the artist Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi investigates the color pigment, studying its interaction with light and with the support on which it is deposited. He creates monochrome paintings by spreading the color pigment in the pure state on stones, without using glue or any other type of adhesive. With intentions similar to artists, the physicist Ermanno Imbergamo investigates the use of luminescent wavelength shifters, materials commonly used in Particle Physics, for art. He creates other monochrome artworks, which disclose further aspects of interaction among light, color pigments and support. For more information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    La mosaïque ou quand détruire permet de construire Lauren Decamps Du 28 novembre au 9 décembre 2016 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Paysage d'Amsterdam - Lauren Decamps On ne doit jamais rien détruire qu'on ne soit sûr de pouvoir remplacer aussi avantageusement " écrivait Plutarque dans ses Œuvres morales du 1er siècle après JC. L'artiste mosaïste Lauren Decamps adhère à cette idée et tente à sa manière de donner une nouvelle vie à ses matériaux en les taillant puis les réassemblant, créant ainsi des œuvres abstraites et figuratives.

  7. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Le Point Isabelle Gailland Du 20 février au 3 mars 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La Diagonale - Isabelle Gailland. Au départ, un toujours même point minuscule posé au centre de ce que la toile est un espace. Une réplique d'autres points, condensés, alignés, isolés, disséminés construiront dans leur extension, la ligne. Ces lignes, croisées, courbées, déviées, prolongées, seront la structure contenant et séparant la matière des couleurs. La rotation de chaque toile en cours d'exécution va offrir un accès illimité à la non-forme et à la forme. Le point final sera l'ouverture sur différents points de vue de ce que le point et la ligne sont devenus une représentation pour l'œil et l'im...

  8. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    COLORATION Sandra Duchêne From September 5 to 16, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building La recherche de l’Universel. Après tout ! C’est de l’Amour ! What else to say ? …La couleur, l’ENERGIE de la vie…

  9. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Œuvres recentes Fabienne Wyler Du 6 au 17 février 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal L'escalier du diable B - aquarelle, encre de Chine XLV - Fabienne Wyler. En relation avec certains procédés d’écriture contemporaine (par ex. Webern ou certaines musiques conçues par ordinateur), les compositions picturales de Fabienne Wyler s’élaborent à partir de « modules » (groupes de quadrangles) qu’elle reproduit en leur faisant subir toutes sortes de transformations et de déplacements : étirements, renversements, rotations, effet miroir, transpositions, déphasages, superpositions, etc., et ceci à toutes les échelles. Au fil des œuvres sont apparues des séries intitulées, Bifurcations, Intermittences, Attracteurs étranges, Polyrythmies. Ces titres ont un lien &e...

  10. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Energie sombre, matière noire J.-J. Dalmais - J. Maréchal Du 11 au 27 novembre 2014, CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal A l’image des particules atomiques qui ont tissé des liens pour créer la matière, deux artistes haut bugistes croisent leurs regards et conjuguent leurs expressions singulières pour faire naître une vision commune de l’univers, produit des forces primordiales. Les sculptures de Jean-Jacques Dalmais et les peintures de Jacki Maréchal se rencontrent pour la première fois et se racontent par un enrichissement mutuel la belle histoire de la Vie. Dialogue magique des œuvres en mouvement qui questionnent en écho l’énergie sombre et la matière noire. Cette harmonieuse confluence de jeux de miroir et de résonnance illumine de poésie et de sobriété l’espace expos&...

  11. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Harmonie Nathalie Lenoir Du 4 au 15 septembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Peindre est un langage. Le tracé du pinceau sur le lin en est l'expression. A qui appartient un tableau en définitive ? A celui qui l'a peint ? A celui qui le regarde ? A celui qui l'emporte ? La peinture est une émotion partagée... Laissez-vous projeter de l'autre côté de la toile, prenez un moment pour rêver, en harmonie avec les éléments, parce-que la peinture parle à votre âme… Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  12. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Firmament des toiles Joëlle Lalagüe Du 6 au 16 juin 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Phylaë Voyage - Joëlle Lalagüe. Each picture is an invitation for a cosmic trip. This is a whispering of soul, which comes from origins. A symphony of the world, some notes of love, a harmony for us to fly to infinity. Pour plus d’informations et demandes d'accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  13. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    La couleur des jours oriSio Du 2 au 12 mai 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal oriSio - Motus Suite à un fort intérêt pour la Chine et une curiosité pour un médium très ancien, la laque ! Je réinterprète cet art à travers un style abstrait. Je présente ici des laques sur aluminium, travaillés au plasma et ensuite colorés à l’aide de pigments pour l’essentiel. Mes œuvres je les veux brutes, déchirées, évanescentes, gondolées, voire trouées mais avec une belle approche de profondeur de la couleur.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  14. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    La mosaïque ou quand détruire permet de construire Lauren Decamps Du 28 novembre au 9 décembre 2016 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Paysage d'Amsterdam - Lauren Decamps On ne doit jamais rien détruire qu'on ne soit sûr de pouvoir remplacer aussi avantageusement " écrivait Plutarque dans ses Œuvres morales du 1er siècle après JC. L'artiste mosaïste Lauren Decamps adhère à cette idée et tente à sa manière de donner une nouvelle vie à ses matériaux en les taillant puis les réassemblant, créant ainsi des œuvres abstraites et figuratives.

  15. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Still Life Jérémy Bajulaz Du 25 septembre au 6 octobre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Aubergine - Jérémy Bajulaz) Né en 1991 en Haute-Savoie, France. Diplômé de l'Ecole Emile Cohl à Lyon, Jérémy Bajulaz intègre en 2014 le programme d'artiste en résidence au Centre Genevois de Gravure Contemporaine. C'est là que son travail prendra corps, autour de la lumière et de ses vibrations aux travers de sujets comme le portrait et la nature morte, dans le souci de l'observation; le regard prenant une place importante dans le processus créatif. Lauréat 2017 du VII Premio AAAC, son travail a été présenté dans de nombreuses expositions collectives, en 2015 au Bâtiment d’Art Contemporain de Genève, en 2016 au 89e Salon de Lyon et du S...

  16. 5 × 5 cm2 silicon photonic crystal slabs on glass and plastic foil exhibiting broadband absorption and high-intensity near-fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, C.; Wyss, P.; Eisenhauer, D.; Probst, J.; Preidel, V.; Hammerschmidt, M.; Burger, S.

    2014-07-01

    Crystalline silicon photonic crystal slabs are widely used in various photonics applications. So far, the commercial success of such structures is still limited owing to the lack of cost-effective fabrication processes enabling large nanopatterned areas (>> 1 cm2). We present a simple method for producing crystalline silicon nanohole arrays of up to 5 × 5 cm2 size with lattice pitches between 600 and 1000 nm on glass and flexible plastic substrates. Exclusively up-scalable, fast fabrication processes are applied such as nanoimprint-lithography and silicon evaporation. The broadband light trapping efficiency of the arrays is among the best values reported for large-area experimental crystalline silicon nanostructures. Further, measured photonic crystal resonance modes are in good accordance with light scattering simulations predicting strong near-field intensity enhancements greater than 500. Hence, the large-area silicon nanohole arrays might become a promising platform for ultrathin solar cells on lightweight substrates, high-sensitive optical biosensors, and nonlinear optics.

  17. Novel cyclophilin D inhibitors derived from quinoxaline exhibit highly inhibitory activity against rat mitochondrial swelling and Ca2+ uptake/release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-xia GUO; Feng WANG; Kun-qian YU; Jing CHEN; Dong-lu BAI; Kai-xian CHEN; Xu SHEN; Hua-liang JIANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate methods for identifying specific cyclophilin D (CypD) inhibitors derived from quinoxaline, thus developing possible lead compounds to inhibit mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore opening. Methods: Kinetic analysis of the CypD/inhibitor interaction was quantitatively performed by using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and fluorescence titration (FT) techniques.IC50 values of these inhibitors were determined by PPIase inhibition activity assays.Results: All the equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) of the seven compounds binding to CypD were below 10 μmol/L. The IC50 values were all consistent with the SPR and FT results. Compounds GW2, 5, 6, and 7 had high inhibition activities against Ca2+-dependent rat liver mitochondrial swelling and Ca2+ uptake/release.Compound GW5 had binding selectivity for CypD over CypA. Conclusion: The agreement between the measured IC50 values and the results of SPR and FT suggests that these methods are appropriate and powerful methods for identifying CypD inhibitors. The compounds we screened using these methods (GW1-7) are reasonable CypD inhibitors. Its potent ability to inhibit mitochondrial swelling and the binding selectivity of GW5 indicates that GW5 could potentially be used for inhibiting MPT pore opening.

  18. The Chlamydia suis Genome Exhibits High Levels of Diversity, Plasticity, and Mobile Antibiotic Resistance: Comparative Genomics of a Recent Livestock Cohort Shows Influence of Treatment Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanninger, Sabrina; Bachmann, Nathan; Marti, Hanna; Qi, Weihong; Donati, Manuela; di Francesco, Antonietta; Polkinghorne, Adam; Borel, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia suis is an endemic pig pathogen, belonging to a fascinating genus of obligate intracellular pathogens. Of particular interest, this is the only chlamydial species to have naturally acquired genes encoding for tetracycline resistance. To date, the distribution and mobility of the Tet-island are not well understood. Our study focused on whole genome sequencing of 29 C. suis isolates from a recent porcine cohort within Switzerland, combined with data from USA tetracycline-resistant isolates. Our findings show that the genome of C. suis is very plastic, with unprecedented diversity, highly affected by recombination and plasmid exchange. A large diversity of isolates circulates within Europe, even within individual Swiss farms, suggesting that C. suis originated around Europe. New World isolates have more restricted diversity and appear to derive from European isolates, indicating that historical strain transfers to the United States have occurred. The architecture of the Tet-island is variable, but the tetA(C) gene is always intact, and recombination has been a major factor in its transmission within C. suis. Selective pressure from tetracycline use within pigs leads to a higher number of Tet-island carrying isolates, which appear to be lost in the absence of such pressure, whereas the loss or gain of the Tet-island from individual strains is not observed. The Tet-island appears to be a recent import into the genome of C. suis, with a possible American origin. PMID:28338777

  19. Immature Citrus sunki peel extract exhibits antiobesity effects by β-oxidation and lipolysis in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Il; Shin, Hye-Sun; Kim, Hyo-Min; Hong, Youn-Suk; Yoon, Seon-A; Kang, Seung-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Moo-Han; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae

    2012-01-01

    The peel of Citrus sunki HORT. ex TANAKA has been widely used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of many diseases, including indigestion and bronchial asthma. In this study, we investigated the antiobesity activity of immature C. sunki peel extract (designated CSE) using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6 mice and mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the animal study, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride in the CSE-administered group decreased significantly compared to the HFD group. Also, CSE supplementation reduced serum levels of glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Moreover, it significantly decreased the accumulation of fatty droplets in liver tissue, suggesting a protective effect against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Dietary supplementation with CSE reversed the HFD-induced decrease in the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which are related to fatty acid β-oxidation, in the epididymal adipose tissue. Also, CSE increased AMPK and ACC phosphorylation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CSE also enhanced lipolysis by phosphorylation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that CSE had an antiobesity effect via elevated β-oxidation and lipolysis in adipose tissue.

  20. Unique case of oligoastrocytoma with recurrence and grade progression: Exhibiting differential expression of high mobility group-A1 and human telomerase reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Puneet; Khare, Richa; Niraj, Kavita; Garg, Nitin; Sorte, Sandeep K; Gulwani, Hanni

    2016-09-16

    Mixed gliomas, primarily oligoastrocytomas, account for about 5%-10% of all gliomas. Distinguishing oligoastrocytoma based on histological features alone has limitations in predicting the exact biological behavior, necessitating ancillary markers for greater specificity. In this case report, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and high mobility group-A1 (HMGA1); markers of proliferation and stemness, have been quantitatively analyzed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of a 34 years old patient with oligoastrocytoma. Customized florescence-based immunohistochemistry protocol with enhanced sensitivity and specificity is used in the study. The patient presented with a history of generalized seizures and his magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed infiltrative ill-defined mass lesion with calcified foci within the left frontal white matter, suggestive of glioma. He was surgically treated at our center for four consecutive clinical events. Histopathologically, the tumor was identified as oligoastrocytoma-grade II followed by two recurrence events and final progression to grade III. Overall survival of the patient without adjuvant therapy was more than 9 years. Glial fibrillary acidic protein, p53, Ki-67, nuclear atypia index, pre-operative neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, are the other parameters assessed. Findings suggest that hTERT and HMGA1 are linked to tumor recurrence and progression. Established markers can assist in defining precise histopathological grade in conjuction with conventional markers in clinical setup.

  1. T20-insensitive HIV-1 from naive patients exhibits high viral fitness in a novel dual-color competition assay on primary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Thomas; Hagmann, Isabel; Lohrengel, Sabine; Heil, Marintha L; Derdeyn, Cynthia A; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Dittmar, Matthias T

    2005-03-15

    The relationship between sensitivity to antiviral drugs and viral fitness is of paramount importance in understanding the long-term implications of clinical resistance. Here we report the development of a novel recombinant virus assay to study entry inhibitor-resistant HIV variants using a biologically relevant cell type, primary CD4 T-cells. We have modified the replication-competent molecular clone HIV(NL4-3) to express a reporter protein (Renilla luciferase), Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP), or Red Fluorescent Protein (DsRed2) upon infection, thus allowing quantification of replication. Luciferase-expressing virus was used to evaluate drug sensitivity, while co-infection with viruses carrying the green and red fluorescent proteins was employed in the competitive fitness assay. Using envelope proteins from three T20 insensitive variants, lower levels of resistance were observed in primary CD4 T-cells than had been previously reported for cell lines. Importantly, dual-color competition assays demonstrated comparable or higher fitness for these variants despite their reduced T20 sensitivity. We conclude that reduced sensitivity to T20 is compatible with high viral fitness in the absence of selection pressure. Thus, simultaneously measuring both resistance and viral fitness using this newly described dual-color competition assay will likely provide important information about resistant viral variants that emerge during therapy with entry inhibitors.

  2. Purification and characterization of peptides from Capsicum annuum fruits which are α-amylase inhibitors and exhibit high antimicrobial activity against fungi of agronomic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Layrana de Azevedo; Taveira, Gabriel Bonan; Ribeiro, Suzanna de Fátima Ferreira; Pereira, Lídia da Silva; Carvalho, André de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Rosana; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares; Araújo, Jucélia da Silva; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira

    2017-04-01

    Proteins extracted from Capsicum annuum L. fruits were initially subjected to reversed-phase chromatography on HPLC, resulting in eight peptide-rich fractions. All the fractions obtained were tested for their ability to inhibit porcine trypsin and amylase from both human saliva and from larval insect in vitro. All fractions were also tested for their ability to inhibit growth of the phytopathogenic fungi. Several fractions inhibited the activity of human salivary amylase and larval insect amylase, especially fraction Fa5. No fraction tested was found to inhibit trypsin activity, being Fa2 fraction an exception. Interestingly fraction Fa5 also displayed high antimicrobial activity against the species of the Fusarium genus. Fraction Fa5 was found to have two major protein bands of 17 and 6.5 kDa, and these were sequenced by mass spectrometry. Two peptides were obtained from the 6.5-kDa band, which showed similarity to antimicrobial peptides. Fraction Fa5 was also tested for its ability to permeabilize membranes and induce ROS. Fraction Fa5 was able to permeabilize the membranes of all the fungi tested. Fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium also showed an increase in the endogenous production of ROS when treated with this fraction. Antimicrobial peptides were also identified in the fruits from other Capsicum species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Design and synthesis of lipid-coupled inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate derivatives exhibiting high-affinity binding for the HIV-1 MA domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Hiroshi; Anraku, Kensaku; Koga, Ryoko; Okamoto, Yoshinari; Fujita, Mikako; Otsuka, Masami

    2014-07-21

    The precursor of Gag protein (Pr55(Gag)) of human immunodeficiency virus, the principal structural component required for virus assembly, is known to bind d-myo-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). The N-terminus of Pr55(Gag), the MA domain, plays a critical role in the binding of Pr55(Gag) to the plasma membrane. Herein, we designed and synthesized myo-phosphatidylinositol 2,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (PIP5) derivatives comprising highly phosphorylated inositol and variously modified diacylglycerol to examine the MA-binding properties. The inositol moiety was synthesized starting with myo-inositol and assembled with a hydrophobic glycerol moiety through a phosphate linkage. The Kd value for MA-binding of the PIP5 derivative 2 (Kd = 0.25 μM) was the lowest (i.e., highest affinity) of all derivatives, i.e., 70-fold lower than the Kd for the PIP2 derivative 1 (Kd = 16.9 μM) and 100-fold lower than the Kd for IP6 (Kd = 25.7 μM), suggesting the possibility that the PIP5 derivative blocks Pr55(Gag) membrane binding by competing with PIP2 in MA-binding.

  4. 5 × 5 cm² silicon photonic crystal slabs on glass and plastic foil exhibiting broadband absorption and high-intensity near-fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, C; Wyss, P; Eisenhauer, D; Probst, J; Preidel, V; Hammerschmidt, M; Burger, S

    2014-07-30

    Crystalline silicon photonic crystal slabs are widely used in various photonics applications. So far, the commercial success of such structures is still limited owing to the lack of cost-effective fabrication processes enabling large nanopatterned areas (≫ 1 cm(2)). We present a simple method for producing crystalline silicon nanohole arrays of up to 5 × 5 cm(2) size with lattice pitches between 600 and 1000 nm on glass and flexible plastic substrates. Exclusively up-scalable, fast fabrication processes are applied such as nanoimprint-lithography and silicon evaporation. The broadband light trapping efficiency of the arrays is among the best values reported for large-area experimental crystalline silicon nanostructures. Further, measured photonic crystal resonance modes are in good accordance with light scattering simulations predicting strong near-field intensity enhancements greater than 500. Hence, the large-area silicon nanohole arrays might become a promising platform for ultrathin solar cells on lightweight substrates, high-sensitive optical biosensors, and nonlinear optics.

  5. A Parallel, High-Fidelity Radar Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, M.; Fasenfest, B.

    2010-09-01

    Accurate modeling of Space Surveillance sensors is necessary for a variety of applications. Accurate models can be used to perform trade studies on sensor designs, locations, and scheduling. In addition, they can be used to predict system-level performance of the Space Surveillance Network to a collision or satellite break-up event. A high fidelity physics-based radar simulator has been developed for Space Surveillance applications. This simulator is designed in a modular fashion, where each module describes a particular physical process or radar function (radio wave propagation & scattering, waveform generation, noise sources, etc.) involved in simulating the radar and its environment. For each of these modules, multiple versions are available in order to meet the end-users needs and requirements. For instance, the radar simulator supports different atmospheric models in order to facilitate different methods of simulating refraction of the radar beam. The radar model also has the capability to use highly accurate radar cross sections generated by the method of moments, accelerated by the fast multipole method. To accelerate this computationally expensive model, it is parallelized using MPI. As a testing framework for the radar model, it is incorporated into the Testbed Environment for Space Situational Awareness (TESSA). TESSA is based on a flexible, scalable architecture, designed to exploit high-performance computing resources and allow physics-based simulation of the SSA enterprise. In addition to the radar models, TESSA includes hydrodynamic models of satellite intercept and debris generation, orbital propagation algorithms, optical brightness calculations, optical system models, object detection algorithms, orbit determination algorithms, simulation analysis and visualization tools. Within this framework, observations and tracks generated by the new radar model are compared to results from a phenomenological radar model. In particular, the new model will be

  6. New type of single chain magnet: pseudo-one-dimensional chain of high-spin Co(II) exhibiting ferromagnetic intrachain interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangoulis, V; Lalia-Kantouri, M; Gdaniec, M; Papadopoulos, Ch; Miletic, V; Czapik, A

    2013-06-03

    Two new six-coordinated high-spin Co(II) complexes have been synthesized through the reactions of Co(II) salts with dipyridylamine (dpamH) and 5-nitro-salicylaldehyde (5-NO2-saloH) or 3-methoxy-salicylaldehyde (3-OCH3-saloH) under argon atmosphere: [Co(dpamH)2(5-NO2-salo)]NO3 (1) and [Co(dpamH)2(3-OCH3-salo)]NO3·1.3 EtOH·0.4H2O (2). According to the crystal packing of compound 1, two coordination cations are linked with two nitrate anions into a cyclic dimeric arrangement via N-H···O and C-H···O hydrogen bonds. In turn, these dimers are assembled into (100) layers through π-π stacking interactions between inversion-center related pyridine rings of the dpamH ligands. The crystal packing of compound 2 reveals a 1D assembly consisting solely from the coordination cations, which is formed by π-π stacking interactions between pyridine rings of one of the dpamH along the [010] and another 1D assembly of the coordination cations and nitrate anions through the N-H···O hydrogen-bonding interactions along the [001] direction. All complexes were magnetically characterized, and a new approximation method was used to fit the magnetic susceptibility data in the whole temperature range 2-300 K on the basis of an empirical expression which allows the treatment of each cobalt(II) ion in axial symmetry as an effective spin S(eff) = 1/2. In zero-field, dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements show slow magnetic relaxation below 5.5 K for compound 2. The slow dynamics may originate from the motion of broad domain walls and is characterized by an Arrhenius law with a single energy barrier Δr/k(B) = 55(1) K for the [10-1488 Hz] frequency range. In order to reveal the importance of the crystal packing in the SCM behavior, a gentle heating process to 180 °C was carried out to remove the solvent molecules. The system, after heating, undergoes a major but not complete collapse of the network retaining to a small percentage its SCM character.

  7. A δ38 deletion variant of human transketolase as a model of transketolase-like protein 1 exhibits no enzymatic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schneider

    Full Text Available Besides transketolase (TKT, a thiamin-dependent enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, the human genome encodes for two closely related transketolase-like proteins, which share a high sequence identity with TKT. Transketolase-like protein 1 (TKTL1 has been implicated in cancerogenesis as its cellular expression levels were reported to directly correlate with invasion efficiency of cancer cells and patient mortality. It has been proposed that TKTL1 exerts its function by catalyzing an unusual enzymatic reaction, a hypothesis that has been the subject of recent controversy. The most striking difference between TKTL1 and TKT is a deletion of 38 consecutive amino acids in the N-terminal domain of the former, which constitute part of the active site in authentic TKT. Our structural and sequence analysis suggested that TKTL1 might not possess transketolase activity. In order to test this hypothesis in the absence of a recombinant expression system for TKTL1 and resilient data on its biochemical properties, we have engineered and biochemically characterized a "pseudo-TKTL1" Δ38 deletion variant of human TKT (TKTΔ38 as a viable model of TKTL1. Although the isolated protein is properly folded under in vitro conditions, both thermal stability as well as stability of the TKT-specific homodimeric assembly are markedly reduced. Circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopic analysis further indicates that TKTΔ38 is unable to bind the thiamin cofactor in a specific manner, even at superphysiological concentrations. No transketolase activity of TKTΔ38 can be detected for conversion of physiological sugar substrates thus arguing against an intrinsically encoded enzymatic function of TKTL1 in tumor cell metabolism.

  8. High-dimensional model estimation and model selection

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review concepts and algorithms from high-dimensional statistics for linear model estimation and model selection. I will particularly focus on the so-called p>>n setting where the number of variables p is much larger than the number of samples n. I will focus mostly on regularized statistical estimators that produce sparse models. Important examples include the LASSO and its matrix extension, the Graphical LASSO, and more recent non-convex methods such as the TREX. I will show the applicability of these estimators in a diverse range of scientific applications, such as sparse interaction graph recovery and high-dimensional classification and regression problems in genomics.

  9. An analytical high value target acquisition model

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Kevin J.

    1986-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An Analytical High Value Target (HVT) acquisition model is developed for a generic anti-ship cruise missile system. the target set is represented as a single HVT within a field of escorts. The HVT's location is described by a bivariate normal probability distribution. the escorts are represented by a spatially homogeneous Poisson random field surrounding the HVT. Model output consists of the probability that at least one missile of...

  10. Modeling of intensified high dynamic star tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinyun; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2017-01-23

    An intensified high dynamic star tracker (IHDST) is a photoelectric instrument and stably outputs three-axis attitude for a spacecraft at very high angular velocity. The IHDST uses an image intensifier to multiply the incident starlight. Thus, high sensitivity of the star detection is achieved under short exposure time such that extremely high dynamic performance is achieved. The IHDST differs from a traditional star tracker in terms of the imaging process. Therefore, we establish a quantum transfer model of IHDST based on stochastic process theory. By this model, the probability distribution of the output quantum number is obtained accurately. Then, we introduce two-dimensional Lorentz functions to describe the spatial spreading process of the IHDST. Considering the interaction of these two processes, a complete star imaging model of IHDST is provided. Using this model, the centroiding accuracy of the IHDST is analyzed in detail. Accordingly, a working parameter optimizing strategy is developed for high centroiding accuracy and improved dynamic performance. Finally, the laboratory tests and the night sky experiment support the conclusions.

  11. Modelling Galaxy Formation at high z

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    I describe a semi-analytical model for the formation and evolution of galaxies in hierarchical clustering models, and its predictions for the properties of the galaxy population at high z. The predictions are found to agree well with the observed properties of the Lyman break galaxies found at z sim 3 by Steidel et al. The models predict that the star formation rate per comoving volume should have peaked at z sim 1-2, which also agrees well with recent observational data.

  12. Ex vivo model exhibits protective effects of sesamin against destruction of cartilage induced with a combination of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and oncostatin M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansai, Manatsanan; Boonmaleerat, Kanchanit; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Phitak, Thanyaluck; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-07-11

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease associated with chronic inflammatory arthritis. TNF-α and OSM are pro-inflammatory cytokines that play a key role in RA progression. Thus, reducing the effects of both cytokines is practical in order to relieve the progression of the disease. This current study is interested in sesamin, an active compound in sesame seeds. Sesamin has been shown to be a chondroprotective agent in osteoarthritis models. Here, we have evaluated a porcine cartilage explant as a cartilage degradation model related to RA induced by TNF-α and/or OSM in order to investigate the effects of sesamin on TNF-α and OSM in the cartilage degradation model. A porcine cartilage explant was induced with a combination of TNF-α and OSM (test group) or IL-1β and OSM (control group) followed by a co-treatment of sesamin over a long-term period (35 days). After which, the tested explants were analyzed for indications of both the remaining and the degradation aspects using glycosaminoglycan and collagen as an indicator. The combination of TNF-α and OSM promoted cartilage degradation more than either TNF-α or OSM alone and was comparable with the combination of IL-1β and OSM. Sesamin could be offering protection against cartilage degradation by reducing GAGs and collagen turnover in the generated model. Sesamin might be a promising agent as an alternative treatment for RA patients. Furthermore, the generated model revealed itself to be an impressive test model for the analysis of phytochemical substances against the cartilage degradation model for RA. The model could be used to test for the prevention of cartilage degradation in other biological agents induced with TNF-α and OSM as well.

  13. Engineering Model of High Pressure Moist Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the moist air equation of state. There are equations of state discussed in the article, i.e. the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases, the model of an ideal mixture of real gases and the model based on the virial equation of state. The evaluation of sound speed based on the ideal mixture concept is mentioned. The sound speed calculated by the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases is compared with the sound speed calculated by using the model based on the concept of an ideal mixture of real gases. The comparison of enthalpy end entropy based on the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases and the model of an ideal mixture of real gases is performed. It is shown that the model of an ideal mixture of real gases deviates from the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases only in the case of high pressure. An impossibility of the definition of partial pressure in the mixture of real gases is discussed, where the virial equation of state is used.

  14. Human psychophysics and rodent spinal neurones exhibit peripheral and central mechanisms of inflammatory pain in the UVB and UVB heat rekindling models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Jessica; Sikandar, Shafaq; McMahon, Stephen B; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-09-01

    Translational research is key to bridging the gaps between preclinical findings and the patients, and a translational model of inflammatory pain will ideally induce both peripheral and central sensitisation, more effectively mimicking clinical pathophysiology in some chronic inflammatory conditions. We conducted a parallel investigation of two models of inflammatory pain, using ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation alone and UVB irradiation with heat rekindling. We used rodent electrophysiology and human quantitative sensory testing to characterise nociceptive processing in the peripheral and central nervous systems in both models. In both species, UVB irradiation produces peripheral sensitisation measured as augmented evoked activity of rat dorsal horn neurones and increased perceptual responses of human subjects to mechanical and thermal stimuli. In both species, UVB with heat rekindling produces central sensitisation. UVB irradiation alone and UVB with heat rekindling are translational models of inflammation that produce peripheral and central sensitisation, respectively. The predictive value of laboratory models for human pain processing is crucial for improving translational research. The discrepancy between peripheral and central mechanisms of pain is an important consideration for drug targets, and here we describe two models of inflammatory pain that involve ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, which can employ peripheral and central sensitisation to produce mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats and humans. We use electrophysiology in rats to measure the mechanically- and thermally-evoked activity of rat spinal neurones and quantitative sensory testing to assess human psychophysical responses to mechanical and thermal stimulation in a model of UVB irradiation and in a model of UVB irradiation with heat rekindling. Our results demonstrate peripheral sensitisation in both species driven by UVB irradiation, with a clear mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity of

  15. Nematodes: Model Organisms in High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, TJ; Anderson, Margery; Dillman, Adler; Yourick, Debra; Jett, Marti; Adams, Byron J.; Russell, RevaBeth

    2007-01-01

    In a collaborative effort between university researchers and high school science teachers, an inquiry-based laboratory module was designed using two species of insecticidal nematodes to help students apply scientific inquiry and elements of thoughtful experimental design. The learning experience and model are described in this article. (Contains 4…

  16. The Gravity Model for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, Paul; Mitchell, William A.

    1977-01-01

    The authors suggest ways in which the gravity model can be used in high school geography classes. Based on Newton's Law of Molecular Gravitation, the law states that gravitation is in direct ratio to mass and inverse ratio to distance. One activity for students involves determination of zones of influence of cities of various sizes. (Author/AV)

  17. DAC 22 High Speed Civil Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Between tests, NASA research engineer Dave Hahne inspects a tenth-scale model of a supersonic transport model in the 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The model is being used in support of NASA's High-Speed Research (HSR) program. Langley researchers are applying advance aerodynamic design methods to develop a wing leading-edge flap system which significantly improves low-speed fuel efficiency and reduces noise generated during takeoff operation. Langley is NASA's lead center for the agency's HSR program, aimed at developing technology to help U.S. industry compete in the rapidly expanding trans-oceanic transport market. A U.S. high-speed civil transport is expected to fly in about the year 2010. As envisioned, it would fly 300 passengers across the Pacific in about four hours at Mach 2.4 (approximately 1,600 mph/1950 kph) for a modest increase over business class fares.

  18. High dimensional decision dilemmas in climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bracco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An important source of uncertainty in climate models is linked to the calibration of model parameters. Interest in systematic and automated parameter optimization procedures stems from the desire to improve the model climatology and to quantify the average sensitivity associated with potential changes in the climate system. Building upon on the smoothness of the response of an atmospheric circulation model (AGCM to changes of four adjustable parameters, Neelin et al. (2010 used a quadratic metamodel to objectively calibrate the AGCM. The metamodel accurately estimates global spatial averages of common fields of climatic interest, from precipitation, to low and high level winds, from temperature at various levels to sea level pressure and geopotential height, while providing a computationally cheap strategy to explore the influence of parameter settings. Here, guided by the metamodel, the ambiguities or dilemmas related to the decision making process in relation to model sensitivity and optimization are examined. Simulations of current climate are subject to considerable regional-scale biases. Those biases may vary substantially depending on the climate variable considered, and/or on the performance metric adopted. Common dilemmas are associated with model revisions yielding improvement in one field or regional pattern or season, but degradation in another, or improvement in the model climatology but degradation in the interannual variability representation. Challenges are posed to the modeler by the high dimensionality of the model output fields and by the large number of adjustable parameters. The use of the metamodel in the optimization strategy helps visualize trade-offs at a regional level, e.g., how mismatches between sensitivity and error spatial fields yield regional errors under minimization of global objective functions.

  19. High dimensional decision dilemmas in climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bracco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An important source of uncertainty in climate models is linked to the calibration of model parameters. Interest in systematic and automated parameter optimization procedures stems from the desire to improve the model climatology and to quantify the average sensitivity associated with potential changes in the climate system. Neelin et al. (2010 used a quadratic metamodel to objectively calibrate an atmospheric circulation model (AGCM around four adjustable parameters. The metamodel accurately estimates global spatial averages of common fields of climatic interest, from precipitation, to low and high level winds, from temperature at various levels to sea level pressure and geopotential height, while providing a computationally cheap strategy to explore the influence of parameter settings. Here, guided by the metamodel, the ambiguities or dilemmas related to the decision making process in relation to model sensitivity and optimization are examined. Simulations of current climate are subject to considerable regional-scale biases. Those biases may vary substantially depending on the climate variable considered, and/or on the performance metric adopted. Common dilemmas are associated with model revisions yielding improvement in one field or regional pattern or season, but degradation in another, or improvement in the model climatology but degradation in the interannual variability representation. Challenges are posed to the modeler by the high dimensionality of the model output fields and by the large number of adjustable parameters. The use of the metamodel in the optimization strategy helps visualize trade-offs at a regional level, e.g. how mismatches between sensitivity and error spatial fields yield regional errors under minimization of global objective functions.

  20. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  1. High-Fidelity Micromechanics Model Enhanced for Multiphase Particulate Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    This 3-year effort involves the development of a comprehensive micromechanics model and a related computer code, capable of accurately estimating both the average response and the local stress and strain fields in the individual phases, assuming both elastic and inelastic behavior. During the first year (fiscal year 2001) of the investigation, a version of the model called the High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells (HFGMC) was successfully completed for the thermo-inelastic response of continuously reinforced multiphased materials with arbitrary periodic microstructures (refs. 1 and 2). The model s excellent predictive capability for both the macroscopic response and the microlevel stress and strain fields was demonstrated through comparison with exact analytical and finite element solutions. This year, HFGMC was further extended in two technologically significant ways. The first enhancement entailed the incorporation of fiber/matrix debonding capability into the two-dimensional version of HFGMC for modeling the response of unidirectionally reinforced composites such as titanium matrix composites, which exhibit poor fiber/matrix bond. Comparison with experimental data validated the model s predictive capability. The second enhancement entailed further generalization of HFGMC to three dimensions to enable modeling the response of particulate-reinforced (discontinuous) composites in the elastic material behavior domain. Next year, the three-dimensional version will be generalized to encompass inelastic effects due to plasticity, viscoplasticity, and damage, as well as coupled electromagnetothermomechanical (including piezoelectric) effects.

  2. Supporting observation campaigns with high resolution modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Daniel; Brueck, Matthias; Voigt, Aiko

    2017-04-01

    High resolution simulation in support of measurement campaigns offers a promising and emerging way to create large-scale context for small-scale observations of clouds and precipitation processes. As these simulation include the coupling of measured small-scale processes with the circulation, they also help to integrate the research communities from modeling and observations and allow for detailed model evaluations against dedicated observations. In connection with the measurement campaign NARVAL (August 2016 and December 2013) simulations with a grid-spacing of 2.5 km for the tropical Atlantic region (9000x3300 km), with local refinement to 1.2 km for the western part of the domain, were performed using the icosahedral non-hydrostatic (ICON) general circulation model. These simulations are again used to drive large eddy resolving simulations with the same model for selected days in the high definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction (HD(CP)2) project. The simulations are presented with the focus on selected results showing the benefit for the scientific communities doing atmospheric measurements and numerical modeling of climate and weather. Additionally, an outlook will be given on how similar simulations will support the NAWDEX measurement campaign in the North Atlantic and AC3 measurement campaign in the Arctic.

  3. High School Students' Meta-Modeling Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortus, David; Shwartz, Yael; Rosenfeld, Sherman

    2016-12-01

    Modeling is a core scientific practice. This study probed the meta-modeling knowledge (MMK) of high school students who study science but had not had any explicit prior exposure to modeling as part of their formal schooling. Our goals were to (A) evaluate the degree to which MMK is dependent on content knowledge and (B) assess whether the upper levels of the modeling learning progression defined by Schwarz et al. (2009) are attainable by Israeli K-12 students. Nine Israeli high school students studying physics, chemistry, biology, or general science were interviewed individually, once using a context related to the science subject that they were learning and once using an unfamiliar context. All the interviewees displayed MMK superior to that of elementary and middle school students, despite the lack of formal instruction on the practice. Their MMK was independent of content area, but their ability to engage in the practice of modeling was content dependent. This study indicates that, given proper support, the upper levels of the learning progression described by Schwarz et al. (2009) may be attainable by K-12 science students. The value of explicitly focusing on MMK as a learning goal in science education is considered.

  4. A high-order electromagnetic gyrokinetic model

    CERN Document Server

    Miyato, N

    2013-01-01

    A high-order extension is presented for the electromagnetic gyrokinetic formulation in which the parallel canonical momentum is taken as one of phase space coordinates. The high-order displacement vector associated with the guiding-center transformation should be considered in the long wavelength regime. This yields addtional terms in the gyrokinetic Hamiltonian which lead to modifications to the gyrokinetic Poisson and Amp\\`ere equations. In addition, the high-order piece of the guiding-center transformation for the parallel canonical momentum should be also kept in the electromagnetic model. The high-order piece contains the Ba\\~nos drift effect and further modifies the gyrokinetic Amp\\`ere equation.

  5. Maintenance Optimization of High Voltage Substation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The real system from practice is selected for optimization purpose in this paper. We describe the real scheme of a high voltage (HV substation in different work states. Model scheme of the HV substation 22 kV is demonstrated within the paper. The scheme serves as input model scheme for the maintenance optimization. The input reliability and cost parameters of all components are given: the preventive and corrective maintenance costs, the actual maintenance period (being optimized, the failure rate and mean time to repair - MTTR.

  6. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  7. Generation and characterization of two novel mouse models exhibiting the phenotypes of the metabolic syndrome: Apob48-/-Lepob/ob mice devoid of ApoE or Ldlr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David J; McCormick, Jocelyn; Helmering, Joan; Kim, Ki Won; Wang, Minghan; Fordstrom, Preston; Kaufman, Stephen A; Lindberg, Richard A; Véniant, Murielle M

    2008-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a group of disorders including obesity, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. To date, few animal models have been described to recapitulate the phenotypes of the syndrome. In this study, we generated and characterized two lines of triple-knockout mice that are deficient in either apolipoprotein E (Apoe(-/-)) or low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr(-/-)) and express no leptin (Lep(ob/ob)) or apolipoprotein B-48 but exclusively apolipoprotein B-100 (Apob(100/100)). These two lines are referred to as Apoe triple-knockout-Apoe 3KO (Apoe(-/-)Apob(100/100)Lep(ob/ob)) and Ldlr triple-knockout-Ldlr 3KO (Ldlr(-/-)Apob(100/100)Lep(ob/ob)) mice. Both lines develop obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. However, only Apoe 3KO mice are hyperglycemic and glucose intolerant and are more obese than Ldlr 3KO mice. To evaluate the utility of these lines as pharmacological models, we treated both with leptin and found that leptin therapy ameliorated most metabolic derangements. Leptin was more effective in improving glucose tolerance in Ldlr 3KO than Apoe 3KO animals. The reduction of plasma cholesterol by leptin in Ldlr 3KO mice can be accounted for by its suppressive effect on food intake. However, in Apoe 3KO mice, leptin further reduced plasma cholesterol independently of its effect on food intake, and this improvement correlated with a smaller plaque lesion area. These effects suggest a direct role of leptin in modulating VLDL levels and, likewise, the lesion areas in VLDL-enriched animals. These two lines of mice represent new models with features of the metabolic syndrome and will be useful in testing therapies targeted for combating the human condition.

  8. VCP associated inclusion body myopathy and paget disease of bone knock-in mouse model exhibits tissue pathology typical of human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Badadani

    Full Text Available Dominant mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP gene cause inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD. We have generated a knock-in mouse model with the common R155H mutation. Mice demonstrate progressive muscle weakness starting approximately at the age of 6 months. Histology of mutant muscle showed progressive vacuolization of myofibrils and centrally located nuclei, and immunostaining shows progressive cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43 and ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies in quadriceps myofibrils and brain. Increased LC3-II staining of muscle sections representing increased number of autophagosomes suggested impaired autophagy. Increased apoptosis was demonstrated by elevated caspase-3 activity and increased TUNEL-positive nuclei. X-ray microtomography (uCT images show radiolucency of distal femurs and proximal tibiae in knock-in mice and uCT morphometrics shows decreased trabecular pattern and increased cortical wall thickness. Bone histology and bone marrow derived macrophage cultures in these mice revealed increased osteoclastogenesis observed by TRAP staining suggestive of Paget bone disease. The VCP(R155H/+ knock-in mice replicate the muscle, bone and brain pathology of inclusion body myopathy, thus representing a useful model for preclinical studies.

  9. The PTZ kindling mouse model of epilepsy exhibits exploratory drive deficits and aberrant activity amongst VTA dopamine neurons in both familiar and novel space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mahboubeh; Dufour, Jean-Philippe; Seifritz, Erich; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Saab, Bechara J

    2017-07-14

    Recurrent seizures that define epilepsy are often accompanied by psychosocial problems and cognitive deficits with incompletely understood aetiology. We therefore used the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling model of epilepsy in mice to examine potential seizure-associated neuropathologies, focusing on motivation, memory and novel-environment-induced activation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. In addition to recurrent seizures, we found that PTZ kindling led to a strong suppression of novelty-driven exploration while largely sparing fear-driven exploration. The deficits in exploratory drive may be relevant for other cognitive impairments since reduced unassisted rearing in a learning arena correlated with poorer spatial memory of object location. Using c-Fos immunofluorescence as a marker of neuronal activity, we observed that dopamine neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of PTZ kindled mice demonstrate hyperactivity at baseline and hypoactivity in response to a novel environment compared to saline-injected cagemate controls. These data extend previous findings of PTZ kindling-mediated disruptions of hippocampal processes important for novel environment recognition and learning by demonstrating PTZ kindling also induces motivational deficits that are associated with reduced stimulus-evoked activation of VTA dopamine neurons. More broadly, these data help understand the aetiology of complex behavioural changes in the PTZ kindling model, and may assist in the development of superior diagnoses and treatments for epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. SKLB-287, a novel oral multikinase inhibitor of EGFR and VEGFR2, exhibits potent antitumor activity in LoVo colorectal tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Liu, Y; Yang, H-W; Zhou, S; Cheng, C; Zheng, M-W; Zhong, L; Fu, X-Y; Pan, Y-L; Ma, S; Tang, Y; Chen, Y-Z; Li, L-L; Yang, S-Y

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third common cancer and most of the chemotherapies of CRC currently used often suffer limited efficacy and large side effects. Targeted small-molecule by anti-tumor drugs are thought a promising strategy for improving the efficacy and reducing the side effects. In this investigation, we report a novel multikinase inhibitor, termed SKLB-287, which was discovered by us recently. SKLB-287 could efficiently inhibit the activation of endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). It displayed very good anti-proliferative activity against LoVo CRC cells and considerable antiangiogenic potency in transgenic zebrafish embryos. Oral administration of SKLB-287 resulted in dose-dependent suppression of tumor growth in LoVo xenograft mouse model. Immunohistochemistry was adopted to examine the in vivo anti-tumor mechanism of action of SKLB-287.

  11. The fruit cuticles of wild tomato species exhibit architectural and chemical diversity, providing a new model for studying the evolution of cuticle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeats, Trevor H; Buda, Gregory J; Wang, Zhonghua; Chehanovsky, Noam; Moyle, Leonie C; Jetter, Reinhard; Schaffer, Arthur A; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2012-02-01

    The cuticle covers the aerial epidermis of land plants and plays a primary role in water regulation and protection from external stresses. Remarkable species diversity in the structure and composition of its components, cutin and wax, have been catalogued, but few functional or genetic correlations have emerged. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is part of a complex of closely related wild species endemic to the northern Andes and the Galapagos Islands (Solanum Sect. Lycopersicon). Although sharing an ancestor wild species exceeding that of S. lycopersicum by up to seven fold. Wax composition varied in the occurrence of wax esters and triterpenoid isomers. Using a Solanum habrochaites introgression line population, we mapped triterpenoid differences to a genomic region that includes two S. lycopersicum triterpene synthases. Based on known metabolic pathways for acyl wax compounds, hypotheses are discussed to explain the appearance of wax esters with atypical chain lengths. These results establish a model system for understanding the ecological and evolutionary functional genomics of plant cuticles.

  12. A novel tropically stable oral amphotericin B formulation (iCo-010) exhibits efficacy against visceral Leishmaniasis in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasan, Ellen K; Gershkovich, Pavel; Zhao, Jinying; Zhu, Xiaohua; Werbovetz, Karl; Tidwell, Richard R; Clement, John G; Thornton, Sheila J; Wasan, Kishor M

    2010-12-07

    To develop an oral formulation of amphotericin B (AmB) that is stable at the temperatures of WHO Climatic Zones 3 and 4 (30-43 °C) and to evaluate its efficacy in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The stability testing of four novel oral lipid AmB formulations composed of mono- and di-glycerides and pegylated esters (iCo-010 to iCo-013) was performed over 60 d and analyzed by HPLC-UV. In addition, the four formulations were incubated 4 h in fasted-state simulated intestinal fluid. AmB concentration was measured spectrophotometrically and emulsion droplet diameter was assessed by dynamic light scattering. Antileishmanial activity of iCo-010 was evaluated at increasing oral doses (2.5 to 10 mg/kg) in a murine model of VL. AmB stability in the lipid formulation (iCo-010) was >75% over 60 days. After 4 h in fasted-state simulated intestinal fluid, AmB concentration was >95%. iCo-010 demonstrated significant efficacy when orally administered to VL-infected mice bid for five days (inhibition of 99%, 98%, and 83% at 10, 5 and 2.5 mg/kg compared to the vehicle control). In addition, the qd dose of 20 mg/kg provided 96% inhibition compared to the vehicle control. The oral AmB formulation iCo-010 is stable at the temperatures of WHO Climatic Zones 3 and 4 (30-43 °C). iCo-010 showed excellent antileishmanial activity at both 10 mg/kg po bid for 5 days (<99% reduction in parasitic infection) and 20 mg/kg po qd for 5 days (95% inhibition when compared to control).

  13. ADN-1184, a monoaminergic ligand with 5-HT6/7 receptor antagonist action, exhibits activity in animal models of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Anna; Wasik, Anna; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Mierzejewski, Paweł; Bieńkowski, Przemysław; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Wesołowska, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) include apathy, sleep problems, irritability, wandering, elation, agitation/aggression, and mood disorders such as depression and/or anxiety. Elderly patients are usually treated with second-generation antipsychotics; however, they present not enough efficacy against all symptoms observed. Hence, there still is an unmet need for novel pharmacotherapeutic agents targeted BPSD. A novel arylsulfonamide derivative ADN-1184 has been developed that possesses a preclinical profile of activity corresponding to criteria required for treatment of both psychosis and depressive symptoms of BPSD without exacerbating cognitive impairment or inducing motor disturbances. To broaden its pharmacological efficacy toward anxiety symptoms, its anxiolytic properties have been examined in common animal preclinical models in rats and mice. ADN-1184 significantly increased the number of entries into open arms measured in the elevated plus-maze test; however, it simultaneously increased parameters of exploratory activity. In the Vogel conflict drinking test, ADN-1184 dose-dependently and significantly increased the number of shocks accepted and the number of licks. Moreover, in mice, it also had specific anxiolytic-like activity in the four-plate test, and only negligible one at a specific mid-range dose measured in the spontaneous marble burying test. The obtained findings reveal that ADN-1184 displays anxiolytic-like activity in animal models of anxiety which employed punished stimuli. In its unusual combination of some anxiolytic action with already proven antipsychotic and antidepressant properties, and lack of any disruptive impact on learning and memory processes and motor coordination, ADN-1184 displays a profile that would be desired for a novel therapeutic for BPSD.

  14. High-performance phase-field modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe

    2015-04-27

    Many processes in engineering and sciences involve the evolution of interfaces. Among the mathematical frameworks developed to model these types of problems, the phase-field method has emerged as a possible solution. Phase-fields nonetheless lead to complex nonlinear, high-order partial differential equations, whose solution poses mathematical and computational challenges. Guaranteeing some of the physical properties of the equations has lead to the development of efficient algorithms and discretizations capable of recovering said properties by construction [2, 5]. This work builds-up on these ideas, and proposes novel discretization strategies that guarantee numerical energy dissipation for both conserved and non-conserved phase-field models. The temporal discretization is based on a novel method which relies on Taylor series and ensures strong energy stability. It is second-order accurate, and can also be rendered linear to speed-up the solution process [4]. The spatial discretization relies on Isogeometric Analysis, a finite element method that possesses the k-refinement technology and enables the generation of high-order, high-continuity basis functions. These basis functions are well suited to handle the high-order operators present in phase-field models. Two-dimensional and three dimensional results of the Allen-Cahn, Cahn-Hilliard, Swift-Hohenberg and phase-field crystal equation will be presented, which corroborate the theoretical findings, and illustrate the robustness of the method. Results related to more challenging examples, namely the Navier-Stokes Cahn-Hilliard and a diusion-reaction Cahn-Hilliard system, will also be presented. The implementation was done in PetIGA and PetIGA-MF, high-performance Isogeometric Analysis frameworks [1, 3], designed to handle non-linear, time-dependent problems.

  15. Corosolic Acid Exhibits Anti-angiogenic and Anti-lymphangiogenic Effects on In Vitro Endothelial Cells and on an In Vivo CT-26 Colon Carcinoma Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ki Hyun; Park, Jong-Hwa; Lee, Dae Young; Hwang-Bo, Jeon; Baek, Nam In; Chung, In Sik

    2015-05-01

    We describe the anti-angiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic effects of corosolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid isolated from Cornus kousa Burg. A mouse colon carcinoma CT-26 animal model was employed to determine the in vivo anti-angiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic effects of corosolic acid. Corosolic acid induced apoptosis in CT-26 cells, mediated by the activation of caspase-3. In addition, it reduced the final tumor volume and the blood and lymphatic vessel densities of tumors, indicating that it suppresses in vivo angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Corosolic acid inhibited the proliferation and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, corosolic acid decreased the proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated by angiopoietin-1. Pretreatment with corosolic acid decreased the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and ERK1/2, suggesting that corosolic acid contains anti-angiogenic activity that can suppress FAK signaling induced by angiopoietin-1.

  16. Allium stipitatum Extract Exhibits In Vivo Antibacterial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Accelerates Burn Wound Healing in a Full-Thickness Murine Burn Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanidhi, Arunkumar; Jeevajothi Nathan, Jayakayatri; van Belkum, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The in vivo antibacterial and burn wound healing potency of Persian shallot bulbs (Allium stipitatum) were explored in a mice burn model infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Hexane (ASHE) and dichloromethane (ASDE) extracts were tested. Female BALB/c mice were inflicted with third-degree thermal injury followed by infection with MRSA. ASHE and ASDE formulated with simple ointment base (SOB) at concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 5% (w/w) were topically applied to burn wounds twice a day for 20 days. Silver sulfadiazine (1%) served as drug positive control. Microbiological analysis was carried out on 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days postwounding (dpw) and histopathological analysis at the end of the experiment (20 dpw). Both ointments demonstrated strong antibacterial activity with complete elimination of MRSA at 48–72 h after infection. The rate of wound contraction was higher (95–100%) in mice groups treated with ASHE and ASDE ointments after 15 dpw. Histological analysis revealed significant increase (p antibacterial as well as promising alternatives in managing thermal injuries. PMID:28321262

  17. Auto Technology Exhibition in Tianjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 4th International Automotive Technology Exhibition Tianjing2009,jointly hosted by the Society of Automotive Engineers of China(SAE-China),China Automotive Technology and Research Center(CATRC)and Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area(TETD),is to be held in Tianjin Binhai International Convention and Exhibition Center from August 27 to August 30 this year.In line with China's national 11th Five-year Plan,The Automobile Industry Revitalization and Adjustments Planning and The Equipment Manufacturing Revitalization and Adjustments Planning,this Exhibition,centered on the theme of automobile and equipment manufacturing,arranges the exhibition halls respectively for private autos,commercial autos and equipment manufacturing etc.

  18. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  19. Collagen Extracted from Persian Gulf Squid Exhibits Anti-Cytotoxic Properties on Apple Pectic Treated Cells: Assessment in an In Vitro Bioassay Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan DELPHI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Collagen-based three-dimensional (3D in vitro systems have been introduced to study the physiological states of cells. As a biomolecule, collagen is usually extracted from terrestrial animals whilst aquatic animals like squid contain large amounts of collagen.Methods: In order to make effective use of marine organisms, we selected Persian Gulf squid in 2015 to extract the required collagen. Then, a 3D culture system based on the extracted collagen was applied to investigate cellular mechanisms in a native microenvironment. The formed collagen gel was used to investigate the growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells as well as responses to pectic acid.Results: The results revealed that the extracted collagen contained α, ß and γ components with high water holding capacity. This collagen formed a gel-like structure, which could promote the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The MDA-MB-231 cells’ viability in presence of pectic acid, demonstrating the cells’ behavior in a 3D culture system. Conclusion: It seems that the collagen extracted from squid skin has type I collagen properties. It might be used as a substrate in 3D cell culture systems. Keywords: Cell culture, Collagen, Pectic acid, Squid, 3D culture system 

  20. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  1. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change.

  2. A mini-exhibition with maximum content

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    The University of Budapest has been hosting a CERN mini-exhibition since 8 May. While smaller than the main travelling exhibition it has a number of major advantages: its compact design alleviates transport difficulties and makes it easier to find suitable venues in the Member States. Its content can be updated almost instantaneously and it will become even more interactive and high-tech as time goes by.   The exhibition on display in Budapest. The purpose of CERN's new mini-exhibition is to be more interactive and easier to install. Due to its size, the main travelling exhibition cannot be moved around quickly, which is why it stays in the same country for 4 to 6 months. But this means a long waiting list for the other Member States. To solve this problem, the Education Group has designed a new exhibition, which is smaller and thus easier to install. Smaller maybe, but no less rich in content, as the new exhibition conveys exactly the same messages as its larger counterpart. However, in the slimm...

  3. High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

  4. High-fidelity flash lidar model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2014-06-01

    NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technologies (ALHAT) project is currently developing the critical technologies to safely and precisely navigate and land crew, cargo and robotic spacecraft vehicles on and around planetary bodies. One key element of this project is a high-fidelity Flash Lidar sensor that can generate three-dimensional (3-D) images of the planetary surface. These images are processed with hazard detection and avoidance and hazard relative navigation algorithms, and then are subsequently used by the Guidance, Navigation and Control subsystem to generate an optimal navigation solution. A complex, high-fidelity model of the Flash Lidar was developed in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and its interaction with the interfacing ALHAT components on vehicles with different configurations and under different flight trajectories. The model contains a parameterized, general approach to Flash Lidar detection and reflects physical attributes such as range and electronic noise sources, and laser pulse temporal and spatial profiles. It also provides the realistic interaction of the laser pulse with terrain features that include varying albedo, boulders, craters slopes and shadows. This paper gives a description of the Flash Lidar model and presents results from the Lidar operating under different scenarios.

  5. Modeling of high-speed electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kudrya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The theme of this publication is the modeling of electronic tools that operate in the frequency range from zero to terahertz and higher. Application of new concepts and technologies, including biotechnology and nanotechnology in the development of monolithic integrated circuits led to a backlog of technologies of projecting from technologies and experimental research and manufacturing. The aim of this work is to develop algorithms for analysis, reflecting not only topological as well as morphological properties of the object, that is designing within the framework of accounting EMI communicational  transmission of energy and information in the volume of the monolithic integrated circuit. Basic steps for constructing the algorithm. The object of design is presented in the form of basic elements, which can be combined with a communication structure. The object of design is presented in the form of basic elements, which can be combined with a communication structure. There are three types of matrix equations: component; component - communication structure; communication structure. Systems of equations are reduced to standardized descriptors of mathematical model by which to understand current of poles and voltage arcs whole set of basic elements. In this way obtained mathematical model that can be implemented in CAD nano and micro technology electronics. Conclusions. Mathematical models of analysis of high-speed digital and analog electronic means. The algorithm allows morphological optimization is to minimize the adverse effects outside the system of electromagnetic interaction between the components and communicator.

  6. Symbolic modeling of high energy beam optics

    CERN Document Server

    Autin, Bruno

    1999-01-01

    A classical problem of computational physics consists of finding the minimum of a chi /sup 2/ like function of many variables. Powerful optimization algorithms have been developed but do not guarantee convergence towards an absolute minimum. Analytical methods can improve the insight into a physical problem but calculations quickly exceed the power of a human brain. There comes the interest of optical design of high energy particle accelerators. The physics background is sketched and emphasis is put on the methodology. In practice, algebraic models may not be precise enough but they usually provide excellent initial conditions for a final numerical optimization. (4 refs).

  7. Large Scale, High Resolution, Mantle Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, T.; Berg, A. V.; Spakman, W.

    2007-12-01

    To model the geodynamic evolution of plate convergence, subduction and collision and to allow for a connection to various types of observational data, geophysical, geodetical and geological, we developed a 4D (space-time) numerical mantle convection code. The model is based on a spherical 3D Eulerian fem model, with quadratic elements, on top of which we constructed a 3D Lagrangian particle in cell(PIC) method. We use the PIC method to transport material properties and to incorporate a viscoelastic rheology. Since capturing small scale processes associated with localization phenomena require a high resolution, we spend a considerable effort on implementing solvers suitable to solve for models with over 100 million degrees of freedom. We implemented Additive Schwartz type ILU based methods in combination with a Krylov solver, GMRES. However we found that for problems with over 500 thousend degrees of freedom the convergence of the solver degraded severely. This observation is known from the literature [Saad, 2003] and results from the local character of the ILU preconditioner resulting in a poor approximation of the inverse of A for large A. The size of A for which ILU is no longer usable depends on the condition of A and on the amount of fill in allowed for the ILU preconditioner. We found that for our problems with over 5×105 degrees of freedom convergence became to slow to solve the system within an acceptable amount of walltime, one minute, even when allowing for considerable amount of fill in. We also implemented MUMPS and found good scaling results for problems up to 107 degrees of freedom for up to 32 CPU¡¯s. For problems with over 100 million degrees of freedom we implemented Algebraic Multigrid type methods (AMG) from the ML library [Sala, 2006]. Since multigrid methods are most effective for single parameter problems, we rebuild our model to use the SIMPLE method in the Stokes solver [Patankar, 1980]. We present scaling results from these solvers for 3D

  8. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  9. Ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) root exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes and anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2014-03-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera) root, a well-known medicinal plant in Asia, is reported to have various therapeutic benefits, including anti-diabetes, anti-hypertension, and anti-hyperlipidaemia. We hypothesized that the ethanol extract of lotus root (ELR) would exhibit an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes as well as anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with ELR in human pre-adipocytes resulted in inhibition of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of adipogenic transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adipocyte marker genes, such as glucose transporter 4 and leptin. Administration of ELR resulted in a significant decrease in relative weights of adipose tissues in rats fed a high-fat diet. Consumption of a high-fat diet resulted in an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels; however, administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the levels of TC and TG. Administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the level of serum leptin and insulin. Administration of ELR in rats fed a high-fat diet resulted in a decrease in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content, elevated by a high-fat diet and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity and hepatic glutathione content. These results suggest that lotus root exerts anti-oxidant and anti-obesity effects and could be used as a functional and nutraceutical ingredient in combatting obesity-related diseases.

  10. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... data that represent system operating conditions. (i) Exhibit I—Project Cost and Financing. (1) A statement of estimated costs of any new construction or modification. (2) The estimated capital cost and...) Provide all files to model normal, single contingency, multiple contingency, and special...

  11. The Optimization Model of the Supply Chain Structure of Exhibition%会展供应链结构优化模型构建与系统优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申强; 杨为民; 刘笑冰

    2014-01-01

    Considering the rapid development of the convention and exhibition industry in China and characteristics of supply chain management,this paper defines supply chain of the convention and exhibition industry based on principles of manufacturing supply chain and service supply chain management,combining with characteristics of the convention and exhibition industry.Morever,it constructs the optimization model of the supply chain structure and proposes the optimization concrete content and measures for the optimization model.The result shows that the supply chain of exhibition integrates the content and the characteristics of the manufacturing and service supply chain,and the key to improve its performance is optimizing the structure of its organization,implementation of information sharing and restriction of the behaviors of the participates.%考虑到中国会展产业的迅速发展和供应链管理特点,本文基于制造供应链和服务供应链管理理论,结合会展产业自身特征,在对会展供应链进行定义的基础上,构建会展供应链结构优化模型,并针对该优化模型提出具体的优化内容和措施。研究表明,会展供应链融合了制造供应链和服务供应链的特性和内容,其绩效提高的关键在于优化自身组织结构、实现参与主体的信息共享并约束参与主体的行为。

  12. Reaching the Public through Traveling Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J. B.; Morrow, C. A.

    2004-11-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado has recently developed two museum exhibits called Alien Earths and MarsQuest. It has just started to develop another exhibit called Giant Planets. These exhibitions provide research scientists the opportunity to engage in a number of activities that are vital to the success of these major outreach programs. Alien Earths was developed in partnership with various research missions. The focus of the presentation will be on MarsQuest and Giant Planets. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot, \\$3M, traveling exhibition that is now touring the country. The exhibit's second 3-year tour will enable millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and learn more about their own planet in the process. The associated planetarium show and education program will also be described, with particular emphasis on workshops to orient museum staff (e.g. museum educators and docents) and workshops for master educators near host museums and science centers. The workshops make innovative connections between the exhibition's interactive experiences and lesson plans aligned with the National Science Education Standards. These exhibit programs are good models for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to help improve informal science education in the museum community and for forging a stronger connection between formal and informal education. The presentation will also discuss how Giant Planets, a proposed 3500 square-foot traveling exhibition on the mysteries and discoveries of the outer planets, will be able to take advantage of the connections and resources that have been developed by the MarsQuest project.

  13. Bayesian Subset Modeling for High-Dimensional Generalized Linear Models

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a new prior setting for high-dimensional generalized linear models, which leads to a Bayesian subset regression (BSR) with the maximum a posteriori model approximately equivalent to the minimum extended Bayesian information criterion model. The consistency of the resulting posterior is established under mild conditions. Further, a variable screening procedure is proposed based on the marginal inclusion probability, which shares the same properties of sure screening and consistency with the existing sure independence screening (SIS) and iterative sure independence screening (ISIS) procedures. However, since the proposed procedure makes use of joint information from all predictors, it generally outperforms SIS and ISIS in real applications. This article also makes extensive comparisons of BSR with the popular penalized likelihood methods, including Lasso, elastic net, SIS, and ISIS. The numerical results indicate that BSR can generally outperform the penalized likelihood methods. The models selected by BSR tend to be sparser and, more importantly, of higher prediction ability. In addition, the performance of the penalized likelihood methods tends to deteriorate as the number of predictors increases, while this is not significant for BSR. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  14. Ce{sub 2}B{sub 8}O{sub 15}. High-pressure synthesis and crystal structure determination of a rare-earth polyborate exhibiting a new 'Fundamental Building Block'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaetzle, Matthias; Heymann, Gunter; Huppertz, Hubert [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie

    2013-10-01

    The new cerium polyborate Ce{sub 2}B{sub 8}O{sub 15} was synthesized under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of 6 GPa and 1050 C in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus. The single-crystal structure determination revealed that the new compound crystallizes in the space group P2/c with the lattice parameters a = 916.6(2), b = 421.0(1), c = 1248.9(3) pm, {beta} = 116.7(1) , V = 0.4303(2) nm{sup 3}, R1 = 0.0356, and wR2 = 0.0504. The crystal structure of Ce{sub 2}B{sub 8}O{sub 15} exhibits a new fundamental building block (FBB) in borate chemistry that consists of four BO{sub 4} tetrahedra and can be written as 4{open_square}: [{Phi}] left angle 3{open_square} right angle vertical stroke {open_square} vertical stroke. These FBB are interconnected via common corners, forming a complex threedimensional network that contains the Ce{sup 3+} cations. Ce{sub 2}B{sub 8}O{sub 15} represents the most boron rich rare-earth borate synthesized under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions so far. We report about the synthetic conditions, structural details, thermal behaviour, and the IR/Raman spectra of Ce{sub 2}B{sub 8}O{sub 15}. (orig.)

  15. High accuracy in silico sulfotransferase models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ian; Wang, Ting; Falany, Charles N; Leyh, Thomas S

    2013-11-29

    Predicting enzymatic behavior in silico is an integral part of our efforts to understand biology. Hundreds of millions of compounds lie in targeted in silico libraries waiting for their metabolic potential to be discovered. In silico "enzymes" capable of accurately determining whether compounds can inhibit or react is often the missing piece in this endeavor. This problem has now been solved for the cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs). SULTs regulate the bioactivities of thousands of compounds--endogenous metabolites, drugs and other xenobiotics--by transferring the sulfuryl moiety (SO3) from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate to the hydroxyls and primary amines of these acceptors. SULT1A1 and 2A1 catalyze the majority of sulfation that occurs during human Phase II metabolism. Here, recent insights into the structure and dynamics of SULT binding and reactivity are incorporated into in silico models of 1A1 and 2A1 that are used to identify substrates and inhibitors in a structurally diverse set of 1,455 high value compounds: the FDA-approved small molecule drugs. The SULT1A1 models predict 76 substrates. Of these, 53 were known substrates. Of the remaining 23, 21 were tested, and all were sulfated. The SULT2A1 models predict 22 substrates, 14 of which are known substrates. Of the remaining 8, 4 were tested, and all are substrates. The models proved to be 100% accurate in identifying substrates and made no false predictions at Kd thresholds of 100 μM. In total, 23 "new" drug substrates were identified, and new linkages to drug inhibitors are predicted. It now appears to be possible to accurately predict Phase II sulfonation in silico.

  16. Communicating Complex Sciences by Means of Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S.

    2011-12-01

    Earth Sciences will have to take over the leading role in global sustainable policy and in discussions about climate change. Efforts to raise attention within the politically responsible communities as well as in the public are getting more and more support by executive and advisory boards all over the world. But how can you successfully communicate complex sciences? For example, to start communication about climate change, the first step is to encourage people to be concerned about climate change. After that, one has to start thinking about how to present data and how to include the presented data into an unprejudiced context. Therefore, the communication toolbox offers various methods to reach diverse audiences. The R&D programme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN conducts roving exhibitions as one of its most successful communication tools. With roving exhibitions GEOTECHNOLOGIEN is able to get in touch with different audiences at once. The main purpose and theme of these exhibitions is to convey the everyday means of climate change to the visitors. It is within the responsibility of science to communicate the effects of a phenomenon like climate change as well as the impact of research results to the everyday life of people. Currently, a GEOTECHNOLOGIEN roving exhibition on remote sensing with satellites deals with various issues of environmental research, including a chapter on climate change. By following the 3M-concept (Meaning - Memorable - Moving), exhibitions allow to connect the visitors daily environment and personal experiences with the presented issues and objects. Therefore, hands-on exhibits, exciting multimedia effects and high-tech artefacts have to be combined with interpretive text elements to highlight the daily significance of the scientific topics and the exhibition theme respectively. To create such an exhibition, strong conceptual planning has to be conducted. This includes the specification of stern financial as well as time wise milestones. In addition

  17. High-resolution gravity model of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.

    1992-01-01

    The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter has been evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.

  18. Axion Models with High Scale Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Moroi, Takeo; Nakayama, Kazunori; Takimoto, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the cosmological aspects of axion models. In the high-scale inflation scenario, the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry is likely to be restored during/after inflation. If the curvature of the PQ scalar potential at the origin is smaller than its vacuum expectation value; for instance in a class of SUSY axion models, thermal inflation happens before the radial component of the PQ scalar (saxion) relaxes into the global minimum of the potential and the decay of saxion coherent oscillation would produce too much axion dark radiation. In this paper, we study how to avoid the overproduction of axion dark radiation with some concrete examples. We show that, by taking account of the finite-temperature dissipation effect appropriately, the overproduction constraint can be relaxed since the PQ scalar can take part in the thermal plasma again even after the PQ phase transition. We also show that it can be further relaxed owing to the late time decay of another heavy CP-odd scalar, if it is present.

  19. Green Revolution for Exhibition Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ Shanghai World Expo is widely regarded as another grand international pageant, so many people thought that the opening ceremony must be as much magnificent and brilliant as the opening ceremony for Beijing Olympics.However, it was revealed by Wan Jifei, Executive Director of the ExecutiveCommittee of the Shanghai World Expo that the opening ceremony of the Expo was not that luxurious and extravagant as that for the Beijing Olympics, but would have its own characteristics under the elaborate design and thorough arrangement conducted by the host. The veto against that luxurious opening ceremony was actually a practice echoing for the concept of Green World Expo, which would be applied for every corner from the beginning to the end of the Expo, including the construction of exhibition hall, building of exhibition stand and advertisement etc.

  20. Exhibits in libraries a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Mary E

    2005-01-01

    "Ccomprehensive...detailed"--Booklist; "thoroughly reseached...highly recommended"--Journal of Access Services. Library exhibits are more than entertainment for patrons. They can inspire and educate, stimulate an interest that can be explored in a book, or attract visitors who otherwise wouldn't stop by. Displays are also an opportunity for a library to put its creative foot forward or help patrons navigate the facility itself. This comprehensive "how-to" includes everything a librarian or staff member needs to know to put on an exhibit, from hatching ideas to evaluating the end result. Illustrations and photographs show practical methods of planning, labeling and displaying.

  1. World Expo and Exhibition Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2010-01-01

    @@ February 8 witnessed the construction of 2010 World Expo's China Pavilion completed after two years' work. The pavilion, in the shape of an oriental crown,showcases the spirit of traditional Chinese culture. It is significant since all other nation's pavilion constructed only for temporary exhibition, but China's Pavilion will be lasting architecture as the symbol of world civilization. Another similar famous case is Eiffel Tower which was built as the entrance of the world expo held in. 1889.

  2. A New Exhibition in Microcosm

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Sebastien Pelletier explains states of matter to an enthusiastic group of youngsters during the opening of a new exhibition in Microcosm last week. The Fun with Physics workshop will be offered to all 13-14 year olds in school groups visiting CERN this year. The new Microcosm contents have been developed in collaboration with the local teaching community, and cover particles and the forces that act between them.

  3. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  4. Modeling Steroidogenesis Disruption Using High-Throughput ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental chemicals can elicit endocrine disruption by altering steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism (steroidogenesis) causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. Historically, a lack of assays resulted in few chemicals having been evaluated for effects on steroidogenesis. The steroidogenic pathway is a series of hydroxylation and dehydrogenation steps carried out by CYP450 and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, yet the only enzyme in the pathway for which a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay has been developed is aromatase (CYP19A1), responsible for the aromatization of androgens to estrogens. Recently, the ToxCast HTS program adapted the OECD validated H295R steroidogenesis assay using human adrenocortical carcinoma cells into a high-throughput model to quantitatively assess the concentration-dependent (0.003-100 µM) effects of chemicals on 10 steroid hormones including progestagens, androgens, estrogens and glucocorticoids. These results, in combination with two CYP19A1 inhibition assays, comprise a large dataset amenable to clustering approaches supporting the identification and characterization of putative mechanisms of action (pMOA) for steroidogenesis disruption. In total, 514 chemicals were tested in all CYP19A1 and steroidogenesis assays. 216 chemicals were identified as CYP19A1 inhibitors in at least one CYP19A1 assay. 208 of these chemicals also altered hormone levels in the H295R assay, suggesting 96% sensitivity in the

  5. Modification of TiO2 Nanoparticles with Oleyl Phosphate via Phase Transfer in the Toluene-Water System and Application of Modified Nanoparticles to Cyclo-Olefin-Polymer-Based Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Films Exhibiting High Refractive Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shiori; Hotta, Shuhei; Watanabe, Akira; Idota, Naokazu; Matsukawa, Kimihiro; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-18

    Oleyl-phosphate-modified TiO2 nanoparticles (OP_TiO2) were prepared via phase transfer from an aqueous phase containing dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles to a toluene phase containing oleyl phosphate (OP, a mixture of monoester and diester), and employed for the preparation of OP_TiO2/cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) hybrid films with high-refractive indices. The modification of TiO2 by OP was essentially completed by reaction at room temperature for 8 h, and essentially all the TiO2 nanoparticles in the aqueous phase were transferred to the toluene phase. The infrared and solid-state (13)C cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectrum of OP_TiO2 showed the presence of oleyl groups originating from oleyl phosphate. The solid-state (31)P MAS NMR spectrum of OP_TiO2 exhibited new signals at -1.4, 2.1, and 4.8 ppm, indicating the formation of Ti-O-P bonds. CHN and inductively coupled plasma analyses revealed that the major species bound to the TiO2 surface was tridentate CH3(CH2)7CH═CH(CH2)8P(OTi)3. These results clearly indicate that the surfaces of the TiO2 nanoparticles were modified by OP moieties via phase transfer. OP_TiO2/COP hybrid films exhibited excellent optical transparency up to 19.1 vol % TiO2 loading, and the light transmittance of the hybrid films with 19.1 vol % TiO2 loading was 99.8% at 633 nm. The refractive index of these hybrid films rose to 1.83.

  6. Borneo 2007. Three European Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Sellato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 2007 appears to have been an exceptionally good one for Borneo in Europe. Two exhibitions were held in France, and one in Switzerland, which prominently featured the big island, its forests, its peoples, its cultures, and its arts. Here a brief review of these three events. Bornéo... Dayak et Punan. Peuples de la forêt tropicale humide, Musée d’Art et d’Archéologie, Laon, France, 25 November 2006 – 11 March 2007 The beautiful city of Laon, only a short distance by train or by car fro...

  7. CERN Permanent exhibitions short version

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Visits Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. CERN invites the public to discover the mysteries of the Universe and the work of the world's biggest physics laboratory through free of charge guided tours and permanent exhibitions. As a group, with friends, individually, on foot, on your bike, come and discover CERN or explore it virtually. Welcome!

  8. Didactic model of the high storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Świder

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The continuous progress in Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM field with automatic storing systems is broadening the range of education process for engineers in future. This document describes the newest didactic station integrated witch a Modular Production System (MPS model [1, 2, 3]. It is a module of high storage. This arrangement is the perfect didactic item for students.Design/methodology/approach: The main reason, why the laboratory position, we have mentioned, has been created is brodening the students knowlegde’s range. To achive this task the warehouse has been made from really industrial elements. All manipulator’s axis were building from different types of transmissions. Findings: During the work with warehouse there has been prepared the new algorithm which controlls the linear drive. Besides that there has been created brand new standards in engineers education, which are based on the described warehouse. Research limitations/implications: The main target of the didactic activity of Institute of Engineering Processes Automation and Integrated Manufacturing Systems is broden the loboratory base. That’s the reason why now there already has been building another laboratory position, which is based on Fanuc manipulator.Practical implications: The algorithm of Pneu-Stat steering hasn’t been finished yet, but when it has been done it can be used in industrial aplicationsOriginality/value: This paper describes the new didactic station with innovational steering algorithm [4, 5].

  9. Modeling Study of High Pressure and High Temperature Reservoir Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varzandeh, Farhad

    to 250 °C and 2400 bar, in the deep petroleum reservoirs. Furthermore, many of these deep reservoirs are found offshore, including the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, making the development even more risky. On the other hand, development of these high pressure high temperature (HPHT) fields can...

  10. Rational Design of High-Performance Wide-Bandgap (≈2 eV) Polymer Semiconductors as Electron Donors in Organic Photovoltaics Exhibiting High Open Circuit Voltages (≈1 V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chochos, Christos L; Katsouras, Athanasios; Gasparini, Nicola; Koulogiannis, Chrysanthos; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos

    2017-01-01

    Systematic optimization of the chemical structure of wide-bandgap (≈2.0 eV) "donor-acceptor" copolymers consisting of indacenodithiophene or indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene as the electron-rich unit and thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione as the electron-deficient moiety in terms of alkyl side chain engineering and distance of the electron-rich and electron-deficient monomers within the repeat unit of the polymer chain results in high-performance electron donor materials for organic photovoltaics. Specifically, preliminary results demonstrate extremely high open circuit voltages (V oc s) of ≈1.0 V, reasonable short circuit current density (J sc ) of around 11 mA cm(-2) , and moderate fill factors resulting in efficiencies close to 6%. All the devices are fabricated in an inverted architecture with the photoactive layer processed by doctor blade equipment, showing the compatibility with roll-to-roll large-scale manufacturing processes. From the correlation of the chemical structure-optoelectronic properties-photovoltaic performance, a rational guide toward further optimization of the chemical structure in this family of copolymers, has been achieved. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. ALREST High Fidelity Modeling Program Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    Gases and Mixtures of Redlich - Kwong and Peng- Robinson Fluids Assumed pdf Model based on k- ε-g Model in NASA/LaRc Vulcan code Level Set model...Potential Attractiveness Of Liquid Hydrocarbon Engines For Boost Applications • Propensity Of Hydrocarbon Engines For Combustion Instability • Air

  12. Engineering Model of High Pressure Moist Air

    OpenAIRE

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the moist air equation of state. There are equations of state discussed in the article, i.e. the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases, the model of an ideal mixture of real gases and the model based on the virial equation of state. The evaluation of sound speed based on the ideal mixture concept is mentioned. The sound speed calculated by the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases is compared with the sound speed calculated by using the model based on the concept ...

  13. Enrico Fermi exhibition at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    A touring exhibition celebrating the centenary of Enrico Fermi's birth in 1901 will be on display at CERN (Main Building, Mezzanine) from 12-27 September. You are cordially invited to the opening celebration on Thursday 12 September at 16:00 (Main Building, Council Chamber), which will include speechs from: Luciano Maiani Welcome and Introduction Arnaldo Stefanini Celebrating Fermi's Centenary in Documents and Pictures Antonino Zichichi The New 'Centro Enrico Fermi' at Via Panisperna Ugo Amaldi Fermi at Via Panisperna and the birth of Nuclear Medicine Jack Steinberger Fermi in Chicago Valentin Telegdi A Close-up of Fermi and the screening of a documentary video about Fermi: Scienziati a Pisa: Enrico Fermi (Scientists at Pisa: Enrico Fermi) created by Francesco Andreotti for La Limonaia from early film, photographs and sound recordings (In Italian, with English subtitles - c. 30 mins). This will be followed by an aperitif on the Mezz...

  14. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mono-anionic phosphopeptides produced by unexpected histidine alkylation exhibit high Plk1 polo-box domain-binding affinities and enhanced antiproliferative effects in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wen-Jian; Park, Jung-Eun; Lim, Dan; Lai, Christopher C; Kelley, James A; Park, Suk-Youl; Lee, Ki Won; Yaffe, Michael B; Lee, Kyung S; Burke, Terrence R

    2014-11-01

    Binding of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) polo-box domains (PBDs) to phosphothreonine (pThr)/phosphoserine (pSer)-containing sequences is critical for the proper function of Plk1. Although high-affinity synthetic pThr-containing peptides provide starting points for developing PBD-directed inhibitors, to date the efficacy of such peptides in whole cell assays has been poor. This potentially reflects limited cell membrane permeability arising, in part, from the di-anionic nature of the phosphoryl group or its mimetics. In our current article we report the unanticipated on-resin N(τ)-alkylation of histidine residues already bearing a N(π)- alkyl group. This resulted in cationic imidazolium-containing pThr peptides, several of which exhibit single-digit nanomolar PBD-binding affinities in extracellular assays and improved antimitotic efficacies in intact cells. We enhanced the cellular efficacies of these peptides further by applying bio-reversible pivaloyloxymethyl (POM) phosphoryl protection. New structural insights presented in our current study, including the potential utility of intramolecular charge masking, may be useful for the further development of PBD-binding peptides and peptide mimetics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ms.Brown is introducing their exhibition to Miss Jiang.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Miss Jiang:I want to know more about the International HouseholdUtensil Exhibition.Ms.Brown:It is an exhibition with a 32-year history,catering to clientsfrom South Africa and Mexico.Over the past 32 years,the exhibition hasbeen well known for its high efficiency in signing contracts.

  17. Analytic Models of High-Temperature Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stygar, W.A.; Olson, R.E.; Spielman, R.B.; Leeper, R.J.

    2000-11-29

    A unified set of high-temperature-hohlraum models has been developed. For a simple hohlraum, P{sub s} = [A{sub s}+(1{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}]{sigma}T{sub R}{sup 4} + (4V{sigma}/c)(dT{sub R}{sup r}/dt) where P{sub S} is the total power radiated by the source, A{sub s} is the source area, A{sub W} is the area of the cavity wall excluding the source and holes in the wall, A{sub H} is the area of the holes, {sigma} is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, T{sub R} is the radiation brightness temperature, V is the hohlraum volume, and c is the speed of light. The wall albedo {alpha}{sub W} {triple_bond} (T{sub W}/T{sub R}){sup 4} where T{sub W} is the brightness temperature of area A{sub W}. The net power radiated by the source P{sub N} = P{sub S}-A{sub S}{sigma}T{sub R}{sup 4}, which suggests that for laser-driven hohlraums the conversion efficiency {eta}{sub CE} be defined as P{sub N}/P{sub LASER}. The characteristic time required to change T{sub R}{sup 4} in response to a change in P{sub N} is 4V/C[(l{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}]. Using this model, T{sub R}, {alpha}{sub W}, and {eta}{sub CE} can be expressed in terms of quantities directly measurable in a hohlraum experiment. For a steady-state hohlraum that encloses a convex capsule, P{sub N} = {l_brace}(1{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}+[(1{minus}{alpha}{sub C})(A{sub S}+A{sub W}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub C}/A{sub T}]{r_brace}{sigma}T{sub RC}{sup 4} where {alpha}{sub C} is the capsule albedo, A{sub C} is the capsule area, A{sub T} {triple_bond} (A{sub S}+A{sub W}+A{sub H}), and T{sub RC} is the brightness temperature of the radiation that drives the capsule. According to this relation, the capsule-coupling efficiency of the baseline National-Ignition-Facility (NIF) hohlraum is 15% higher than predicted by previous analytic expressions. A model of a hohlraum that encloses a z pinch is also presented.

  18. Synchronization in multicell systems exhibiting dynamic plasticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Suguna; Somdatta Sinha

    2008-08-01

    Collective behaviour in multicell systems arises from exchange of chemicals/signals between cells and may be different from their intrinsic behaviour. These chemicals are products of regulated networks of biochemical pathways that underlie cellular functions, and can exhibit a variety of dynamics arising from the non-linearity of the reaction processes. We have addressed the emergent synchronization properties of a ring of cells, diffusively coupled by the end product of an intracellular model biochemical pathway exhibiting non-robust birhythmic behaviour. The aim is to examine the role of intercellular interaction in stabilizing the non-robust dynamics in the emergent collective behaviour in the ring of cells. We show that, irrespective of the inherent frequencies of individual cells, depending on the coupling strength, the collective behaviour does synchronize to only one type of oscillations above a threshold number of cells. Using two perturbation analyses, we also show that this emergent synchronized dynamical state is fairly robust under external perturbations. Thus, the inherent plasticity in the oscillatory phenotypes in these model cells may get suppressed to exhibit collective dynamics of a single type in a multicell system, but environmental influences can sometimes expose this underlying plasticity in its collective dynamics.

  19. Cystamine preparations exhibit anticoagulant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Maria M; Holle, Lori A; Stember, Katherine G; Devette, Christa I; Monroe, Dougald M; Wolberg, Alisa S

    2015-01-01

    Transglutaminases are a superfamily of isoenzymes found in cells and plasma. These enzymes catalyze the formation of ε-N-(γ-glutamyl)-lysyl crosslinks between proteins. Cystamine blocks transglutaminase activity and is used in vitro in human samples and in vivo in mice and rats in studies of coagulation, immune dysfunction, and inflammatory disease. These studies have suggested cystamine blocks fibrin crosslinking and has anti-inflammatory effects, implicating transglutaminase activity in the pathogenesis of several diseases. We measured the effects of cystamine on fibrin crosslinking, tissue factor-triggered plasma clot formation and thrombin generation, and coagulation factor enzymatic activity. At concentrations that blocked fibrin crosslinking, cystamine also inhibited plasma clot formation and reduced thrombin generation. Cystamine inhibited the amidolytic activity of coagulation factor XI and thrombin towards chromogenic substrates. These findings demonstrate that cystamine exhibits anticoagulant activity during coagulation. Given the close relationship between coagulation and inflammation, these findings suggest prior studies that used cystamine to implicate transglutaminase activity in disease pathogenesis warrant re-examination.

  20. Cystamine preparations exhibit anticoagulant activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M Aleman

    Full Text Available Transglutaminases are a superfamily of isoenzymes found in cells and plasma. These enzymes catalyze the formation of ε-N-(γ-glutamyl-lysyl crosslinks between proteins. Cystamine blocks transglutaminase activity and is used in vitro in human samples and in vivo in mice and rats in studies of coagulation, immune dysfunction, and inflammatory disease. These studies have suggested cystamine blocks fibrin crosslinking and has anti-inflammatory effects, implicating transglutaminase activity in the pathogenesis of several diseases. We measured the effects of cystamine on fibrin crosslinking, tissue factor-triggered plasma clot formation and thrombin generation, and coagulation factor enzymatic activity. At concentrations that blocked fibrin crosslinking, cystamine also inhibited plasma clot formation and reduced thrombin generation. Cystamine inhibited the amidolytic activity of coagulation factor XI and thrombin towards chromogenic substrates. These findings demonstrate that cystamine exhibits anticoagulant activity during coagulation. Given the close relationship between coagulation and inflammation, these findings suggest prior studies that used cystamine to implicate transglutaminase activity in disease pathogenesis warrant re-examination.

  1. High fidelity frictional models for MEMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpick, Robert W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Bitsie, Fernando; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corwin, Alex David; Ashurst, William Robert (Auburn University, Auburn, AL); Jones, Reese E.; Subhash, Ghatu S. (Michigan Technological Institute, Houghton, MI); Street, Mark D. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Sumali, Anton Hartono; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Starr, Michael James; Redmond, James Michael; Flater, Erin E. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI)

    2004-10-01

    The primary goals of the present study are to: (1) determine how and why MEMS-scale friction differs from friction on the macro-scale, and (2) to begin to develop a capability to perform finite element simulations of MEMS materials and components that accurately predicts response in the presence of adhesion and friction. Regarding the first goal, a newly developed nanotractor actuator was used to measure friction between molecular monolayer-coated, polysilicon surfaces. Amontons law does indeed apply over a wide range of forces. However, at low loads, which are of relevance to MEMS, there is an important adhesive contribution to the normal load that cannot be neglected. More importantly, we found that at short sliding distances, the concept of a coefficient of friction is not relevant; rather, one must invoke the notion of 'pre-sliding tangential deflections' (PSTD). Results of a simple 2-D model suggests that PSTD is a cascade of small-scale slips with a roughly constant number of contacts equilibrating the applied normal load. Regarding the second goal, an Adhesion Model and a Junction Model have been implemented in PRESTO, Sandia's transient dynamics, finite element code to enable asperity-level simulations. The Junction Model includes a tangential shear traction that opposes the relative tangential motion of contacting surfaces. An atomic force microscope (AFM)-based method was used to measure nano-scale, single asperity friction forces as a function of normal force. This data is used to determine Junction Model parameters. An illustrative simulation demonstrates the use of the Junction Model in conjunction with a mesh generated directly from an atomic force microscope (AFM) image to directly predict frictional response of a sliding asperity. Also with regards to the second goal, grid-level, homogenized models were studied. One would like to perform a finite element analysis of a MEMS component assuming nominally flat surfaces and to include the

  2. A Creep Model for High Density Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Director of ERDC-CRREL was Dr. Lance Hansen, and the Director was Dr. Robert E. Davis. COL Bryan S. Green was Commander of ERDC, and Dr. David W...Station, Green - land, and that will be founded on a compacted snow surface. The defor- mation of snow under a constant load (creep deformation, or...developed in this study are enough similar to the generalized creep model used in the ABAQUS finite element software that the ABAQUS creep model was used

  3. 基于web的汽车弹簧三维模型的展示与交互%Exhibition and Interaction of Three-dimensional Lightweight Automobile Spring Model Based on Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天鹏; 朱文华; 张梦之

    2011-01-01

    The exhibition and interaction of the three-dimensional model can always build a vivid atmosphere for the viewers, it can improve the efficiency of the products designing, However, when the product owns a large sums of parts, the size of the data for the simulation expands greatly, which will make it inconvenient for the sharing and publishing and can only be viewed locally. In view of this situation, the exhibition and interaction of the three-dimensional lightweight model was proposed based on the internet, and the three dimensional lightweight files were used which was produced by Mockup. Through this way, it is very easy for the engineers and customers to view it, also they can immediately modify the model by the feedback of the customers and broaden the distribution channel. This kind of technology has been applied to the automobile spring, and the results prove to be effective.%三维模型的展示和交互往往能给人一种逼真的效果,能够提高产品设计的效率。然而当产品的零部件个数很多时,模型文件将十分巨大,不便于网络共享与发布,而仅限于本地浏览。鉴于这种情况,提出基于网络的三维轻量化模型的展示与交互,岁产应用Mockup软件生成三雏轻量化JT仿真文件,这样便于工程师与客户的查看,同时能够根据客户的反馈,进行即时的更改,同时也扩展了产品的销售渠道。把这种技术应用于汽车弹簧,取得了预期的效果。

  4. HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH PRESSURE THERMODYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2000-05-01

    The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for this project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique, addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature and pressure inside the VLE cell, and a new technique for remote sensing of the liquid level in the cell. VLE data measurements for three binary systems, tetralin-quinoline, benzene--ethylbenzene and ethylbenzene--quinoline, have been completed. The temperature ranges of data measurements were 325 C to 370 C for the first system, 180 C to 300 C for the second system, and 225 C to 380 C for the third system. The smoothed data were found to be fairly well behaved when subjected to thermodynamic consistency tests. SETARAM C-80 calorimeter was used for incremental enthalpy and heat capacity measurements for benzene--ethylbenzene binary liquid mixtures. Data were measured from 30 C to 285 C for liquid mixtures covering the entire composition range. An apparatus has been designed for simultaneous measurement of excess volume and incremental enthalpy of liquid mixtures at temperatures from 30 C to 300 C. The apparatus has been tested and is ready for data measurements. A flow apparatus for measurement of heat of mixing of liquid mixtures at high temperatures has also been designed, and is currently being tested and calibrated.

  5. A multi-dimensional model for localization of highly variable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppertshofen, Heike; Bülow, Thomas; von Berg, Jens; Schmidt, Sarah; Beyerlein, Peter; Salah, Zein; Rose, Georg; Schramm, Hauke

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we present a new type of model for object localization, which is well suited for anatomical objects exhibiting large variability in size, shape and posture, for usage in the discriminative generalized Hough transform (DGHT). The DGHT combines the generalized Hough transform (GHT) with a discriminative training approach to automatically obtain robust and efficient models. It has been shown to be a strong tool for object localization capable of handling a rather large amount of shape variability. For some tasks, however, the variability exhibited by different occurrences of the target object becomes too large to be represented by a standard DGHT model. To be able to capture such highly variable objects, several sub-models, representing the modes of variability as seen by the DGHT, are created automatically and are arranged in a higher dimensional model. The modes of variability are identified on-the-fly during training in an unsupervised manner. Following the concept of the DGHT, the sub-models are jointly trained with respect to a minimal localization error employing the discriminative training approach. The procedure is tested on a dataset of thorax radiographs with the target to localize the clavicles. Due to different arm positions, the posture and arrangement of the target and surrounding bones differs strongly, which hampers the training of a good localization model. Employing the new model approach the localization rate improves by 13% on unseen test data compared to the standard model.

  6. Biosphere model for high level waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrdahl, R

    1997-10-01

    Method for environmental impact modeling involving uncertainty, overcoming the disadvantage of providing only one upper bound based on accumulated effects from all extreme events. This method provides a suite of upper and lower bounds based on any subset of such extreme events, to be chosen among by the decision maker.

  7. High frequency model of stacked film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, T.; Joubert, C.; Daude, N.; Glaize, C.

    2001-11-01

    Polypropylene metallized capacitors are of general use in power electronics because of their reliability, their self-healing capabilities, and their low price. Though the behavior of metallized coiled capacitors has been discussed, no work has been carried out on stacked and flattened metallized capacitors. The purpose of this article is to suggest an analytical model of resonance frequency, stray inductance and impedance of stacked capacitors. We first solve the equation of propagation of the magnetic potential vector (A) in the dielectric of an homogeneous material. Then, we suggest an original method of resolution, like the one used for resonant cavities, in order to present an analytical solution of the problem. Finally, we give some experimental results proving that the physical knowledge of the parameters of the capacitor (dimension of the component, and material constants), enables us to calculate an analytical model of resonance frequency, stray inductance and impedance of stacked capacitors.

  8. Highly Nonlinear Ising Model and Social Segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Sumour, M A; Shabat, M M

    2011-01-01

    The usual interaction energy of the random field Ising model in statistical physics is modified by complementing the random field by added to the energy of the usual Ising model a nonlinear term S^n were S is the sum of the neighbor spins, and n=0,1,3,5,7,9,11. Within the Schelling model of urban segregation, this modification corresponds to housing prices depending on the immediate neighborhood. Simulations at different temperatures, lattice size, magnetic field, number of neighbors and different time intervals showed that results for all n are similar, expect for n=3 in violation of the universality principle and the law of corresponding states. In order to find the critical temperatures, for large n we no longer start with all spins parallel but instead with a random configuration, in order to facilitate spin flips. However, in all cases we have a Curie temperature with phase separation or long-range segregation only below this Curie temperature, and it is approximated by a simple formula: Tc is proportion...

  9. Art Therapy Exhibitions: Exploitation or Advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terri

    2017-01-01

    Promoting awareness of human trafficking by sharing trauma survivors' art and summaries of their life stories suggests ethical complexities that have been typically neglected by bioethicists. Although these survivors voluntarily share the objects they created during art therapy sessions, they are still at risk of harm, including further exploitation, due to their vulnerability, high rates of victim sensitivity, and the mental health consequences of their traumatic experiences. While some argue that the benefits of sublimation and art therapy for human trafficking survivors make sharing their art worth the risk, anti-trafficking organizations and supporters of such art exhibitions have responsibilities to be trauma informed. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Quasi Maximum Likelihood Analysis of High Dimensional Constrained Factor Models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kunpeng; Li,Qi; Lu, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Factor models have been widely used in practice. However, an undesirable feature of a high dimensional factor model is that the model has too many parameters. An effective way to address this issue, proposed in a seminar work by Tsai and Tsay (2010), is to decompose the loadings matrix by a high-dimensional known matrix multiplying with a low-dimensional unknown matrix, which Tsai and Tsay (2010) name constrained factor models. This paper investigates the estimation and inferential theory ...

  11. Low and High Energy Modeling in Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Dennis H; Folger, Günter; Ivanchenko, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Starkov, Nikolai; Heikkinen, Aatos; Wellisch, Hans-Peter

    2007-01-01

    Four of the most-used Geant4 hadronic models, the Quark-gluon string, Bertini-style cascade, Binary cascade and Chiral Invariant Phase Space, are discussed. These models cover high, medium and low energies, respectively, and represent a more theoretical approach to simulating hadronic interactions than do the Low Energy and High Energy Parameterized models. The four models together do not yet cover all particles for all energies, so the Low Energy and High Energy Parameterized models, among others, are used to fill the gaps.The validity range in energy and particle type of each model is presented, as is a discussion of the models' distinguishing features. The main modeling stages are also described qualitatively and areas for improvement are pointed out for each model.

  12. Low And High Energy Modeling in GEANT4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Dennis H.; Koi, Tatsumi; /SLAC; Folger, Gunter; Ivanchenko, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Starkov, Nikolai; /CERN; Heikkinen, Aatos; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Wellisch,

    2007-10-05

    Four of the most-used Geant4 hadronic models, the Quark-gluon string, Bertini-style cascade, Binary cascade and Chiral Invariant Phase Space, are discussed. These models cover high, medium and low energies, respectively, and represent a more theoretical approach to simulating hadronic interactions than do the Low Energy and High Energy Parameterized models. The four models together do not yet cover all particles for all energies, so the Low Energy and High Energy Parameterized models, among others, are used to fill the gaps. The validity range in energy and particle type of each model is presented, as is a discussion of the models' distinguishing features. The main modeling stages are also described qualitatively and areas for improvement are pointed out for each model.

  13. Modeling High Pressure Micro Hollow Cathode Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    cathode discharge excimer lamps , Phys. Plasmas 7, 286 (2000). [3] RH Stark and KH Schoenbach, Direct high pressure glow discharges, J. Appl. Phys...temperature profiles in argon glow discharges, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2234 (2000) [8] M. Moselhy, W. Shi, R. Stark, A flat glow discharge excimer radiation...MHCD acts as a plasma cathode for a third electrode (anode). Some experimental results in this geometry are available for argon and for air from the

  14. Quark model and high energy collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Anisovich, V V; Nyíri, J; Shabelski, Yu M

    2004-01-01

    This is an updated version of the book published in 1985. QCD-motivated, it gives a detailed description of hadron structure and soft interactions in the additive quark model, where hadrons are regarded as composite systems of dressed quarks. In the past decade it has become clear that nonperturbative QCD, responsible for soft hadronic processes, may differ rather drastically from perturbative QCD. The understanding of nonperturbative QCD requires a detailed investigation of the experiments and the theoretical approaches. Bearing this in mind, the book has been rewritten paying special attenti

  15. High Performance Geostatistical Modeling of Biospheric Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedelty, J. A.; Morisette, J. T.; Smith, J. A.; Schnase, J. L.; Crosier, C. S.; Stohlgren, T. J.

    2004-12-01

    We are using parallel geostatistical codes to study spatial relationships among biospheric resources in several study areas. For example, spatial statistical models based on large- and small-scale variability have been used to predict species richness of both native and exotic plants (hot spots of diversity) and patterns of exotic plant invasion. However, broader use of geostastics in natural resource modeling, especially at regional and national scales, has been limited due to the large computing requirements of these applications. To address this problem, we implemented parallel versions of the kriging spatial interpolation algorithm. The first uses the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in a master/slave paradigm on an open source Linux Beowulf cluster, while the second is implemented with the new proprietary Xgrid distributed processing system on an Xserve G5 cluster from Apple Computer, Inc. These techniques are proving effective and provide the basis for a national decision support capability for invasive species management that is being jointly developed by NASA and the US Geological Survey.

  16. Tests of Quantum Gravity and Large Extra Dimensions Models Using High Energy Gamma Ray Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Stecker, F W

    2004-01-01

    Observations of the multi-TeV spectra of the nearby BL Lac objects Mkn 421 and Mkn 501 exhibit the high energy cutoffs predicted to be the result of intergalactic annihilation interactions, primarily with IR photons having a flux level as determined by various astronomical observations. After correcting for such intergalactic absorption, these spectra can be explained within the framework of synchrotron self-Compton emission models. Stecker & Glashow have shown that the existence of this annihilation via electron-positron pair production puts strong constraints on Lorentz violation. Such constraints have important implications for quantum gravity models and large extra dimension models. We also discuss the implications of observations of high energy gamma-rays from the Crab Nebula on constraining quantum gravity models.

  17. Random matrix approach to estimation of high-dimensional factor models

    CERN Document Server

    Yeo, Joongyeub

    2016-01-01

    In dealing with high-dimensional data sets, factor models are often useful for dimension reduction. The estimation of factor models has been actively studied in various fields. In the first part of this paper, we present a new approach to estimate high-dimensional factor models, using the empirical spectral density of residuals. The spectrum of covariance matrices from financial data typically exhibits two characteristic aspects: a few spikes and bulk. The former represent factors that mainly drive the features and the latter arises from idiosyncratic noise. Motivated by these two aspects, we consider a minimum distance between two spectrums; one from a covariance structure model and the other from real residuals of financial data that are obtained by subtracting principal components. Our method simultaneously provides estimators of the number of factors and information about correlation structures in residuals. Using free random variable techniques, the proposed algorithm can be implemented and controlled ef...

  18. Liu Hong: no trivial on exhibitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To Work for Tomorrow Liu Hong, General Manager of TUTTI Exhibition Service (Xiamen) Co., Ltd, has set up TUTTI Exhibition Service (Xiamen) Co., Ltd in 2001, when exhibition industry firstly appear in Xiamen. Furthermore, the company has developed rapidly in recent years. As Liu Hong regards, exhibition industry, as well as advertisement industry, is an industry filled with challenges and followed

  19. Finite Element Modeling of Five Phase Permanent Magnet BLDC Motor for High Power Density Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran George

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fault-tolerant capability of electrical motor drives is an essential feature in applications such as automotive, aeronautic, and many others. A multi-phase permanent-magnet BLDC motor exhibits a high fault tolerant capability hence increasing the reliability, as it can be designed to reduce the fault occurrence as well as to operate indefinitely in the presence of fault. With multi independent phases, in the event of failure of one or more, the remaining healthy phases let the motor to operate properly. This paper presents finite element modeling and results of a five-phase permanent magnet brushless motor designed for high power density application .

  20. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  1. Modelling and Analysis of High Pressure Peaking Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Bindu; Parekh, Mrunal; Mangalvedekar, H. A.; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents modelling and analysis of peaking switch used in Marx generator, such that the rise time of the pulse produced by the Marx generator is reduced substantially. Towards this FEMM (Finite Element Methods Magnetics) software is used for the field modelling of the switch and MATLAB for circuit modelling to observe the rise time. The switch has to produce pulse with sub-nanosecond rise time, hence the electrode distance has to be minimum. This switch can withstand high voltage only under high pressure. A mathematical model is simulated in MATLAB to see the performance under high pressure.

  2. High frequency modeling for quantum-well laser diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO JianJun

    2009-01-01

    High frequency modeling of quantum-well (OW) laser diodes for optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) design is discussed in this paper. Modeling of the intrinsic device and the extrinsic components is discussed by accounting for important physical effects at both de and high frequency. The concepts of equivalent circuits representing both intrinsic and extrinsic components in a QW laser diode are ana-lyzed to obtain a physics-based high frequency model. The model is based on the physical rate equa-tions, and is versatile in that it permits both small-and large-signal simulations to be performed. Sev-eral procedures of the high frequency model parameter extraction are also discussed. Emphasis here is placed on validating the model via a comparison of simulated results with measured data of the small-signal modulation response, obtained over a wide range of optical output powers.

  3. Modelling Parsing Constraints with High-Dimensional Context Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Curt; Lund, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    Presents a model of high-dimensional context space, the Hyperspace Analogue to Language (HAL), with a series of simulations modelling human empirical results. Proposes that HAL's context space can be used to provide a basic categorization of semantic and grammatical concepts; model certain aspects of morphological ambiguity in verbs; and provide…

  4. Comparison of Modelled to Measured High-Resolution ISAR Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.C. van den; Bieker, T.; Ewijk, L.J. van

    2005-01-01

    We have obtained modelled ISAR data for a ZSU-23-4 air defence unit using a high-fidelity 600,000 facet model and the RAPPORT RCS prediction code. These ISAR data are compared with results from the FERMAT RCS prediction code using the same facet model of the ZSU23-4. In order to analyse how well the

  5. Dual absorptive model and np elastic scattering at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem

    1980-06-01

    The most recent measurements of the angular distribution and total cross-sections in np elastic scattering at high energies from 70 to 400 GeV/c have been fitted by using the dual absorptive model. Comparison has also been made with the Kane-Siedl model and the simple Regge pole model.

  6. Compact Models and Measurement Techniques for High-Speed Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    Compact Models and Measurement Techniques for High-Speed Interconnects provides detailed analysis of issues related to high-speed interconnects from the perspective of modeling approaches and measurement techniques. Particular focus is laid on the unified approach (variational method combined with the transverse transmission line technique) to develop efficient compact models for planar interconnects. This book will give a qualitative summary of the various reported modeling techniques and approaches and will help researchers and graduate students with deeper insights into interconnect models in particular and interconnect in general. Time domain and frequency domain measurement techniques and simulation methodology are also explained in this book.

  7. A Highly Efficient Gene Expression Programming (GEP Model for Auxiliary Diagnosis of Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Yu

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is an important and common cancer that constitutes a major public health problem, but early detection of small cell lung cancer can significantly improve the survival rate of cancer patients. A number of serum biomarkers have been used in the diagnosis of lung cancers; however, they exhibit low sensitivity and specificity.We used biochemical methods to measure blood levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, C-reactive protein (CRP, Na+, Cl-, carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA, and neuron specific enolase (NSE in 145 small cell lung cancer (SCLC patients and 155 non-small cell lung cancer and 155 normal controls. A gene expression programming (GEP model and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves incorporating these biomarkers was developed for the auxiliary diagnosis of SCLC.After appropriate modification of the parameters, the GEP model was initially set up based on a training set of 115 SCLC patients and 125 normal controls for GEP model generation. Then the GEP was applied to the remaining 60 subjects (the test set for model validation. GEP successfully discriminated 281 out of 300 cases, showing a correct classification rate for lung cancer patients of 93.75% (225/240 and 93.33% (56/60 for the training and test sets, respectively. Another GEP model incorporating four biomarkers, including CEA, NSE, LDH, and CRP, exhibited slightly lower detection sensitivity than the GEP model, including six biomarkers. We repeat the models on artificial neural network (ANN, and our results showed that the accuracy of GEP models were higher than that in ANN. GEP model incorporating six serum biomarkers performed by NSCLC patients and normal controls showed low accuracy than SCLC patients and was enough to prove that the GEP model is suitable for the SCLC patients.We have developed a GEP model with high sensitivity and specificity for the auxiliary diagnosis of SCLC. This GEP model has the potential for the wide use for detection of SCLC in less

  8. Dental pulp-derived stromal cells exhibit a higher osteogenic potency than bone marrow-derived stromal cells in vitro and in a porcine critical-size bone defect model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs was compared with that of dental pulp-derived stromal cells (DPSCs in vitro and in a pig calvaria critical-size bone defect model. Methods: BMSCs and DPSCs were extracted from the tibia bone marrow and the molar teeth of each pig, respectively. BMSCs and DPSCs were cultured in monolayer and on a three-dimensional (3D polycaprolactone (PCL – hyaluronic acid – tricalcium phosphate (HT-PCL scaffold. Population doubling (PD, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and calcium deposition were measured in monolayer. In the 3D culture ALP activity, DNA content, and calcium deposition were evaluated. Six non-penetrating critical-size defects were made in each calvarium of 14 pigs. Three paired sub-studies were conducted: (1 empty defects vs. HT-PCL scaffolds; (2 PCL scaffolds vs. HT-PCL scaffolds; and (3 autologous BMSCs on HT-PCL scaffolds vs. autologous DPSCs on HT-PCL scaffolds. The observation time was five weeks. Bone volume fractions (BV/TV were assessed with micro-computed tomography (μCT and histomorphometry. Results and discussion: The results from the in vitro study revealed a higher ALP activity and calcium deposition of the DPSC cultures compared with BMSC cultures. Significantly more bone was present in the HT-PCL group than in both the pure PCL scaffold group and the empty defect group in vivo. DPSCs generated more bone than BMSCs when seeded on HT-PCL. In conclusion, DPSCs exhibited a higher osteogenic potential compared with BMSCs both in vitro and in vivo, making it a potential cell source for future bone tissue engineering.

  9. The Exhibition Performance Appraisal Index System Based on Stakeholder Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-min; HAO Qi-hui

    2009-01-01

    Exhibition performance should be evaluated from different perspectives of stakeholders. The benefits of each stakeholder can not be satisfied when evaluating the exhibition performance from a single perspective or. only evaluating the economic performance of the exhibition. In this paper, the stakeholders are defined on the basis of questionnaire investigation and classified by mathematical statistical method. According to the requirements of the stakeholders, the exhibition performance appraisal indicators are extracted and, simplified by factor analysis, which leads to the formation of a set of performance appraisal index system. It is an instructive attempt to work out the exhibition performance appraisal model from the perspective of stakeholders, which may provide theoretical foundation and practice instruction for exhibition performance appraisal in our country.

  10. Ketogenic diet exhibits anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Nina; Curatolo, Niccolo; Benoist, Jean-François; Auvin, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is an established treatment for refractory epilepsy, including some inflammation-induced epileptic encephalopathies. In a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever model in rats, we found that animals given the KD for 14 days showed less fever and lower proinflammatory cytokine levels than control animals. However, KD rats exhibited a decrease in circulating levels of arachidonic acid and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effect of KD was probably not due to an increase in anti-inflammatory n-3 PUFA derivatives. These properties might be of interest in some conditions such as fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy in school-aged children.

  11. FOTON Motor Crowns 4th China Auto International Circuit Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Yan

    2005-01-01

      In order to provide more opportuni ties for the high-developing Chinese auto industry including autos and motos to do export, and to enlarge the international influence of Chinese cars,the 4th China Auto International Circuit Exhibition will be held in Syria. The exhibition has been held for three times.……

  12. FOTON Motor Crowns 4th China Auto International Circuit Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yan

    2005-01-01

    @@ In order to provide more opportuni ties for the high-developing Chinese auto industry including autos and motos to do export, and to enlarge the international influence of Chinese cars,the 4th China Auto International Circuit Exhibition will be held in Syria. The exhibition has been held for three times.

  13. Healthy Development of Exhibition Industry——CCPIT's Deep Concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2008: National Exhibition Industrial Association should be established as soon as possible Exhibition industry, often renowned as the locomotive of the tertiary industry, is highly profitable smokeless industry (the profit rate is up to 20%-25% in the developed countries).

  14. Engineering models of high speed penetration into geological shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Dor, Gabi; Dubinsky, Anatoly; Elperin, Tov

    2014-03-01

    The survey is dedicated to approximate empirical and analytical models which were suggested for describing high-speed penetration into geological shields. This review differs from the previously published reviews on this topic in the following respects: (i) includes a large number of models; (ii) describes models suggested during recent years; (iii) much attention is given to models which have been originally published in Russian and are not well known in the West. References list includes 81 items.

  15. Modeling for driving systems of four-high rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺建军; 喻寿益; 钟掘

    2002-01-01

    A modeling method for driving systems of four-high rolling mill was put forward in order to analyze the origin of rolling mill's chatter that brings about light and shade streaks on the surface of steel strip from aspect of electromechanical coupling. The process and steps of modeling method was introduced by means of an example. The correctness of the model and the feasibility of the modeling method were verified in simulation experiment.

  16. VNU Exhibitions Asia: Two factors are crucial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Reporter: How to appraises the Chinese exhibition industry market? Jime Essink :The Chinese exhibition market will experience a fast growth in the coming years. This will mainly be the result of an increase of international visitors who

  17. Report on Exhibition Industry in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1. General Characteristics of Shanghai Exhibitions As the leader of economic development in the Yangtze River Delta,Shanghai has basically formed a certain scale and strength in the aspects of urban transportation, exhibition venues, supporting facilities, service levels, etc.

  18. Advanced Computational Modeling of Vapor Deposition in a High-Pressure Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelino, Beatriz H.; Moore, Craig E.; McCall, Sonya D.; Cardelino, Carlos A.; Dietz, Nikolaus; Bachmann, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    In search of novel approaches to produce new materials for electro-optic technologies, advances have been achieved in the development of computer models for vapor deposition reactors in space. Numerical simulations are invaluable tools for costly and difficult processes, such as those experiments designed for high pressures and microgravity conditions. Indium nitride is a candidate compound for high-speed laser and photo diodes for optical communication system, as well as for semiconductor lasers operating into the blue and ultraviolet regions. But InN and other nitride compounds exhibit large thermal decomposition at its optimum growth temperature. In addition, epitaxy at lower temperatures and subatmospheric pressures incorporates indium droplets into the InN films. However, surface stabilization data indicate that InN could be grown at 900 K in high nitrogen pressures, and microgravity could provide laminar flow conditions. Numerical models for chemical vapor deposition have been developed, coupling complex chemical kinetics with fluid dynamic properties.

  19. Development Report on Exhibition Industry in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Generat Features of Guangzhou Exhibitions (Ⅰ) Quantity of Exhibitions and Industry Features. Overall, after suf-fering from global financial crisis in 2008 as well as the interference of Beijing Olympic Games and other major events, the exhibition industry in Guangzhou has still not encountered an easy condition in 2009.

  20. Beijing Lack of "Carrier"Exhibition Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An Interview towards Mr. Chu Xiangyin, Vice Chairman of Beijing Subcouncil, CCPIT Reporter: Would you please tell us development of exhibition industry in Beijing? Chu Xiangyin: Beijing Statistical Bureau and us have been designing and analyzing statistical system for exhibition industry from 2003. As the largest exhibition center in Beijing,

  1. Study on the Competitiveness of Pudong Exhibition Industry Cluster in Shanghai Based on GEM Model%基于GEM模型的上海浦东会展产业集群竞争力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王尚君

    2014-01-01

    产业集群是一种新的区域发展趋势。浦东会展产业已经形成了相对完整的产业集群。在此背景下,基于GEM理论模型,依据上海浦东会展产业调查数据的分析结果,构建了上海浦东会展产业集群竞争力的指标体系,得出了各指标的权重分布;通过对各指标数值的定量分析,得出其会展产业竞争力指数,从而找到了上海浦东会展产业集群的薄弱环节,并提出了对策,以期提高竞争优势,推动上海浦东会展产业集群的进一步发展。%Industry cluster is new regional developments trends. Pudong exhibition industry has formed a relatively complete indus-trial cluster. Under the situdation, it aims to establish an index system and weight distribution of Pudong exhibition industry cluster competition accoding to GEM theory and under the analysis of the corresponding data of Pudong exhibition industry cluster competi-tion qustionare. The exhibition industry cluster competitiveness index is got in order to facilitate the understanding of the weak links of Pudong in Shanghai exhibition industry cluster through the quantitative analysis of the competitiveness level. Pudong exhibition industry cluster inadequate analysis and countermeasure is proposed in order to increase its competitive advantage, and promote the development of the exhibition industry cluster in Shanghai Pudong.

  2. Enhanced Model of Nonlinear Spiral High Voltage Divider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Panko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the enhanced accurate DC and RF model of nonlinear spiral polysilicon voltage divider. The high resistance polysilicon divider is a sensing part of the high voltage start-up MOSFET transistor that can operate up to 700 V. This paper presents the structure of a proposed model, implemented voltage, frequency and temperature dependency, and scalability. A special attention is paid to the ability of the created model to cover the mismatch and influence of a variation of process parameters on the device characteristics. Finally, the comparison of measured data vs. simulation is presented in order to confirm the model validity and a typical application is demonstrated.

  3. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  4. Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea ice models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

    2013-07-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects make predictive mathematical modeling of sea ice a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea ice motion and deformation. The data clearly show that ice deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea ice dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea ice model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea ice response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to make this material model a viable alternative for global sea ice simulations.

  5. The lectin domains of polypeptide GalNAc-transferases exhibit carbohydrate-binding specificity for GalNAc: lectin binding to GalNAc-glycopeptide substrates is required for high density GalNAc-O-glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandall, Hans H; Irazoqui, Fernando; Tarp, Mads Agervig;

    2007-01-01

    to the enzyme. We have previously shown that the lectin domain of GalNAc-T4 modulates its substrate specificity to enable unique GalNAc-glycopeptide specificities and that this effect is selectively inhibitable by GalNAc; however, direct evidence of carbohydrate binding of GalNAc-transferase lectins has......-T2). Both lectins exhibited specificity for binding of free GalNAc. Kinetic and time-course analysis of GalNAc-T2 demonstrated that the lectin domain did not affect transfer to initial glycosylation sites, but selectively modulated velocity of transfer to subsequent sites and affected the number......Initiation of mucin-type O-glycosylation is controlled by a large family of UDP GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-transferases). Most GalNAc-transferases contain a ricin-like lectin domain in the C-terminal end, which may confer GalNAc-glycopeptide substrate specificity...

  6. Requirements for high level models supporting design space exploration in model-based systems engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Steven; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during

  7. Viscosity model of high-viscosity dispersing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏先福; 王娜; 黄蓓青; 孙承博

    2008-01-01

    High-viscosity dispersing system is formed by dispersing the solid particles in the high-viscosity continuous medium.It is very easy to form the three-dimensional network structure for solid particles in the system and the rheology behavior becomes complicated.The apparent viscosity of this dispersing system always has the connection with the volume ratio and the shear rate.In order to discuss the rheology behavior and put up the viscosity model,the suspension of silicon dioxide and silicon oil were prepared.Through testing the viscosity,the solid concentration and the shear rate,the effects of the ratio and the shear rate on viscosity was analyzed,the model of the high-viscosity dispersing system was designed and the model with the printing ink were validated.The experiment results show that the model is applicable to the high-viscosity dispersing systems.

  8. Numerical simulation of LBGK model for high Reynolds number flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xiao-Yang; Shi Bao-Chang; Wang Neng-Chao

    2004-01-01

    A principle of selecting relaxation parameter was proposed to observe the limit computational capability of the incompressible LBGK models developed by Guo ZL (Guo model) and He SY (He model) for high Reynolds number flow.To the two-dimensional driven cavity flow problem, the highest Reynolds numbers covered by Guo and He models are in the range 58000-52900 and 28000-29000, respectively, at 0.3 Mach number and 1/256 lattice space. The simulation results also show that the Guo model has stronger robustness due to its higher accuracy.

  9. High Fidelity Modeling of Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    effects as plasma impact neutral background – Fairly straightforward to model with existing fluid tools (high enough collisionality for Maxwellian ...model – Plasmas can have very complex phase space configurations and self-induced electromagnetic forces. Fundamental multiscale problem since...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Kinetic ( non - Maxwellian ) Can implement Boltzmann equation multiple ways: • PIC (high

  10. Modeling methods for high-fidelity rotorcraft flight mechanics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, M. Hossein; Tischler, Mark B.; Chaimovich, Menahem; Rosen, Aviv; Rand, Omri

    1992-01-01

    The cooperative effort being carried out under the agreements of the United States-Israel Memorandum of Understanding is discussed. Two different models of the AH-64 Apache Helicopter, which may differ in their approach to modeling the main rotor, are presented. The first model, the Blade Element Model for the Apache (BEMAP), was developed at Ames Research Center, and is the only model of the Apache to employ a direct blade element approach to calculating the coupled flap-lag motion of the blades and the rotor force and moment. The second model was developed at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology and uses an harmonic approach to analyze the rotor. The approach allows two different levels of approximation, ranging from the 'first harmonic' (similar to a tip-path-plane model) to 'complete high harmonics' (comparable to a blade element approach). The development of the two models is outlined and the two are compared using available flight test data.

  11. Comprehensive behavioral model of dual-gate high voltage JFET and pinch resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banáš, Stanislav; Paňko, Václav; Dobeš, Josef; Hanyš, Petr; Divín, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Many analog technologies operate in large voltage range and therefore include at least one or more high voltage devices built from low doped layers. Such devices exhibit effects not covered by standard compact models, namely pinching (depletion) effects, in high voltage FETs often called quasisaturation. For example, the conventional compact JFET model is insufficient and oversimplified. Its scalability is controlled by the area factor, which only multiplies currents and capacitances but does not take into account existing 3-D effects. Also the optional second independent gate is missing. Therefore, the customized four terminal (4T) model written in Verilog-A (FitzPatrick and Miller, 2007; Sagdeo, 2007) was developed. It converges very well, its simulation speed is comparable with conventional compact models, and contains all required phenomena, including parasitic effects as, for example, impact ionization. This model has universal usage for many types of devices in various high voltage technologies such as stand-alone voltage dependent resistor, pinch resistor, drift area of power FET, part of special high side or start-up devices, and dual-gate JFET.

  12. A High Temperature Liquid Plasma Model of the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a liquid model of the Sun is presented wherein the entire solar mass is viewed as a high density/high energy plasma. This model challenges our current understanding of the densities associated with the internal layers of the Sun, advocating a relatively constant density, almost independent of radial position. The incompressible nature of liquids is advanced to prevent solar collapse from gravitational forces. The liquid plasma model of the Sun is a non-equilibrium approach, where nuclear reactions occur throughout the solar mass. The primary means of addressing internal heat transfer are convection and conduction. As a result of the convective processes on the solar surface, the liquid model brings into question the established temperature of the solar photosphere by highlighting a violation of Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission. Along these lines, the model also emphasizes that radiative emission is a surface phenomenon. Evidence that the Sun is a high density/high energy plasma is based on our knowledge of Planckian thermal emission and condensed matter, including the existence of pressure ionization and liquid metallic hydrogen at high temperatures and pressures. Prior to introducing the liquid plasma model, the historic and scientific justifications for the gaseous model of the Sun are reviewed and the gaseous equations of state are also discussed.

  13. A Large Scale, High Resolution Agent-Based Insurgency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    2007). HSCB Models can be employed for simulating mission scenarios, determining optimal strategies for disrupting terrorist networks, or training and...High Resolution Agent-Based Insurgency Model ∑ = ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ − −− = desired 1 move,desired, desired,,desired, desired,, N j ij jmoveij moveiD rp prp

  14. Measurements for validation of high voltage underground cable modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses studies concerning cable modelling for long high voltage AC cable lines. In investigating the possibilities of using long cables instead of overhead lines, the simulation results must be trustworthy. Therefore a model validation is of great importance. This paper describes...

  15. Modeling of high speed micro rotors in moderate flow confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikmen, E.; Hoogt, van der P.J.M.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.

    2008-01-01

    The recent developments in high speed micro rotating machinery lead to the need for multiphysical modeling of the rotor and the surrounding medium. In this study, thermal and flow induced effects on rotor dynamics of geometries with moderate flow confinement are studied. The structure is modeled via

  16. Designing Meta Material Slabs Exhibiting Negative Refraction Using Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Sigmund, O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a topology optimization based approach for designing meta materials exhibiting a desired negative refraction with high transmission at a given angle of incidence and frequency. The approach considers a finite slab of meta material consisting of axis-symmetric designable unit...... cells subjected to an exterior field. The unit cell is designed to achieve the desired properties based on tailoring the response of the meta material slab underthe exterior field. The approach is directly applicable to physical problems modeled by the Helmholtz equation, such as acoustic, elastic...... and electromagnetic wave problems. Acoustic meta materials with unit cell size on the order of half the wave length are considered as examples. Optimized designs are presented and their performance under varying frequency and angle of incidence is investigated....

  17. AD Model Builder: using automatic differentiation for statistical inference of highly parameterized complex nonlinear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournier, David A.; Skaug, Hans J.; Ancheta, Johnoel

    2011-01-01

    Many criteria for statistical parameter estimation, such as maximum likelihood, are formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem.Automatic Differentiation Model Builder (ADMB) is a programming framework based on automatic differentiation, aimed at highly nonlinear models with a large number...

  18. An in vivo highly antitumor-active tetrazolato-bridged dinuclear platinum(II) complex largely circumvents in vitro cisplatin resistance: two linkage isomers yield the same product upon reaction with 9-ethylguanine but exhibit different cytotoxic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Masako; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Nishio, Kazuto; Chikuma, Masahiko; Komeda, Seiji

    2012-07-01

    Cytotoxicity assays of azolato-bridged dinuclear Pt(II) complexes, [{cis-Pt(NH(3))(2)}(2)(μ-OH)(μ-azolato)](2+), where the azolato was pyrazolato (1), 1,2,3-triazolato-N1,N2 (2), tetrazolato-N1,N2 (3), or tetrazolato-N2,N3 (4), were performed in cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant human non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines (PC-9 and PC-14). These complexes largely circumvented the cisplatin resistance in both cell lines, with resistance factors for 1-4 in the range of 0.5-0.8 and 0.9-2.0 for PC-9 and PC-14 cells, respectively. Complex 4 exhibited approximately 10 times the cytotoxicity of 3. When 3 and 4 were reacted with 2 molar equiv. of 9-ethylguanine (9EtG), they yielded an identical product, [{cis-Pt(NH(3))(2)(9EtG-N7)}(2)(μ-tetrazolato-N1,N3)](3+), that had N1,N3 platinum coordination through a Pt(II) migration process on the tetrazolate ring. The second-order rate kinetics of these isomers were almost the same as each other and faster than those of 1 and 2. The cytotoxicity of azolato-bridged complexes, except for 3, increases as their kinetic rates in the 9EtG reaction increase.

  19. Modelling high data rate communication network access protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S.; Foudriat, E. C.; Paterra, Frank; Maly, Kurt J.; Overstreet, C. Michael

    1990-01-01

    Modeling of high data rate communication systems is different from the low data rate systems. Three simulations were built during the development phase of Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN) modeling. The first was a model using SIMCRIPT based upon the determination and processing of each event at each node. The second simulation was developed in C based upon isolating the distinct object that can be identified as the ring, the message, the node, and the set of critical events. The third model further identified the basic network functionality by creating a single object, the node which includes the set of critical events which occur at the node. The ring structure is implicit in the node structure. This model was also built in C. Each model is discussed and their features compared. It should be stated that the language used was mainly selected by the model developer because of his past familiarity. Further the models were not built with the intent to compare either structure or language but because the complexity of the problem and initial results contained obvious errors, so alternative models were built to isolate, determine, and correct programming and modeling errors. The CSMA/RN protocol is discussed in sufficient detail to understand modeling complexities. Each model is described along with its features and problems. The models are compared and concluding observations and remarks are presented.

  20. High School Students "Do" and Learn Science through Scientific Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan Smetzer; Farnsworth, Valerie

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the research project Modeling for Understanding in Science Education (MUSE) which focuses on the improvement of high school students' learning. MUSE research investigated how lower and high achieving students learned to reason, inquire, present, and critique scientific arguments in a genetics course taught during the spring…

  1. High power electronics package: from modeling to implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Kregting, R.; Ye, H.; Driel, W. van; Gielen, A.W.J.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Power electronics, such as high power RF components and high power LEDs, requires the combination of robust and reliable package structures, materials, and processes to guarantee their functional performance and lifetime. We started with the thermal and thermal-mechanical modeling of such component

  2. High order fluid model for ionization fronts in streamer discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markosyan, A.; Dujko, S.; Ebert, U.; Almeida, P.G.C.; Alves, L.L.; Guerra, V.

    2012-01-01

    A high order fluid model for streamer dynamics is developed by closing the system after the 4th mo- ment of the Boltzmann equation in local mean energy approximation. This is done by approximating the high order pressure tensor in the heat flux equation through the previous moments. The electric fi

  3. Investigating Design Research Landscapes through Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Mäkelä, Maarit;

    2013-01-01

    What characterizes a design research exhibition compared to a traditional design and art exhibition? How do you show the very materialities of the design experiments as a means for communicating knowledge of research and of practice? How do you present, review and utilize such an exhibition......? With those questions in mind, the intention and challenge for the Nordes 2013 Design Research Exhibition was to expand on current notions of staging research enquires in design research conference contexts. Artefacts, installations, performances, and other materialities that relate to the theme...... of the conference - Experiments in Design Research – were displayed as tools to express and communicate different design research enquires. Through this paper we will describe the Nordes exhibition as a specific case that renders questions visible in relation to how to utilize a design research exhibition...

  4. Two models with rescattering for high energy heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, H.; Hansen, Ole; Humanic, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    The effects of hadronic rescattering in high energy relativistic Au+Au collisions are studied using two very different models to describe the early stages of the collision. One model is based on a hadronic thermal picture and the other on a superposition of parton-parton collisions. Operationally, the output hadrons from each of these models are used as input to a hadronic rescattering calculation. The results of the rescattering calculations from each model are then compared with rapidity and transverse momentum distributions from the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider BRAHMS experiment. In spite of the different points of view of the two models of the initial stage, after rescattering, the observed differences between the models are mostly “washed out” and both models give observables that agree roughly with each other and with experimental data.

  5. A magnetic levitation rotating plate model based on high-Tc superconducting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Li, Jipeng; Sun, Ruixue; Qian, Nan; Deng, Zigang

    2017-09-01

    With the wide requirements of the training aids and display models of science, technology and even industrial products for the public like schools, museums and pleasure grounds, a simple-structure and long-term stable-levitation technology is needed for these exhibitions. Opportunely, high temperature superconducting (HTS) technology using bulk superconductors indeed has prominent advantages on magnetic levitation and suspension for its self-stable characteristic in an applied magnetic field without any external power or control. This paper explores the feasibility of designing a rotatable magnetic levitation (maglev) plate model with HTS bulks placed beneath a permanent magnet (PM) plate. The model is featured with HTS bulks together with their essential cryogenic equipment above and PMs below, therefore it eliminates the unclear visual effects by spray due to the low temperature coolant such as liquid nitrogen (LN2) and additional levitation weight of the cryogenic equipment. Besides that, a matched LN2 automation filling system is adopted to help achieving a long-term working state of the rotatable maglev plate. The key low-temperature working condition for HTS bulks is maintained by repeatedly opening a solenoid valve and automatically filling LN2 under the monitoring of a temperature sensor inside the cryostat. With the support of the cryogenic devices, the HTS maglev system can meet all requirements of the levitating display model for exhibitions, and may enlighten the research work on HTS maglev applications.

  6. The high redshift galaxy population in hierarchical galaxy formation models

    CERN Document Server

    Kitzbichler, M G; Kitzbichler, Manfred G.; White, Simon D. M.

    2006-01-01

    We compare observations of the high redshift galaxy population to the predictions of the galaxy formation model of Croton et al. (2006). This model, implemented on the Millennium Simulation of the concordance LCDM cosmogony, introduces "radio mode" feedback from the central galaxies of groups and clusters in order to obtain quantitative agreement with the luminosity, colour, morphology and clustering properties of the low redshift galaxy population. Here we compare the predictions of this same model to the observed counts and redshift distributions of faint galaxies, as well as to their inferred luminosity and mass functions out to redshift 5. With the exception of the mass functions, all these properties are sensitive to modelling of dust obscuration. A simple but plausible treatment gives moderately good agreement with most of the data, although the predicted abundance of relatively massive (~M*) galaxies appears systematically high at high redshift, suggesting that such galaxies assemble earlier in this mo...

  7. A High-Order Multiscale Global Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ram

    2016-04-01

    The High-Order Method Modeling Environment (HOMME), developed at NCAR, is a petascale hydrostatic framework, which employs the cubed-sphere grid system and high-order continuous or discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods. Recently, the HOMME framework is being extended to a non-hydrostatic dynamical core, named as the "High-Order Multiscale Atmospheric Model (HOMAM)." The spatial discretization is based on DG or high-order finite-volume methods. Orography is handled by the terrain-following height-based coordinate system. To alleviate the stringent CFL stability requirement resulting from the vertical aspects of the dynamics, an operator-splitting time integration scheme based on the horizontally explicit and vertically implicit (HEVI) philosophy is adopted for HOMAM. Preliminary results with the benchmark test cases proposed in the Dynamical Core Model Intercomparison project (DCMIP) test-suite will be presented in the seminar.

  8. Nucleon Electric Dipole Moments in High-Scale Supersymmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Hisano, Junji; Kuramoto, Wataru; Kuwahara, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electron and nucleons are the promising probe of the new physics. In the generic high-scale supersymmetric (SUSY) scenarios such as models based on mixture of the anomaly and gauge mediations, gluino has an additional contribution to the nucleon EDMs. In this paper, we estimated the effect of the CP-violating gluon Weinberg operator induced by the gluino chromoelectric dipole moment in the high-scale SUSY scenarios, and we evaluated the nucleon and electron EDMs in these scenarios. We found that in the generic high-scale SUSY models, the nucleon EDMs may receive the sizable contribution from the Weinberg operator. Thus, it is important to compare the nucleon EDMs with the electron EDM in order to discriminate among the high-scale SUSY models.

  9. Nucleon electric dipole moments in high-scale supersymmetric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Junji; Kobayashi, Daiki; Kuramoto, Wataru; Kuwahara, Takumi

    2015-11-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electron and nucleons are promising probes of the new physics. In generic high-scale supersymmetric (SUSY) scenarios such as models based on mixture of the anomaly and gauge mediations, gluino has an additional contribution to the nucleon EDMs. In this paper, we studied the effect of the CP -violating gluon Weinberg operator induced by the gluino chromoelectric dipole moment in the high-scale SUSY scenarios, and we evaluated the nucleon and electron EDMs in the scenarios. We found that in the generic high-scale SUSY models, the nucleon EDMs may receive the sizable contribution from the Weinberg operator. Thus, it is important to compare the nucleon EDMs with the electron one in order to discriminate among the high-scale SUSY models.

  10. Network Bandwidth Utilization Forecast Model on High Bandwidth Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Wucherl; Sim, Alex

    2014-07-07

    With the increasing number of geographically distributed scientific collaborations and the scale of the data size growth, it has become more challenging for users to achieve the best possible network performance on a shared network. We have developed a forecast model to predict expected bandwidth utilization for high-bandwidth wide area network. The forecast model can improve the efficiency of resource utilization and scheduling data movements on high-bandwidth network to accommodate ever increasing data volume for large-scale scientific data applications. Univariate model is developed with STL and ARIMA on SNMP path utilization data. Compared with traditional approach such as Box-Jenkins methodology, our forecast model reduces computation time by 83.2percent. It also shows resilience against abrupt network usage change. The accuracy of the forecast model is within the standard deviation of the monitored measurements.

  11. HIGH AND LOW RESOLUTION TEXTURED MODELS OF COMPLEX ARCHITECTURAL SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Stathopoulou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the recent years it has become obvious that 3D technology, applied mainly with the use of terrestrial laser scanners (TLS is the most suitable technique for the complete geometric documentation of complex objects, whether they are monuments or architectural constructions in general. However, it is rather a challenging task to convert an acquired point cloud into a realistic 3D polygonal model that can simultaneously satisfy high resolution modeling and visualization demands. The aim of the visualization of a simple or complex object is to create a 3D model that best describes the reality within the computer environment. This paper is dedicated especially in the visualization of a complex object's 3D model, through high, as well as low resolution textured models. The object of interest for this study was the Almoina (Romanesque Door of the Cathedral of Valencia in Spain.

  12. High and Low Resolution Textured Models of Complex Architectural Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, E. K.; Valanis, A.; Lerma, J. L.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2011-09-01

    During the recent years it has become obvious that 3D technology, applied mainly with the use of terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) is the most suitable technique for the complete geometric documentation of complex objects, whether they are monuments or architectural constructions in general. However, it is rather a challenging task to convert an acquired point cloud into a realistic 3D polygonal model that can simultaneously satisfy high resolution modeling and visualization demands. The aim of the visualization of a simple or complex object is to create a 3D model that best describes the reality within the computer environment. This paper is dedicated especially in the visualization of a complex object's 3D model, through high, as well as low resolution textured models. The object of interest for this study was the Almoina (Romanesque) Door of the Cathedral of Valencia in Spain.

  13. The lectin domains of polypeptide GalNAc-transferases exhibit carbohydrate-binding specificity for GalNAc: lectin binding to GalNAc-glycopeptide substrates is required for high density GalNAc-O-glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandall, Hans H; Irazoqui, Fernando; Tarp, Mads Agervig; Bennett, Eric P; Mandel, Ulla; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Kato, Kentaro; Irimura, Tatsuro; Suryanarayanan, Ganesh; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Clausen, Henrik

    2007-04-01

    Initiation of mucin-type O-glycosylation is controlled by a large family of UDP GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-transferases). Most GalNAc-transferases contain a ricin-like lectin domain in the C-terminal end, which may confer GalNAc-glycopeptide substrate specificity to the enzyme. We have previously shown that the lectin domain of GalNAc-T4 modulates its substrate specificity to enable unique GalNAc-glycopeptide specificities and that this effect is selectively inhibitable by GalNAc; however, direct evidence of carbohydrate binding of GalNAc-transferase lectins has not been previously presented. Here, we report the direct carbohydrate binding of two GalNAc-transferase lectin domains, GalNAc-T4 and GalNAc-T2, representing isoforms reported to have distinct glycopeptide activity (GalNAc-T4) and isoforms without apparent distinct GalNAc-glycopeptide specificity (GalNAc-T2). Both lectins exhibited specificity for binding of free GalNAc. Kinetic and time-course analysis of GalNAc-T2 demonstrated that the lectin domain did not affect transfer to initial glycosylation sites, but selectively modulated velocity of transfer to subsequent sites and affected the number of acceptor sites utilized. The results suggest that GalNAc-transferase lectins serve to modulate the kinetic properties of the enzymes in the late stages of the initiation process of O-glycosylation to accomplish dense or complete O-glycan occupancy.

  14. Monohydroxylated metabolites of the K2 synthetic cannabinoid JWH-073 retain intermediate to high cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) affinity and exhibit neutral antagonist to partial agonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brents, Lisa K; Gallus-Zawada, Anna; Radominska-Pandya, Anna; Vasiljevik, Tamara; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Fantegrossi, William E; Moran, Jeffery H; Prather, Paul L

    2012-04-01

    K2 and several similar purported "incense products" spiked with synthetic cannabinoids are abused as cannabis substitutes. We hypothesized that metabolism of JWH-073, a prevalent cannabinoid found in K2, contributes to toxicity associated with K2 use. Competition receptor binding studies and G-protein activation assays, both performed by employing mouse brain homogenates, were used to determine the affinity and intrinsic activity, respectively, of potential monohydroxylated (M1, M3-M5) and monocarboxylated (M6) metabolites at cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs). Surprisingly, M1, M4 and M5 retain nanomolar affinity for CB1Rs, while M3 displays micromolar affinity and M6 does not bind to CB1Rs. JWH-073 displays equivalent efficacy to that of the CB1R full agonist CP-55,940, while M1, M3, and M5 act as CB1R partial agonists, and M4 shows little or no intrinsic activity. Further in vitro investigation by Schild analysis revealed that M4 acts as a competitive neutral CB1R antagonist (K(b)∼40nM). In agreement with in vitro studies, M4 also demonstrates CB1R antagonism in vivo by blunting cannabinoid-induced hypothermia in mice. Interestingly, M4 does not block agonist-mediated responses of other measures in the cannabinoid tetrad (e.g., locomotor suppression, catalepsy or analgesia). Finally, also as predicted by in vitro results, M1 exhibits agonist activity in vivo by inducing significant hypothermia and suppression of locomotor activity in mice. In conclusion, the present study indicates that further work examining the physiological effects of synthetic cannabinoid metabolism is warranted. Such a complex mix of metabolically produced CB1R ligands may contribute to the adverse effect profile of JWH-073-containing products.

  15. High-resolution DEM Effects on Geophysical Flow Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. R.; Bursik, M. I.; Stefanescu, R. E. R.; Patra, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical mass flow models are numerical models that approximate pyroclastic flow events and can be used to assess the volcanic hazards certain areas may face. One such model, TITAN2D, approximates granular-flow physics based on a depth-averaged analytical model using inputs of basal and internal friction, material volume at a coordinate point, and a GIS in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM). The volume of modeled material propagates over the DEM in a way that is governed by the slope and curvature of the DEM surface and the basal and internal friction angles. Results from TITAN2D are highly dependent upon the inputs to the model. Here we focus on a single input: the DEM, which can vary in resolution. High resolution DEMs are advantageous in that they contain more surface details than lower-resolution models, presumably allowing modeled flows to propagate in a way more true to the real surface. However, very high resolution DEMs can create undesirable artifacts in the slope and curvature that corrupt flow calculations. With high-resolution DEMs becoming more widely available and preferable for use, determining the point at which high resolution data is less advantageous compared to lower resolution data becomes important. We find that in cases of high resolution, integer-valued DEMs, very high-resolution is detrimental to good model outputs when moderate-to-low (<10-15°) slope angles are involved. At these slope angles, multiple adjacent DEM cell elevation values are equal due to the need for the DEM to approximate the low slope with a limited set of integer values for elevation. The first derivative of the elevation surface thus becomes zero. In these cases, flow propagation is inhibited by these spurious zero-slope conditions. Here we present evidence for this "terracing effect" from 1) a mathematically defined simulated elevation model, to demonstrate the terracing effects of integer valued data, and 2) a real-world DEM where terracing must be

  16. Two dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of a high latitude braided river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, E.; Pavelsky, T.; Bates, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers are a fundamental resource to physical, ecologic and human systems, yet quantification of river flow in high-latitude environments remains limited due to the prevalence of complex morphologies, remote locations and sparse in situ monitoring equipment. Advances in hydrodynamic modeling and remote sensing technology allow us to address questions such as: How well can two-dimensional models simulate a flood wave in a highly 3-dimensional braided river environment, and how does the structure of such a flood wave differ from flow down a similar-sized single-channel river? Here, we use the raster-based hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP to simulate flood waves, discharge, water surface height, and velocity measurements over a ~70 km reach of the Tanana River in Alaska. In order to use LISFLOOD-FP a digital elevation model (DEM) fused with detailed bathymetric data is required. During summer 2013, we surveyed 220,000 bathymetric points along the study reach using an echo sounder system connected to a high-precision GPS unit. The measurements are interpolated to a smooth bathymetric surface, using Topo to Raster interpolation, and combined with an existing five meter DEM (Alaska IfSAR) to create a seamless river terrain model. Flood waves are simulated using varying complexities in model solvers, then compared to gauge records and water logger data to assess major sources of model uncertainty. Velocity and flow direction maps are also assessed and quantified for detailed analysis of braided channel flow. The most accurate model output occurs with using the full two-dimensional model structure, and major inaccuracies appear to be related to DEM quality and roughness values. Future work will intercompare model outputs with extensive ground measurements and new data from AirSWOT, an airborne analog for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which aims to provide high-resolution measurements of terrestrial and ocean water surface elevations globally.

  17. A quantitative method for defining high-arched palate using the Tcof1(+/-) mutant mouse as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Zachary R; Hague, Molly; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Dixon, Jill; Dixon, Michael J; Trainor, Paul A

    2016-07-15

    The palate functions as the roof of the mouth in mammals, separating the oral and nasal cavities. Its complex embryonic development and assembly poses unique susceptibilities to intrinsic and extrinsic disruptions. Such disruptions may cause failure of the developing palatal shelves to fuse along the midline resulting in a cleft. In other cases the palate may fuse at an arch, resulting in a vaulted oral cavity, termed high-arched palate. There are many models available for studying the pathogenesis of cleft palate but a relative paucity for high-arched palate. One condition exhibiting either cleft palate or high-arched palate is Treacher Collins syndrome, a congenital disorder characterized by numerous craniofacial anomalies. We quantitatively analyzed palatal perturbations in the Tcof1(+/-) mouse model of Treacher Collins syndrome, which phenocopies the condition in humans. We discovered that 46% of Tcof1(+/-) mutant embryos and new born pups exhibit either soft clefts or full clefts. In addition, 17% of Tcof1(+/-) mutants were found to exhibit high-arched palate, defined as two sigma above the corresponding wild-type population mean for height and angular based arch measurements. Furthermore, palatal shelf length and shelf width were decreased in all Tcof1(+/-) mutant embryos and pups compared to controls. Interestingly, these phenotypes were subsequently ameliorated through genetic inhibition of p53. The results of our study therefore provide a simple, reproducible and quantitative method for investigating models of high-arched palate.

  18. Ballroom Music Spillover into a Beluga Whale Aquarium Exhibit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Scheifele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not uncommon for modern aquaria to be built with special entertainment areas. There are no known measurements of sound spillover from such entertainment areas into underwater animal exhibits. Entertainment organizations typically prefer to play music for events at 95 and 100 dBA in a ballroom at Georgia Aquarium. Concern over the potential effects of the music and noise on animals in adjacent exhibits inspired an initial project to monitor and compare sound levels in the adjacent underwater exhibits against the typical in-air sound levels of the ballroom. Measured underwater noise levels were compared to modeled levels based on finite element analysis and plane wave transmission loss calculations through the acrylic viewing window. Results were compared with the model to determine how, if at all, the ambient noise level in the Cold Water Quest exhibit changed as a result of music played in the ballroom.

  19. Heat Transfer Modeling for Rigid High-Temperature Fibrous Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Cunnington, George R.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Combined radiation and conduction heat transfer through a high-temperature, high-porosity, rigid multiple-fiber fibrous insulation was modeled using a thermal model previously used to model heat transfer in flexible single-fiber fibrous insulation. The rigid insulation studied was alumina enhanced thermal barrier (AETB) at densities between 130 and 260 kilograms per cubic meter. The model consists of using the diffusion approximation for radiation heat transfer, a semi-empirical solid conduction model, and a standard gas conduction model. The relevant parameters needed for the heat transfer model were estimated from steady-state thermal measurements in nitrogen gas at various temperatures and environmental pressures. The heat transfer modeling methodology was evaluated by comparison with standard thermal conductivity measurements, and steady-state thermal measurements in helium and carbon dioxide gases. The heat transfer model is applicable over the temperature range of 300 to 1360 K, pressure range of 0.133 to 101.3 x 10(exp 3) Pa, and over the insulation density range of 130 to 260 kilograms per cubic meter in various gaseous environments.

  20. Modelling Of Residual Stresses Induced By High Speed Milling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmaison, Olivier; Mocellin, Katia; Jardin, Nicolas

    2011-05-01

    Maintenance processes used in heavy industries often include high speed milling operations. The reliability of the post-process material state has to be studied. Numerical simulation appears to be a very interesting way to supply an efficient residual stresses (RS) distribution prediction. Because the adiabatic shear band and the serrated chip shaping are features of the austenitic stainless steel high speed machining, a 2D high speed orthogonal cutting model is briefly presented. This finite element model, developed on Forge® software, is based on data taken from Outeiro & al.'s paper [1]. A new behaviour law fully coupling Johnson-Cook's constitutive law and Latham and Cockcroft's damage model is detailed in this paper. It ensures results that fit those found in literature. Then, the numerical tools used on the 2D model are integrated to a 3D high speed milling model. Residual stresses distribution is analysed, on the surface and into the depth of the material. Various revolutions and passes of the two teeth hemispheric mill on the workpiece are simulated. Thus the sensitivity of the residual stresses generation to the cutting conditions can be discussed. In order to validate the 3D model, a comparison of the cutting forces measured by EDF R&D to those given by numerical simulations is achieved.

  1. Artefacts and the performance of an exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the role of mediating artefacts in children's encounters with a museum of natural history. Using actor network theory it explores how a specific artefact shapes the way users relate to exhibited objects and how the artefact guides users' movements in the exhibition. The media...

  2. Encountering Nanotechnology in an Interactive Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murriello, Sandra E.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This article offers findings from a learning sciences-informed evaluation of a nanoscience and nanotechnology exhibition called Nano-Aventura (NanoAdventure), based on four interactive-collaborative games and two narrated videos. This traveling exhibition was developed in Brazil by the Museu Exploratorio de Ciencias for children and teenagers…

  3. Exhibition Economy Set to Boost City Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ Awell-developed exhibition industry is usually regarded as an important cri terion in measuring a city's economic and social development level. In recent years, much attention has been paid to exhibition economy for its positive effect on dining, transportation, tourism, advertising, and shopping.

  4. Encountering Nanotechnology in an Interactive Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murriello, Sandra E.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This article offers findings from a learning sciences-informed evaluation of a nanoscience and nanotechnology exhibition called Nano-Aventura (NanoAdventure), based on four interactive-collaborative games and two narrated videos. This traveling exhibition was developed in Brazil by the Museu Exploratorio de Ciencias for children and teenagers…

  5. Chlorogenic acid exhibits cholesterol lowering and fatty liver attenuating properties by up-regulating the gene expression of PPAR-α in hypercholesterolemic rats induced with a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chun-Wai; Wong, Candy Ngai-Yan; Pin, Wing-Kwan; Wong, Marcus Ho-Yin; Kwok, Ching-Yee; Chan, Robbie Yat-Kan; Yu, Peter Hoi-Fu; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2013-04-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Natural compounds have been proved to be useful in lowering serum cholesterol to slow down the progression of cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects of the dietary consumption of chlorogenic acid were investigated by monitoring plasma lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein) in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a normal diet, a high-cholesterol diet or a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with chlorogenic acid (1 or 10 mg/kg/day p.o.) for 28 days. Chlorogenic acid markedly altered the increased plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein but decreased high-density lipoprotein induced by a hypercholesterolemic diet with a dose-dependent improvement on both atherogenic index and cardiac risk factor. Lipid depositions in liver were attenuated significantly in hypercholesterolemic animals supplemented with chlorogenic acid. It is postulated that hypocholesterolemic effect is the primary beneficial effect given by chlorogenic acid, which leads to other secondary beneficial effects such as atheroscleroprotective, cardioprotective and hepatoprotective functions. The hypocholesterolemic functions of chlorogenic acid are probably due to the increase in fatty acids unitization in liver via the up-regulation of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor α mRNA.

  6. MODELING OF HIGH STORAGE SHEET DEPOT WITH PLANT SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jardzioch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing processes are becoming increasingly automated. Introduction of innovative solutions often necessitate processing very large number of signals from various devices. Correctness tests of the components configuration becomes a compiled operation requiring vast expenditure of time and knowledge. The models may be a mathematical reflection of the actual object. Many actions can be computer-assisted to varying degree. One example is construction of simulation models. These can also be simulation models developed in advanced software. The stages of creating a model may be purely random. This paper aims at a closer analysis of the simulation model based on the high storage sheet depot modeling using Plant Simulation software. The results of analysis can be used for optimization, but this stage is a separate issue.

  7. Exhibition-based Immersive Performance Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2017-01-01

    Art”. This exhibition concept has been awarded the prize “Bikubens Udstillings Visionspris” 2016 for its innovative take on exhibitions. In the Sister’s Academy Boarding School visitors ‘move into’ and inhabit an exhibition for a longer period of time, for example 24 or 48 hours. This radically breaks...... with the conventional 1½ hour duration of museum visits and creates new possibilities of and challenges for presence in museums. The paper analyzes exhibition experience as an engagement, which with its immersive and emergent qualities, radically breaks with visual modes of appreciation. The visitor does not ‘stand...... to the everyday and to conventional modes of being, interaction and communication. The exhibition thus becomes a space of potential; a critical and utopian space for trying out new forms of being and new modes of engagement. Theoretically the paper focuses on Berleant’s environmental aesthetics and the notion...

  8. The Culture of Exhibitions and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Doumas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on temporary exhibitions from a theoretical as well as practical perspective. Regarded as a particularly effective mass-communication medium, exhibitions have a dual nature: they are scholarly undertakings, bringing off a curator’s vision and, simultaneously, they are projects with economic implications that need to be well managed and administered. The role of conservation in the making of temporary exhibitions, either in-house or touring, is here discussed in relation to how work is planned and prioritized as well as how time is managed and staff is allocated. Reference to weaknesses that lessen the crucial input of conservation in the decision-making process is also made. Much of the debate, which focuses on art exhibitions, concerns practicalities encountered in a private museum that extend from the very early stages of selecting objects for display to the mounting of an exhibition.

  9. Holland at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Sponsored by EVD, an agency of the Dutch Ministry of the Economy From 8 to 11 November 2010 Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg. 61 9-00 - 17-30 Twenty seven companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition "Holland at CERN". Dutch industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place directly at the stands in the Main Building. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or at the following URL: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/Industrial_Exhibitions.htm#Industrial_exhibitions You will find the list of exhibitors below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: Schelde Exotech Vernooy BV Triumph Group INCAA Computers DeMaCo Holland bv TNO Science & Industry Janssen Precision Engi...

  10. Application of an active attachment model as a high-throughput demineralization biofilm model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, T.C.; Pereira, A.F.F.; Exterkate, R.A.M.; Bagnato, V.S.; Buzalaf, M.A.R.; de A.M. Machado, M.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.; Deng, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the potential of an active attachment biofilm model as a high-throughput demineralization biofilm model for the evaluation of caries-preventive agents. Methods Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms were grown on bovine dentine discs in a high-throughput active attachment mode

  11. New data assimilation system DNDAS for high-dimensional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun-bo, Huang; Xiao-qun, Cao; Meng-bin, Zhu; Wei-min, Zhang; Bai-nian, Liu

    2016-05-01

    The tangent linear (TL) models and adjoint (AD) models have brought great difficulties for the development of variational data assimilation system. It might be impossible to develop them perfectly without great efforts, either by hand, or by automatic differentiation tools. In order to break these limitations, a new data assimilation system, dual-number data assimilation system (DNDAS), is designed based on the dual-number automatic differentiation principles. We investigate the performance of DNDAS with two different optimization schemes and subsequently give a discussion on whether DNDAS is appropriate for high-dimensional forecast models. The new data assimilation system can avoid the complicated reverse integration of the adjoint model, and it only needs the forward integration in the dual-number space to obtain the cost function and its gradient vector concurrently. To verify the correctness and effectiveness of DNDAS, we implemented DNDAS on a simple ordinary differential model and the Lorenz-63 model with different optimization methods. We then concentrate on the adaptability of DNDAS to the Lorenz-96 model with high-dimensional state variables. The results indicate that whether the system is simple or nonlinear, DNDAS can accurately reconstruct the initial condition for the forecast model and has a strong anti-noise characteristic. Given adequate computing resource, the quasi-Newton optimization method performs better than the conjugate gradient method in DNDAS. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41475094 and 41375113).

  12. The limitations of mathematical modeling in high school physics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forjan, Matej

    The theme of the doctoral dissertation falls within the scope of didactics of physics. Theoretical analysis of the key constraints that occur in the transmission of mathematical modeling of dynamical systems into field of physics education in secondary schools is presented. In an effort to explore the extent to which current physics education promotes understanding of models and modeling, we analyze the curriculum and the three most commonly used textbooks for high school physics. We focus primarily on the representation of the various stages of modeling in the solved tasks in textbooks and on the presentation of certain simplifications and idealizations, which are in high school physics frequently used. We show that one of the textbooks in most cases fairly and reasonably presents the simplifications, while the other two half of the analyzed simplifications do not explain. It also turns out that the vast majority of solved tasks in all the textbooks do not explicitly represent model assumptions based on what we can conclude that in high school physics the students do not develop sufficiently a sense of simplification and idealizations, which is a key part of the conceptual phase of modeling. For the introduction of modeling of dynamical systems the knowledge of students is also important, therefore we performed an empirical study on the extent to which high school students are able to understand the time evolution of some dynamical systems in the field of physics. The research results show the students have a very weak understanding of the dynamics of systems in which the feedbacks are present. This is independent of the year or final grade in physics and mathematics. When modeling dynamical systems in high school physics we also encounter the limitations which result from the lack of mathematical knowledge of students, because they don't know how analytically solve the differential equations. We show that when dealing with one-dimensional dynamical systems

  13. Transforming High School Physics with Modeling and Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Aiken, John M

    2013-01-01

    The Engage to Excel (PCAST) report, the National Research Council's Framework for K-12 Science Education, and the Next Generation Science Standards all call for transforming the physics classroom into an environment that teaches students real scientific practices. This work describes the early stages of one such attempt to transform a high school physics classroom. Specifically, a series of model-building and computational modeling exercises were piloted in a ninth grade Physics First classroom. Student use of computation was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, where the students produced and discussed a computational model of a baseball in motion via a high-level programming environment (VPython). Student views on computation and its link to mechanics was assessed with a written essay and a series of think-aloud interviews. This pilot study shows computation's ability for connecting scientific practice to the high school science classroom.

  14. Modeling and experimental analysis of magnetostriction in high strength steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Torre E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the magnetostriction in high strength steels have ignored the internal anisotropies due to previous material handling. Cold-rolling an iron alloy will stretch and distort the magnetic domains in the direction of rolling. These altered domain shapes impact the magnetic characteristics of the alloy; adding an additional preferred direction of magnetization to the easy or hard axes within the crystalline structure. This paper presents data taken on rods of a high strength steel that have been machined parallel to the rolling direction; as well as simulated results using a Preisach-type magnetostriction model. The model, whose formulation is based on the DOK magnetization-based model, aims specifically to simulate the Villari reversal phenomenon observed in the magnetostriction measurements of high strength steels and some Terfenol-D alloys.

  15. A novel mice model of metabolic syndrome: the high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed ICR mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuhua, Zhang; Zhiquan, Wang; Zhen, Yang; Yixin, Niu; Weiwei, Zhang; Xiaoyong, Li; Yueming, Liu; Hongmei, Zhang; Li, Qin; Qing, Su

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the metabolic syndrome (MS) is occurring at growing rates worldwide, raising extensive concerns on the mechanisms and therapeutic interventions for this disorder. Herein, we described a novel method of establishing MS model in rodents. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were fed with high-fat-high-fructose (HFHF) diet or normal chow (NC) respectively for 12 weeks. Metabolic phenotypes were assessed by glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Blood pressure was measured by a tail-cuff system. At the end of the experiment, mice were sacrificed, and blood and tissues were harvested for subsequent analysis. Serum insulin levels were measured by ELISA, and lipid profiles were determined biochemically. The HFHF diet-fed ICR mice exhibited obvious characteristics of the components of MS, including obvious obesity, severe insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, significant hypertension and hyperuricemia. Our data suggest that HFHF diet-fed ICR mice may be a robust and efficient animal model that could well mimic the basic pathogenesis of human MS. PMID:26134356

  16. A new approach of high speed cutting modelling: SPH method

    OpenAIRE

    LIMIDO, Jérôme; Espinosa, Christine; Salaün, Michel; Lacome, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach of high speed cutting numerical modelling. A lagrangian Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) based model is carried out using the Ls-Dyna software. SPH is a meshless method, thus large material distortions that occur in the cutting problem are easily managed and SPH contact control permits a “natural” workpiece/chip separation. Estimated chip morphology and cutting forces are compared to machining dedicated code results and experimenta...

  17. SPH method applied to high speed cutting modelling

    OpenAIRE

    LIMIDO, Jérôme; Espinosa, Christine; Salaün, Michel; Lacome, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach of high speed cutting numerical modelling. A Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)- based model is arried out using the Ls-Dyna software. SPH is a meshless method, thus large material distortions that occur in the cutting problem are easily managed and SPH contact control permits a "natural" workpiece/chip separation. The developed approach is compared to machining dedicated code results and experimental data. The SPH cutting...

  18. High Tc Superconductor Theoretical Models and Electromagnetic Flux Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Jian-xun

    2006-01-01

    High Tc Superconductors (HTS) have special electromagnetic characteristics and phenomena. Effort has been made in order to theoretically understand the applied HTS superconductivity and HTS behaviors for practical applications, various theoretical models related to the HTS electromagnetic properties have been developed. The theoretical models and analytic methods are summarized with regard to understanding the HTS magnetic flux characteristic which is one of the most critical issues related to HTS applications such as for HTS magnetic levitation application.

  19. Research of inverse mathematical model to high-speed trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱涛; 肖守讷; 马卫华; 阳光武

    2014-01-01

    Operation safety and stability of the train mainly depend on the interaction between the wheel and rail. Knowledge of wheel/rail contact force is important for vehicle control systems that aim to enhance vehicle stability and passenger safety. Since wheel/rail contact forces of high-speed train are very difficult to measure directly, a new estimation process for wheel/rail contact forces was introduced in this work. Based on the state space equation, dynamic programming methods and the Bellman principle of optimality, the main theoretical derivation of the inversion mathematical model was given. The new method overcomes the weakness of large fluctuations which exist in current inverse techniques. High-speed vehicle was chosen as the research object, accelerations of axle box as input conditions, 10 degrees of freedom vertical vibration model and 17 degrees of freedom lateral vibration model were established, respectively. Under 250 km/h, the vertical and lateral wheel/rail forces were identified. From the time domain and frequency domain, the comparison of the results between inverse and SIMPACK models were given. The results show that the inverse mathematical model has high precision for inversing the wheel/rail contact forces of an operation high-speed vehicle.

  20. Trastuzumab labeled to high specific activity with ¹¹¹In by conjugation to G4 PAMAM dendrimers derivatized with multiple DTPA chelators exhibits increased cytotoxic potency on HER2-positive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Conrad; Cai, Zhongli; Reilly, Raymond M

    2013-08-01

    To conjugate trastuzumab with/without NLS peptides to G4 PAMAM dendrimers derivatized with DTPA and determine the specific radioactivity (SA) for (111)In labeling, HER2 immunoreactivity and cytotoxicity on breast cancer (BC) cells. G4 dendrimers were reacted with DTPA then conjugated through a thiol to maleimide-derivatized trastuzumab. The SA achievable was determined by incubating 2 to 20 μg with 60 MBq of (111)In. HER2 immunoreactivity, internalization and nuclear importation were measured. The effect of (111)In-DTPA-G4-trastuzumab (5.9 MBq/μg) on the clonogenic survival (CS) of SK-Br-3 or MDA-MB-231 cells with high or low HER2 density, respectively was compared to (111)In-DTPA-NLS-trastuzumab (0.5 MBq/μg). DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were measured. DTPA-G4-trastuzumab was labeled with (111)In to a SA (23.6 MBq/μg) which was 100-fold higher than (111)In-DTPA-NLS-trastuzumab. (111)In-DTPA-G4-trastuzumab and (111)In-DTPA-G4-NLS-trastuzumab retained HER2 immunoreactivity and were internalized and imported into the nucleus of BC cells. G4-radioimmunoconjugates were 2-4 fold and 9-fold more cytotoxic to SK-Br-3 and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively than (111)In-DTPA-NLS-trastuzumab which was associated with an increase in DNA DSBs. Conjugation of trastuzumab to G4 PAMAM dendrimers modified with 30 DTPA permitted high SA (111)In labeling which increased their cytotoxic potency for BC cells with high or low HER2 density.

  1. Model and Implementation of Communication Link Management Supporting High Availability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Juan; Cao Yang; He Zheng; Li Feng

    2004-01-01

    Despite the rapid evolution in all aspects of computer technology, both the computer hardware and software are prone to numerous failure conditions. In this paper, we analyzed the characteristic of a computer system and the methods of constructing a system , proposed a communication link management model supporting high availability for network applications, Which will greatly increase the high availability of network applications. Then we elaborated on heartbeat or service detect, fail-over, service take-over, switchback and error recovery process of the model. In the process of constructing the communication link, we implemented the link management and service take-over with high availability requirement, and discussed the state and the state transition of building the communication link between the hosts, depicted the message transfer and the start of timer. At Last, we applied the designed high availability system to a network billing system, and showed how the system was constructed and implemented, which perfectly satisfied the system requirements.

  2. Trastuzumab Labeled to High Specific Activity with (111)In by Site-Specific Conjugation to a Metal-Chelating Polymer Exhibits Amplified Auger Electron-Mediated Cytotoxicity on HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo Ndjock Mbong, Ghislaine; Lu, Yijie; Chan, Conrad; Cai, Zhongli; Liu, Peng; Boyle, Amanda J; Winnik, Mitchell A; Reilly, Raymond M

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the cytotoxicity toward HER2-positive human breast cancer (BC) cells of trastuzumab modified site-specifically with a metal-chelating polymer (MCP) that presents multiple DTPA chelators for complexing (111)In. (111)In emits subcellular range Auger electrons that induce multiple lethal DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cells. MCPs were synthesized with a polyglutamide backbone with 24 or 29 pendant DTPA groups, with or without nuclear translocation sequence (NLS) peptide modification and a terminal hydrazide group for reaction with aldehydes generated by sodium periodate (NaIO4)-oxidation of glycans on the Fc-domain of trastuzumab. Trastuzumab was site-specifically modified with two DTPA and labeled with (111)In for comparison (trastuzumab-NH-Bn-DTPA-(111)In). The maximum specific activity (SA) for labeling trastuzumab-Hy-MCP with (111)In was 90-fold greater than for trastuzumab-NH-Bn-DTPA-(111)In [8.9 MBq/μg (1.5 × 10(6) MBq/μmol) vs 0.1 MBq/μg (1.2 × 10(4) MBq/μmol)]. Trastuzumab-Hy-MCP-(111)In was bound, internalized, and imported into the nucleus of SK-BR-3 cells. NLS peptide modification of MCPs did not increase nuclear importation. A greater density of DNA DSBs was found for BC cells exposed to high SA (5.5 MBq/μg) than low SA (0.37 MBq/μg) radioimmunoconjugates. At 20 nmol/L, high SA trastuzumab-Hy-MCP-(111)In was 6-fold more effective at reducing the clonogenic survival (CS) of HER2 overexpressed and HER2 gene-amplified SK-BR-3 cells (1.3 × 10(6) receptors/cell) than low SA MCP-radioimmunoconjugates (CS = 1.8 ± 1.3 vs 10.9 ± 0.7%; P = 0.001). Low SA trastuzumab-NH-Bn-DTPA-(111)In (20 nmol/L) reduced the CS of SK-BR-3 cells to 15.8 ± 2.1%. The CS of ZR-75-1 cells with intermediate HER2 density (4 × 10(5) receptors/cell) but without HER2 gene amplification was reduced to 20.5 ± 4.3% by high SA trastuzumab-Hy-MCP-(111)In (20 nmol/L). The CS of HER2-overexpressed (5 × 10(5) HER2/cell) but trastuzumab-resistant TrR1

  3. SDRAM-based packet buffer model for high speed switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the how the performance of SDRAM based packet buffering systems for high performance switches can be simulated using OPNET. In order to include the access pattern dependent performance of SDRAM modules in simulations, a custom SDRAM model is implemented in OPNET Modeller...... based on the specifications of a real-life DDR3-SDRAM chip. Based on this model the performance of different schemes for optimizing the performance of such a packet buffer can be evaluated. The purpose of this study is to find efficient schemes for memory mapping of the packet queues and I/O traffic...

  4. Sands modeling constrained by high-resolution seismic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the phase of field evaluation, the changing ofinterwell reservoir may be out of control ifthe geological model was built only on well data due to few existing wells. The uncertainty of the interwell reservoir interpolation based only on well data can be decreased by comprehensive utilization of geological, logging and seismic data, especially by using highly relative seismic properties from 3D seismic data adjusted by well point data to restrict interpolation of geological properties. A 3D-geological model which takes the sand body as the direct modeling object was built through stacking the structure, reservoir and water/oil/gas properties together in 3D space.

  5. High Precision Time Domain Forward Modeling for Crosshole Electromagnetic Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Shuhai; Zhao Liying

    2007-01-01

    To improve the resolution of crosshole electromagnetic tomography, high precision of forward modeling is necessary. A pseudo-spectral time domain (PSTD) forward modeling was used to simulate electromagnetic wave propagation between two boreholes. The PSTD algorithm is based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and uses the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm for spatial derivatives in Maxwell's equations. Besides having the strongpoint of the FDTD method, the calculation precision of the PSTD algorithm is higher than that of the FDTD method under the same calculation condition. The forward modeling using the PSTD method will play an important role in enhancing the resolution of crosshole electromagnetic tomography.

  6. Statistical validation of high-dimensional models of growing networks

    CERN Document Server

    Medo, Matus

    2013-01-01

    The abundance of models of complex networks and the current insufficient validation standards make it difficult to judge which models are strongly supported by data and which are not. We focus here on likelihood maximization methods for models of growing networks with many parameters and compare their performance on artificial and real datasets. While high dimensionality of the parameter space harms the performance of direct likelihood maximization on artificial data, this can be improved by introducing a suitable penalization term. Likelihood maximization on real data shows that the presented approach is able to discriminate among available network models. To make large-scale datasets accessible to this kind of analysis, we propose a subset sampling technique and show that it yields substantial model evidence in a fraction of time necessary for the analysis of the complete data.

  7. Simulation Modeling of Space Missions Using the High Level Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rabelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an environment being developed to model a mission of the Space Launch System (SLS and the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV being launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC to the International Space Station (ISS. Several models representing different phases of the mission such as the ground operations processes, engineered systems, and range components such as failure tree, blast, gas dispersion, and debris modeling are explained. These models are built using different simulation paradigms such as continuous, system dynamics, discrete-event, and agent-based simulation modeling. The High Level Architecture (HLA is the backbone of this distributed simulation. The different design decisions and the information fusion scheme of this unique environment are explained in detail for decision-making. This can also help in the development of exploration missions beyond the International Space Station.

  8. Numerical solution of High-kappa model of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamikhova, R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We present formulation and finite element approximations of High-kappa model of superconductivity which is valid in the high {kappa}, high magnetic field setting and accounts for applied magnetic field and current. Major part of this work deals with steady-state and dynamic computational experiments which illustrate our theoretical results numerically. In our experiments we use Galerkin discretization in space along with Backward-Euler and Crank-Nicolson schemes in time. We show that for moderate values of {kappa}, steady states of the model system, computed using the High-kappa model, are virtually identical with results computed using the full Ginzburg-Landau (G-L) equations. We illustrate numerically optimal rates of convergence in space and time for the L{sup 2} and H{sup 1} norms of the error in the High-kappa solution. Finally, our numerical approximations demonstrate some well-known experimentally observed properties of high-temperature superconductors, such as appearance of vortices, effects of increasing the applied magnetic field and the sample size, and the effect of applied constant current.

  9. Systematic approach to verification and validation: High explosive burn models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scovel, Christina A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-16

    Most material models used in numerical simulations are based on heuristics and empirically calibrated to experimental data. For a specific model, key questions are determining its domain of applicability and assessing its relative merits compared to other models. Answering these questions should be a part of model verification and validation (V and V). Here, we focus on V and V of high explosive models. Typically, model developers implemented their model in their own hydro code and use different sets of experiments to calibrate model parameters. Rarely can one find in the literature simulation results for different models of the same experiment. Consequently, it is difficult to assess objectively the relative merits of different models. This situation results in part from the fact that experimental data is scattered through the literature (articles in journals and conference proceedings) and that the printed literature does not allow the reader to obtain data from a figure in electronic form needed to make detailed comparisons among experiments and simulations. In addition, it is very time consuming to set up and run simulations to compare different models over sufficiently many experiments to cover the range of phenomena of interest. The first difficulty could be overcome if the research community were to support an online web based database. The second difficulty can be greatly reduced by automating procedures to set up and run simulations of similar types of experiments. Moreover, automated testing would be greatly facilitated if the data files obtained from a database were in a standard format that contained key experimental parameters as meta-data in a header to the data file. To illustrate our approach to V and V, we have developed a high explosive database (HED) at LANL. It now contains a large number of shock initiation experiments. Utilizing the header information in a data file from HED, we have written scripts to generate an input file for a hydro code

  10. Footprints of China Auto Internatienal Exhibition Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ November 2008,the Sixth China Auto International(Algeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour is ready.Since the first session was held in 1995,the Chinese auto enterprises have been to Vietnam,Cambodia,Syria,and Russian.

  11. France at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 – 1st Floor Tuesday 27 March: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 28 March: 9 a.m. – 2 p.m.   About thirty French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to CERN activities. Individual B2B meetings can be organized with the sales and technical representatives of participating firms and will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in conference rooms in the Main Building. Individuals wishing to make contact with one or more companies must use the contact details available from each secretariat of department or by using this link. B2B meetings will be coordinated by UBIFRANCE. You will also find the list of exhibiting and participating companies online here. This event is sponsored by the French subsidiary of RS Components, the most important distri...

  12. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and detail for Class II railroads. (14) As Exhibit 14, a statement showing actual cash balance at the beginning of each month and the actual cash receipts and disbursements during each month of the current...

  13. Exhibition 2004: Never-falling Stand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Another year for reform and development Reform and development, key words and melodies for present life, may reflect future changes definitely. Rapid progress of convention & exhibition industry undoubtedly predicates future development of this industry in China.

  14. The Report of Virtual Exhibition Software Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The main structure and key techniques of our Vir tual ExhibitionSoftware are summarized. It demonstrates the practice of Softwa re Engineering during the development of our project and discusses the use of UML in it.

  15. Waves in geomaterials exhibiting negative stiffness behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, Maxim; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Negative stiffness denotes the type of material behaviour when the force applied to the body decreases the body's deformation increases. Some geomaterials, for instance, rocks, demonstrate behaviour of this type at certain loads: during the compression tests the loading curves exhibit descending branch (post-peak softening). One of the possible mechanisms of the negative stiffness appearance in geomaterials is rotation of non-spherical grains. It is important to emphasize that in this case the descending branch may be reversible given that the testing machine is stiff enough (in general case it means an importance of boundary conditions). Existence of geomaterials with a negative modulus associated with rotations may have significant importance. In particular, important is understanding of the wave propagation in such materials. We study the stability of geomaterials with negative stiffness inclusions and wave propagation in it using two approaches: Cosserat continuum and discrete mass-spring models. In both cases we consider the rotational degrees of freedom in addition to the conventional translational ones. We show that despite non positiveness of the energy the materials with negative stiffness elements can be stable if certain conditions are met. In the case of Cosserat continuum the Cosserat shear modulus (the modulus relating the non-symmetrical part of shear stress and internal rotations) is allowed to assume negative values as long as its value does not exceed the value of the standard (positive) shear modulus. In the case of discrete mass-spring systems (with translational and rotational springs) the concentration of negative stiffness springs and the absolute values of negative spring stiffness are limited. The critical concentration when the system loses stability and the amplitude of the oscillations tends to infinity is equal to 1/2 and 3/5 for two- and three-dimensional cases respectively.

  16. Calculation of Evaluation Variables for High Gradient Magnetic Separation with an Idealized Capture Model

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper regards feed mine as a mixture of intergrowths and pure non-magnetic mineral particles, presents a method to calculate the evaluation variables such as grade and recovery in high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS). A idealized capture model is constructed in which the interaction between particles is not taken into account and only for the initial aggregation condition that the separator has the highest capture efficiency. In the model we adopt the functions that use nominal particle radius and magnetic mineral content as independent variables to describe volume fraction distribution and capture efficiency of intergrowths respectively. Through adding multi-wire magnetic fields and setting periodic boundary conditions in flow field analysis, we modify the computational domain of the single-wire capture theory to a element domain that periodically appears in the multi-wire matrix. By means of finite element software, particle trajectories, flow field and magnetic field are clearly exhibited, and the...

  17. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  18. When Do Children Exhibit a "Yes" Bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether one hundred and thirty-five 3- to 6-year-old children exhibit a yes bias to various yes-no questions and whether their knowledge status affects the production of a yes bias. Three-year-olds exhibited a yes bias to all yes-no questions such as "preference-object" and "knowledge-object" questions pertaining to…

  19. Exhibition by Gozitan artist Mark Sagona

    OpenAIRE

    Calleja, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Mark Sagona's exhibition, entitled "Recent Insights" was held at the Banca Giuratale in Victoria, Gozo between the 24th January and the 8th February 2004. It brought together twenty-four paintings, all produced in 2003 and the majority of which were realised in oil on canvas. The exhibition was curated by Dr Joseph Paul Cassar, and inaugurated by the Minister for Gozo, the Hon. Giovanna Debono.

  20. [All-Russian hygienic exhibitions and museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzybaeva, M P

    2011-01-01

    The material about the popularization of hygiene and health education in Russia in the second half of the 19th century to early 20th century through exhibition and museum activities has been collected for the first time and analyzed in the paper. The role of scientists and scientific medical societies in this process is noted. The significance of museum and exhibition activities in this area for the development of medical science is defined.

  1. Fuzzy model investic do High-tech projektů

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžběta Kubíčková

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Relations among parameters of High-tech projects are very complex, vague, partially inconsistent and multidimensional. Optimal decisions to invest into High-tech companies require top field experts and knowledgeable investors. Therefore the conventional methods of investments analysis are not relevant. Therefore fuzzy logic is introduced. Methodology/methods: A fuzzy knowledge base is a flexible framework for acquisition of vague inconsistent knowledge items which are typical for knowledge economics and consequently for High-tech projects. The pooling of the records and / or observations represents a trade-off between minimal modification of the original data and elimination of inconsistencies among available sets of data. Scientific aim: The paper presents a detailed description of fuzzy model of investment decision making into High-tech firm’s projects. A set of conditional statements was used to formalize the effects of selected variables on investment feasibility of High-tech projects. The main aim is to quantify feasibilities of High-tech projects risk investors make good /not bad decisions. Findings: A set of 50 observations of High-tech companies was transformed into a set of 50 conditional statements using 14 variables. The result is the fuzzy model, which can be used to answer investors’ queries. Two queries are answered and presented in details as an example and as a nucleus of a fuzzy dialogue investor – computer. Conclusions: The main problem is the sparseness of the fuzzy model. Many fuzzy similarities are relatively low and the decision process is therefore often problematic. A much more complex set of variables must be applied to specify the fuzzy model to increase reliability of predictions and decisions.

  2. Citrus ichangensis Peel Extract Exhibits Anti-Metabolic Disorder Effects by the Inhibition of PPARγ and LXR Signaling in High-Fat Diet-Induced C57BL/6 Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Ding

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a common nutritional disorder associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, dyslipidemia, and certain cancers. In this study, we investigated the effects of Citrus ichangensis peel extract (CIE in high-fat (HF diet-induced obesity mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a chow diet or an HF diet alone or supplemented with 1% w/w CIE for 8 weeks. We found that CIE treatment could lower blood glucose level and improve glucose tolerance. In the HF+CIE group, body weight gain, serum total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c levels, and liver triglyceride (TG and TC concentrations were significantly (P<0.05 decreased relative to those in the HF group. To elucidate the mechanism of CIE on the metabolism of glucose and lipid, related genes expression in liver were examined. In liver tissue, CIE significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and its target genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO. Moreover, CIE also decreased the expression of liver X receptor (LXR α and β which are involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. These results suggest that CIE administration could alleviate obesity and related metabolic disorders in HF diet-induced obesity mice through the inhibition of PPARγ and LXR signaling.

  3. Early Transcriptomic Adaptation to Na2CO3 Stress Altered the Expression of a Quarter of the Total Genes in the Maize Genome and Exhibited Shared and Distinctive Profiles with NaCl and High pH Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiMin Zhang; XiangGuo Liu; XinNing Qu; Ying Yu; SiPing Han; Yao Dou; YaoYao Xu; HaiChun Jing; DongYun Hao

    2013-01-01

    Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) presents a huge challenge to plants by the combined damaging effects of Naþ, high pH, and CO32-. Little is known about the cellular responses to Na2CO3 stress. In this study, the transcriptome of maize (Zea mays L. cv. B73) roots exposed to Na2CO3 stress for 5 h was compared with those of NaCl and NaOH stresses. The expression of 8,319 genes, representing over a quarter of the total number of genes in the maize genome, was altered by Na2CO3 stress, and the downregulated genes (5,232) outnumbered the upregulated genes (3,087). The effects of Na2CO3 differed from those of NaCl and NaOH, primarily by downregulating different categories of genes. Pathways commonly altered by Na2CO3, NaCl, and NaOH were enriched in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, as well as the metabolism of secondary metabolites. Genes for brassinosteroid biosynthesis were specifically upregulated by Na2CO3, while genes involved in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and by N-glycosylation, fatty acid biosynthesis, and the circadian rhythm were downregulated. This work provides the first holistic picture of early transcriptomic adaptation to Na2CO3 stress, and highlights potential molecular pathways that could be manipulated to improve tolerance in maize.

  4. High Performance Computing tools for the Integrated Tokamak Modelling project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillerminet, B., E-mail: bernard.guillerminet@cea.f [Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion, IRFM, DSM, CEA Cadarache (France); Plasencia, I. Campos [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (IFCA), CSIC, Santander (Spain); Haefele, M. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Iannone, F. [EURATOM/ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati (Italy); Jackson, A. [University of Edinburgh (EPCC) (United Kingdom); Manduchi, G. [EURATOM/ENEA Fusion Association, Padova (Italy); Plociennik, M. [Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Center (PSNC) (Poland); Sonnendrucker, E. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Strand, P. [Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden); Owsiak, M. [Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Center (PSNC) (Poland)

    2010-07-15

    Fusion Modelling and Simulation are very challenging and the High Performance Computing issues are addressed here. Toolset for jobs launching and scheduling, data communication and visualization have been developed by the EUFORIA project and used with a plasma edge simulation code.

  5. Modelling financial high frequency data using point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hautsch, Nikolaus; Bauwens, Luc

    In this chapter written for a forthcoming Handbook of Financial Time Series to be published by Springer-Verlag, we review the econometric literature on dynamic duration and intensity processes applied to high frequency financial data, which was boosted by the work of Engle and Russell (1997......) on autoregressive duration models...

  6. Modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of thin gold films embedded in silicon dioxide. The propagation vector of surface plasmon polaritons has been calculated by the effective index method for the wavelength range of 750-1700 nm and film thickness of 1...

  7. High Resolution PV Power Modeling for Distribution Circuit Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    NREL has contracted with Clean Power Research to provide 1-minute simulation datasets of PV systems located at three high penetration distribution feeders in the service territory of Southern California Edison (SCE): Porterville, Palmdale, and Fontana, California. The resulting PV simulations will be used to separately model the electrical circuits to determine the impacts of PV on circuit operations.

  8. Analysis of High School German Textbooks through Rasch Measurement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batdi, Veli; Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze German teacher trainers' views on high school German textbooks through the Rasch measurement model. A survey research design was employed and study group consisted of a total of 21 teacher trainers, three from each region and selected randomly from provinces which are located in seven regions and…

  9. Inference in High-dimensional Dynamic Panel Data Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders Bredahl; Tang, Haihan

    We establish oracle inequalities for a version of the Lasso in high-dimensional fixed effects dynamic panel data models. The inequalities are valid for the coefficients of the dynamic and exogenous regressors. Separate oracle inequalities are derived for the fixed effects. Next, we show how one can...

  10. A Model Aerospace Curriculum: August Martin High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.

    This document presents an operational model of a thematic aerospace education school--the August Martin High School (New York). Part 1 briefly describes the nature of aviation/aerospace education and the background of the school. This background information includes how the school was formed, rationale for an aerospace thematic school, research…

  11. Nonlinear Creep Model for Deep Rock under High Stress and High Pore Water Pressure Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yuanguang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional triaxial compression creep experiments for deep sandstone under high confining pressure and high pore water pressure were carried out, in order to predict the creep response of deep rock under these conditions. A nonlinear viscoelastic-plastic creep constitutive model was proposed based on the experimental results. The theory of component model was used as a basis for the formulation of this model. First, by using mathematical fitting and analogy, a new nonlinear viscous component was introduced based on the properties of the creep curves during the tertiary stage. Second, a timer component to judge whether the creep can get into the tertiary stage was presented. Finally, a nonlinear creep model was proposed. Results showed good agreement between theory curves from the nonlinear creep model and experimental data. This model can be applied to predict deep rock creep responses under high stress and high pore water pressure conditions. Hence, the obtained conclusions in this study are beneficial to deep rock engineering.

  12. A new high resolution tidal model in the arctic ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancet, M.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Lyard, F.

    The Arctic Ocean is a challenging region for tidal modeling, because of its complex and not well-documented bathymetry, together combined with the intermittent presence of sea ice and the fact that the in situ tidal observations are rather scarce at such high latitudes. As a consequence......-growing maritime and industrial activities in this region. NOVELTIS and DTU Space have developed a regional, high-resolution tidal atlas in the Arctic Ocean, in the framework of the CryoSat Plus for Ocean (CP4O) ESA project. In particular, this atlas benefits from the assimilation of the most complete satellite...... for assimilation and validation. This paper presents the performances of this new regional tidal model in the Arctic Ocean, compared to the existing global tidal models....

  13. High resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.; Wang, Yan M.

    1992-01-01

    Spherical harmonic expansions to degree 360 have been developed that combine satellite potential coefficient information, terrestrial gravity data, satellite altimeter information as a direct tracking data type and topographic information. These models define improved representations of the Earth's gravitational potential beyond that available from just satellite or terrestrial data. The development of the degree 360 models, however, does not imply a uniform accuracy in the determination of the gravity field as numerous geographic areas are devoid of terrestrial data or the resolution of such data is limited to, for example, 100 km. This paper will consider theoretical and numerical questions related to the combination of the various data types. Various models of the combination process are discussed with a discussion of various correction terms for the different models. Various sources of gravity data will be described. The new OSU91 360 model will be discussed with comparisons made to previous 360 models and to other potential coefficient models that are complete to degree 50. Future directions in high degree potential coefficient models will be discussed.

  14. Modelling high-resolution spatially-resolved Supernova Remnant spectra with the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Loru, Sara; Egron, Elise; Iacolina, Noemi; Righini, Simona; Marongiu, Marco; Mulas, Sara; Murtas, Giulia; Simeone, Davide; Pilia, Maura; Bachetti, Matteo; Trois, Alessio; Ricci, Roberto; Melis, Andrea; Concu, Raimondo

    2016-01-01

    Supernova Remnants (SNRs) exhibit spectra featured by synchrotron radio emission arising from the relativistic electrons, and high-energy emission from both leptonic (Bremsstrahlung and Inverse Compton) and hadronic processes (${\\pi}^0$ mesons decay) which are a direct signature of cosmic rays acceleration. Thanks to radio single-dish imaging observations obtained in three frequency bands (1.6, 7, 22 GHz) with the Sardinia Radio Telescope (www.srt.inaf.it), we can model different SNR regions separately. Indeed, in order to disentangle interesting and peculiar hadron contributions in the high-energy spectra (gamma-ray band) and better constrain SNRs as cosmic rays emitters, it is crucial to fully constrain lepton contributions first through radio-observed parameters. In particular, the Bremsstrahlung and Inverse Compton bumps observed in gamma-rays are bounded to synchrotron spectral slope and cut-off in the radio domain. Since these parameters vary for different SNR regions and electron populations, spatially...

  15. Selection mechanisms underlying high impact biomedical research--a qualitative analysis and causal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Zelko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although scientific innovation has been a long-standing topic of interest for historians, philosophers and cognitive scientists, few studies in biomedical research have examined from researchers' perspectives how high impact publications are developed and why they are consistently produced by a small group of researchers. Our objective was therefore to interview a group of researchers with a track record of high impact publications to explore what mechanism they believe contribute to the generation of high impact publications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Researchers were located in universities all over the globe and interviews were conducted by phone. All interviews were transcribed using standard qualitative methods. A Grounded Theory approach was used to code each transcript, later aggregating concept and categories into overarching explanation model. The model was then translated into a System Dynamics mathematical model to represent its structure and behavior. Five emerging themes were found in our study. First, researchers used heuristics or rules of thumb that came naturally to them. Second, these heuristics were reinforced by positive feedback from their peers and mentors. Third, good communication skills allowed researchers to provide feedback to their peers, thus closing a positive feedback loop. Fourth, researchers exhibited a number of psychological attributes such as curiosity or open-mindedness that constantly motivated them, even when faced with discouraging situations. Fifth, the system is dominated by randomness and serendipity and is far from a linear and predictable environment. Some researchers, however, took advantage of this randomness by incorporating mechanisms that would allow them to benefit from random findings. The aggregation of these themes into a policy model represented the overall expected behavior of publications and their impact achieved by high impact researchers. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed

  16. A new high resolution tidal model in the arctic ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancet, M.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Lyard, F.

    The Arctic Ocean is a challenging region for tidal modeling, because of its complex and not well-documented bathymetry, together combined with the intermittent presence of sea ice and the fact that the in situ tidal observations are rather scarce at such high latitudes. As a consequence, the accu......The Arctic Ocean is a challenging region for tidal modeling, because of its complex and not well-documented bathymetry, together combined with the intermittent presence of sea ice and the fact that the in situ tidal observations are rather scarce at such high latitudes. As a consequence...... of the tides improves the quality of the high latitudes altimeter sea surface heights and of all derived products, such as the altimetry-derived geostrophic currents, the mean sea surface and the mean dynamic topography. In addition, accurate tidal models are highly strategic information for ever......-growing maritime and industrial activities in this region. NOVELTIS and DTU Space have developed a regional, high-resolution tidal atlas in the Arctic Ocean, in the framework of the CryoSat Plus for Ocean (CP4O) ESA project. In particular, this atlas benefits from the assimilation of the most complete satellite...

  17. An oral multispecies biofilm model for high content screening applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommerein, Nadine; Stumpp, Sascha N.; Müsken, Mathias; Ehlert, Nina; Winkel, Andreas; Häussler, Susanne; Behrens, Peter; Buettner, Falk F. R.; Stiesch, Meike

    2017-01-01

    Peri-implantitis caused by multispecies biofilms is a major complication in dental implant treatment. The bacterial infection surrounding dental implants can lead to bone loss and, in turn, to implant failure. A promising strategy to prevent these common complications is the development of implant surfaces that inhibit biofilm development. A reproducible and easy-to-use biofilm model as a test system for large scale screening of new implant surfaces with putative antibacterial potency is therefore of major importance. In the present study, we developed a highly reproducible in vitro four-species biofilm model consisting of the highly relevant oral bacterial species Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Veillonella dispar and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The application of live/dead staining, quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and urea-NaCl fluorescence in situ hybridization (urea-NaCl-FISH) revealed that the four-species biofilm community is robust in terms of biovolume, live/dead distribution and individual species distribution over time. The biofilm community is dominated by S. oralis, followed by V. dispar, A. naeslundii and P. gingivalis. The percentage distribution in this model closely reflects the situation in early native plaques and is therefore well suited as an in vitro model test system. Furthermore, despite its nearly native composition, the multispecies model does not depend on nutrient additives, such as native human saliva or serum, and is an inexpensive, easy to handle and highly reproducible alternative to the available model systems. The 96-well plate format enables high content screening for optimized implant surfaces impeding biofilm formation or the testing of multiple antimicrobial treatment strategies to fight multispecies biofilm infections, both exemplary proven in the manuscript. PMID:28296966

  18. Polar Cap Model for Pulsar High-Energy Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K; Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alexander G.

    2002-01-01

    The study of physical processes associated with particle acceleration in the open field line region above the polar cap (PC) of an isolated neutron star (NS) plays a fundamental role in our understanding and interpretation of high-energy emission from pulsars. The systematic study of particle acceleration and formation of electron-positron pair fronts above the PCs of NSs was initiated two decades ago. The detailed analysis of these processes is now possible with the development of pair cascade codes that enables us to calculate the spectra and pulse profiles of high-energy emission from pulsars. The calculation of pair formation and gamma-ray production is being improved to include new results on the PC physics. We briefly outline the current status of the PC model for pulsar high-energy emission, focusing on some of our most recent results on the theoretical modeling of the PC acceleration and gamma-ray emission.

  19. Model of high-productive varieties in forage pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kosev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A linear equation of regression was used for establishment of the influence of quantitative characteristics on the grain productivity in forage pea and for development of a model for breeding work. The model for pea plant with high productivity was characterized by average height of 60–70 cm, 8–10 formed pods, 30–40 seeds per plant and 160–260 g in regard to 1000-seed weight. The obtained results showed that the greatest effect on grain productivity had the seed number per plant, first pod height and 1000-seed weight. Kristal variety had high ecological plasticity and could be considered as close to an ideal type, suitable for growing under wide range of environments. Pleven 4 and Rezonator were determined as high-productive varieties and with low stability, Kerpo and Pikardi - as low-productive but stable varieties. Druzba was identified as unstable and low-productive variety.

  20. Understanding the Pulsar High Energy Emission: Macroscopic and Kinetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Brambilla, Gabriele; Timokhin, Andrey; Kust Harding, Alice; Kazanas, Demos

    2017-08-01

    Pulsars are extraordinary objects powered by the rotation of magnetic fields of order 10^8, 10^12G anchored onto neutron stars and rotating with periods 10^(-3)-10s. These fields mediate the conversion of their rotational energy into MHD winds and at the same time accelerate particles to energies sufficiently high to produce GeV photons. Fermi, since its launch in 2008, has established several trends among the observed gamma-ray pulsar properties playing a catalytic role in the current modeling of the high energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. We judiciously use the guidance provided by the Fermi data to yield meaningful constraints on the macroscopic parameters of our global dissipative pulsar magnetosphere models. Our FIDO (Force-Free Inside, Dissipative Outside) models indicate that the dissipative regions lie outside the light cylinder near the equatorial current sheet. Our models reproduce the light-curve phenomenology while a detailed comparison of the model spectral properties with those observed by Fermi reveals the dependence of the macroscopic conductivity parameter on the spin-down rate providing a unique insight into the understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the high-energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. Finally, we further exploit these important results by building self-consistent 3D global kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) models which, eventually, provide the dependence of the macroscopic parameter behavior (e.g. conductivity) on the microphysical properties (e.g. particle multiplicities, particle injection rates). Our PIC models provide field structures and particle distributions that are not only consistent with each other but also able to reproduce a broad range of the observed gamma-ray phenomenology (light curves and spectral properties) of both young and millisecond pulsars.

  1. Asian Martial Art Exhibitions at the Swiss Castle of Morges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Gothard Bialokur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on two unique cultural exhibitions (2005 and 2007 held in Morges, Switzerland. The main theme for these exhibitions was Asian martial arts with a focus on those from Japan, including presentations by notable masters in aikido, karate, judo, kyudo, iaido, kenjutsu, jodo, juttejutsu, kusarigamajutsu, naginatajutsu, tameshigiri, and kendo. On exhibit were artifacts from Morges Castle museum collections as well as numerous ancient objects borrowed specifically for these exhibitions from other Swiss museums and private collections. There was also a lecture on Japanese sword collecting and care, and presentations of Japanese dance, flower arranging (ikebana, the art of tea (châ no yu, châdo, paper folding (origami, traditional kimono dress, and detailed demonstrations on the manufacture of bladed weapons. Text and photography were arranged to record these events for this article, showing how excellent organization and cooperation can introduce high-quality martial traditions to the public.

  2. Science, providence, and progress at the Great Exhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Geoffrey

    2012-09-01

    The Great Exhibition of 1851 is generally interpreted as a thoroughly secular event that celebrated progress in science, technology, and industry. In contrast to this perception, however, the exhibition was viewed by many contemporaries as a religious event of considerable importance. Although some religious commentators were highly critical of the exhibition and condemned the display of artifacts in the Crystal Palace as giving succor to materialism, others incorporated science and technology into their religious frameworks. Drawing on sermons, tracts, and the religious periodical press, this essay pays close attention to the ways in which science and technology were endowed with providentialist significance and particularly examines the notion of human progress used by a number of Christian writers, especially Congregationalists, who set scientific and technological progress within a teleological religious perspective. This discussion sheds fresh light not only on the Great Exhibition itself but also on the deployment of natural theology in mid-nineteenth-century Britain.

  3. Overview on high-resolution ocean modeling in JAMSTEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michio Kawamiya

    2014-01-01

    In view of the importance of ocean component for representing climate change,efforts are underway to implement a high-resolution nesting model system in Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MI-ROC) for the North Pacific using the same ocean model as used in the coupled model MIROC5. By comparing double (10 km for the northwestern Pacific,50 km for the rest of the Pacific) and triple (double nesting plus 2 km resolution near Japan) nesting,it turns out that relative vorticity is drastically enhanced near Japan with 2 km resolution. It is hoped that such an elaborated nesting system will reveal detailed processes for the ocean heat uptake by,e.g.,intermediate water and mode water formation for which the“perturbed region”near Japan is the key region.

  4. Systematic Uncertainties in High-Energy Hadronic Interaction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, M.; Knapp, J.; Ostapchenko, S.

    2003-07-01

    Hadronic interaction models for cosmic ray energies are uncertain since our knowledge of hadronic interactions is extrap olated from accelerator experiments at much lower energies. At present most high-energy models are based on Grib ov-Regge theory of multi-Pomeron exchange, which provides a theoretical framework to evaluate cross-sections and particle production. While experimental data constrain some of the model parameters, others are not well determined and are therefore a source of systematic uncertainties. In this paper we evaluate the variation of results obtained with the QGSJET model, when modifying parameters relating to three ma jor sources of uncertainty: the form of the parton structure function, the role of diffractive interactions, and the string hadronisation. Results on inelastic cross sections, on secondary particle production and on the air shower development are discussed.

  5. Analytical Model for High Impedance Fault Analysis in Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maximov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A high impedance fault (HIF normally occurs when an overhead power line physically breaks and falls to the ground. Such faults are difficult to detect because they often draw small currents which cannot be detected by conventional overcurrent protection. Furthermore, an electric arc accompanies HIFs, resulting in fire hazard, damage to electrical devices, and risk with human life. This paper presents an analytical model to analyze the interaction between the electric arc associated to HIFs and a transmission line. A joint analytical solution to the wave equation for a transmission line and a nonlinear equation for the arc model is presented. The analytical model is validated by means of comparisons between measured and calculated results. Several cases of study are presented which support the foundation and accuracy of the proposed model.

  6. Models for fuel rod behaviour at high burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernkvist, Lars O.; Massih, Ali R. [Quantum Technologies AB, Uppsala Science Park, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    This report deals with release of fission product gases and irradiation-induced restructuring in uranium dioxide nuclear fuel. Waterside corrosion of zirconium alloy clad tubes to light water reactor fuel rods is also discussed. Computational models, suitable for implementation in the FRAPCON-3.2 computer code, are proposed for these potentially life-limiting phenomena. Hence, an integrated model for the calculation or thermal fission gas release by intragranular diffusion, gas trapping in grain boundaries, irradiation-induced re-solution, grain boundary saturation, and grain boundary sweeping in UO{sub 2} fuel, under time varying temperature loads, is formulated. After a brief review of the status of thermal fission gas release modelling, we delineate the governing equations for the aforementioned processes. Grain growth kinetic modelling is briefly reviewed and pertinent data on grain growth of high burnup fuel obtained during power ramps in the Third Risoe Fission Gas Release Project are evaluated. Sample computations are performed, which clearly show the connection between fission gas release and gram growth as a function of time at different isotherms. Models are also proposed for the restructuring of uranium dioxide fuel at high burnup, the so-called rim formation, and its effect on fuel porosity build-up, fuel thermal conductivity and fission gas release. These models are assessed by use of recent experimental data from the High Burnup Rim Project, as well as from post irradiation examinations of high-burnup fuel, irradiated in power reactors. Moreover, models for clad oxide growth and hydrogen pickup in PWRs, applicable to Zircaloy-4, ZIRLO or M5 cladding, are formulated, based on recent in-reactor corrosion data for high-burnup fuel rods. Our evaluation of these data indicates that the oxidation rate of ZIRLO-type materials is about 20% lower than for standard Zircaloy-4 cladding under typical PWR conditions. Likewise, the oxidation rate of M5 seems to be

  7. Simulation Model solves exact the Enigma named Generating high Voltages and high Frequencies by Tesla Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Janjanin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Simulation model of Tesla coil has been successfully completed, and has been verified the procedure and functioning. The literature and documentation for the model were taken from the rich sources, especially the copies of Tesla patents. The oscillating system‟s electrical scheme consists of the voltage supply 220/50 Hz, Fe transformer, capacitor and belonging chosen electrical components, the air gap in the primary Tesla coil (air transformer and spark gap in the exit of the coil. The investigation of the oscillating process Tesla coil‟s system using the simulation model in MATLAB & SIMULINK have given the exact solution the enigma named the generating high voltage and high frequency the Tesla‟s coil. The inductance voltage from the spark current in the primary (coil with its high voltage impulse excites the oscillating series circuit Ce-L3-R3 on the secondary of the air transformer to its own damped oscillations

  8. Modeling of neutral gas dynamics in high-density plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canupp, Patrick Wellington

    This thesis describes a physical model of chemically reactive neutral gas flow and discusses numerical solutions of this model for the flow in an inductively coupled plasma etch reactor. To obtain these solutions, this research develops an efficient, implicit numerical method. As a result of the enhanced numerical stability of the scheme, large time steps advance the solution from initial conditions to a final steady state in fewer iterations and with less computational expense than simpler explicit methods. This method would incorporate suitably as a module in currently existing large scale plasma simulation tools. In order to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical technique, this thesis presents results from two simulations of flows that possess theoretical solutions. The first case is the inviscid flow of a gas through a converging nozzle. A comparison of the numerical solution to isentropic flow theory shows that the numerical technique capably captures the essential flow features of this environment. The second case is the Couette flow of a gas between two parallel plates. The simulation results compare well with the exact solution for this flow. After establishing the accuracy of the numerical technique, this thesis discusses results for the flow of chemically reactive gases in a chlorine plasma etch reactor. This research examines the influence of the plasma on the neutral gas and the dynamics exhibited by the neutral gas in the reactor. This research finds that the neutral gas temperature strongly depends on the rate at which inelastic, electron-impact dissociation reactions occur and on atomic chlorine wall recombination rates. Additionally, the neutral gas Aow in the reactor includes a significant mass flux of etch product from the wafer surface. Resolution of these effects is useful for neutral gas simulation. Finally, this thesis demonstrates that continuum fluid models provide reasonable accuracy for these low pressure reactor flows due to the fact

  9. A high resolution WRF model for wind energy forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Liu, Yubao

    2010-05-01

    The increasing penetration of wind energy into national electricity markets has increased the demand for accurate surface layer wind forecasts. There has recently been a focus on forecasting the wind at wind farm sites using both statistical models and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Recent advances in computing capacity and non-hydrostatic NWP models means that it is possible to nest mesoscale models down to Large Eddy Simulation (LES) scales over the spatial area of a typical wind farm. For example, the WRF model (Skamarock 2008) has been run at a resolution of 123 m over a wind farm site in complex terrain in Colorado (Liu et al. 2009). Although these modelling attempts indicate a great hope for applying such models for detailed wind forecasts over wind farms, one of the obvious challenges of running the model at this resolution is that while some boundary layer structures are expected to be modelled explicitly, boundary layer eddies into the inertial sub-range can only be partly captured. Therefore, the amount and nature of sub-grid-scale mixing that is required is uncertain. Analysis of Liu et al. (2009) modelling results in comparison to wind farm observations indicates that unrealistic wind speed fluctuations with a period of around 1 hour occasionally occurred during the two day modelling period. The problem was addressed by re-running the same modelling system with a) a modified diffusion constant and b) two-way nesting between the high resolution model and its parent domain. The model, which was run with horizontal grid spacing of 370 m, had dimensions of 505 grid points in the east-west direction and 490 points in the north-south direction. It received boundary conditions from a mesoscale model of resolution 1111 m. Both models had 37 levels in the vertical. The mesoscale model was run with a non-local-mixing planetary boundary layer scheme, while the 370 m model was run with no planetary boundary layer scheme. It was found that increasing the

  10. The highly intelligent virtual agents for modeling financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Chen, Y.; Huang, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Researchers have borrowed many theories from statistical physics, like ensemble, Ising model, etc., to study complex adaptive systems through agent-based modeling. However, one fundamental difference between entities (such as spins) in physics and micro-units in complex adaptive systems is that the latter are usually with high intelligence, such as investors in financial markets. Although highly intelligent virtual agents are essential for agent-based modeling to play a full role in the study of complex adaptive systems, how to create such agents is still an open question. Hence, we propose three principles for designing high artificial intelligence in financial markets and then build a specific class of agents called iAgents based on these three principles. Finally, we evaluate the intelligence of iAgents through virtual index trading in two different stock markets. For comparison, we also include three other types of agents in this contest, namely, random traders, agents from the wealth game (modified on the famous minority game), and agents from an upgraded wealth game. As a result, iAgents perform the best, which gives a well support for the three principles. This work offers a general framework for the further development of agent-based modeling for various kinds of complex adaptive systems.

  11. High speed turboprop aeroacoustic study (counterrotation). Volume 1: Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, C. E.; Mani, R.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1990-01-01

    The isolated counterrotating high speed turboprop noise prediction program was compared with model data taken in the GE Aircraft Engines Cell 41 anechoic facility, the Boeing Transonic Wind Tunnel, and in NASA-Lewis' 8x6 and 9x15 wind tunnels. The predictions show good agreement with measured data under both low and high speed simulated flight conditions. The installation effect model developed for single rotation, high speed turboprops was extended to include counterotation. The additional effect of mounting a pylon upstream of the forward rotor was included in the flow field modeling. A nontraditional mechanism concerning the acoustic radiation from a propeller at angle of attach was investigated. Predictions made using this approach show results that are in much closer agreement with measurement over a range of operating conditions than those obtained via traditional fluctuating force methods. The isolated rotors and installation effects models were combines into a single prediction program, results of which were compared with data taken during the flight test of the B727/UDF engine demonstrator aircraft. Satisfactory comparisons between prediction and measured data for the demonstrator airplane, together with the identification of a nontraditional radiation mechanism for propellers at angle of attack are achieved.

  12. High-fidelity geometric modeling for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zeyun [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Holst, Michael J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Andrew McCammon, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Pharmacology

    2008-05-19

    In this paper, we describe a combination of algorithms for high-fidelity geometric modeling and mesh generation. Although our methods and implementations are application-neutral, our primary target application is multiscale biomedical models that range in scales across the molecular, cellular, and organ levels. Our software toolchain implementing these algorithms is general in the sense that it can take as input a molecule in PDB/PQR forms, a 3D scalar volume, or a user-defined triangular surface mesh that may have very low quality. The main goal of our work presented is to generate high quality and smooth surface triangulations from the aforementioned inputs, and to reduce the mesh sizes by mesh coarsening. Tetrahedral meshes are also generated for finite element analysis in biomedical applications. Experiments on a number of bio-structures are demonstrated, showing that our approach possesses several desirable properties: feature-preservation, local adaptivity, high quality, and smoothness (for surface meshes). Finally, the availability of this software toolchain will give researchers in computational biomedicine and other modeling areas access to higher-fidelity geometric models.

  13. High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP v1.0) for CMIP6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarsma, Reindert J.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Senior, Catherine A.; Bellucci, Alessio; Bao, Qing; Chang, Ping; Corti, Susanna; Fučkar, Neven S.; Guemas, Virginie; von Hardenberg, Jost; Hazeleger, Wilco; Kodama, Chihiro; Koenigk, Torben; Leung, L. Ruby; Lu, Jian; Luo, Jing-Jia; Mao, Jiafu; Mizielinski, Matthew S.; Mizuta, Ryo; Nobre, Paulo; Satoh, Masaki; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Semmler, Tido; Small, Justin; von Storch, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    Robust projections and predictions of climate variability and change, particularly at regional scales, rely on the driving processes being represented with fidelity in model simulations. The role of enhanced horizontal resolution in improved process representation in all components of the climate system is of growing interest, particularly as some recent simulations suggest both the possibility of significant changes in large-scale aspects of circulation as well as improvements in small-scale processes and extremes.

    However, such high-resolution global simulations at climate timescales, with resolutions of at least 50 km in the atmosphere and 0.25° in the ocean, have been performed at relatively few research centres and generally without overall coordination, primarily due to their computational cost. Assessing the robustness of the response of simulated climate to model resolution requires a large multi-model ensemble using a coordinated set of experiments. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6) is the ideal framework within which to conduct such a study, due to the strong link to models being developed for the CMIP DECK experiments and other model intercomparison projects (MIPs).

    Increases in high-performance computing (HPC) resources, as well as the revised experimental design for CMIP6, now enable a detailed investigation of the impact of increased resolution up to synoptic weather scales on the simulated mean climate and its variability.

    The High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP) presented in this paper applies, for the first time, a multi-model approach to the systematic investigation of the impact of horizontal resolution. A coordinated set of experiments has been designed to assess both a standard and an enhanced horizontal-resolution simulation in the atmosphere and ocean. The set of HighResMIP experiments is divided into three tiers consisting of atmosphere-only and coupled runs and

  14. High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP v1.0) for CMIP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsma, Reindert J.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Senior, Catherine A.; Bellucci, Alessio; Bao, Qing; Chang, Ping; Corti, Susanna; Fučkar, Neven S.; Guemas, Virginie; von Hardenberg, Jost; Hazeleger, Wilco; Kodama, Chihiro; Koenigk, Torben; Leung, L. Ruby; Lu, Jian; Luo, Jing-Jia; Mao, Jiafu; Mizielinski, Matthew S.; Mizuta, Ryo; Nobre, Paulo; Satoh, Masaki; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Semmler, Tido; Small, Justin; von Storch, Jin-Song

    2016-11-01

    Robust projections and predictions of climate variability and change, particularly at regional scales, rely on the driving processes being represented with fidelity in model simulations. The role of enhanced horizontal resolution in improved process representation in all components of the climate system is of growing interest, particularly as some recent simulations suggest both the possibility of significant changes in large-scale aspects of circulation as well as improvements in small-scale processes and extremes. However, such high-resolution global simulations at climate timescales, with resolutions of at least 50 km in the atmosphere and 0.25° in the ocean, have been performed at relatively few research centres and generally without overall coordination, primarily due to their computational cost. Assessing the robustness of the response of simulated climate to model resolution requires a large multi-model ensemble using a coordinated set of experiments. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6) is the ideal framework within which to conduct such a study, due to the strong link to models being developed for the CMIP DECK experiments and other model intercomparison projects (MIPs). Increases in high-performance computing (HPC) resources, as well as the revised experimental design for CMIP6, now enable a detailed investigation of the impact of increased resolution up to synoptic weather scales on the simulated mean climate and its variability. The High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP) presented in this paper applies, for the first time, a multi-model approach to the systematic investigation of the impact of horizontal resolution. A coordinated set of experiments has been designed to assess both a standard and an enhanced horizontal-resolution simulation in the atmosphere and ocean. The set of HighResMIP experiments is divided into three tiers consisting of atmosphere-only and coupled runs and spanning the period 1950-2050, with the

  15. Curated exhibitions and Australian art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine De Lorenzo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Australian Art history in all it guises has tended to bypass the impact of contemporary curated exhibitions on shaping the discipline. Yet an examination of a cluster of key contemporary exhibitions from the early 1970s onwards reveals their significance for the history of art in Australia. They reflect institutional judgements behind the selection, research and display the work of artists as well as the reception of such work by the public, artists, art critics and art historians. This is especially so in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st, as the country underwent major cultural changes. This paper focuses on selected exhibitions of Australian art from 1968 to 2008 and indicates how exhibitions also constitute a major form of contemporary Australian art historiography. As this period coincides with a transformation in the way exhibitions were funded, it also begins to investigate the question of the long term impact of public funding of the arts.

  16. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  17. Ionosphere Scintillation at Low and High Latitudes (Modelling vs Measurement)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béniguel, Yannick

    2016-04-01

    This paper will address the problem of scintillations characteristics, focusing on the parameters of interest for a navigation system. Those parameters are the probabilities of occurrence of simultaneous fading, the bubbles surface at IPP level, the cycle slips and the fades duration statistics. The scintillation characteristics obtained at low and high latitudes will be compared. These results correspond to the data analysis performed after the ESA Monitor ionosphere measurement campaign [1], [2]. A second aspect of the presentation will be the modelling aspect. It has been observed that the phase scintillation dominates at high latitudes while the intensity scintillation dominates at low latitudes. The way it can be reproduced and implemented in a propagation model (e.g. GISM model [3]) will be presented. Comparisons of measurements with results obtained by modelling will be presented on some typical scenarios. References [1] R. Prieto Cerdeira, Y. Beniguel, "The MONITOR project: architecture, data and products", Ionospheric Effects Symposium, Alexandria (Va), May 2011 [2] Y. Béniguel, R Orus-Perez , R. Prieto-Cerdeira , S. Schlueter , S. Scortan, A. Grosu "MONITOR 2: ionospheric monitoring network in support to SBAS and other GNSS and scientific purposes", IES Conference, Alexandria (Va), May 2015-05-22 [3] Y. Béniguel, P. Hamel, "A Global Ionosphere Scintillation Propagation Model for Equatorial Regions", Journal of Space Weather Space Climate, 1, (2011), doi: 10.1051/swsc/2011004

  18. High speed railway track dynamics models, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically summarizes the latest research findings on high-speed railway track dynamics, made by the author and his research team over the past decade. It explores cutting-edge issues concerning the basic theory of high-speed railways, covering the dynamic theories, models, algorithms and engineering applications of the high-speed train and track coupling system. Presenting original concepts, systematic theories and advanced algorithms, the book places great emphasis on the precision and completeness of its content. The chapters are interrelated yet largely self-contained, allowing readers to either read through the book as a whole or focus on specific topics. It also combines theories with practice to effectively introduce readers to the latest research findings and developments in high-speed railway track dynamics. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, postgraduates and engineers in the fields of civil engineering, transportation, highway & railway engineering.

  19. Modeling of high power laser interaction with metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Kurt; Zahide, Demircioǧlu

    2017-02-01

    Laser matter interaction has been very popular subject from the first recognition of lasers. Laser application in industry or laboratory applications are based on definite interactions of the laser beam with the workpiece. In this paper, an effective model related with high power radiation interaction with metals is presented. In metals, Lorentz-Drude model is used calculate permeability theoretically. The plasma frequency was calculated at various temperatures and using the obtained results the refractive index of the metal (Ag) was investigated. The calculation result revealed that the effect of the temperature need to be considered at reflection and transmission of the laser beam.

  20. Oracle inequalities for high-dimensional panel data models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders Bredahl

    This paper is concerned with high-dimensional panel data models where the number of regressors can be much larger than the sample size. Under the assumption that the true parameter vector is sparse we establish finite sample upper bounds on the estimation error of the Lasso under two different sets....... These results are then used to show that the Lasso can be consistent in even very large models where the number of regressors increases at an exponential rate in the sample size. Conditions under which the Lasso does not discard any relevant variables asymptotically are also provided. In the second part...

  1. Color and Polarization Models of High Redshift Radio Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, K. C.

    2000-05-01

    The scattering of an anisotropic quasar beam by dust swept-up by a bipolar outflow is used to construct model color and polarization images for comparison with high redshift radio galaxies and quasars. The swept-up shell is assumed to be optically thin to dust scattering outside the nuclear region. The spectral energy distributions and polarization characteristics of the extended aligned emission from HZRGs and QSRs can be reproduced using an input quasar spectrum and the Loar & Draine (1993) silicate-graphite grain model.

  2. eWaterCycle: A high resolution global hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, Nick; Bierkens, Marc; Drost, Niels; Hut, Rolf; Sutanudjaja, Edwin

    2014-05-01

    In 2013, the eWaterCycle project was started, which has the ambitious goal to run a high resolution global hydrological model. Starting point was the PCR-GLOBWB built by Utrecht University. The software behind this model will partially be re-engineered in order to enable to run it in a High Performance Computing (HPC) environment. The aim is to have a spatial resolution of 1km x 1km. The idea is also to run the model in real-time and forecasting mode, using data assimilation. An on-demand hydraulic model will be available for detailed flow and flood forecasting in support of navigation and disaster management. The project faces a set of scientific challenges. First, to enable the model to run in a HPC environment, model runs were analyzed to examine on which parts of the program most CPU time was spent. These parts were re-coded in Open MPI to allow for parallel processing. Different parallelization strategies are thinkable. In our case, it was decided to use watershed logic as a first step to distribute the analysis. There is rather limited recent experience with HPC in hydrology and there is much to be learned and adjusted, both on the hydrological modeling side and the computer science side. For example, an interesting early observation was that hydrological models are, due to their localized parameterization, much more memory intensive than models of sister-disciplines such as meteorology and oceanography. Because it would be deadly to have to swap information between CPU and hard drive, memory management becomes crucial. A standard Ensemble Kalman Filter (enKF) would, for example, have excessive memory demands. To circumvent these problems, an alternative to the enKF was developed that produces equivalent results. This presentation shows the most recent results from the model, including a 5km x 5km simulation and a proof of concept for the new data assimilation approach. Finally, some early ideas about financial sustainability of an operational global

  3. The Gravity- Powered Calculator, a Galilean Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerreta, Pietro

    2014-04-01

    The Gravity-Powered Calculator is an exhibit of the Exploratorium in San Francisco. It is presented by its American creators as an amazing device that extracts the square roots of numbers, using only the force of gravity. But if you analyze his concept construction one can not help but recall the research of Galileo on falling bodies, the inclined plane and the projectile motion; exactly what the American creators did not put into prominence with their exhibit. Considering the equipment only for what it does, in my opinion, is very reductive compared to the historical roots of the Galilean mathematical physics contained therein. Moreover, if accurate deductions are contained in the famous study of S. Drake on the Galilean drawings and, in particular on Folio 167 v, the parabolic paths of the ball leaping from its launch pad after descending a slope really actualize Galileo's experiments. The exhibit therefore may be best known as a `Galilean calculator'.

  4. The linear-quadratic model is inappropriate to model high dose per fraction effects in radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, John P; Meyer, Jeffrey J; Marks, Lawrence B

    2008-10-01

    The linear-quadratic (LQ) model is widely used to model the effect of total dose and dose per fraction in conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. Much of the data used to generate the model are obtained in vitro at doses well below those used in radiosurgery. Clinically, the LQ model often underestimates tumor control observed at radiosurgical doses. The underlying mechanisms implied by the LQ model do not reflect the vascular and stromal damage produced at the high doses per fraction encountered in radiosurgery and ignore the impact of radioresistant subpopulations of cells. The appropriate modeling of both tumor control and normal tissue toxicity in radiosurgery requires the application of emerging understanding of molecular-, cellular-, and tissue-level effects of high-dose/fraction-ionizing radiation and the role of cancer stem cells.

  5. A high-resolution global flood hazard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Christopher C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Bates, Paul B.; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Freer, Jim E.

    2015-09-01

    Floods are a natural hazard that affect communities worldwide, but to date the vast majority of flood hazard research and mapping has been undertaken by wealthy developed nations. As populations and economies have grown across the developing world, so too has demand from governments, businesses, and NGOs for modeled flood hazard data in these data-scarce regions. We identify six key challenges faced when developing a flood hazard model that can be applied globally and present a framework methodology that leverages recent cross-disciplinary advances to tackle each challenge. The model produces return period flood hazard maps at ˜90 m resolution for the whole terrestrial land surface between 56°S and 60°N, and results are validated against high-resolution government flood hazard data sets from the UK and Canada. The global model is shown to capture between two thirds and three quarters of the area determined to be at risk in the benchmark data without generating excessive false positive predictions. When aggregated to ˜1 km, mean absolute error in flooded fraction falls to ˜5%. The full complexity global model contains an automatically parameterized subgrid channel network, and comparison to both a simplified 2-D only variant and an independently developed pan-European model shows the explicit inclusion of channels to be a critical contributor to improved model performance. While careful processing of existing global terrain data sets enables reasonable model performance in urban areas, adoption of forthcoming next-generation global terrain data sets will offer the best prospect for a step-change improvement in model performance.

  6. The exploration of the exhibition informatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-06-01

    The construction and management of exhibition informatization is the main task and choke point during the process of Chinese exhibition industry’s transformation and promotion. There are three key points expected to realize a breakthrough during the construction of Chinese exhibition informatization, and the three aspects respectively are adopting service outsourcing to construct and maintain the database, adopting advanced chest card technology to collect various kinds of information, developing statistics analysis to maintain good cutomer relations. The success of Chinese exhibition informatization mainly calls for mature suppliers who can provide construction and maintenance of database, the proven technology, a sense of data security, advanced chest card technology, the ability of data mining and analysis and the ability to improve the exhibition service basing on the commercial information got from the data analysis. Several data security measures are expected to apply during the process of system developing, including the measures of the terminal data security, the internet data security, the media data security, the storage data security and the application data security. The informatization of this process is based on the chest card designing. At present, there are several types of chest card technology: bar code chest card; two-dimension code card; magnetic stripe chest card; smart-chip chest card. The information got from the exhibition data will help the organizers to make relevant service strategies, quantify the accumulated indexes of the customers, and improve the level of the customer’s satisfaction and loyalty, what’s more, the information can also provide more additional services like the commercial trips, VIP ceremonial reception.

  7. 会展企业顾客满意度指数模型与测评指标体系研究%A Study on the Customer Satisfaction Index Model and Evaluation System for Exhibition Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海霞; 孙厚琴

    2008-01-01

    顾客满意度对企业取得持久竞争优势有着重要作用.本文结合会展业自身特点,在研究美国顾客满意度指数ACSI模型的基础上,引入新的结构变量,提出了会展企业顾客满意度指数测评的模型(Exhibition Enterprise CustomerSatisfaction Index,简称EECSI),并在此基础上构建了会展企业顾客满意度测评指标体系,运用模糊综合评价法对所构测评指标体系进行了理论评价,试图为会展企业提高其市场竞争力和取得持久竞争优势提供重要的决策依据.

  8. Feedback model evaluation of high-mix product manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dion; Cheng, Mingjen; Lu, Aho; Mao, Zhibiao; Liang, Curtis

    2006-03-01

    As the patterns are getting smaller, the difficulty to control a margin-tight process expands exponentially. The use of the Automated Process Control (APC), therefore, becomes a widely employed mean in photolithography process to control overlay and CD variations. The accuracy of APC is dependent upon the amount of the previous process data. However, in a foundry with high-mix products it is typical that there are not enough historic data points for accurate calculation of process parameters for a low volume product. The consequence is the high rework rate of pilot runs and test runes due to poor process parameter prediction for overlay. Several studies of the method for predicting the overlay correction have been reported. The key to build a good prediction model is to break the overlay errors down to several parts. Some are equipment or technology related errors, which are shared by all products. Others are the characteristic for certain products, for instance, mask error or special alignment marks. In the production environment the former parts are updated in real time by data feedback from processing all kinds of products. The low volume products or pilot products can share the information. Thus we can achieve a more accurate control or prediction for a new product. In this paper we provide a new model for predicting the process parameter settings of overlay for a pilot run or a product not being run on a tool for a long period of time. This new model is a Simplified Cerebellar Manipulation Arithmetic Controller (SCMAC), which is one kind of Neural Network (NN) model. We assume each part of overlay errors is a cell in SCMAC and build the whole cell table by using this assumption. The final overlay correction value is the sum of a group of cells, which is activated by one lot information. We will also present the details of the building and training of this new SCMAC model. The prediction accuracy of SCMAC in overlay parameters is also evaluated. According to

  9. Land use regression modelling of air pollution in high density high rise cities: A case study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Martha; Brauer, Michael; Wong, Paulina; Tang, Robert; Tsui, Tsz Him; Choi, Crystal; Cheng, Wei; Lai, Poh-Chin; Tian, Linwei; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Allen, Ryan; Barratt, Benjamin

    2017-08-15

    Land use regression (LUR) is a common method of predicting spatial variability of air pollution to estimate exposure. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured during two sampling campaigns (April-May and November-January) in Hong Kong (a prototypical high-density high-rise city). Along with 365 potential geospatial predictor variables, these concentrations were used to build two-dimensional land use regression (LUR) models for the territory. Summary statistics for combined measurements over both campaigns were: a) NO2 (Mean=106μg/m(3), SD=38.5, N=95), b) NO (M=147μg/m(3), SD=88.9, N=40), c) PM2.5 (M=35μg/m(3), SD=6.3, N=64), and BC (M=10.6μg/m(3), SD=5.3, N=76). Final LUR models had the following statistics: a) NO2 (R(2)=0.46, RMSE=28μg/m(3)) b) NO (R(2)=0.50, RMSE=62μg/m(3)), c) PM2.5 (R(2)=0.59; RMSE=4μg/m(3)), and d) BC (R(2)=0.50, RMSE=4μg/m(3)). Traditional LUR predictors such as road length, car park density, and land use types were included in most models. The NO2 prediction surface values were highest in Kowloon and the northern region of Hong Kong Island (downtown Hong Kong). NO showed a similar pattern in the built-up region. Both PM2.5 and BC predictions exhibited a northwest-southeast gradient, with higher concentrations in the north (close to mainland China). For BC, the port was also an area of elevated predicted concentrations. The results matched with existing literature on spatial variation in concentrations of air pollutants and in relation to important emission sources in Hong Kong. The success of these models suggests LUR is appropriate in high-density, high-rise cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling of Arctic Storms with a Variable High-Resolution General Circulation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mark A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roesler, Erika Louise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bosler, Peter Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Biological and Environmental Research project, “Water Cycle and Climate Extremes Modeling” is improving our understanding and modeling of regional details of the Earth’s water cycle. Sandia is using high resolution model behavior to investigate storms in the Arctic.

  11. High-speed AMB machining spindle model updating and model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Adam C.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Pesch, Alexander H.

    2011-04-01

    High-Speed Machining (HSM) spindles equipped with Active Magnetic Bearings (AMBs) have been envisioned to be capable of automated self-identification and self-optimization in efforts to accurately calculate parameters for stable high-speed machining operation. With this in mind, this work presents rotor model development accompanied by automated model-updating methodology followed by updated model validation. The model updating methodology is developed to address the dynamic inaccuracies of the nominal open-loop plant model when compared with experimental open-loop transfer function data obtained by the built in AMB sensors. The nominal open-loop model is altered by utilizing an unconstrained optimization algorithm to adjust only parameters that are a result of engineering assumptions and simplifications, in this case Young's modulus of selected finite elements. Minimizing the error of both resonance and anti-resonance frequencies simultaneously (between model and experimental data) takes into account rotor natural frequencies and mode shape information. To verify the predictive ability of the updated rotor model, its performance is assessed at the tool location which is independent of the experimental transfer function data used in model updating procedures. Verification of the updated model is carried out with complementary temporal and spatial response comparisons substantiating that the updating methodology is effective for derivation of open-loop models for predictive use.

  12. Modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of thin gold films embedded in silicon dioxide. The propagation vector of surface plasmon polaritons has been calculated by the effective index method for the wavelength range of 750-1700 nm and film thickness of 15......, 30 and 45 nm. The fabrication process of such plasmonic waveguides with width in the range of 1-100 μm and their quality inspection are described. The results of optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides using a high power laser with the peak power wavelength 1064 nm show significant deviation...

  13. High dimensional model representation (HDMR) with clustering for image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcılı, Ayşegül; Tunga, Burcu

    2017-01-01

    Image retrieval continues to hold an important place in today's extremely fast growing technology. In this field, the accurate image retrieval with high speed is critical. In this study, to achieve this important issue we developed a novel method with the help of High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) philosophy. HDMR is a decomposition method used to solve different scientific problems. To test the performance of the new method we used Columbia Object Image Library (COIL100) and obtained the encouraging results. These results are given in the findings section.

  14. Theory and Modeling of High-Power Gyrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusinovich, Gregory Semeon [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-04-29

    This report summarized results of the work performed at the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics of the University of Maryland (College Park, MD) in the framework of the DOE Grant “Theory and Modeling of High-Power Gyrotrons”. The report covers the work performed in 2011-2014. The research work was performed in three directions: - possibilities of stable gyrotron operation in very high-order modes offering the output power exceeding 1 MW level in long-pulse/continuous-wave regimes, - effect of small imperfections in gyrotron fabrication and alignment on the gyrotron efficiency and operation, - some issues in physics of beam-wave interaction in gyrotrons.

  15. Modeling high temperature materials behavior for structural analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Naumenko, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents approaches to characterize inelastic behavior of materials and structures at high temperature. Starting from experimental observations, it discusses basic features of inelastic phenomena including creep, plasticity, relaxation, low cycle and thermal fatigue. The authors formulate constitutive equations to describe the inelastic response for the given states of stress and microstructure. They introduce evolution equations to capture hardening, recovery, softening, ageing and damage processes. Principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics are presented to provide a framework for the modeling materials behavior with the aim of structural analysis of high-temperature engineering components.

  16. Connecting the Public to Natural Hazards Through a Hands-on Museum Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, S. E.; Rowe, S. M.; Hanshumaker, W.; Farley, M.

    2014-12-01

    Communities along the coast of Oregon, Washington, and northern California live with the threat of potentially devastating subduction zone earthquakes and subsequent tsunami that could happen at any time. Both residents and visitors to the coast need to be aware of the potential impacts such hazards can have on their lives as well as what to do during an earthquake and before a tsunami hits. To raise awareness of both natural hazards and the technologies used to monitor them, UNAVCO designed and installed a museum exhibit on display at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) Visitor Center in Newport, Oregon. The objectives for the exhibit are to increase familiarization with the natural hazards of earthquakes and tsunamis in the Cascadia region, to explain the connection between the crust's movement and compression over time with the potential strength of a subduction-zone earthquake, and to inform visitors about high-precision, high-rate GPS technology. The exhibit includes multiple hands-on models and an authentic GPS monitoring station. Additionally, panels explain the science behind the models, potential impacts of a great earthquake to society, and actions visitors can take to practice earthquake safety through the Great ShakeOut earthquake drill. Over the past year that the exhibit has been open to the public, it has been visited by over 100,000 people including students, family and senior groups, and the general public. Anecdotal evidence indicates that two components of the exhibit create the most visitor impact providing visitors with 'ah ha moments': a real-scale tape measure showing the approximate 12 foot distance the coast has compressed over the past 300+ years, and a flexible map illustrating that the coastal areas are compressing the most compared to areas further inland. Through HMSC's NSF-funded Cyberlab automated visitor data collection system, we have been able to document and analyze a variety of visitor characteristics

  17. A Predictive Model of High Shear Thrombus Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Marmar; Casa, Lauren D C; Aidun, Cyrus K; Ku, David N

    2016-08-01

    The ability to predict the timescale of thrombotic occlusion in stenotic vessels may improve patient risk assessment for thrombotic events. In blood contacting devices, thrombosis predictions can lead to improved designs to minimize thrombotic risks. We have developed and validated a model of high shear thrombosis based on empirical correlations between thrombus growth and shear rate. A mathematical model was developed to predict the growth of thrombus based on the hemodynamic shear rate. The model predicts thrombus deposition based on initial geometric and fluid mechanic conditions, which are updated throughout the simulation to reflect the changing lumen dimensions. The model was validated by comparing predictions against actual thrombus growth in six separate in vitro experiments: stenotic glass capillary tubes (diameter = 345 µm) at three shear rates, the PFA-100(®) system, two microfluidic channel dimensions (heights = 300 and 82 µm), and a stenotic aortic graft (diameter = 5.5 mm). Comparison of the predicted occlusion times to experimental results shows excellent agreement. The model is also applied to a clinical angiography image to illustrate the time course of thrombosis in a stenotic carotid artery after plaque cap rupture. Our model can accurately predict thrombotic occlusion time over a wide range of hemodynamic conditions.

  18. High Flux Isotope Reactor system RELAP5 input model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, D.G.; Wendel, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    A thermal-hydraulic computational model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has been developed using the RELAP5 program. The purpose of the model is to provide a state-of-the art thermal-hydraulic simulation tool for analyzing selected hypothetical accident scenarios for a revised HFIR Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The model includes (1) a detailed representation of the reactor core and other vessel components, (2) three heat exchanger/pump cells, (3) pressurizing pumps and letdown valves, and (4) secondary coolant system (with less detail than the primary system). Data from HFIR operation, component tests, tests in facility mockups and the HFIR, HFIR specific experiments, and other pertinent experiments performed independent of HFIR were used to construct the model and validate it to the extent permitted by the data. The detailed version of the model has been used to simulate loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), while the abbreviated version has been developed for the operational transients that allow use of a less detailed nodalization. Analysis of station blackout with core long-term decay heat removal via natural convection has been performed using the core and vessel portions of the detailed model.

  19. High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2011-03-01

    Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

  20. HIGH DIMENSIONAL COVARIANCE MATRIX ESTIMATION IN APPROXIMATE FACTOR MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Mincheva, Martina

    2011-01-01

    The variance covariance matrix plays a central role in the inferential theories of high dimensional factor models in finance and economics. Popular regularization methods of directly exploiting sparsity are not directly applicable to many financial problems. Classical methods of estimating the covariance matrices are based on the strict factor models, assuming independent idiosyncratic components. This assumption, however, is restrictive in practical applications. By assuming sparse error covariance matrix, we allow the presence of the cross-sectional correlation even after taking out common factors, and it enables us to combine the merits of both methods. We estimate the sparse covariance using the adaptive thresholding technique as in Cai and Liu (2011), taking into account the fact that direct observations of the idiosyncratic components are unavailable. The impact of high dimensionality on the covariance matrix estimation based on the factor structure is then studied.

  1. High-dimensional covariance matrix estimation in approximate factor models

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Jianqing; Mincheva, Martina; 10.1214/11-AOS944

    2012-01-01

    The variance--covariance matrix plays a central role in the inferential theories of high-dimensional factor models in finance and economics. Popular regularization methods of directly exploiting sparsity are not directly applicable to many financial problems. Classical methods of estimating the covariance matrices are based on the strict factor models, assuming independent idiosyncratic components. This assumption, however, is restrictive in practical applications. By assuming sparse error covariance matrix, we allow the presence of the cross-sectional correlation even after taking out common factors, and it enables us to combine the merits of both methods. We estimate the sparse covariance using the adaptive thresholding technique as in Cai and Liu [J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 106 (2011) 672--684], taking into account the fact that direct observations of the idiosyncratic components are unavailable. The impact of high dimensionality on the covariance matrix estimation based on the factor structure is then studi...

  2. Group Lasso for high dimensional sparse quantile regression models

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Kengo

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the statistical properties of the group Lasso estimator for high dimensional sparse quantile regression models where the number of explanatory variables (or the number of groups of explanatory variables) is possibly much larger than the sample size while the number of variables in "active" groups is sufficiently small. We establish a non-asymptotic bound on the $\\ell_{2}$-estimation error of the estimator. This bound explains situations under which the group Lasso estimator is potentially superior/inferior to the $\\ell_{1}$-penalized quantile regression estimator in terms of the estimation error. We also propose a data-dependent choice of the tuning parameter to make the method more practical, by extending the original proposal of Belloni and Chernozhukov (2011) for the $\\ell_{1}$-penalized quantile regression estimator. As an application, we analyze high dimensional additive quantile regression models. We show that under a set of primitive regularity conditions, the group Lasso estimator c...

  3. High latitude temperature evolution across the Last Interglacial: a model-data comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Emilie; Stone, Emma; Govin, Aline; Loutre, Marie-France; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Mulitza, Stefan; Otto-Bliesner, Betty; Sime, Louise; Waelbroeck, Claire; Wolff, Eric W.

    2014-05-01

    The Last Interglacial (LIG, 129-116 thousand of years, ka) represents an interesting test bed for climate model feedbacks for warmer-than-present high latitudes. However, mainly because synchronising different paleoclimatic archives from different parts of the world is not trivial, a global picture of LIG temperature changes is difficult to obtain. In the framework of the UK iGlass consortium and the European Past4Future project, we have selected 49 polar ice core and sub-polar marine sediment records and developed a strategy to synchronise them onto the recent AICC2012 ice core chronology. This new synthesis enables us to describe the spatial and temporal climatic patterns over polar ice sheets (surface air temperature) and around the ice margins (sea surface temperatures) at a pluri-centennial to millennial-scale. Major features highlighted are (i) non synchronous maximum temperature change between the two hemispheres with the Southern Ocean and Antarctica records showing an early warming compared to North Atlantic records and (ii) Southern hemisphere records exhibiting warm conditions for a longer time period compared to records from the Northern Hemisphere and smaller temperature amplitude changes. Our compiled records are compared with recent snapshot and transient model experiments performed with three state of the art General Circulation Models (HADCM3, CCSM3, FAMOUS) and an Earth Model of Intermediary Complexity (LOVECLIM). Such an exercise enables us to investigate the climate feedbacks which causes the most apparent model-data differences.

  4. Modeling for thermal contact resistance of frictional interface under high temperature and high pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛利华; 李晓谦; 胡仕成; 曹俊

    2002-01-01

    According to the thermodynamic characteristics in the work interface of the plastic forming of metals, a set of TCR (thermal contact resistance) experimental system under the conditions of high temperature and high pressure has been designed. The interrelations between the thermal contact resistance (TCR) and its influence factors such as contact pressure etc, are obtained. A modified coefficient E is introduced to consider the relative slide in the contact interface. Then the interfacial TCR calculating model, which suits to the special conditions of ‘high temperature+plastic rheology' and frictional contact such as continuous roll casting process, is established.

  5. Modeling high-frequency capacitance in SOI MOS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiak, Lidia; Jasiński, Jakub; Beck, Romuald B.; Ikraiam, Fawzi A.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a model of high frequency capacitance of a SOI MOSCAP. The capacitance in strong inversion is described with minority carrier redistribution in the inversion layer taken into account. The efficiency of the computational process is significantly improved. Moreover, it is suitable for the simulation of thin-film SOI structures. It may also be applied to the characterization of non-standard SOI MOSCAPS e.g. with nanocrystalline body.

  6. Mesoscale modeling of metal-loaded high explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bdzil, John Bohdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lieberthal, Brandon [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Srewart, Donald S [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 3D approach to modeling multi-phase blast explosive, which is primarily condensed explosive by volume with inert embedded particles. These embedded particles are uniform in size and placed on the array of a regular lattice. The asymptotic theory of detonation shock dynamics governs the detonation shock propagation in the explosive. Mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations are used to show how the particles are compressed, deformed, and accelerated by the high-speed detonation products flow.

  7. High-dimensional additive hazard models and the Lasso

    CERN Document Server

    Gaïffas, Séphane

    2011-01-01

    We consider a general high-dimensional additive hazard model in a non-asymptotic setting, including regression for censored-data. In this context, we consider a Lasso estimator with a fully data-driven $\\ell_1$ penalization, which is tuned for the estimation problem at hand. We prove sharp oracle inequalities for this estimator. Our analysis involves a new "data-driven" Bernstein's inequality, that is of independent interest, where the predictable variation is replaced by the optional variation.

  8. A minipig model of high-fat/high-sucrose diet-induced diabetes and atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Shoumin; Yin, Weidong; Wang, Zongbao; Kusunoki, Masataka; Lian, Xin; Koike, Tomonari; Fan, Jianglin; Zhang, Qiuju

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a major risk factor of the development of atherosclerosis in humans. However, studies examining mechanisms underlying diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis have been limited by the lack of suitable humanoid animal models. Pigs have a cardiovascular system that is very similar to that of humans and is useful as a model for human physiology and pathophysiology. In this study, we established a new miniature pig model for studying dyslipidaemia and atherosclerosis in diabetes. Chinese Guizhou minipigs were fed a normal control diet or a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFSD) for 6 months. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), insulin and glucose were quantified at monthly intervals. The induction of insulin resistance and dysfunction of the pancreatic β-cell were assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity test. The aortic fatty streak lesions were quantified following lipid staining with Sudan IV. During the feeding period, mild high plasma TC and TG were induced. At the end of 6 months, in HFSD-fed animals, the adipocytes were hypertrophic, fat deposit in the liver was observed, loss of pancreatic β-cells was observed, and the aortic fatty streak lesions were clearly present in the animals' aortas. Our study established that miniature pigs that were fed a HFSD without adding dietary cholesterol developed insulin resistance, mild diabetes and atherosclerotic lesions. HFSD-fed miniature pigs may be good animal models for research on the treatment of diabetic dyslipidaemia complicated with atherosclerosis. PMID:15312127

  9. Jet fire consequence modeling for high-pressure gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccorullo, Ivano; Russo, Paola

    2016-12-01

    A simple and reliable approach for sizing the hazard area potentially affected by a jet fire as consequence of the failure of high-pressure pipeline is proposed. A release rate model, taking pipeline operation properties and source release properties into account, is coupled with SLAB dispersion model and point source radiation model to calculate the hazard distance. The hazard distance is set beyond the distance at which a low chance of fatality can occur to people exposed and a wooden structure is not expected to burn due to radiation heat of jet fire. The comparison between three gases with different physico-chemical properties (i.e. natural gas, hydrogen, ethylene) is shown. The influence of pipeline operating parameters, such as: pressure, pipeline diameter and length, hole size, on the hazard area for the three gases is evaluated. Finally, a simple correlation is proposed for calculating the hazard distance as function of these parameters.

  10. A conceptual glacio-hydrological model for high mountainous catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schaefli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In high mountainous catchments, the spatial precipitation and therefore the overall water balance is generally difficult to estimate. The present paper describes the structure and calibration of a semi-lumped conceptual glacio-hydrological model for the joint simulation of daily discharge and annual glacier mass balance that represents a better integrator of the water balance. The model has been developed for climate change impact studies and has therefore a parsimonious structure; it requires three input times series – precipitation, temperature and potential evapotranspiration – and has 7 parameters to calibrate. A multi-signal approach considering daily discharge and – if available – annual glacier mass balance has been developed for the calibration of these parameters. The model has been calibrated for three different catchments in the Swiss Alps having glaciation rates between 37% and 52%. It simulates well the observed daily discharge, the hydrological regime and some basic glaciological features, such as the annual mass balance.

  11. Modeling of high entropy alloys of refractory elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosso, M.F. del, E-mail: delgrosso@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gcia. Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (B1650KNA), San Martin (Argentina); GCMM, UTN, FRG Pacheco, Av. H. Yrigoyen 288, Gral. Pacheco (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina); Bozzolo, G. [Loyola University Maryland, 4501 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Mosca, H.O. [Gcia. Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (B1650KNA), San Martin (Argentina); GCMM, UTN, FRG Pacheco, Av. H. Yrigoyen 288, Gral. Pacheco (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Reverting the traditional process of developing new alloys based on one or two single elements with minority additions, the study of high entropy alloys (HEA) (equimolar combinations of many elements) has become a relevant and interesting new field of research due to their tendency to form solid solutions with particular properties in the absence of intermetallic phases. Theoretical or modeling studies at the atomic level on specific HEA, describing the formation, structure, and properties of these alloys are limited due to the large number of constituents involved. In this work we focus on HEA with refractory elements showing atomistic modeling results for W-Nb-Mo-Ta and W-Nb-Mo-Ta-V HEA, for which experimental background exists. An atomistic modeling approach is applied for the determination of the role of each element and identification of the interactions and features responsible for the transition to the high entropy regime. Results for equimolar alloys of 4 and 5 refractory elements, for which experimental results exist, are shown. A straightforward algorithm is introduced to interpret the transition to the high entropy regime.

  12. Equilibrium Statistical-Thermal Models in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser

    2014-01-01

    We review some recent highlights from the applications of statistical-thermal models to different experimental measurements and lattice QCD thermodynamics, that have been made during the last decade. We start with a short review of the historical milestones on the path of constructing statistical-thermal models for heavy-ion physics. We discovered that Heinz Koppe formulated in 1948 an almost complete recipe for the statistical-thermal models. In 1950, Enrico Fermi generalized this statistical approach, in which he started with a general cross-section formula and inserted into it simplifying assumptions about the matrix element of the interaction process that likely reflects many features of the high-energy reactions dominated by density in the phase space of final states. In 1964, Hagedorn systematically analysed the high-energy phenomena using all tools of statistical physics and introduced the concept of limiting temperature based on the statistical bootstrap model. It turns to be quite often that many-par...

  13. The High Density Region of QCD from an Effective Model

    CERN Document Server

    De Pietri, R; Seiler, E; Stamatescu, I O

    2007-01-01

    We study the high density region of QCD within an effective model obtained in the frame of the hopping parameter expansion and choosing Polyakov-type loops as the main dynamical variables representing the fermionic matter. This model still shows the so-called sign problem, a difficulty peculiar to non-zero chemical potential, but it permits the development of algorithms which ensure a good overlap of the simulated Monte Carlo ensemble with the true one. We review the main features of the model and present results concerning the dependence of various observables on the chemical potential and on the temperature, in particular of the charge density and the Polykov loop susceptibility, which may be used to characterize the various phases expected at high baryonic density. In this way, we obtain information about the phase structure of the model and the corresponding phase transitions and cross over regions, which can be considered as hints about the behaviour of non-zero density QCD.

  14. Model biases in high-burnup fast reactor simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touran, N.; Cheatham, J.; Petroski, R. [TerraPower LLC, 11235 S.E. 6th St, Bellevue, WA 98004 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A new code system called the Advanced Reactor Modeling Interface (ARMI) has been developed that loosely couples multiscale, multiphysics nuclear reactor simulations to provide rapid, user-friendly, high-fidelity full systems analysis. Incorporating neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, safety/transient, fuel performance, core mechanical, and economic analyses, ARMI provides 'one-click' assessments of many multi-disciplined performance metrics and constraints that historically require iterations between many diverse experts. The capabilities of ARMI are implemented in this study to quantify neutronic biases of various modeling approximations typically made in fast reactor analysis at an equilibrium condition, after many repetitive shuffles. Sensitivities at equilibrium that result in very high discharge burnup are considered ( and >20% FIMA), as motivated by the development of the Traveling Wave Reactor. Model approximations discussed include homogenization, neutronic and depletion mesh resolution, thermal-hydraulic coupling, explicit control rod insertion, burnup-dependent cross sections, fission product model, burn chain truncation, and dynamic fuel performance. The sensitivities of these approximations on equilibrium discharge burnup, k{sub eff}, power density, delayed neutron fraction, and coolant temperature coefficient are discussed. (authors)

  15. How do exhibition visitors describe aesthetic qualities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, visitors to an art and design exhibition have used an interactive computer program to express the qualities they consider important for an art or design object (artefact). They have then used the program with their individually selected qualities to assess the artefacts. In...

  16. Autoimmune pancreatitis exhibiting multiple mass lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Masahiro; Kodama, Yuzo; Hiramatsu, Yukiko; Kurita, Akira; Sawai, Yugo; Uza, Norimitsu; Watanabe, Tomohiro; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2011-09-01

    Our case is a first report of autoimmune pancreatitis with multiple masses within the pancreas which was pathologically diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and treated by steroid. The masses disappeared by steroid therapy. Our case is informative to know that autoimmune pancreatitis sometimes exhibits multiple masses within the pancreas and to diagnose it without unnecessary surgery.

  17. Autoimmune Pancreatitis Exhibiting Multiple Mass Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Shiokawa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Our case is a first report of autoimmune pancreatitis with multiple masses within the pancreas which was pathologically diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and treated by steroid. The masses disappeared by steroid therapy. Our case is informative to know that autoimmune pancreatitis sometimes exhibits multiple masses within the pancreas and to diagnose it without unnecessary surgery.

  18. CERN exhibition wins yet another design prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    The “Universe of Particles” exhibition in CERN’s Globe wins the silver design prize from the German direct business communications association FAMAB.   Not only do tens of thousands of people visit the “Universe of Particles” exhibition each year, but juries for design prizes are crossing its threshold more and more frequently too. In 2011 alone it claimed 8 awards, including winning outright the 2011 Annual Multimedia award, the iF Communication Design for Corporate Architecture award and the Modern Decoration Media award (the Bulletin already reported on some of these in July 2011). The FAMAB award is the latest to join the prestigious list. The jury of FAMAB’s “ADAM 2011” award was particularly impressed by the hands-on nature of the exhibition, which encourages visitors to get interested in science. They also appreciated the way that the space in the Globe is not just a container for the exhibits, but itself ...

  19. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  20. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or similar events. Also included are general purpose displays in public buildings or public locations... support local Navy recruiters. Requests for exhibits for community relations events will be considered... event). (2) The office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) is the approving authority...