WorldWideScience

Sample records for models exercise capacity

  1. Antioxidant capacity and physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marciniak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a presentation of current knowledge regarding the changes of plasma antioxidant capacity observed in response to physical exercise. Human body created the enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, which play a protective role in the harmful impact of free radicals. Those two systems constitute what is known as the plasma total antioxidant capacity. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (NOS in combination with oxidation processes increases in some tissues during physiological response to physical exercise. These changes are observed after single bout of exercise as well as after regular training. The response of human body to physical exercise can be analysed using various models of exercise test. Application of repeated type of exhaustion allows for characterizing the ability of human body to adjust to the increased energy loss and increased oxygen consumption. This article presents the characteristics of components of plasma antioxidant capacity, the mechanisms of free radicals production and their role in human body. It discusses also the currently used methods of detecting changes in total antioxidant capacity and its individual elements in response to single bout of exercise and regular training. It presents the review of literature about research performed in groups of both regularly training and low exercise activity individuals as well as in group of healthy subjects and patients with circulation diseases.

  2. Aging, Functional Capacity and Eccentric Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Mandy L.; Willems, Mark E.T.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a multi-factorial process that ultimately induces a decline in our physiological functioning, causing a decreased health-span, quality of life and independence for older adults. Exercise participation is seen as a way to reduce the impact of aging through maintenance of physiological parameters. Eccentric exercise is a model that can be employed with older adults, due to the muscle’s ability to combine high muscle force production with a low energy cost. There may however be a risk of muscle damage before the muscle is able to adapt. The first part of this review describes the process of aging and how it reduces aerobic capacity, muscle strength and therefore functional mobility. The second part highlights eccentric exercise and the associated muscle damage, in addition to the repeated bout effect. The final section reviews eccentric exercise interventions that have been completed by older adults with a focus on the changes in functional mobility. In conclusion, eccentric endurance exercise is a potential training modality that can be applied to older adults for improving muscle strength, aerobic capacity and functional ability. However, further research is needed to assess the effects on aerobic capacity and the ideal prescription for eccentric endurance exercise. PMID:24307968

  3. Insulin levels and HOMA index are associated with exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Byrkjeland, Rune; Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Njerve, Ida Unhammer; Arnesen, Harald; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Solheim, Svein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies on type 2 diabetes have shown an association between exercise capacity and insulin resistance. In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) exercise capacity is often reduced due to exercise-induced ischemia. We have investigated the association between glucometabolic control, including the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance, and exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD with and without exercise-induced ischemia. Meth...

  4. Gene expression centroids that link with low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity and complex disease risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kivelä, Riikka; Silvennoinen, Mika; Lehti, Maarit; Rinnankoski-Tuikka,, Rita; Purhonen, Tatja; Ketola, Tarmo; Pullinen, Katri; Vuento, Meri; Mutanen, Niina; Maureen A Sartor; Reunanen, Hilkka; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    A strong link exists between low aerobic exercise capacity and complex metabolic diseases. To probe this linkage, we utilized rat models of low and high intrinsic aerobic endurance running capacity that differ also in the risk for metabolic syndrome. We investigated in skeletal muscle gene-phenotype relationships that connect aerobic endurance capacity with metabolic disease risk factors. The study compared 12 high capacity runners (HCRs) and 12 low capacity runners (LCRs) from generation 18 ...

  5. Exercise training on chronotropic response and exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Li; Min, Gao; Wei, Chen; Min, He; Jie,Zhou

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to observe the effects and relationship of exercise on chronotropic response (CR) and exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 30 patients with T2DM underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) after excluding contraindication. For each subject individualized exercise prescription was formulated, and they received 12 weeks of exercise training after CPET retest to complete the comparison of CR indicators, includ...

  6. Predictors of exercise capacity and symptoms in severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Morten; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Pecini, Redi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between invasive and non-invasive estimates of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and exercise capacity, in order to find new potential candidates for risk markers in severe aortic valve stenosis (AS).......This study investigated the association between invasive and non-invasive estimates of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and exercise capacity, in order to find new potential candidates for risk markers in severe aortic valve stenosis (AS)....

  7. The effect of Bosentan on exercise capacity in Fontan patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebert, Anders; Jensen, Annette S; Idorn, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    and longer life expectancy of TCPC patients have raised new challenges. The survivors are often suffering complications such as arrhythmias, myocardial dysfunction, thromboembolic events, neuropsychological deficit, protein-losing enteropathy and reduced exercise capacity. Several causes for the reduced...... exercise capacity may be present e.g. impaired function of the single ventricle, valve dysfunction and chronotropic impairment, and perhaps also increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Thus, plasma endothelin-1 has been shown to correlate with increased pulmonary vascular resistance and the risk...

  8. Predictors of exercise capacity and symptoms in severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Morten; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Pecini, Redi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between invasive and non-invasive estimates of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and exercise capacity, in order to find new potential candidates for risk markers in severe aortic valve stenosis (AS).......This study investigated the association between invasive and non-invasive estimates of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and exercise capacity, in order to find new potential candidates for risk markers in severe aortic valve stenosis (AS)....

  9. Physical training--beyond increasing exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrenghea, D; Poantă, Laura; Pop, Dana; Zdrenghea, V; Zdrenghea, M

    2008-01-01

    Physical training has traditionally represented the main method used in cardiovascular rehabilitation of ischemic patients in the past years. Nowadays, cardiovascular rehabilitation has been extended to other cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure. Also, cardiovascular rehabilitation included psychological, social and professional measures along with secondary prevention methods such as lifestyle changes. It has also been found that physical training has other additional effects which increased exercise tolerance. Effects on the risk factors regard beneficial effect on body weight, on the serum lipids levels, on psychosocial stress, on high blood pressure and on insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Physical exercise has also beneficial effects on the balance between sympathetic--vagal tone, inducing a vagal predominance, has anti-atherogenic and anti-ischemic effects, influencing the endothelial function, the inflammation (anti-inflammatory effect), both arteriogenesis and angiogenesis and thrombosis. Physical training could improve the symptoms of coronary patients by preconditioning, which has a protective effect for the myocardium. We may state that physical exercise has beneficial effects in cardiovascular patients because it increases exercise tolerance with positive consequences on the quality of life and professional reintegration, but also because it has positive effects beyond this. Thus, physical exercise should be practiced through cardiac rehabilitation programs, by all cardiovascular patients.

  10. Acetic acid enhances endurance capacity of exercise-trained mice by increasing skeletal muscle oxidative properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyung Min; Lee, Eui Seop; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Seongpil; Shin, Minkyeong; Kim, Sang Ho; Lee, Jin Hyup; Kim, Young Jun

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid has been shown to promote glycogen replenishment in skeletal muscle during exercise training. In this study, we investigated the effects of acetic acid on endurance capacity and muscle oxidative metabolism in the exercise training using in vivo mice model. In exercised mice, acetic acid induced a significant increase in endurance capacity accompanying a reduction in visceral adipose depots. Serum levels of non-esterified fatty acid and urea nitrogen were significantly lower in acetic acid-fed mice in the exercised mice. Importantly, in the mice, acetic acid significantly increased the muscle expression of key enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and glycolytic-to-oxidative fiber-type transformation. Taken together, these findings suggest that acetic acid improves endurance exercise capacity by promoting muscle oxidative properties, in part through the AMPK-mediated fatty acid oxidation and provide an important basis for the application of acetic acid as a major component of novel ergogenic aids.

  11. Exercise training on chronotropic response and exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Min, Gao; Wei, Chen; Min, He; Jie, Zhou

    2017-03-01

    The study was designed to observe the effects and relationship of exercise on chronotropic response (CR) and exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 30 patients with T2DM underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) after excluding contraindication. For each subject individualized exercise prescription was formulated, and they received 12 weeks of exercise training after CPET retest to complete the comparison of CR indicators, including the ratio of maximum exercise heart rate to predicted maximum heart rate value (rHR), heart rate reserve rate (HRRes), heart rate recovery (HRR) of 1-6 min after exercise termination (HRR1-6), exercise capacity (peak VO2/kg) and other indicators. The results showed that after 12 weeks of exercise treatment, rHR, HRRes, HRR1-6, and peak VO2/kg were significantly higher than before (Pexercise training can improve cardiac dysfunction, abnormal HRR, enhance exercise capacity and adaptability of the cardiovascular system to exercise stress in T2DM patients.

  12. Exercise capacity following pediatric heart transplantation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sara; Su, Jennifer A; Szmuszkovicz, Jacqueline R; Johnson, Robert; Sargent, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    Pediatric HTs account for 13% of all HTs with >60% of recipients surviving at least 10 years post-HT. The purpose of this systematic review is to synthesize the literature on exercise capacity of pediatric HT recipients to improve understanding of the mechanisms that may explain the decreased exercise capacity. Six databases were searched for studies that compared the exercise capacity of HT recipients ≤21 years old with a control group or normative data. Sixteen studies were included. Pediatric HT recipients, as compared to controls or normative data, exhibit significantly higher resting HR, and at peak exercise exhibit significantly decreased HR, VO2 , power, work, minute ventilation, and exercise duration. Peak VO2 appears to improve within the first 2.5 years post-HT; peak work remains constant; and there is inconclusive evidence that peak HR, HR recovery, and HR reserve improve with time since HT. These results are discussed in the context of the mechanisms that may explain the impaired exercise capacity of pediatric HT recipients, including chronotropic incompetence, graft dysfunction, side effects of immunosuppression therapy, and deconditioning. In addition, the limited literature on rehabilitation after pediatric HT is summarized. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Effect of Pre-Exercise Carbohydrate Feeding with Different Glycemic Index on Endurance Exercise Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salarkia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Although, it is known that feeding with carbohydrate (CHO during exercise improves endurance performance, the effects of glycemic index (GI of carbohydrate intake are less clear. This study was carried out to assess the effect of glycemic index of pre-exercise carbohydrate feeding on endurance exercise capacity. In a randomized clinical trial 52 endurance – trained men with mean age 21.7 ± 3 years, weight 69.3 ± 9 kg, height 178.4 ± 2 cm and BMI 22.6 ± 2 were studied. Subjects performed exercise treadmill at 70% VO2max after ingestion: Lentil, a low glycemic index; potato, a high glycemic index; glucose and water (as a control one hour before exercise. Blood samples were collected before and one hour after test meal and 30 minutes after exercise. To assess aerobic capacity VO2max (maximum oxygen uptake was measured at the end of the exercise trial. Endurance time was found to be longer after lentil than after the potato, glucose and control respectively (P < 0.05. At the end of exercise, the glucose group and control both gave lower plasma glucose concentrations. Changes of VO2max in lentil. Potato, glucose and control group which were not statistically significant. This study showed that a low GI meal eaten before an event increases endurance capacity during exercise. Furthermore, the low GI meal was found to maintain glucose at higher concentrations during the later stages of exercise.

  14. The predictors of exercise capacity impairment in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Frîngu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. The exercise capacity is a key issue in a diabetic patient’s management, due to its well-known beneficial effects in terms of glycemic control, cardiovascular risk reduction and quality of life improvement. However the exercise capacity of diabetic patients is decreased many times and its determinants are sometimes less known. Our study aimed to assess the effort capacity in a cohort of diabetic patients and to find the main causative factors of its impairment. Method: 61 patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled and underwent and transthoracic echocardiography and a cycloergometer exercise testing. Exercise performance was calculated and the influence of clinical data and ultrasound parameters was assessed. Sedentary status of each patient was established from total time/week of at least moderate physical activity. Results: the study group consisted of 48.4 % women, mean age 61.4 (±8.4 years. Disease median duration was 5 years and 21.3 % of the patients presented neuropathy, 4.5 % retinopathy and 6.5 % nephropathy. Exercise capacity was moderately and severe decreased (<5 METs in 37.7 % of patients and in this subgroup the diastolic dysfunction, sedentary behavior and old age has a significantly higher prevalence. Interestingly, by multivariate regression, the sedentary lifestyle was the main determinant of decreased effort capacity (beta-coefficient 1.37, p<0.001, suggesting the potential benefits of physical training in these patients. Conclusion. Our study found a decreased effort capacity in at least one third of the patients and this is mainly due to sedentary lifestyle and deconditioning, the diastolic dysfunction also contributes to decreased effort capacity in diabetic patients.

  15. Prognostic capacity of a clinically indicated exercise test for cardiovascular mortality is enhanced by combined analysis of exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and T-wave alternans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkkinen, Mikko; Nieminen, Tuomo; Verrier, Richard L; Leino, Johanna; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viik, Jari; Lehtinen, Rami; Nikus, Kjell; Kööbi, Tiit; Turjanmaa, Väinö; Kähönen, Mika

    2015-09-01

    Exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and T-wave alternans are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. We tested whether these parameters contain supplementary prognostic information. A total of 3609 consecutive patients (2157 men) referred for a routine, clinically indicated bicycle exercise test were enrolled in the Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS). Exercise capacity was measured in metabolic equivalents, heart rate recovery as the decrease in heart rate from maximum to one minute post-exercise, and T-wave alternans by time-domain Modified Moving Average method. During 57-month median follow-up (interquartile range 35-78 months), 96 patients died of cardiovascular causes (primary endpoint) and 233 from any cause. All three parameters were independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality when analysed as continuous variables. Adding metabolic equivalents (p heart rate recovery (p = 0.002) or T-wave alternans (p = 0.01) to the linear model improved its predictive power for cardiovascular mortality. The combination of low exercise capacity (heart rate recovery (≤12 beats/min) and elevated T-wave alternans (≥60 μV) yielded the highest hazard ratio for cardiovascular mortality of 16.5 (95% confidence interval 4.0-67.7, p heart rate recovery and ≥60 μV for T-wave alternans). The prognostic capacity of the clinical exercise test is enhanced by combined analysis of exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and T-wave alternans. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  16. Reduced vital capacity leads to exercise intolerance in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdem Yr, O; Inanici, F; Hasçelik, Z

    2011-09-01

    It is well-known that pulmonary function is altered in patients with ankylosing spondilitis (AS) owing mainly to the restriction of chest expansion. In addition to musculoskeletal factors, development of pulmonary function abnormalities may also deteriorate exercise tolerance of the patients. The aim of this study was to examine the pulmonary function and exercise tolerance of AS patients. A case controlled study. Outpatient clinic of an university hospital. Twenty-two men with the diagnosis of definite AS and 20 healthy controls matched according to age, sex, smoking habits and physical activity level were enrolled in this study. After a detailed physical examination, pulmonary function and exercise tolerance were assessed by "Sensormedics-Vmax 229" ergospirometry system. Maximal exercise testing was performed on a cycle ergometer using "10 watt ramp" protocol. Patients with AS had lower chest expansion, vital capacity and exercise tolerance than healthy subjects. Exercise tolerance strongly correlated with the patients' age, disease duration, chest expansion, modified Schober test, and vital capacity. In stepwise regression analysis, the best regression model for explaining the total variation of exercise tolerance selected only vital capacity as an independent variable (R²=54.9%). Rather than musculoskeletal manifestations, exercise intolerance was mainly explained by pulmonary function impairment in AS patients. These results suggest that efforts should be directed not only towards improving spinal mobility but also towards increasing cardiopulmonary fitness in AS patients.

  17. Inspiratory Capacity during Exercise: Measurement, Analysis, and Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A. Guenette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET is an established method for evaluating dyspnea and ventilatory abnormalities. Ventilatory reserve is typically assessed as the ratio of peak exercise ventilation to maximal voluntary ventilation. Unfortunately, this crude assessment provides limited data on the factors that limit the normal ventilatory response to exercise. Additional measurements can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of respiratory mechanical constraints during CPET (e.g., expiratory flow limitation and operating lung volumes. These measurements are directly dependent on an accurate assessment of inspiratory capacity (IC throughout rest and exercise. Despite the valuable insight that the IC provides, there are no established recommendations on how to perform the maneuver during exercise and how to analyze and interpret the data. Accordingly, the purpose of this manuscript is to comprehensively examine a number of methodological issues related to the measurement, analysis, and interpretation of the IC. We will also briefly discuss IC responses to exercise in health and disease and will consider how various therapeutic interventions influence the IC, particularly in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Our main conclusion is that IC measurements are both reproducible and responsive to therapy and provide important information on the mechanisms of dyspnea and exercise limitation during CPET.

  18. Children's exercise capacity at high altitude in Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianba; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stigum, Hein; Ouzhuluobu; Bjertness, Espen

    2014-11-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (exercise capacity) is a vital parameter in the evaluation of adaptation to high altitude, providing an index of the integrated function of the oxygen transport system. Previous studies of maximal oxygen uptake in population at high altitude have mainly focused on adults and adolescents, though data on children are uncommon. Maximal oxygen uptake can be measured directly, using an oxygen analyser, or indirectly through the development of equations for estimation from the maximal power output (W(max)). Such estimations and studies of the physiological aspects of children's capacity to work and live at different altitudes in Tibet ancestry were not reported previously, although differences similar to those seen in adults may be expected to occur. The present paper summarized the findings of studies on exercise capacity among children living at high altitude in Tibet.

  19. Respiratory muscle performance as a possible determinant of exercise capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Esch, Martin; van 't Hul, Alex J; Heijmans, Monique; Dekker, Joost

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of exercise capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis is associated with skeletal muscle performance. The contribution of respiratory muscle performance is questionable. This pilot study was designed to investigate the relationship between respiratory muscle performance and exercise capacity in ankylosing spondylitis. Subjects were 12 patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Measurements of maximal respiratory pressures and inspiratory muscle endurance were performed and correlated with maximal exercise capacity. Lung function and chest wall expansion were reduced on average. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures were reduced to 82 +/- 20% of predicted values and 75 +/- 22% of predicted values respectively. On average there was no reduction in inspiratory muscle endurance which remained at 103 +/- 36% of predicted values. No overall reduction was found in maximal exercise capacity, either expressed as maximal workload or as peak oxygen uptake; however, a wide range was found. Maximal workload and peak oxygen uptake correlated significantly with maximal respiratory pressures and respiratory muscle endurance. The best regression model for explaining the total variation of maximal workload and peak oxygen uptake selected maximal inspiratory pressures as the independent variable (r(2) = 59.6%, p = 0.003 and r(2) = 62.5%, p = 0.05 respectively.) These data suggest respiratory pressure and respiratory muscle endurance, in particular maximal inspiratory pressure, may be determinants of exercise capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

  20. Sildenafil and Exercise Capacity in the Elderly at Moderate Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway, George W; Lovelace, Anne J; Lanspa, Michael J; McIntosh, Scott E; Bell, James; Briggs, Ben; Weaver, Lindell K; Yanowitz, Frank; Grissom, Colin K

    2016-06-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia decreases exercise capacity and causes hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and pulmonary hypertension. The phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil is a pulmonary vasodilator that may improve exercise capacity at altitude. We aimed to determine whether sildenafil improves exercise capacity, measured as maximal oxygen consumption (peak V̇o2), at moderate altitude in adults 60 years or older. The design was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. After baseline cardiopulmonary exercise testing at 1400 m, 12 healthy participants (4 women) aged 60 years or older, who reside permanently at approximately 1400 m and are regularly active in self-propelled mountain recreation above 2000 m, performed maximal cardiopulmonary cycle exercise tests in a hypobaric chamber at a simulated altitude of 2750 m after ingesting sildenafil and after ingesting a placebo. After placebo, mean peak V̇o2 was significantly lower at 2750 m than 1400 m: 37.0 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) (95% CI, 32.7 to 41.3) vs 39.1 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) (95% CI, 33.5 to 44.7; P = .020). After placebo, there was no difference in heart rate (HR) or maximal workload at either altitude (z = 0.182; P = .668, respectively). There was no difference between sildenafil and placebo at 2750 m in peak V̇o2 (P = .668), O2 pulse (P = .476), cardiac index (P = .143), stroke volume index (z = 0.108), HR (z = 0.919), or maximal workload (P = .773). Transthoracic echocardiography immediately after peak exercise at 2750 m showed tricuspid annular plane systolic velocity was significantly higher after sildenafil than after placebo (P = .019), but showed no difference in tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (P = .720). Sildenafil (50 mg) did not improve exercise capacity in adults 60 years or older at moderate altitude in our study. This might be explained by a "dosing effect" or insufficiently high altitude. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc

  1. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.; Verschuren, O.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving wheelcha

  2. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.; Verschuren, O.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  3. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.G.J.; Verschuren, O.W.; Janssen, T.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.; Backx, F.J.G.; Groot, J.F. de; Smits, D.W.; Volman, MJM

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  4. Relationship between exercise induced dyspnea and functional capacity with doppler-derived diastolic function’

    OpenAIRE

    Nasim, Sumera; Nadeem, Najaf; Zahidie, Aysha; Sharif, Tabbasum

    2013-01-01

    Background Dyspnea is the frequent cause of exercise intolerance and physical inactivity among patients referred for exercise tolerance test. Diastolic dysfunction has shown significant correlation with exercise capacity and exercise induced dyspnea. To find out the frequency of diastolic dysfunction (DD) and the relationships between impaired exercise capacity and exercise induced dyspnea with DD by Doppler-derived indices among patients referred for stress test in a tertiary care hospital o...

  5. 14 CFR 385.8 - Exercise of authority in “acting” capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of authority in âactingâ capacity... Provisions § 385.8 Exercise of authority in “acting” capacity. Unless the assignment provides otherwise, staff members serving in an “acting” capacity may exercise the authority assigned to the staff members...

  6. Exercise training in older patients with systolic heart failure: Adherence, exercise capacity, inflammation and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Hjardem-Hansen, Rasmus; Dela, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Training improves exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (CHF) but most evidence is on selected younger patients with systolic CHF. Design. All patients diagnosed with CHF over 3 years were screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fifty two patients with systolic CHF...

  7. Chronic exercise keeps working memory and inhibitory capacities fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción ePadilla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Padilla et al. (2013 recently showed that chronic aerobic exercise in young adults is associated with better inhibitory control as measured by the strategic Stop Signal Task (SST. The aim of the current study was to explore whether better inhibitory abilities, associated with high levels of physical fitness, were also associated with higher working memory capacity (WMC in young healthy adults. Participants aged between 18 and 30 years and showing different levels of fitness confirmed by the Rockport 1-mile walking fitness test took part in this study. Active and passive participants were administered the SST to measure inhibitory control, and the Automatic Operation Span to measure verbal WMC. We first replicated Padilla et al.’s results showing that exercise specifically modulates strategic inhibitory processes. Our results also showed that active participants presented with better WMC than sedentary ones, showing a better capacity to manage simultaneously two verbal tasks and to inhibit interference. The results point to an association between chronic exercise, inhibitory abilities and WMC. The theoretical relationship between these variables will be discussed.

  8. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Capacity and Preoperative Markers of Inflammation

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    Pervez Sultan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Explanatory mechanisms for the association between poor exercise capacity and infections following surgery are underexplored. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness—assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET—would be associated with circulating inflammatory markers, as quantified by the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and monocyte subsets. The association between cardiopulmonary reserve and inflammation was tested by multivariable regression analysis with covariates including anaerobic threshold (AT and malignancy. In a first cohort of 240 colorectal patients, AT was identified as the sole factor associated with higher NLR (P=0.03 and absolute and relative lymphopenia (P=0.01. Preoperative leukocyte subsets and monocyte CD14+ expression (downregulated by endotoxin and indicative of chronic inflammation were also assessed in two further cohorts of age-matched elective gastrointestinal and orthopaedic surgical patients. Monocyte CD14+ expression was lower in gastrointestinal patients (n=43 compared to age-matched orthopaedic patients (n=31. The circulating CD14+CD16− monocyte subset was reduced in patients with low cardiopulmonary reserve. Poor exercise capacity in patients without a diagnosis of heart failure is independently associated with markers of inflammation. These observations suggest that preoperative inflammation associated with impaired cardiorespiratory performance may contribute to the pathophysiology of postoperative outcome.

  9. The Paroxetine Effect on Exercise Performance Depends on the Aerobic Capacity of Exercising Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Teixeira-Coelho, João Paulo Uendeles-Pinto, Ana Cláudia Alves Serafim, Samuel Penna Wanner, Márcio de Matos Coelho, Danusa Dias Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of aerobic capacity on the activation of the central serotonergic system and exercise fatigue in young men that ingested a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and were then subjected to moderate-intensity physical exercise. The maximal oxygen consumption of sixteen volunteers was measured during an incremental test. The volunteers were divided into two groups: subjects with higher (HAC and lower (LAC aerobic capacities. The volunteers were subjected to four experimental trials in which they ingested either placebo or paroxetine (10, 20 or 40 mg and, 4.5 h later, cycled at 60% of their maximal power output until reaching fatigue. None of the three paroxetine doses influenced the total exercise time in the LAC group. However, for the HAC group, the time to fatigue in the 20 mg paroxetine condition was 15% less than that in the placebo condition (76.3 ± 5.1 min vs. 90.0 ± 7.9 min; p < 0.05. The time to fatigue was higher in the HAC group than in the LAC group for all treatments. Our results provide additional evidence that aerobic capacity modulates the activity of the serotonergic system. However, contrary to what would be expected considering previous reports, the activation of the serotonergic system in exercising subjects in the HAC group was not less than that in the LAC group.

  10. Gene expression centroids that link with low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity and complex disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Riikka; Silvennoinen, Mika; Lehti, Maarit; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Purhonen, Tatja; Ketola, Tarmo; Pullinen, Katri; Vuento, Meri; Mutanen, Niina; Sartor, Maureen A; Reunanen, Hilkka; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2010-11-01

    A strong link exists between low aerobic exercise capacity and complex metabolic diseases. To probe this linkage, we utilized rat models of low and high intrinsic aerobic endurance running capacity that differ also in the risk for metabolic syndrome. We investigated in skeletal muscle gene-phenotype relationships that connect aerobic endurance capacity with metabolic disease risk factors. The study compared 12 high capacity runners (HCRs) and 12 low capacity runners (LCRs) from generation 18 of selection that differed by 615% for maximal treadmill endurance running capacity. On average, LCRs were heavier and had increased blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides compared with HCRs. HCRs were higher for resting metabolic rate, voluntary activity, serum high density lipoproteins, muscle capillarity, and mitochondrial area. Bioinformatic analysis of skeletal muscle gene expression data revealed that many genes up-regulated in HCRs were related to oxidative energy metabolism. Seven mean mRNA expression centroids, including oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism, correlated significantly with several exercise capacity and disease risk phenotypes. These expression-phenotype correlations, together with diminished skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial area in LCR rats, support the general hypothesis that an inherited intrinsic aerobic capacity can underlie disease risks.

  11. Long duration exercise program in individuals with parkinson´s disease: effects on functional capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, André Macari [UNESP; Beretta, Victor Spiandor [UNESP; Vitório,Rodrigo; Arroyo, Claudia Teixeira [UNESP; Lirani-Silva, Ellen [UNESP; Stella, Florindo [UNESP; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long duration exercise program on physical fitness components of functional capacity in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) and to evaluate ongoing effects of exercise after 8 to 10-week follow-up without exercise. Twenty-four individuals with PD were randomly assigned to two groups: generalized exercise program and stretching exercise program (control group). The generalized exercise program provided training in physical fitness com...

  12. Functional and Hemodynamic Cardiac Determinants of Exercise Capacity in Patients With Systolic Heart Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Yoran M.; Bugatti, Silvia; Damman, Kevin; Willemsen, Suzan; Hartog, Jasper W. L.; Metra, Marco; Sipkens, Johannes S.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Voors, Adriaan A.

    2012-01-01

    Decreased exercise capacity is the main symptom in patients with heart failure (HF). We assessed the association among noninvasively determined maximal cardiac output at exercise, systolic and diastolic cardiac functions at rest, and peak oxygen uptake (pVO(2)) exercise capacity in patients with con

  13. Predicting postoperative exercise capacity after major lung resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Yoshinori; Sueyoshi, Susumu; Tsubuku, Tatsuji; Kawasaki, Masayuki; Akagi, Yoshito

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates whether postoperative exercise capacity can be predicted from preoperative lung perfusion scintigraphy and the number of subsegments resected. We studied 315 patients, with 158 being assigned odd numbers and 157 being assigned even numbers. In the 158 patients assigned odd numbers, the predicted postoperative VO2 max/m2 (ppo VO2 max/m2) was obtained from the results of lung perfusion scintigraphy and the number of subsegments scheduled for resection. We then examined correlations with the actual values, 2 weeks and 1 month postoperatively, to obtain a regression equation (Series 1). In the 157 patients assigned even numbers, the ppo VO2 max/m2 corrected by the regression equation derived from Series 1 (corrected-ppo VO2 max/m2) was compared with the actual values, 2 weeks and 1 month postoperatively, to establish whether the postoperative VO2 max/m2 could be predicted. The regression equation between the ppo VO2 max/m2 and its actual value was y = 0.83x + 103, 2 weeks postoperatively, and y = 0.923x + 82, 1 month postoperatively. The difference between the corrected-ppo VO2 max/m2 and the actual postoperative value was small. Calculating the residual [Formula: see text]o2 max/m2 preoperatively from the results of lung perfusion scintigraphy and the number of segments scheduled for resection is useful for predicting postoperative exercise capacity.

  14. Relationship of left heart size and left ventricular mass with exercise capacity in chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yu-qin; WANG Le-min; CHE Lin; SONG Hao-ming; ZHANG Qi-ping

    2011-01-01

    Background Impaired exercise capacity is one of the most common clinical manifestations in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). The severity of reduced exercise capacity is an indicator of disease prognosis. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between left heart size and mass with exercise capacity.Methods A total of 74 patients were enrolled in the study, with 37 having congestive heart failure (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <0.45) and the other 37 with coronary heart disease (by coronary angiography) serving as the control group (LVEF >0.55). Echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise test were performed. The multiply linear regression model was used to evaluate the association between echocardiogrphic indices and exercise capacities.Results The study showed that left ventricular end diastolic / systolic diameter (LVEDD/LVESD), left atrial diameter (LAD) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were significantly enlarged in patients with chronic heart failure compared with controls (P <0.01). The VO2AT, Peak VO2, Load AT, and Load Peak in chronic heart failure patients were also significantly reduced compared with controls (P <0.05), VE/VCO2 slope was increased in patients with chronic heart failure (P <0.01). Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that the patients' exercise capacity was significantly associated with the left heart size and mass, however, the direction and/or strength of the associations sometimes varied in chronic heart failure patients and controls. Load AT correlated negatively with LVEDD in chronic heart failure patients (P=0.012), while Load AT correlated positively with LVEDD in control patients (P=0.006). VE/VCO2 slope correlated positively with LAD (B=0.477, P <0.0001) in chronic heart failure patients, while the VE/VCO2 slope correlated negatively with LAD in control patients (P=0.009).Conclusion The study indicates that the size of LVEDD and LAD are important

  15. Respiratory muscle performance as a possible determinant of exercise capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, M. van der; Hul, A.J. van 't; Heijmans, M.; Dekker, J.

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of exercise capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis is associated with skeletal muscle performance. The contribution of respiratory muscle performance is questionable. This pilot study was designed to investigate the relationship between respiratory muscle performance and exercise

  16. Effect of diltiazem on exercise capacity after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnado, Sara; Peled-Potashnik, Yael; Huntsberry, Ashley; Lowes, Brian D; Zolty, Ronald; Burdorf, Adam; Lyden, Elizabeth R; Moulton, Michael J; Um, John Y; Raichlin, Eugenia

    2017-08-01

    Sinus tachycardia (ST) is common after heart transplantation (HTx). The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of diltiazem treatment during the first year after HTx on heart rate (HR), cardiac allograft function, and exercise capacity. From the total cohort, 25 HTx recipients started diltiazem treatment 4±2 weeks after HTx and continued it for at least 1 year (diltiazem group). Each study case was matched to a control. All patients underwent hemodynamic assessment and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) at 1 year after HTx. HR decreased in the diltiazem group from 99±11 bpm to 94±7 bpm (P=.03) and did not change in the controls (98±11 bpm vs 100±13 bpm, P=.14). The difference between the groups at 1 year after HTx was significant (P=.04). In the diltiazem group left ventricular (LV), stroke volume and ejection fraction increased (48±16 vs 55±17 mL, P=.02, and 60%±10% vs 62%±12% P=.03, respectively) but did not differ from controls. E/E' decreased (10.7±2.7 vs 7.3±1.9, P=.003) while cardiac index was higher (3.5±0.8 vs 3.1±0.5; P=.05) in the diltiazem group at 1-year follow-up. The absolute peak VO2 (21±4 vs 18±6 mL/kg/min; P=.05) and normalized peak VO2 (73%±17% vs 58%±14%; P=.004) were significantly higher in the diltiazem group. This study showed that diltiazem treatment reduces ST, may improve cardiac allograft function and exercise tolerance during the first year after HTx. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Iron Status in Chronic Heart Failure: Impact on Symptoms, Functional Class and Submaximal Exercise Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjuanes, Cristina; Bruguera, Jordi; Grau, María; Cladellas, Mercé; Gonzalez, Gina; Meroño, Oona; Moliner-Borja, Pedro; Verdú, José M; Farré, Nuria; Comín-Colet, Josep

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron deficiency and anemia on submaximal exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. We undertook a single-center cross-sectional study in a group of stable patients with chronic heart failure. At recruitment, patients provided baseline information and completed a 6-minute walk test to evaluate submaximal exercise capacity and exercise-induced symptoms. At the same time, blood samples were taken for serological evaluation. Iron deficiency was defined as ferritin < 100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation < 20% when ferritin is < 800 ng/mL. Additional markers of iron status were also measured. A total of 538 heart failure patients were eligible for inclusion, with an average age of 71 years and 33% were in New York Heart Association class III/IV. The mean distance walked in the test was 285 ± 101 meters among those with impaired iron status, vs 322 ± 113 meters (P=.002). Symptoms during the test were more frequent in iron deficiency patients (35% vs 27%; P=.028) and the most common symptom reported was fatigue. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that increased levels of soluble transferrin receptor indicating abnormal iron status were independently associated with advanced New York Heart Association class (P < .05). Multivariable analysis using generalized additive models, soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin index, both biomarkers measuring iron status, showed a significant, independent and linear association with submaximal exercise capacity (P=.03 for both). In contrast, hemoglobin levels were not significantly associated with 6-minute walk test distance in the multivariable analysis. In patients with chronic heart failure, iron deficiency but not anemia was associated with impaired submaximal exercise capacity and symptomatic functional limitation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. A method to study the impact of chemically-induced ovarian failure on exercise capacity and cardiac adaptation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Perez, Jessica N; Constantopoulos, Eleni; McKee, Laurel; Regan, Jessica; Hoyer, Patricia B; Brooks, Heddwen L; Konhilas, John

    2014-04-07

    The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases in post-menopausal women, yet, the role of exercise, as a preventative measure for CVD risk in post-menopausal women has not been adequately studied. Accordingly, we investigated the impact of voluntary cage-wheel exercise and forced treadmill exercise on cardiac adaptation in menopausal mice. The most commonly used inducible model for mimicking menopause in women is the ovariectomized (OVX) rodent. However, the OVX model has a few dissimilarities from menopause in humans. In this study, we administered 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) to female mice, which accelerates ovarian failure as an alternative menopause model to study the impact of exercise in menopausal mice. VCD selectively accelerates the loss of primary and primordial follicles resulting in an endocrine state that closely mimics the natural progression from pre- to peri- to post-menopause in humans. To determine the impact of exercise on exercise capacity and cardiac adaptation in VCD-treated female mice, two methods were used. First, we exposed a group of VCD-treated and untreated mice to a voluntary cage wheel. Second, we used forced treadmill exercise to determine exercise capacity in a separate group VCD-treated and untreated mice measured as a tolerance to exercise intensity and endurance.

  19. Effect of oral sucrose shortly before exercise on work capacity in McArdle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.T.; Haller, R.G.; Vissing, J.

    2008-01-01

    ingestion of either 75 g of sucrose or a placebo 40 minutes before exercise, or 37 g of sucrose or a placebo 5 minutes before exercise. Patients were blinded to test substances. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Treatment effectiveness was assessed by monitoring heart rate and perceived exertion during exercise......BACKGROUND: Oral sucrose (75 g) ingested 40 minutes before exercise improves exercise tolerance in McArdle disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a lower dose of sucrose administered closer in time to exercise could have a similar beneficial effect on exercise capacity in patients with Mc....... RESULTS: Both sucrose treatments dramatically improved exercise tolerance, compared with the placebo. The low-dose, 5-minute sucrose trial had a more sustained effect on exercise capacity than the 40-minute trial. The more sustained effect was probably related to more continuous glucose uptake from...

  20. Exercise capacity and selected physiological factors by ancestry and residential altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianba; Berntsen, Sveinung; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Several physiological compensatory mechanisms have enabled Tibetans to live and work at high altitude, including increased ventilation and pulmonary diffusion capacity, both of which serve to increase oxygen transport in the blood. The aim of the present study was to compare exercise capacity...... (maximal power output) and selected physiological factors (arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate at rest and during maximal exercise, resting hemoglobin concentration, and forced vital capacity) in groups of native Tibetan children living at different residential altitudes (3700 vs. 4300 m above sea...... saturation at rest, lung volume, and arterial oxygen saturation were significantly associated with exercise capacity at a given altitude, but could not fully account for the differences in exercise capacity observed between ancestry groups or altitudes. CONCLUSIONS: The superior exercise capacity in native...

  1. Respiratory muscle performance as a possible determinant of exercise capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    OpenAIRE

    van der Esch, Martin; van 't Hul,Alex J; Heijmans, Monique; Dekker, Joost

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of exercise capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis is associated with skeletal muscle performance. The contribution of respiratory muscle performance is questionable. This pilot study was designed to investigate the relationship between respiratory muscle performance and exercise capacity in ankylosing spondylitis. Subjects were 12 patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Measurements of maximal respiratory pressures and inspiratory muscle endurance were performed and correla...

  2. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brussel, Marco; Lelieveld, O T H M; van der Net, J; Engelbert, R H H; Helders, P J M; Takken, T

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To compare the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) with healthy controls, to determine if there were differences based on disease onset type, and to examine the relationship between aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity in childre

  3. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity in adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, Otto; van Brussel, Marco; Takken, Tim; van Weert, Ellen; van Leeuwen, Miek A.; Armbrust, Wineke

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity in adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) compared with age- and sex-matched healthy individuals, and to assess associations between disease-related variables and aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity. METHODS: Of 25 p

  4. Exercise capacity in children with isolated congenital complete atrioventricular block: does pacing make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blank, A.C.; Hakim, S.; Strengers, J.L.; Tanke, R.B.; Veen, T.A. van; Vos, M.E. de; Takken, T.

    2012-01-01

    The management of patients with isolated congenital complete atrioventricular block (CCAVB) has changed during the last decades. The current policy is to pace the majority of patients based on a variety of criteria, among which is limited exercise capacity. Data regarding exercise capacity in this p

  5. Exercise Capacity in Children With Isolated Congenital Complete Atrioventricular Block : Does Pacing Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blank, A. Christian; Hakim, Sara; Strengers, Jan L.; Tanke, Ronald B.; van Veen, Toon A.; Vos, Marc A.; Takken, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The management of patients with isolated congenital complete atrioventricular block (CCAVB) has changed during the last decades. The current policy is to pace the majority of patients based on a variety of criteria, among which is limited exercise capacity. Data regarding exercise capacity in this p

  6. Patterns of Changes in Wheelchair Exercise Capacity After Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppenhagen, Casper F.; de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W.; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Asbeck, Floris W.; Bongers, Helma; Lindeman, Eline; van der Woude, Luc H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To identify different patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity in the period between the start of active spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and 5 years after discharge; (2) to examine the pattern determinants of the change in wheelchair exercise capacity. Design: Pros

  7. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vooijs, M.; Siemonsma, P.C.; Heus, I.; Sont, J.K.; Rövekamp, T.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease taken into consideration indices such as therapeutic validity of interventions, methodological quality of studies, and exercise v

  8. Effect of energy drink dose on exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and heart rate variability after high-intensity exercise

    OpenAIRE

    An, Sang Min; Park, Jong Suk; Kim, Sang Ho

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and heart rate variability after high-intensity exercise on caffeine concentration of energy drink. [Methods] The volunteers for this study were 15 male university student. 15 subjects were taken basic physical examinations such as height, weight and BMI before the experiment. Primary tests were examined of VO2max per weight of each subjects by graded exercise test using Bruce proto...

  9. Size, Shape and Stamina: The Impact of Left Ventricular Geometry on Exercise Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Carolyn S.P.; Grewal, Jasmine; Borlaug, Barry A.; Ommen, Steve R.; Kane, Garvan C.; McCully, Robert B.; Pellikka, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    While several studies have examined the cardiac functional determinants of exercise capacity, few have investigated the effects of structural remodeling. The current study evaluated the association between cardiac geometry and exercise capacity. Subjects with ejection fraction ≥ 50% and no valvular disease, myocardial ischemia or arrhythmias were identified from a large prospective exercise echocardiography database. Left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness were used to classif...

  10. Effect of energy drink dose on exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and heart rate variability after high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sang Min; Park, Jong Suk; Kim, Sang Ho

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and heart rate variability after high-intensity exercise on caffeine concentration of energy drink. The volunteers for this study were 15 male university student. 15 subjects were taken basic physical examinations such as height, weight and BMI before the experiment. Primary tests were examined of VO2max per weight of each subjects by graded exercise test using Bruce protocol. Each of five subject was divided 3 groups (CON, ECGⅠ, ECGⅡ) by matched method based on weight and VO2max per weight what gained of primary test for minimize the differences of exercise capacity and ingestion of each groups. For the secondary tests, the groups of subjects were taken their materials before and after exercise as a blind test. After the ingestion, subjects were experimented on exercise test of VO2max 80% by treadmill until the all-out. Heart rate was measured by 1minute interval, and respiratory variables were analyzed VO2, VE, VT, RR and so on by automatic respiratory analyzer. And exercise exhaustion time was determined by stopwatch. Moreover, HRV was measured after exercise and recovery 3 min. Among the intake groups, ECGⅡ was showed the longest of exercise exhaustion time more than CON group (p = .05). Result of heart rate during exercise according to intake groups, there was significant differences of each time (p .05). Result of RPE during exercise according to intake groups, there was significant differences of each time (p .05). In conclusion, EDGⅡ showed the significant increase of exercise exhaustion time more than CON group (p=.05) and not significant differences in HR, RPE, RER, HRV, HRR, blood pressure (p > .05). Therefore, 2.5 mg/kg(-1) ingestion of energy drink might be positive effect to increase exercise performance capacity without side-effect in cardiovascular disease.

  11. Patient-Reported Dyspnea Correlates Poorly with Aerobic Exercise Capacity Measured During Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Dany; Kass, Jonathan; Akers, Stephen; Hunter, Krystal; Pratter, Melvin

    2017-08-08

    Patient-reported dyspnea plays a central role in assessing cardiopulmonary disease. There is little evidence, however, that dyspnea correlates with objective exercise capacity measurements. If the correlation is poor, dyspnea as a proxy for objective assessment may be misleading. To compare patient's perception of dyspnea with maximum oxygen uptake (MaxVO2) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Fifty patients undergoing CPET for dyspnea evaluation were studied prospectively. Dyspnea assessment was measured by a metabolic equivalent of task (METs) table, Mahler Dyspnea Index, Borg Index, number of blocks walked, and flights of stairs climbed before stopping due to dyspnea. These descriptors were compared to MaxVO2. MaxVO2 showed low correlation with METs table (r = 0.388, p = 0.005) and no correlation with Mahler Index (r = 0.24, p = 0.093), Borg Index (r = -0.017, p = 0.905), number of blocks walked (r = 0.266, p = 0.077) or flights of stairs climbed (r = 0.188, p = 0.217). When adjusted for weight (maxVO2/kg), there was significant correlation between MaxVO2 and METs table (r = 0.711, p Max VO2 and the assessment methods, while patients with BMI > 30 had moderate correlation between MaxVO2 and METs table (r = 0.568, p = 0.002). Patient-reported dyspnea correlates poorly with MaxVO2 and fails to predict exercise capacity. Reliance on reported dyspnea may result in suboptimal categorization of cardiopulmonary disease severity.

  12. ERRICCA radon model intercomparison exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Albarracín, D.; Csige, I.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical models based on finite-difference or finite-element methods are used by various research groups in studies of radon-222 transport through soil and building materials. Applications range from design of radon remediation systems to morefundamental studies of radon transport. To ascertain ......, still remain. All in all, it seems that the exercise has served its purpose and stimulated improvements relating to the quality of numerical modelling of radon transport. To maintain a high quality of modelling, it is recommendedthat additional exercises are carried out....

  13. Predictors of exercise capacity following exercise-based rehabilitation in patients with coronary heart disease and heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Jamal; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Lewinter, Christian

    2016-01-01

    .76-1.41) standard deviation units higher, and in trials reporting maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 3.3 ml/kg.min(-1) (95% CI: 2.6-4.0) higher. There was evidence of a high level of statistical heterogeneity across trials (I(2) statistic > 50%). In multivariable meta-regression analysis, only exercise intervention...... intensity was found to be significantly associated with VO2max (P = 0.04); those trials with the highest average exercise intensity had the largest mean post-rehabilitation VO2max compared to control. CONCLUSIONS: We found considerable heterogeneity across randomized controlled trials in the magnitude......-regression analysis. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials of exercise-based rehabilitation were identified from three published systematic reviews. Exercise capacity was pooled across trials using random effects meta-analysis, and meta-regression used to examine the association between exercise capacity and a range...

  14. Effect of fuels on exercise capacity in muscle phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John; Quistorff, Bjørn; Haller, Ronald G

    2005-01-01

    , it is unknown whether PGAMD is associated with a second-wind phenomenon during exercise, as in McArdle disease, and whether patients with PGAMD, like patients with PFKD and McArdle disease, benefit from supplementation with fuels that bypass the metabolic block. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether fuels...... that bypass the metabolic block can improve exercise capacity or whether exercise capacity improves during sustained exercise. DESIGN: Single-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of glucose, lactate, and intralipid on work capacity in patients with PGAMD. SETTING: National University...... Hospital, University of Copenhagen, and Neuromuscular Center, Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine.Patients Two unrelated men (21 and 26 years old) with PGAMD who since their teens had experienced muscle cramps, muscle pain, and episodes of myoglobinuria provoked by brief vigorous exercise, 4...

  15. Chronotropic Incompetence Does Not Limit Exercise Capacity in Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Haqeel A; Gierula, John; Paton, Maria F; Byrom, Roo; Lowry, Judith E; Cubbon, Richard M; Cairns, David A; Kearney, Mark T; Witte, Klaus K

    2016-04-26

    Limited heart rate (HR) rise (HRR) during exercise, known as chronotropic incompetence (CI), is commonly observed in chronic heart failure (CHF). HRR is closely related to workload, the limitation of which is characteristic of CHF. Whether CI is a causal factor for exercise intolerance, or simply an associated feature remains unknown. This study sought to clarify the role of the HR on exercise capacity in CHF. This series of investigations consisted of a retrospective cohort study and 2 interventional randomized crossover studies to assess: 1) the relationship between HRR and exercise capacity in CHF; and 2) the effect of increasing and lowering HR on exercise capacity in CHF as assessed by symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing and measurement of peak oxygen consumption in patients with CHF due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The 3 key findings were: 1) the association of exercise capacity and HRR is much weaker in severe CHF compared to normal left ventricular function; 2) increasing HRR using rate-adaptive pacing (versus fixed-rate pacing) in unselected patients with CHF does not improve peak exercise capacity; and 3) acutely lowering baseline and peak HR by adjusting pacemaker variables in conjunction with a single dose of ivabradine does not adversely affect exercise capacity in unselected CHF patients. The data refute the contention that CI contributes to impaired exercise capacity in CHF. This finding has widespread implications for pacemaker programming and the use of heart-rate lowering agents. (The Influence of Heart Rate Limitation on Exercise Tolerance in Pacemaker Patients [TREPPE]; NCT02247245). Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Limitations in exercise and functional capacity in long-term postpneumonectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshelboim, Baruch; Fox, Benjamin Daniel; Saute, Milton; Sagie, Alexander; Yehoshua, Liora; Fuks, Leonardo; Schneer, Sonia; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonectomy results in impairments of pulmonary function and exercise intolerance associated with respiratory limitations. However, exercise capacity and functional capacity are less known at long-term followup. The aims of this study were to assess exercise tolerance and functional capacity among long-term postpneumonectomy patients and to identify the limiting factors in exercise related to comorbidities and which lung was involved. Seventeen postpneumonectomy patients aged 59 ± 13 years and 5.5 ± 4.2 years postoperation were prospectively studied. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs), cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), Doppler-echocardiography, 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance, and "senior fitness tests" (SFTs) were conducted with all patients. Exercise capacity and PFT were diminished ((Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 peak; 11.5 ± 3.3 mL·kg·min, 48 ± 17% predicted, forced vital capacity % predicted; 55 ± 13, FEV1% predicted; 46 ± 14, respectively). Most patients presented with low exercise cardiovascular parameters and normal breathing reserve (17 ± 12 L) during CPET. No significant differences were shown between right and left pneumonectomy and comorbidities related to exercise limitations (χ= 1.96, P = .376). Functional capacity in walking and SFTs were near normal (6MWT distance; 490 ± 15 m, 89 ± 25% predicted). Echocardiography showed normal left ventricle systolic function (ejection fraction, 60 ± 4%) with mildly elevated systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (38 ± 12 mm Hg). Long-term postpneumonectomy patients demonstrated decreased exercise capacity, limited primarily by the cardiovascular system regardless of lung resection side or comorbidities, although tests of functional capacity were near normal. Most patients can maintain near normal life in activities of daily living, but the long-term cardiopulmonary exercise function should be considered for meticulous evaluation and clinical care to preserve physiological reserves.

  17. Heart Rate Variability Is Associated with Exercise Capacity in Patients with Cardiac Syndrome X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dai-Yin; Yang, Albert C; Cheng, Hao-Min; Lu, Tse-Min; Yu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chen-Huan; Sung, Shih-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the healthiness of autonomic nervous system, which is associated with exercise capacity. We therefore investigated whether HRV could predict the exercise capacity in the adults with cardiac syndrome X (CSX). A total of 238 subjects (57±12 years, 67.8% men), who were diagnosed as CSX by the positive exercise stress test and nearly normal coronary angiogram were enrolled. Power spectrum from the 24-hour recording of heart rate was analyzed in frequency domain using total power (TP) and spectral components of the very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) ranges. Among the study population, 129 subjects with impaired exercise capacity during the treadmill test had significantly lower HRV indices than those with preserved exercise capacity (≥90% of the age predicted maximal heart rate). After accounting for age, sex, and baseline SBP and heart rate, VLF (odds ratio per 1SD and 95% CI: 2.02, 1.19-3.42), LF (1.67, 1.10-2.55), and TP (1.82, 1.17-2.83) remained significantly associated with preserved exercise capacity. In addition, increased HRV indices were also associated with increased exercise duration, rate-pressure product, and heart rate recovery, independent of age, body mass index, and baseline SBP and heart rate. In subgroup analysis, HRV indices demonstrated similar predictive values related to exercise capacity across various subpopulations, especially in the young. In patients with CSX, HRV was independently associated with exercise capacity, especially in young subjects. The healthiness of autonomic nervous system may have a role in modulating the exercise capacity in patients with CSX.

  18. A Modeling Exercise for the Organic Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Christine R.

    2010-01-01

    An in-class molecular modeling exercise is described. Groups of students are given molecular models to investigate and questions about the models to answer. This exercise is a quick and effective way to review nomenclature, stereochemistry, and conformational analysis.

  19. CETP Expression Protects Female Mice from Obesity-Induced Decline in Exercise Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Cappel

    Full Text Available Pharmacological approaches to reduce obesity have not resulted in dramatic reductions in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. Exercise, in contrast, reduces CHD risk even in the setting of obesity. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP is a lipid transfer protein that shuttles lipids between serum lipoproteins and tissues. There are sexual-dimorphisms in the effects of CETP in humans. Mice naturally lack CETP, but we previously reported that transgenic expression of CETP increases muscle glycolysis in fasting and protects against insulin resistance with high-fat diet (HFD feeding in female but not male mice. Since glycolysis provides an important energy source for working muscle, we aimed to define if CETP expression protects against the decline in exercise capacity associated with obesity. We measured exercise capacity in female mice that were fed a chow diet and then switched to a HFD. There was no difference in exercise capacity between lean, chow-fed CETP female mice and their non-transgenic littermates. Female CETP transgenic mice were relatively protected against the decline in exercise capacity caused by obesity compared to WT. Despite gaining similar fat mass after 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, female CETP mice showed a nearly two-fold increase in run distance compared to WT. After an additional 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, mice were subjected to a final exercise bout and muscle mitochondria were isolated. We found that improved exercise capacity in CETP mice corresponded with increased muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α. These results suggest that CETP can protect against the obesity-induced impairment in exercise capacity and may be a target to improve exercise capacity in the context of obesity.

  20. CETP Expression Protects Female Mice from Obesity-Induced Decline in Exercise Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappel, David A; Lantier, Louise; Palmisano, Brian T; Wasserman, David H; Stafford, John M

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological approaches to reduce obesity have not resulted in dramatic reductions in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exercise, in contrast, reduces CHD risk even in the setting of obesity. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) is a lipid transfer protein that shuttles lipids between serum lipoproteins and tissues. There are sexual-dimorphisms in the effects of CETP in humans. Mice naturally lack CETP, but we previously reported that transgenic expression of CETP increases muscle glycolysis in fasting and protects against insulin resistance with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in female but not male mice. Since glycolysis provides an important energy source for working muscle, we aimed to define if CETP expression protects against the decline in exercise capacity associated with obesity. We measured exercise capacity in female mice that were fed a chow diet and then switched to a HFD. There was no difference in exercise capacity between lean, chow-fed CETP female mice and their non-transgenic littermates. Female CETP transgenic mice were relatively protected against the decline in exercise capacity caused by obesity compared to WT. Despite gaining similar fat mass after 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, female CETP mice showed a nearly two-fold increase in run distance compared to WT. After an additional 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, mice were subjected to a final exercise bout and muscle mitochondria were isolated. We found that improved exercise capacity in CETP mice corresponded with increased muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). These results suggest that CETP can protect against the obesity-induced impairment in exercise capacity and may be a target to improve exercise capacity in the context of obesity.

  1. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P<0.001), whereas exercise capacity was only associated with better sustained attention (P<0.046) and spatial working memory (P<0.038). Fine and gross motor skills (all P<0.001), exercise capacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic

  2. Effects of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises on lung capacity in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Shin, Young-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To examine the effects of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises on the lung capacities of healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine healthy subjects with no orthopedic history of the back were recruited. Subjects were randomly assigned to a experimental group and control group. Subjects were allocated to one of two groups; an experimental group that underwent lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises and a control group that underwent treadmill and abdominal drawing-in exercises. Lung capacities were evaluated 4 weeks after exercises. [Results] The experimental group showed significant increments in EV, ERV, IRV, VT vs. pre-intervention results, and the control group showed significant increments in the EVC and IRV. Significant intergroup differences were observed in terms of post-training gains in EVC, IRV, and VT. [Conclusion] Combined application of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises were found to have a positive effect on lung capacity. PMID:27630393

  3. Effects of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises on lung capacity in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Shin, Young-Jun

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] To examine the effects of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises on the lung capacities of healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine healthy subjects with no orthopedic history of the back were recruited. Subjects were randomly assigned to a experimental group and control group. Subjects were allocated to one of two groups; an experimental group that underwent lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises and a control group that underwent treadmill and abdominal drawing-in exercises. Lung capacities were evaluated 4 weeks after exercises. [Results] The experimental group showed significant increments in EV, ERV, IRV, VT vs. pre-intervention results, and the control group showed significant increments in the EVC and IRV. Significant intergroup differences were observed in terms of post-training gains in EVC, IRV, and VT. [Conclusion] Combined application of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises were found to have a positive effect on lung capacity.

  4. Exercise capacity in apparently healthy survivors of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, E; Fioredda, F; Calevo, M G; Smeraldi, A; Saitta, M; Hanau, G; Faraci, M; Grisolia, F; Dini, G; Pongiglione, G; Haupt, R

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate cardiopulmonary exercise tolerance in a large cohort of apparently healthy paediatric cancer survivors in order to determine their participation in sporting activities. A total of 84 young (29%), and 79 healthy controls were studied. Exercise testing was performed on a treadmill ergometer. Gas exchange analysis and derived variables were measured on a breath-by-breath basis. Pulmonary functional evaluation was performed before exercise. Echocardiographic evaluation at rest was performed within one month before the exercise test. There were no differences in exercise responses between patients and controls. In boys VO2 max was slightly but significantly lower than in controls. This finding was thought to be a result of decreased physical fitness as all the other exercise parameters were similar to those in the controls. Results show that apparently healthy survivors of paediatric cancer can take part in dynamic sporting activities if they exhibit a normal response to cardiopulmonary exercise testing, while those that exhibit a reduced VO2 max should be re-evaluated after an aerobic training programme, and should undergo tailored dynamic physical activity if the VO2 max does not normalise.

  5. Do supervised weekly exercise programs maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life, twelve months after pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jennifer A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary rehabilitation programs have been shown to increase functional exercise capacity and quality of life in COPD patients. However, following the completion of pulmonary rehabilitation the benefits begin to decline unless the program is of longer duration or ongoing maintenance exercise is followed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise compared to home exercise will maintain the benefits gained from an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects to twelve months. Methods Following completion of an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, COPD subjects will be recruited and randomised (using concealed allocation in numbered envelopes into either the maintenance exercise group (supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise or the control group (unsupervised home exercise and followed for twelve months. Measurements will be taken at baseline (post an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, three, six and twelve months. The exercise measurements will include two six-minute walk tests, two incremental shuttle walk tests, and two endurance shuttle walk tests. Oxygen saturation, heart rate and dyspnoea will be monitored during all these tests. Quality of life will be measured using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Participants will be excluded if they require supplemental oxygen or have neurological or musculoskeletal co-morbidities that will prevent them from exercising independently. Discussion Pulmonary rehabilitation plays an important part in the management of COPD and the results from this study will help determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise can successfully maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life following an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects in Australia.

  6. Improvement of exercise capacity and left ventricular diastolic function with metoprolol XL after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S H; Jensen, S E; Egstrup, K

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) diastolic function predicts and correlates with exercise capacity. Beta-blockers improve exercise capacity and LV diastolic function in patients with severe LV systolic dysfunction in dilated cardiomyopathy. However, information on the effect of metoprolol XL...... on exercise capacity in relation to LV diastolic function in patients with mild to moderate LV systolic dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction is limited. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 77 patients, a subgroup of 59 patients with mild to moderate LV systolic...... dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction were given metoprolol XL (n = 29) or placebo (n = 30). The effects of metoprolol XL on exercise capacity in relation to effects on LV diastolic filling were studied. Two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography and maximal symptom limited bicycle test were performed...

  7. Relationship Between Reverse Remodeling and Cardiopulmonary Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, Mirjam H; van t Sant, Jetske; Versteeg, Henneke; Cramer, MJ; Doevendans, Pieter A; Pedersen, Susanne S; Meine, Mathias

    BACKGROUND: Studies on the relationship between left ventricular reverse remodeling and cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are scarce and inconclusive. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-four patients with a 1st-time

  8. Relationship between reverse remodeling and cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, M.H.; Sant, Jetske Van't; Versteeg, H.; Cramer, Maarten J; Doevendans, Pieter A; Pedersen, Susanne S; Meine, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on the relationship between left ventricular reverse remodeling and cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are scarce and inconclusive. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-four patients with a 1st-time

  9. Obesity impairs skeletal muscle AMPK signaling during exercise: role of AMPKα2 in the regulation of exercise capacity in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Young, Robert S.; Ayala, Julio E.; Fueger, Patrick T.; Mayes, Wesley H.; Kang, Li; Wasserman, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α2 activity is impaired in obese, insulin resistant individuals during exercise. We determined whether this defect contributes to the metabolic dysregulation and reduced exercise capacity observed in the obese state. Design C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice and/or mice expressing a kinase dead AMPKα2 subunit in skeletal muscle (α2-KD) were fed chow or high fat (HF) diets from 3–16 weeks (wks) of age. At 15wks mice performed an exercise stress test to determine exercise capacity. In WT mice, muscle glucose uptake and skeletal muscle AMPKα2 activity was assessed in chronically catheterized mice (carotid artery/jugular vein) at 16wks. In a separate study, HF-fed WT and α2-KD mice performed 5wks of exercise training (from 15–20wks of age) to test whether AMPKα2 is necessary to restore work tolerance. Results HF-fed WT mice had reduced exercise tolerance during an exercise stress test, and an attenuation in muscle glucose uptake and AMPKα2 activity during a single bout of exercise (p<0.05 vs. chow). In chow-fed α2-KD mice running speed and time were impaired ~45% and ~55%, respectively (p<0.05 vs. WT chow); HF feeding further reduced running time ~25% (p<0.05 vs. α2-KD chow). In response to 5wks of exercise training, HF-fed WT and α2-KD mice increased maximum running speed ~35% (p<0.05 vs. pre-training) and maintained body weight at pre-training levels, whereas body weight increased in untrained HF WT and α2-KD mice. Exercise training restored running speed to levels seen in healthy, chow-fed mice. Conclusion HF feeding impairs AMPKα2 activity in skeletal muscle during exercise in vivo. While this defect directly contributes to reduced exercise capacity, findings in HF-fed α2-KD mice show that AMPKα2-independent mechanisms are also involved. Importantly, α2-KD mice on a HF-fed diet adapt to regular exercise by increasing exercise tolerance, demonstrating that this adaptation is independent of

  10. Preliminary Study of Exercise Capacity in Post-acute Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June-Kai Chen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and exercise capacity of cycle ergometry exercise testing and exercise performance in patients with post-acute stroke. Nineteen male patients (mean age, 62.7 ± 9.2 years with a post stroke interval of 9.9 ± 2.0 days underwent symptom- limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Peak exercise capacity was measured by open-circuit spirometry during standard upright ergometer cycling. The mean peak oxygen uptake was 11.8 mL/kg/min, peak heart rate with age-predicted maximal heart rate was 67.9 ± 3.4%, and peak oxygen pulse was 7.5 mL/beat. The anaerobic threshold was achieved with a mean peak oxygen uptake of 73.4%. Mean peak minute ventilation was 42.1 L/min, and ventilatory reserve was 48.1 ± 16.8%. Our findings confirm that cycle ergometry exercise testing is feasible and exercise capacity is compromised in post-acute stroke survivors within 2 weeks after stroke. Respiratory impairments do not appear to contribute to the reduced exercise capacity post stroke.

  11. Bosentan Improves Exercise Capacity in Adolescents and Adults After Fontan Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebert, Anders; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Thilen, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Fontan procedure has improved survival in children with functionally univentricular hearts. With time, however, complications such as reduced exercise capacity are seen more frequently. Exercise intolerance is multifactorial, but pulmonary vascular resistance probably plays a cruc...... TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01292551....

  12. Bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis: benefit of exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Jonathan D; Barry, Sinead C; Barry, Rupert B M; Cawood, Tom J; McKenna, Malachi J; Gallagher, Charles G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and objective maximal exercise measurements in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Twenty-five CF patients (19 males, 6 females, mean age 25.5 yr, range: 17-52) underwent BMD assessment and maximal-cycle ergometer exercise testing. We examined the relationship between gas exchange (% peak-predicted O(2) uptake, CO(2) output, O(2) saturation), exercise performance (maximum power, exercise duration), and respiratory mechanics (tidal volume, rate) with lumbar spine and total proximal femur BMD. The strongest clinical correlate with BMD was forced expiratory volume at 1s (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.36; total proximal femur Z-score, r=0.68, pexercise correlate was % peak-predicted O(2) uptake (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.44, pexercise parameters and total proximal femur BMD (r=0.43-0.60) than with lumbar spine BMD (r=0.04-0.45). Multiple regression analysis revealed VO(2) to be the strongest independent predictor of BMD (R(2)=0.86, pExercise appears to influence total proximal femur BMD more than lumbar spine BMD in CF. Exercise rehabilitation programs focusing on peripheral strength training may benefit those CF patients with low total proximal femur BMD.

  13. Evaluation of exercise capacity after severe stroke using robotics-assisted treadmill exercise: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, O; de Bruin, E D; Schindelholz, M; Schuster, C; de Bie, R A; Hunt, K J

    2013-01-01

    Robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) with focus on motor recovery has become popular in early post-stroke rehabilitation but low endurance for exercise is highly prevalent in these individuals. This study aimed to develop an exercise testing method using robotics-assisted treadmill exercise to evaluate aerobic capacity after severe stroke. Constant load testing (CLT) based on body weight support (BWS) control, and incremental exercise testing (IET) based on guidance force (GF) control were implemented during RATE. Analyses focussed on step change, step response kinetics, and peak performance parameters of oxygen uptake. Three subjects with severe motor impairment 16-23 days post-stroke were included. CLT yielded reasonable step change values in oxygen uptake, whereas response kinetics of oxygen uptake showed low goodness of fit. Peak performance parameters were not obtained during IET. Exercise testing in post-stroke individuals with severe motor impairments using a BWS control strategy for CLT is deemed feasible and safe. Our approach yielded reasonable results regarding cardiovascular performance parameters. IET based on GF control does not provoke peak cardiovascular performance due to uncoordinated walking patterns. GF control needs further development to optimally demand active participation during RATE. The findings warrant further research regarding the evaluation of exercise capacity after severe stroke.

  14. Locus coeruleus galanin expression is enhanced after exercise in rats selectively bred for high capacity for aerobic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick S; Groves, Jessica L; Pettett, Brett J; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Dishman, Rod K; Holmes, Philip V

    2010-12-01

    The neuropeptide galanin extensively coexists with norepinephrine in locus coeruleus (LC) neurons. Previous research in this laboratory has demonstrated that unlimited access to activity wheels in the home cage increases mRNA for galanin (GAL) in the LC, and that GAL mediates some of the beneficial effects of exercise on brain function. To assess whether capacity for aerobic exercise modulates this upregulation in galanin mRNA, three heterogeneous rat models were tested: rats selectively bred for (1) high intrinsic (untrained) aerobic capacity (High Capacity Runners, HCR) and (2) low intrinsic aerobic capacity (Low Capacity Runners, LCR) and (3) unselected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with and without free access to running wheels for 3 weeks. Following this exercise protocol, mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and GAL was measured in the LC. The wheel running distances between the three models were significantly different, and age contributed as a significant covariate. Both selection and wheel access condition significantly affected GAL mRNA expression, but not TH mRNA expression. GAL was elevated in exercising HCR and SD rats compared to sedentary rats while LCR rats did not differ between conditions. Overall running distance significantly correlated with GAL mRNA expression, but not with TH mRNA expression. No strain differences in GAL or TH gene expression were observed in sedentary rats. Thus, intrinsic aerobic running capacity influences GAL gene expression in the LC only insofar as actual running behavior is concerned; aerobic capacity does not influence GAL expression in addition to changes associated with running.

  15. Effects of a Rebound Exercise Training Program on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoni, Teresa L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if aerobic dancing on rebound exercise equipment (minitrampolines) is an effective way to improve aerobic capacity and body composition. Although aerobic capacity improved, percent body fat did not change. Results were similar to those produced by conventional aerobic dance programs of like intensity. (MT)

  16. Myogenin regulates exercise capacity but is dispensable for skeletal muscle regeneration in adult mdx mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Meadows

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most prevalent inherited childhood muscle disorder in humans. mdx mice exhibit a similar pathophysiology to the human disorder allowing for an in-depth investigation of DMD. Myogenin, a myogenic regulatory factor, is best known for its role in embryonic myogenesis, but its role in adult muscle maintenance and regeneration is still poorly understood. Here, we generated an mdx:Myog(flox/flox mouse harboring a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase transgene, which was used to conditionally delete Myog during adult life. After tamoxifen treatment, three groups of mice were created to study the effects of Myog deletion: mdx:Myog(flox/flox mice (mdx, Myog(flox/flox mice (wild-type, and mdx:Myog(floxΔ/floxΔ:Cre-ER mice (mdx:Myog-deleted. mdx:Myog-deleted mice exhibited no adverse phenotype and behaved normally. When run to exhaustion, mdx:Myog-deleted mice demonstrated an enhanced capacity for exercise compared to mdx mice, running nearly as far as wild-type mice. Moreover, these mice showed the same signature characteristics of muscle regeneration as mdx mice. Unexpectedly, we found that myogenin was dispensable for muscle regeneration. Factors associated with muscle fatigue, metabolism, and proteolysis were significantly altered in mdx:Myog-deleted mice, and this might contribute to their increased exercise capacity. Our results reveal novel functions for myogenin in adult muscle and suggest that reducing Myog expression in other muscle disease models may partially restore muscle function.

  17. [Assessment of exercise capacity in congenital heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzo-López, Raquel; González-Represas, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    For many years, the treatment of congenital heart diseases has been a field in which, based on the seriousness of these conditions, treatment options were viewed with the greatest deference. This has conditioned, in many cases, the interventions to be undertaken in each. In this sense, exercise was thought to have a negative impact and thus the practise of almost any physical activity was limited. Although there has recently been a change in the paradigm with respect to exercise, this idea continues to hold sway. For many cardiopathies, the information obtained through a stress test is essential in order to implement and supervise an exercise program. The aim of this study is to analyze the parameters within the stress test which allow for an adequate stratification of the risk to subjects with congenital heart diseases who undertake exercise, as well as their values in accordance with the type of pathology, the gravity of such, and the age of the patients. Furthermore, these parameters will be analyzed for both their survival markers and the protocols that can best be adjusted for patients with these characteristic. Copyright © 2015 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Structured Exercise Program is Feasible and Improves Functional Capacity among Older Adults in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Osvaldo J Hernandez Soto; Ramirez Marrero, Farah A

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor affecting overall health and functional capacity among older adults. In this study we evaluated functional capacity in 22 older adults in Puerto Rico (mean age ± standard deviation = 73.3 ± 8.2 years) before, during and after eight weeks participation in a structured exercise program. Functional capacity was evaluated using a field test battery (body composition, flexibility, coordination, agility and balance, muscle endurance and cardiorespiratory e...

  19. β-alanine supplementation to improve exercise capacity and performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Bryan; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty; Artioli, Guilherme G; Swinton, Paul A; Dolan, Eimear; Roschel, Hamilton; Sale, Craig; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence on the effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise capacity and performance. This study was designed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. A 3-level mixed effects model was employed to model effect sizes and account for dependencies within data. 3 databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science) were searched using a number of terms ('β-alanine' and 'Beta-alanine' combined with 'supplementation', 'exercise', 'training', 'athlete', 'performance' and 'carnosine'). Inclusion/exclusion criteria limited articles to double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies investigating the effects of β-alanine supplementation on an exercise measure. All healthy participant populations were considered, while supplementation protocols were restricted to chronic ingestion. Cross-over designs were excluded due to the long washout period for skeletal muscle carnosine following supplementation. A single outcome measure was extracted for each exercise protocol and converted to effect sizes for meta-analyses. 40 individual studies employing 65 different exercise protocols and totalling 70 exercise measures in 1461 participants were included in the analyses. A significant overall effect size of 0.18 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.28) was shown. Meta-regression demonstrated that exercise duration significantly (p=0.004) moderated effect sizes. Subgroup analyses also identified the type of exercise as a significant (p=0.013) moderator of effect sizes within an exercise time frame of 0.5-10 min with greater effect sizes for exercise capacity (0.4998 (95% CI 0.246 to 0.753)) versus performance (0.1078 (95% CI -0.201 to 0.416)). There was no moderating effect of training status (p=0.559), intermittent or continuous exercise (p=0.436) or total amount of β-alanine ingested (p=0.438). Co-supplementation with sodium bicarbonate resulted in the largest effect size when compared with placebo (0.43 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.64)). β-alanine had a

  20. Vitamin D is associated with cardiopulmonary exercise capacity: results of two independent cohorts of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, A; Gläser, S; Hannemann, A; Schäper, C; Nauck, M; Felix, S B; Bollmann, T; Ewert, R; Friedrich, N

    2016-02-14

    Vitamin D has an important role in calcium homeostasis and is known to have various health-promoting effects. Moreover, potential interactions between vitamin D and physical activity have been suggested. This study aims to investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and exercise capacity quantified by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). For this, 1377 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) and 750 participants from the independent SHIP-TREND cohort were investigated. Standardised incremental exercise tests on a cycle ergometer were performed to assess exercise capacity by VO2 at anaerobic threshold, peakVO2, O2 pulse and peak power output. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by an automated chemiluminescence immunoassay. In SHIP-1, 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with all considered parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity. Subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (4th quartile) showed an up to 25% higher exercise capacity compared with subjects with low 25(OH)D levels (1st quartile). All associations were replicated in the independent SHIP-TREND cohort and were independent of age, sex, season and other interfering factors. In conclusion, significant positive associations between 25(OH)D and parameters of CPET were detected in two large cohorts of healthy adults.

  1. Exercise capacity, physical activity, and obesity in adults with repaired aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Roselien; Budts, Werner; Delecluse, Christophe; Vanhees, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Patients with aortic coarctation (COA) have a reduced exercise capacity and seem to be more prone to adopt a sedentary lifestyle. During clinical practice, we often observe that patients seem to be overweight. However, data on physical activity and weight status in this population are currently not available. This study aimed to describe weight status, self-reported physical activity levels, and self-perceived health status in adults with repaired COA in comparison with healthy counterparts and to investigate the relationships among exercise capacity, physical activity, weight status, and perceived health status. We studied 103 COA patients who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and who completed the Flemish Physical Activity Computerized Questionnaire and the short-form 36 health survey questionnaire. Patients with COA show a significantly lower exercise tolerance than what would be expected in healthy persons (P physical activity (P physical activity are related to exercise capacity (total energy expenditure: r = 0.278, P = .0015). The more active COA patients report higher scores of perceived physical functioning, general health, and mental health. Overweight patients did not perform significantly different than patients with a healthy weight did. Adults with repaired COA have a reduced exercise tolerance, which is related to low physical activity levels. Up to one-third of the COA patients we studied are overweight. As a poor exercise capacity identifies patients at risk for hospitalization and death and obesity might adversely influence the development of cardiovascular disease, it is important to improve the exercise capacity in these patients. Guiding patients toward more physical activity in daily life might therefore be the number 1 preventive measure to be taken in this patient group.

  2. Voluntary stand-up physical activity enhances endurance exercise capacity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Seo, Kyo Won; McGregor, Robin A; Yeo, Ji Young; Ko, Tae Hee; Bolorerdene, Saranhuu; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Involuntary physical activity induced by the avoidance of electrical shock leads to improved endurance exercise capacity in animals. However, it remains unknown whether voluntary stand-up physical activity (SPA) without forced simulating factors improves endurance exercise capacity in animals. We examined the eff ects of SPA on body weight, cardiac function, and endurance exercise capacity for 12 weeks. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 8 weeks, n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or a voluntary SPA group. The rats were induced to perform voluntary SPA (lifting a load equal to their body weight), while the food height (18.0 cm) in cages was increased progressively by 3.5 every 4 weeks until it reached 28.5 cm for 12 weeks. The SPA group showed a lower body weight compared to the CON group, but voluntary SPA did not affect the skeletal muscle and heart weights, food intake, and echocardiography results. Although the SPA group showed higher grip strength, running time, and distance compared to the CON group, the level of irisin, corticosterone, genetic expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, and nuclei numbers were not affected. These findings show that voluntary SPA without any forced stimuli in rats can eff ectively reduce body weight and enhance endurance exercise capacity, suggesting that it may be an important alternative strategy to enhance endurance exercise capacity. PMID:27162483

  3. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: Effects on Muscle Contractile Characteristics and Exercise Capacity, a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez Wens

    Full Text Available Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS. The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown.Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11 and 2 exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12 or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11, both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks.Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21 ± 7%, HCTR: +23 ± 5%. Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29 ± 6%, whereas type II (+23 ± 7% and IIa (+23 ± 6%, CSA increased in HITR. Muscle strength improved in HITR and HCTR (between +13 ± 7% and +45 ± 20% and body fat percentage tended to decrease (HITR: -3.9 ± 2.0% and HCTR: -2.5 ± 1.2%. Furthermore, endurance capacity (Wmax +21 ± 4%, time to exhaustion +24 ± 5%, VO2max +17 ± 5% and lean tissue mass (+1.4 ± 0.5% only increased in HITR. Finally self-reported physical activity levels increased 73 ± 19% and 86 ± 27% in HCTR and HITR, respectively.High intensity cardiovascular exercise combined with resistance training was safe, well tolerated and improved muscle contractile characteristics and endurance capacity in MS.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01845896.

  4. Carbohydrate- and protein-rich diets in McArdle disease: Effects on exercise capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.T.; Vissing, J.

    2008-01-01

    was identical, and was adjusted to the subject's weight, age and sex. After each diet, exercise tolerance and maximal work capacity were tested on a bicycle ergometer, using a constant workload for 15 minutes followed by an incremental workload to exhaustion. RESULTS: During the constant workload, heart rate...... metabolism during exercise, which questions the effect of protein in McArdle disease. METHODS: In a crossover, open design, we studied 7 patients with McArdle disease, who were randomised to follow either a carbohydrate- or protein-rich diet for three days before testing. Caloric intake on each diet...... capacity and exercise tolerance to submaximal workloads by maintaining a diet high in carbohydrate instead of protein. The carbohydrate diet not only improves tolerance to every-day activities, but will likely also help to prevent exercise-induced episodes of muscle injury in McArdle disease Udgivelsesdato...

  5. Aerobic exercise capacity in post-polio syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, E.L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to expand the body of knowledge on the diminished aerobic capacity of individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS). The studies described in this thesis were based on the assumption that, besides a reduced muscle mass, deconditioning contributes to the severely diminished ae

  6. Aerobic exercise capacity in post-polio syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, E.L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to expand the body of knowledge on the diminished aerobic capacity of individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS). The studies described in this thesis were based on the assumption that, besides a reduced muscle mass, deconditioning contributes to the severely diminished

  7. Carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling improves exercise capacity following soccer-specific intermittent exercise performed in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, N D; Maclaren, D P M; Reilly, T; Drust, B

    2011-07-01

    Ingestion of carbohydrate and reducing core body temperature pre-exercise, either separately or combined, may have ergogenic effects during prolonged intermittent exercise in hot conditions. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling on the physiological responses to soccer-specific intermittent exercise and the impact on subsequent high-intensity exercise performance in the heat. Twelve male soccer players performed a soccer-specific intermittent protocol for 90 min in the heat (30.5°C and 42.2% r.h.) on four occasions. On two occasions, the participants underwent a pre-cooling manoeuvre. During these sessions either a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHOc) or a placebo was consumed at (PLAc). During the remaining sessions either the carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHO) or placebo (PLA) was consumed. At 15-min intervals throughout the protocol participants performed a mental concentration test. Following the soccer-specific protocol participants performed a self-chosen pace test and a test of high-intensity exercise capacity. The period of pre-cooling significantly reduced core temperature, muscle temperature and thermal sensation (P < 0.05). Self-chosen pace was greater with CHOc (12.5 ± 0.5 km h(-1)) compared with CHO (11.3 ± 0.4 km h(-1)), PLA (11.3 ± 0.4 km h(-1)) and PLAc (11.6 ± 0.5 km h(-1)) (P < 0.05). High-intensity exercise capacity was improved with CHOc and CHO when compared with PLA (CHOc; 79.8 ± 7 s, CHO; 72.1 ± 5 s, PLAc; 70.1 ± 8 s, PLA; 57.1 ± 5 s; P < 0.05). Mental concentration during the protocol was also enhanced during CHOc compared with PLA (P < 0.05). These results suggest pre-cooling in conjunction with the ingestion of carbohydrate during exercise enhances exercise capacity and helps maintain mental performance during intermittent exercise in hot conditions.

  8. Sildenafil does not Improve Exercise Capacity under Acute Hypoxia Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Salinas, A H; Fort, N; Torrella, J R; Pagès, T; Javierre, C; Viscor, G

    2016-09-01

    The increase in pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) due to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) could be a limiting factor for physical performance during hypoxic exposure. Sildenafil has been shown to reduce PAP in situations of moderate or severe hypoxia, and consequently its role as an ergogenic aid and even a possible doping substance must be considered. We performed a double-blind crossover study to determine the effects of sildenafil on cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic parameters in normoxia and during acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (4 000 m) at rest and during maximal and submaximal (60% VO2 max) exercise tests. One hour before testing started, sildenafil (100 mg) or a placebo was orally administered to 11 volunteers. In normoxic conditions, sildenafil did not affect performance. Similarly, no significant differences were found in cardiovascular and respiratory parameters in hypoxic conditions at rest or during exercise. The use of sildenafil to improve physical performance in non-acclimatized subjects is not supported by our data. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. The Effects of Pulmonary Valve Replacement for Severe Pulmonary Regurgitation on Exercise Capacity and Cardiac Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jason G; Schamberger, Marcus S; Hurwitz, Roger A; Johnson, Tiffanie R; Sterrett, Lauren E; Ebenroth, Eric S

    2015-08-01

    Patients may develop hemodynamic abnormalities after right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) repair. Re-intervention timing remains a dilemma. This study evaluates exercise capacity and RV function before and after intervention using age-related comparisons. Twenty-six patients with severe pulmonary regurgitation (PR) after initial repair scheduled for pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) were enrolled. Metabolic treadmill testing (EST) and MRI were obtained before and after surgery. EST results were compared with matched controls. Preoperative exercise time and peak oxygen consumption (VO2 max) were significantly diminished compared with controls but were not significantly different postoperatively. The patients were then split into age-related cohorts. When comparing pre-PVR and post-PVR exercise time and VO2 max among themselves, neither cohort showed significant differences. However, patients younger than 25 years had better postoperative results, an age-related difference not seen in the controls. Preoperative MRI showed significantly dilated RV, PR, and low normal function. After PVR, the right to left ventricular end-diastolic volume ratio (RVEDV:LVEDV) and pulmonary artery regurgitant fraction (RF) significantly decreased. There was no change in ventricular ejection fractions (EF). Severe PR, decreased RVEF, and RV dilation can significantly diminish exercise capacity. PVR improves RVEDV:LVEDV and RF, but not EF. Younger patients had better exercise capacity that was maintained postoperatively. This age-related difference was not seen in the controls, indicating that earlier intervention may preserve exercise capacity. Serial ESTs in patients with severe PR following RVOT repair may identify deteriorating exercise capacity as an early indicator for the need for PVR.

  10. Differences in exercise capacity in patients with chronic left heart failure and chronic right heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Hua; Luo, Qin; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Qing; Xi, Qun-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-Hui

    2014-11-01

    Exercise impairment is common in chronic left heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Exercise impairment degree is a strong predictor of clinical outcome. Our purpose was to evaluate differences in exercise capacity using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) in patients with chronic left and right heart failure, and determine which factors were related to exercise impairment. 102 patients with class II/III New York Heart Association were involved in the study (41 with chronic left heart failure, 61 with chronic right heart failure secondary to PAH). All patients underwent CPX to evaluate exercise capacity. Patients with right heart failure had significantly lower peak oxygen uptake (VO2), peak VO2/kg ratio, peak oxygen uptake/heart rate (VO2/HR) ratio and increases in oxygen uptake/increase in work rate (ΔVO2/ΔWR) slope, and had higher minute ventilation/CO2 production ratio and peak dead space volume/tidal volume during exercise. In patients with left heart failure, peak VO2/HR ratio was positively correlated with ΔVO2/ΔWR slope. However, VO2 and VO2/HR ratio were positively correlated with ΔVO2/ΔWR slope in patients with right heart failure. Compared with left heart failure, patients with right heart failure showed worse exercise capacity resulting from worse pulmonary and cardiovascular adaptation to exercise. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Heart rate recovery and aerobic endurance capacity in cancer survivors: interdependence and exercise-induced improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Daniel; Vogt, Lutz; Gonzalez-Rivera, Javier; Schmidt, Katharina; Banzer, Winfried

    2015-12-01

    Whilst evidence supports beneficial effects of exercise on heart rate variability in cancer patients, its impact on heart rate recovery (HRR) and possible associations of exercise capacity and HRR have not yet been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the effects of an exercise intervention on HRR in relation to the baseline aerobic capacity. Cancer patients (n = 309, 178 females) performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test at baseline and at a 4-month interval follow-up with home-based and supervised exercise programs in-between. VO2 and heart rate were assessed during and HRR at 60 and 120 s after test termination. Based on a median split of the VO2 peak baseline values, participants were dichotomized into two groups: below median (47 female; 57.5 ± 10 years) and above median (48 female; 54.3 ± 12 years). In the baseline sample (n = 309), VO2 peak correlated significantly with HRR60 (r = .327, p  .05). These findings point toward a positive linear relationship between aerobic capacity and vagal reactivation in cancer patients. Patients with initial VO2 peak values below median showed improved VO2 peak, HRR60 and HRR120 following the moderate aerobic exercise intervention and differences to patients above median in all outcomes compared.

  12. Physiologic Determinants of Exercise Capacity in Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: A Multidimensional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Stephanie; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Langlois, Carole; Bricout, Nicolas; Aguilaniu, Bernard; Bellocq, Agnes; Le Rouzic, Olivier; Dominique, Stephane; Delobbe, Alain; François, Geraldine; Tazi, Abdellatif; Wallaert, Benoit; Chenivesse, Cecile

    2017-01-01

    Background Reduced exercise capacity severely impacts quality of life in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Ascertaining mechanisms that impair exercise capacity is necessary to identify targets for symptomatic treatments. Methods Dyspnea, pulmonary function tests and cardiopulmonary exercise test were analysed in 62 study participants. Data were compared between subjects with impaired and normal aerobic capacity (V’O2 peak less than 84% versus 84% predicted or more). Data were reduced using a principal component analysis. Multivariate analysis included V’O2 peak as the dependent variable and principal components as covariates. Results V’O2 peak was reduced in 44 subjects (71%). Subjects with impaired aerobic capacity presented: (i) decreased FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, DLCO and DLCO/VA and increased AaDO2, (ii) increased ventilatory equivalents at ventilatory threshold, VD/VT peak, AaDO2 peak and PaCO2 peak and decreased ventilatory reserve and PaO2 peak. There was no difference between groups in dyspnea scores. Principal component analysis extracted 4 principal components interpreted as follows: PC1: gas exchange; PC2: “pseudorestriction”; PC3: exercise-induced hyperpnea; PC4: air trapping. Multivariate analysis explained 65% of V’O2 peak. The 4 principal components were independently associated with V’O2 peak (βcoefficients: PC1: 9.3 [4.6; 14], PC2: 7.5 [3; 11.9], PC3: -5.3 [-9.6;-1.], PC4: -9.8 [-14,9;-4.7]). Conclusion Impaired exercise capacity is frequent in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is mainly caused by pulmonary changes but is not associated with increased dyspnea intensity. Therefore, treating the lung represents a relevant approach for improving exercise capacity, even in patients experiencing mild dyspnea. PMID:28072848

  13. Predicting functional capacity during treadmill testing independent of exercise protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, C; Crowe, A J; Daines, E; Dumit, M; Green, M A; Lettau, S; Thompson, N N; Weymier, J

    1996-06-01

    Clinically useful estimates of VO2max from treadmill tests (GXT) may be made using protocol-specific equations. In many cases, GXT may proceed more effectively if the clinician is free to adjust speed and grade independent of a specific protocol. We sought to determine whether VO2max could be predicted from the estimated steady-state VO2 of the terminal exercise stage. Seventy clinically stable individuals performed GXT with direct measurement of VO2. Exercise was incremented each minute to optimize clinical examination. Measured VO2max was compared to the estimated steady-state VO2 of the terminal stage based on ACSM equations. Equations for walking or running were used based on the patient's observed method of ambulation. The measured VO2max was always less than the ACSM estimate, with a regular relationship between measured and estimated VO2max. No handrail support: VO2max = 0.869.ACSM -0.07; R2 = 0.955, SEE = 4.8 ml.min-1.kg-1 (N = 30). With handrail support: VO2max = 0.694.ACSM + 3.33; R2 = 0.833, SEE = 4.4 ml.min-1.kg-1 (N = 40). The equations were cross-validated with 20 patients. The correlation between predicted and observed values was r = 0.98 and 0.97 without and with handrail support, respectively. The mean absolute prediction error (3.1 and 4.1 ml.min-1.kg-1) were similar to protocol-specific equations. We conclude that VO2max can be predicted independent of treadmill protocol with approximately the same error as protocol-specific equations.

  14. Exercise capacity in patients undergoing proctocolectomy and small bowel resection for Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevinge, H; Berglund, B; Bosaeus, I; Tölli, J; Nordgren, S; Lundholm, K

    1995-08-01

    The effect of proctocolectomy and small bowel resection on working capacity has not been assessed objectively in previous research. Twenty-nine patients with Crohn's disease were investigated with cycle ergometry and a questionnaire, following proctocolectomy with and without small bowel resection. Maximal exercise load is known to correspond well with working capacity, particularly when account is taken of body composition and metabolic variables. Maximal exercise load was reduced marginally (by 9 per cent) in patients without small bowel resection and by 22 per cent in patients with moderate small bowel resection (15-30 per cent resection). Patients with extensive bowel resection (more than 50 per cent) had a 40 per cent reduction in the maximal exercise load. This reduction in maximal exercise load was greater than predicted when accounting for reduction in muscle mass. All patients had a normal oxygen uptake including resting energy expenditure. Urinary sodium and magnesium excretion was low in the group with moderate bowel resection, whereas the extensively resected patients were malnourished and had a reduced body cell mass. The authors conclude that the significantly reduced working capacity was of multifactorial origin secondary to malabsorption. However, the patients seemed unaware of the degree of their diminished working capacity. This reduced capacity makes it unlikely that they would be able to perform any labour involving high energy consumption at the level of 500-700 W, and this inability was reflected by a high rate of unemployment among the patients.

  15. Effects of eight weeks of exercise training and orlistat therapy on body composition and maximal exercise capacity in obese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, O; Dogan, H; Kelestimur, H

    2006-01-01

    A comparative assessment was made of the short-term effects of orlistat therapy and exercise training on body composition and aerobic fitness in obese females. A total of 24 obese patients were enrolled in to the study; 12 received orlistat therapy (DO) and 12 participated in a regular aerobic exercise-training programme (DE). All patients were on hypocaloric diets. Each patient performed three incremental ramp exercise tests (one at Week 0, one at the end of Week 4 and one at the end of Week 8) to exhaustion using an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer to determine their anaerobic threshold and maximal exercise (Wmax) capacity. Patients in the DE group performed continuous exercise at a work rate that corresponded to the anaerobic threshold. Weight loss and loss of fat mass after 8 weeks were -6.4% (P=0.002) and -13.4% (DE) vs -5.8% (P=0.002) and -6.4% (P=0.008) (DO), respectively. Wmax capacity was 90.8+/-5 W (basal) vs 92.9+/-5 W (Week 4, P=0.1) and 100.4+/-6 W (Week 8, 10.5%, P=0.04) in the DO group, and 96.2+/-6 W (basal) vs 129.1+/-4 W (Week 4, 34.1%, P=0.002) and 137.5+/-5 W(Week 8, 42.9%, P=0.002) in the DE group. Despite similar decreases in body weight in both groups, patients in the DE group achieved a markedly higher level of Wmax, reflecting a better improvement in cardiopulmonary fitness, compared with patients in the DO group. Considering the improvement of aerobic fitness in the short term, an aerobic exercise-training programme should be considered for sedentary obese patients to improve their aerobic fitness and thereby reduce the negative outcomes of obesity.

  16. Size, shape, and stamina: the impact of left ventricular geometry on exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carolyn S P; Grewal, Jasmine; Borlaug, Barry A; Ommen, Steve R; Kane, Garvan C; McCully, Robert B; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2010-05-01

    Although several studies have examined the cardiac functional determinants of exercise capacity, few have investigated the effects of structural remodeling. The current study evaluated the association between cardiac geometry and exercise capacity. Subjects with ejection fraction > or = 50% and no valvular disease, myocardial ischemia, or arrhythmias were identified from a large prospective exercise echocardiography database. Left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness were used to classify geometry into normal, concentric remodeling, eccentric hypertrophy, and concentric hypertrophy. All of the subjects underwent symptom-limited treadmill exercise according to standard Bruce protocol. Maximal exercise tolerance was measured in metabolic equivalents. Of 366 (60+/-14 years; 57% male) subjects, 166 (45%) had normal geometry, 106 (29%) had concentric remodeling, 40 (11%) had eccentric hypertrophy, and 54 (15%) had concentric hypertrophy. Geometry was related to exercise capacity: in descending order, the maximum achieved metabolic equivalents were 9.9+/-2.8 in normal, 8.9+/-2.6 in concentric remodeling, 8.6+/-3.1 in eccentric hypertrophy, and 8.0+/-2.7 in concentric hypertrophy (all Pexercise tolerance in metabolic equivalents (r=-0.14; P=0.009 and r=-0.21; Pexercise were blunted in concentric hypertrophy compared with normal, even after adjusting for medications. In conclusion, the pattern of ventricular remodeling is related to exercise capacity among low-risk adults. Subjects with concentric hypertrophy display the greatest limitation, and this is related to reduced systolic and chronotropic reserve. Reverse remodeling strategies may prevent or treat functional decline in patients with structural heart disease.

  17. Gene deletion of P2Y4 receptor lowers exercise capacity and reduces myocardial hypertrophy with swimming exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horckmans, Michael; Léon-Gómez, Elvira; Robaye, Bernard; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Dessy, Chantal; Communi, Didier

    2012-10-01

    Nucleotides released within the heart under pathological conditions can be involved in cardioprotection or cardiac fibrosis through the activation purinergic P2Y(2) and P2Y(6) receptors, respectively. We previously demonstrated that adult P2Y(4)-null mice display a microcardia phenotype related to a cardiac angiogenic defect. To evaluate the functional consequences of this defect, we performed here a combination of cardiac monitoring and exercise tests. We investigated the exercise capacity of P2Y(4) wild-type and P2Y(4)-null mice in forced swimming and running tests. Analysis of their stress, locomotion, and resignation was realized in open field, black and white box, and tail suspension experiments. Exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated after repeated and prolonged exercise in P2Y(4) wild-type and P2Y(4)-null hearts. We showed that P2Y(4)-null mice have a lower exercise capacity in both swimming and treadmill tests. This was not related to decreased motivation or increased stress, since open field, white and black box, and mouse tail suspension tests gave comparable results in P2Y(4) wild-type and P2Y(4)-null mice. Heart rate and blood pressure rose normally in P2Y(4)-null swimming mice equipped with a telemetric implant. On the contrary, we observed a delayed recovery of postexercise blood pressure after exercise in P2Y(4)-null mice. The heart rate increment in response to catecholamines was also similar in P2Y(4) wild-type and P2Y(4)-null implanted mice, which is consistent with a similar level of cardiac β-receptor expression. Interestingly, the heart of P2Y(4)-null mice displayed a reduced sympathetic innervation associated with a decreased norepinephrine level. We also demonstrated that exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy was lower in P2Y(4)-null mice after repeated and prolonged exercise. This was associated with a lower increase in cardiomyocyte size and microvessel density. In conclusion, besides its role in cardiac development, P2Y(4

  18. Relationship between nutritional risk and exercise capacity in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan XZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Xizheng Shan,1 Jinming Liu,2 Yanrong Luo,1 Xiaowen Xu,1 Zhiqing Han,1 Hailing Li1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yangpu Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pulmonary Circulation, Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Objective: The nutritional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients is associated with their exercise capacity. In the present study, we have explored the relationship between nutritional risk and exercise capacity in severe male COPD patients.Methods: A total of 58 severe COPD male patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were assigned to no nutritional risk group (n=33 and nutritional risk group (n=25 according to the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS, 2002 criteria. Blood gas analysis, conventional pulmonary function testing, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed on all the patients.Results: Results showed that the weight and BMI of the patients in the nutritional risk group were significantly lower than in the no nutritional risk group (P<0.05. The pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide of the no nutritional risk group was significantly higher than that of the nutritional risk group (P<0.05. Besides, the peak VO2 (peak oxygen uptake, peak O2 pulse (peak oxygen pulse, and peak load of the nutritional risk group were significantly lower than those of the no nutritional risk group (P<0.05 and there were significantly negative correlations between the NRS score and peak VO2, peak O2 pulse, or peak load (r<0, P<0.05.Conclusion: The association between exercise capacity and nutritional risk based on NRS 2002 in severe COPD male patients is supported by these results of this study. Keywords: nutritional risk, exercise capacity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, conventional pulmonary function testing, cardiopulmonary exercise testing

  19. Exercise training enhances aerobic capacity in juvenile estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Baudinette, Russell V

    2008-06-01

    Aerobic capacity (VO2max) of endothermic vertebrates is known to increase with exercise training, but this effect has not been found to-date in non-avian reptiles. We exercised juvenile estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) to walk at 0.75-0.88 km/h on a treadmill for up to 20 min a day over 16 weeks, and compared their aerobic performance with that of unexercised crocodiles. In the exercised group, VO2max increased from 6.9 to 8.5 mLO2/kg/min (+28%), and locomotor endurance increased from 3.8 to 6.9 min (+82%). Neither VO2max nor endurance changed significantly in the sedentary group. This finding extends the exercise training effect onto another vertebrate clade, and demonstrates that ectothermic amniotes are capable of elevating their aerobic capacity in response to exercise training. We propose that differences in cardiopulmonary structure and function in non-avian reptiles may be responsible for the absence (in squamates) or presence (in crocodilians) of a strong training effect on aerobic capacity.

  20. Impact of diabetes and diastolic dysfunction on exercise capacity in normotensive patients without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürdal, Ahmet; Kasikcioglu, Erdem; Yakal, Sertac; Bugra, Zehra

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of diabetes and diastolic dysfunction on exercise capacity in asymptomatic, normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes without coronary artery disease. A total of 43 type 2 diabetes patients (age: 50 ± 5 years) and 20 healthy controls (age: 48 ± 4 years) were enrolled. Diastolic function was investigated by conventional pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Exercise capacity was evaluated with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). In patients with type 2 diabetes, increase in resting heart rate (HR-rest) (p = 0.013), decrease in maximum heart rate during exercise (HR-max) (p VO2-max) (p VO2-an) (p VO2-max (r = -0.456, p < 0.01) independent of the absence or presence of mild diastolic dysfunction. Exercise capacity was found to be significantly decreased in normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes without coronary artery disease, and this decrease was independent of diastolic dysfunction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. A Capacity Supply Model for Virtualized Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander PINNOW

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with determining the capacity supply for virtualized servers. First, a server is modeled as a queue based on a Markov chain. Then, the effect of server virtualization on the capacity supply will be analyzed with the distribution function of the server load.

  2. Effects of Exercise Therapy on Balance Capacity in Chronic Stroke: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, H.J.R. van; Heeren, A.; Peters, M.A.; Veerbeek, J.M.; Kwakkel, G.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Weerdesteyn, V.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of exercise training on balance capacity in people in the chronic phase after stroke. Furthermore, we aimed to identify which training regimen was most effective. METHODS: Electronic

  3. Effect of lifelong resveratrol supplementation and exercise training on skeletal muscle oxidative capacity in aging mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringholm, Stine; Olesen, Jesper; Pedersen, Jesper Thorhauge;

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that lifelong resveratrol (RSV) supplementation counteracts an age-associated decrease in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α and that RSV combined with lifelong exercise training (ET...

  4. Relationship Between Reverse Remodeling and Cardiopulmonary Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, Mirjam H; van t Sant, Jetske; Versteeg, Henneke; Cramer, MJ; Doevendans, Pieter A; Pedersen, Susanne S; Meine, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on the relationship between left ventricular reverse remodeling and cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are scarce and inconclusive. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-four patients with a 1st-time CRT-defibrilla

  5. Motor Performance in Children with Generalized Hypermobility : The Influence of Muscle Strength and Exercise Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanewinkel-van Kleef, Yvonne B.; Helders, Paul J. M.; Takken, Tim; Engelbert, Raoul H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether muscle strength and functional exercise capacity (FEC) influence motor performance in children with generalized joint hypermobility. Methods: Forty-one children (mean age: 8.1 years) with symptomatic generalized hypermobility were included. M

  6. Motor Performance in Children with Generalized Hypermobility : The Influence of Muscle Strength and Exercise Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanewinkel-van Kleef, Yvonne B.; Helders, Paul J. M.; Takken, Tim; Engelbert, Raoul H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether muscle strength and functional exercise capacity (FEC) influence motor performance in children with generalized joint hypermobility. Methods: Forty-one children (mean age: 8.1 years) with symptomatic generalized hypermobility were included. M

  7. Effects of formoterol (Oxis (R) Turbuhaler (R)) and ipratropium on exercise capacity in patients with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesker, JJW; Van de Velde, [No Value; Meysman, M; Vincken, W; Wollmer, P; Hansson, L; Kerstjens, HAM; Qvint, U; Pauwels, RA

    2002-01-01

    Although long-acting inhaled beta(2)-agonists improve various outcome measures in COPD, no double-blind study has yet shown a significant effect of these drugs on exercise capacity. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, patients received formoterol (4.5,9, or 18 mug b.i

  8. Echocardiographic predictors of exercise capacity and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Dalsgaard, Morten; Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) reduces exercise capacity, but lung function parameters do not fully explain functional class and lung-heart interaction could be the explanation. We evaluated echocardiographic predictors of mortality and six minutes walking distance (6MWD), a marker...

  9. Effects of Exercise Therapy on Balance Capacity in Chronic Stroke: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, H.J.R. van; Heeren, A.; Peters, M.A.; Veerbeek, J.M.; Kwakkel, G.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Weerdesteyn, V.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of exercise training on balance capacity in people in the chronic phase after stroke. Furthermore, we aimed to identify which training regimen was most effective. METHODS: Electronic databa

  10. A better response in exercise capacity after pulmonary rehabilitation in more severe COPD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, Wytske A.; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Wempe, Johan B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has positive effects on exercise capacity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). However, not all COPD patients benefit from PR to the same extent. We investigated whether there is a patient profile, which is associated with the improvement in enduran

  11. Aerobic exercise capacity at long-term follow-up after paediatric allogeneic haematopoietic SCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S; Uhlving, H H; Buchvald, F

    2014-01-01

    Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), a measure of aerobic exercise capacity, predicts mortality and morbidity in healthy and diseased individuals. Our aim was to determine VO2peak years after paediatric allogeneic haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) and to identify associations with baseline patient and donor cha...

  12. Ground-based walking training improves quality of life and exercise capacity in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Sally L; Ng, L W Cindy; McKeough, Zoe J; Jenkins, Sue; Hill, Kylie; Eastwood, Peter R; Hillman, David R; Cecins, Nola; Spencer, Lissa M; Jenkins, Christine; Alison, Jennifer A

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of ground-based walking training on health-related quality of life and exercise capacity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). People with COPD were randomised to either a walking group that received supervised, ground-based walking training two to three times a week for 8-10 weeks, or a control group that received usual medical care and did not participate in exercise training. 130 out of 143 participants (mean±sd age 69±8 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s 43±15% predicted) completed the study. Compared to the control group, the walking group demonstrated greater improvements in the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score (mean difference -6 points (95% CI -10- -2), pimproves quality of life and endurance exercise capacity in people with COPD.

  13. Effects of exercise on functional aerobic capacity in lower limb osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Y; García-Hermoso, A; Saavedra, J M

    2011-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease. The reduced aerobic capacity of patients with lower limb osteoarthritis affects their independence in performing everyday activities. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize evidence for the effectiveness and structure of exercise programs on functional aerobic capacity (ability to perform activities of daily living that require sustained aerobic metabolism) in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis. A computerized search was made of seven databases. Effect sizes (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated, and the heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using Cochran's Q statistic applied to the ES means. The 20 studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria were selected for analysis. These studies were grouped into five categories according to the characteristics of the exercise program: land-based interventions (strength programs, tai chi, aerobic programs, mixed exercise programs) and aquatic intervention (hydrotherapy). The functional aerobic capacity improved in tai chi programs (ES=0.66; 95% CI, 0.23-1.09), aerobic programs (ES=0.90; 95% CI, 0.70-1.10), and mixed programs (ES=0.47; 95% CI, -0.38-0.39). The conclusions were: (i) despite recommendations for the use of exercise programs for aerobic fitness in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis, few randomized clinical trials have been conducted; (ii) the structure of the exercise programs (program content and duration, and session frequency and duration) is very heterogeneous; (iii) overall, exercise programs based on tai chi, aerobic, and mixed exercise seem to give better results than hydrotherapy programs, but without the differences being altogether clear.

  14. Effect of contrasting physical exercise interventions on rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Suetta, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    torque increased 18-29% (P muscle fibers hypertrophied 20% (P muscles is highly responsive......Rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles is inhibited markedly more than maximal force capacity and is therefore relevant to assess in rehabilitation settings. Our objective was to investigate the effect of two contrasting types of physical exercise on rapid force capacity, as well...... as neural and muscular adaptations in women with chronic neck muscle pain. A group of employed women (n = 42) with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia participated in a 10-wk randomized controlled trial; specific strength training of the neck/shoulder muscles, general fitness training performed as leg...

  15. Estimated Aerobic Capacity Changes in Adolescents with Obesity Following High Intensity Interval Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E. Starkoff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous aerobic exercise may improve aerobic capacity (VO2max and cardiometabolic profiles in adolescents with obesity, independent of changes to weight. Our aim was to assess changes in estimated VO2max in obese adolescents following a 6-week exercise program of varying intensities. Adolescents with obesity were recruited from an American mid-west children’s hospital and randomized into moderate exercise (MOD or high intensity interval exercise (HIIE groups for a 6-week exercise intervention, consisting of cycle ergometry for 40 minutes, 3 days per week. Heart rate was measured every two minutes during each exercise session.  Estimated VO2max measured via Åstrand cycle test, body composition, and physical activity (PA enjoyment evaluated via questionnaire were assessed pre/post-intervention. Twenty-seven adolescents (age 14.7±1.5; 17 female, 10 male completed the intervention. Estimated VO2max increased only in the HIIE group (20.0±5.7 to 22.7±6.5 ml/kg/min, p=0.015. The HIIE group also demonstrated increased PA enjoyment, which was correlated with average heart rate achieved during the intervention (r=0.55; p=0.043. Six weeks of HIIE elicited improvements to estimated VO2max in adolescents with obesity. Furthermore, those exercising at higher heart rates demonstrated greater PA enjoyment, implicating enjoyment as an important determinant of VO2max, specifically following higher intensity activities.

  16. Feasibility, physical capacity, and health benefits of a multidimensional exercise program for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Midtgaard, Julie; Rorth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Cancer patients frequently experience considerable loss of physical capacity and general wellbeing when diagnosed and treated for their disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, physical capacity, and health benefits of a multidimensional exercise program for cancer patients...... during advanced stages of disease who are undergoing adjuvant or high-dose chemotherapy. The supervised program included high- and low-intensity activities (physical exercise, relaxation, massage, and body-awareness training). A total of 23 patients between 18 and 65 years of age (median 40 years......) participated in groups of seven to nine patients for 9 h weekly for 6 weeks. Physical capacity in terms of repetition maximum (RM) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max), physical activity level and psychosocial wellbeing (EORTC QLQ-C30, SF-36, HAD) were compared prior to and after completion of the program...

  17. The Influence of Various Types of Water Gymnastics Upon the Exercise Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana BADAU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the components of the physiological capacity and the practice degree of the physical exercise is a direct interrelation, which is influenced by a number of factors, out of which deployment environment with its features has a leading role. Determining the relationship between the effort capacity by heart rate changes during recovery after exercise, determining the body aerobic resistance level, as a result of the entertaining and recreational activities, specifically, performed in different environments: terrestrial and aquatic, using adapted exercises and innovative materials, that require various and specific efforts. The study was conducted during the academic year 2012-2013, with the female students in the first year of the non-profile faculties and comprised two experimental groups of 24 subjects each, from UMF Tg. Mures, who carried out specific water gymnastics activities, during physical education classes and a control group composed of 47 female students from Transilvania University of Brasov, who carried out the following: entertaining and recreational activities, application exercises, overall physical development free exercises or with portable objects. During the research, the Ruffier test was applied with target on the body aerobic resistance level. Following the research performance, the Ruffier index recorded the biggest difference of the averages of 1.75, after practicing aqua-pullpush-gym activities.

  18. Resting heart rate variability and exercise capacity in Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Luke C; Peebles, Karen C; Hoye, Neil A; Manning, Patrick; Sheat, Catherine; Williams, Michael J A; Wilkins, Gerard T; Wilson, Genevieve A; Baldi, James C

    2017-04-01

    People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have lower exercise capacity (V̇O2max) than their age-matched nondiabetic counterparts (CON), which might be related to cardiac autonomic dysfunction. We examined whether Heart Rate Variability (HRV; indicator of cardiac autonomic modulation) was associated with exercise capacity in those with and without T1D. Twenty-three participants with uncomplicated T1D and 17 matched CON were recruited. Heart rate (HR; ECG), blood pressure (BP; finger photo-plethysmography), and respiratory rate (respiratory belt) were measured during baseline, paced-breathing and clinical autonomic reflex tests (CARTs); deep breathing, lying-to-stand, and Valsalva maneuver. Baseline and paced-breathing ECG were analyzed for HRV (frequency-domain). Exercise capacity was determined during an incremental cycle ergometer test while V̇O2, 12-lead ECG, and BP were measured. In uncomplicated T1D, resting HR was elevated and resting HRV metrics were reduced, indicative of altered cardiac parasympathetic modulation; this was generally undetected by the CARTs. However, BP and plasma catecholamines were not different between groups. In T1D, V̇O2max tended to be lower (P = 0.07) and HR reserve was lower (P exercise (R(2 )= 0.042-0.3) in both T1D and CON Alterations in cardiac autonomic modulation are an early manifestation of uncomplicated T1D. Total Power was associated with reduced exercise capacity regardless of group, and these associations were generally stronger than traditional indicators. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  19. Does left atrial volume affect exercise capacity of heart transplant recipients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naz Tehmina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart transplant (HT recipients demonstrate limited exercise capacity compared to normal patients, very likely for multiple reasons. In this study we hypothesized that left atrial volume (LAV, which is known to predict exercise capacity in patients with various cardiac pathologies including heart failure and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is associated with limited exercise capacity of HT recipients. Methods We analyzed 50 patients [age 57 ±2 (SEM, 12 females] who had a post-HT echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX within 9 weeks time at clinic follow up. The change in LAV (ΔLAV was also computed as the difference in LAV from the preceding one-year to the study echocardiogram. Correlations among the measured parameters were assessed with a Pearson's correlation analysis. Results LAV (n = 50 and ΔLAV (n = 40 indexed to body surface area were 40.6 ± 11.5 ml·m-2 and 1.9 ± 8.5 ml·m-2·year-1, data are mean ± SD, respectively. Indexed LAV and ΔLAV were both significantly correlated with the ventilatory efficiency, assessed by the VE/VCO2 slope (r = 0.300, p = 0.038; r = 0.484, p = 0.002, respectively. LAV showed a significant correlation with peak oxygen consumption (r = -0.328, p = 0.020. Conclusions Although our study is limited by a retrospective study design and relatively small number of patients, our findings suggest that enlarged LAV and increasing change in LAV is associated with the diminished exercise capacity in HT recipients and warrants further investigation to better elucidate this relationship.

  20. Exercise capacity in the Bidirectional Glenn physiology: Coupling cardiac index, ventricular function and oxygen extraction ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecilla, Carolina; Khiabani, Reza H; Trusty, Phillip; Sandoval, Néstor; Fogel, Mark; Briceño, Juan Carlos; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2015-07-16

    In Bi-directional Glenn (BDG) physiology, the superior systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation are in series. Consequently, only blood from the superior vena cava is oxygenated in the lungs. Oxygenated blood then travels to the ventricle where it is mixed with blood returning from the lower body. Therefore, incremental changes in oxygen extraction ratio (OER) could compromise exercise tolerance. In this study, the effect of exercise on the hemodynamic and ventricular performance of BDG physiology was investigated using clinical patient data as inputs for a lumped parameter model coupled with oxygenation equations. Changes in cardiac index, Qp/Qs, systemic pressure, oxygen extraction ratio and ventricular/vascular coupling ratio were calculated for three different exercise levels. The patient cohort (n=29) was sub-grouped by age and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at rest. It was observed that the changes in exercise tolerance are significant in both comparisons, but most significant when sub-grouped by PVR at rest. Results showed that patients over 2 years old with high PVR are above or close to the upper tolerable limit of OER (0.32) at baseline. Patients with high PVR at rest had very poor exercise tolerance while patients with low PVR at rest could tolerate low exercise conditions. In general, ventricular function of SV patients is too poor to increase CI and fulfill exercise requirements. The presented mathematical model provides a framework to estimate the hemodynamic performance of BDG patients at different exercise levels according to patient specific data.

  1. Increased difference between slow and forced vital capacity is associated with reduced exercise tolerance in COPD patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Wei; He, Xin; Xu, Qiu-Fen; Wang, Hao-Yan; Casaburi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background A higher slow vital capacity (VC) compared with forced vital capacity (FVC) indicates small airway collapse and air trapping. We hypothesized that a larger difference between VC and FVC (VC-FVC) would predict impaired exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Pulmonary function and incremental cardiopulmonary exercise responses were assessed in 97 COPD patients. Patients were then divided into two groups: one in which VC > FVC (n = 77)...

  2. Diminished exercise capacity and mitochondrial bc1 complex deficiency in tafazzin-knockdown mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey ePowers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The phospholipid, cardiolipin, is essential for maintaining mitochondrial structure and optimal function. Cardiolipin-deficiency in humans, Barth syndrome, is characterized by exercise intolerance, dilated cardiomyopathy, neutropenia and 3-methyl-glutaconic aciduria. The causative gene is the mitochondrial acyl-transferase, tafazzin that is essential for remodeling acyl chains of cardiolipin. We sought to determine metabolic rates in tafazzin-deficient mice during resting and exercise, and investigate the impact of cardiolipin deficiency on mitochondrial respiratory chain activities. Tafazzin knockdown in mice markedly impaired oxygen consumption rates during an exercise, without any significant effect on resting metabolic rates. CL-deficiency resulted in significant reduction of mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity in neonatal cardiomyocytes that is likely to be caused by diminished activity of complex-III, which requires CL for its assembly and optimal activity. Our results may provide mechanistic insights of Barth syndrome pathogenesis.

  3. A public health academic-practice partnership to develop capacity for exercise evaluation and improvement planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kate S; Thomas, Michael W; Durham, Dennis P; Jackson, Lillie M; Porth, Leslie L; Buxton, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In December 2006, Congress passed the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act to improve the nation's public health preparedness and response capabilities. It includes the role of Centers for Public Health Preparedness (CPHPs) to establish a competency-based core curriculum and perform evaluation of impact on newly developed materials. The Heartland Center for Public Health Preparedness (HCPHP) at the Saint Louis University School of Public Health is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention national CPHP network and is engaged with state and regional partners in workforce development, preparedness planning, evaluation, and multi-year exercise and training cycles. This includes development, implementation, and evaluation of the HCPHP Exercise Evaluation Training Program to improve the competence and capacity for exercise evaluation and improvement planning. This program is designed to enhance quality improvement and performance measurement capabilities to identify increase of workforce competence over time (maturity).

  4. Relationship Between Reverse Remodeling and Cardiopulmonary Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastenbroek, Mirjam H; Sant, Jetske Van't; Versteeg, Henneke

    2016-01-01

    response (left ventricular end-systolic volume decrease ≥15%) and a comprehensive set of CPX results was examined. Echocardiographic responders (54%) demonstrated higher peak oxygen consumption and better exercise performance than nonresponders at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Furthermore, only...... correlates of higher average oxygen consumption during exercise, and that nonischemic etiology and smaller pre-implantation QRS width were associated with better ventilatory efficiency over time. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 6 months of CRT there was a significant positive association between reverse......BACKGROUND: Studies on the relationship between left ventricular reverse remodeling and cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are scarce and inconclusive. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-four patients with a 1st-time CRT...

  5. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    for the difference between the means; -0.5; -7.9), but the insulin sensitivity index was similar: 312 versus 362 I(2) min(-1) pmol(-1) kg(-1) (28; -129). The two groups were similar in terms of body composition, exercise capacity and composition of usual diet. Resting and 24-h diastolic blood pressures were...... being highly selected as to confounding factors. The increased blood pressure in the hypertension prone subjects could not be attributed to differences in body composition, exercise capacity or dietary habits....... parents were both normotensive, were studied. Subjects or parents with diabetes and morbid obesity were excluded. METHODS: The study comprised (1) a frequent sampling oral glucose tolerance test; (2) an isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study; (3) an analysis of body composition by dual-energy X...

  6. Udenafil improves exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Sun; Lim, Hyo-Jeong; Cho, Young-Jae; Lee, Jae Ho; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Choon-Taek

    2012-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and there is no effective pharmacological treatment for COPD-associated PH. We evaluated the effect of udenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor, on the exercise capacity of patients with severe COPD. Patients with severe and very severe COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) exercise capacity and decreased pulmonary artery pressure in patients with severe COPD. However, due to the small sample size, uncontrolled design and high dropout rate, the efficacy of udenafil in severe COPD needs to be confirmed in a large-scale randomized controlled study. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (number: NCT01364181).

  7. Effects of exercise training on cardiac performance, exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with heart failure: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, B.A. van; Huijsmans, R.J.; Kroon, D.W.; Schothorst, M.; Kwakkel, G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in pharmacological treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF), a number of patients still suffer from dyspnoea, fatigue, diminished exercise capacity and poor quality of life. It is in this context that exercise training is being intensively evaluated for any additio

  8. Effects of exercise training on cardiac performance, exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with heart failure: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, B.A. van; Huijsmans, R.J.; Kroon, D.W.; Schothorst, M.; Kwakkel, G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in pharmacological treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF), a number of patients still suffer from dyspnoea, fatigue, diminished exercise capacity and poor quality of life. It is in this context that exercise training is being intensively evaluated for any

  9. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in in CrossFit exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Bellar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete, VO 2 max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p<0.05 in the model. The second workout (repetitions, when examined similarly using regression, only resulted in CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p<0.05. The results of the study suggest that a history of participation in CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success.

  10. Sildenafil Preserves Exercise Capacity in Patients With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Right-sided Ventricular Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, David S.; Hagan, Peter G.; Yow, Eric; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Toews, Galen B.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Martinez, Fernando J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with pulmonary vasculopathy. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether sildenafil improves 6-min walk distance (6MWD) in subjects with IPF and right ventricular dysfunction. Methods: The IPFnet, a network of IPF research centers in the United States, conducted a randomized trial examining the effect of sildenafil on 6MWD in patients with advanced IPF, defined by carbon monoxide diffusing capacity < 35% predicted. A substudy examined 119 of 180 randomized subjects where echocardiograms were available for independent review by two cardiologists. Right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy (RVH), right ventricular systolic dysfunction (RVSD), and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) were assessed. Multivariable linear regression models estimated the relationship between RV abnormality, sildenafil treatment, and changes in 6MWD, St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the EuroQol instrument, and SF-36 Health Survey (SF-36) from enrollment to 12 weeks. Results: The prevalence of RVH and RVSD were 12.8% and 18.6%, respectively. RVSP was measurable in 71 of 119 (60%) subjects; mean RVSP was 42.5 mm Hg. In the subgroup of subjects with RVSD, subjects treated with sildenafil experienced less decrement in 6MWD (99.3 m; P = .01) and greater improvement in SGRQ (13.4 points; P = .005) and EuroQol visual analog scores (17.9 points; P = .04) than subjects receiving placebo. In the subgroup with RVH, sildenafil was not associated with change in 6MWD (P = .13), but was associated with greater relative improvement in SGRQ (14.8 points; P = .02) vs subjects receiving placebo. Sildenafil treatment in those with RVSD and RVH was not associated with change in SF-36. Conclusions: Sildenafil treatment in IPF with RVSD results in better preservation of exercise capacity as compared with placebo. Sildenafil also improves quality of life in subjects with RVH and RVSD. PMID:23732584

  11. Diastolic function is associated with quality of life and exercise capacity in stable heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Bussoni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise capacity and quality of life (QOL are important outcome predictors in patients with systolic heart failure (HF, independent of left ventricular (LV ejection fraction (LVEF. LV diastolic function has been shown to be a better predictor of aerobic exercise capacity in patients with systolic dysfunction and a New York Heart Association (NYHA classification ≥II. We hypothesized that the currently used index of diastolic function E/e' is associated with exercise capacity and QOL, even in optimally treated HF patients with reduced LVEF. This prospective study included 44 consecutive patients aged 55±11 years (27 men and 17 women, with LVEF<0.50 and NYHA functional class I-III, receiving optimal pharmacological treatment and in a stable clinical condition, as shown by the absence of dyspnea exacerbation for at least 3 months. All patients had conventional transthoracic echocardiography and answered the Minnesota Living with HF Questionnaire, followed by the 6-min walk test (6MWT. In a multivariable model with 6MWT as the dependent variable, age and E/e' explained 27% of the walked distance in 6MWT (P=0.002; multivariate regression analysis. No association was found between walk distance and LVEF or mitral annulus systolic velocity. Only normalized left atrium volume, a sensitive index of diastolic function, was associated with decreased QOL. Despite the small number of patients included, this study offers evidence that diastolic function is associated with physical capacity and QOL and should be considered along with ejection fraction in patients with compensated systolic HF.

  12. Capacity Expansion Modeling for Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine; Stoll, Brady; Mai, Trieu

    2017-04-03

    The Resource Planning Model (RPM) is a capacity expansion model designed for regional power systems and high levels of renewable generation. Recent extensions capture value-stacking for storage technologies, including batteries and concentrating solar power with storage. After estimating per-unit capacity value and curtailment reduction potential, RPM co-optimizes investment decisions and reduced-form dispatch, accounting for planning reserves; energy value, including arbitrage and curtailment reduction; and three types of operating reserves. Multiple technology cost scenarios are analyzed to determine level of deployment in the Western Interconnection under various conditions.

  13. Relationship between nutritional risk and exercise capacity in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xizheng; Liu, Jinming; Luo, Yanrong; Xu, Xiaowen; Han, Zhiqing; Li, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is associated with their exercise capacity. In the present study, we have explored the relationship between nutritional risk and exercise capacity in severe male COPD patients. A total of 58 severe COPD male patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were assigned to no nutritional risk group (n=33) and nutritional risk group (n=25) according to the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS, 2002) criteria. Blood gas analysis, conventional pulmonary function testing, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed on all the patients. Results showed that the weight and BMI of the patients in the nutritional risk group were significantly lower than in the no nutritional risk group (Ppulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide of the no nutritional risk group was significantly higher than that of the nutritional risk group (Pnutritional risk group were significantly lower than those of the no nutritional risk group (Pnutritional risk based on NRS 2002 in severe COPD male patients is supported by these results of this study.

  14. Motor skills and exercise capacity are associated with objective measures of cognitive functions and academic performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst

    2016-01-01

    sustained attention (Pspeed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading......OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish...... the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between...

  15. Error propagation in energetic carrying capacity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation objectives derived from carrying capacity models have been used to inform management of landscapes for wildlife populations. Energetic carrying capacity models are particularly useful in conservation planning for wildlife; these models use estimates of food abundance and energetic requirements of wildlife to target conservation actions. We provide a general method for incorporating a foraging threshold (i.e., density of food at which foraging becomes unprofitable) when estimating food availability with energetic carrying capacity models. We use a hypothetical example to describe how past methods for adjustment of foraging thresholds biased results of energetic carrying capacity models in certain instances. Adjusting foraging thresholds at the patch level of the species of interest provides results consistent with ecological foraging theory. Presentation of two case studies suggest variation in bias which, in certain instances, created large errors in conservation objectives and may have led to inefficient allocation of limited resources. Our results also illustrate how small errors or biases in application of input parameters, when extrapolated to large spatial extents, propagate errors in conservation planning and can have negative implications for target populations.

  16. Exercises in 80223 Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Jens Ole

    This exercise book contains exercise instructions for the 7 compulsory exercises (Exercise 1-7) and the final exercise (Exercise 8) in the course 80223 'Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials'. The exercise book also contains written program examples in 'C' and 'Pascal'. Finally...... by contacting the secretary on the ground floor of building 425. Please give the following number: TM 99.05 (TM = Thermal processing of Materials)...

  17. Quantum biological channel modeling and capacity calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2012-12-10

    Quantum mechanics has an important role in photosynthesis, magnetoreception, and evolution. There were many attempts in an effort to explain the structure of genetic code and transfer of information from DNA to protein by using the concepts of quantum mechanics. The existing biological quantum channel models are not sufficiently general to incorporate all relevant contributions responsible for imperfect protein synthesis. Moreover, the problem of determination of quantum biological channel capacity is still an open problem. To solve these problems, we construct the operator-sum representation of biological channel based on codon basekets (basis vectors), and determine the quantum channel model suitable for study of the quantum biological channel capacity and beyond. The transcription process, DNA point mutations, insertions, deletions, and translation are interpreted as the quantum noise processes. The various types of quantum errors are classified into several broad categories: (i) storage errors that occur in DNA itself as it represents an imperfect storage of genetic information, (ii) replication errors introduced during DNA replication process, (iii) transcription errors introduced during DNA to mRNA transcription, and (iv) translation errors introduced during the translation process. By using this model, we determine the biological quantum channel capacity and compare it against corresponding classical biological channel capacity. We demonstrate that the quantum biological channel capacity is higher than the classical one, for a coherent quantum channel model, suggesting that quantum effects have an important role in biological systems. The proposed model is of crucial importance towards future study of quantum DNA error correction, developing quantum mechanical model of aging, developing the quantum mechanical models for tumors/cancer, and study of intracellular dynamics in general.

  18. Quantum Biological Channel Modeling and Capacity Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan B. Djordjevic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum mechanics has an important role in photosynthesis, magnetoreception, and evolution. There were many attempts in an effort to explain the structure of genetic code and transfer of information from DNA to protein by using the concepts of quantum mechanics. The existing biological quantum channel models are not sufficiently general to incorporate all relevant contributions responsible for imperfect protein synthesis. Moreover, the problem of determination of quantum biological channel capacity is still an open problem. To solve these problems, we construct the operator-sum representation of biological channel based on codon basekets (basis vectors, and determine the quantum channel model suitable for study of the quantum biological channel capacity and beyond. The transcription process, DNA point mutations, insertions, deletions, and translation are interpreted as the quantum noise processes. The various types of quantum errors are classified into several broad categories: (i storage errors that occur in DNA itself as it represents an imperfect storage of genetic information, (ii replication errors introduced during DNA replication process, (iii transcription errors introduced during DNA to mRNA transcription, and (iv translation errors introduced during the translation process. By using this model, we determine the biological quantum channel capacity and compare it against corresponding classical biological channel capacity. We demonstrate that the quantum biological channel capacity is higher than the classical one, for a coherent quantum channel model, suggesting that quantum effects have an important role in biological systems. The proposed model is of crucial importance towards future study of quantum DNA error correction, developing quantum mechanical model of aging, developing the quantum mechanical models for tumors/cancer, and study of intracellular dynamics in general.

  19. Functional exercise capacity and health-related quality of life in people with asbestos related pleural disease: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Marita T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional exercise capacity in people with asbestos related pleural disease (ARPD is unknown and there are no data on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The primary aims were to determine whether functional exercise capacity and HRQoL were reduced in people with ARPD. The secondary aim was to determine whether functional exercise capacity was related to peak exercise capacity, HRQoL, physical activity or respiratory function. Methods In participants with ARPD, exercise capacity was measured by the six-minute walk test (6MWT and incremental cycle test (ICT; HRQoL by the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire and physical activity by an activity monitor worn for one week. Participants also underwent lung function testing. Results 25 males completed the study with a mean (SD age of 71 (6 years, FVC 82 (19% predicted, FEV1/FVC 66 (11%, TLC 80 (19% predicted and DLCO 59 (13% predicted. Participants had reduced exercise capacity demonstrated by six-minute walk distance (6MWD of 76 (11% predicted and peak work rate of 71 (21% predicted. HRQoL was also reduced. The 6MWD correlated with peak work rate (r=0.58, p=0.002, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire Total score (r=-0.57, p=0.003, metabolic equivalents from the activity monitor (r=0.45, p Conclusions People with ARPD have reduced exercise capacity and HRQoL. The 6MWT may be a useful surrogate measure of peak exercise capacity and physical activity levels in the absence of cardiopulmonary exercise testing and activity monitors. Trial registration ANZCTR12608000147381

  20. Improved cardiac function and exercise capacity following correction of pectus excavatum: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maagaard, Marie; Heiberg, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Patients with pectus excavatum (PE) often describe improvements in exercise stamina following corrective surgery. Studies have investigated the surgical effect on physiological parameters; still, no consensus has yet been reached. Therefore, the aim of this literature review was to describe the cardiac outcome after surgical correction, both at rest and during exercise. In February 2016, a detailed search of the databases PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE was performed. We assessed clinical studies that described cardiac outcomes both before and after surgical correction of PE. We only included studies reporting either pre-defined echocardiographic or exercise test parameters. No exclusion criteria or statistical analyses were applied. Twenty-one full-text articles, published between 1972 and 2016, were selected, with cohort-ranges of 3-168 patients, mean age-ranges of 5-33 years, and mean follow-up-ranges from immediately to 4 years after surgery. Twelve studies described resting cardiac parameters. Four studies measured cardiac output, where one described 36% immediate increase after surgery, one reported 15% increase after Nuss-bar removal and two found no difference. Three studies demonstrated improvement in mean stroke volume ranges of 22-34% and two studies found no difference. Fifteen studies investigated exercise capacity, with 11 considering peak O2 pr. kg, where five studies demonstrated improvements with the mean ranging from 8% to 15% after surgery, five studies demonstrated no difference, and one saw a decrease of 19% 3 months after Nuss-bar implantation. A measurable increase in exercise capacity exists following surgery, which may be caused by multiple factors. This may be owed to the relief of compressed cardiac chambers with the increased anterior-posterior thoracic dimensions, which could facilitate an improved filling of the heart. With these results, the positive physiological impact of the surgery is emphasized and the potential gain in cardiac

  1. Interval and continuous exercise enhances aerobic capacity and hemodynamic function in CHF rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro B. Nunes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of continuous versus interval aerobic exercise training on hemodynamic parameters, cardiac remodeling, and maximal exercise capacity (MEC in chronic heart failure (CHF rats.METHOD: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were subjected to myocardial infarction (MI surgery. Five weeks post MI, the animals were assigned to one of three groups: sedentary group (CHF-Sed, n=8, aerobic continuous training group (CHF-ACT, n=8, and aerobic interval training group (CHF-AIT, n=8. Treadmill training was performed five times a week for 8 weeks (ACT: 50 min/day at 15 m/min and AIT: 40 min/day with 8 min of warm-up at 10 m/min and exercise at 15 m/min 4×4 min interspersed with 4×4 min at 23 m/min. MEC was evaluated pre and post exercise program.RESULTS: Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, left ventricular mass/body mass ratio (LVM:BM, and total collagen volume fraction were lower in the trained groups compared with the sedentary group, but no difference was found between the trained groups. Systolic ventricular pressure (SVP and maximum positive derivative of LV pressure (+dP/dtmax were higher in the trained groups, but CHF-ACT showed higher +dP/dtmax compared to CHF-AIT. Both training regimens were able to increase MEC. However, the aerobic interval training was superior for improving MEC.CONCLUSION: Aerobic training is an important intervention to improve cardiac function and remodeling and physical capacity in CHF rats. Interval training is a potential strategy to maximize the results, but exercise type and intensity are still topics to be explored.

  2. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantier, Louise; Fentz, Joachim; Mounier, Rémi; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Treebak, Jonas T; Pehmøller, Christian; Sanz, Nieves; Sakakibara, Iori; Saint-Amand, Emmanuelle; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Maire, Pascal; Marette, André; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Ferry, Arnaud; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit

    2014-07-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that plays a central role in skeletal muscle metabolism. We used skeletal muscle-specific AMPKα1α2 double-knockout (mdKO) mice to provide direct genetic evidence of the physiological importance of AMPK in regulating muscle exercise capacity, mitochondrial function, and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. Exercise performance was significantly reduced in the mdKO mice, with a reduction in maximal force production and fatigue resistance. An increase in the proportion of myofibers with centralized nuclei was noted, as well as an elevated expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA, possibly consistent with mild skeletal muscle injury. Notably, we found that AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 isoforms are dispensable for contraction-induced skeletal muscle glucose transport, except for male soleus muscle. However, the lack of skeletal muscle AMPK diminished maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration, showing an impairment at complex I. This effect was not accompanied by changes in mitochondrial number, indicating that AMPK regulates muscle metabolic adaptation through the regulation of muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and mitochondrial substrate utilization but not baseline mitochondrial muscle content. Together, these results demonstrate that skeletal muscle AMPK has an unexpected role in the regulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation that contributes to the energy demands of the exercising muscle.-Lantier, L., Fentz, J., Mounier, R., Leclerc, J., Treebak, J. T., Pehmøller, C., Sanz, N., Sakakibara, I., Saint-Amand, E., Rimbaud, S., Maire, P., Marette, A., Ventura-Clapier, R., Ferry, A., Wojtaszewski, J. F. P., Foretz, M., Viollet, B. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity. © FASEB.

  3. Elevated energy coupling and aerobic capacity improves exercise performance in endurance-trained elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Kevin E; Jubrias, Sharon A; Cress, M Elaine; Esselman, Peter C

    2013-04-01

    Increased maximal oxygen uptake (V(O(2)max)), mitochondrial capacity and energy coupling efficiency are reported after endurance training (ET) in adult subjects. Here we test whether leg exercise performance (power output of the legs, P(max), at V(O(2)max)) reflects these improvements with ET in the elderly. Fifteen male and female subjects were endurance trained for a 6 month programme, with 13 subjects (69.5 ± 1.2 years old, range 65-80 years old; n = 7 males; n = 6 females) completing the study. This training significantly improved P(max) (Δ17%; P = 0.003), V(O(2)max) (Δ5.4%; P = 0.021) and the increment in oxygen uptake (V(O(2))) above resting (ΔV(O(2)m-r) = V(O(2)max) - V(O(2)rest; Δ9%; P exercise in the ramp test as measured by delta efficiency (ΔP(ex)/ΔV(O(2)); P = 0.04). No change was found in blood lactate, muscle glycolysis or fibre type. The rise in P(max) paralleled the improvement in muscle oxidative phosphorylation capacity (ATP(max)) in these subjects. In addition, the greater exercise energy coupling [Δ(P(max)/ΔV(O(2)m-r)) and delta efficiency] was accompanied by increased mitochondrial energy coupling as measured by elevated ATP production per unit mitochondrial content in these subjects. These results suggest that leg exercise performance benefits from elevations in energy coupling and oxidative phosphorylation capacity at both the whole-body and muscle levels that accompany endurance training in the elderly.

  4. Short term effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gain Kevin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in the understanding and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension have enabled earlier diagnosis and improved prognosis. However, despite best available therapy, symptoms of exertional dyspnoea and fatigue are commonly reported and result in a reduced capacity to perform daily activities and impaired quality of life. Exercise training has demonstrated efficacy in individuals with other respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Historically, however, exercise training has not been utilised as a form of therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension due to the perceived risk of sudden cardiac death and the theoretical possibility that exercise would lead to worsening pulmonary vascular haemodynamics and deterioration in right heart function. Now, with the advances in pharmaceutical management, determining the safety and benefits of exercise training in this population has become more relevant. Only three studies of supervised exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension have been published. These studies demonstrated improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life, in the absence of adverse events or clinical deterioration. However, these studies have not utilised an outpatient-based, whole body exercise training program, the most common format for exercise programs within Australia. It is uncertain whether this form of training is beneficial and capable of producing sustained benefits in exercise capacity and quality of life in this population. Design/Methods This randomised controlled trial will determine whether a 12 week, outpatient-based, supervised, whole body exercise training program, followed by a home-based exercise program, is safe and improves exercise capacity and quality of life in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This study aims to recruit 34 subjects who will be randomly allocated to the exercise group (supervised exercise training 3 times a week for 12 weeks, followed by

  5. Scalable Capacity Bounding Models for Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Jinfeng; Medard, Muriel; Xiao, Ming; Skoglund, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    The framework of network equivalence theory developed by Koetter et al. introduces a notion of channel emulation to construct noiseless networks as upper (resp. lower) bounding models, which can be used to calculate the outer (resp. inner) bounds for the capacity region of the original noisy network. Based on the network equivalence framework, this paper presents scalable upper and lower bounding models for wireless networks with potentially many nodes. A channel decoupling method is proposed...

  6. Mitochondrial antioxidative capacity regulates muscle glucose uptake in the conscious mouse: effect of exercise and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li; Lustig, Mary E; Bonner, Jeffrey S; Lee-Young, Robert S; Mayes, Wesley H; James, Freyja D; Lin, Chien-Te; Perry, Christopher G R; Anderson, Ethan J; Neufer, P Darrell; Wasserman, David H

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that exercise-stimulated muscle glucose uptake (MGU) is augmented by increasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) scavenging capacity. This hypothesis was tested in genetically altered mice fed chow or a high-fat (HF) diet that accelerates mtROS formation. Mice overexpressing SOD2 (sod2(Tg)), mitochondria-targeted catalase (mcat(Tg)), and combined SOD2 and mCAT (mtAO) were used to increase mtROS scavenging. mtROS was assessed by the H(2)O(2) emitting potential (JH(2)O(2)) in muscle fibers. sod2(Tg) did not decrease JH(2)O(2) in chow-fed mice, but decreased JH(2)O(2) in HF-fed mice. mcat(Tg) and mtAO decreased JH(2)O(2) in both chow- and HF-fed mice. In parallel, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) was unaltered in sod2(Tg) in chow-fed mice, but was increased in HF-fed sod2(Tg) and both chow- and HF-fed mcat(Tg) and mtAO. Nitrotyrosine, a marker of NO-dependent, reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-induced nitrative stress, was decreased in both chow- and HF-fed sod2(Tg), mcat(Tg), and mtAO mice. This effect was not changed with exercise. Kg, an index of MGU was assessed using 2-[(14)C]-deoxyglucose during exercise. In chow-fed mice, sod2(Tg), mcat(Tg), and mtAO increased exercise Kg compared with wild types. Exercise Kg was also augmented in HF-fed sod2(Tg) and mcat(Tg) mice but unchanged in HF-fed mtAO mice. In conclusion, mtROS scavenging is a key regulator of exercise-mediated MGU and this regulation depends on nutritional state.

  7. Effects of Therapeutic Exercises on Functional Capacities of Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Haji Zadeh

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic and systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by symmetric joint involvement with progressive deformities. This leads to limitation of motion and reduction of activity daily living (ADL. Previous reports showed the beneficial effects of therapeutic exercises in these patients in the remission phase. Methods and Materials: A clinical trial as a self-control sequential control study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a range of motion (ROM exercise program in patients with RA, referring to Rheumatology Research Center between 1994-1995. ROM of the selected joints by Goniometer, and ADL by a questionnaire was assessed in all patients in 3 phases: when entering the program, after 6 weeks of observation, and then after another 6 weeks with the therapeutic exercises. The mean difference in these 2 period were compared by student paired t test. The analysis of differences between different subgroups (job, education, etc. was done by one way variance analysis. Results: Forty patients completed the program. The mean ADL increased from 0437±0.252 before exercise to 6.69±3.06 after exercise (P<0.001, and the mean scores of ROM increased from 0.278±0.28 to 8±3.57 (P<0.0001, both statistically significant. This was more pronounced in women and in those with ankle joints involvement. The type of disease onset and duration of the disease did not influence the effects of treatment. No increase in disease activity was seen. Conclusion: This study showed the effectiveness of our ROM exercises in increasing functional capacities of patients with RA in remission phase.

  8. Resveratrol improves exercise performance and skeletal muscle oxidative capacity in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Miranda M; Byrne, Nikole J; Robertson, Ian M; Kim, Ty T; Samokhvalov, Victor; Levasseur, Jody; Soltys, Carrie-Lynn; Fung, David; Tyreman, Neil; Denou, Emmanuel; Jones, Kelvin E; Seubert, John M; Schertzer, Jonathan D; Dyck, Jason R B

    2017-04-01

    We investigated whether treatment of mice with established pressure overload-induced heart failure (HF) with the naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol could improve functional symptoms of clinical HF such as fatigue and exercise intolerance. C57Bl/6N mice were subjected to either sham or transverse aortic constriction surgery to induce HF. Three weeks postsurgery, a cohort of mice with established HF (%ejection fraction resveratrol (~450 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or vehicle for 2 wk. Although the percent ejection fraction was similar between both groups of HF mice, those mice treated with resveratrol had increased total physical activity levels and exercise capacity. Resveratrol treatment was associated with altered gut microbiota composition, increased skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, a switch toward greater whole body glucose utilization, and increased basal metabolic rates. Although muscle mass and strength were not different between groups, mice with HF had significant declines in basal and ADP-stimulated O2 consumption in isolated skeletal muscle fibers compared with sham mice, which was completely normalized by resveratrol treatment. Overall, resveratrol treatment of mice with established HF enhances exercise performance, which is associated with alterations in whole body and skeletal muscle energy metabolism. Thus, our preclinical data suggest that resveratrol supplementation may effectively improve fatigue and exercise intolerance in HF patients.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Resveratrol treatment of mice with heart failure leads to enhanced exercise performance that is associated with altered gut microbiota composition, increased whole body glucose utilization, and enhanced skeletal muscle metabolism and function. Together, these preclinical data suggest that resveratrol supplementation may effectively improve fatigue and exercise intolerance in heart failure via these mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity and spontaneous physical activity in elderly subjects: a randomized controlled pilot trial

    OpenAIRE

    Aznar Laín, Susana; Webster, A. L., Mrs.; Cañete, Silvia; San Juan, Alejandro F.; López Mojares, Luis Miguel; Pérez Ruiz, Margarita; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Chicharro García, Luis Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve exercise capacity in diseased populations. We chose to examine the effects of eight weeks of IMT on exercise capacity and spontaneous physical activity in elderly individuals. Eighteen moderately active elderly subjects (68.1 +/- 6.8 years [mean +/- SD]; range 58 - 78 years) were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 9) or a control group (n = 9) in a double-blind manner. All subjects underwent inspiratory muscle tes...

  10. One-year effect of a supervised exercise programme on functional capacity and quality of life in peripheral arterial disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Guidon, Marie; McGee, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a chronic, progressive disease with a significant cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk burden and a considerable impact on functional capacity and quality of life (QoL). Exercise programmes result in significant improvements in walking distances but long-term effects are uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the one-year effects of participation in a 12-week supervised exercise programme on functional capacity and QoL for PAD patients....

  11. Coronary flow reserve as a link between diastolic and systolic function and exercise capacity in heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoer, Martin; Monk-Hansen, Tea; Olsen, Rasmus Huan

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: In heart failure, a reduced exercise capacity is the prevailing symptom and an important prognostic marker of future outcome. The purpose of the study was to assess the relation of coronary flow reserve (CFR) to diastolic and systolic function in heart failure and to determine which...... are the limiting factors for exercise capacity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-seven patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)...

  12. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Amlôt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS. The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit.

  13. Heart rate recovery in elite athletes: the impact of age and exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzic Lazic, Jelena; Dekleva, Milica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Leischik, Roman; Suzic, Slavica; Radovanovic, Dragan; Djuric, Biljana; Nesic, Dejan; Lazic, Milivoje; Mazic, Sanja

    2017-03-01

    There is compelling evidence that postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR) is a valid indicator of sympaticovagal balance. It is also used in prescription and monitoring of athletic training. The purpose of our study was to determine HRR after maximal exercise among elite athletes with respect to age. A total of 274 elite male Caucasian athletes were randomly selected from the larger sample and divided into two groups: adolescent (group Y) and adult athletes (≥18 years; group A). They performed maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill. Heart rate recovery was calculated as the rate of decline of HR from peak exercise to rates 1, 2 and 3 min after cessation of exercise (HRR1, HRR2 and HRR3). A significantly higher HRR1 was found in group A (29·5 ± 15·6 versus 22·4 ± 10·8, Precovery. Higher values of HRR1 should be expected in older athletes, and HRR3 could be used as an index of aerobic capacity, irrespective of age.

  14. Effect of iron overload on exercise capacity in thalassemic patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Gotsis, Efstathios; Verganelakis, Dimitrios; Berdousis, Eleni; Dritsas, Athanasios; Kolovou, Genovefa; Toulas, Panagiotis; Ladis, Vassilios

    2009-12-01

    In b-thalassemia, myocardial iron overload contributes to heart failure, despite chelation treatment. We hypothesized that myocardial T2*, an index of iron overload, influences patients' physical activity. We assessed a thalassemic population by both cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and ergospirometry test. Sixty-six thalassemic patients aged 27 (19-40) years, 30 without (NHF) and 36 with heart failure (HF), were studied. Cardiac T2* and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were evaluated using a 1.5 T system. VO(2max), AT, Mets and duration of exercise by ergospirometry were also assessed. Myocardial T2* was lower in HF compared to NHF patients (14.7 +/- 6.6 vs. 39 +/- 2 ms, P iron overloaded (HF-H) and the rest of them (n = 23) as (HF-L). Although LVEDV, LVESV, LVEF were similar in the two subgroups, the exercise parameters were significantly lower in the HF-H group (P Heart T2* correlated with all exercise parameters (P iron overload, expressed as T2*, has a direct influence on exercise capacity, independent of LV ejection fraction and functional class.

  15. Effect of Beta-Blocker Therapy, Maximal Heart Rate, and Exercise Capacity During Stress Testing on Long-Term Survival (from The Henry Ford Exercise Testing Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Rupert K; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Whelton, Seamus P; Michos, Erin D; Blumenthal, Roger S; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Brawner, Clinton A; Keteyian, Steven J; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    Whether lower heart rate thresholds (defined as the percentage of age-predicted maximal heart rate achieved, or ppMHR) should be used to determine chronotropic incompetence in patients on beta-blocker therapy (BBT) remains unclear. In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed 64,549 adults without congestive heart failure or atrial fibrillation (54 ± 13 years old, 46% women, 29% black) who underwent clinician-referred exercise stress testing at a single health care system in Detroit, Michigan from 1991 to 2009, with median follow-up of 10.6 years for all-cause mortality (interquartile range 7.7 to 14.7 years). Using Cox regression models, we assessed the effect of BBT, ppMHR, and estimated exercise capacity on mortality, with adjustment for demographic data, medical history, pertinent medications, and propensity to be on BBT. There were 9,259 deaths during follow-up. BBT was associated with an 8% lower adjusted achieved ppMHR (91% in no BBT vs 83% in BBT). ppMHR was inversely associated with all-cause mortality but with significant attenuation by BBT (per 10% ppMHR HR: no BBT: 0.80 [0.78 to 0.82] vs BBT: 0.89 [0.87 to 0.92]). Patients on BBT who achieved 65% ppMHR had a similar adjusted mortality rate as those not on BBT who achieved 85% ppMHR (p >0.05). Estimated exercise capacity further attenuated the prognostic value of ppMHR (per-10%-ppMHR HR: no BBT: 0.88 [0.86 to 0.90] vs BBT: 0.95 [0.93 to 0.98]). In conclusion, the prognostic value of ppMHR was significantly attenuated by BBT. For patients on BBT, a lower threshold of 65% ppMHR may be considered for determining worsened prognosis. Estimated exercise capacity further diminished the prognostic value of ppMHR particularly in patients on BBT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomechanical Modeling Analysis of Loads Configuration for Squat Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Jagodnik, Kathleen; De Witt, John K.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Long duration space travel will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to assist loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft for travel to the Moon or to Mars is limited and therefore compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on the ISS is being used as a benchmark for the functional performance of these new devices. Biomechanical data collection and computational modeling aid the device design process by quantifying the joint torques and the musculoskeletal forces that occur during exercises performed on the prototype devices. METHODS The computational models currently under development utilize the OpenSim [1] software platform, consisting of open source code for musculoskeletal modeling, using biomechanical input data from test subjects for estimation of muscle and joint loads. The OpenSim Full Body Model [2] is used for all analyses. The model incorporates simplified wrap surfaces, a new knee model and updated lower body muscle parameters derived from cadaver measurements and magnetic resonance imaging of young adults. The upper body uses torque actuators at the lumbar and extremity joints. The test subjects who volunteer for this study are instrumented with reflective markers for motion capture data collection while performing squat exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) prototype device (ZIN Technologies, Middleburg Heights, OH). Ground reaction force data is collected with force plates under the feet, and device loading is recorded through load cells internal to the HULK. Test variables include

  17. Exercise capacity in adolescent and adult patients with post infectious bronchiolitis obliterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Luiz Felipe; Vieira, Paulo J C; Teixeira, Paulo José Zimermann; Silva, Fernando Abreu; Ribeiro, Jorge P; Berton, Danilo C

    2014-09-01

    Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PBO) is a chronic lung disease characterized by the persistence of continuous obstructive respiratory symptoms following an acute and severe respiratory infection in children under 3 years old. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if adolescents and adults with diagnosis of PBO have reduced aerobic capacity and identify factors related with exercise performance. A convenience sample of 16 patients (10-23 years) that have consulted with established diagnosis of PBO in a tertiary care clinic were studied. Fourteen healthy matched subjects were selected from the community to serve as controls. They performed resting lung function tests and cycle incremental cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Peak aerobic capacity (peak V˙O(2)) was significantly lower in patients compared to controls (84 ± 15 vs. 101 ± 17% pred; P limitation and rest hyperinflation. The greater the air flow limitation (lower FEV(1)) the greater the hyperinflation, air trapping, and aerobic capacity reduction. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of hormone therapy on exercise capacity in early postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuro, Giuseppe; Saiu, Francesca; Deidda, Martino; Mercuro, Silvia; Vitale, Cristiana; Rosano, Giuseppe M C

    2007-10-01

    To compare the exercise capacity of postmenopausal women with matched premenopausal controls, as well as postmenopausal women before and after 3 months of hormone therapy (HT). This study examined the response to strenuous isotonic exercise in 30 women with recently developed menopause (age, mean+/-standard deviation, 50.6+/-1.1 years) without cardiovascular risk factors or diseases. Thirty premenopausal subjects, matched one-to-one for age and biophysical characteristics, were the control group. Postmenopausal women underwent examination before (T(0)) and 3 months after (T(1)) HT (oral 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen and 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate/day) with high-resolution ultrasound determination of peripheral flow-mediated vasodilation and an integrative cardiopulmonary test. Postmenopausal women showed an impairment of flow-mediated vasodilation (Pexercise intolerance, and there are benefits in introducing HT.

  19. Heart rate recovery, exercise capacity, and mortality risk in male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Peter; Myers, Jonathan; Doumas, Michael; Faselis, Charles; Pittaras, Andreas; Manolis, Athanasios; Kokkinos, John Peter; Narayan, Puneet; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Fletcher, Ross

    2012-04-01

    Both impaired heart rate recovery (HRR) and low fitness are associated with higher mortality risk. In addition, HRR is influenced by fitness status. The interaction between HRR, mortality, and fitness has not been clearly defined. Thus, we sought to evaluate the association between HRR and all-cause mortality and to assess the effects of fitness on this association. Treadmill exercise testing was performed in 5974 male veterans for clinical reasons at two Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (Washington, DC and Palo Alto, CA). HRR was calculated at 1 and 2 min of recovery. All-cause mortality was determined over a mean 6.2-year follow-up period. Mortality risk was significantly and inversely associated with HRR, only at 2 min. A cut-off value of 14 beats/min at 2 min recovery was the strongest predictor of mortality for the cohort (hazard ratio = 2.4; CI 1.6-3.5). The mortality risk was overestimated when exercise capacity was not considered. When both low fitness and low HRR were present (≤6 metabolic equivalents and ≤14 beats/min), mortality risk was approximately seven-fold higher compared to the High-fit + High-HRR group (>6 metabolic equivalents and >14 beats/min). HRR at 2 min post exercise is strongly and inversely associated with all-cause mortality. Exercise capacity affects HRR-associated mortality substantially and should be considered when applying HRR to estimate mortality.

  20. Assessment of Exercise Capacity and Oxygen Consumption Using a 6 min Stepper Test in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siana Jones

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is often necessary to assess physical function in older adults to monitor disease progression, rehabilitation or decline in function with age. However, increasing frailty and poor balance that accompany aging are common barriers to exercise testing protocols. We investigated whether a 6-min stepper test (6MST was acceptable to older adults and provided a measure of exercise capacity and a predicted value for peak aerobic capacity (VO2max. 635 older adults from a tri-ethnic UK population-based cohort were screened to undertake a self-paced 6MST. Expired gas analysis, heart rate and blood pressure monitoring were carried out. A sub-set of 20 participants performed a second 6MST for assessment of reproducibility and a further sub-set of 10 performed the 6-min walk test as verification against a well-recognized and accepted self-paced exercise test. 518 (82% participants met inclusion criteria and undertook the 6MST (299 men, mean age 71.2 ± 6.4. Step rate showed a strong positive correlation with measured VO2 (r = 0.75, p < 0.001 and VO2 was lower in women (male-female difference in VO2 = 2.61 (95% confidence interval −3.6, −1.7 ml/min/kg; p < 0.001. 20 participants repeated a 6MST, step rate was higher in the second test but the predicted VO2max showed good agreement (mean difference = 0.1 [3.72, 3.95] ml/min/kg. In 10 participants who completed a 6MST and a 6-min walk test there was a strong positive correlation between walking rate and step rate (r = 0.77; p < 0.009 and weaker positive correlations between the tests for measured VO2 and peak heart rate. In conclusion, the 6MST is a convenient, acceptable method of assessing exercise capacity in older adults that allows VO2max to be predicted reproducibly. The test shows good correlation between performance and measured physiological markers of performance and can detect the expected gender differences in measured VO2. Furthermore, the 6MST results correlate with a previously verified and

  1. Associations of Obesity and Asthma with Functional Exercise Capacity in Urban Minority Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Deepa; Khan, Unab I.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Coupey, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose To examine the independent association of asthma and obesity and of their coexistence with functional exercise capacity among urban adolescents. Methods One hundred and eighteen Hispanic and African American adolescents including 33 obese asthmatics, 18 normal-weight asthmatics, 38 obese non-asthmatics and 29 normal-weight non-asthmatics underwent anthropometric measures, 6 minute walk test (6MWT) as measure of functional exercise capacity and spirometry as measure of pulmonary function. The 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) was compared between the four study groups. The association of 6MWD with measures of lower airway obstruction, and measures of adiposity was assessed. Results The 6MWD was lower among the obese groups with the least distance covered by the obese asthmatic group (p=0.02). In the obese asthmatic group, there was a negative correlation between 6MWD and body mass index (BMI) (r= −0.35, p= 0.03) but no association was noted with percent-predicted Forced Expiratory Volume in the 1st second (FEV1) (r=0.07, p=0.70). Conversely, the 6MWD correlated with FEV1 among normal-weight asthmatics (r=0.45, p=0.04) and normal-weight non-asthmatics (r=0.4, p=0.03) but was not associated with BMI in either of the two groups. After adjusting for age, height, gender and ethnicity, BMI was noted to be a significant predictor (β −2.76, 95% CI −4.77- −0.76, p<0.01)) of the 6MWD among the obese while percent predicted FEV1 (β 1.87, 95%CI 0.28–3.45, p=0.02) was a significant predictor among the normal-weight participants. Conclusions Our findings suggest that among urban minority obese asthmatic adolescents, functional exercise capacity was associated with obesity, rather than pulmonary function. PMID:22467360

  2. Improved cardiac function and exercise capacity following correction of pectus excavatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Maagaard; Heiberg, Johan

    2016-01-01

    no difference, and one saw a decrease of 19% 3 months after Nuss-bar implantation. A measurable increase in exercise capacity exists following surgery, which may be caused by multiple factors. This may be owed to the relief of compressed cardiac chambers with the increased anterior-posterior thoracic dimensions......, which could facilitate an improved filling of the heart. With these results, the positive physiological impact of the surgery is emphasized and the potential gain in cardiac function should be integrated in the clinical assessment of patients with PE....

  3. Relation between change in exercise capacity and change in blood amino acids in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotomi, Nobuo; Saitoh, Masakazu; Ishii, Noriko; Ohno, Kayoko; Nagayama, Masatoshi; Kawate, Nobuyuki; Mizuma, Masazumi

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] Although cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is recommended for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), adequate exercise effect cannot be obtained in elderly patients. Administration of amino acids (AA) to CHF patients has been reported to improve exercise capacity, but the changes in AA composition in plasma before and after CR had not been reported. This study aimed to measure plasma levels of AA in CHF patients and compare with values of normal range. In addition the relationship between the change of exercise capacity and AA were examined. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve CHF patients (60% males, aged 68 ± 12 years) were studied. The correction between the rates of changes in exercise capacity parameters and in plasma AA levels was investigated. [Results] Anaerobic threshold (AT) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2) improved significantly after CR. The AA profile showed no specific pattern, and citrulline (Cit) was the amino acid showing a significant positive correlation with exercise capacity (∆Cit vs. ∆AT: r=0.602, ∆Cit vs. ∆AT-work rate (WR): r=0.681, ∆Cit vs. ∆VO2/WR: r=0.635). A tendency of positive correlation was observed between ∆Cit and ∆peak VO2 (r=0.456). [Conclusion] The AA profile showed no specific pattern, but a relationship between change in exercise capacity and Cit were found.

  4. Exercises in 80223 Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Jens Ole

    Processing of Materials'. The original copy is kept in the archives of TM on the ground floor of building 425. A copy of the exercise book can be made available by contacting the secretary on the ground floor of building 425. Please give the following number: TM 00.01 (TM = Thermal processing of Materials)......This exercise book contains exercise instructions for the 7 compulsory exercises (Exercise 1-7) and the final exercise (Exercise 8) in the course 80223 'Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials'. The exercise book also contains written program examples in 'C' and 'Pascal'. Finally......, guidelines are given on how to write the report which has to be handed in at the end of the course. The exercise book is a updated version of the exercise book from 1999. The exercise book is used in the course 42224 'Numerical Process Modelling' which earlier was called 80223 'Numerical Modelling of Thermal...

  5. Ex vivo measures of muscle mitochondrial capacity reveal quantitative limits of oxygen delivery by the circulation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert; Saltin, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    of the body mass will be discussed in relation to mitochondrial capacity measured ex vivo. These analyses reveal that as the mass of muscle engaged in exercise increases from one-leg knee extension, to 2-arm cranking, to 2-leg cycling and x-country skiing, the magnitude of blood flow and oxygen delivery...... decrease. Accordingly, a 2-fold higher oxygen delivery and oxygen uptake per unit muscle mass are seen in vivo during 1-leg exercise compared to 2-leg cycling indicating a significant limitation of the circulation during exercise with a large muscle mass. This analysis also reveals that mitochondrial......Muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity measured ex vivo provides a physiological reference to assess cellular oxidative capacity as a component in the oxygen cascade in vivo. In this article, the magnitude of muscle blood flow and oxygen uptake during exercise involving a small-to-large fraction...

  6. Coronary microvascular function, insulin sensitivity and body composition in predicting exercise capacity in overweight patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürs, Anders; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has a negative impact on exercise capacity. The aim of this study was to determine how coronary microvascular function, glucose metabolism and body composition contribute to exercise capacity in overweight patients with CAD and without diabetes. METHODS......: Sixty-five non-diabetic, overweight patients with stable CAD, BMI 28-40 kg/m(2) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) above 35 % were recruited. A 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test was used to evaluate glucose metabolism. Peak aerobic exercise capacity (VO2peak) was assessed...... by a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Body composition was determined by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was used as a measure of microvascular function. RESULTS: Median BMI was 31.3 and 72...

  7. Effects of a multimodal exercise program on the functional capacity of Parkinson's disease patients considering disease severity and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Orcioli-Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multimodal exercise program (MEP on the functional capacity of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD according to disease severity and gender. Fourteen patients with PD participated in the study and were distributed into groups according to 1 stage of disease and 2 gender. Functional capacity was evaluated before and after 6 months of intervention. The overall PD patient group improved their coordination and strength. Men and women improved in strength performance after exercise. Men also improved on coordination. For severity of disease, the unilateral group improved in strength, while the bilateral group improved in strength, balance, coordination and the UPDRS-functional score. In conclusion, a MEP is efficient in improving components of functional capacity in patients with PD, especially in strength. Gender may be considered in the exercise program. Individuals in the bilateral disease group appeared to benefit more from exercise.

  8. The effects of exercise capacity and sedentary lifestyle on haemostasis among middle-aged women with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Edit; Janszky, Imre; Eriksson-Berg, Margita; Al-Khalili, Faris; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies have established a link/relationship between haemostatic factors and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, physical conditioning is associated with lower coronary heart disease risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between physical exercise and haemostatic factors among middle-aged women surviving an acute coronary event. The Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Study included 292 women aged < 65 years, resident in the greater Stockholm area, who were hospitalized for an acute coronary syndrome. Extensive clinical screening including exercise testing, and blood tests were performed 3-6 months after the coronary event. Self-reported physical activity was assessed by a WHO questionnaire. Patients on warfarin treatment were excluded from our analyses. Haemostatic factors were generally higher among physically inactive patients when compared to physically active women in our univariate models. Exercise capacity had a statistically significant relationship with factor VII antigen (p = 0.039) and vWFag (p = 0.038) even in our multiadjusted analyses. Physical inactivity and poor physical fitness are associated with a potentially prothrombotic blood profile in middle aged women with coronary heart disease.

  9. PREDICTIVE CAPACITY OF ARCH FAMILY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Silveira Amaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, a remarkable number of models, variants from the Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedastic family, have been developed and empirically tested, making extremely complex the process of choosing a particular model. This research aim to compare the predictive capacity, using the Model Confidence Set procedure, than five conditional heteroskedasticity models, considering eight different statistical probability distributions. The financial series which were used refers to the log-return series of the Bovespa index and the Dow Jones Industrial Index in the period between 27 October 2008 and 30 December 2014. The empirical evidences showed that, in general, competing models have a great homogeneity to make predictions, either for a stock market of a developed country or for a stock market of a developing country. An equivalent result can be inferred for the statistical probability distributions that were used.

  10. A Model of Grid Service Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youcef Derbal

    2007-01-01

    Computational grids (CGs) are large scale networks of geographically distributed aggregates of resource clusters that may be contributed by distinct organizations for the provision of computing services such as model simulation, compute cycle and data mining. Traditionally, the decision-making strategies underlying the grid management mechanisms rely on the physical view of the grid resource model. This entails the need for complex multi-dimensional search strategies and a considerable level of resource state information exchange between the grid management domains. In this paper we argue that with the adoption of service oriented grid architectures, a logical service-oriented view of the resource model provides more appropriate level of abstraction to express the grid capacity to handle incoming service requests. In this respect,we propose a quantification model of the aggregated service capacity of the hosting environment that is updated based on the monitored state of the wrious environmental resources required by the hosted services. A comparative experimental validation of the model shows its performance towards enabling an adequate exploitation of provisioned services.

  11. Exercises in 80223 Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Jens Ole

    This exercise book contains exercise instructions for the 7 compulsory exercises (Exercise 1-7) and the final exercise (Exercise 8) in the course 80223 'Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials'. The exercise book also contains written program examples in 'C' and 'Pascal'. Finally...... Processing of Materials'. The original copy is kept in the archives of TM on the ground floor of building 425. A copy of the exercise book can be made available by contacting the secretary on the ground floor of building 425. Please give the following number: TM 00.01 (TM = Thermal processing of Materials)...

  12. Brain activation patterns at exhaustion in rats that differ in inherent exercise capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa E Foley

    Full Text Available In order to further understand the genetic basis for variation in inherent (untrained exercise capacity, we examined the brains of 32 male rats selectively bred for high or low running capacity (HCR and LCR, respectively. The aim was to characterize the activation patterns of brain regions potentially involved in differences in inherent running capacity between HCR and LCR. Using quantitative in situ hybridization techniques, we measured messenger ribonuclease (mRNA levels of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in the brains of HCR and LCR rats after a single bout of acute treadmill running (7.5-15 minutes, 15° slope, 10 m/min or after treadmill running to exhaustion (15-51 minutes, 15° slope, initial velocity 10 m/min. During verification of trait differences, HCR rats ran six times farther and three times longer prior to exhaustion than LCR rats. Running to exhaustion significantly increased c-Fos mRNA activation of several brain areas in HCR, but LCR failed to show significant elevations of c-Fos mRNA at exhaustion in the majority of areas examined compared to acutely run controls. Results from these studies suggest that there are differences in central c-Fos mRNA expression, and potential brain activation patterns, between HCR and LCR rats during treadmill running to exhaustion and these differences could be involved in the variation in inherent running capacity between lines.

  13. Pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide during exercise in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Kim, Do J; McGregor, Elspeth R; Starling, Jennifer M; Gavard, Jeffrey A

    2008-11-01

    Morbidly obese individuals may have altered pulmonary diffusion during exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) and carbon monoxide (DLCO) during exercise in these subjects. Ten morbidly obese subjects (age = 38 +/- 9 years, BMI = 47 +/- 7 kg/m(2), peak oxygen consumption or VO(2peak) = 2.4 +/- 0.4 l/min) and nine nonobese controls (age = 41 +/- 9 years, BMI = 23 +/- 2 kg/m(2), VO(2peak) = 2.6 +/- 0.9 l/min) participated in two sessions: the first measured resting O(2) and VO(2peak) for determination of wattage equating to 40, 75, and 90% oxygen uptake reserve (VO(2)R). The second session measured pulmonary diffusion from single-breath maneuvers of 5 s each, as well as heart rate (HR) and VO(2) over three workloads. DLNO, DLCO, and pulmonary capillary blood volume were larger in obese compared to nonobese groups (P 0.10). The morbidly obese have increased pulmonary diffusion per unit increase in VA compared with nonobese controls which may be due to a lower rise in VA per unit increase in VO(2) in the obese during exercise.

  14. A Cycle Ergometer Exercise Program Improves Exercise Capacity and Inspiratory Muscle Function in Hospitalized Patients Awaiting Heart Transplantation: a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Forestieri

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a cycle ergometer exercise program on exercise capacity and inspiratory muscle function in hospitalized patients with heart failure awaiting heart transplantation with intravenous inotropic support. Methods: Patients awaiting heart transplantation were randomized and allocated prospectively into two groups: 1 Control Group (n=11 - conventional protocol; and 2 Intervention Group (n=7 - stationary cycle ergometer exercise training. Functional capacity was measured by the six-minute walk test and inspiratory muscle strength assessed by manovacuometry before and after the exercise protocols. Results: Both groups demonstrated an increase in six-minute walk test distance after the experimental procedure compared to baseline; however, only the intervention group had a significant increase (P =0.08 and P =0.001 for the control and intervention groups, respectively. Intergroup comparison revealed a greater increase in the intervention group compared to the control (P <0.001. Regarding the inspiratory muscle strength evaluation, the intragroup analysis demonstrated increased strength after the protocols compared to baseline for both groups; statistical significance was only demonstrated for the intervention group, though (P =0.22 and P <0.01, respectively. Intergroup comparison showed a significant increase in the intervention group compared to the control (P <0.01. Conclusion: Stationary cycle ergometer exercise training shows positive results on exercise capacity and inspiratory muscle strength in patients with heart failure awaiting cardiac transplantation while on intravenous inotropic support.

  15. A Cycle Ergometer Exercise Program Improves Exercise Capacity and Inspiratory Muscle Function in Hospitalized Patients Awaiting Heart Transplantation: a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, Patrícia; Guizilini, Solange; Peres, Monique; Bublitz, Caroline; Bolzan, Douglas W.; Rocco, Isadora S.; Santos, Vinícius B.; Moreira, Rita Simone L.; Breda, João R.; de Almeida, Dirceu R.; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos de C.; Arena, Ross; Gomes, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a cycle ergometer exercise program on exercise capacity and inspiratory muscle function in hospitalized patients with heart failure awaiting heart transplantation with intravenous inotropic support. Methods Patients awaiting heart transplantation were randomized and allocated prospectively into two groups: 1) Control Group (n=11) - conventional protocol; and 2) Intervention Group (n=7) - stationary cycle ergometer exercise training. Functional capacity was measured by the six-minute walk test and inspiratory muscle strength assessed by manovacuometry before and after the exercise protocols. Results Both groups demonstrated an increase in six-minute walk test distance after the experimental procedure compared to baseline; however, only the intervention group had a significant increase (P=0.08 and P=0.001 for the control and intervention groups, respectively). Intergroup comparison revealed a greater increase in the intervention group compared to the control (P<0.001). Regarding the inspiratory muscle strength evaluation, the intragroup analysis demonstrated increased strength after the protocols compared to baseline for both groups; statistical significance was only demonstrated for the intervention group, though (P=0.22 and P<0.01, respectively). Intergroup comparison showed a significant increase in the intervention group compared to the control (P<0.01). Conclusion Stationary cycle ergometer exercise training shows positive results on exercise capacity and inspiratory muscle strength in patients with heart failure awaiting cardiac transplantation while on intravenous inotropic support. PMID:27982348

  16. Skeletal muscle-specific expression of PGC-1α-b, an exercise-responsive isoform, increases exercise capacity and peak oxygen uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Tadaishi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max predicts mortality and is associated with endurance performance. Trained subjects have a high VO(2max due to a high cardiac output and high metabolic capacity of skeletal muscles. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, a nuclear receptor coactivator, promotes mitochondrial biogenesis, a fiber-type switch to oxidative fibers, and angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. Because exercise training increases PGC-1α in skeletal muscle, PGC-1α-mediated changes may contribute to the improvement of exercise capacity and VO(2max. There are three isoforms of PGC-1α mRNA. PGC-1α-b protein, whose amino terminus is different from PGC-1α-a protein, is a predominant PGC-1α isoform in response to exercise. We investigated whether alterations of skeletal muscle metabolism by overexpression of PGC-1α-b in skeletal muscle, but not heart, would increase VO(2max and exercise capacity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transgenic mice showed overexpression of PGC-1α-b protein in skeletal muscle but not in heart. Overexpression of PGC-1α-b promoted mitochondrial biogenesis 4-fold, increased the expression of fatty acid transporters, enhanced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle 1.4 to 2.7-fold, and promoted exercise capacity (expressed by maximum speed by 35% and peak oxygen uptake by 20%. Across a broad range of either the absolute exercise intensity, or the same relative exercise intensities, lipid oxidation was always higher in the transgenic mice than wild-type littermates, suggesting that lipid is the predominant fuel source for exercise in the transgenic mice. However, muscle glycogen usage during exercise was absent in the transgenic mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Increased mitochondrial biogenesis, capillaries, and fatty acid transporters in skeletal muscles may contribute to improved exercise capacity via an increase in fatty acid utilization. Increases in PGC-1α-b protein or function

  17. Physiological models to understand exercise fatigue and the adaptations that predict or enhance athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, T D

    2000-06-01

    A popular concept in the exercise sciences holds that fatigue develops during exercise of moderate to high intensity, when the capacity of the cardiorespiratory system to provide oxygen to the exercising muscles falls behind their demand inducing "anaerobic" metabolism. But this cardiovascular/anaerobic model is unsatisfactory because (i) a more rigorous analysis indicates that the first organ to be affected by anaerobiosis during maximal exercise would likely be the heart, not the skeletal muscles. This probability was fully appreciated by the pioneering exercise physiologists, A. V Hill, A. Bock and D. B. Dill, but has been systematically ignored by modern exercise physiologists; (ii) no study has yet definitely established the presence of either anaerobiosis, hypoxia or ischaemia in skeletal muscle during maximal exercise; (iii) the model is unable to explain why exercise terminates in a variety of conditions including prolonged exercise, exercise in the heat and at altitude, and in those with chronic diseases of the heart and lungs, without any evidence for skeletal muscle anaerobiosis, hypoxia or ischaemia, and before there is full activation of the total skeletal muscle mass, and (iv) cardiovascular and other measures believed to relate to skeletal muscle anaerobiosis, including the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and the "anaerobic threshold", are indifferent predictors of exercise capacity in athletes with similar abilities. This review considers four additional models that need to be considered when factors limiting either short duration, maximal or prolonged submaximal exercise are evaluated. These additional models are: (i) the energy supply/energy depletion model; (ii) the muscle power/muscle recruitment model; (iii) the biomechanical model and (iv) the psychological model. By reviewing features of these models, this review provides a broad overview of the physiological, metabolic and biomechanical factors that may limit exercise performance under

  18. Exercise capacity and ventricular function in patients treated for isolated pulmonary valve stenosis or tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijnenburg, Saskia E; de Koning, Wilfred B; Romeih, Soha; van den Berg, Jochem; Vliegen, Hubert W; Mulder, Barbara J M; Helbing, Willem A

    2012-07-26

    We hypothesized 1) that long-term ventricular outcome and exercise capacity would be better in patients with isolated pulmonary valve stenosis (PS) treated with balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (BPV) than in patients operated for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), and 2) that ventricular outcome and exercise capacity would not be different in PS patients and healthy controls. We included 21 PS patients after BPV (16.2 ± 5.2 years) and 21 patients operated for TOF (16.6 ± 5.6 years), matching them for gender, age at treatment, and age at study. Patients underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, exercise testing, 12-lead ECG and 24-hour Holter monitoring for assessment of right ventricular (RV) size and function, pulmonary regurgitation (PR), exercise capacity and electrocardiographic status. Healthy controls for CMR imaging and exercise testing were matched for gender and age at study. RV volumes and PR percentage were significantly larger in TOF patients than in PS patients; biventricular ejection fraction (EF) was not different. PR was mild in most PS patients. RV end-systolic volume was significantly larger in PS patients than in healthy controls; RVEF was significantly lower. Both patient groups had similar exercise test results. Peak workload and VO(2) max. were significantly lower in PS patients than in healthy controls. Longstanding mild PR in PS patients can lead to an enlarged RV, reduced RV function and reduced exercise capacity. Despite more PR and larger RV volumes in TOF patients, exercise capacity and biventricular function are similar in both patient groups. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of combined physical exercise training on DNA damage and repair capacity: role of oxidative stress changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jorge Pinto; Silva, Amélia M; Oliveira, Maria Manuel; Peixoto, Francisco; Gaivão, Isabel; Mota, Maria Paula

    2015-06-01

    Regular physical exercise has been shown to be one of the most important lifestyle influences on improving functional performance, decreasing morbidity and all causes of mortality among older people. However, it is known that acute physical exercise may induce an increase in oxidative stress and oxidative damage in several structures, including DNA. Considering this, the purpose of this study was to identify the effects of 16 weeks of combined physical exercise in DNA damage and repair capacity in lymphocytes. In addition, we aimed to investigate the role of oxidative stress involved in those changes. Fifty-seven healthy men (40 to 74 years) were enrolled in this study. The sample was divided into two groups: the experimental group (EG), composed of 31 individuals, submitted to 16 weeks of combined physical exercise training; and the control group (CG), composed of 26 individuals, who did not undergo any specifically orientated physical activity. We observed an improvement of overall physical performance in the EG, after the physical exercise training. A significant decrease in DNA strand breaks and FPG-sensitive sites was found after the physical exercise training, with no significant changes in 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase enzyme activity. An increase was observed in antioxidant activity, and a decrease was found in lipid peroxidation levels after physical exercise training. These results suggest that physical exercise training induces protective effects against DNA damage in lymphocytes possibly related to the increase in antioxidant capacity.

  20. Passive Leg Raising Correlates with Future Exercise Capacity after Coronary Revascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chun Huang

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic properties affected by the passive leg raise test (PLRT reflect cardiac pumping efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to further explore whether PLRT predicts exercise intolerance/capacity following coronary revascularization. Following coronary bypass/percutaneous coronary intervention, 120 inpatients underwent a PLRT and a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET 2-12 days during post-surgery hospitalization and 3-5 weeks after hospital discharge. The PLRT included head-up, leg raise, and supine rest postures. The end point of the first CPET during admission was the supra-ventilatory anaerobic threshold, whereas that during the second CPET in the outpatient stage was maximal performance. Bio-reactance-based non-invasive cardiac output monitoring was employed during PLRT to measure real-time stroke volume and cardiac output. A correlation matrix showed that stroke volume during leg raise (SVLR during the first PLRT was positively correlated (R = 0.653 with the anaerobic threshold during the first CPET. When exercise intolerance was defined as an anaerobic threshold < 3 metabolic equivalents, SVLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.822, with sensitivity of 0.954, specificity of 0.593, and cut-off value of 1504·10-3mL/kg (positive predictive value 0.72; negative predictive value 0.92. Additionally, cardiac output during leg raise (COLR during the first PLRT was related to peak oxygen consumption during the second CPET (R = 0.678. When poor aerobic fitness was defined as peak oxygen consumption < 5 metabolic equivalents, COLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.814, with sensitivity of 0.781, specificity of 0.773, and a cut-off value of 68.3 mL/min/kg (positive predictive value 0.83; negative predictive value 0.71. Therefore, we conclude that PLRT during hospitalization has a good screening and predictive power for exercise intolerance/capacity in inpatients and early outpatients following coronary

  1. Assessment of exercise capacity in African patients with chronic heart failure using six minutes walk test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufus A Adedoyin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Rufus A Adedoyin1, Samuel A Adeyanju2, Michael O Balogun3, Anthony O Akintomide3, Rasaaq A Adebayo3, Patience O Akinwusi4, Taofeek O Awotidebe11Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; 2Department of Physical and Health Education, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; 3Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; 4Department of Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the functional capacity during a 6-minute corridor walk and a 6-minute bicycle ergometry exercise in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF.Method: Thirty five patients with stable CHF were recruited for the study. Each subject performed six minutes corridor walk and 6-minute bicycle ergometry testing. The 6-minute walk required the subjects to walk at a self selected speed on a 20 meter marked level ground for 6-minute. All the subjects also performed a 6-minute exercise on a stationary bicycle ergometer with initial resistance of 20 watts and increased by 10 watts after 3-minutes. The perceived rate of exertion was assessed using a modified Borg Scale after each exercise mode. The maximum oxygen consumption was derived using American College of Sport Medicine equations.Results: Result showed high positive correlation between distance walked in the 6-minute and the maximum volume of oxygen (VO2 max (r = 0.65, P < 0.01. The average distance walked was 327 m ± 12.03 m. The VO2 max estimated during bicycle ergometry was higher (13.7 ± 1.9 L than during the six minutes walk (8.9 ± 1.2 L.Conclusion: Six minutes walk could be useful to evaluate exercise tolerance in patients with chronic heart failure, while the bicycle ergometer could be more appropriate in the assessment of maximum functional capacity in these patients.Keywords: 6-minute walk, CHF, bicycle ergometer

  2. Effect of individualized worksite exercise training on aerobic capacity and muscle strength among construction workers - a randomized controlled intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen;

    2012-01-01

    tailored exercise programs on their physical fitness and muscular capacity. METHOD: The study was a randomized controlled trial of male constructions workers allocated to either an exercise or control group. The intervention lasted 12 weeks, and the exercise group trained 3 x 20 minutes a week....... The participants completed health checks before and after the intervention period. Data from the first health check were used to tailor the exercise in the interventions. RESULTS: At baseline, participants had maximal oxygen consumption (VO (2max)) of 2.9 [standard deviation (SD) 0.7L/min] and body mass index (BMI......) of 28.3 (SD 4.7). Compared to representative data on employees in Denmark (N=78), this study population (N=67) had significantly lower relative aerobic capacity [difference in z-score -1.13 (SE 0.1), P...

  3. Building groundwater modeling capacity in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Anderson, Mark T.; Davis, Kyle W.; Haynes, Michelle A.; Dorjsuren Dechinlhundev,

    2016-06-16

    Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia (fig. 1), is dependent on groundwater for its municipal and industrial water supply. The population of Mongolia is about 3 million people, with about one-half the population residing in or near Ulaanbaatar (World Population Review, 2016). Groundwater is drawn from a network of shallow wells in an alluvial aquifer along the Tuul River. Evidence indicates that current water use may not be sustainable from existing water sources, especially when factoring the projected water demand from a rapidly growing urban population (Ministry of Environment and Green Development, 2013). In response, the Government of Mongolia Ministry of Environment, Green Development, and Tourism (MEGDT) and the Freshwater Institute, Mongolia, requested technical assistance on groundwater modeling through the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Scientists from the USGS and USACE provided two workshops in 2015 to Mongolian hydrology experts on basic principles of groundwater modeling using the USGS groundwater modeling program MODFLOW-2005 (Harbaugh, 2005). The purpose of the workshops was to bring together representatives from the Government of Mongolia, local universities, technical experts, and other key stakeholders to build in-country capacity in hydrogeology and groundwater modeling.A preliminary steady-state groundwater-flow model was developed as part of the workshops to demonstrate groundwater modeling techniques to simulate groundwater conditions in alluvial deposits along the Tuul River in the vicinity of Ulaanbaatar. ModelMuse (Winston, 2009) was used as the graphical user interface for MODFLOW for training purposes during the workshops. Basic and advanced groundwater modeling concepts included in the workshops were groundwater principles; estimating hydraulic properties; developing model grids, data sets, and MODFLOW input files; and viewing and evaluating MODFLOW output files. A key to success was

  4. Benefits of short inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, dyspnea, and inspiratory fraction in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat Shahin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Barakat Shahin1, Michele Germain2, Alzahouri Kazem3, Guy Annat41Department of Physiology, University of Claude Bernard Lyon I, Lyon, France; 2Chef of the Service of EFR, Hospital of the Croix-Rousse at Lyon, France; 3Department of Medical Informatics, Hospital of St. Julien, Nancy, France; 4Department of Physiology, UFR Médecine Lyon Grange-Blanche Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, INSERM ESPRI ERI 22, Lyon, FranceAbstract: Static lung hyperinflation has important clinical consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Given that most of these patients have respiratory and peripheral muscle weakness, dyspnea and functional exercise capacity may improve as a result of inspiratory muscle training (IMT. The present study is designed to investigate the benefits of a short outpatient program of IMT on inspiratory muscle performance, exercise capacity, perception of dyspnea, and the inspiratory fraction (IF. Thirty patients (24 males, 6 females with significant COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] = 46.21% ± 6.7% predicted, FEV1 = 33.6% ± 8.04% predicted were recruited for this study and had 3 months of IMT (30 minutes/day for 6 days/week in an outpatient clinic. Following IMT, there was a statistically significant increase in inspiratory muscle performance (an increase of the maximal inspiratory pressure from 59% ± 19.1% to 79% ± 21.85% predicted; p = 0.0342, a decrease in dyspnea (from 5.8 ± 0.78 to 1.9 ± 0.57; p = 0.0001, an increase in the distance walked during the 6 minute walk test, from 245 ± 52.37 m to 302 ± 41.30 m, and finally an increase in the IF (the new prognostic factor in COPD from 27.6 ± 9.7% to 31.4% ± 9.8%. The present study concludes that in patients with significant COPD, IMT results in improvement in performance, exercise capacity, sensation of dyspnea, and moreover an improvement in the IF prognostic factor.Keywords: inspiratory muscle training, dyspnea, inspiratory

  5. Effect of cardiac rehabilitation program on exercise capacity in women undergoing coronary artery bypass graft in Hamadan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Shabani

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: Women referred for rehabilitation have similar lev-els of compliance and improvement in exercise capacity and sup-ply of oxygen to cardiac muscles (measured by peak myocardial oxygen consumption. After CRP, women demonstrated signifi-cant improvements in exercise duration time, 6MWT, RPP and supply of oxygen to cardiac muscles. CRP can play an important role in improving functional independence in women.

  6. RV Myocardial Strain During Pre-Load Augmentation Is Associated With Exercise Capacity in Patients With Chronic HF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunose, Kenya; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Nishio, Susumu; Ishii, Ayumi; Hirata, Yukina; Seno, Hiromitsu; Saijo, Yoshihito; Ise, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Koji; Yagi, Shusuke; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Sata, Masataka

    2017-07-13

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between right ventricular (RV) function during pre-load augmentation and exercise tolerance. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2) is a strong predictor of mortality in chronic heart failure. Cardiac function during pre-load augmentation is an important part of the phenomenon in the evaluation of exercise capacity. We prospectively performed echocardiographic studies in 68 chronic heart failure patients with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (mean age 60 ± 12 years; 69% male). After resting evaluations, echocardiographic parameters were repeated during leg positive pressure (LPP). Exercise capacity was assessed by peak VO2 in all patients (left ventricular ejection fraction: 43 ± 15%). Patients with severely reduced exercise capacity (peak VO2 <14 ml/kg/min) had significantly lower stroke volume index, left ventricular global longitudinal strain and RV strain and higher filling pressure (E/e' and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure) than the remainder. Stroke volume index (β = 0.49), global longitudinal strain (β = -0.61), E/e' (β = -0.32), pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (β = -0.57), and RV strain (β = -0.66) during LPP were independently correlated to peak VO2 (all p < 0.01). RV strain during LPP was the most powerful predictor in identifying patients with severely reduced exercise capacity (cut off value: -17%; sensitivity: 81%; specificity: 88%; areas under the curve: 0.88, p < 0.001) compared with other variables including resting parameters. RV strain during pre-load augmentation correlated independently to peak VO2 and was a powerful predictor in identifying patients with severely reduced exercise capacity. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercises in 80223 Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Jens Ole

    This exercise book contains exercise instructions for the 7 compulsory exercises (Exercise 1-7) and the final exercise (Exercise 8) in the course 80223 'Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials'. The exercise book also contains written program examples in 'C' and 'Pascal'. Finally, ...... by contacting the secretary on the ground floor of building 425. Please give the following number: TM 99.05 (TM = Thermal processing of Materials)......This exercise book contains exercise instructions for the 7 compulsory exercises (Exercise 1-7) and the final exercise (Exercise 8) in the course 80223 'Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials'. The exercise book also contains written program examples in 'C' and 'Pascal'. Finally......, guidelines are given on how to write the report which has to be handed in at the end of the course. The exercise book exists in a newer, updated version from 2000. The original copy is kept in the archives of TM on the ground floor of building 425. A copy of the exercise book can be made available...

  8. THE EFFECT OF A 12-WEEK PHYSIOTHERAPY PROGRAM WITH RESPIRATORY EXERCISES ON THE VITAL CAPACITY AND FORCED VITAL CAPACITY IN ADULT MALES AND FEMALES WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitsios A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if breathing exercises can improve specific respiratoryparameters in adult males and females with cerebral palsy. 18 adults (11males/7 females with spastic cerebralpalsy consisted the experimental group and 18 (11males/7 females serving as control group took part in thestudy. A spirometer was used to measure vital capacity (VC and the forced vital capacity (FVC before and afterthe exercising protocol. The breathing exercises selected, emphasized strengthening of the muscles of inspirationand the muscles of expiration. The study revealed that a breathing exercise program can increase the VC andFVC in people with cerebral palsy. The pre-test and post-test examined variables of both groups were withinnormal limits The VC of the experimental group was increased by 0.20 litres and this of FVC increased by 0,25litres after exercising for five to seven minutes each day for a period of twelve weeks. The mean increase of theVC and FVC was 6% and 7% respectively over the baseline values. The control group showed no change in VCneither in FVC. The results support application and development of the treatment concept with respiratoryexercises and highlight that physical activity at its simple status can improve function and quality of life in adultswith cerebral palsy when added to standard care.

  9. Capacity Analysis on Multi-Lane Roundabouts: An Evaluation With Highway Capacity Manual 2010 Capacity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Ersoy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, capacity estimations with the incorporation of Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010 method are evaluated. Parameter based sensitivity analysis on calculations with the new HCM formula and a comparative evaluation of the new methodology with two most common capacity analysis methods, i.e., the method of critical gap acceptance and the method of regression analysis, are performed. Maximum and minimum headway intervals of follow up time and critical gap parameters are alternated within the sensitivity analysis. The Transport Research Laboratory formula for regression and Australian formula for gap acceptance method are considered in comparison. Relative comparisons of predictions on capacity by HCM2010 method, regression analysis and gap acceptance method are presented considering field data obtained by observations at two roundabouts in Izmir, Turkey. The results of the study show that the HCM2010 formula led to lower capacity estimates than regression analysis and higher estimates than the gap acceptance method. Regarding the real capacity observations under high circulating flow-rates the HCM2010 method yielded to more appropriate results than the regression method. In addition to comparisons, studies on the sensitivity analysis show that entry capacity estimates possess sharper changes as smaller follow up headways are accepted.

  10. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Andrew Shanely

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125. Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05, however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05. WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05, but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine, antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function.

  11. "Weighing" the effects of exercise and intrinsic aerobic capacity: are there beneficial effects independent of changes in weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyfault, John P; Wright, David C

    2016-09-01

    It has been known for centuries that regularly performed exercise has beneficial effects on metabolic health. Owing to its central role in locomotion and the fact that it accounts for a large majority of whole-body glucose disposal and fatty acid oxidation, the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle has been a central focus in exercise physiology research. With this being said it is becoming increasingly well recognized that both adipose tissue and liver metabolism are robustly modified by exercise, especially in conditions of obesity and insulin resistance. One of the difficult questions to address is if the effects of exercise are direct or occur secondary to exercise-induced weight loss. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent work that has attempted to tease out the protective effects of exercise, or intrinsic aerobic capacity, against metabolic and inflammatory challenges as it relates to the treatment and prevention of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies reporting improvements in liver and adipose tissue insulin action following a single bout of exercise will also be discussed. The research highlighted in this review sheds new insight into protective, anti-inflammatory effects of exercise that occur largely independent of changes in adiposity and body weight.

  12. Effect of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Body Composition Parameters and Exercise Capacity by Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Randeep

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Nutritional abnormalities are frequent systemic manifestation associated with COPD. The purpose of the present study was to compare the body composition parameters and exercise capacity between stable COPD patients and healthy controls, and to find the strength of association between exercise capacity, FMI and FFMI. Methods: 100 subjects were recruited, and divided into two groups. Group I included stable COPD patients, and Group II consisted of age matched healthy controls respectively. The spirometric parameters recorded were FEV1 (Litres, FVC (Litres, FEV1/FVC ratio (% predicted, FEF 25%75% (Litres/sec. Anthrometric measurements included Body Weight, Height and BMI measurements. Body composition was assessed by four-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BODY STAT, QUAD SCAN, USA. The following parameters were calculated: FFM, FFMI, FM and FMI. The exercise capacity was assessed by the six-minute walking distance test (6MWD. All the recordings were compared between groups and correlation was also computed between 6MWD, FMI and FFMI within groups. Results were analyzed using SPSS, version 16 and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: We found that COPD patients showed lower FFM, FFMI and exercise capacity as compared to healthy controls. And, great strength of association was found between FFMI and exercise capacity. Conclusions: Thus, our study indicates that with COPD there is preferential loss of lean body mass evident from lower FFMI leading to decreased walking distance in these patients. Hence, it is prudent to include nutritional and exercise capacity assessment in patients of COPD, to better manage these patients and improve their quality of life. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 53-57

  13. Are substrate use during exercise and mitochondrial respiratory capacity decreased in arm and leg muscle in type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Ara, I; Rabøl, R

    2009-01-01

    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to investigate mitochondrial function, fibre type distribution and substrate oxidation in arm and leg muscle during exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes and in obese and lean controls. METHODS: Indirect calorimetry was used to calculate fat...... and carbohydrate oxidation during both progressive arm-cranking and leg-cycling exercises. Muscle biopsies from arm and leg were obtained. Fibre type, as well as O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilised muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high resolution respirometry, in patients with type 2 diabetes......, age- and BMI-matched obese controls, and age-matched lean controls. RESULTS: Fat oxidation was similar in the groups during either arm or leg exercise. During leg exercise at higher intensities, but not during arm exercise, carbohydrate oxidation was lower in patients with type 2 diabetes compared...

  14. Alveolar gas exchange and tissue oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise, and their associations with blood O(2) carrying capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Antti-Pekka E; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Koponen, Anne S; Aho, Jyrki M; Hägglund, Harriet; Lindholm, Harri; Peltonen, Juha E

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude and timing of oxygenation responses in highly active leg muscle, less active arm muscle, and cerebral tissue, have not been studied with simultaneous alveolar gas exchange measurement during incremental treadmill exercise. Nor is it known, if blood O(2) carrying capacity affects the tissue-specific oxygenation responses. Thus, we investigated alveolar gas exchange and tissue (m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, cerebral cortex) oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise until volitional fatigue, and their associations with blood O(2) carrying capacity in 22 healthy men. Alveolar gas exchange was measured, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to monitor relative concentration changes in oxy- (Δ[O(2)Hb]), deoxy- (Δ[HHb]) and total hemoglobin (Δ[tHb]), and tissue saturation index (TSI). NIRS inflection points (NIP), reflecting changes in tissue-specific oxygenation, were determined and their coincidence with ventilatory thresholds [anaerobic threshold (AT), respiratory compensation point (RC); V-slope method] was examined. Blood O(2) carrying capacity [total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass)] was determined with the CO-rebreathing method. In all tissues, NIPs coincided with AT, whereas RC was followed by NIPs. High tHb-mass associated with leg muscle deoxygenation at peak exercise (e.g., Δ[HHb] from baseline walking to peak exercise vs. tHb-mass: r = 0.64, p capacity for blood O(2) carrying was associated with a high level of m. vastus lateralis deoxygenation at peak exercise.

  15. The Influence of Passive Acceleration and Exercise+Acceleration on Work Capacity and Orthostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, S. R.; Cowell, S. A.; Stocks, J. M.; Biagini, H. W.; Vener, J. M.; Evetts, S. N.; Bailey, K. N.; Evans, J.; Knapp, C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    The losses of aerobic power and orthostatic tolerance are significant effects of manned C) spaceflight that can negatively impact crew health and safety. Daily acceleration and aerobic training may ameliorate these effects. To determine the influence of passive intermittent +Gz acceleration (PA) training and active acceleration + interval exercise (AE) training on work 0 0 capacity and the acute (1 min) response to 70 deg head-up tilt, 6 men (X-Bar SD: age, 33 +/- 6 y; height, 178.3 +/- 4.6 cm; mass, 86.3 +/- 6.6 kg) participated in two 3-wk training protocols. It was hypothesized that PA and AE training would improve orthostatic tolerance and that the addition of aerobic conditioning, would not alter this effect.

  16. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF SPECIFIC YOGIC EXERCISES AND COMBINATION OF SPECIFIC YOGIC EXERCISES WITH AUTOGENIC TRAINING ON VITAL CAPACITY OF THE MIDDLE AGED MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURESH KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to find out the comparative effect of specific yogic exercises and combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training on vital capacity of the middle aged men. The study tried to find out type of training program that had a maximum effect on the vital capacity of the subjects. The study has been conducted on sixty middle aged men, in the age group of 30 to 50 years. The subjects (N=60 were at random divided into three equalgroups two experimental Groups and one control group, and group consisting of 20 middle aged men. Two experimental Groups participated in two different training programmes i.e. Specific yogic exercises and Combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training for twenty four weeks and control group performed the routine work. The data was collected were collected in beginning ,at the end of twelve week and twenty four week of training program in term of pre, mid and post test respectively by using Wetspirometer. The training schedule was prepared systematically and carefully,keeping the individual differences of the subjects and loading principals in mind. Repeated measures of ANOVA andNewman Keul’s test were applied to find out significance of mean difference among the three tests. ANACOVA andScheffe’s Post Hoc test were applied to determine the significance of mean difference among the three groups. From the results it was found that the Practice of the combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training is significantly effective than the specific yogic exercises programme and control group in improving the vital capacityamong the middle aged men. Twelve weeks’ practice of combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training significantly improved in the vital capacity among the middle aged men than the twenty four weeks of practice

  17. The effect of habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking on pulmonary function and exercise capacity in young healthy males: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawari, F I; Obeidat, N A; Ghonimat, I M; Ayub, H S; Dawahreh, S S

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the health effects of habitual waterpipe smoking is limited, particularly in young smokers. Respiratory health and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were compared in young male habitual waterpipe smokers (WPS) versus non-smokers. 69 WPS (≥3 times/week for three years) and 69 non-smokers were studied. Respiratory health was assessed through the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78) adult questionnaire. Pulmonary function and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed. Self-reported respiratory symptoms, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75%), peak expiratory flow (PEF), exercise time, peak end-tidal CO2 tension (PetCO2), subject-reported leg fatigue and dyspnea; peak O2 uptake (VO2 max), and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) change from baseline (at peak exercise) were measured. WPS were more likely than non-smokers to report respiratory symptoms. WPS also demonstrated: shorter exercise time; lower peak VO2; higher perceived dyspnea at mid-exercise; lower values of the following: FEV1, FVC, PEF, and EELV change. Habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking in young seemingly healthy individuals is associated with a greater burden of respiratory symptoms and impaired exercise capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictors and Association With Clinical Outcomes of the Changes in Exercise Capacity After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Jawad Altisent, Omar; Puri, Rishi; Regueiro, Ander; Chamandi, Chekrallah; Rodriguez-Gabella, Tania; Del Trigo, Maria; Campelo-Parada, Francisco; Couture, Thomas; Marsal, Josep Ramon; Côté, Mélanie; Paradis, Jean-Michel; DeLarochellière, Robert; Doyle, Daniel; Mohammadi, Siamak; Dumont, Eric; Rodés-Cabau, Josep

    2017-08-15

    At present, there are no objective data specifically examining the clinical impact of variations in exercise capacity post-transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We describe the changes in exercise capacity between baseline and 6 months post-TAVR, and ascertain factors associated with and clinical implications of a lack of improvement in exercise capacity post-TAVR. A total of 305 patients (mean age, 79±9 years; 44% men; Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk mortality score, 6.7±4.2%) undergoing TAVR completed both baseline and follow-up exercise capacity assessments at 6 months post-TAVR. Exercise capacity was evaluated by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Clinical outcomes were compared between patients displaying greater than (n=152; improving group) versus less than (n=153; nonimproving group) the median percentage change in distance walked between baseline and 6-month follow-up examinations. The primary outcome measure was clinical event rates, measured from the 6-month post-TAVR period onward. Further dichotomization according to baseline 6MWT distance (less than versus more than median walking distance, or slow walker versus fast walker) was also assessed. The mean overall distances walked pre- and post-TAVR (6 months post-TAVR) were 204±119 and 263±116 m, respectively (Δ6MWT=60±106 m), with 219 (72%) patients demonstrating an increase in their walking distance (median percentage increase of the entire population was 20% [interquartile range, 0%-80%]). Factors independently correlated with reduced exercise capacity improvement included a range of baseline clinical characteristics (older age, female sex, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; P<0.05 for all), periprocedural major or life-threatening bleeding (P=0.009) and new-onset anemia at 6 months post-TAVR (P=0.009). Failure to improve the 6MWT distance by at least 20% was independently associated with all-cause mortality (P=0.002) and cardiovascular death or rehospitalization for

  19. Motor skills and exercise capacity are associated with objective measures of cognitive functions and academic performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst;

    2016-01-01

    these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. RESULTS: Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P... comprehension. CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance...... and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations....

  20. Influence of exercise training on the oxidative capacity of rat abdominal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, J. M.; Stump, C. S.; Tipton, C. M.; Fregosi, R. F.

    1992-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine if endurance exercise training would increase the oxidative capacity of the abdominal expiratory muscles of the rat. Accordingly, 9 male rats were subjected to an endurance training protocol (1 h/day, 6 days/week, 9 weeks) and 9 litter-mates served as controls. Citrate synthase (CS) activity was used as an index of oxidative capacity, and was determined in the following muscles: soleus, plantaris, costal diaphragm, crural diaphragm, and in all four abdominal muscles: rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique. Compared to their non-trained litter-mates, the trained rats had higher peak whole body oxygen consumption rates (+ 16%) and CS activities in plantaris (+34%) and soleus (+36%) muscles. Thus, the training program caused substantial systemic and locomotor muscle adaptations. The CS activity of costal diaphragm was 20% greater in the trained animals, but no difference was observed in crural diaphragm. The CS activity in the abdominal muscles was less than one-half of that in locomotor and diaphragm muscles, and there were no significant changes with training except in the rectus abdominis where a 26% increase was observed. The increase in rectus abdominis CS activity may reflect its role in postural support and/or locomotion, as none of the primary expiratory pumping muscles adapted to the training protocol. The relatively low levels of CS activity in the abdominal muscles suggests that they are not recruited frequently at rest, and the lack of an increase with training indicates that these muscles do not contribute significantly to the increased ventilatory activity accompanying exercise in the rat.

  1. Sarcopenia Is Associated With Lower Skeletal Muscle Capillarization and Exercise Capacity in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Steven J; Ryan, Alice S; Blumenthal, Jacob B; Watson, Jonathan M; Katzel, Leslie I; Goldberg, Andrew P

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal muscle capillary rarefaction limits the transcapillary transport of nutrients and oxygen to muscle and may contribute to sarcopenia and functional impairment in older adults. We tested the hypothesis that skeletal muscle capillarization and exercise capacity (VO2max) are lower in sarcopenic than in nonsarcopenic older adults and that the degree of sarcopenia is related to lower skeletal muscle capillarization. Body composition, VO2max, and vastus lateralis capillarization were determined in 76 middle-aged and older men and women (age = 61±1 years, body mass index [BMI] = 30.7±0.5kg/m(2) [mean ± SEM]). Participants were classified as sarcopenic if appendicular lean mass divided by BMI (ALMBMI) was less than 0.789 for men or less than 0.512 for women. Sarcopenic subjects (ALMBMI = 0.65±0.04, n = 16) had 20% lower capillary-to-fiber ratio, as well as 13% and 15% lower VO2max expressed as mL/kg/min or L/min, respectively, compared with sex-, race-, and age-matched participants without sarcopenia (ALMBMI = 0.81±0.05, n = 16; p sarcopenia and reduced exercise capacity in older adults by limiting diffusion of substrates, oxygen, hormones, and nutrients. Strategies to prevent the aging-related decline in skeletal muscle capillarization may help to prevent or slow the progression of sarcopenia and its associated functional declines in generally healthy older adults. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2016.

  2. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST

  3. Effect of physical exercise training on muscle strength and body composition, and their association with functional capacity and quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Mourier, Malene; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2012-01-01

    at 70% of maximal exercise capacity vs control. Muscle strength, exercise capacity, 6-minute walk test, lean body mass, fat percentage, and quality of life were assessed. Results: Muscle strength increased in the training group (p = 0.01), but no change was observed in controls. Lean body mass...... was unchanged in both groups. Fat percentage decreased in both groups, but there was no significant difference between the groups. Exercise capacity improved in the training group (p ......Objective: Atrial fibrillation diminishes cardiac function, exercise tolerance and quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine whether exercise training in atrial fibrillation affects muscle strength, body composition, maximal exercise capacity and walking capacity positively...

  4. Sustained effects of integrated COPD management on health status and exercise capacity in primary care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarije L Kruis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Annemarije L Kruis1, Joan van Adrichem2, Magda R Erkelens2, Huub Scheepers3, Hans in ’t Veen4, Jean WM Muris5, Niels H Chavannes11Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, 2Physiotherapy Center De Beweging, Rotterdam, 3Well-being Medical Center, Bocholtz-Simpelveld, 4Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Sint Franciscus Gasthuis, Rotterdam, 5Department of General Practice, Maastricht University Medical Center, The NetherlandsBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD constitutes a growing health care problem worldwide. Integrated disease management (IDM of mild to moderate COPD patients has been demonstrated to improve exercise capacity and health status after one year, but long-term results are currently lacking in primary care.Methods: Long-term data from the Bocholtz study, a controlled clinical trial comparing the effects of IDM versus usual care on health status in 106 primary care COPD patients during 24 months of follow-up, were analyzed using the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ. In addition, the Kroonluchter IDM implementation program has treated 216 primary care patients with mild to moderate COPD since 2006. Longitudinal six-minute walking distance (6MWD results for patients reaching 24 months of follow-up were analyzed using paired-sample t-tests. In prespecified subgroup analyses, the differential effects of baseline CCQ score, Medical Research Council (MRC dyspnea score, and 6MWD were investigated.Results: In the Bocholtz study, subjects were of mean age 64 years, with an average postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 of 63% predicted and an FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC ratio of 0.56. No significant differences existed between groups at baseline. CCQ improved significantly and in a clinically relevant manner by 0.4 points over 24 months; effect sizes were doubled in patients with CCQ > 1 at baseline and tripled in patients with MRC dyspnea score

  5. Acute oral administration of a tyrosine and phenylalanine-free amino acid mixture reduces exercise capacity in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumilty, Les; Davison, Glen; Beckmann, Manfred; Thatcher, Rhys

    2013-06-01

    Acute tyrosine administration is associated with increased exercise capacity in the heat. To explore whether reduced plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine (tyrosine precursor) is associated with impaired exercise capacity in the heat, eight healthy, moderately trained male volunteers, unacclimated to exercise in the heat, performed two tests in a crossover design separated by at least 7 days. In a randomised, double-blind fashion, subjects ingested 500 mL flavoured, sugar-free water containing amino acids [(TYR-free; isoleucine 15 g, leucine 22.5 g, valine 17.5 g, lysine 17.5 g, methionine 5 g, threonine 10 g, tryptophan 2.5 g)] to lower the ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:amino acids competing for blood-brain barrier uptake (CAA), a key determinant of brain uptake, or a balanced mixture (BAL; TYR-free plus 12.5 g tyrosine and 12.5 g phenylalanine). One hour later, subjects cycled to exhaustion at 63 ± 5 % [Formula: see text]O2peak in 30 °C and 60 % relative humidity. Pre-exercise ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:ΣCAA declined 75 ± 5 % from rest in TYR-free (P 0.05) and thermal sensation (P > 0.05) were similar at exhaustion in both trials. These data indicate that acutely depleting plasma catecholamine precursors:ΣCAA is associated with reduced submaximal exercise capacity in the heat.

  6. INFLUENCE OF CHRONIC EXERCISE ON RED CELL ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE, PLASMA MALONDIALDEHYDE AND TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Alipour

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the knowledge on the antiatherogenic effects of exercise, the mechanism by which exercise reduces atherogenic risk remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that chronic exercise-induced oxidative stress may increase plasma total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant defense in the red cells. For 8 weeks, 60 male Dutch rabbits were fed rabbit chow with or without the addition of 2% cholesterol. The animals were further divided into rest and exercise groups (n = 15 for each group. Animals in exercise groups ran on a rodent treadmill at 15 m/min for 10 to 60 minutes gradually for 5 days per week for a total of 8 weeks. At the end of experiments, blood samples were collected and glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities were determined in red blood cells. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC, malondialdehyde (MDA and total thiol (T-SH levels were measured in plasma. Thoracic aorta and carotid arteries were isolated for histological examination to evaluate atherosclerosis. Eight weeks of chronic exercise reduced atherogenic diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions in all the arteries studied, along with positive changes in cholesterol profile, especially increase of serum HDL-C level. Plasma MDA, TAC and T-SH concentrations were enhanced by exercise in both control and hypercholesterolemic diet groups. Erythrocyte catalase activity was significantly increased by chronic exercise (p < 0.05, whereas total SOD activity rose with exercise only in the control group. Surprisingly, GPX activity was significantly reduced (P < 0.05 in response to exercise in the control group and also in the high cholesterol diet group. Exercise is a useful tool for the prevention and regression of atherosclerosis which is evident by our findings of the enhancement of plasma TAC and positive change in serum cholesterol profile. However, the effect of exercise on red cell antioxidant activities is limited in the

  7. Effect of Ambrotose AO® on resting and exercise-induced antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blankenship Megan M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a dietary supplement (Ambrotose AO® on resting and exercise-induced blood antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in exercise-trained and untrained men and women. Methods 25 individuals (7 trained and 5 untrained men; 7 trained and 6 untrained women received Ambrotose AO® (4 capsules per day = 2 grams per day or a placebo for 3 weeks in a random order, double blind cross-over design (with a 3 week washout period. Blood samples were collected at rest, and at 0 and 30 minutes following a graded exercise treadmill test (GXT performed to exhaustion, both before and after each 3 week supplementation period. Samples were analyzed for Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC, Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and nitrate/nitrite (NOx. Quality of life was assessed using the SF-12 form and exercise time to exhaustion was recorded. Resting blood samples were analyzed for complete blood count (CBC, metabolic panel, and lipid panel before and after each 3 week supplementation period. Dietary intake during the week before each exercise test was recorded. Results No condition effects were noted for SF-12 data, for GXT time to exhaustion, or for any variable within the CBC, metabolic panel, or lipid panel (p > 0.05. Treatment with Ambrotose AO® resulted in an increase in resting levels of TEAC (p = 0.02 and ORAC (p 2O2, or NOx (p > 0.05. Exercise resulted in an acute increase in TEAC, MDA, and H2O2 (p 0.05, with the exception of ORAC (p = 0.0005 which was greater at 30 minutes post exercise for Ambrotose AO® compared to placebo. Conclusion Ambrotose AO® at a daily dosage of 4 capsules per day increases resting blood antioxidant capacity and may enhance post exercise antioxidant capacity. However, no statistically detected difference is observed in resting or exercise-induced oxidative stress biomarkers, in

  8. Effect of Ambrotose AO® on resting and exercise-induced antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Canale, Robert E; Blankenship, Megan M; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a dietary supplement (Ambrotose AO®) on resting and exercise-induced blood antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in exercise-trained and untrained men and women. 25 individuals (7 trained and 5 untrained men; 7 trained and 6 untrained women) received Ambrotose AO® (4 capsules per day = 2 grams per day) or a placebo for 3 weeks in a random order, double blind cross-over design (with a 3 week washout period). Blood samples were collected at rest, and at 0 and 30 minutes following a graded exercise treadmill test (GXT) performed to exhaustion, both before and after each 3 week supplementation period. Samples were analyzed for Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitrate/nitrite (NOx). Quality of life was assessed using the SF-12 form and exercise time to exhaustion was recorded. Resting blood samples were analyzed for complete blood count (CBC), metabolic panel, and lipid panel before and after each 3 week supplementation period. Dietary intake during the week before each exercise test was recorded. No condition effects were noted for SF-12 data, for GXT time to exhaustion, or for any variable within the CBC, metabolic panel, or lipid panel (p > 0.05). Treatment with Ambrotose AO® resulted in an increase in resting levels of TEAC (p = 0.02) and ORAC (p 0.05). Exercise resulted in an acute increase in TEAC, MDA, and H2O2 (p 0.05), with the exception of ORAC (p = 0.0005) which was greater at 30 minutes post exercise for Ambrotose AO® compared to placebo. Ambrotose AO® at a daily dosage of 4 capsules per day increases resting blood antioxidant capacity and may enhance post exercise antioxidant capacity. However, no statistically detected difference is observed in resting or exercise-induced oxidative stress biomarkers, in quality of life, or in GXT time to exhaustion.

  9. Eccentric Exercise Program Design: A Periodization Model for Rehabilitation Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Love, Michael O; Seamon, Bryant A; Gonzales, Tomas I; Hernandez, Haniel J; Pennington, Donte; Hoover, Brian M

    2017-01-01

    The applied use of eccentric muscle actions for physical rehabilitation may utilize the framework of periodization. This approach may facilitate the safe introduction of eccentric exercise and appropriate management of the workload progression. The purpose of this data-driven Hypothesis and Theory paper is to present a periodization model for isokinetic eccentric strengthening of older adults in an outpatient rehabilitation setting. Exemplar and group data are used to describe the initial eccentric exercise prescription, structured familiarization procedures, workload progression algorithm, and feasibility of the exercise regimen. Twenty-four men (61.8 ± 6.3 years of age) completed a 12-week isokinetic eccentric strengthening regimen involving the knee extensors. Feasibility and safety of the regimen was evaluated using serial visual analog scale (VAS, 0-10) values for self-reported pain, and examining changes in the magnitude of mean eccentric power as a function of movement velocity. Motor learning associated with the familiarization sessions was characterized through torque-time curve analysis. Total work was analyzed to identify relative training plateaus or diminished exercise capacity during the progressive phase of the macrocycle. Variability in the mean repetition interval decreased from 68 to 12% during the familiarization phase of the macrocycle. The mean VAS values were 2.9 ± 2.7 at the start of the regimen and 2.6 ± 2.9 following 12 weeks of eccentric strength training. During the progressive phase of the macrocycle, exercise workload increased from 70% of the estimated eccentric peak torque to 141% and total work increased by 185% during this training phase. The slope of the total work performed across the progressive phase of the macrocycle ranged from -5.5 to 29.6, with the lowest slope values occurring during microcycles 8 and 11. Also, mean power generation increased by 25% when eccentric isokinetic velocity increased from 60 to 90° s(-1) while

  10. Eccentric Exercise Program Design: A Periodization Model for Rehabilitation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Love, Michael O.; Seamon, Bryant A.; Gonzales, Tomas I.; Hernandez, Haniel J.; Pennington, Donte; Hoover, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    The applied use of eccentric muscle actions for physical rehabilitation may utilize the framework of periodization. This approach may facilitate the safe introduction of eccentric exercise and appropriate management of the workload progression. The purpose of this data-driven Hypothesis and Theory paper is to present a periodization model for isokinetic eccentric strengthening of older adults in an outpatient rehabilitation setting. Exemplar and group data are used to describe the initial eccentric exercise prescription, structured familiarization procedures, workload progression algorithm, and feasibility of the exercise regimen. Twenty-four men (61.8 ± 6.3 years of age) completed a 12-week isokinetic eccentric strengthening regimen involving the knee extensors. Feasibility and safety of the regimen was evaluated using serial visual analog scale (VAS, 0–10) values for self-reported pain, and examining changes in the magnitude of mean eccentric power as a function of movement velocity. Motor learning associated with the familiarization sessions was characterized through torque-time curve analysis. Total work was analyzed to identify relative training plateaus or diminished exercise capacity during the progressive phase of the macrocycle. Variability in the mean repetition interval decreased from 68 to 12% during the familiarization phase of the macrocycle. The mean VAS values were 2.9 ± 2.7 at the start of the regimen and 2.6 ± 2.9 following 12 weeks of eccentric strength training. During the progressive phase of the macrocycle, exercise workload increased from 70% of the estimated eccentric peak torque to 141% and total work increased by 185% during this training phase. The slope of the total work performed across the progressive phase of the macrocycle ranged from −5.5 to 29.6, with the lowest slope values occurring during microcycles 8 and 11. Also, mean power generation increased by 25% when eccentric isokinetic velocity increased from 60 to 90° s−1

  11. Exercise capacity after His bundle ablation and rate response ventricular pacing for drug refractory chronic atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buys, EM; vanHemel, NM; Keider, JC; Ascoop, CAPL; vanDessel, PFHM; Bakema, L; Kingma, JH

    Objective-To evaluate exercise capacity of patients with chronic atrial fibrillation in whom His bundle ablation followed by ventricular rate response pacing (VVIR) was carried out because of drug refractoriness. Design-Prospective study. Patients-25 consecutive patients, all with chronic

  12. Alveolar gas exchange and tissue oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti-Pekka E. Rissanen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude and timing of oxygenation responses in highly active leg muscle, less active arm muscle, and cerebral tissue, have not been studied with simultaneous alveolar gas exchange measurement during incremental treadmill exercise. Nor is it known, if blood O2 carrying capacity affects the tissue-specific oxygenation responses. Thus, we investigated alveolar gas exchange and tissue (m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, cerebral cortex oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise until volitional fatigue, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity in 22 healthy men. Alveolar gas exchange was measured, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS was used to monitor relative concentration changes in oxy- (Δ[O2Hb], deoxy- (Δ[HHb] and total hemoglobin (Δ[tHb], and tissue saturation index (TSI. NIRS inflection points (NIP, reflecting changes in tissue-specific oxygenation, were determined and their coincidence with ventilatory thresholds (anaerobic threshold (AT, respiratory compensation point (RC; V-slope method was examined. Blood O2 carrying capacity (total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass was determined with the CO-rebreathing method. In all tissues, NIPs coincided with AT, whereas RC was followed by NIPs. High tHb-mass associated with leg muscle deoxygenation at peak exercise (e.g., Δ[HHb] from baseline walking to peak exercise vs. tHb-mass: r = 0.64, p < 0.01, but not with arm muscle- or cerebral deoxygenation. In conclusion, regional tissue oxygenation was characterized by inflection points, and tissue oxygenation in relation to alveolar gas exchange during incremental treadmill exercise resembled previous findings made during incremental cycling. It was also found out, that O2 delivery to less active m. biceps brachii may be limited by an accelerated increase in ventilation at high running intensities. In addition, high capacity for blood O2 carrying was associated with a high level of m. vastus lateralis deoxygenation at peak

  13. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-03-01

    An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

  14. Lung diffusion capacity for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide is impaired similarly following short-term graded exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Lands, Larry C

    2005-02-01

    Study aimed to determine whether short-term graded exercise affects single-breath lung diffusion capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) and carbon monoxide (DLCO) similarly, and whether the DLNO/DLCO ratios during rest are altered post-exercise compared to pre-exercise. Eleven healthy subjects (age=29+/-6 years; weight=76.6+/-13.2 kg; height=177.9+/-13.2 cm; and maximal oxygen uptake or V(.-)(O(2max) = 52.7 +/- 9.3 ml kg(-1) min(-1))performed simultaneous single-breath DLNO and DLCO measurements at rest (inspired NO concentration=43.2+/-4.1 ppm, inspired CO concentration=0.30%) 15 min before and 2h after a graded exercise test to exhaustion (exercise duration=593+/-135 s). Resting DLNO and DLCO was similarly reduced 2h post-exercise (DLNO=-7.8+/-3.5%, DLCO=-10.3+/-6.9%, and PDLNO post-exercise such that 68% of the variance in the change in DLCO was accounted for by the variance in the change in DLNO (PDLNO/DLCO ratio was not altered post-exercise (5.87+/-0.37) compared to pre-exercise (5.70+/-0.34). We conclude that the decrease in single-breath DLNO and DLCO from pre- to post-exercise is similar, the magnitude of the change in DLCO closely reflects that of the change in DLNO, and single-breath DLNO/DLCO ratios are independent of the timing of measurement suggesting that using NO and CO transfer gases are valid in looking at short-term changes in lung diffusional conductance.

  15. Skeletal muscle abnormalities and exercise capacity in adults with a Fontan circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordina, Rachael; O'Meagher, Shamus; Gould, Haslinda; Rae, Caroline; Kemp, Graham; Pasco, Julie A; Celermajer, David S; Singh, Nalin

    2013-10-01

    The peripheral muscle pump is key in promoting cardiac filling during exercise, especially in subjects who lack a subpulmonary ventricle (the Fontan circulation). A muscle-wasting syndrome exists in acquired heart failure but has not been assessed in Fontan subjects. We sought to investigate whether adults with the Fontan circulation exhibit reduced skeletal muscle mass and/or metabolic abnormalities. Sixteen New York Heart Association Class I/II Fontan adults (30±2 years) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and lean mass quantification with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); eight had calf muscle (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy as did eight healthy age-matched and sex-matched controls. DXA results were compared with Australian reference data. Single tertiary referral centre. Peak VO2 was 1.9±0.1 L/min (66±3% of predicted values). Skeletal muscle mass assessed by relative appendicular lean mass index was significantly reduced compared with age-matched and sex-matched reference values (Z-score -1.46±0.22, pVO2 max (r=0.67, p=0.004). Overall, skeletal muscle mass T-score (derived from comparison with young normal reference mean) was -1.47±0.21; 4/16 Fontan subjects had sarcopenic range muscle wasting (T-score <-2.0) and 9/16 had less marked, but clinically significant wasting (T-score <-1.0 but ≥-2.0). Muscle aerobic capacity, measured by the rate constant (k) of postexercise phosphocreatine resynthesis, was significantly impaired in Fontan adults versus controls (1.48±0.13 vs 2.40±0.33 min(-1), p=0.02). Fontan adults have reduced skeletal muscle mass and intrinsic muscle metabolic abnormalities.

  16. Feasibility and Validity of a Graded One-Legged Cycle Exercise Test to Determine Peak Aerobic Capacity in Older People With a Lower-Limb Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, Daphne; de Haan, Arnold; van der Woude, Lucas H.; Houdijk, Han

    2012-01-01

    Background. Information concerning exercise tolerance and aerobic capacity is imperative for generating effective and safe exercise programs. However, for older people with a lower-limb amputation, a standard exercise test is not available. Objective. The primary aim of the present study was to dete

  17. Role of CO2 responsiveness and breathing efficiency in determining exercise capacity of patients with chronic airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, T; Hida, W; Kikuchi, Y; Shindoh, C; Takishima, T

    1988-12-01

    We examined the role of CO2 responsiveness and breathing efficiency in limiting exercise capacity in 15 patients with chronic airway obstruction (FEV1 = 0.88 +/- 0.25 L, mean +/- SD). Responses of minute ventilation and P0.1 (mouth pressure 0.1 s after the onset of occluded inspiration) to hypercapnia (delta VE/delta PCO2, delta P0.1/delta PCO2) were measured by rebreathing, and the ratio of the two (delta VE/delta P0.1) was defined as an index of breathing efficiency during hyperventilation. Exercise capacity was measured as symptom-limited, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max/BW) in an incremental treadmill test and also as the 12-min walking distance (TMD). All patients discontinued the treadmill test because of dyspnea, and the exercise capacity correlated with the degree of airway obstruction, although there was a wide variability among patients with comparable FEV1. There were no significant correlations between the responses to CO2 and exercise capacity. However, there was a significant correlation between delta VE/delta P0.1 and VO2max/BW (r = 0.87, p less than 0.001) or TMD (r = 0.78, p less than 0.001), and these correlations remained significant even when the relational effects of FEV1 were taken out. These results support the hypothesis that airway obstruction and breathing efficiency are important, but that CO2 responsiveness is not a major factor in determining the exercise capacity of patients with chronic airway obstruction.

  18. Pioglitazone ameliorates the lowered exercise capacity and impaired mitochondrial function of the skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shingo; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Yokota, Takashi; Matsushima, Shouji; Suga, Tadashi; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Fukushima, Arata; Homma, Tsuneaki; Mizushima, Wataru; Masaki, Yoshihiro; Furihata, Takaaki; Katsuyama, Ryoichi; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-10-05

    We have reported that exercise capacity is reduced in high fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice, and that this reduction is associated with impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle (SKM). However, it remains to be clarified whether the treatment of diabetes ameliorates the reduced exercise capacity. Therefore, we examined whether an insulin-sensitizing drug, pioglitazone, could improve exercise capacity in HFD mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD, then treated with or without pioglitazone (3 mg/kg/day) to yield the following 4 groups: ND+vehicle, ND+pioglitazone, HFD+vehicle, and HFD+pioglitazone (n=10 each). After 8 weeks, body weight, plasma glucose, and insulin in the HFD+vehicle were significantly increased compared to the ND+vehicle group. Pioglitazone normalized the insulin levels in HFD-fed mice, but did not affect the body weight or plasma glucose. Exercise capacity determined by treadmill tests was significantly reduced in the HFD+vehicle, and this reduction was almost completely ameliorated in HFD+pioglitazone mice. ADP-dependent mitochondrial respiration, complex I and III activities, and citrate synthase activity were significantly decreased in the SKM of the HFD+vehicle animals, and these decreases were also attenuated by pioglitazone. NAD(P)H oxidase activity was significantly increased in the HFD+vehicle compared with the ND+vehicle, and this increase was ameliorated in HFD+pioglitazone mice. Pioglitazone improved the exercise capacity in diabetic mice, which was due to the improvement in mitochondrial function and attenuation of oxidative stress in the SKM. Our data suggest that pioglitazone may be useful as an agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  19. Online mindfulness as a promising method to improve exercise capacity in heart disease: 12-month follow-up of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotink, Rinske A; Younge, John O; Wery, Machteld F; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Michels, Michelle; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; van Rossum, Liesbeth F C; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Hunink, Myriam M G

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that mindfulness can reduce stress, and thereby affect other psychological and physiological outcomes as well. Earlier, we reported the direct 3-month results of an online modified mindfulness-based stress reduction training in patients with heart disease, and now we evaluate the effect at 12-month follow-up. 324 patients (mean age 43.2 years, 53.7% male) were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to additional 3-month online mindfulness training or to usual care alone. The primary outcome was exercise capacity measured with the 6 minute walk test (6MWT). Secondary outcomes were blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, NT-proBNP, cortisol levels (scalp hair sample), mental and physical functioning (SF-36), anxiety and depression (HADS), perceived stress (PSS), and social support (PSSS12). Differences between groups on the repeated outcome measures were analyzed with linear mixed models. At 12-months follow-up, participants showed a trend significant improvement exercise capacity (6MWT: 17.9 meters, p = 0.055) compared to UC. Cohen's D showed significant but small improvement on exercise capacity (d = 0.22; 95%CI 0.05 to 0.39), systolic blood pressure (d = 0.19; 95%CI 0.03 to 0.36), mental functioning (d = 0.22; 95%CI 0.05 to 0.38) and depressive symptomatology (d = 0.18; 95%CI 0.02 to 0.35). All other outcome measures did not change statistically significantly. In the as-treated analysis, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly with 5.5 mmHg (p = 0.045; d = 0.23 (95%CI 0.05-0.41)). Online mindfulness training shows favorable albeit small long-term effects on exercise capacity, systolic blood pressure, mental functioning, and depressive symptomatology in patients with heart disease and might therefore be a beneficial addition to current clinical care. www.trialregister.nl NTR3453.

  20. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  1. Effects of an 8-weeks erythropoietin treatment on mitochondrial and Whole body fat oxidation capacity during exercise in healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guadalupe Grau, Amelia; Plenge, Ulla; Bønding, Signe Helbo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration and angiog......Abstract The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration......, pyruvate, succinate) with additional electron input from β-oxidation (octanoylcarnitine) (from 60 ± 13 to 87 ± 24 pmol · s(-1) · mg(-1) P ... of recombinant erythropoietin treatment increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation capacity and myoglobin concentration without any effect on whole body maximal fat oxidation....

  2. Conceptual Models and Guidelines for Clinical Assessment of Financial Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The ability to manage financial affairs is a life skill of critical importance, and neuropsychologists are increasingly asked to assess financial capacity across a variety of settings. Sound clinical assessment of financial capacity requires knowledge and appreciation of applicable clinical conceptual models and principles. However, the literature has presented relatively little conceptual guidance for clinicians concerning financial capacity and its assessment. This article seeks to address this gap. The article presents six clinical models of financial capacity : (1) the early gerontological IADL model of Lawton, (2) the clinical skills model and (3) related cognitive psychological model developed by Marson and colleagues, (4) a financial decision-making model adapting earlier decisional capacity work of Appelbaum and Grisso, (5) a person-centered model of financial decision-making developed by Lichtenberg and colleagues, and (6) a recent model of financial capacity in the real world developed through the Institute of Medicine. Accompanying presentation of the models is discussion of conceptual and practical perspectives they represent for clinician assessment. Based on the models, the article concludes by presenting a series of conceptually oriented guidelines for clinical assessment of financial capacity. In summary, sound assessment of financial capacity requires knowledge and appreciation of clinical conceptual models and principles. Awareness of such models, principles and guidelines will strengthen and advance clinical assessment of financial capacity.

  3. Effects of Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on Exercise Capacity, Muscle Strength and Quality of Life in HIV-Infected Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansueto Gomes Neto

    Full Text Available Many HIV-infected patients demonstrate disability and lower aerobic capacity. The inclusion of resistance training combined with aerobic exercise in a single program is known as combined aerobic and resistance exercise (CARE and seems to be an effective strategy to improve muscle weakness, as well as aerobic capacity in HIV-infected patients. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effects of CARE in HIV-infected patients.We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, CINAHL (from the earliest date available to august 2014 for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of CARE in HIV-infected patients. Weighted mean differences (WMD and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test.Seven studies met the study criteria. CARE resulted in improvement in Peak VO2 WMD (4.48 mL·kg-1·min-1 95% CI: 2.95 to 6.0, muscle strength of the knee extensors WMD (25.06 Kg 95% CI: 10.46 to 39.66 and elbow flexors WMD (4.44 Kg 95% CI: 1.22 to 7.67 compared with no exercise group. The meta-analyses also showed significant improvement in Health status, Energy/Vitality and physical function domains of quality of life for participants in the CARE group compared with no exercise group. A nonsignificant improvement in social function domain of quality of life was found for participants in the CARE group compared with no exercise group.Combined aerobic and resistance exercise may improve peak VO2, muscle strength and health status, energy and physical function domains of quality of life and should be considered as a component of care of HIV-infected individuals.

  4. Impact of aerobic exercise training on heart rate variability and functional capacity in obese women after gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, Viviane; Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; Bassi, Daniela; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2011-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern on a global scale. Bariatric surgery is among the treatment options, resulting in significant and sustainable weight loss as well as amelioration of comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a 12-week aerobic exercise program positively impacts heart rate variability (HRV) and functional capacity after gastric bypass surgery (GBS) in a female cohort. Of the 52 patients initially recruited, 21 were randomized to a training group (TG) or control group and successfully completed the study. Patients were tested on two occasions: 1 week before GBS and 4 months after GBS. Anthropometric variables, body composition, record of heart rate and R-R intervals, and 6-min walk test (6MWT) were assessed at both time points. The TG underwent an aerobic exercise training program on a treadmill (1-h session, totaling 36 sessions over 12 weeks). The main findings from this study were: (1) only the TG demonstrated a significant increase (p heart rate variability (HRV) after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training and (2) only the TG demonstrated a significant increase (p exercise training. We conclude that 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training improves cardiac autonomic modulation and functional capacity 4 months after GBS.

  5. Predicted values of exercise capacity in heart failure: where we are, where to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Paola; Olla, Sergio; Boiti, Costanza; Contini, Mauro; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a procedure widely used in daily clinical activity to investigate cardiac and pulmonary disorders. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) is the most validated and clinically accepted parameter used to report aerobic capacity in healthy individuals and in different clinical settings. However, peak VO2 is influenced by several factors, whose variability is nowadays particularly evident due to the extensive use of CPET even in very young and very old subgroups of patients. Thus, its diagnostic and prognostic significance may be improved by the use of % of predicted VO2. At present, many sets of normal values are available, making the identification of the most proper max VO2 predicted value a challenging problem. In fact, normal value sets have been obtained from studies whose accuracy was reduced by important limitations, such as small sample size, low grade of heterogeneity of the population enrolled, poor rigorousness of methods, or difficulty in interpreting results. Accordingly, the aim of the present review is threefold: (A) to report some illustrative cases to show how the choice of the normal value set can influence the report of CPET; (B) to describe the most known and used reference value sets, highlighting the main characteristics of sample population, the most important methodological aspects, and the major limitations of the studies; (C) to suggest which equation should be used, if any, and to underline its weakness.

  6. Effect of low altitude at the Dead Sea on exercise capacity and cardiopulmonary response to exercise in cystic fibrosis patients with moderate to severe lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Bareket; Nini, Asaph; Zigel, Levana; Yahav, Yaacov; Aviram, Micha; Rivlin, Joseph; Bentur, Lea; Avital, Avraham; Dotan, Raffy; Blau, Hannah

    2006-03-01

    Oxygen supplementation may improve exercise tolerance and the physiological response to exercise in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Elevated barometric pressure at low altitude is a simple means of increasing the quantity of inspired oxygen. Our objectives were to examine the effect of natural oxygen enrichment (at the Dead Sea, 396 m below sea level) on exercise capacity, and the physiological responses to maximal and submaximal exercise in CF patients. Patients were tested twice: at sea level (barometric pressure, 754 +/- 6 mmHg, mean +/- SD), and at the Dead Sea (barometric pressure, 791 +/- 3 mmHg), in a randomized crossover design. We studied 14 CF patients (6 females, 8 males), aged 15-45 years, with moderate to severe lung disease (mean forced expired volume in 1 sec = 50.0 +/- 11.2% predicted). Tests at each site included resting spirometry, anthropometry, a graded submaximal exercise test, a maximal exercise test on a treadmill, and a 6-min walk test. Tests were performed in identical order at both sites. Tests at the Dead Sea were performed 72 hr after arrival. No differences between sites were observed in lung function at rest. Peak oxygen consumption was significantly improved at the Dead Sea compared with sea level (1.68 +/- 0.73 vs. 1.57 +/- 0.74 l/min, respectively, P = 0.05), along with an improvement in the ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (41.2 +/- 6.3 vs. 46.1 +/- 7.1, respectively, P Dead Sea compared with sea level at all exercise intensities (P Dead Sea area may have physiological benefits for CF patients with moderate to severe lung disease.

  7. Heart rate and blood pressure response to ramp exercise and exercise capacity in relation to age, gender, and mode of exercise in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Haruki; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Koike, Akira; Makita, Shigeru; Omiya, Kazuto; Kato, Yuko; Adachi, Hitoshi; Nagayama, Masatoshi; Maeda, Tomoko; Tajima, Akihiko; Harada, Naomi; Taniguchi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The responses of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure to the ramp exercise test are not known and the current understanding of peak oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold (AT) values in the normal Japanese population is insufficient. A total of 749 healthy Japanese subjects aged 20-78 years underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test using a cycle ergometer or treadmill ergometer with ramp protocols. HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and oxygen uptake VO2 at rest, at AT, and at peak exercise were determined. HR and SBP at peak exercise in a cycle ergometer and treadmill ergometer test decreased with age. Work rate at peak exercise in a cycle ergometer increased with body weight and decreased with age. VO2 at AT and at peak exercise were higher in treadmill ergometer testing than in cycle ergometer testing, and were not affected by exercise protocol. Both of these decreased with age. The normal responses of HR and SBP to ramp exercise testing are reported for the first time. AT, peak VO2, and VO2 at each stage are shown for a healthy population. Some of these parameters were influenced by weight, gender, and age, as well as mode of exercise and the protocol used. These results provide useful reference values for interpreting the results of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A six-month exercise intervention in subclinical diabetic heart disease: effects on exercise capacity, autonomic and myocardial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacre, Julian W; Jellis, Christine L; Jenkins, Carly; Haluska, Brian A; Baumert, Mathias; Coombes, Jeff S; Marwick, Thomas H

    2014-09-01

    Autonomic dysfunction may contribute to the etiology and exercise intolerance of subclinical diabetic heart disease. This study sought the efficacy of exercise training for improvement of peak oxygen uptake (VO₂(peak)) and cardiac autonomic function in type 2 diabetic patients with non-ischemic subclinical left-ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Forty-nine type 2 diabetic patients with early diastolic tissue Doppler velocity >1 standard deviation below the age-based mean entered an exercise intervention (n=24) or usual care (n=25) for 6-months (controlled, pre-/post- design). Co-primary endpoints were treadmill VO₂(peak) and 5-min heart-rate variability (by the coefficient of variation of normal RR intervals [CVNN]). Autonomic function was additionally assessed by resting heart-rate (for sympathovagal balance estimation), baroreflex sensitivity, cardiac reflexes, and exercise/recovery heart-rate profiles. Echocardiography was performed for LV function (systolic/diastolic tissue velocities, myocardial deformation) and myocardial fibrosis (calibrated integrated backscatter). VO₂(peak) increased by 11% during the exercise intervention (p=0.001 vs. -1% in controls), but CVNN did not change (p=0.23). Reduction of resting heart-rate in the intervention group (pheart-rate variability total spectral power (pexercise/recovery heart-rate profiles showed no significant benefit. No effects on LV function were observed despite favorable reduction of calibrated integrated backscatter in the intervention group (pexercise intolerance of subclinical diabetic heart disease was amenable to improvement by exercise training. Despite a reduction in resting heart-rate and potential attenuation of myocardial fibrosis, no other cardiac autonomic or LV functional adaptations were detected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers of aerobic exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooren, Frank C; Viereck, Janika; Krüger, Karsten; Thum, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    after endurance exercise. Moreover, the specific correlation of miR-1, -133a, and -206 to performance parameters indicated their potential role as biomarkers of aerobic capacity.

  10. Comparison of heart and respiratory rate variability measures using an intermittent incremental submaximal exercise model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ramirez, Juliana; Bravi, Andrea; Green, Geoffrey; Seely, Andrew J; Kenny, Glen P

    2013-11-01

    To better understand the alterations in cardiorespiratory variability during exercise, the present study characterized the patterns of change in heart rate variability (HRV), respiratory rate variability (RRV), and combined cardiorespiratory variability (HRV-RRV) during an intermittent incremental submaximal exercise model. Six males and six females completed a submaximal exercise protocol consisting of an initial baseline resting period followed by three 10-min bouts of exercise at 20%, 40%, and 60% of maximal aerobic capacity (V̇O2max). The R-R interval and interbreath interval variability were measured at baseline rest and throughout the submaximal exercise. A group of 93 HRV, 83 RRV, and 28 HRV-RRV measures of variability were tracked over time through a windowed analysis using a 5-min window size and 30-s window step. A total of 91 HRV measures were able to detect the presence of exercise, whereas only 46 RRV and 3 HRV-RRV measures were able to detect the same stimulus. Moreover, there was a loss of overall HRV and RRV, loss of complexity of HRV and RRV, and loss of parasympathetic modulation of HRV (up to 40% V̇O2max) with exercise. Conflicting changes in scale-invariant structure of HRV and RRV with increases in exercise intensity were also observed. In summary, in this simultaneous evaluation of HRV and RRV, we found more consistent changes across HRV metrics compared with RRV and HRV-RRV.

  11. Effects of ranolazine on the exercise capacity of rats with chronic heart failure induced by myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaker, A; McCormack, J G; Hirai, T; Musch, T I

    1996-09-01

    Ranolazine was previously shown to stimulate cardiac glucose oxidation. Dichloroacetate (DCA) also does and was shown to improve exercise capacity in animals, but it has long-term toxicity problems. To test the hypothesis that ranolazine would increase exercise performance in the chronic heart failure (CHF) condition, we compared the exercise endurance capacities of rats with a surgically induced myocardial infarction (MI) with those of noninfarcted sham-operated (Sham) controls both before and after 14 and 28 days of drug administration. Chronic administration of ranolazine, 50 mg/kg twice daily (b.i.d.) oral, significantly reduced the endurance capacities of both Sham and MI rats (measured after a 12-h fast to reduce liver glycogen stores), as indicated by the reductions in run times to fatigue during a progressive treadmill test. Ranolazine produced reductions in resting plasma lactate and glucose concentrations of animals fasted for 12 h (consistent with stimulating glucose oxidation); however, tissue glycogen concentrations measured in various locomotor muscles located in the animal's hindlimb were unaffected when measured 48 h after the last treadmill test and after 12 h of fasting. Chronic administration of ranolazine did not increase the endurance capacity of rats with CHF induced by MI at the dosage and with the protocol used. To the contrary, the chronic administration of ranolazine appears to reduce the work capacity of all rats, suggesting that this drug may not be useful therapeutically in the treatment of CHF. Whether the decrements in endurance capacity produced by ranolazine are related to the high plasma concentrations of the drug produced in this study as compared with previous studies in humans remains subject to further experimentation.

  12. High-intensity intermittent exercise training with chlorella intake accelerates exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative capacity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Naoki; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Fujie, Shumpei; Uchida, Masataka; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Tabata, Izumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic chlorella intake alone or in combination with high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) training on exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative metabolism in rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the four groups: sedentary control, chlorella intake (0.5% chlorella powder in normal feed), HIIE training, and combination of HIIE training and chlorella intake for 6 wk (n = 10 each group). HIIE training comprised 14 repeats of a 20-s swimming session with a 10-s pause between sessions, while bearing a weight equivalent to 16% of body weight, 4 days/week. Exercise performance was tested after the interventions by measuring the maximal number of HIIE sessions that could be completed. Chlorella intake and HIIE training significantly increased the maximal number of HIIE sessions and enhanced the expression of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1, MCT4, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α concomitantly with the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phosphofructokinase, citrate synthase (CS), and cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) in the red region of the gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, the combination further augmented the increased exercise performance and the enhanced expressions and activities. By contrast, in the white region of the muscle, MCT1 expression and LDH, CS, and COX activities did not change. These results showed that compared with only chlorella intake and only HIIE training, chlorella intake combined with HIIE training has a more pronounced effect on exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative metabolism, in particular, lactate metabolism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Whole-body fat oxidation determined by graded exercise and indirect calorimetry: a role for muscle oxidative capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2006-01-01

    During whole-body exercise, peak fat oxidation occurs at a moderate intensity. This study investigated whole-body peak fat oxidation in untrained and trained subjects, and the presence of a relation between skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity and whole-body peak fat oxidation. Healthy male...... muscle oxidative capacity was not correlated to whole-body peak fat oxidation. In conclusion, whole-body peak fat oxidation occurred at a higher relative exercise load in trained compared with untrained subjects. Whole-body peak fat oxidation was not significantly related to leg muscle oxidative capacity......, but was related to lean body mass and maximal oxygen uptake. This may suggest that leg muscle oxidative activity is not the main determinant of whole-body peak fat oxidation....

  14. Absorptive Capacity of Information Technology and Its Conceptual Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Xinhua; YU Cuiling

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine the problem of how to improve the use of information technology (IT) in enterprises, this paper makes an exploration from the perspective of organizational absorptive capacity. We propose the concept of IT absorptive capacity from an organizational level. A dynamic process model is developed to further analyze IT absorption. IT absorptive capacity of this process is embodied as six forms: identification, adoption, adaptation, acceptance, infusion, and knowledge management. By means of questionnaire surveys of 76 Chinese enterprises, the main factors that favor or disable the capacity of each stage are discovered. Using the method of system dynamics, a conceptual model of IT absorptive capacity is developed to analyze the action mechanism of the factors in detail. The model indicates that the critical factors are embodied in the aspect of management. Furthermore, it demonstrates that IT absorption is a spiral process, during which IT absorptive capacity evolves dynamically and, consequently, promotes IT use.

  15. Ice ingestion with a long rest interval increases the endurance exercise capacity and reduces the core temperature in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Takashi; Iribe, Yuka; Ogaki, Tetsuro

    2017-01-05

    The timing in which ice before exercise should be ingested plays an important role in optimizing its success. However, the effects of differences in the timing of ice ingestion before exercise on cycling capacity, and thermoregulation has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of length of time after ice ingestion on endurance exercise capacity in the heat. Seven males ingested 1.25 g kg body mass(-1) of ice (0.5 °C) or cold water (4 °C) every 5 min, six times. Under three separate conditions after ice or water ingestion ([1] taking 20 min rest after ice ingestion, [2] taking 5 min rest after ice ingestion, and [3] taking 5 min rest after cold water ingestion), seven physically active male cyclists exercised at 65% of their maximal oxygen uptake to exhaustion in the heat (35 °C, 30% relative humidity). Participants cycled significantly longer following both ice ingestion with a long rest interval (46.0 ± 7.7 min) and that with a short rest interval (38.7 ± 5.7 min) than cold water ingestion (32.3 ± 3.2 min; both p Heat storage under condition of ice ingestion with a long rest interval during the pre-exercise period was significantly lower than that observed with a short rest interval (-4.98 ± 2.50 W m(-2); p heat, which is suggested to be driven by a reduced rectal temperature and heat storage before the start of exercise.

  16. Heart rate at rest, exercise capacity, and mortality risk in veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaras, Andreas M; Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Myers, Jonathan; Kheirbek, Raya; Kokkinos, John Peter; Tsimploulis, Apostolos; Aiken, Monica; Kokkinos, Peter

    2013-11-15

    Heart rate (HR) at rest has been associated inversely with mortality risk. However, fitness is inversely associated with mortality risk and both increased fitness and β-blockade therapy affect HR at rest. Thus, both fitness and β-blockade therapy should be considered when HR at rest-mortality risk association is assessed. From 1986 to 2011, we assessed HR at rest, fitness, and mortality in 18,462 veterans (mean age = 58 ± 11 years) undergoing a stress test. During a median follow-up period of 10 years (211,398 person-years), 5,100 died, at an average annual mortality of 24.1 events/1,000 person-years. After adjusting for age, body mass index, cardiac risk factors, medication, and exercise capacity, we noted approximately 11% increase in risk for each 10 heart beats. To assess the risk in a wide and clinically relevant spectrum, we established 6 HR at rest categories per 10 heart beat intervals ranging from rest of ≥70 beats/min (hazard ratio 1.14, confidence interval 1.04 to 1.25; p rest of ≥100 beats/min. Similar trends were noted when for subjects aged rest-mortality risk association was direct and independent. A progressive increase in risk was noted >70 beats/min for the entire cohort, those treated with β blockers, and those aged <60 and ≥60 years. Mortality risk was overestimated slightly when fitness status was not considered. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Increased Left Ventricular Stiffness Impairs Exercise Capacity in Patients with Heart Failure Symptoms Despite Normal Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sinning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Several mechanisms can be involved in the development of exercise intolerance in patients with heart failure despite normal left ventricular ejection fraction (HFNEF and may include impairment of left ventricular (LV stiffness. We therefore investigated the influence of LV stiffness, determined by pressure-volume loop analysis obtained by conductance catheterization, on exercise capacity in HFNEF. Methods and Results. 27 HFNEF patients who showed LV diastolic dysfunction in pressure-volume (PV loop analysis performed symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET and were compared with 12 patients who did not show diastolic dysfunction in PV loop analysis. HFNEF patients revealed a lower peak performance (=.046, breathing reserve (=.006, and ventilation equivalent for carbon dioxide production at rest (=.002. LV stiffness correlated with peak oxygen uptake (=−0.636, <.001, peak oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold (=−0.500, =.009, and ventilation equivalent for carbon dioxide production at ventilatory threshold (=0.529, =.005. Conclusions. CPET parameters such as peak oxygen uptake, peak oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold, and ventilation equivalent for carbon dioxide production at ventilatory threshold correlate with LV stiffness. Increased LV stiffness impairs exercise capacity in HFNEF.

  18. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves exercise capacity and quality of life in underweight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chou-Chin; Yang, Mei-Chen; Lee, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Yi-Chih; Huang, Chun-Yao; Huang, Kuo-Liang; Wu, Yao-Kuang

    2011-02-01

    An estimated 20-40% of COPD patients are underweight. We sought to confirm the physiological and psychosocial benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation programmes (PRP) in underweight compared with non-underweight patients with COPD. Twenty-two underweight COPD patients with BMI PRP consisting of two sessions per week. Baseline and post-PRP status were evaluated by spirometry, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, ventilatory muscle strength and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). At baseline, the age distribution and airflow obstruction were similar in underweight and non-underweight patients with COPD. Baseline exercise capacity, inspiratory muscle strength and SGRQ total and symptoms scores were significantly lower in the underweight patients (all P PRP, there was significant weight gain in the underweight COPD patients (mean increase 0.8 kg, P = 0.01). There were also significant improvements in peak oxygen uptake, peak workload and the SGRQ total, symptoms, activity and impact scores in both underweight and non-underweight patients with COPD (all P training with supplemental oxygen may result in significant weight gains and improvements in exercise capacity and HRQL. Exercise training is indicated for underweight patients with COPD. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  19. Inverse correlation between testosterone and ventricle ejection fraction, hemodynamics and exercise capacity in heart failure patients with erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimar A. Bocchi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurohormonal activation and abnormalities in growth hormone and testosterone concentrations have been reported in heart failure (HF. Erectile dysfunction(ED is common in these patients and contributes to a low quality of life. No data are known regarding the correlation between testosterone and hemodynamics, exercise capacity and cardiac function in HF patients with ED, a marker of endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to correlate testosterone levels with cardiac function, hemodynamic and exercise capacity in HF patients with ED. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen HF patients underwent a six-minute treadmill cardiopulmonary walking test (6'CWT and, ten minutes later, a maximum cardiopulmonary exercise test. Also, testosterone and other hormones were determined at rest. RESULTS: Among hemodynamic variables only diastolic blood pressure on 6'CWT was correlated with testosterone levels(r =- 0.66, p = 0.007. The variables on exercise tests, VE/VCO2 slope and oxygen consumption did not show any correlation, except the distance at 6'CWT (r = 0.50, p = 0,047. Right and left ventricle ejection fraction showed inverse correlation with testosterone (r =- 0.55, p = 0.03 and r =- 0.69, p = 0.004 respectively. CONCLUSION: Testosterone levels correlated directly with distance at six-minute cardiopulmonary walk test and inversely with diastolic blood pressure, right and left ventricle ejection fraction in heart failure patients with erectile dysfunction. Further elucidation of mechanisms as regards testosterone action in these patients is warranted.

  20. Relation of systemic and local muscle exercise capacity to skeletal muscle characteristics in men with congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, B. M.; Simonini, A.; Sahgal, P.; Wells, L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The present study was undertaken to further characterize changes in skeletal muscle morphology and histochemistry in congestive heart failure and to determine the relation of these changes to abnormalities of systemic and local muscle exercise capacity. BACKGROUND. Abnormalities of skeletal muscle appear to play a role in the limitation of exercise capacity in congestive heart failure, but information on the changes in muscle morphology and biochemistry and their relation to alterations in muscle function is limited. METHODS. Eighteen men with predominantly mild to moderate congestive heart failure (mean +/- SEM New York Heart Association functional class 2.6 +/- 0.2, ejection fraction 24 +/- 2%) and eight age- and gender-matched sedentary control subjects underwent measurements of peak systemic oxygen consumption (VO2) during cycle ergometry, resistance to fatigue of the quadriceps femoris muscle group and biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle. RESULTS. Peak VO2 and resistance to fatigue were lower in the patients with heart failure than in control subjects (15.7 +/- 1.2 vs. 25.1 +/- 1.5 ml/min-kg and 63 +/- 2% vs. 85 +/- 3%, respectively, both p congestive heart failure is associated with changes in the characteristics of skeletal muscle and local as well as systemic exercise performance. There are fewer slow twitch fibers, smaller fast twitch fibers and lower succinate dehydrogenase activity. The latter finding suggests that mitochondrial content of muscle is reduced in heart failure and that impaired aerobic-oxidative capacity may play a role in the limitation of systemic exercise capacity.

  1. Effect of the timing of ice slurry ingestion for precooling on endurance exercise capacity in a warm environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Keisuke; Onitsuka, Sumire; Xinyan, Zheng; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that precooling with ice slurry ingestion enhances endurance exercise capacity in the heat. However, no studies have yet evaluated the optimal timing of ice slurry ingestion for precooling. This study aimed to investigate the effects of varying the timing of ice slurry ingestion for precooling on endurance exercise capacity in a warm environment. Ten active male participants completed 3 experimental cycling trials to exhaustion at 55% peak power output (PPO) after 15min of warm-up at 30% PPO at 30°C and 80% relative humidity. Three experimental conditions were set: no ice slurry ingestion (CON), pre-warm-up ice slurry ingestion (-1°C; 7.5gkg(-1)) (PRE), and post-warm-up ice slurry ingestion (POST). Rectal and mean skin temperatures at the beginning of exercise in the POST condition (37.1±0.2°C, 33.8±0.9°C, respectively) were lower than those in the CON (37.5±0.3°C; P<0.001, 34.8±0.8°C; P<0.01, respectively) and PRE (37.4±0.2°C; P<0.01, 34.6±0.7°C; P<0.01, respectively) conditions. These reductions increased heat storage capacity and resulted in improved exercise capacity in the POST condition (60.2±8.7min) compared to that in the CON (52.0±11.9min; effect size [ES]=0.78) and PRE (56.9±10.4min; ES=0.34) conditions. Ice slurry ingestion after warm-up effectively reduced both rectal and skin temperatures and increased cycling time to exhaustion in a warm environment. Timing ice slurry ingestion to occur after warm-up may be effective for precooling in a warm environment.

  2. The effects of an exercise training program on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in Tunisian obese children

    OpenAIRE

    Sofien Regaieg; Nadia Charfi; Mahdi Kamoun; Sameh Ghroubi; Haithem Rebai; Habib Elleuch; Mouna Mnif Feki; Mohamed Abid

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of children obesity is rising alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Developing effective exercise programs is a strategy for decreasing this prevalence and limiting obesity-associated long-term comorbidities. Objectives: To determine whether a 16-week training program; in addition to the school physical education and without dietary intervention; could have beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity of obese children. Materials and ...

  3. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management COPD: Exercises COPD: Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... lifelong activity you enjoy. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use inhaled short acting ...

  4. Waon therapy improves quality of life as well as cardiac function and exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobajima, Mitsuo; Nozawa, Takashi; Fukui, Yasutaka; Ihori, Hiroyuki; Ohori, Takashi; Fujii, Nozomu; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Waon therapy (WT), which in Japanese means soothing warmth, is a repeated sauna therapy that improves cardiac and vascular endothelial function in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). We investigated whether WT could improve the quality of life (QOL) of CHF patients in addition to improving cardiac function and exercise capacity.A total of 49 CHF patients (69 ± 14 years old) were treated with a 60°C far infrared-ray dry sauna bath for 15 minutes and then kept in a bed covered with blankets for 30 minutes once a day for 3 weeks. At baseline and 3 weeks after starting WT, cardiac function, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), flow mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, and SF36-QOL scores were determined.WT significantly improved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), 6MWD, and FMD (3.6 ± 2.3 to 5.1 ± 2.8%, P improved not only the physical (PC) but also mental component (MC) of the QOL scores. WT-induced improvement of PC was negatively correlated with changes in BNP (r = -0.327, P improvement was not related directly to changes in BNP, LVEF, or 6MWD. WT-induced changes in MC were not parallel to PC improvement.WT improved QOL as well as cardiac function and exercise capacity in patients with CHF. Mental QOL improved independently of WT-induced improvement of cardiac function and exercise capacity.

  5. Relationships between obesity, functional exercise capacity, physical activity participation and physical self-perception in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, D; Probst, M; Sweers, K; Maurissen, K; Knapen, J; De Hert, M

    2011-06-01

    This study compared differences in functional exercise capacity between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Physical self-perception and physical activity variables contributing to the variability in the distance achieved during a walk test were identified. A total of 25 normal weight, 25 overweight and 10 obese patients and 40 healthy volunteers were included. Functional exercise capacity was explored with a 6-minute walk test. Level of physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire and physical self-perception using the physical self-perception profile. Obese patients walked a significantly shorter distance than overweight and normal weight patients (450.6 ± 97.7, 580.2 ± 116.0 and 615.8 ± 92.4 m resp., P obese patients (90% vs. 40% in overweight and 27.3% in normal weight patients, P physical self-worth, level of sports participation and smoking behaviour. Functional exercise capacity in patients with schizophrenia is reduced not only by obesity, perceived discomfort and pain but also by a sedentary, unhealthy life style and a reduced physical self-perception. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Vasodilation and Exercise Capacity in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: A Prospective Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habedank, Dirk; Schefold, Joerg C; Bernhardt, Carolin; Karhausen, Tim; Doehner, Wolfram; Anker, Stefan D; Reinke, Petra

    2016-11-01

    Previous data have pointed to the fact that vascular function is significantly impaired in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We aimed to better characterise vasodilation and exercise capacity in both ESRD and chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. A total of 30 ESRD patients (23 male; mean age 45.7 ± 9.9 years) were included in a prospective proof-of-concept study at a tertiary care academic centre. The patients underwent forearm venous plethysmography with post-ischaemic peak blood flow (PF) and flow-dependent flow (FDF) testing as well as cardiopulmonary exercise testing during the morning of the day following the last haemodialysis. After matching for age, gender, and body mass index, the data were compared to 30 patients with CHF and 20 age-matched healthy controls. PF in ESRD patients was reduced when compared to that in CHF patients (12.5 ± 4.2 vs. 15.6 ± 6.9 ml/100 ml/min; p = 0.048) and healthy controls (26.4 ± 9.3 ml/100 ml/min; p proof-of-concept study, exercise capacity was relatively preserved, while vasodilative capacity was substantially impaired in ESRD patients. Additional studies are warranted to examine the underlying mechanisms and potential clinical implications of our findings.

  7. The functional exercise capacity and its correlates in obese treatment-seeking people with binge eating disorder: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Herdt, Amber; Vanderlinden, Johan; Lannoo, Matthias; Adriaens, An; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andrew; Probst, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim was to compare the functional exercise capacity between obese treatment-seeking people with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and non-obese controls. The secondary aim was to identify clinical variables including eating and physical activity behaviour, physical complaints, psychopathology and physical self-perception variables in obese people with BED that could explain the variability in functional exercise capacity. Forty people with BED were compared with 20 age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched obese persons without BED and 40 age and gender matched non-obese volunteers. A 6-minute walk test (6MWT), the Baecke physical activity questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90, the Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Eating Disorder Inventory were administered. Physical complaints before and after the 6MWT were also documented. The distance achieved on the 6MWT was significantly lower in obese participants with BED (512.1 ± 75.8 m versus 682.7 ± 98.4, p binge eating disorder should incorporate a functional exercise capacity assessment. Clinicians involved in the rehabilitation of people with binge eating disorder should consider depression and lower self-esteem as potential barriers. Clinicians should take into account the frequently observed physical discomfort when developing rehabilitation programmes for people with binge eating disorder.

  8. Comparison of Predicted Exercise Capacity Equations and the Effect of Actual versus Ideal Body Weight among Subjects Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Reza Ahmadian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxygen uptake at maximal exercise (VO2 max is considered the best available index for assessment of exercise capacity. The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of actual versus ideal body weight in standard regression equations for predicted VO2 max results in differences in predicted VO2 max. Methods. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who were predominantly in active military duty with complaints of dyspnea or exercise tolerance and who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET from 2007 to 2009. Results. A total of 230 subjects completed CPET on a bicycle ergometer with a male predominance (62% and an average age of 37 ± 15 years. There was significant discordance between the measured VO2 max and predicted VO2 max when measured by the Hansen and Wasserman reference equations (P<0.001. Specifically, there was less overestimation when predicted VO2 max was based on ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight. Conclusion. Our retrospective analysis confirmed the wide variations in predicted versus measured VO2 max based on varying prediction equations and showed the potential advantage of using ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight in order to further standardize reference norms.

  9. Comparison of Predicted Exercise Capacity Equations and the Effect of Actual versus Ideal Body Weight among Subjects Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, H Reza; Sclafani, Joseph J; Emmons, Ethan E; Morris, Michael J; Leclerc, Kenneth M; Slim, Ahmad M

    2013-01-01

    Background. Oxygen uptake at maximal exercise (VO2 max) is considered the best available index for assessment of exercise capacity. The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of actual versus ideal body weight in standard regression equations for predicted VO2 max results in differences in predicted VO2 max. Methods. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who were predominantly in active military duty with complaints of dyspnea or exercise tolerance and who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) from 2007 to 2009. Results. A total of 230 subjects completed CPET on a bicycle ergometer with a male predominance (62%) and an average age of 37 ± 15 years. There was significant discordance between the measured VO2 max and predicted VO2 max when measured by the Hansen and Wasserman reference equations (P VO2 max was based on ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight. Conclusion. Our retrospective analysis confirmed the wide variations in predicted versus measured VO2 max based on varying prediction equations and showed the potential advantage of using ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight in order to further standardize reference norms.

  10. The logistic model-generated carrying capacities for wild herbivores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jesse

    Modelled as discrete-time logistic equations with fixed carrying capacities, it captures the wildlife herbivore population dynamics. Time series data, covering a period ..... Building Models for Conservation and. Wildlife Management. (New York ...

  11. Effects of short-term pulmonary rehabilitation on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyahara N

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD improves both exercise capacity and quality of life, a standard protocol for COPD patients has not been established. To clarify whether physiologic and quality-of-life improvements can be achieved by an inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program 5 days per week for 3 weeks, 18 patients with COPD were enrolled in a rehabilitation program. The physical exercise training regimen consisted of respiratory muscle stretch gymnastics and cycle ergometer exercise training. Pulmonary function tests, an incremental ergometer exercise test, a 6-min walking test, and a quality of life assessment by the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire were administered before and after the program. The peak VO2, an indicator of maximal exercise capacity, did not increase, although the 6-min walking distance, an indicator of functional exercise capacity, increased significantly after rehabilitation. There was a significant improvement in the quality of life in terms of dyspnea, fatigue, and emotional state. These findings suggest that even a 3-week program may be beneficial for COPD patients. Increases in functional exercise capacity, even without an increase in maximal exercise capacity, are helpful for reducing dyspnea and improving quality of life parameters in patients with COPD.

  12. The influence of intermittent altitude exposure to 4100 m on exercise capacity and blood variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Nielsen, T K; Dela, F

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure on blood and exercise parameters. Eight sea level residents were exposed to 2 h daily stimulus to 4100 m altitude in a hypobaric chamber for a total of 14 days. Exercise performance was evaluated at sea level bef...

  13. Effect of changes in fat availability on exercise capacity in McArdle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.T.; Jeppesen, T.D.; Taivassalo, T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The major fuel for exercising muscle at low exercise intensities is fat. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of fat metabolism in McArdle disease (also known as glycogen storage disease type V), an inborn error of muscle glycogenolysis, by manipulating free fatty acid availability...... for oxidation during exercise. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. SETTING: Hospitalized care. PATIENTs: Ten patients (8 men and 2 women) with McArdle disease. INTERVENTIONS: Patients cycled at a constant workload corresponding to 70% of their maximum oxygen consumption. In random order...... exercise in the Intralipid infusion and nicotinic acid trials compared with the placebo and glucose infusion trials, an effect that was observed before and after the patients had experienced the second wind phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS: Lipids are an important source of fuel for exercising muscle in Mc...

  14. Relation of systemic and local muscle exercise capacity to skeletal muscle characteristics in men with congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, B. M.; Simonini, A.; Sahgal, P.; Wells, L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The present study was undertaken to further characterize changes in skeletal muscle morphology and histochemistry in congestive heart failure and to determine the relation of these changes to abnormalities of systemic and local muscle exercise capacity. BACKGROUND. Abnormalities of skeletal muscle appear to play a role in the limitation of exercise capacity in congestive heart failure, but information on the changes in muscle morphology and biochemistry and their relation to alterations in muscle function is limited. METHODS. Eighteen men with predominantly mild to moderate congestive heart failure (mean +/- SEM New York Heart Association functional class 2.6 +/- 0.2, ejection fraction 24 +/- 2%) and eight age- and gender-matched sedentary control subjects underwent measurements of peak systemic oxygen consumption (VO2) during cycle ergometry, resistance to fatigue of the quadriceps femoris muscle group and biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle. RESULTS. Peak VO2 and resistance to fatigue were lower in the patients with heart failure than in control subjects (15.7 +/- 1.2 vs. 25.1 +/- 1.5 ml/min-kg and 63 +/- 2% vs. 85 +/- 3%, respectively, both p twitch, type I fibers than did control subjects (36 +/- 3% vs. 46 +/- 5%, p = 0.048) and a higher proportion of fast twitch, type IIab fibers (18 +/- 3% vs. 7 +/- 2%, p = 0.004). Fiber cross-sectional area was smaller, and single-fiber succinate dehydrogenase activity, a mitochondrial oxidative marker, was lower in patients (both p twitch to slow twitch fiber cross-sectional area was lower in patients (0.780 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.05 +/- 0.08, p = 0.019). Peak VO2 was strongly related to integrated succinate dehydrogenase activity in patients (r = 0.896, p = 0.001). Peak VO2, resistance to fatigue and strength also correlated significantly with several measures of fiber size, especially of fast twitch fibers, in patients. None of the skeletal muscle characteristics examined correlated with exercise capacity in control

  15. Evaluation of exercise capacity with cardiopulmonary exercise testing and type B natriuretic peptide concentrations in adult patients with patent atrial septal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojnarska, Olga; Szyszka, Andrzej; Gwizdala, Adrian; Oko-Sarnowska, Zofia; Katarzynski, Slawomir; Siniawski, Andrzej; Chmara, Ewa; Cieslinski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Adults with patent atrial septal defect (ASD) usually find their exercise capacity satisfactory, and therefore hesitate to accept proposed surgical treatment of the heart disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate both the exercise capacity, using the cardio-pulmonary stress test, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in asymptomatic adults with ASD. Thirty-six patients with patent secundum type ASD (aged mean 44.7 +/- 8.2 years) were studied. The control group consisted of 25 healthy subjects at the mean age of 45.6 +/- 6.1 years. Echocardiography and CPST were performed and BNP levels measured in all subjects. Oxygen uptake (VO2 max) was lower in ASD patients than in controls (22.1 +/- 5.6 vs. 30.0 +/- 6.8 ml/kg/min, p = 0.00001); the VE/VO2 slope was elevated in ASD patients compared with healthy subjects (31.3 +/- 6.6 vs. 26.9 +/- 3.3, p = 0.001), and exceeded 34 in 5 patients. VO2 max showed a negative correlation with the pulmonary to systemic flow ratio Qp:Qs (r = -0.46, p = 0.004), and a positive correlation was found between the VE/VO2 slope and Qp:Qs (r = 0.32, p = 0.05). BNP levels were higher in the ASD group than in the controls (60.6 +/- 49.9 vs. 32.6 +/- 24.5 pg/ml, p = 0.02). BNP correlated positively with RV diameter and Qp:Qs (r = 0.38 and 0.39 respectively, p = 0.03) and negatively with maximum VO2 (r = -0.5, p = 0.004) and VO2% (r = -0.32, p = 0.07). Although most adult patients with ASD perceive their exercise capacity as satisfactory, objective assessment reveals that in fact it is significantly decreased. BNP levels are increased comparing to healthy individuals. Decreased exercise capacity and increased BNP levels seem to result from right ventricular volume overload. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity and spontaneous physical activity in elderly subjects: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar-Lain, S; Webster, A L; Cañete, S; San Juan, A F; López Mojares, L M; Pérez, M; Lucia, A; Chicharro, J L

    2007-12-01

    Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve exercise capacity in diseased populations. We chose to examine the effects of eight weeks of IMT on exercise capacity and spontaneous physical activity in elderly individuals. Eighteen moderately active elderly subjects (68.1 +/- 6.8 years [mean +/- SD]; range 58 - 78 years) were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 9) or a control group (n = 9) in a double-blind manner. All subjects underwent inspiratory muscle testing, treadmill exercise testing and a four-day measurement period of spontaneous physical activity (using accelerometry) both pre- and post-intervention. The experimental group underwent eight weeks of incremental IMT using a pressure threshold device, while the control group underwent sham training using identical devices. After IMT training, inspiratory muscle strength (mean + 21.5 cm H (2)O; 95 % CI: 9.3, 33.7; p = 0.002), V.O (2peak) (+ 2.8 ml x min (-1) x kg (-1); 95 % CI: 0.5, 5.2; p = 0.022), time to exhaustion during a fixed workload treadmill test (+ 7.1 min; 95 % CI: 1.8, 2.4; p = 0.013) and time engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (+ 59 min; 95 % CI: 15, 78; p = 0.008) improved. Except for a decline in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, no significant changes were seen in the control group. Therefore, IMT may be a useful technique for positively influencing exercise capacity and physical activity in elderly individuals.

  17. The effects of an exercise training program on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in Tunisian obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofien Regaieg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of children obesity is rising alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Developing effective exercise programs is a strategy for decreasing this prevalence and limiting obesity-associated long-term comorbidities. Objectives: To determine whether a 16-week training program; in addition to the school physical education and without dietary intervention; could have beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity of obese children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight obese children (16 boys, 12 girls; aged 12-14 years were enrolled and were divided into either the exercise group (EG, n = 14 or the control group (CG, n = 14. EG participated in a 16-week aerobic exercises (four 60-min sessions per week at 70-85% of HRmax (maximum heart rate, in addition to the school physical education. Fat-Free Mass (FFM and Fat Mass (FM were assessed with bioelectrical impedance equipment. To assess aerobic capacity, maximal metabolic equivalent of task (METmax and maximal workload (Wmax were estimated with an electronically braked cycle ergometer (type Ergoline 500® . Results: At baseline, there were no differences between the two groups. After the training program, only the EG showed significant reduction in BMI (body mass index and waist circumference compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001. Exercise training significantly decreased FM only in the EG. A significant increase in FFM was seen in both groups; more marked in the EG. There was a significant increase in METmax (P < 0.05 and Wmax (P = 0.02 in the EG, and no significant changes in these parameters were seen in the CG. HRmax significantly decreased only in the EG (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This training program has beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in obese children. Our intervention has the advantage of providing a sustainable and reproducible school and community approach for the management of children obesity.

  18. Badminton Specific Testing and Development of Physical On-Court Exercise Capacity in Elite Youth Badminton Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Ole Møller

    in adult players only. This thesis aims to enhance the existing research within the field by also evaluating badminton-specific speed and endurance in elite youth players in both a cross-sectional and longitudinal manner, and with reference to the physiological capacities of world top-50 single players.......This thesis describes the development of two badminton-specific tests to evaluate players' maximum movement speed and the endurance capacity using game-like movement patterns and intermittent game-like conditions. The badminton speed test (B-SPEED) is used to assess maximal movements during...... specific on-court actions. It can distinguish between groups of players with different badminton skills, but similar sprint abilities The badminton-specific endurance test (B-ENDURANCE) is applicable for evaluation of badminton-specific endurance. Previous studies have tended to examine exercise capacity...

  19. Light dependence of carboxylation capacity for C3 photosynthesis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photosynthesis at high light is often modelled by assuming limitation by the maximum capacity of Rubisco carboxylation at low carbon dioxide concentrations, by electron transport capacity at higher concentrations, and sometimes by triose-phosphate utilization rate at the highest concentrations. Pho...

  20. Temperature dependence of electronic heat capacity in Holstein model

    CERN Document Server

    Fialko, N S; Lakhno, V D

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of charge migration was modeled to calculate temperature dependencies of its thermodynamic equilibrium values such as energy and electronic heat capacity in homogeneous adenine fragments. The energy varies from nearly polaron one at T~0 to midpoint of the conductivity band at high temperatures. The peak on the graph of electronic heat capacity is observed at the polaron decay temperature.

  1. An Empirical Investigation into a Subsidiary Absorptive Capacity Process Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimer, Stephanie; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    and empirically test a process model of absorptive capacity. The setting of our empirical study is 213 subsidiaries of multinational enterprises and the focus is on the capacity of these subsidiaries to successfully absorb best practices in marketing strategy from their headquarters. This setting allows us...

  2. The effects of water-based exercise in combination with blood flow restriction on strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Joamira P; Neto, Gabriel R; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Bemben, Michael G; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Batista, Gilmário; Silva, Júlio C G; Freitas, Eduardo D S; Sousa, Maria S C

    2015-12-01

    Water-based exercise and low-intensity exercise in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) are two methods that have independently been shown to improve muscle strength in those of advancing age. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of water-based exercise in combination with BFR on maximum dynamic strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women. Twenty-eight women underwent an 8-week water-based exercise program. The participants were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: (a) water exercise only, (b) water exercise + BFR, or (c) a non-exercise control group. Functional capacity (chair stand test, timed up and go test, gait speed, and dynamic balance) and strength testing were tested before and after the 8-week aquatic exercise program. The main findings were as follows: (1) water-based exercise in combination with BFR significantly increased the lower limb maximum strength which was not observed with water-based exercise alone and (2) water-based exercise, regardless of the application of BFR, increased functional performance measured by the timed up and go test over a control group. Although we used a healthy population in the current study, these findings may have important implications for those who may be contraindicated to using traditional resistance exercise. Future research should explore this promising modality in these clinical populations.

  3. Storage Capacity Modeling of Reservoir Systems Employing Performance Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Saket Oskoui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing a prediction relationship for total (i.e. within-year plus over-year storage capacity of reservoir systems is beneficial because it can be used as an alternative to the analysis of reservoirs during designing stage and gives an opportunity to planner to examine and compare different cases in a fraction of time required for complete analysis where detailed analysis is not necessary. Existing relationships for storage capacity are mostly capable of estimating over-year storage capacity and total storage capacity can be obtained through relationships for adjusting over-year capacity and there is no independent relationship to estimate total storage capacity. Moreover these relationships do not involve vulnerability performance criterion and are not verified for Malaysia Rivers. In this study two different reservoirs in Southern part of Peninsular Malaysia, Melaka and Muar, are analyzed through a Monte Carlo simulation approach involving performance metrics. Subsequently the storage capacity results of the simulation are compared with those of the well-known existing equations. It is observed that existing models may not predict total capacity appropriately for Malaysian reservoirs. Consequently, applying the simulation results, two separate regression equations are developed to model total storage capacity of study reservoirs employing time based reliability and vulnerability performance measures.

  4. Effects of Regular Treadmill Exercise on a DNA Oxidative-Damage Marker and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rat Hippocampal Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, Soleiman; Ghadi, Arezoo; Pourbagher, Roghayeh; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Regular exercise can result in changes in the levels of oxidative stress in the hippocampus; however, little attention has been paid to physical-activity-induced neuronal protection to exposure to lead compounds. This study investigated the effects of regular treadmill exercise on a DNA oxidative-damage marker [8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)] and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of hippocampal tissue in lead-acetate exposed rats. Methods This study investigated the effects of 8 weeks of regular treadmill exercise on 8-OHdG and the TAC of hippocampal tissue in lead-acetate-exposed rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: baseline, sham (control), lead, and exercise+lead. The exercise program involved running on a treadmill with increasing intensity five times a week for 8 weeks. Animals in the lead and exercise+lead groups received lead acetate at 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally three times weekly for 8 weeks. Animals in the sham group received solvent (ethyl oleate) at 30 mg/kg body weight three times weekly for 8 weeks. TAC and 8-OHdG were measured by spectrophotometric and ELISA techniques, respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test with a significance cutoff of p≤0.05. Results The level of 8-OHdG and the TAC were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in the lead group than in the baseline and sham groups (p<0.01). However, the 8-OHdG level and TAC value in hippocampal tissue were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in the exercise+lead group relative to the lead group (p<0.05). Conclusions The TAC of hippocampal tissue may be directly associated with neural protection mechanisms of exercise following lead acetate injection, and the beneficial effects of regular exercise in preventing hippocampal neuronal damage could be due to decreased hippocampal oxidative stress such as reflected by a lower 8-OHdG level and increased TAC.

  5. The Effect of Colostrum along with Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise on Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Capacity of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mogharnasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The consumption of food supplements in order to eliminate oxidative damages induced by exercise are common among athletes. Previous studies have shown that bovine colostrum has antioxidant properties, but no study has ever been done to evaluate its effectiveness on Oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of bovine colostrum along with aerobic and anaerobic exercise on Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in male Wistar rats.   Methods: In the present experimental study, 48 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (control, colostrum supplement, aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and aerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and anaerobic exercise. Colostrum group received daily for ten weeks dosing 300 mg /kg bovine colostrum powder orally. Exercising groups worked out three times a week for a period of 10 weeks on a custom-made treadmill for rodents. Blood samples were taken before and 24 hours after the last exercise session on an empty stomach. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, One Way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey at α<0.05.   Results: The plasma levels of oxidative stress index (MDA in all groups except colostrum supplement and anaerobic exercise compared with the control group was significantly reduced (p<0.05. The antioxidant capacity in all groups except anaerobic exercise group compared with the control group was significant increased (p<0.05.   Conclusions: The results indicated that colostrum supplementation with ten weeks of aerobic exercise had better effect on the control of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity compared to anaerobic exercise.    

  6. Importance of Exercise Capacity in Predicting Outcomes and Determining Optimal Timing of Surgery in Significant Primary Mitral Regurgitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Peyman; Griffin, Brian P.; Barr, Tyler; Asfahan, Fadi; Gillinov, A. Marc; Grimm, Richard A.; Rodriguez, L. Leonardo; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Stewart, William J.; Desai, Milind Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background In primary mitral regurgitation (MR), exercise echocardiography aids in symptom evaluation and timing of mitral valve (MV) surgery. In patients with grade ≥3 primary MR undergoing exercise echocardiography followed by MV surgery, we sought to assess predictors of outcomes and whether delaying MV surgery adversely affects outcomes. Methods and Results We studied 576 consecutive such patients (aged 57±13 years, 70% men, excluding prior valve surgery and functional MR). Clinical, echocardiographic (MR, LVEF, indexed LV dimensions, RV systolic pressure) and exercise data (metabolic equivalents) were recorded. Composite events of death, MI, stroke, and congestive heart failure were recorded. Mean LVEF was 58±5%, indexed LV end‐systolic dimension was 1.7±0.5 mm/m2, rest RV systolic pressure was 32±13 mm Hg, peak‐stress RV systolic pressure was 47±17 mm Hg, and percentage of age‐ and gender‐predicted metabolic equivalents was 113±27. Median time between exercise and MV surgery was 3 months (MV surgery delayed ≥1 year in 28%). At 6.6±4 years, there were 53 events (no deaths at 30 days). On stepwise multivariable survival analysis, increasing age (hazard ratio of 1.07 [95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.12], P100% predicted metabolic equivalents (n=399), delaying surgery by ≥1 year (median of 28 months) did not adversely affect outcomes (P=0.8). Conclusion In patients with primary MR that underwent exercise echocardiography followed by MV surgery, lower achieved metabolic equivalents were associated with worse long‐term outcomes. In those with preserved exercise capacity, delaying MV surgery by ≥1 year did not adversely affect outcomes. PMID:25213567

  7. Inventory Control Systems Model for Strategic Capacity Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. White

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation of installed industrial capacity has been found to follow a cyclic pattern. This paper discusses the application of control theory to the problem of the timely acquisition of extra production capacity. The control system based model presented here is compared with a System Dynamics model proposed by Sterman. Key differences are the method of implementing rational decisions about deployment of extra capacity and the use of a nonlinear APVIOBPCS inventory model. Benefits of this new model are a more measurable process and the ability to select parameter values to optimise capacity deployment. Simulation of the model indicates that the results found by Sterman underestimate the production backlog and time taken to reach equilibrium. The use of a Proportional, Integral, and Derivative (PID controller in the capacity control loop model illustrates that it is possible not only to alter the backlog levels but at the same time to reduce the sales force and improve the revenue. The model also shows clearly that the impact of not increasing capacity promptly results in catastrophic failure of sales as a structural, rather than a business, problem. This model is simple enough to be implemented as a spreadsheet for use as a guide by managers.

  8. Maximal heart rate does not limit cardiovascular capacity in healthy humans: insight from right atrial pacing during maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, G D W; Svendsen, J H; Damsgaard, R; Secher, N H; González-Alonso, J; Mortensen, S P

    2014-01-15

    In humans, maximal aerobic power (VO2 max ) is associated with a plateau in cardiac output (Q), but the mechanisms regulating the interplay between maximal heart rate (HRmax) and stroke volume (SV) are unclear. To evaluate the effect of tachycardia and elevations in HRmax on cardiovascular function and capacity during maximal exercise in healthy humans, 12 young male cyclists performed incremental cycling and one-legged knee-extensor exercise (KEE) to exhaustion with and without right atrial pacing to increase HR. During control cycling, Q and leg blood flow increased up to 85% of maximal workload (WLmax) and remained unchanged until exhaustion. SV initially increased, plateaued and then decreased before exhaustion (P rate pressure product and RAP (P heart can be paced to a higher HR than observed during maximal exercise, suggesting that HRmax and myocardial work capacity do not limit VO2 max in healthy individuals. A limited left ventricular filling and possibly altered contractility reduce SV during atrial pacing, whereas a plateau in LVFP appears to restrict Q close to VO2 max .

  9. Effects of caffeine on endurance capacity and psychological state in young females and males exercising in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvi, Silva; Timpmann, Saima; Tamm, Maria; Aedma, Martin; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Ööpik, Vahur

    2017-01-01

    Acute caffeine ingestion is considered effective in improving endurance capacity and psychological state. However, current knowledge is based on the findings of studies that have been conducted on male subjects mainly in temperate environmental conditions, but some physiological and psychological effects of caffeine differ between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical performance and psychological effects of caffeine in young women and men exercising in the heat. Thirteen male and 10 female students completed 2 constant-load walks (60% of thermoneutral peak oxygen consumption on a treadmill until volitional exhaustion) in a hot-dry environment (air temperature, 42 °C; relative humidity, 20%) after caffeine (6 mg·kg(-1)) and placebo (wheat flour) ingestion in a double-blind, randomly assigned, crossover manner. Caffeine, compared with placebo, induced greater increases (p Caffeine decreased (p caffeine was associated with a shorter time to exhaustion. In conclusion, acute caffeine ingestion increases HR and blood lactate levels during exercise in the heat, but it has no impact on thermoregulation or endurance capacity in either gender. Under exercise-heat stress, caffeine reduces ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue in males but not in females.

  10. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in CrossFit exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellar, D; Hatchett, A; Judge, L W; Breaux, M E; Marcus, L

    2015-11-01

    CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time) with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete), VO2max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success.

  11. Proposing a model for absorption capacity of technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Gholizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorption capacity of knowledge is the concept which is been introduced in this situation. This phenomenon describes why some countries are in a better condition with a view to technology. Many countries believe that the power to stay in the battle and excel other competitors directly depends on their abilities in taking knowledge. Many countries have used their technological gap with developed countries as an accelerator for improving their absorption capacity. In this study, authors tried to produce a complete definition for absorption capacity through analyzing different research. Then with using expert opinions, a categorization for dimensions of absorption capacity will be prepared by using the structural equation modeling analysis, and finally a model for measuring absorption capacity is suggested. The results show effective dimensions in 5 different section. Studies depict that the most important one is keeping which could be a fundamental for long-term policies of 1404.

  12. Tissue Taurine Depletion Alters Metabolic Response to Exercise and Reduces Running Capacity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid found in very high concentration in skeletal muscle. Taurine deficient mice engineered by knocking out the taurine transporter gene exhibit skeletal muscle wasting, structural defects, and exercise intolerance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the development of metabolic abnormalities and exercise intolerance in muscle of the TauTKO phenotype. Running speed and endurance time of TauTKO mice were lower than those of control mice. Blood lactate level was elevated by >3-fold during treadmill running in TauTKO mice but remained largely unaltered by exercise in WT mice. Blood glucose was cleared faster during treadmill running in TauTKO mice than WT mice. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK β-2 subunit was reduced in TauTKO muscle concomitant with a reduction in α1 and α2 subunits of AMPK. The level of PPARα and its targets, Gpx3, Cpt2, and Echs1, were also decreased in TauTKO muscle. Collectively, taurine depletion impairs metabolic adaptation to exercise in skeletal muscle, a phenomenon associated with a downregulation of AMPK and diminished NADH utilization by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These findings suggest a crucial role of taurine in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercising TauTKO mice, changes that contribute to impaired exercise endurance.

  13. Beneficial Effects of Physical Exercise on Functional Capacity and Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Stress in Rats with Aortic Stenosis-Induced Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Janini Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We evaluated the influence of exercise on functional capacity, cardiac remodeling, and skeletal muscle oxidative stress, MAPK, and NF-κB pathway in rats with aortic stenosis- (AS- induced heart failure (HF. Methods and Results. Eighteen weeks after AS induction, rats were assigned into sedentary control (C-Sed, exercised control (C-Ex, sedentary AS (AS-Sed, and exercised AS (AS-Ex groups. Exercise was performed on treadmill for eight weeks. Statistical analyses were performed with Goodman and ANOVA or Mann-Whitney. HF features frequency and mortality did not differ between AS groups. Exercise improved functional capacity, assessed by maximal exercise test on treadmill, without changing echocardiographic parameters. Soleus cross-sectional areas did not differ between groups. Lipid hydroperoxide concentration was higher in AS-Sed than C-Sed and AS-Ex. Activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase was changed in AS-Sed and restored in AS-Ex. NADPH oxidase activity and gene expression of its subunits did not differ between AS groups. Total ROS generation was lower in AS-Ex than C-Ex. Exercise modulated MAPK in AS-Ex and did not change NF-κB pathway proteins. Conclusion. Exercise improves functional capacity in rats with AS-induced HF regardless of echocardiographic parameter changes. In soleus, exercise reduces oxidative stress, preserves antioxidant enzyme activity, and modulates MAPK expression.

  14. A model for integrated analysis of generation capacity expansion and financial planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S. [Indian Inst. of Management, Ahmedabad (India). Public Systems Group; Chattopadhyay, D. [Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Management

    1999-05-01

    This paper discusses the need for an integrated analysis of investment and financing decisions in the context of electricity generation capacity addition planning. The traditional mathematical programming model for investment planning and its potential enhancement to encompass financing decisions in a unified framework have been discussed. The integrated investment-finance model for power system is formulated. The model is implemented for a well-known investment planning case study and the various investment-financing interactions have been discussed. The results indicate that the interaction of financing and investment decisions could be very significant and needs to be accounted for capacity planning optimization exercises. This is particularly relevant for utilities in a competitive environment.

  15. Intelligent predictive model of ventilating capacity of imperial smelt furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐朝晖; 胡燕瑜; 桂卫华; 吴敏

    2003-01-01

    In order to know the ventilating capacity of imperial smelt furnace (ISF), and increase the output of plumbum, an intelligent modeling method based on gray theory and artificial neural networks(ANN) is proposed, in which the weight values in the integrated model can be adjusted automatically. An intelligent predictive model of the ventilating capacity of the ISF is established and analyzed by the method. The simulation results and industrial applications demonstrate that the predictive model is close to the real plant, the relative predictive error is 0.72%, which is 50% less than the single model, leading to a notable increase of the output of plumbum.

  16. Impact of anaemia on lung function and exercise capacity in patients with stable severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Zheng, Cong; Xiao, Qiang; Gong, Sugang; Zhao, Qinhua; Wang, Lan; He, Jing; Yang, Wenlan; Shi, Xue; Sun, Xingguo; Liu, Jinming

    2015-10-08

    This study intended to search for potential correlations between anaemia in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; GOLD stage III) and pulmonary function at rest, exercise capacity as well as ventilatory efficiency, using pulmonary function test (PFT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). The study was undertaken at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, a tertiary-level centre affiliated to Tongji University. It caters to a large population base within Shanghai and referrals from centres in other cities as well. 157 Chinese patients with stable severe COPD were divided into 2 groups: the anaemia group (haemoglobin (Hb) anaemia group (n=109). Arterial blood gas, PFT and CPET were tested in all patients. (1) Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) corrected by Hb was significantly lower in the anaemia group ((15.3±1.9) mL/min/mm Hg) than in the non-anaemia group ((17.1±2.1) mL/min/mm Hg) (p0.05). (2) Peak Load, Peak oxygen uptake (VO2), Peak VO2%pred, Peak VO2/kg, Peak O2 pulse and the ratio of VO2 increase to WR increase (ΔVO2/ΔWR) were significantly lower in the anaemia group (p0.05). (3) A strong positive correlation was found between Hb concentration and Peak VO2 in patients with anaemia (r=0.702, pAnaemia has a negative impact on gas exchange and exercise tolerance during exercise in patients with severe COPD. The decrease in amplitude of Hb levels is related to the quantity of oxygen uptake. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Exercise capacity and blood pressure associations with left ventricular mass in prehypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Peter; Pittaras, Andreas; Narayan, Puneet; Faselis, Charles; Singh, Steven; Manolis, Athanasios

    2007-01-01

    Prehypertensive individuals are at increased risk for developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease compared with those with normal blood pressure. Early compromises in left ventricular structure may explain part of the increased risk. We assessed echocardiographic and exercise parameters in prehypertensive individuals (n=790) to determine associations between exercise blood pressure and left ventricular structure. The exercise systolic blood pressure at 5 metabolic equivalents (METs) and the change in blood pressure from rest to 5 METs were the strongest predictors of left ventricular hypertrophy. We identified the systolic blood pressure of 150 mm Hg at the exercise levels of 5 METs as the threshold for left ventricular hypertrophy. There was a 4-fold increase in the likelihood for left ventricular hypertrophy for every 10-mm Hg increment in systolic blood pressure beyond this threshold (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.18). There was also a 42% reduction in the risk for left ventricular hypertrophy for every 1 MET increase in the workload (OR: 0.58; Phigh-fit individuals exhibited significantly lower systolic blood pressure at an exercise workload of 5 METs (155+/-14 versus 146+/-10 versus 144+/-10; Pphysical activity can improve hemodynamics and cardiac performance in prehypertensive individuals and reduce the work of the left ventricle, ultimately resulting in lower left ventricular mass.

  18. Whole body hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, accelerates brain and locomotor limb circulatory strain and impairs exercise capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Kalsi, Kameljit K

    2017-01-01

    was associated with a plateau in MCA and two-legged vascular conductance (VC). Mechanistically, the falling MCA VC was coupled to reductions in PaCO2, whereas the plateau in leg vascular conductance was related to markedly elevated plasma [NA] and a plateau in plasma ATP These findings reveal that whole...... conditions, whereas only TB was greater in HYPmod At exhaustion, oxygen uptake and exercise capacity were reduced in HYPmod in association with lower leg blood flow, MCA Vmean and mean arterial pressure (MAP), but similar maximal heart rate and TB The attenuated brain and leg perfusion with hyperthermia...

  19. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in CrossFit exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Bellar, D; Hatchett, A; Judge, LW; Breaux, ME; Marcus, L.

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in dur...

  20. The effect of aging and cardiorespiratory fitness on the lung diffusing capacity response to exercise in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Kirsten E; Carlson, Alex R; Miller, Andrew D; Johnson, Bruce D; Taylor, Bryan Joseph

    2017-03-23

    Aging is associated with deterioration in the structure and function of the pulmonary circulation. We characterized the lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DmCO), and pulmonary-capillary blood volume (VC) response to discontinuous incremental exercise at 25, 50, 75, and 90% of peak work (Wpeak) in four groups: 1) Young [27 ± 3 y, maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) 110 ± 18% age-predicted]; 2) Young Highly-Fit (27 ± 3 y, V̇O2max 147 ± 8% age-predicted); 3) Old (69 ± 5 y, V̇O2max 116 ± 13% age-predicted); and 4) Old Highly-Fit (65 ± 5 y, V̇O2max 162 ± 18% age-predicted). At rest and at 90% Wpeak, DLCO, DmCO, and VC were decreased with age. At 90% Wpeak, DLCO, DmCO and VC were greater in Old Highly-Fit vs. Old adults. The slope of the DLCO-cardiac output (Q̇) relationship from rest to end-exercise at 90% Wpeak was not different between Young, Young Highly-Fit, Old and Old Highly-Fit (1.35 vs. 1.44 vs. 1.10 vs. 1.35 mlCO·mmHg(-1)·Lblood(-1), P = 0.388), with no evidence of a plateau in this relationship during exercise; this was also true for DmCO-Q̇ and VC-Q̇. V̇O2max was positively correlated with: 1) DLCO, DmCO, and VC at rest; 2) the rest to end-exercise change in DLCO, DmCO, and VC In conclusion, these data suggest that despite the age-associated deterioration in the structure and function of the pulmonary circulation, expansion of the pulmonary capillary network does not become limited during exercise in healthy individuals regardless of age or cardiorespiratory fitness level.

  1. Depression and its relationship with poor exercise capacity, BODE index and muscle wasting in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-shair, Khaled; Dockry, Rachel; Mallia-Milanes, Brendan

    2009-01-01

    walk distance (6MWD), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and MRC dyspnoea and Borg scales. RESULTS: The CES-D and BASDEC scales detected almost similar prevalence rates of depression (21% vs 17%) with a Kappa coefficient of 0.68, p... affect some of the characteristics of depressed patients rather than the prevalence rate of depression. Depression was associated with poor exercise performance and BODE index in COPD.......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression in stable COPD patients varies markedly, possibly because of use of different scales. We aimed to assess depression using 2 different depression scales and to examine the association between depression and poor exercise performance, BODE index and muscle...

  2. GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas.

  3. 8760-Based Method for Representing Variable Generation Capacity Value in Capacity Expansion Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEMs) are widely used to evaluate the least-cost portfolio of electricity generators, transmission, and storage needed to reliably serve demand over the evolution of many years or decades. Various CEM formulations are used to evaluate systems ranging in scale from states or utility service territories to national or multi-national systems. CEMs can be computationally complex, and to achieve acceptable solve times, key parameters are often estimated using simplified methods. In this paper, we focus on two of these key parameters associated with the integration of variable generation (VG) resources: capacity value and curtailment. We first discuss common modeling simplifications used in CEMs to estimate capacity value and curtailment, many of which are based on a representative subset of hours that can miss important tail events or which require assumptions about the load and resource distributions that may not match actual distributions. We then present an alternate approach that captures key elements of chronological operation over all hours of the year without the computationally intensive economic dispatch optimization typically employed within more detailed operational models. The updated methodology characterizes the (1) contribution of VG to system capacity during high load and net load hours, (2) the curtailment level of VG, and (3) the potential reductions in curtailments enabled through deployment of storage and more flexible operation of select thermal generators. We apply this alternate methodology to an existing CEM, the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS). Results demonstrate that this alternate approach provides more accurate estimates of capacity value and curtailments by explicitly capturing system interactions across all hours of the year. This approach could be applied more broadly to CEMs at many different scales where hourly resource and load data is available, greatly improving the representation of challenges

  4. Magnitude of exercise capacity and quality of life improvement following repeat pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoz JS

    2017-04-01

    ; P=0.63. Conclusion: In physician-referred patients who underwent repeat PRP as clinically required, there were clear benefits in functional exercise capacity following each repeat PRP, which was not affected by the time interval between PRPs. Health-related quality of life and mood improved after the first two PRPs, but not after a third. Keywords: exercise therapy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, quality of life, exercise test

  5. Protein synthesis and antioxidant capacity in aging mice : Effects of long-term voluntary exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Speakman, John R.; Garland, Theodore; Lobley, Gerald E.; Visser, G. Henk

    2008-01-01

    Exercise increases metabolic rate and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) but also elevates protein turnover. ROS cause damage to macromolecules (e. g., proteins) and thereby contribute to aging. Protein turnover removes and replaces damaged proteins. The balance between these two

  6. A systematic review of the effects of bronchodilators on exercise capacity in patients with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesker, JJW; Wijkstra, PJ; Ten Hacken, NHT; Koeter, GH; Postma, DS; Kerstjens, HAM

    2002-01-01

    One of the major goals of bronchodilator therapy in patients with COPD is to decrease airflow limitation in the airways and, as a consequence, improve dyspnea and exercise tolerance. The focus of this systematic review is to assess the effects of treatment with beta-agonists, anticholinergics, and t

  7. Capacity expansion modelling to aid water supply investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Padula, S

    2015-01-01

    Increasing population, economic development, and environmental changes imply that maintaining the water supply-demand balance will remain a top priority. Water resource systems may need to be expanded in order to respond to demand growth. Capacity expansion studies can be used to answer the question of what the optimal expansion size, timing and location of new infrastructure should be. This thesis develops and applies capacity expansion optimisation modelling approaches. We begin with the 'E...

  8. Pharmacology exercise for undergraduate: MLNMC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh C. Chaurasia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacology is the backbone of clinical discipline of medical science. In the computer era of advancement, paraclinical teachings become more technical and clinical oriented. Regarding to undergraduate practical’s the animal experimentation and dispensing pharmacy are only exercises. But these are matter of critics due to their non-utility in future. Student’s apathy and non-interest are hidden factor to perform such boring experiments. Meanwhile the old-dated exercises have no potential to tone-up adequate clinical skills in future study instead of wastage of time and money. Killing of innocent animals is crucial and should be socially discouraged. Thus Pharmacology practical are matter of debate in current scenario. Being attachment with past sentiment of traditional dispensing pharmacy and animal experimentations, they are difficult to delete completely. The present article highlights some of our efforts in undergraduate exercises. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 495-497

  9. Lagrange multiplier for perishable inventory model considering warehouse capacity planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Tiena Gustina; Fatima, Zenny

    2017-06-01

    This paper presented Lagrange Muktiplier approach for solving perishable raw material inventory planning considering warehouse capacity. A food company faced an issue of managing perishable raw materials and marinades which have limited shelf life. Another constraint to be considered was the capacity of the warehouse. Therefore, an inventory model considering shelf life and raw material warehouse capacity are needed in order to minimize the company's inventory cost. The inventory model implemented in this study was the adapted economic order quantity (EOQ) model which is optimized using Lagrange multiplier. The model and solution approach were applied to solve a case industry in a food manufacturer. The result showed that the total inventory cost decreased 2.42% after applying the proposed approach.

  10. Enhanced cardiac TBC1D10C expression lowers heart rate and enhances exercise capacity and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volland, Cornelia; Bremer, Sebastian; Hellenkamp, Kristian; Hartmann, Nico; Dybkova, Nataliya; Khadjeh, Sara; Kutschenko, Anna; Liebetanz, David; Wagner, Stefan; Unsöld, Bernhard; Didié, Michael; Toischer, Karl; Sossalla, Samuel; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Seidler, Tim

    2016-01-01

    TBC1D10C is a protein previously demonstrated to bind and inhibit Ras and Calcineurin. In cardiomyocytes, also CaMKII is inhibited and all three targeted enzymes are known to promote maladaptive cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Here, in accordance with lack of Calcineurin inhibition in vivo, we did not observe a relevant anti-hypertrophic effect despite inhibition of Ras and CaMKII. However, cardiomyocyte-specific TBC1D10C overexpressing transgenic mice exhibited enhanced longevity. Ejection fraction and exercise capacity were enhanced in transgenic mice, but shortening of isolated cardiomyocytes was not increased. This suggests longevity resulted from enhanced cardiac performance but independent of cardiomyocyte contractile force. In further search for mechanisms, a transcriptome-wide analysis revealed expressional changes in several genes pertinent to control of heart rate (HR) including Hcn4, Scn10a, Sema3a and Cacna2d2. Indeed, telemetric holter recordings demonstrated slower atrial conduction and significantly lower HR. Pharmacological reduction of HR was previously demonstrated to enhance survival in mice. Thus, in addition to inhibition of stress signaling, TBC1D10C economizes generation of cardiac output via HR reduction, enhancing exercise capacity and survival. TBC1D10C may be a new target for HR reduction and longevity. PMID:27667030

  11. Modeling cation exchange capacity and soil water holding capacity from basic soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idowu Olorunfemi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cation exchange capacity (CEC is a good indicator of soil productivity and is useful for making recommendations of phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium for soils of different textures. Soil water holding capacity (SWHC defines the ability of a soil to hold water at a particular time of the season. This research predicted CEC and SWHC of soils using pedotransfer models developed (using Minitab 17 statistical software from basic soil properties (Sand(S, Clay(C, soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC and verify the model by comparing the relationship between measured and estimated (obtained by PTFs CEC and SWHC in the Forest Vegetative Zone of Nigeria. For this study, a total of 105 sampling points in 35 different locations were sampled in the study areas. Three sampling points were randomly selected per location and three undisturbed samples were collected at each sampling point. The results showed success in predicting CEC and SWHC from basic soil properties. In this study, five linear regression models for predicting soil CEC and seven linear regression models for predicting SWHC from some soil physical and chemical properties were suggested. Model 5 [CEC = -13.93+2.645 pH +0.0446 C (%+2.267 SOC (%] was best for predicting CEC while model 12 [SWHC (%=36.0- 0.215 S (%+0.113 C (%+10.36 SOC (%] is the most acceptable model for predicting SWHC.

  12. Long-term impact of preterm birth on exercise capacity in healthy young men: a national population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Svedenkrans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of survivors of preterm birth are growing into adulthood today. Long-term health-effects of prematurity are still poorly understood, but include increased risk for diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases in adult life. To test if reduced physical fitness may be a link in the causal chain of preterm birth and diseases in later life, the association of preterm birth and adult exercise capacity was investigated. The hypothesis was that preterm birth contributes independently of other risk factors to lower physical fitness in adulthood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Population-based national cohort study of all males conscripting for military service in 1993-2001 and born in Sweden 1973-1983, n = 218,820. Data were retrieved from the Swedish Conscript Register, the Medical Birth Register and the Population and Housing Census 1990. Primary outcome was the results from maximal exercise test (Wmax in Watt performed at conscription. Association to perinatal and socioeconomic risk factors, other co-variates and confounders were analysed. General linear modelling showed that preterm birth predicted low Wmax in a dose-response related pattern, with 25 Watt reduction in Wmax for the lowest gestational ages, those born ≤27 weeks. Low birth weight for gestational age also independently predicted low Wmax compared to normal and high birth weight (32 Watt reduction for those with a birth weight Standard Deviation Score <2. Low parental education was significantly associated with reduced Wmax (range 17 Watt, as well as both low and high current BMI, with severe obesity resulting in a 16 Watt deficit compared to Wmax top performance. CONCLUSION: Being born preterm as well as being born small for gestational age predicts low exercise capacity in otherwise healthy young men. The effect size of being born preterm equal or exceed that of other known risk factors for unfitness in adults, such as low parental education and overweight.

  13. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language.

  14. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language. PMID:26544876

  15. Using molecular classification to predict gains in maximal aerobic capacity following endurance exercise training in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmons, James A; Knudsen, Steen; Rankinen, Tuomo

    2010-01-01

    A low maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) is a strong risk factor for premature mortality. Supervised endurance exercise training increases VO2max with a very wide range of effectiveness in humans. Discovering the DNA variants that contribute to this heterogeneity typically requires substantial s...... of genetic biomarkers, sufficiently discrete for diagnostic purposes, for a range of physiological and pharmacological phenotypes in humans.......A low maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) is a strong risk factor for premature mortality. Supervised endurance exercise training increases VO2max with a very wide range of effectiveness in humans. Discovering the DNA variants that contribute to this heterogeneity typically requires substantial...... association analysis yields a strongly validated molecular predictor with meaningful explanatory power. VO2max responses to endurance training can be predicted by measuring a approximately 30-gene RNA expression signature in muscle prior to training. The general approach taken could accelerate the discovery...

  16. Exhaustive exercise training enhances aerobic capacity in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Eme, John; Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Gwalthney, June; Blank, Jason M.; Rourke, Bryan C.; Hicks, James W.

    2009-01-01

    The oxygen transport system in mammals is extensively remodelled in response to repeated bouts of activity, but many reptiles appear to be ‘metabolically inflexible’ in response to exercise training. A recent report showed that estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) increase their maximum metabolic rate in response to exhaustive treadmill training, and in the present study, we confirm this response in another crocodilian, American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). We further specify ...

  17. Protein synthesis and antioxidant capacity in aging mice: effects of long-term voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M; Speakman, John R; Garland, Theodore; Lobley, Gerald E; Visser, G Henk

    2008-01-01

    Exercise increases metabolic rate and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) but also elevates protein turnover. ROS cause damage to macromolecules (e.g., proteins) and thereby contribute to aging. Protein turnover removes and replaces damaged proteins. The balance between these two responses may underlie beneficial effects of physical activity on aging. Effects of lifelong exercise on antioxidant enzyme activities and fractional synthesis rate of protein (FSRP) were examined at various ages (2-26 mo) in heart, liver, and muscle of mice that had been selectively bred for high wheel-running activity, housed with (S+) or without (S-) a running wheel, and their random-bred controls (C+) housed with running wheels. FSRP decreased with age and increased in muscle of young, but not old, activity-selected mice. Enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased with age and showed a peak at 10 mo of age in liver. Selection for wheel-running activity did not affect antioxidant enzyme activity. Daily energy expenditure correlated positively with antioxidant levels in liver. This might indicate that oxidative stress (ROS production) increases with metabolic rate, driving upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. Alternatively, the elevated energy expenditure may reflect the energetic cost of elevated protection, consistent with the disposable-soma hypothesis and with other studies showing positive links between energy expenditure and life span. Long-term elevations in voluntary exercise did not result in elevations in antioxidant enzyme activities or protein synthesis rates.

  18. High Mid-Flow to Vital Capacity Ratio and the Response to Exercise in Children With Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilozni, Daphna; Alcaneses-Ofek, Maria Rosario; Reuveny, Ronen; Rosenblum, Omer; Inbar, Omri; Katz, Uriel; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary mechanics may play a role in exercise intolerance in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). A reduced FVC volume could increase the ratio between mid-flow (FEF25-75%) and FVC, which is termed high dysanapsis. The relationship between high dysanapsis and the response to maximum-intensity exercise in children with CHD had not yet been studied. The aim of this work was to examine whether high dysanapsis is related to the cardiopulmonary response to maximum-intensity exercise in pediatric subjects with CHD. We retrospectively collected data from 42 children and adolescents with CHD who had either high dysanapsis (ratio >1.2; n = 21) or normal dysanapsis (control) (n = 21) as measured by spirometry. Data extracted from cardiopulmonary exercise test reports included peak values of heart rate, work load, V̇O2 , V̇CO2 , and ventilation parameters and submaximum values, including ventilatory threshold and ventilatory equivalents. There were no significant differences in demographic and clinical parameters between the groups. Participants with high dysanapsis differed from controls in lower median peak oxygen consumption (65.8% vs 83.0% of predicted, P = .02), peak oxygen pulse (78.6% vs 87.8% of predicted, P = .02), ventilatory threshold (73.8% vs 85.3% of predicted, P = .03), and maximum breathing frequency (106% vs 121% of predicted, P = .035). In the high dysanapsis group only, median peak ventilation and tidal volume were significantly lower than 80% of predicted values. In children and adolescents with corrected CHD, high dysanapsis was associated with a lower ventilatory capacity and reduced aerobic fitness, which may indicate respiratory muscle impairments. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  19. LBNP exercise protects aerobic capacity and sprint speed of female twins during 30 days of bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Macias, Brandon R; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R

    2009-03-01

    We have shown previously that treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNPex) maintains upright exercise capacity (peak oxygen consumption, Vo(2peak)) in men after 5, 15, and 30 days of bed rest (BR). We hypothesized that LBNPex protects treadmill Vo(2peak) and sprint speed in women during a 30-day BR. Seven sets of female monozygous twins volunteered to participate. Within each twin set, one was randomly assigned to a control group (Con) and performed no countermeasures, and the other was assigned to an exercise group (Ex) and performed a 40-min interval (40-80% pre-BR Vo(2peak)) LBNPex (51 +/- 5 mmHg) protocol, plus 5 min of static LBNP, 6 days per week. Before and immediately after BR, subjects completed a 30.5-m sprint test and an upright graded treadmill test to volitional fatigue. These results in women were compared with previously reported reductions in Vo(2peak) and sprint speed in male twins after BR. In women, sprint speed (-8 +/- 2%) and Vo(2peak) (-6 +/- 2%) were not different after BR in the Ex group. In contrast, both sprint speed (-24 +/- 5%) and Vo(2peak) (-16 +/- 3%) were significantly less after BR in the Con group. The effect of BR on sprint speed and Vo(2peak) after BR was not different between women and men. We conclude that treadmill exercise within LBNP protects against BR-induced reductions in Vo(2peak) and sprint speed in women and should prove effective during long-duration spaceflight.

  20. Effects of new sports tennis type exercise on aerobic capacity, follicle stimulating hormone and N-terminal telopeptide in the postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Jae; Lee, Ha-Yan; Cho, Hye-Young; Park, Yun-Jin; Moon, Hyung-Hoon; Lee, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Ki; Kim, Myung-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is characterized by rapid decreases in bone mineral density, aerobic fitness, muscle strength, and balance. In the present study, we investigated the effects of new sports tennis type exercise on aerobic capacity, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and N-terminal telopeptide (NTX) in the postmenopausal women. Subjects were consisted of 20 postmenopausal women, who had not menstruated for at least 1 yr and had follicle-stimulating hormone levels > 35 mIU/L, estradiol levels< 40 pg/mL. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n= 10), new sports tennis type exercise group (n= 10). New sports tennis type exercise was consisted of warm up (10 min), new sports tennis type exercise (40 min), cool down (10 min) 3 days a per week for 12 weeks. The aerobic capacities were increased by 12 weeks new sports tennis type exercise. New sports tennis type exercise significantly increased FSH and NTx levels, indicating biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption. These findings indicate that 12 weeks of new sports tennis type exercise can be effective in prevention of bone loss and enhancement of aerobic capacity in postmenopausal women. PMID:24877043

  1. Effects of pulmonary rehabilitation on exercise capacity in patients with COPD: A number needed to treat study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Galeazzo Riario-Sforza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Gian Galeazzo Riario-Sforza1, Cristoforo Incorvaia1, Fulvia Paterniti1, Laura Pessina1, Roberta Caligiuri1, Chiara Pravettoni1, Fabiano Di Marco2, Stefano Centanni21Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, Milan, Italy; 2Unit of Respiratory Medicine, University of Milan, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, ItalyBackground: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR is recognized as an evidence-based treatment in improving dyspnea and quality of life in patients with COPD. We evaluated the number needed to treat (NNT to achieve an increase in physical capacity, as defined by a significant improvement in the six-minute walk test (6MWT in patients with COPD undergoing PR.Methods: The study enrolled 284 patients aged 41 to 86 years (mean age 69.4 years divided into two groups: a study group (222 patients undergoing a PR program, and a control group (62 patients treated only with drugs. The study group included patients with COPD divided in four subgroups according to GOLD stages.Results: In the study group, 142 out of 222 patients (64% had an increase of at least 54 m in the 6MWT following PR versus 8 out of 62 patients (13% in the control group after the same time interval. The NNT in the overall study group was 2; the same NNT was obtained in GOLD stages 2, 3, and 4, but was 8 in stage 1.Conclusions: PR is highly effective in improving the exercise capacity of patients with COPD, as demonstrated by a valuable NNT, with better results in patients with a more severe disease.Keywords: chronic obstructive lung disease, exercise capacity, number needed to treat, pulmonary rehabilitation, six-minute walk test

  2. 8760-Based Method for Representing Variable Generation Capacity Value in Capacity Expansion Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Capacity expansion models (CEMs) are widely used to evaluate the least-cost portfolio of electricity generators, transmission, and storage needed to reliably serve load over many years or decades. CEMs can be computationally complex and are often forced to estimate key parameters using simplified methods to achieve acceptable solve times or for other reasons. In this paper, we discuss one of these parameters -- capacity value (CV). We first provide a high-level motivation for and overview of CV. We next describe existing modeling simplifications and an alternate approach for estimating CV that utilizes hourly '8760' data of load and VG resources. We then apply this 8760 method to an established CEM, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model (Eurek et al. 2016). While this alternative approach for CV is not itself novel, it contributes to the broader CEM community by (1) demonstrating how a simplified 8760 hourly method, which can be easily implemented in other power sector models when data is available, more accurately captures CV trends than a statistical method within the ReEDS CEM, and (2) providing a flexible modeling framework from which other 8760-based system elements (e.g., demand response, storage, and transmission) can be added to further capture important dynamic interactions, such as curtailment.

  3. Does recombinant human Epo increase exercise capacity by means other than augmenting oxygen transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Robach, P; Boushel, R;

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) in humans increases maximal oxygen consumption by augmenting the maximal oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Systemic and leg oxygen delivery and oxygen uptake were studied during...... before rHuEpo treatment). Blood buffer capacity remained unaffected by rHuEpo treatment and hemodilution. The augmented hematocrit did not compromise peak cardiac output. In summary, in healthy humans, rHuEpo increases maximal oxygen consumption due to augmented systemic and muscular peak oxygen delivery....

  4. Hierarchical population model with a carrying capacity distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Indekeu, J O

    2002-01-01

    A time- and space-discrete model for the growth of a rapidly saturating local biological population $N(x,t)$ is derived from a hierarchical random deposition process previously studied in statistical physics. Two biologically relevant parameters, the probabilities of birth, $B$, and of death, $D$, determine the carrying capacity $K$. Due to the randomness the population depends strongly on position, $x$, and there is a distribution of carrying capacities, $\\Pi (K)$. This distribution has self-similar character owing to the imposed hierarchy. The most probable carrying capacity and its probability are studied as a function of $B$ and $D$. The effective growth rate decreases with time, roughly as in a Verhulst process. The model is possibly applicable, for example, to bacteria forming a "towering pillar" biofilm. The bacteria divide on randomly distributed nutrient-rich regions and are exposed to random local bactericidal agent (antibiotic spray). A gradual overall temperature change away from optimal growth co...

  5. [The relationship between pulmonary function and exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Gonca; Özalevli, Sevgi; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri

    2013-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis causes restrictive respiratory disorder by limiting the expansion of the chest because of the costosternal and costovertebral joints. Our study is planned to evaluate the respiratory functions of the ankylosing spondylitis patients who have a high rate of pulmonary involvement, and to compare the results with the exercise capacity and life quality of these patients. There were 27 (18 male, 9 female) Norvegian patients who came to Turkey and had ankylosing spondylitis diagnose according to Modified New York criterias, to have a routine physical therapy and rehabilitation programme with an average age of 50.6 ± 6.6 years. The patients' clinical histories were taken. Pulmonary function tests were performed with spirometry and pulmonary muscle strength was measured with mouth pressure measure. 6 minute walk test was performed to determine exercise capacity and Short Form-36 Life Quality Questionairre was used to evaluate life quality of the patients. The patients had 18.85 ± 10.64 average diagnose duration and the expected FEV1 value of the patients was 3.75 ± 0.88 L/sec, FEV1/FVC ratio was 80.44 ± 6.42, MIP was 62.96 ± 20.61 and MEP was 80.22 ± 21.12. 40.7% of the patients had positive smoking history while 14.8 % had dyspnea and 11.1% had symptoms of caughing-sputum. Walking distance was 595.50 ± 83.20 metre. Life quality category scores were 42.82 ± 16.78 minimally, 83.58 ± 23.06 maximally. Pulmonary function and pulmonary muscle strength values were similar in smoking and non-smoking patients. But in smoking patients, physical function and social function categories of quality of life survey scores were found lower than non-smoking patients. Respiratory and other parameters were high related to high standarts in treatment and following and exercise habit of the patients in Norway. Accordingly, it is thought that an appropriate medical treatment and exercise as a lifestyle habits of the patients reduce the negative effects of

  6. Establishment of ocean dumping area capacity assessment model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhizu; ZUO Juncheng; XU Ren; JIN Zuowen; CHEN Meixiang

    2016-01-01

    Dumping area capacity is mainly affected by the hydrodynamic process (tidal sediment, storm surge and wave, etc.) as well as the size and depth of dumping area. Based on three-dimensional ocean circulation model known as FVCOM (Finite Volume Coast and Ocean Model) and the stochastic dynamic statistical analysis model, taking advantage of dumping ground topography evolution and dumping quantity, the author aims to discuss the influence of hydrodynamic processes and dumping activity so as to built a new model of ocean dumping area capacity. With the data of depth and dumped amount in the dumping area, the changes of bottom topographic which caused by tidal current under the natural condition based on the FVCOM hydrodynamic and sediment module, the author strive to analyze the statistical relation of the changes for dumping amount, tidal current and bottom topographic. Through real data to fit revision coefficient values, which will be regarded as topographic changes reference value affected by wave and storm surges. Thus taking this evaluation as the long-term changes in the dumping capacity. In the premise of setting up the threshold of bottom topographic changes, the dumping area capacity is calculated. Take Yangtze Estuary No. 1 dumping area as an example, As the water depth reduces by 0.5 m annually, the dumping area capacity is about 6.7 million m3/a, the model results are in reasonable agreement with the actual amount. Then the model is validated in Luoyuan Bay dumping area, Shengsishangchuan Mountain dumping area, Dongding dumping area, Dongshan dumping area, and Wenzhou Port dumping area, it is turns out the results are similar to that of the actual observations.

  7. Indacaterol add-on therapy improves lung function, exercise capacity and life quality of COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, R M; Minarowski, L; Chyczewska, E

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, inflammatory condition, involving airways and lung parenchyma. The disease leads to airflow limitation, and pulmonary hyperinflation, resulting in dyspnea, decreased exercise tolerance, and impaired quality of life. COPD pharmacotherapy guidelines are based on a combination of long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA), long-acting antimuscarinic agents (LAMA) and methyloxantins. Recently, indacaterol, ultralong acting beta2-agonist, has been introduced. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of indacaterol add-on therapy on lung function, exercise tolerance and quality of life of COPD patients. Thirty four COPD patients, receiving stable bronchodilator therapy were randomly allocated into two arms of add-on treatment (1:1 - indacaterol:placebo) for 3 months. Indacaterol replaced LABA in all patients receiving LABA. Spirometry, lung volumes, DLCO, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and 6 min Walk Distance (6MWD) were performed before and after therapy. We found that in the indacaterol group FEV1 did not changed significantly. However, there were significant improvements in ERV, 6MWD, and 6MWD-related dyspnea score. We also found that the degree of desaturation before and after 6MWD, and fatigue levels significantly improved in the indacaterol group. The patients' quality of life also changed favorably in the indacaterol treatment arm. We conclude that the add-on therapy with indacaterol exerts positive effects in COPD patients.

  8. [Improvement in quality of life and exercise capacity without muscular biology changes after general training in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Guardia, Sergio; Wodja, Emil; Gorostiza, Amaya; López de Santamaría, Elena; Gea, Joaquim; Gáldiz, Juan B; Sliwinski, Pawel; Barreiro, Esther

    2013-03-02

    Despite the beneficial effects of exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, several studies have revealed functional and biological abnormalities in their peripheral muscles. The objective was to determine whether exercise training of high intensity and long duration modifies oxidative stress levels and structure of respiratory and peripheral muscles of severe COPD patients, while also improving their exercise capacity and quality of life. Multicenter study (Warsaw and Barakaldo) in which 25 severe COPD out-patients were recruited from the COPD clinics. In all patients, lung and muscle functions, exercise capacity (walking test and cycloergometer) and quality of life (QoL) were assessed, and open muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis and external intercostals (n=14) were obtained before and after an exercise training program of high intensity (respiratory rehabilitation area, 70% maximal tolerated load in a cycloergometer) and long duration (10 weeks). Oxidative stress and muscle structural modifications were evaluated in all muscle biopsies using immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. In all patients, after the training program, without any drop-outs, exercise capacity and QoL improved significantly, whereas oxidative stress, muscle damage and structure were not modified in their respiratory or limb muscles compared to baseline. In patients with severe COPD, exercise training of high intensity and long duration significantly improves their exercise capacity and QoL, without inducing significant modifications on oxidative stress levels or muscle structure in their respiratory or peripheral muscles. These results may have future clinical therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Model Modification and Application on Carrying Capacity of Relative Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zehong; Dong Suocheng; Gao Dan

    2009-01-01

    Based on the retrospection of researches on carry-ing capacity, this article reviewed systematically the research progresses on carrying capacity of relative resources (CCRR).Then the viewpoint was put forward that CCRR is not an ap-propriate method of appraising the regional sustainability, but a sound way to obtain cognition for coordinating spatial loca-tion and flow of population and economy.However, as the most popular computing method of CCRR, the Weighting Linear Sum Model is defective in the random of weight choice and the neglect of matching among different resources.Therefore, this article established the Geometric Model on CCRR based on modifying Weighting Linear Sum Model, which can be used to appraise regions where resources are close matching.Em-ploying the Geometric Model, the article empirically analyzed the population and economic CCRR in Hubei Province from 1978 to 2006.The result indicates that the population in Hubei Province is overloading while the economic carrying capacity is abundant compared to the whole country, and the economic insufficiency restricts the population carrying capacity.In the future, Hubei Province will become one of the core developing zones which are characterized by economic conglomeration.

  10. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise to assess and influence aerobic capacity early after stroke: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Oliver; Schindelholz, Matthias; Bichsel, Lukas; Schuster, Corina; de Bie, Rob A; de Bruin, Eling D; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2014-07-01

    The majority of post-stroke individuals suffer from low exercise capacity as a secondary reaction to immobility. The aim of this study was to prove the concept of feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) to assess aerobic capacity and guide cardiovascular exercise in severely impaired individuals early after stroke. Subjects underwent constant load and incremental exercise testing using a human-in-the-loop feedback system within a robotics-assisted exoskeleton (Lokomat, Hocoma AG, CH). Inclusion criteria were: stroke onset ≤8 weeks, stable medical condition, non-ambulatory status, moderate motor control of the lower limbs and appropriate cognitive function. Outcome measures included oxygen uptake kinetics, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), gas exchange threshold (GET), peak heart rate (HRpeak), peak work rate (Ppeak) and accuracy of reaching target work rate (P-RMSE). Three subjects (18-42 d post-stroke) were included. Oxygen uptake kinetics during constant load ranged from 42.0 to 60.2 s. Incremental exercise testing showed: VO2peak range 19.7-28.8 ml/min/kg, GET range 11.6-12.7 ml/min/kg, and HRpeak range 115-161 bpm. Ppeak range was 55.2-110.9 W and P-RMSE range was 3.8-7.5 W. The concept of feedback-controlled RATE for assessment of aerobic capacity and guidance of cardiovascular exercise is feasible. Further research is warranted to validate the method on a larger scale. Aerobic capacity is seriously reduced in post-stroke individuals as a secondary reaction to immobility. Robotics-assisted walking devices may have substantial clinical relevance regarding assessment and improvement of aerobic capacity early after stroke. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise represents a new concept for cardiovascular assessment and intervention protocols for severely impaired individuals.

  11. Integrating stage and continuum models to explain processing of exercise messages and exercise initiation among sedentary college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, C S

    2000-03-01

    Concepts from the transtheoretical model (J.O. Prochaska, C.C. DiClemente, & J.C. Norcross, 1992), theory of planned behavior (I. Ajzen, 1985), and the elaboration likelihood model (R.E. Petty & J.T. Cacioppo, 1986b) were used to examine how exercise readiness impacted processing of exercise messages and exercise initiation. Sedentary college students (n = 147) were assessed for exercise attitude, intent, behavior, and stage of change. Students also listed their thoughts after reading messages with either strong or weak arguments for exercise. Attitude predicted depth of message processing, but stage of change did not. Stage of change and intent at baseline predicted exercise adoption at 1- to 3-month follow-up (n = 134), with baseline activity moderating the effect of intent. Tailoring messages to recipients' depth of processing and interactive effects of intent and behavior on exercise adoption should be considered in future research.

  12. High-intensity exercise training increases the diversity and metabolic capacity of the mouse distal gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denou, Emmanuel; Marcinko, Katarina; Surette, Michael G; Steinberg, Gregory R; Schertzer, Jonathan D

    2016-06-01

    Diet and exercise underpin the risk of obesity-related metabolic disease. Diet alters the gut microbiota, which contributes to aspects of metabolic disease during obesity. Repeated exercise provides metabolic benefits during obesity. We assessed whether exercise could oppose changes in the taxonomic and predicted metagenomic characteristics of the gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would counteract high-fat diet (HFD)-induced changes in the microbiota without altering obesity in mice. Compared with chow-fed mice, an obesity-causing HFD decreased the Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio and decreased the genetic capacity in the fecal microbiota for metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. After HFD-induced obesity was established, a subset of mice were HIIT for 6 wk, which increased host aerobic capacity but did not alter body or adipose tissue mass. The effects of exercise training on the microbiota were gut segment dependent and more extensive in the distal gut. HIIT increased the alpha diversity and Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio of the distal gut and fecal microbiota during diet-induced obesity. Exercise training increased the predicted genetic capacity related to the TCA cycle among other aspects of metabolism. Strikingly, the same microbial metabolism indexes that were increased by exercise were all decreased in HFD-fed vs. chow diet-fed mice. Therefore, exercise training directly opposed some of the obesity-related changes in gut microbiota, including lower metagenomic indexes of metabolism. Some host and microbial pathways appeared similarly affected by exercise. These exercise- and diet-induced microbiota interactions can be captured in feces.

  13. Black tea high-molecular-weight polyphenol stimulates exercise training-induced improvement of endurance capacity in mouse via the link between AMPK and GLUT4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Eguchi

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise can promote "fast-to-slow transition" in skeletal muscles, i.e. an increase in oxidative fibers, mitochondria, and myoglobin and improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we found that mice administered Mitochondria Activation Factor (MAF combined with exercise training could run longer distances and for a longer time compared with the exercise only group; MAF is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol purified from black tea. Furthermore, MAF intake combined with exercise training increased phosphorylation of AMPK and mRNA level of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that MAF activates exercise training-induced intracellular signaling pathways that involve AMPK, and improves endurance capacity.

  14. The Impact of a Multidimensional Exercise Intervention on Physical and Functional Capacity, Anxiety, and Depression in Patients With Advanced-Stage Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Morten; Adamsen, Lis; Rørth, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    of the present study was to investigate the benefits of a 6-week supervised group exercise intervention and to outline the effect on aerobic capacity, strength, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety, and depression. Methods: VO2peak was assessed using an incremental exercise test. Muscle strength......Introduction: Patients with advanced-stage lung cancer face poor survival and experience co-occurring chronic physical and psychosocial symptoms. Despite several years of research in exercise oncology, few exercise studies have targeted advanced lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The aim....... Forty-three patients dropped out. No serious adverse events were reported. Exercise adherence in the group training was 68%. Improvements in VO2peak (P

  15. Effects of the Schroth exercise on the Cobb’s angle and vital capacity of patients with idiopathic scoliosis that is an operative indication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Don; Hwangbo, Pil-Neo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the Schroth exercise on the Cobb’s angle and vital capacity of patients with growing idiopathic scoliosis, an operative indication. [Subjects] Five idiopathic scoliosis patients with a Cobb’s angle of the thoracic vertebra of 40 degrees or higher and Risser sign stage 3 or higher. [Methods] The Schroth exercise was applied 3 times a week for 12 weeks. We measured the thoracic trunk inclination, Cobb’s angle, and vital capacity before and after the exercise program. [Results] The thoracic trunk rotation angle decreased from 11.86 ± 3.32° to 4.90 ± 1.91° on average, the thoracic Cobb’s angle decreased from 42.40 ± 7.86° to 26.0 ± 3.65° on average, and the vital capacity also increased from 2.83 ± 1.23° to 4.04° ± 1.67° on average. All these effects were significant. [Conclusion] The 12-week Schroth exercise caused significant effects in the thoracic trunk inclination, Cobb’s angle, and vital capacity. The conservative treatment method was found to be effective even at a 40 degree or higher Cobb’s angle. In the future, universal exercise approach methods and preventive training for the treatment of scoliosis should be developed further. PMID:27134385

  16. PERHITUNGAN IDLE CAPACITY DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN CAM-I CAPACITY MODEL DALAM RANGKA EFISIENSI BIAYA PADA PT X

    OpenAIRE

    Muammar Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Aim for this research are to analyze capacity cost which incure from company production machines and human resources whose operate the production machine using CAM-I capacity model. CAM-I capacity model is an approach which focus  upon how to manage company resources. This research initiated at PT X which focus to production activity that used small mixer machine, extruder machine, oven drying machine, enrober machine, pan coting machine which consist of hot and cold pan coating machine, and ...

  17. Modeling the Flexural Carrying Capacity of Corroded RC Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hui; LIU Xi-la

    2008-01-01

    Considering the change of bond strength between corroded steel and concrete, flexural carrying ca-pacity of corroded reinforced concrete (RC) beam was calculated. On the basis of the condition of equilibriumof forces and compatibility of deformations for the whole beam, a model for the prediction of flexural carryingcapacity of the corroded RC beam was proposed. Comparison of the model's predictions with the experimentalresults published in the literature shows the practicality of the proposed method.

  18. [Prone position: effect on gas exchange and functional capacity for exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas-L, Andrea Carolina; Colina-Chourio, José A; Guevara, Jesnel M; Nunez, Alexis

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate gas exchange and cardiopulmonary functional behavior in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) before, during and after the change to a prone position. Thirty patients with PH and alterations in gas exchange were included in the study. Gas exchange measurements were performed in four stages: at the baseline supine position and after 30, 120 and 240 minutes in prone position. Also, the patients were evaluated by the six minutes walking test (6MWT) after 30 days in prone position during night's sleep. After four hours in prone position, all patients showed an increase of PaO2 and arterial saturation of oxygen (SaO2), with a decrease of intrapulmonary shunts, improving the gas exchange and therefore the physiological demand imposed by exercise in patients with PH.

  19. Frequency of physical activity, exercise capacity, and atherosclerotic heart disease risk factors in male police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M A; Petratis, M M; Baechle, T R; Ryschon, K L; Campain, J J; Sketch, M H

    1987-07-01

    A total of 171 male police officers volunteered to (1) assess risk factors for developing atherosclerotic heart disease and (2) evaluate the relationship of fitness to risk. Results revealed substantial numbers of officers with elevated risk: 22% were smokers, 76% had elevated cholesterol, 26% had elevated triglycerides, 16% had elevated BP, and 60% had elevated body fat. Increased fitness was associated with decreased risk. Compared with Group II (moderate fitness) or Group III (low fitness), Group I (high fitness) had significantly lower values of body fat, diastolic BP, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, lipid ratios, triglycerides, and smoking incidence. Low fitness was associated with the highest prevalence of abnormal exercise tests. The results suggest (1) police officers have a high prevalence of risk and (2) increased fitness is associated with reduced risk.

  20. Sarcopenia in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: Impact on muscle strength, exercise capacity and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekfani, Tarek; Pellicori, Pierpaolo; Morris, Daniel A; Ebner, Nicole; Valentova, Miroslava; Steinbeck, Lisa; Wachter, Rolf; Elsner, Sebastian; Sliziuk, Veronika; Schefold, Joerg C; Sandek, Anja; Doehner, Wolfram; Cleland, John G; Lainscak, Mitja; Anker, Stefan D; von Haehling, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    To describe the prevalence of sarcopenia in ambulatory patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and its relation to reduced exercise capacity, muscle strength, and quality of life (QoL). A total of 117 symptomatic outpatients with HFpEF were prospectively enrolled in Germany, England, and Slovenia as part of the Studies Investigating Co-morbidities Aggravating Heart Failure (SICA-HF). Appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass (the sum of muscle mass in both arms and legs) was assessed by DEXA. Echocardiography, 6-minute walk testing (6-MWT), muscle strength assessment, spiroergometry and QoL evaluation using EQ-5D Questionnaire were performed. Sarcopenia was defined as ASM 2 standard deviations below the mean of a healthy reference group aged 18-40years. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the E/e' value: ≤8, 9-14, and ≥15. Sarcopenia was detected in 19.7% of all patients. These patients performed worse during 6-MWT (404±116 vs. 307±145m, p=0.003) and showed lower absolute peak oxygen consumption (1579±474 vs. 1211±442mL/min, p15 (p<0.05). Higher values of muscle strength/ASM were associated with a better QoL (r=0.5, p<0.0005). Logistic regression showed ASM to be independently associated with reduced distance walked during the 6-MWT adjusted for NYHA, height, left atrium diameter, ferritin and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) (odds ratio 1.2, p=0.02). Sarcopenia affects a clinically relevant proportion of patients with HFpEF. Low ASM is strongly linked to reduced muscle strength, exercise capacity and QoL in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Benefits of exercise training and the correlation between aerobic capacity and functional outcomes and quality of life in elderly patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hsin; Chen, Yi-Jen; Tu, Hung-Pin; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Jhong, Jing-Hui; Lin, Ko-Long

    2014-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise training is beneficial to people with coronary artery disease (CAD). Nevertheless, the correlation between aerobic capacity, and functional mobility and quality of life in elderly CAD patients is less addressed. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the beneficial effects of exercise training in elderly people with CAD, integrating exercise stress testing, functional mobility, handgrip strength, and health-related quality of life. Elderly people with CAD were enrolled from the outpatient clinic of a cardiac rehabilitation unit in a medical center. Participants were assigned to the exercise training group (N = 21) or the usual care group (N = 15). A total of 36 sessions of exercise training, completed in 12 weeks, was prescribed. Echocardiography, exercise stress testing, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, and handgrip strength testing were performed, and the Short-Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) was administered at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. Peak oxygen consumption improved significantly after training. The heart rate recovery improved from 13.90/minute to 16.62/minute after exercise training. Functional mobility and handgrip strength also improved after training. Significant improvements were found in SF-36 physical function, social function, role limitation due to emotional problems, and mental health domains. A significant correlation between dynamic cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, handgrip strength, and SF-36 physical function and general health domains was also detected. Twelve-week, 36-session exercise training, including moderate-intensity cardiopulmonary exercise training, strengthening exercise, and balance training, is beneficial to elderly patients with CAD, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters correlate well with balance and quality of life.

  2. An Active Learning Exercise for Introducing Agent-Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in agent-based modeling as a method of systems analysis and optimization indicate that students in business analytics need an introduction to the terminology, concepts, and framework of agent-based modeling. This article presents an active learning exercise for MBA students in business analytics that demonstrates agent-based…

  3. The Singing Wineglass: An Exercise in Mathematical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voges, E. L.; Joubert, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    Lecturers in mathematical modelling courses are always on the lookout for new examples to illustrate the modelling process. A physical phenomenon, documented as early as the nineteenth century, was recalled: when a wineglass "sings", waves are visible on the surface of the wine. These surface waves are used as an exercise in mathematical…

  4. Modelling of Rotational Capacity in Reinforced Linear Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbech, Lars; Hagsten, Lars German; Fisker, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The Capacity Design Method forms the basis of several seismic design codes. This design philosophy allows plastic deformations in order to decrease seismic demands in structures. However, these plastic deformations must be localized in certain zones where ductility requirements can be documented ...... as the effect of shear cracking on the length of the plastic zone.......The Capacity Design Method forms the basis of several seismic design codes. This design philosophy allows plastic deformations in order to decrease seismic demands in structures. However, these plastic deformations must be localized in certain zones where ductility requirements can be documented...... reinforced concrete elements. The model is taking several important parameters into account. Empirical values is avoided which is considered an advantage compared to previous models. Furthermore, the model includes force variations in the reinforcement due to moment distributions and shear as well...

  5. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Conditions Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) Balo’s Disease HTLV-I Associated Myelopathy (HAM) Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) Schilder's ... a Muscle, Too: The Relationship Between Exercise and Cognition - telelearning brought to you by the National MS ...

  6. Effects of lifestyle changes and high-dose β-blocker therapy on exercise capacity in children, adolescents, and young adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, Ewa-Lena; Östman-Smith, Ingegerd

    2015-03-01

    The use of β-blocker therapy in asymptomatic patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is controversial. This study evaluates the effect of lifestyle changes and high-dose β-blocker therapy on their exercise capacity. A total of 29 consecutive newly diagnosed asymptomatic patients with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, median age 15 years (range 7-25), were recruited. In all, 16 patients with risk factors for sudden death were treated with propranolol if no contraindications, or equivalent doses of metoprolol; 13 with no risk factors were randomised to metoprolol or no active treatment. Thus, there were three treatment groups, non-selective β-blockade (n=10, propranolol 4.0-11.6 mg/kg/day), selective β-blockade (n=9, metoprolol 2.7-5.9 mg/kg/day), and randomised controls (n=10). All were given recommendations for lifestyle modifications, and reduced energetic exercise significantly (p=0.002). Before study entry, and after 1 year, all underwent bicycle exercise tests with a ramp protocol. There were no differences in exercise capacity between the groups at entry, or follow-up, when median exercise capacity in the groups were virtually identical (2.4, 2.3, and 2.3 watt/kg and 55, 55, and 55 watt/(height in metre) 2 in control, selective, and non-selective groups, respectively. Maximum heart rate decreased in the selective (-29%, p=0.04) and non-selective (-24%, p=0.002) groups. No patient developed a pathological blood-pressure response to exercise because of β-blocker therapy. Boys were more frequently risk-factor positive than girls (75% versus 33%, p=0.048) and had higher physical activity scores than girls at study-entry (p=0.011). Neither selective nor non-selective β-blockade causes significant reductions in exercise capacity in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy above that induced by lifestyle changes.

  7. Introducing Earth Sciences Students to Modeling Using MATLAB Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. S.

    2003-12-01

    While we subject our students to math and physics and chemistry courses to complement their geological studies, we rarely allow them to experience the joys of modeling earth systems. Given the degree to which modern earth sciences relies upon models of complex systems, it seems appropriate to allow our students to develop some experience with this activity. In addition, as modeling is an unforgivingly logical exercise, it demands the student absorb the fundamental concepts, the assumptions behind them, and the means of constraining the relevant parameters in a problem. These concepts commonly include conservation of some quantity, the fluxes of that quantity, and careful prescription of the boundary and initial conditions. I have used MATLAB as an entrance to this world, and will illustrate the products of the exercises we have worked. This software is platform-independent, and has a wonderful graphics package (including movies) that is embedded intimately as one-to-several line calls. The exercises should follow a progression from simple to complex, and serve to introduce the many discrete tasks within modeling. I advocate full immersion in the first exercise. Example exercises include: growth of spatter cones (summation of parabolic trajectories of lava bombs); response of thermal profiles in the earth to varying surface temperature (thermal conduction); hillslope or fault scarp evolution (topographic diffusion); growth and subsidence of volcanoes (flexure); and coral growth on a subsiding platform in the face of sealevel fluctuations (coral biology and light extinction). These exercises can be motivated by reading a piece in the classical or modern literature that either describes a model, or better yet serves to describe the system well, but does not present a model. I have found that the generation of movies from even the early simulation exercises serves as an additional motivator for students. We discuss the models in each class meeting, and learn that there

  8. High Prevalence of Left Ventricle Diastolic Dysfunction in Severe COPD Associated with A Low Exercise Capacity: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta López-Sánchez

    Full Text Available A subclinical left ventricle diastolic dysfunction (LVDD has been described in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.To evaluate the prevalence of LVDD in stable severe COPD patients, to analyze its relationship with exercise capacity and to look for its possible causes (lung hyperinflation, ventricular interdependence or inflammatory mechanisms.We evaluated 106 consecutive outpatients with severe COPD (FEV1 between 30-50%. Thirty-three (31% were excluded because of previous heart disease. A pulmonary function test, a 6-minute walking test (6MWT, a Doppler echocardiography test, including diastolic dysfunction parameters, and an analysis of arterial blood gases, NT-proBNP and serum inflammatory markers (CRP, leucocytes, were performed in all patients.The prevalence of LVDD in severe stable COPD patients was 90% (80% type I, n=57, and 10% type II, n=7. A significant association between a lower E/A ratio (higher LVDD type I and a lower exercise tolerance (6-minute walked distance (6MWD was found (r=0.29, p<0.05. The fully adjusted multivariable linear regression model demonstrated that a lower E/A ratio, a DLCO in the quartile 4(th and a higher tobacco consumption were associated with a lower 6MWD (76, 57 and 0.7 metres, respectively, p<0.05. A significant correlation between E/A ratio and PaO2 was observed (r=0.26, p<0.05, but not with static lung hyperinflation, inflammation or right ventricle overload parameters.In stable severe COPD patients, the prevalence of LVDD is high and this condition might contribute in their lower exercise tolerance. Hypoxemia could have a concomitant role in their pathogenesis.

  9. Impact of aerobic exercise capacity and procedure-related factors in lung cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licker, M; Schnyder, J-M; Frey, J-G; Diaper, J; Cartier, V; Inan, C; Robert, J; Bridevaux, P-O; Tschopp, J-M

    2011-05-01

    Over the past decades, major progress in patient selection, surgical techniques and anaesthetic management have largely contributed to improved outcome in lung cancer surgery. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of post-operative cardiopulmonary morbidity in patients with a forced expiratory volume in 1 s exercise testing (CPET). In this observational study, 210 consecutive patients with lung cancer underwent CPET with completed data over a 9-yr period (2001-2009). Cardiopulmonary complications occurred in 46 (22%) patients, including four (1.9%) deaths. On logistic regression analysis, peak oxygen uptake (peak V'(O₂) and anaesthesia duration were independent risk factors of both cardiovascular and pulmonary complications; age and the extent of lung resection were additional predictors of cardiovascular complications, whereas tidal volume during one-lung ventilation was a predictor of pulmonary complications. Compared with patients with peak V'(O₂) >17 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, those with a peak V'(O₂) training can improve post-operative outcome.

  10. On the Einstein-Stern model of rotational heat capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens Peder

    1998-01-01

    The Einstein-Stern model for the rotational contribution to the heat capacity of a diatomic gas has recently been resuscitated. In this communication, we show that the apparent success of the model is illusory, because it is based on what has turned out to be an unfortunate comparison with experi...... with experiment. We also take exception to the possibility of assigning any meaning to the rotational zero-point energy introduced by the model. (C) 1998 American Institute of Physics. [S0021-9606(98)02448-9]....

  11. Modeling Climate-Water Impacts on Electricity Sector Capacity Expansion: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S. M.; Macknick, J.; Averyt, K.; Meldrum, J.

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to exacerbate water availability concerns for thermal power plant cooling, which is responsible for 41% of U.S. water withdrawals. This analysis describes an initial link between climate, water, and electricity systems using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) electricity system capacity expansion model. Average surface water projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) data are applied to surface water rights available to new generating capacity in ReEDS, and electric sector growth is compared with and without climate-influenced water rights. The mean climate projection has only a small impact on national or regional capacity growth and water use because most regions have sufficient unappropriated or previously retired water rights to offset climate impacts. Climate impacts are notable in southwestern states that purchase fewer water rights and obtain a greater share from wastewater and other higher-cost water resources. The electric sector climate impacts demonstrated herein establish a methodology to be later exercised with more extreme climate scenarios and a more rigorous representation of legal and physical water availability.

  12. A Novel Exercise Thermophysiology Comfort Prediction Model with Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in a regular exercise program can improve health status and contribute to an increase in life expectancy. However, exercise accidents like dehydration, exertional heatstroke, syncope, and even sudden death exist. If these accidents can be analyzed or predicted before they happen, it will be beneficial to alleviate or avoid uncomfortable or unacceptable human disease. Therefore, an exercise thermophysiology comfort prediction model is needed. In this paper, coupling the thermal interactions among human body, clothing, and environment (HCE as well as the human body physiological properties, a human thermophysiology regulatory model is designed to enhance the human thermophysiology simulation in the HCE system. Some important thermal and physiological performances can be simulated. According to the simulation results, a human exercise thermophysiology comfort prediction method based on fuzzy inference system is proposed. The experiment results show that there is the same prediction trend between the experiment result and simulation result about thermophysiology comfort. At last, a mobile application platform for human exercise comfort prediction is designed and implemented.

  13. An age-structured extension to the vectorial capacity model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy N Novoseltsev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vectorial capacity and the basic reproductive number (R(0 have been instrumental in structuring thinking about vector-borne pathogen transmission and how best to prevent the diseases they cause. One of the more important simplifying assumptions of these models is age-independent vector mortality. A growing body of evidence indicates that insect vectors exhibit age-dependent mortality, which can have strong and varied affects on pathogen transmission dynamics and strategies for disease prevention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on survival analysis we derived new equations for vectorial capacity and R(0 that are valid for any pattern of age-dependent (or age-independent vector mortality and explore the behavior of the models across various mortality patterns. The framework we present (1 lays the groundwork for an extension and refinement of the vectorial capacity paradigm by introducing an age-structured extension to the model, (2 encourages further research on the actuarial dynamics of vectors in particular and the relationship of vector mortality to pathogen transmission in general, and (3 provides a detailed quantitative basis for understanding the relative impact of reductions in vector longevity compared to other vector-borne disease prevention strategies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Accounting for age-dependent vector mortality in estimates of vectorial capacity and R(0 was most important when (1 vector densities are relatively low and the pattern of mortality can determine whether pathogen transmission will persist; i.e., determines whether R(0 is above or below 1, (2 vector population growth rate is relatively low and there are complex interactions between birth and death that differ fundamentally from birth-death relationships with age-independent mortality, and (3 the vector exhibits complex patterns of age-dependent mortality and R(0 ∼ 1. A limiting factor in the construction and evaluation of new age

  14. Anxiety in Patients with Chronic Cor Pulmonale and Its Effect on Exercise Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin XU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic cor pulmonale (CCP is a disease of increasing frequency in Chinese people and profoundly influences their health. CCP is often accompanied by anxiety and other psychological problems, and patients may show signs of motor function decline. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of CCP-related psychological problems on motor function.Methods: Patients with CCP receiving in- or outpatient treatment in the Respiratory Department of Xiangya Hospital of Central South University and the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University in Hunan Province between January and July 2015 were investigated. A total of 167 questionnaires were distributed, with 160 valid questionnaires ultimately collected from 95 male and 65 female participants of mean age (± standard deviation of 68.2 ± 12.3 yr. Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS scoring was adopted to evaluate anxiety in the participants, and heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, 6-minute walk test and Borg index score were combined to detect the exercise capability of the participants.Results: Anxiety was present in 48.8% of patients. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, breathing rate and the Borg score of CCP patients with anxiety were higher than in CCP patients without anxiety (P < 0.05, while mean walking distance was shorter (P < 0.05.Conclusion: The rate of anxiety in patients with CCP is relatively high. Anxiety reduces motor function in CCP patients; therefore, in the process of treating patients with CCP, effort should be made to engage simultaneously patients in psychotherapy.  

  15. Activation of GPR30 improves exercise capacity and skeletal muscle strength in senescent female Fischer344 × Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Alencar, Allan; Lin, Marina; Sun, Xuming; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Lowe, Dawn A; Groban, Leanne

    2016-06-17

    The molecular mechanisms of muscle weakness and sarcopenia in postmenopausal women are largely unknown. To determine the effect of a new estrogen receptor, GPR30, in the maintenance of exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function in females, the selective GPR30 agonist, G1 (100 μg/kg/day), or vehicle (V, soybean oil) was administered subcutaneously daily (n = 7 per group) to ovariectomized (OVX) 27-month-old Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (F344BN) female rats. Following 8 weeks of treatment, the exercise capacity (treadmill walk time to exhaustion) was reduced in OVX vs. sham rats (5.1 ± 1.4 vs. 11.0 ± 0.9 min, P exercise capacity (12.9 ± 1.2 min; P effects of estrogen loss on exercise capacity and skeletal muscle contractile function in old F344BN rats. The protective effects of GPR30 might be through its upregulation of heat shock proteins in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. RELATION OF LUNG-FUNCTION, MAXIMAL INSPIRATORY PRESSURE, DYSPNEA, AND QUALITY-OF-LIFE WITH EXERCISE CAPACITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY-DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJKSTRA, PJ; TENVERGERT, EM; VANDERMARK, TW; POSTMA, DS; VANALTENA, R; KRAAN, J; KOETER, GH

    1994-01-01

    Background - Several studies have shown that both objective and subjective measurements are related to exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study the relative contribution of lung function, maximal inspiratory pressure, dyspnoea, and quality of lif

  17. Effect of tighter glycemic control on cardiac function, exercise capacity, and muscle strength in heart failure patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent Roni Ranghøj; Wiggers, Henrik; Thomsen, Henrik Holm;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and heart failure (HF), the optimal glycemic target is uncertain, and evidence-based data are lacking. Therefore, we performed a randomized study on the effect of optimized glycemic control on left ventricular function, exercise capacity, muscle...

  18. Four weeks of normobaric "live high-train low" do not alter muscular or systemic capacity for maintaining pH and K+ homeostasis during intense exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Siebenmann, C; Jacobs, R A

    2012-01-01

    It was investigated if athletes subjected to 4 wk of living in normobaric hypoxia (3,000 m; 16 h/day) while training at 800-1,300 m ["live high-train low" (LHTL)] increase muscular and systemic capacity for maintaining pH and K(+) homeostasis as well as intense exercise performance. The design wa...

  19. Does an Exercise Intervention Improving Aerobic Capacity Among Construction Workers Also Improve Musculoskeletal Pain, Work Ability, Productivity, Perceived Physical Exertion, and Sick Leave? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Bultmann, Ute; Sjogaard, Gisela; Sogaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether an exercise intervention shown to increase aerobic capacity, would also lead to less musculoskeletal pain; improved work ability, productivity, and perceived physical exertion; and less sick leave. Methods: Sixty-seven construction workers were randomized into an ex

  20. A comparison of respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, activities of daily living and physical fitness in patients with cystic fibrosis and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Hulya; Yatar, İlker; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Aribas, Zeynep; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Savci, Sema; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Ozcelik, Ugur; Kiper, Nural

    2015-01-01

    There are limited reports that compare muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, activities of daily living (ADL) and parameters of physical fitness of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with healthy peers in the literature. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, ADL and physical fitness in patients with CF and healthy subjects. Nineteen patients with CF (mean forced expiratory volume in one second-FEV1: 86.56±18.36%) and 20 healthy subjects were included in this study. Respiratory (maximal inspiratory pressure-MIP and maximal expiratory pressure-MEP) and peripheral muscle strength (quadriceps, shoulder abductors and hand grip strength) were evaluated. Functional exercise capacity was determined with 6min walk test (6MWT). ADL was assessed with Glittre ADL test and physical fitness was assessed with Munich fitness test (MFT). There were not any statistically significant difference in MIP, %MIP, MEP and %MEP values between two groups (p>0.05). %Peripheral muscle strength (% quadriceps and shoulder abductors strength), 6MWT distance and %6MWT distance were significantly lower in patients with CF than those of healthy subjects (pmuscle strength, functional exercise capacity, ADL performance and speed, coordination, endurance and power components of physical fitness are adversely affected in mild-severe patients with CF compared to healthy peers. Evaluations must be done in comprehensive manner in patients with CF with all stages.

  1. The effect of a multidimensional exercise intervention on physical capacity, well-being and quality of life in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Quist, Morten; Midtgaard, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of a multidimensional exercise intervention focusing on physical capacity; one-repetition maximum (1RM) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2Max), activity level, general well-being and quality of life in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy....

  2. Smoking status and its relationship with exercise capacity, physical activity in daily life and quality of life in physically independent, elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, R; Gonçalves, C G; Hayashi, D; Costa, V de S P; Teixeira, D de C; de Freitas, E R F S; Felcar, J M; Pitta, F; Molari, M; Probst, V S

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking status and exercise capacity, physical activity in daily life and health-related quality of life in physically independent, elderly (≥60 years) individuals. Cross-sectional, observational study. Community-dwelling, elderly individuals. One hundred and fifty-four elderly individuals were categorised into four groups according to their smoking status: never smokers (n=57), passive smokers (n=30), ex-smokers (n=45) and current smokers (n=22). Exercise capacity [6-minute walk test (6MWT)], physical activity in daily life (step counting) and health-related quality of life [36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire] were assessed. Current and ex-smokers had lower mean exercise capacity compared with never smokers: 90 [standard deviation (SD) 10] % predicted, 91 (SD 12) % predicted and 100 (SD 13) % predicted distance on 6MWT, respectively [mean differences -9.8%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) -17.8 to -1.8 and -9.1%, 95% CI -15.4 to -2.7, respectively; Pelderly individuals, current smokers had lower exercise capacity than never smokers. Although the level of physical activity did not differ between the groups, an association was found with smoking. Tobacco exposure was associated with worse scores for the mental health dimension of SF-36 in physically independent, elderly individuals. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A model for nonexercising hindlimb muscles in exercising animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonen, A; Blewett, C; McDermott, J C; Elder, G C

    1990-07-01

    Nonexercising muscles appear to be metabolically active during exercise. Animal models for this purpose have not been established. However, we have been able to teach animals to run on their forelimbs while their hindlimbs are suspended above the treadmill with no visible limb movement. To document that indeed this mode of exercise does not provoke additional muscle activity, we have compared the levels of neural activation of the soleus and plantaris muscles using a computer analysis of the electromyographic interference pattern, recorded from bipolar fine wire electrodes implanted across each muscle. Via computer analyses of the electromyographic interference patterns the frequencies and amplitudes of motor unit action potentials were obtained. The data were sampled during 20 s of every minute of observation. Comparisons were made in four conditions: (i) resting on the treadmill while bearing weight on the hindlimbs (normal rest), (ii) running on the treadmill (15 m/min, 8% grade) on all four limbs (normal exercise), (iii) resting while the hindlimbs were suspended in a harness above the treadmill (suspended rest), and (iv) exercising with the forelimbs (15 m/min, 8% grade) while the hindlimbs were suspended above the treadmill (suspended exercise). All four experimental conditions were carried out for 90 min each and were performed by each animal. The results clearly show that muscle activities (frequencies and amplitudes), when the hindlimbs are suspended above the treadmill, at rest or during exercise, are lower than the activities in these same muscles when the animals are at rest, supporting only their body weight. Activities in the same muscles during exercise were from 300 to 2000% greater than during hindlimb suspension.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. MIMO capacity for deterministic channel models: sublinear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentosela, Francois; Cornean, Horia; Marchetti, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This is the second paper by the authors in a series concerned with the development of a deterministic model for the transfer matrix of a MIMO system. In our previous paper, we started from the Maxwell equations and described the generic structure of such a deterministic transfer matrix...... some generic assumptions, we prove that the capacity grows much more slowly than linearly with the number of antennas. These results reinforce previous heuristic results obtained from statistical models of the transfer matrix, which also predict a sublinear behavior....

  5. Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Effects on Exercise Capacity in Pre- and Postprandial States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie-J. M. Fares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oropharyngeal receptors signal presence of carbohydrate to the brain. Mouth rinses with a carbohydrate solution facilitate corticomotor output and improve time-trial performance in well-trained subjects in a fasted state. We tested for this effect in nonathletic subjects in fasted and nonfasted state. Methods. 13 healthy non-athletic males performed 5 tests on a cycle ergometer. After measuring maximum power output (Wmax, the subjects cycled four times at 60% Wmax until exhaustion while rinsing their mouth every 5 minutes with either a 6.4% maltodextrin solution or water, one time after an overnight fast and another after a carbohydrate rich breakfast. Results. Mouth rinsing with maltodextrin improved time-to-exhaustion in pre- and postprandial states. This was accompanied by reductions in the average and maximal rates of perceived exertion but no change in average or maximal heart rate was observed. Conclusions. Carbohydrate mouth rinsing improves endurance capacity in both fed and fasted states in non-athletic subjects.

  6. An Experimental Model for Resistance Exercise in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Nicastro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an equipment and system of resistance exercise (RE, based on squat-type exercise for rodents, with control of training variables. We developed an operant conditioning system composed of sound, light and feeding devices that allowed optimized RE performance by the animal. With this system, it is not necessary to impose fasting or electric shock for the animal to perform the task proposed (muscle contraction. Furthermore, it is possible to perform muscle function tests in vivo within the context of the exercise proposed and control variables such as intensity, volume (sets and repetitions, and exercise session length, rest interval between sets and repetitions, and concentric strength. Based on the experiments conducted, we demonstrated that the model proposed is able to perform more specific control of other RE variables, especially rest interval between sets and repetitions, and encourages the animal to exercise through short-term energy restriction and “disturbing” stimulus that do not promote alterations in body weight. Therefore, despite experimental limitations, we believe that this RE apparatus is closer to the physiological context observed in humans.

  7. Capacity Region of a New Bus Communication Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuojun Zhuang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a new bus communication model, where two transmitters wish to send their corresponding private messages and a common message to a destination, while they also wish to send the common message to another receiver connected to the same wire. From an information-theoretical point of view, we first study a general case of this new model (with discrete memoryless channels. The capacity region composed of all achievable (R0,R1,R2 triples is determined for this general model, where R1 and R2 are the transmission rates of the private messages and R0 is the transmission rate of the common message. Then, the result is further explained via the Gaussian example. Finally, we give the capacity region for the new bus communication model with additive Gaussian noises and attenuation factors. This new bus communication model captures various communication scenarios, such as the bus systems in vehicles, and the bus type of communication channel in power line communication (PLC networks.

  8. Acute exercise facilitates brain function and cognition in children who need it most: an ERP study of individual differences in inhibitory control capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Raine, Lauren B; Moore, R Davis; Saliba, Brian J; Pontifex, Matthew B; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on aspects of cognitive control in two groups of children categorized by higher- and lower-task performance. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were collected in 40 preadolescent children during a modified flanker task following 20 min of treadmill walking and seated rest on separate occasions. Participants were bifurcated into two groups based on task performance following the resting session. Findings revealed that following exercise, higher-performers maintained accuracy and exhibited no change in P3 amplitude compared to seated rest. Lower-performers demonstrated a differential effect, such that accuracy measures improved, and P3 amplitude increased following exercise. Lastly, both groups displayed smaller N2 amplitude and shorter P3 latency following exercise, suggesting an overall facilitation in response conflict and the speed of stimulus classification. The current findings replicate prior research reporting the beneficial influence of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in children. However, children with lower inhibitory control capacity may benefit the most from single bouts of exercise. These data are among the first to demonstrate the differential effect of physical activity on individuals who vary in inhibitory control, and further support the role of aerobic exercise for brain health during development.

  9. Acute exercise facilitates brain function and cognition in children who need it most: An ERP study of individual differences in inhibitory control capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Drollette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on aspects of cognitive control in two groups of children categorized by higher- and lower-task performance. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs were collected in 40 preadolescent children during a modified flanker task following 20 min of treadmill walking and seated rest on separate occasions. Participants were bifurcated into two groups based on task performance following the resting session. Findings revealed that following exercise, higher-performers maintained accuracy and exhibited no change in P3 amplitude compared to seated rest. Lower-performers demonstrated a differential effect, such that accuracy measures improved, and P3 amplitude increased following exercise. Lastly, both groups displayed smaller N2 amplitude and shorter P3 latency following exercise, suggesting an overall facilitation in response conflict and the speed of stimulus classification. The current findings replicate prior research reporting the beneficial influence of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in children. However, children with lower inhibitory control capacity may benefit the most from single bouts of exercise. These data are among the first to demonstrate the differential effect of physical activity on individuals who vary in inhibitory control, and further support the role of aerobic exercise for brain health during development.

  10. On the Maximum Storage Capacity of the Hopfield Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folli, Viola; Leonetti, Marco; Ruocco, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent neural networks (RNN) have traditionally been of great interest for their capacity to store memories. In past years, several works have been devoted to determine the maximum storage capacity of RNN, especially for the case of the Hopfield network, the most popular kind of RNN. Analyzing the thermodynamic limit of the statistical properties of the Hamiltonian corresponding to the Hopfield neural network, it has been shown in the literature that the retrieval errors diverge when the number of stored memory patterns (P) exceeds a fraction (≈ 14%) of the network size N. In this paper, we study the storage performance of a generalized Hopfield model, where the diagonal elements of the connection matrix are allowed to be different from zero. We investigate this model at finite N. We give an analytical expression for the number of retrieval errors and show that, by increasing the number of stored patterns over a certain threshold, the errors start to decrease and reach values below unit for P ≫ N. We demonstrate that the strongest trade-off between efficiency and effectiveness relies on the number of patterns (P) that are stored in the network by appropriately fixing the connection weights. When P≫N and the diagonal elements of the adjacency matrix are not forced to be zero, the optimal storage capacity is obtained with a number of stored memories much larger than previously reported. This theory paves the way to the design of RNN with high storage capacity and able to retrieve the desired pattern without distortions. PMID:28119595

  11. Modeling Hospitals’ Adaptive Capacity during a Loss of Infrastructure Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Vugrin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resilience in hospitals - their ability to withstand, adapt to, and rapidly recover from disruptive events - is vital to their role as part of national critical infrastructure. This paper presents a model to provide planning guidance to decision makers about how to make hospitals more resilient against possible disruption scenarios. This model represents a hospital’s adaptive capacities that are leveraged to care for patients during loss of infrastructure services (power, water, etc.. The model is an optimization that reallocates and substitutes resources to keep patients in a high care state or allocates resources to allow evacuation if necessary. An illustrative example demonstrates how the model might be used in practice.

  12. Modeling symbiosis by interactions through species carrying capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.; Sornette, D.

    2012-08-01

    We introduce a mathematical model of symbiosis between different species by taking into account the influence of each species on the carrying capacities of the others. The modeled entities can pertain to biological and ecological societies or to social, economic and financial societies. Our model includes three basic types: symbiosis with direct mutual interactions, symbiosis with asymmetric interactions, and symbiosis without direct interactions. In all cases, we provide a complete classification of all admissible dynamical regimes. The proposed model of symbiosis turned out to be very rich, as it exhibits four qualitatively different regimes: convergence to stationary states, unbounded exponential growth, finite-time singularity, and finite-time death or extinction of species.

  13. Bayesian structural equation modeling in sport and exercise psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenling, Andreas; Ivarsson, Andreas; Johnson, Urban; Lindwall, Magnus

    2015-08-01

    Bayesian statistics is on the rise in mainstream psychology, but applications in sport and exercise psychology research are scarce. In this article, the foundations of Bayesian analysis are introduced, and we will illustrate how to apply Bayesian structural equation modeling in a sport and exercise psychology setting. More specifically, we contrasted a confirmatory factor analysis on the Sport Motivation Scale II estimated with the most commonly used estimator, maximum likelihood, and a Bayesian approach with weakly informative priors for cross-loadings and correlated residuals. The results indicated that the model with Bayesian estimation and weakly informative priors provided a good fit to the data, whereas the model estimated with a maximum likelihood estimator did not produce a well-fitting model. The reasons for this discrepancy between maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation are discussed as well as potential advantages and caveats with the Bayesian approach.

  14. Why Does a Kronecker Model Result in Misleading Capacity Estimates?

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Sayeed, Akbar M

    2008-01-01

    Many recent works that study the performance of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems in practice assume a Kronecker model where the variances of the channel entries, upon decomposition on to the transmit and the receive eigen-bases, admit a separable form. Measurement campaigns, however, show that the Kronecker model results in poor estimates for capacity. Motivated by these observations, a channel model that does not impose a separable structure has been recently proposed and shown to fit the capacity of measured channels better. In this work, we show that this recently proposed modeling framework can be viewed as a natural consequence of channel decomposition on to its canonical coordinates, the transmit and/or the receive eigen-bases. Using tools from random matrix theory, we then establish the theoretical basis behind the Kronecker mismatch at the low- and the high-SNR extremes: 1) Sparsity of the dominant statistical degrees of freedom (DoF) in the true channel at the low-SNR extreme, and 2) Non-regul...

  15. Development of Groundwater Modeling Capacity in Mongolia: Keys to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. T.; Valder, J. F.; Carter, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia, is totally dependent on groundwater for its municipal and industrial water supply. Water is drawn from a network of shallow wells in an alluvial aquifer along the Tuul River. Evidence, however, suggests that current water use and especially the projected water demand from a rapidly growing urban population, is not sustainable from existing water sources. In response, the Mongolia Ministry of Environment and the Mongolian Fresh Water Institute requested technical assistance on groundwater modeling through the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Scientists from the USGS-SD Water Science Center provided a workshop to Mongolian water experts on basic principles of groundwater modeling using MODFLOW. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together representatives from the Government of Mongolia, local universities, technical experts, and other key stakeholders to build in-country capacity in hydrogeology and groundwater modeling. A preliminary steady-state groundwater flow model was developed to simulate groundwater conditions in the Tuul River Basin and for use in water use decision-making. The model consisted of 2 layers, 226 rows, and 260 columns with uniform 500 meter grid spacing. The upper model layer represented the alluvial aquifer and the lower layer represented the underlying bedrock, which includes areas characterized by permafrost. Estimated groundwater withdrawal was 180 m3/day, and estimated recharge was 114 mm/yr. The model will be modified and updated by Mongolian scientists as more data are available. Ultimately the model will be used to assist managers in developing a sustainable water supply, for current use and changing climate scenarios. A key to success was developing in-country technical capacity and partnerships with the Mongolian University of Science and Technology, Mongolian Freshwater Institute, a non-profit organization, UNESCO, and the government of Mongolia.

  16. Common Exercises in Whole Building HAM Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Woloszyn, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Subtask 1 of the IEA ECBCS Annex 41 (IEA 2007) project had the purpose to advance development in modelling of integral Heat, Air and Moisture (HAM) transfer processes that take place in “whole buildings”. Such modelling considers all relevant elements of buildings: The indoor air, building envelo...

  17. Common Exercises in Whole Building HAM Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Woloszyn, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Subtask 1 of the IEA Annex 41 project had the purpose to advance the development in modelling the integral heat, air and moisture transfer processes that take place in “whole buildings”. Such modelling comprises all relevant elements of buildings: The indoor air, the building envelope, the inside...

  18. Intraspecific correlations of basal and maximal metabolic rates in birds and the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Swanson

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy is that basal (BMR and maximal aerobic metabolic rates are phenotypically linked. However, because BMR is largely a function of central organs whereas maximal metabolic output is largely a function of skeletal muscles, the mechanistic underpinnings for their linkage are not obvious. Interspecific studies in birds generally support a phenotypic correlation between BMR and maximal metabolic output. If the aerobic capacity model is valid, these phenotypic correlations should also extend to intraspecific comparisons. We measured BMR, M(sum (maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate and MMR (maximum exercise metabolic rate in a hop-flutter chamber in winter for dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis; M(sum and MMR only, and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; BMR and M(sum only and examined correlations among these variables. We also measured BMR and M(sum in individual house sparrows (Passer domesticus in both summer, winter and spring. For both raw metabolic rates and residuals from allometric regressions, BMR was not significantly correlated with either M(sum or MMR in juncos. Moreover, no significant correlation between M(sum and MMR or their mass-independent residuals occurred for juncos or goldfinches. Raw BMR and M(sum were significantly positively correlated for black-capped chickadees and house sparrows, but mass-independent residuals of BMR and M(sum were not. These data suggest that central organ and exercise organ metabolic levels are not inextricably linked and that muscular capacities for exercise and shivering do not necessarily vary in tandem in individual birds. Why intraspecific and interspecific avian studies show differing results and the significance of these differences to the aerobic capacity model are unknown, and resolution of these questions will require additional studies of potential

  19. Effects of short-period exercise training and orlistat therapy on body composition and maximal power production capacity in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, R; Ozcelik, O

    2004-01-01

    We examined the effects of weight loss induced by diet-orlistat (DO) and diet-orlistat combined with exercise (DOE) on maximal work rate production (Wmax) capacity in obese patients. Total of 24 obese patients were involved in this study. Twelve of them were subjected to DO therapy only and the remaining 12 patients participated in a regular aerobic exercise-training program in addition to DO therapy (DOE). Each patient performed two incremental ramp exercise tests up to exhaustion using an electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer: one at the onset and one at the end of the 4th week. DOE therapy caused a significant decrease in total body weight: 101.5+/-17.4 kg (basal) vs 96.3+/-17.3 kg (4 wk) associated with a significant decrease in body fat mass: 45.0+/-10.5 kg (basal) vs 40.9+/-9.8 kg (4 wk). DO therapy also resulted in a significant decrease of total body weight 94.9+/-14.9 kg (basal) vs 91.6+/-13.5 kg (4 wk) associated with small but significant decreases in body fat mass: 37.7+/-5.6 kg (basal) to 36.0+/-6.2 kg (4 wk). Weight reduction achieved during DO therapy was not associated with increased Wmax capacity: 106+/-32 W (basal) vs 106+/-33 W (4 wk), while DOE therapy resulted in a markedly increased Wmax capacity: 109+/-39 W (basal) vs 138+/-30 W (4 wk). DO therapy combined with aerobic exercise training resulted in a significant reduction of fat mass tissue and markedly improved the aerobic fitness and Wmax capacities of obese patients. Considering this improvement within such a short period, physicians should consider applying an aerobic exercise-training program to sedentary obese patients for improving their physical fitness and thereby reduce the negative outcomes of obesity.

  20. Improving Power System Modeling. A Tool to Link Capacity Expansion and Production Cost Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEM) provide a high-level long-term view at the prospects of the evolving power system. In simulating the possibilities of long-term capacity expansion, it is important to maintain the viability of power system operation in the short-term (daily, hourly and sub-hourly) scales. Production-cost models (PCM) simulate routine power system operation on these shorter time scales using detailed load, transmission and generation fleet data by minimizing production costs and following reliability requirements. When based on CEM 'predictions' about generating unit retirements and buildup, PCM provide more detailed simulation for the short-term system operation and, consequently, may confirm the validity of capacity expansion predictions. Further, production cost model simulations of a system that is based on capacity expansion model solution are 'evolutionary' sound: the generator mix is the result of logical sequence of unit retirement and buildup resulting from policy and incentives. The above has motivated us to bridge CEM with PCM by building a capacity expansion - to - production cost model Linking Tool (CEPCoLT). The Linking Tool is built to onset capacity expansion model prescriptions onto production cost model inputs. NREL's ReEDS and Energy Examplar's PLEXOS are the capacity expansion and the production cost models, respectively. Via the Linking Tool, PLEXOS provides details of operation for the regionally-defined ReEDS scenarios.

  1. An Evaluation of the Decision-Making Capacity Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémault-Phillips, Suzette C.; Parmar, Jasneet; Friesen, Steven; Rogers, Laura G.; Pike, Ashley; Sluggett, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Background The Decision-Making Capacity Assessment (DMCA) Model includes a best-practice process and tools to assess DMCA, and implementation strategies at the organizational and assessor levels to support provision of DMCAs across the care continuum. A Developmental Evaluation of the DMCA Model was conducted. Methods A mixed methods approach was used. Survey (N = 126) and focus group (N = 49) data were collected from practitioners utilizing the Model. Results Strengths of the Model include its best-practice and implementation approach, applicability to independent practitioners and inter-professional teams, focus on training/mentoring to enhance knowledge/skills, and provision of tools/processes. Post-training, participants agreed that they followed the Model’s guiding principles (90%), used problem-solving (92%), understood discipline-specific roles (87%), were confident in their knowledge of DMCAs (75%) and pertinent legislation (72%), accessed consultative services (88%), and received management support (64%). Model implementation is impeded when role clarity, physician engagement, inter-professional buy-in, accountability, dedicated resources, information sharing systems, and remuneration are lacking. Dedicated resources, job descriptions inclusive of DMCAs, ongoing education/mentoring supports, access to consultative services, and appropriate remuneration would support implementation. Conclusions The DMCA Model offers practitioners, inter-professional teams, and organizations a best-practice and implementation approach to DMCAs. Addressing barriers and further contextualizing the Model would be warranted. PMID:27729947

  2. Effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on the functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD: a randomized and controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada JT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Juliano T Wada,1 Erickson Borges-Santos,1 Desiderio Cano Porras,1 Denise M Paisani,1 Alberto Cukier,2 Adriana C Lunardi,1 Celso RF Carvalho1 1Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Cardiopneumology, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Background: Patients with COPD present a major recruitment of the inspiratory muscles, predisposing to chest incoordination, increasing the degree of dyspnea and impairing their exercise capacity. Stretching techniques could decrease the respiratory muscle activity and improve their contractile capacity; however, the systemic effects of stretching remain unknown.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD.Design: This study was a randomized and controlled trial.Participants: A total of 30 patients were allocated to a treatment group (TG or a control group (CG; n=15, each group.Intervention: The TG was engaged in respiratory muscle stretching and the CG in upper and lower limb muscle stretching. Both groups performed 24 sessions (twice a week, 12 weeks of aerobic training.Evaluations: Functional exercise capacity (6-minute walk test, thoracoabdominal kinematics (optoelectronic plethysmography, and respiratory muscle activity (surface electromyography were evaluated during exercise. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the groups at a significance level of 5%.Results: After the intervention, the TG showed improved abdominal (ABD contribution, compartmental volume, mobility, and functional exercise capacity with decreased dyspnea when compared with the CG (P<0.01. The TG also showed a decreased respiratory muscle effort required to obtain the same pulmonary volume compared to the CG (P<0.001.Conclusion: Our results suggest that aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching increases the functional

  3. Sesamin prevents decline in exercise capacity and impairment of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in mice with high-fat diet-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shingo; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Matsushima, Shouji; Takemoto, Daisuke; Furihata, Takaaki; Mizushima, Wataru; Fukushima, Arata; Yokota, Takashi; Ono, Yoshiko; Shibata, Hiroshi; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Our aim was to examine whether sesamin can prevent a decline in exercise capacity in high-fat diet-induced diabetic mice. Our hypothesis was that maintenance of mitochondrial function and attenuation of oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle would contribute to this result. What is the main finding and its importance? The new findings are that sesamin prevents the diabetes-induced decrease in exercise capacity and impairment of mitochondrial function through the inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle. Sesamin may be useful as a novel agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. We previously reported that exercise capacity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in diabetic mice were impaired, in association with the activation of NAD(P)H oxidase. It has been reported that sesamin inhibits NAD(P)H oxidase-induced superoxide production. Therefore, we examined whether the antioxidant sesamin could prevent a decline in exercise capacity in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD, then treated or not with sesamin (0.2%) to yield the following four groups: ND, ND+Sesamin, HFD and HFD+Sesamin (n = 10 each). After 8 weeks, body weight, fat weight, blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol and fatty acid were significantly increased in HFD compared with ND mice. Sesamin prevented the increases in blood insulin and lipid levels in HFD-fed mice, but did not affect the plasma glucose. Exercise capacity determined by treadmill tests was significantly reduced in HFD mice, but almost completely recovered in HFD+Sesamin mice. Citrate synthase activity was significantly decreased in the skeletal muscle of HFD mice, and these decreases were also inhibited by sesamin. Superoxide anion and NAD(P)H oxidase activity were significantly increased in HFD mice compared with the ND mice and were ameliorated by sesamin. Sesamin

  4. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Results Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Conclusion Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits. PMID:24409219

  5. Developing a model osteoarthritis consultation: a Delphi consensus exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porcheret Mark

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is a common condition managed in general practice, but often not in line with published guidance. The ideal consultation for a patient presenting with possible OA is not known. The aim of the study was to develop the content of a model OA consultation for the assessment and treatment of older adults presenting in general practice with peripheral joint problems. Methods A postal Delphi consensus exercise was undertaken with two expert groups: i general practitioners (GPs with expertise in OA management and ii patients with experience of living with OA. An advisory group generated 61 possible consultation tasks for consideration in the consensus exercise. Expert groups were asked to consider which tasks should be included in the model OA consultation. The exercise was completed by 15 GPs and 14 patients. The level of agreement for inclusion in the model was set at 90%. Results The model OA consultation included 25 tasks to be undertaken during the initial consultation between a GP and a patient presenting with peripheral joint pain. The 25 tasks provide detailed advice on how the following elements of the consultation should be addressed: i assessment of chronic joint pain, ii patient’s ideas and concerns, iii exclusion of red flags, iv examination, v provision of the diagnosis and written information, vi promotion of exercise and weight loss, vii initial pain management and viii arranging a follow-up appointment. Both groups prioritised a bio-medical approach to the consultation, rather than a bio-psycho-social one, suggesting a discordance between current thinking and research evidence. Conclusions This study has enabled the priorities of GPs and patients to be identified for a model OA consultation. The results of this consensus study will inform the development of best practice for the management of OA in primary care and the implementation of evidence-based guidelines for OA in primary care.

  6. Developing a model osteoarthritis consultation: a Delphi consensus exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcheret, Mark; Grime, Janet; Main, Chris; Dziedzic, Krysia

    2013-01-16

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition managed in general practice, but often not in line with published guidance. The ideal consultation for a patient presenting with possible OA is not known. The aim of the study was to develop the content of a model OA consultation for the assessment and treatment of older adults presenting in general practice with peripheral joint problems. A postal Delphi consensus exercise was undertaken with two expert groups: i) general practitioners (GPs) with expertise in OA management and ii) patients with experience of living with OA. An advisory group generated 61 possible consultation tasks for consideration in the consensus exercise. Expert groups were asked to consider which tasks should be included in the model OA consultation. The exercise was completed by 15 GPs and 14 patients. The level of agreement for inclusion in the model was set at 90%. The model OA consultation included 25 tasks to be undertaken during the initial consultation between a GP and a patient presenting with peripheral joint pain. The 25 tasks provide detailed advice on how the following elements of the consultation should be addressed: i) assessment of chronic joint pain, ii) patient's ideas and concerns, iii) exclusion of red flags, iv) examination, v) provision of the diagnosis and written information, vi) promotion of exercise and weight loss, vii) initial pain management and viii) arranging a follow-up appointment. Both groups prioritised a bio-medical approach to the consultation, rather than a bio-psycho-social one, suggesting a discordance between current thinking and research evidence. This study has enabled the priorities of GPs and patients to be identified for a model OA consultation. The results of this consensus study will inform the development of best practice for the management of OA in primary care and the implementation of evidence-based guidelines for OA in primary care.

  7. Vertical bearing capacity of pile based on load transfer model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming-hua; YANG Ming-hui; ZOU Xin-jun

    2005-01-01

    The load transfer analytical method is applied to study the bearing mechanism of piles with vertical load in this paper. According to the different hardening rules of soil or rock around the pile shaft, such as work-softening, ideal elasto-plastic and work-hardening, a universal tri-linear load transfer model is suggested for the development of side and tip resistance by various types of soil (rock) with the consideration of sediment at the bottom of the pile. Based on the model, a formula is derived for the relationship between the settlement and load on the pile top to determine the vertical bearing capacity, taking into account such factors as the characteristics of the stratum, the side resistance along the shaft, and tip resistance under the pile tip. A close agreement of the calculated results with the measured data from a field test pile lends confidence to the future application of the present approach in engineering practice.

  8. Modeling the oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise testing of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases using nonlinear mixed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Baty

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The six-minute walk test (6MWT is commonly used to quantify exercise capacity in patients with several cardio-pulmonary diseases. Oxygen uptake ( V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 kinetics during 6MWT typically follow 3 distinct phases (rest, exercise, recovery that can be modeled by nonlinear regression. Simultaneous modeling of multiple kinetics requires nonlinear mixed models methodology. To the best of our knowledge, no such curve-fitting approach has been used to analyze multiple V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 kinetics in both research and clinical practice so far. Methods In the present study, we describe functionality of the R package medrc that extends the framework of the commonly used packages drc and nlme and allows fitting nonlinear mixed effects models for automated nonlinear regression modeling. The methodology was applied to a data set including 6MWT V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 kinetics from 61 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (disease severity stage II to IV. The mixed effects approach was compared to a traditional curve-by-curve approach. Results A six-parameter nonlinear regression model was jointly fitted to the set of V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 kinetics. Significant differences between disease stages were found regarding steady state V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 during exercise, V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 level after recovery and V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 inflection point in the recovery phase. Estimates obtained by the mixed effects approach showed standard errors that were consistently lower as compared to the curve-by-curve approach. Conclusions Hereby we demonstrate the novelty and usefulness of this methodology in the context of physiological exercise testing.

  9. Three minutes of all-out intermittent exercise per week increases skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and improves cardiometabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Jenna B; Percival, Michael E; Skelly, Lauren E; Martin, Brian J; Tan, Rachel B; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether a training protocol that involved 3 min of intense intermittent exercise per week--within a total training time commitment of 30 min including warm up and cool down--could increase skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and markers of health status. Overweight/obese but otherwise healthy men and women (n = 7 each; age = 29±9 y; BMI = 29.8±2.7 kg/m2) performed 18 training sessions over 6 wk on a cycle ergometer. Each session began with a 2 min warm-up at 50 W, followed by 3×20 s "all-out" sprints against 5.0% body mass (mean power output: ∼450-500 W) interspersed with 2 min of recovery at 50 W, followed by a 3 min cool-down at 50 W. Peak oxygen uptake increased by 12% after training (32.6±4.5 vs. 29.1±4.2 ml/kg/min) and resting mean arterial pressure decreased by 7% (78±10 vs. 83±10 mmHg), with no difference between groups (both p<0.01, main effects for time). Skeletal muscle biopsy samples obtained before and 72 h after training revealed increased maximal activity of citrate synthase and protein content of cytochrome oxidase 4 (p<0.01, main effect), while the maximal activity of β-hydroxy acyl CoA dehydrogenase increased in men only (p<0.05). Continuous glucose monitoring measured under standard dietary conditions before and 48-72 h following training revealed lower 24 h average blood glucose concentration in men following training (5.4±0.6 vs. 5.9±0.5 mmol/L, p<0.05), but not women (5.5±0.4 vs. 5.5±0.6 mmol/L). This was associated with a greater increase in GLUT4 protein content in men compared to women (138% vs. 23%, p<0.05). Short-term interval training using a 10 min protocol that involved only 1 min of hard exercise, 3x/wk, stimulated physiological changes linked to improved health in overweight adults. Despite the small sample size, potential sex-specific adaptations were apparent that warrant further investigation.

  10. Use of deterministic models in sports and exercise biomechanics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, John W; Knudson, Duane V

    2011-09-01

    A deterministic model is a modeling paradigm that determines the relationships between a movement outcome measure and the biomechanical factors that produce such a measure. This review provides an overview of the use of deterministic models in biomechanics research, a historical summary of this research, and an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of using deterministic models. The deterministic model approach has been utilized in technique analysis over the last three decades, especially in swimming, athletics field events, and gymnastics. In addition to their applications in sports and exercise biomechanics, deterministic models have been applied successfully in research on selected motor skills. The advantage of the deterministic model approach is that it helps to avoid selecting performance or injury variables arbitrarily and to provide the necessary theoretical basis for examining the relative importance of various factors that influence the outcome of a movement task. Several disadvantages of deterministic models, such as the use of subjective measures for the performance outcome, were discussed. It is recommended that exercise and sports biomechanics scholars should consider using deterministic models to help identify meaningful dependent variables in their studies.

  11. NAFLD, Estrogens, and Physical Exercise: The Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Lavoie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One segment of the population that is particularly inclined to liver fat accumulation is postmenopausal women. Although nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis is more common in men than in women, after menopause there is a reversal in gender distribution. At the present time, weight loss and exercise are regarded as first line treatments for NAFLD in postmenopausal women, as it is the case for the management of metabolic syndrome. In recent years, there has been substantial evidence coming mostly from the use of the animal model, that indeed estrogens withdrawal is associated with modifications of molecular markers favouring the activity of metabolic pathways ultimately leading to liver fat accumulation. In addition, the use of the animal model has provided physiological and molecular evidence that exercise training provides estrogens-like protective effects on liver fat accumulation and its consequences. The purpose of the present paper is to present information relative to the development of a state of NAFLD resulting from the absence of estrogens and the role of exercise training, emphasizing on the contribution of the animal model on these issues.

  12. Data mining with SPSS modeler theory, exercises and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Wendler, Tilo

    2016-01-01

    Introducing the IBM SPSS Modeler, this book guides readers through data mining processes and presents relevant statistical methods. There is a special focus on step-by-step tutorials and well-documented examples that help demystify complex mathematical algorithms and computer programs. The variety of exercises and solutions as well as an accompanying website with data sets and SPSS Modeler streams are particularly valuable. While intended for students, the simplicity of the Modeler makes the book useful for anyone wishing to learn about basic and more advanced data mining, and put this knowledge into practice.

  13. Exercise-induced TBC1D1 Ser237 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 protein binding capacity in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Christian; Pehmøller, Christian; Birk, Jesper Bratz

    2010-01-01

    TBC1D1 is a Rab-GTPase activating protein involved in regulation of GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle. We here evaluated exercise-induced regulation of TBC1D1 Ser237 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 protein binding capacity in human skeletal muscle. In separate experiments healthy men performed all......-out cycle exercise lasting either 30 sec, 2 min or 20 min. After all exercise protocols, TBC1D1 Ser237 phosphorylation increased (~70 - 230%, Pprotein showed a similar pattern of regulation...... increasing 60 - 250% (Pprotein kinase (AMPK) induced both Ser237 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding properties on human TBC1D1 when evaluated in vitro. To further characterize the role of AMPK as an upstream kinase regulating TBC1D1, extensor digitorum longus...

  14. Maximal exercise capacity is related to cardiovascular structure in patients with longstanding hypertension. A LIFE substudy. Losartan Intervention For Endpoint-Reduction in Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Wachtell, K; Hermann, K L

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular hypertrophy and remodeling in patients with never-treated hypertension has been associated with impaired exercise capacity, but whether this relationship remains in patients with longstanding hypertension and target organ damage is less elucidated. METHODS: In 43...... compliance by echocardiography, minimal forearm vascular resistance (MFVR) by plethysmography, and intima media thickness and distensibility in the common carotid arteries by ultrasound. RESULTS: The patients did not achieve the maximal workload as predicted by age, gender and body composition (146...... the predicted maximal workload. This impaired exercise capacity was associated with lower common carotid distensibility and lower oxygen reserve. The latter was independently related to LV hypertrophy, low systemic vascular compliance and peripheral vascular remodeling, suggesting that cardiovascular...

  15. A shirt containing multistage phase change material and active cooling components was associated with increased exercise capacity in a hot, humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Henning, Andrea L; Venable, Adam S; Williams, Randall R; Best Sampson, Jill N

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in clothing design include the incorporation of phase change materials (PCM) and other active cooling components (ACC) to provide better body heat dissipation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wearing a shirt containing multistage PCM/ACC on exercise capacity at low (5.0), moderate-high (7.5) and extreme (9.0) levels of the physiological strain index (PSI). Fourteen individuals tested two shirts (control vs. cooling) during 45-min of interval running in a hot, humid (35 ± 1 °C; 55 ± 6% RH) environment. The cooling shirt resulted in an 8% improvement in exercise capacity at a PSI of 7.5 (p active cooling components.

  16. Does an Exercise Intervention Improving Aerobic Capacity Among Construction Workers Also Improve Musculoskeletal Pain, Work Ability, Productivity, Perceived Physical Exertion, and Sick Leave?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Bültmann, Ute;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To investigate whether an exercise intervention shown to increase aerobic capacity, would also lead to less musculoskeletal pain; improved work ability, productivity, and perceived physical exertion; and less sick leave. METHODS:: Sixty-seven construction workers were randomized...... into an exercise group training 3 × 20 minutes per week and a control group. Questionnaires and text messages were completed before and after the 12-week intervention. RESULTS:: No significant changes were found in musculoskeletal pain, work ability, productivity, perceived physical exertion, and sick leave...... with the intervention. Questionnaires and text messages provided similar results of pain and work ability. CONCLUSIONS:: Although the intervention improved aerobic capacity, it was not successful in improving musculoskeletal pain and other work-related factors. A detectable improvement presumably requires a more...

  17. Beneficial effects of dark chocolate on exercise capacity in sedentary subjects: underlying mechanisms. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Pam R; Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Patel, Minal; Higginbotham, Erin; Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Román-Pintos, Luis Miguel; Phillips, Paul; Perkins, Guy; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2016-09-14

    In heart failure patients the consumption of (-)-epicatechin ((-)-Epi)-rich cocoa can restore skeletal muscle (SkM) mitochondrial structure and decrease biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, nothing is known about its effects on exercise capacity and underlying mechanisms in normal, sedentary subjects. Twenty normal, sedentary subjects (∼50 years old) were randomized to placebo or dark chocolate (DC) groups and consumed 20 g of the products for 3 months. Subjects underwent before and after treatment, bicycle ergometry to assess VO2 max and work, SkM biopsy to assess changes in mitochondrial density, function and oxidative stress and blood sampling to assess metabolic endpoints. Seventeen subjects completed the trial. In the DC group (n = 9), VO2 max increased (17% increase, p = 0.056) as well as maximum work (watts) achieved (p = 0.026) with no changes with placebo (n = 8). The DC group evidenced increases in HDL levels (p = 0.005) and decreased triglycerides (p = 0.07). With DC, SkM evidenced significant increases in protein levels for LKB1, AMPK and PGC1α and in their active forms (phosphorylated AMPK and LKB1) as well as in citrate synthase activity while no changes were observed in mitochondrial density. With DC, significant increases in SkM reduced glutathione levels and decreases in protein carbonylation were observed. Improvements in maximum work achieved and VO2 max may be due to DC activation of upstream control systems and enhancement of SkM mitochondria efficiency. Larger clinical studies are warranted to confirm these observations.

  18. CRBA: A Capacity Restricted Model Evolved from BA Model for Complex Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-song Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is critical to obtain a fine description of the topology of a complex network when modeling its behavior, as the network’s functionality heavily relies on its structure.  Capacity Restricted model evolved from BA model (CRBA for complex network proposed in this paper is the first attempt to date to take the node’s capacity distribution into modeling. CRBA is a universal and academic model, we learn it qualitatively and acquire several meaningful outcomes. Then we deduce a practical model from CRBA (CRBAC which has a constant node’s capacity distribution. We make a quantitative comparison of the properties of CRBAC with those of BA model, including the degree distribution, clustering coefficient and the average path length. Since majority of networks in practical are capacity–restricted, our model provides a better description of real-life complex networks.

  19. Effect of trimetazidine on exercise capacity of the patients with old myocardial infarction during recovery period%曲美他嗪对陈旧性心肌梗死康复期运动耐量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩跃刚; 田军; 刘万秀; 卢珊

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of trimetazidine(TMZ) on exercise capacity of the patients with old myocardial infarction during recovery period. Method 28 patients were administered hitrales, blockers and antipemic agents. 30 patients were administered TMZ 20 mg tid. After 12 weeks ,we compared nitrite expenditures, time to onset of angina after exercise, the time to 1 mm ST segment depression after exercise and rate pressure product. Result Nitrite expenditures per week were significantly reduced than before treatment and comprehensive group(P0.05). Conclusion TMZ may increase exercise capacity of patients with old myocardial infarction.

  20. Influence of Time-of-Day on Maximal Exercise Capacity Is Related to Daily Thermal Balance but Not to Induced Neuronal Activity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Frederico S. M.; Fóscolo, Daniela R. C.; Poletini, Maristela O.; Coimbra, Cândido C.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the daily fluctuations of internal body temperature (Tb) and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) interact with the thermal and neuronal adjustments induced by high-intensity aerobic exercise until fatigue. The body temperature and SLA of adult Wistar rats (n = 23) were continuously recorded by telemetry for 48 h. Then, the rats were subjected to a protocol of graded exercise until fatigue or rest on the treadmill during light and dark-phases. Tb, tail skin temperature and ambient temperature during each experimental session were recorded. At the end of the last experimental session, the animals were anaesthetized; the brains were perfused and removed for immunohistochemical analysis of c-fos neuronal activation. The daily rhythms of SLA and Tb were strongly correlated (r = 0.88 and p < 0.001), and this was followed by a daily oscillation in both the ratio and the correlation index between these variables (p < 0.001). Exercise capacity was associated with a lower resting Tb (p < 0.01) and was higher in the light-phase (p < 0.001), resulting in an increased capacity to accumulate heat during exercise (p < 0.01). Independent of time-of-day, high intensity exercise strongly activated the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the supra-optic nucleus (SON) and the locus coeruleus (LC) (p < 0.001) but not the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Taken together, our results points toward a role of the circadian system in a basal activity control of the thermoregulatory system as an important component for the onset of physical activities. In fact, rather than directly limiting the adjustments induced by exercise the present study brings new evidence that the effect of time-of-day on exercise performance occurs at the threshold level for each thermoregulatory system effector activity. This assumption is based on the observed resilience of the central clock to high-intensity exercise and the similarities in exercise

  1. Nutritional status is related to fat-free mass, exercise capacity and inspiratory strength in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Pollyane Galinari; Silva, Bruno Moreira; Brunetto, Antonio Fernando

    2010-06-01

    Being overweight or obese is associated with a higher rate of survival in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This paradoxical relationship indicates that the influence of nutritional status on functional parameters should be further investigated. To investigate the impact of nutritional status on body composition, exercise capacity and respiratory muscle strength in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Thirty-two patients (nine women) were divided into three groups according to their body mass indices (BMI): overweight/obese (25 obstruction was similar among the groups (p=0.30); however, overweight/obese patients had a higher fat-free mass (FFM) index [FFMI=FFM/body weight(2) (mean+/-SEM: 17+/-0.3 vs. 15+/-0.3 vs. 14+/-0.5 m/kg(2), pchronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients who were overweight or obese had a greater FFM, exercise capacity and inspiratory muscle strength than patients with the same degree of airflow obstruction who were of normal weight or underweight, and higher FFM was independently associated with higher exercise capacity. These characteristics of overweight or obese patients might counteract the drawbacks of excess weight and lead to an improved prognosis in COPD.

  2. BP Neural Network Model-based Physical Exercises and Dietary Habits Relationships Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingwei; Zhang, Xuesheng; Sun, Yi

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous progress of society, increment of social pressure, people have paid little and little attentions to physical exercises and dietary necessity. Take Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Shijiazhuang and Baotou university students as research objects, targeted at physical exercises time and dietary habits, it starts investigation. Make principal component analysis of investigation results, results indicates that cereal intake is principal component in dietary habits; strenuous exercise time and general physical exercise time are the principal components in physical exercise. Utilize BP neural network model, analyze these seven cities' physical exercises and dietary habits conditions, the result indicates that except for Shenzhen, all the other six cities haven't reached the standard.

  3. Effect of physical training on exercise capacity, gas exchange and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Sarullo, Filippo; Gristina, Tommaso; Brusca, Ignazio; Milia, Salvatore; Raimondi, Raffaella; Sajeva, Massimo; Maria La Chiusa, Stella; Serio, Gesualdo; Paterna, Salvatore; Di Pasquale, Pietro; Castello, Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Decreased exercise capacity is the main factor restricting the daily life of patients with chronic heart failure. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP) is strongly related to the severity of and is an independent predictor of outcome in chronic heart failure. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise training on functional capacity and on changes in NT pro-BNP levels and to assess the effect of exercise training on quality of life. Sixty patients (45 men/15 women, mean age 52.7 years; +/-5.3 SD), with stable heart failure (45 ischaemic/hypertensive and 15 idiopathic patients), in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II (n=35) to III (n=25), with an ejection fraction less than 40%, were randomly assigned to a training (n=30) and a control group (n=30). The training group (30 patients) performed 3 months of supervised physical training programme using a bicycle ergometer for 30 min three times a week at a load corresponding to 60-70% of their oxygen consumption (VO2) peak. The control group did not change their previous physical activity. A graded maximal exercise test with respiratory gas analysis and an endurance test with constant workload corresponding to 85% of the peak oxygen load at the baseline and after 3 months were performed, and at the same times NT pro-BNP levels were measured. The exercise capacity increased from 15.8 (+/-2.3 SD) to 29.9 (+/-2.1 SD) min (P<0.0001) and the peak VO2 tended to improve from 14.5 (+/-1.4 SD) to 17.7 (+/-2.6 SD) ml/kg per min (P<0.0001) during the supervised training period. VO2 at the anaerobic threshold increased from 12.9 (+/-1.0 SD) to 15.5 (+/-1.7 SD) ml/kg per min (P<0.0001). NT pro-BNP levels decreased from 3376 (+/-3133 SD) to 1434 (+/-1673 SD) pg/ml (P=0.043). The positive training effects were associated with an improvement in the NYHA functional class. Physical training of moderate intensity significantly improves the exercise capacity and neurohormonal modulation in patients

  4. Nutritional status is related to fat-free mass, exercise capacity and inspiratory strength in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyane Galinari Sabino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Being overweight or obese is associated with a higher rate of survival in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This paradoxical relationship indicates that the influence of nutritional status on functional parameters should be further investigated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of nutritional status on body composition, exercise capacity and respiratory muscle strength in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. METHODS: Thirty-two patients (nine women were divided into three groups according to their body mass indices (BMI: overweight/obese (25 < BMI < 34.9 kg/m², n=8, normal weight (18.5 < BMI < 24.9 kg/m², n=17 and underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m², n=7. Spirometry, bioelectrical impedance, a six-minute walking distance test and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures were assessed. RESULTS: Airway obstruction was similar among the groups (p=0.30; however, overweight/obese patients had a higher fat-free mass (FFM index [FFMI=FFM/body weight² (mean±SEM: 17±0.3 vs. 15±0.3 vs. 14±0.5 m/kg², p<0.01], exercise capacity (90±8 vs. 79±6 vs. 57±8 m, p=0.02 and maximal inspiratory pressure (63±7 vs. 57±5 vs. 35±8 % predicted, p=0.03 in comparison to normal weight and underweight patients, respectively. In addition, on backward multiple regression analysis, FFMI was the unique independent predictor of exercise capacity (partial r=0.52, p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients who were overweight or obese had a greater FFM, exercise capacity and inspiratory muscle strength than patients with the same degree of airflow obstruction who were of normal weight or underweight, and higher FFM was independently associated with higher exercise capacity. These characteristics of overweight or obese patients might counteract the drawbacks of excess weight and lead to an improved prognosis in COPD.

  5. Assessing the effect of high-repetitive single limb exercises (HRSLE on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD: study protocol for randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyberg Andre

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-limb knee extension exercises have been found to be effective at improving lower extremity exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Since the positive local physiological effects of exercise training only occur in the engaged muscle(s, should upper extremity muscles also be included to determine the effect of single limb exercises in COPD patients. Methods/design Trial design: a prospective, assessor-blind, block randomized controlled, parallel-group multicenter trial. Participants: stage II-IV COPD patients, > 40 years of age, ex-smokers, with stable medical treatment will be included starting May 2011. Recruitment at three locations in Sweden. Interventions: 1 high-repetitive single limb exercise (HRSLE training with elastic bands, 60 minutes, three times/week for 8 weeks combined with four sessions of 60 minutes patient education, or 2 the same patient education alone. Outcomes: Primary: determine the effects of HRSLE on local muscle endurance capacity (measured as meters walked during 6-minute walk test and rings moved on 6-minute ring and pegboard test and quality of life (measured as change on the Swedish version of the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire. Secondary: effects on maximal strength, muscular endurance, dyspnea, self-efficacy, anxiety and depression. The relationship between changes in health-related variables and changes in exercise capacity, sex-related differences in training effects, feasibility of the program, strategies to determine adequate starting resistance and provide accurate resistance for each involved movement and the relationship between muscle fatigue and dyspnea in the different exercise tests will also be analyzed. Randomization: performed by a person independent of the recruitment process and using a computer random number generator. Stratification by center and gender with a 1:1 allocation to the intervention or control using random

  6. The strength model of self-control in sport and exercise psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eEnglert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The strength model of self-control assumes that all acts of self-control (e.g., emotion regulation, persistence are empowered by a single global metaphorical strength that has limited capacity. This strength can become temporarily depleted after a primary self-control act, which, in turn, can impair performance in subsequent acts of self-control. Recently, the assumptions of the strength model of self-control also have been adopted and tested in the field of sport and exercise psychology. The present review paper aims to give an overview of recent developments in self-control research based on the strength model of self-control. Furthermore, recent research on interventions on how to improve and revitalize self-control strength will be presented. Finally, the strength model of self-control has been criticized lately, as well as expanded in scope, so the present paper will also discuss alternative explanations of why previous acts of self-control can lead to impaired performance in sport and exercise.

  7. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Applied Early After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting on Pulmonary Function, Respiratory Muscle Strength, and Functional Capacity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Daniel L; Silva, Mayara Gabrielle; Silva, Luan Nascimento; Fortes, João Vyctor; Costa, Erika Thalita; Assunção, Rebeca Pessoa; Lima, Carlos Magno; da Silva Nina, Vinícius José; Bernardo-Filho, Mário; Caputo, Danúbia Sá

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity is beneficial in several clinical situations and recommended for patients with ischemic heart disease, as well as for those undergoing cardiac surgery. In a randomized controlled trial, 34 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. A randomized control group (n = 15) submitted to conventional physiotherapy. The intervention group (n = 19) received the same protocol plus additional aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer. Pulmonary function by spirometry, respiratory muscle strength by manovacuometry, and functional capacity through 6-minute walking test was assessed before surgery and at hospital discharge. There was significant reduction in pulmonary function in both groups. In both groups, inspiratory muscle strength was maintained while expiratory muscle strength significantly decreased. Functional capacity was maintained in the intervention group (364.5 [324.5 to 428] vs. 348 [300.7 to 413.7] meters, P = .06), but it decreased significantly in control group patients (320 [288.5 to 393.0] vs. 292 [237.0 to 336.0] meters, P = .01). A significant difference in functional capacity was also found in intergroup analyses at hospital discharge (P = .03). Aerobic exercise applied early on coronary artery bypass grafting patients may promote maintenance of functional capacity, with no impact on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength when compared with conventional physiotherapy.

  8. Water Constraints in an Electric Sector Capacity Expansion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newmark, Robin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martinez, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tidwell, Vince [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-17

    This analysis provides a description of the first U.S. national electricity capacity expansion model to incorporate water resource availability and costs as a constraint for the future development of the electricity sector. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model was modified to incorporate water resource availability constraints and costs in each of its 134 Balancing Area (BA) regions along with differences in costs and efficiencies of cooling systems. Water resource availability and cost data are from recently completed research at Sandia National Laboratories (Tidwell et al. 2013b). Scenarios analyzed include a business-as-usual 3 This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. scenario without water constraints as well as four scenarios that include water constraints and allow for different cooling systems and types of water resources to be utilized. This analysis provides insight into where water resource constraints could affect the choice, configuration, or location of new electricity technologies.

  9. Effects of aerobic interval training versus continuous moderate exercise programme on aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and blood lipid profile in collegate females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzystof Mazurek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Regular physical activity has many positive health benefits, including reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases and some cancers, as well as improving the quality of life. objectives. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of 8-week aerobic interval cycle exercise training (AIT compared to continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and lipid profile. material and methods. The research was conducted in 88 volunteers aged 19.5±0.6 years, who were randomized to three groups of organized physical activity (OPA, who exercised 3 times per week in 47 min sessions: (I AIT (n=24 comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active rest pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax, (II CME (n=22 corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax, (III regular collegiate physical education classes of programmed exercises (CON; n=42. Before and after OPA anthropometrics, aero- and anaerobic capacity and lipid profile indices were measured. results. In AIT, a significantly greater decrease of waist circumference and WHR was noted when compared to CON, and a significantly greater reduction of sum of skinfolds than in CON and CME. Improvement in relative and absolute VO2max (L/min and ml/kg/min was significantly higher in AIT than CON. Work output and peak power output in the anaerobic test improved significantly in AIT, CME and CON, but independently of training type. OPA was effective only in reducing triglyceride concentrations in CME and CON groups, without interaction effects in relation to training type. conclusion. It was found that 8 weeks of OPA was beneficial in improving somatic and aerobic capacity indices, but AIT resulted in the greatest improvement in somatic indices (waist circumference, WHR, sum of skinfolds and in VO[sub]2[/sub]max, compared to CME and CON programmes.

  10. Mathematical finance theory review and exercises from binomial model to risk measures

    CERN Document Server

    Gianin, Emanuela Rosazza

    2013-01-01

    The book collects over 120 exercises on different subjects of Mathematical Finance, including Option Pricing, Risk Theory, and Interest Rate Models. Many of the exercises are solved, while others are only proposed. Every chapter contains an introductory section illustrating the main theoretical results necessary to solve the exercises. The book is intended as an exercise textbook to accompany graduate courses in mathematical finance offered at many universities as part of degree programs in Applied and Industrial Mathematics, Mathematical Engineering, and Quantitative Finance.

  11. Telemetric analysis of haemodynamic regulation during voluntary exercise training in mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    Adlam, D; De Bono, J. P.; Danson, E. J.; Zhang, M. H.; Casadei, B.; Paterson, D.J.; Channon, K M

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical exercise reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and improves outcome in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The dynamic changes in blood pressure and heart rate with acute exercise are independently predictive of prognosis. Quantification of the haemodynamic response to exercise training in genetically modified mouse models may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise. We describe, for the first time, the use of radiot...

  12. Effects of renal sympathetic denervation on exercise blood pressure, heart rate, and capacity in patients with resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Sebastian; Mahfoud, Felix; Linz, Dominik; Pöss, Janine; Cremers, Bodo; Kindermann, Ingrid; Laufs, Ulrich; Ukena, Christian; Böhm, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Renal denervation reduces office blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension. This study investigated the effects of renal denervation on blood pressure, heart rate, and chronotropic index at rest, during exercise, and at recovery in 60 patients (renal denervation group=50, control group=10) with resistant hypertension using a standardized bicycle exercise test protocol performed 6 and 12 months after renal denervation. After renal denervation, exercise blood pressure at rest was reduced from 158±3/90±2 to 141±3/84±4 mm Hg (PExercise blood pressure tended to be lower at all stages of exercise at 6- and 12-month follow-up in patients undergoing renal denervation, although reaching statistical significance only at mild-to-moderate exercise levels (75-100 W). At recovery after 1 minute, blood pressure decreased from 201±4/95±2 to 177±4/88±2 (PHeart rate was reduced after renal denervation from 71±3 bpm at rest, 128±5 bpm at maximum workload, and 96±5 bpm at recovery after 1 minute to 66±2 (Pexercise time increased from 6.59±0.33 to 8.4±0.32 (Pheart rate during exercise, improved mean workload, and increased exercise time without impairing chronotropic competence.

  13. Considering Renewables in Capacity Expansion Models: Capturing Flexibility with Hourly Dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, Clayton; Mai, Trieu; Hale, Elaine; Lopez, Anthony; Eurek, Kelly

    2015-07-03

    The Resource Planning Model co-optimizes dispatch and capacity expansion using a simplified, chronological dispatch period representation and high-resolution resource, load and infrastructure data. The computational tractability of capacity expansion models depends on model simplifications. We demonstrate the effects of various dispatch period representations on model results using the Resource Planning Model.

  14. A research and evaluation capacity building model in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Roanna; Crawford, Gemma; Hallett, Jonathan; Laing, Sue; Mak, Donna B; Jancey, Jonine; Rowell, Sally; McCausland, Kahlia; Bastian, Lisa; Sorenson, Anne; Tilley, P J Matt; Yam, Simon; Comfort, Jude; Brennan, Sean; Doherty, Maryanne

    2016-12-27

    Evaluation of public health programs, services and policies is increasingly required to demonstrate effectiveness. Funding constraints necessitate that existing programs, services and policies be evaluated and their findings disseminated. Evidence-informed practice and policy is also desirable to maximise investments in public health. Partnerships between public health researchers, service providers and policymakers can help address evaluation knowledge and skills gaps. The Western Australian Sexual Health and Blood-borne Virus Applied Research and Evaluation Network (SiREN) aims to build research and evaluation capacity in the sexual health and blood-borne virus sector in Western Australia (WA). Partners' perspectives of the SiREN model after 2 years were explored. Qualitative written responses from service providers, policymakers and researchers about the SiREN model were analysed thematically. Service providers reported that participation in SiREN prompted them to consider evaluation earlier in the planning process and increased their appreciation of the value of evaluation. Policymakers noted benefits of the model in generating local evidence and highlighting local issues of importance for consideration at a national level. Researchers identified challenges communicating the services available through SiREN and the time investment needed to develop effective collaborative partnerships. Stronger engagement between public health researchers, service providers and policymakers through collaborative partnerships has the potential to improve evidence generation and evidence translation. These outcomes require long-term funding and commitment from all partners to develop and maintain partnerships. Ongoing monitoring and evaluation can ensure the partnership remains responsive to the needs of key stakeholders. The findings are applicable to many sectors.

  15. Sense of coherence, rather than exercise capacity, is the stronger predictor to obtain health-related quality of life in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan; Hess, John; Hager, Alfred

    2014-08-01

    Irrespective of their cardiovascular findings, quality of life in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) is good or even superior to that in healthy controls. The sense of coherence (SOC), a psychological resource that focuses on factors that support human health and well-being, was suggested to act as a potential pathway for maintaining and improving quality of life independently from the disease status. From April 2010 to May 2011, we consecutively included 546 young adults (236 female, median age 26.9 years, aged from 16 to 71 years) with various CHD into the study. Patients completed the SOC-13 questionnaire and the health-related quality of life questionnaire SF-36. Afterwards they performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test. In adults with CHD, SOC was slightly enhanced compared with reference values (CHD: median 74.0 [IQR: 63.8;81.0] vs. reference value: 69.7 [68.5;69.7]; p life (r = 0.260 to r = 0.686; p life, and seems to be a stronger predictor of health-related life quality than exercise capacity. SOC might explain the rather good quality of life in patients with CHD despite their reduction in exercise capacity. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Modeling soil detachment capacity by rill flow using hydraulic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongdong; Wang, Zhanli; Shen, Nan; Chen, Hao

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between soil detachment capacity (Dc) by rill flow and hydraulic parameters (e.g., flow velocity, shear stress, unit stream power, stream power, and unit energy) at low flow rates is investigated to establish an accurate experimental model. Experiments are conducted using a 4 × 0.1 m rill hydraulic flume with a constant artificial roughness on the flume bed. The flow rates range from 0.22 × 10-3 m2 s-1 to 0.67 × 10-3 m2 s-1, and the slope gradients vary from 15.8% to 38.4%. Regression analysis indicates that the Dc by rill flow can be predicted using the linear equations of flow velocity, stream power, unit stream power, and unit energy. Dc by rill flow that is fitted to shear stress can be predicted with a power function equation. Predictions based on flow velocity, unit energy, and stream power are powerful, but those based on shear stress, especially on unit stream power, are relatively poor. The prediction based on flow velocity provides the best estimates of Dc by rill flow because of the simplicity and availability of its measurements. Owing to error in measuring flow velocity at low flow rates, the predictive abilities of Dc by rill flow using all hydraulic parameters are relatively lower in this study compared with the results of previous research. The measuring accuracy of experiments for flow velocity should be improved in future research.

  17. Impact of exercise capacity on dyspnea and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Frølich, Anne; Godtfredsen, Nina S

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of the amount of exercise training during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program for improvements in dyspnea and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).......To assess the impact of the amount of exercise training during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program for improvements in dyspnea and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....

  18. EFFECTS OF AN EXERCISE-ORIENTED REHABILITATION PROGRAM ON MECHANICAL EFFICIENCIY AND AEROBIC CAPACITY IN CHILDREN WITH SPASTIC CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Izadi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveChildren suffering from Cerebral Palsy (CP, exhibit movement limitations and physiological abnormalities as compared to normal individuals.The objective of this study was to assess mechanical efficiency and certain cardiovascular indices before and after an exercise-rehabilitation program in children with dipelegia spastic cerebral palsy (experimental group in comparison with able-bodied children(controls. Material and MethodsIn this study, 15 spastic cerebral palsy (dipelegic children participated in an exercise-rehabilitation program, three days a week for three months with an average 144bpm of heart rate. The mechanical efficiency (net, gross, rest and submaximal heart rate and maximal oxygen consumption(VO2max weremeasured before (pretest and after (posttest exercise program on the cycle ergometer according to the Macmaster ergometer protocol. Then control group, of 18 normal children underwent the exercise program and were assessed, following which results of the 2 groups were compared using SPSS for statistical analysis (P ResultsMechanical efficiency (net, gross increased significantly in CP patients after the exercise-rehabilitation program; reults did not alter significantly for the controls.Rest and submaximal heart rate in CP patients decreased significantly after exercise program. Maximal oxygen consumption, which remained unchanged in patients following the exercise program, was similar in patients and controls after the program. ConclusionCerebral palsy patients, because of their high muscle tone, severe degree of spasticity, and involuntary movements are physically more incapacitated and need more energy than normal able-bodied individuals.Rehabilitation and aerobic exercise can be effective in improving their cardiovascular fitness and muscle function and increasing their mechanical efficiency.Keywords: spastic cerebral palsy, maximal oxygen consumption, heart rate, mechanical efficiency, rehabilitation.

  19. Community capacity for sustainable community-based dengue prevention and control:domain, assessment tool and capacity building model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charuai Suwanbamrung

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand the community capacity for sustainable community-based dengue prevention and control, this paper proposes the approach of a previous study about meaning and domains of dengue prevention and control, an assessment tool and a community capacity building model for sustainable community-based dengue prevention and control in the Southern Thailand. A study of dengue community capacity domains was conducted by utilizing a qualitative method, whereby ten initial community domains were identified by means of a literature review, in-depth interviews of sixty community leaders, and eight focus group discussions with sixty non-leaders in four sub-districts of southern Thailand. In the final study, there were 14 identifiable domains in leaders group and 11 domains in non-leaders. The resulting dengue community capacity-assessment tool (DCCAT) consisted of two parts:one for leaders (DCCAT-L) and the other for non-leaders (DCCAT-NL). DCCAT-L was composed of 115 items within 14 domains and 83 items within 11 domains for the DCCAT-NL. The key domains of leaders and non-leaders had a partial overlap of domains such as critical situation management, personal leadership, health care provider capacity, needs assessment, senses of community, leader group networking, communication of dengue information, community leadership, religious capacity, leader group and community networking, resource mobilization, dengue working group, community participation, and continuing activities. The application of the new tool consisted of five steps:1) community preparation, 2) assessment, 3) a community hearing meeting, 4) interventions, and 5) conclusion and improvement step. All stakeholders in the community should use the new tool based on a clear understanding of the measurement objectives, the desired outcomes, resources available and characteristics of their community. If communities need to develop and build dengue community capacity, then the designed pre

  20. N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation Controls Total Antioxidant Capacity, Creatine Kinase, Lactate, and Tumor Necrotic Factor-Alpha against Oxidative Stress Induced by Graded Exercise in Sedentary Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donrawee Leelarungrayub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term (7 days N-acetylcysteine (NAC at 1,200 mg daily supplementation on muscle fatigue, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lactate, creatine kinase (CK, and tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α. Twenty-nine sedentary men (13 controls; 16 in the supplement group from a randomized control were included. At before and after supplementation, fatigue index (FI was evaluated in the quadriceps muscle, and performed a graded exercise treadmill test to induce oxidative stress, and as a measure of VO2max. Blood samples were taken before exercise and 20 minutes after it at before and after supplementation, to determine TAC, CK, lactate, and TNF-α levels. Results showed that FI and VO2max increased significantly in the supplement group. After exercise decreased the levels of TAC and increased lactate, CK, and TNF-α of both groups at before supplementation. After supplementation, lactate, CK, and TNF-α levels significantly increased and TAC decreased after exercise in the control group. Whereas the TAC and lactate levels did not change significantly, but CK and TNF-α increased significantly in the supplement group. Therefore, this results showed that NAC improved the muscle fatigue, VO2max, maintained TAC, controlled lactate production, but had no influence on CK and TNF-α.

  1. The revision on heat capacity of Einstein's solid model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ai-kun; ZHOU Guo-xiang; LI Guo-chang; XUE Jian-hua

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on Einstein's supposition about crystal lattice vibration, which states that when Einstein's temperature ( )E is not less than the crystal temperature T but less than 2T, the expression of crystal molar heat capacity changes to the Dulong-Petit equation Cv = 3R. Thereby this equation can explain why crystal molar heat capacity equals about 3R not only at low temperatures but also at normal temperatures for many kinds of metals. It can be calculated that the nonlinear interaction among atoms contributes to the molar heat capacity using the coefficient of expansionβ and the Grüneisen constant γ. The result is that the relative error between the theoretical and the experimental value of the molar heat capacity is reduced greatly for many kinds of metals, especially for metals of IA. The relative error can be cut by about 17%.

  2. A comparison of the Endurance Shuttle Walk test and the Six Minute Walk test for assessment of exercise capacity in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Miles D; Sugden, Jacqui A; Sumukadas, Deepa; Dryburgh, Moira; McMurdo, Marion E T

    2012-04-01

    The six minute walk test is widely used to measure aerobic exercise capacity in older people, but lack responsiveness to change. We aimed to compare the reliability, responsiveness and completion rates of the six minute walk with a new test of aerobic exercise capacity - the endurance shuttle walk test. Two groups were studied: 18 patients from a Medicine for the Elderly Day Hospital (study 1) receiving physiotherapy, and 15 community dwelling older people (study 2) receiving caffeine or placebo in a crossover study, followed by a weekly exercise programme. Six minute walk test and endurance shuttle walk test were performed at baseline and after interventions. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for reliability, and Cohen's effect sizes were calculated to characterize responsiveness. 6/18 of patients in study 1 completed the baseline shuttle walk successfully. For those completing baseline and week one shuttle walk, similar intraclass correlation coefficients were seen (shuttle walk 0.97; six minute walk 0.90). In study 2, all attendees completed baseline and follow-up shuttle walk. 7/15 managed the maximum shuttle walk time at baseline. Effect sizes for caffeine intervention (0.29 for six minute walk, 0.01 for shuttle walk) and for exercise intervention (0.15 for six minute walk, 0.24 for shuttle walk) were similarly low for both tests. The endurance shuttle walk is no more responsive to change than the six minute walk in older people, is limited by ceiling effects, and cannot be performed successfully by very frail older people.

  3. The single-bout forearm critical force test: a new method to establish forearm aerobic metabolic exercise intensity and capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mikhail Kellawan

    Full Text Available No non-invasive test exists for forearm exercise that allows identification of power-time relationship parameters (W', critical power and thereby identification of the heavy-severe exercise intensity boundary and scaling of aerobic metabolic exercise intensity. The aim of this study was to develop a maximal effort handgrip exercise test to estimate forearm critical force (fCF; force analog of power and establish its repeatability and validity. Ten healthy males (20-43 years completed two maximal effort rhythmic handgrip exercise tests (repeated maximal voluntary contractions (MVC; 1 s contraction-2 s relaxation for 600 s on separate days. Exercise intensity was quantified via peak contraction force and contraction impulse. There was no systematic difference between test 1 and 2 for fCF(peak force (p = 0.11 or fCF(impulse (p = 0.76. Typical error was small for both fCF(peak force (15.3 N, 5.5% and fCF(impulse (15.7 N ⋅ s, 6.8%, and test re-test correlations were strong (fCF(peak force, r = 0.91, ICC = 0.94, pfCF(peak force. TTE predicted by W' showed good agreement with actual TTE during the TTE tests (r = 0.97, ICC = 0.97, P<0.01; typical error 0.98 min, 12%; regression fit slope = 0.99 and y intercept not different from 0, p = 0.31. MVC did not predict fCF(peak force (p = 0.37, fCF(impulse (p = 0.49 or W' (p = 0.15. In conclusion, the poor relationship between MVC and fCF or W' illustrates the serious limitation of MVC in identifying metabolism-based exercise intensity zones. The maximal effort handgrip exercise test provides repeatable and valid estimates of fCF and should be used to normalize forearm aerobic metabolic exercise intensity instead of MVC.

  4. The impact of electronic mail versus print delivery of an exercise program on muscular strength and aerobic capacity in people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J David

    2008-09-01

    Previous research indicates that the Internet, electronic mail (e-mail), and printed materials can be used to deliver interventions to improve physical activity in people with type 2 diabetes. However, no studies have been conducted investigating the effect of e-mail or print delivery of an exercise program on muscular strength and aerobic capacity in people with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this clinical trial was to investigate the impact of e-mail vs. print delivery of an exercise program on muscular strength and aerobic capacity in people with type 2 diabetes. Nineteen participants with type 2 diabetes were allocated to either a group that was delivered a prescribed exercise program using e-mail (e-mail group, n = 10) or a group that was delivered the same prescribed exercise program in print form (print group, n = 9). Chest press and leg press estimated one-repetition maximum (1-RM) scores as well as estimated peak oxygen uptake ([latin capital V with dot above]O2peak) were measured at baseline and follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis indicated significant improvements in chest press (mean = 7.00 kg, p = 0.001, effect size = 2.22) and leg press (mean = 19.32 kg, p = 0.002, effect size = 1.98) 1-RM scores and [latin capital V with dot above]O2peak (mean = 9.38 mL of oxygen uptake per kilogram of body mass per minute, p = 0.01, effect size = 1.45) within the e-mail group. Within the print group, significant improvements in chest press (mean = 9.13 kg, p = 0.01, effect size = 1.49) and leg press (mean = 16.68 kg, p = 0.01, effect size = 1.31) 1-RM scores and [latin capital V with dot above]O2peak (mean = 5.14 ml of oxygen uptake per kilogram of body mass per minute, p = 0.03, effect size = 1.14) were found. No significant between-group differences in improvements were found. Clinicians can deliver a prescribed exercise program, either by e-mail or in print form, to significantly improve muscular strength and aerobic capacity in people with type 2 diabetes

  5. Exercise capacity and physical activity in patients with COPD and healthy subjects classified as Medical Research Council dyspnea scale grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Warrington, Vicki; Harrison, Samantha; Mitchell, Katy; Steiner, Mick; Morgan, Mike; Singh, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often classified by Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea grade and comparisons thus made to healthy individuals. The MRC grade of a healthy population is assumed to be grade 1, although this may be inaccurate. Physical activity and exercise capacity are not well-defined for those with MRC grade 2. This study was undertaken to establish whether there are differences in physical activity and exercise capacity between individuals with COPD and healthy controls, who have all assessed themselves as MRC grade 2. Patients with COPD (n = 83) and 19 healthy controls, with a self-selected MRC grade of 2, completed the Incremental Shuttle Walk Test (ISWT) and wore a SenseWear (BodyMedia, Pittsburgh, PA) activity monitor for 12 hours for 2 weekdays. Adjusting for age, step count and ISWT were significantly reduced for those with COPD, compared with healthy controls (P < .05). Patients with COPD achieved mean (SD) 425.5 (131.3) m on ISWT and took 6022 (3276) steps per day compared with 647.8 (146.3) m and 9462 (4141) steps per day for healthy controls. For subjects achieving 10 000 steps per day, 8 (42.11%) healthy controls achieved this level compared with 7 (8.43%) patients with COPD (P < .01). Healthy individuals may report functional limitations and categorize themselves as MRC grade 2. However, despite both groups subjectively considering themselves similarly functionally limited, exercise capacity and physical activity were significantly reduced in patients with COPD compared with healthy participants. This highlights the importance of early interventions to increase physical performance and prevent functional decline for patients with COPD.

  6. Mechanisms for exercise training-induced increases in skeletal muscle blood flow capacity: differences with interval sprint training versus aerobic endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M H; Roseguini, B

    2008-12-01

    Skeletal muscle blood flow capacity (BFC) is increased by exercise training due to structural vascular remodeling (in the form of angiogenesis of capillaries and remodeling of the arterial tree within skeletal muscle) and/or altered control of vascular resistance. Changes in control can be central or the result of changes in reactivity of arteries and arterioles (due to changes in vascular smooth muscle and/or endothelium). The purpose of this review is to evaluate the relative importance of these mechanisms for increased BFC following interval sprint training (IST) and endurance exercise training (ET). Based on the results discussed herein we conclude that the importance of each of these mechanisms varies throughout muscle tissue due to interactions of muscle fiber-type composition and muscle fiber recruitment patterns during exercise. The distribution of vascular adaptive changes varies with mode of training. For example, IST has been shown to produce the greatest relative increase in contractile activity in fast-twitch, white, skeletal muscle (i.e. white gastrocnemius muscle (Gw) and Gw muscle exhibits the largest increase in oxidative capacity, capillary density, BFC, and changes in vascular cells with IST. In contrast, ET has been shown to produce the greatest relative increase in contractile activity in red gastrocnemius muscle (Gr), and Gr muscle exhibits the largest increase in oxidative capacity, capillary density, and BFC after ET training. Results demonstrate that the increases in BFC are not mediated solely by structural adaptation. Rather, changes in vascular control predominate in Gr and soleus muscle, while increases in arteriolar and capillary density predominate following IST in Gw. Finally, evidence indicates that ET and IST induce non-uniform changes in smooth muscle and endothelium throughout skeletal muscle arteriolar networks.

  7. Examination of a sociocultural model of excessive exercise among male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2010-06-01

    There is substantial evidence that sociocultural pressures and body image disturbances can lead to disordered eating, yet few studies have examined their impact on excessive exercise. The study adapted a sociocultural model for disordered eating to predict excessive exercise using data from boys and girls in early adolescence (N=421). Perceived sociocultural pressures to lose weight and build muscle, body image disturbance and appearance investment were associated with a compulsive need to exercise. Adolescents' investment in appearance and body image disturbance fully mediated the relationship between sociocultural pressures and a compulsive need for exercise. There was no support for the meditational model in predicting adolescents' frequency or duration of exercise. Results support the sociocultural model as an explanatory model for excessive exercise, but suggest appearance investment and body image disturbance are important mediators of sociocultural pressures. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High-intensity interval training improves cardiovascular health, exercise capacity, and quality of life in permanent atrial fibrillation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jennifer L; Nery, Pablo B; Birnie, David H; Tulloch, Heather E; Pipe, Andrew L

    2015-12-01

    Persons with permanent atrial fibrillation experience reduced exercise tolerance, weight gain, and an associated decline in overall health. We report on a 74-year-old man with permanent atrial fibrillation who underwent a 10-week high-intensity interval training program. Substantial improvements in heart rate, blood pressure, aerobic and functional capacity, and quality of life were observed. These are desirable as these patients are not candidates for other treatment options and more effective therapies for the treatment of atrial fibrillation are needed.

  9. Effect of exercise-induced enhancement of the leg-extensor muscle-tendon unit capacities on ambulatory mechanics and knee osteoarthritis markers in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiros Karamanidis

    Full Text Available Leg-extensor muscle weakness could be a key component in knee joint degeneration in the elderly because it may result in altered muscular control during locomotion influencing the mechanical environment within the joint. This work aimed to examine whether an exercise-induced enhancement of the triceps surae (TS and quadriceps femoris (QF muscle-tendon unit (MTU capacities would affect mechanical and biological markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly.Twelve older women completed a 14-week TS and QF MTU exercise intervention, which had already been established as increasing muscle strength and tendon stiffness. Locomotion mechanics and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP levels were examined during incline walking. MTU mechanical properties were assessed using simultaneously ultrasonography and dynamometry.Post exercise intervention, the elderly had higher TS and QF contractile strength and tendon-aponeurosis stiffness. Regarding the incline gait task, the subjects demonstrated a lower external knee adduction moment and lower knee adduction angular impulse during the stance phase post-intervention. Furthermore, post-intervention compared to pre-intervention, the elderly showed lower external hip adduction moment, but revealed higher plantarflexion pushoff moment. The changes in the external knee adduction moment were significantly correlated with the improvement in ankle pushoff function. Serum COMP concentration increased in response to the 0.5-h incline walking exercise with no differences in the magnitude of increment between pre- and post-intervention.This work emphasizes the important role played by the ankle pushoff function in knee joint mechanical loading during locomotion, and may justify the inclusion of the TS MTU in prevention programs aiming to positively influence specific mechanical markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. However, the study was unable to show that COMP is amenable to change in the elderly

  10. Discriminate Modelling of Peak and Off-Peak Motorway Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Mohammed Alhassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Traffic theory is concerned with the movement of discrete objects in real time over a finite network in 2 Dimensions. It is compatible with or dependent on fundamental diagram of traffic. Without question traffic flow is an essential quantitative parameter that is used in planning, designs and roadway improvements.  Road capacity is significant because it is an important indicator of road performance and can point road managers in the right road maintenance and traffic management direction. In this paper four direct empirical capacity measurement methods have been considered. To test the efficacy of each method, data for peak period, off-peak and transition to peak have been used. The headway and the volume methods lack predictive capability and are suitable only for current assessment of flow rates.  The product limit method is weak in its predictive capability in view of the arbitrariness in the selection of the capacity value. It is also an extreme value method; hence not all volume data can be used with this method. The fundamental diagram method has good predictive capability and furnishes capacity values consistent with the standard of the facility. Unlike other methods, it does not rely on bottleneck conditions to deliver the capacity value.  The paper concluded that each method is uniquely suited to prevailing conditions and can be so employed.

  11. Exercise-Based Oncology Rehabilitation: Leveraging the Cardiac Rehabilitation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittus, Kim L.; Lakoski, Susan G.; Savage, Patrick D.; Kokinda, Nathan; Toth, Michael; Stevens, Diane; Woods, Kimberly; O’Brien, Patricia; Ades, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The value of exercise and rehabilitative interventions for cancer survivors is increasingly clear and oncology rehabilitation programs could provide these important interventions. However, a pathway to create oncology rehabilitation has not been delineated. Community-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs staffed by health care professionals with experience in providing rehabilitation and secondary prevention services to individuals with coronary heart disease are widely available and provide a potential model and location for oncology rehabilitation programs. Our purpose is to outline the rehabilitative needs of cancer survivors and demonstrate how oncology rehabilitation can be created using a cardiac rehabilitation model. METHODS We identify the impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that respond to rehabilitative interventions. Components of the CR model that would benefit cancer survivors are described. An example of an oncology rehabilitation program using a CR model is presented. RESULTS Cancer survivors have impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that improve with rehabilitation. Our experience demonstrates that effective rehabilitation services can be provided utilizing an existing CR infrastructure. Few adjustments to current cardiac rehabilitation models would be needed to provide oncology rehabilitation. Preliminary evidence suggests that cancer survivors participating in an oncology rehabilitation program experience improvements in psychological and physiologic parameters. CONCLUSIONS Utilizing the CR model of rehabilitative services and disease management provides a much needed mechanism to bring oncology rehabilitation to larger numbers of cancer survivors. PMID:25407596

  12. Four weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens Jung;

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance...... in Con. No changes in blood lactate during submaximal running were observed. After the IT period, the protein expression of skeletal muscle UCP3 tended to be higher in SET (34 +/- 6 vs. 47 +/- 7 arbitrary units; P = 0.06). Activity of muscle citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, as well...... by lowered mitochondrial UCP3 expression. Furthermore, speed endurance training can maintain muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, and endurance performance in already trained individuals despite significant reduction in the amount of training....

  13. Complex network models reveal correlations among network metrics, exercise intensity and role of body changes in the fatigue process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanessa Helena; Gama, Maria Carolina Traina; Sousa, Filipe Antônio Barros; Lewis, Theodore Gyle; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia Barros

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were analyze the fatigue process at distinct intensity efforts and to investigate its occurrence as interactions at distinct body changes during exercise, using complex network models. For this, participants were submitted to four different running intensities until exhaustion, accomplished in a non-motorized treadmill using a tethered system. The intensities were selected according to critical power model. Mechanical (force, peak power, mean power, velocity and work) and physiological related parameters (heart rate, blood lactate, time until peak blood lactate concentration (lactate time), lean mass, anaerobic and aerobic capacities) and IPAQ score were obtained during exercises and it was used to construction of four complex network models. Such models have both, theoretical and mathematical value, and enables us to perceive new insights that go beyond conventional analysis. From these, we ranked the influences of each node at the fatigue process. Our results shows that nodes, links and network metrics are sensibility according to increase of efforts intensities, been the velocity a key factor to exercise maintenance at models/intensities 1 and 2 (higher time efforts) and force and power at models 3 and 4, highlighting mechanical variables in the exhaustion occurrence and even training prescription applications.

  14. Complex network models reveal correlations among network metrics, exercise intensity and role of body changes in the fatigue process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanessa Helena; Gama, Maria Carolina Traina; Sousa, Filipe Antônio Barros; Lewis, Theodore Gyle; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia Barros

    2015-05-21

    The aims of the present study were analyze the fatigue process at distinct intensity efforts and to investigate its occurrence as interactions at distinct body changes during exercise, using complex network models. For this, participants were submitted to four different running intensities until exhaustion, accomplished in a non-motorized treadmill using a tethered system. The intensities were selected according to critical power model. Mechanical (force, peak power, mean power, velocity and work) and physiological related parameters (heart rate, blood lactate, time until peak blood lactate concentration (lactate time), lean mass, anaerobic and aerobic capacities) and IPAQ score were obtained during exercises and it was used to construction of four complex network models. Such models have both, theoretical and mathematical value, and enables us to perceive new insights that go beyond conventional analysis. From these, we ranked the influences of each node at the fatigue process. Our results shows that nodes, links and network metrics are sensibility according to increase of efforts intensities, been the velocity a key factor to exercise maintenance at models/intensities 1 and 2 (higher time efforts) and force and power at models 3 and 4, highlighting mechanical variables in the exhaustion occurrence and even training prescription applications.

  15. Impact of low-volume, high-intensity interval training on maximal aerobic capacity, health-related quality of life and motivation to exercise in ageing men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Herbert, Peter; Easton, Chris; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for effective training methods that encourage exercise adherence during advancing age, particularly in sedentary populations. This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQL), aerobic fitness and motivation to exercise in ageing men. Participants consisted of males who were either lifelong sedentary (SED; N = 25; age 63 ± 5 years) or lifelong exercisers (LEX; N = 19; aged 61 ± 5 years). [Formula: see text] and HRQL were measured at three phases: baseline (Phase A), week seven (Phase B) and week 13 (Phase C). Motivation to exercise was measured at baseline and week 13. [Formula: see text] was significantly higher in LEX (39.2 ± 5.6 ml kg min(-1)) compared to SED (27.2 ± 5.2 ml kg min(-1)) and increased in both groups from Phase A to C (SED 4.6 ± 3.2 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1 - 6.0; LEX 4.9 ± 3.4 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1-6.6) Physical functioning (97 ± 4 LEX; 93 ± 7 SED) and general health (70 ± 11 LEX; 78 ± 11 SED) were significantly higher in LEX but increased only in the SED group from Phase A to C (physical functioning 17 ± 18, 95 % CI 9-26, general health 14 ± 14, 95 % CI 8-21). Exercise motives related to social recognition (2.4 ± 1.2 LEX; 1.5 ± 1.0 SED), affiliation (2.7 ± 1.0 LEX; 1.6 ± 1.2 SED) and competition (3.3 ± 1.3 LEX; 2.2 ± 1.1) were significantly higher in LEX yet weight management motives were significantly higher in SED (2.9 ± 1.1 LEX; 4.3 ± 0.5 SED). The study provides preliminary evidence that low-volume HIIT increases perceptions of HRQL, exercise motives and aerobic capacity in older adults, to varying degrees, in both SED and LEX groups.

  16. Relation of physical activity, cardiac function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in patients with a systemic right ventricle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, M.M.; Bouma, B.J.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Groenink, M.; Nieuwkerk, P.T.; Plas, MN van der; Sieswerda, G.T.; Konings, T.C.; Mulder, B.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Exercise is recommended in patients with left ventricular failure. Although right ventricular failure is common in patients with a systemic right ventricle (RV), no data are available on the effect of physical activity in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of physical

  17. Relation of physical activity, cardiac function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in patients with a systemic right ventricle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, M.M.; Bouma, B.J.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Groenink, M.; Nieuwkerk, P.T.; Plas, MN van der; Sieswerda, G.T.; Konings, T.C.; Mulder, B.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Exercise is recommended in patients with left ventricular failure. Although right ventricular failure is common in patients with a systemic right ventricle (RV), no data are available on the effect of physical activity in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of physical

  18. Capillary ultrastructure and mitochondrial volume density in skeletal muscle in relation to reduced exercise capacity of patients with intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Oliver; Torchetti, Eleonora; Malik, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent claudication (IC) is the most commonly reported symptom of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Impaired limb blood flow is a major casual factor of lower exercise tolerance in PAD, but cannot entirely explain it. We hypothesized that IC is associated with structural changes of the cap...

  19. Robustness indicators and capacity models for railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup

    In a world continuous striving for higher mobility and the use of more sustainable modes of transport, there is a constant pressure on utilising railway capacity better and, at the same time, obtaining a high robustness against delays. During the planning of railway operations and infrastructure...

  20. 跑台运动训练对大鼠脑组织抗氧化能力的影响%Effect of treadmill exercises on antioxidant capacity in the brain of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蔚; 陈立军; 张敏; 靳秋月; 谢红; 史娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish a rat treadmill exercises model and to investigate the activity changes of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT) and hydroxyl free radical(OH' ) in rat brain after treadmill exercises training of different intensity.Method: Eighty male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group, aerobic exercises group (incremental load exercise), anaerobic exercises group (high-speed intermittent training) and alterntive-training group aerobic and anaerobic alternative training. The activity of T-AOC, CAT and the inhibition ability of OH' were measured after every training period.Result: The inhibition ability of OH' of rat brain in aerobic exercise group was lower than that in the other groups (P<0.05). However,after six-week training, there was no significant difference between four groups. Activity of CAT rat brain in alternative-training group was higher than that in the other three groups (P<0.05), and it was low in anaerobic group (P<0.01). The T-AOC of rat brain in aerobic exercise group was higher compared with normal control group (P<0.01).Conclusion: Oxidative damages of aerobic exercise were heavier than the other groups. But with the extension of training period, the antioxidant capacity increased. It suggested that after moderate aerobic exercises f'or a long term organism's antioxidant activity would be enhanced.%目的:建立大鼠跑台运动模型,观察不同训练负荷对大鼠脑组织总抗氧化能力(T-AOC),过氧化氢酶(CAT),羟自由基(OH')的影响.方法:建立有氧、无氧、有氧和无氧交替运动大鼠跑台运动训练模型,有氧运动时采用递增负荷训练,无氧运动时采用高速间歇训练,并没立正常对照组.各组大鼠训练结束后用机器匀浆法提取大鼠脑组织匀浆介质,紫外分光光度计检测大鼠脑组织T-AOC,CAT活性和OH'抑制能力.结果:有氧组大鼠OH'抑制能力要低于其他各组(P<0.05),但训练6周后,和其

  1. Dynamic heat capacity of the east model and of a bead-spring polymer model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, John Dwane (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM); Brown, Jonathan R. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM); Adolf, Douglas Brian

    2011-10-01

    In this report we have presented a brief review of the glass transition and one means of characterizing glassy materials: linear and nonlinear thermodynamic oscillatory experiments to extract the dynamic heat capacity. We have applied these methods to the east model (a variation of the Ising model for glass forming systems) and a simple polymeric system via molecular dynamics simulation, and our results match what is seen in experiment. For the east model, since the dynamics are so simple, a mathematical model is developed that matches the simulated dynamics. For the polymeric system, since the system is a simulation, we can instantaneously 'quench' the system - removing all vibrational energy - to separate the vibrational dynamics from dynamics associated with particle rearrangements. This shows that the long-time glassy dynamics are due entirely to the particle rearrangements, i.e. basin jumping on the potential energy landscape. Finally, we present an extension of linear dynamic heat capacity to the nonlinear regime.

  2. Electrical pulse stimulation of cultured human skeletal muscle cells as an in vitro model of exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Nikolić

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Physical exercise leads to substantial adaptive responses in skeletal muscles and plays a central role in a healthy life style. Since exercise induces major systemic responses, underlying cellular mechanisms are difficult to study in vivo. It was therefore desirable to develop an in vitro model that would resemble training in cultured human myotubes. METHODS: Electrical pulse stimulation (EPS was applied to adherent human myotubes. Cellular contents of ATP, phosphocreatine (PCr and lactate were determined. Glucose and oleic acid metabolism were studied using radio-labeled substrates, and gene expression was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR. Mitochondrial content and function were measured by live imaging and determination of citrate synthase activity, respectively. Protein expression was assessed by electrophoresis and immunoblotting. RESULTS: High-frequency, acute EPS increased deoxyglucose uptake and lactate production, while cell contents of both ATP and PCr decreased. Chronic, low-frequency EPS increased oxidative capacity of cultured myotubes by increasing glucose metabolism (uptake and oxidation and complete fatty acid oxidation. mRNA expression level of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex 4 (PDK4 was significantly increased in EPS-treated cells, while mRNA expressions of interleukin 6 (IL-6, cytochrome C and carnitin palmitoyl transferase b (CPT1b also tended to increase. Intensity of MitoTracker®Red FM was doubled after 48 h of chronic, low-frequency EPS. Protein expression of a slow fiber type marker (MHCI was increased in EPS-treated cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply that in vitro EPS (acute, high-frequent as well as chronic, low-frequent of human myotubes may be used to study effects of exercise.

  3. A MULTI-STATION PROPRIOCEPTIVE EXERCISE PROGRAM IN PATIENTS WITH BILATERAL KNEE OSTEOARTHROSIS: FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY, PAIN AND SENSORIOMOTOR FUNCTION. A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Sekir

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a multi-station proprioceptive exercise program on functional capacity, perceived knee pain, and sensoriomotor function. Twenty-two patients (aged 41-75 years with grade 2-3 bilateral knee osteoarthrosis were randomly assigned to two groups: treatment (TR; n = 12 and non-treatment (NONTR; n = 10. TR performed 11 different balance/coordination and proprioception exercises, twice a week for 6 weeks. Functional capacity and perceived knee pain during rest and physical activity was measured. Also knee position sense, kinaesthesia, postural control, isometric and isokinetic knee strength (at 60, 120 and 180°·s-1 measures were taken at baseline and after 6 weeks of training. There was no significant difference in any of the tested variables between TR and NONTR before the intervention period. In TR perceived knee pain during daily activities and functional tests was lessened following the exercise program (p < 0.05. Perceived knee pain was also lower in TR vs. NONTR after training (p < 0.05. The time for rising from a chair, stair climbing and descending improved in TR (p < 0.05 and these values were faster compared with NONTR after training (p < 0.05. Joint position sense (degrees for active and passive tests and for weight bearing tests improved in TR (p < 0.05 and the values were lower compared with NONTR after training (p < 0.05. Postural control ('eyes closed' also improved for single leg and tandem tests in TR (p < 0.01 and these values were higher compared with NONTR after training. The isometric quadriceps strength of TR improved (p < 0.05 but the values were not significantly different compared with NONTR after training. There was no change in isokinetic strength for TR and NONTR after the training period. The results suggest that using a multi-station proprioceptive exercise program it is possible to improve postural control, functional capacity and decrease perceived knee pain in patients with bilateral knee

  4. Values of hemodynamic variation in response to passive leg raising in predicting exercise capacity of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong-Lian; Ding, Ling; Mi, Tao; Zheng, Kai; Wu, Xiao-Fen; Wang, Jing; Liu, Meng-Ying; Zhang, Le; Zhang, Cun-Tai; Quan, Xiao-Qing

    2016-11-01

    In heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction, their hemodynamic parameters usually change when they are from recumbent to passive leg raising. The authors designed this study to investigate the relationship between hemodynamic parameters measured by impedance cardiography (ICG) and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). We recruited 49 subjects with HFPEF in the study, and all the subjects were separated into 2 groups: the patients whose hemodynamic parameters rose after passive leg raising were in group 1 (n = 26) and the patients whose hemodynamic parameters did not rise after passive leg raising were in group 2 (n = 23). Our study then compared the 6MWD, left ventricular ejection fraction, and plasma NT-pro-brain natriuretic peptide between the 2 groups. Group 1 had significantly longer 6MWD than group 2 (515.38 ± 24.97 vs 306.39 ± 20.20 m; P = 0.043). Hemodynamic parameters measured by ICG significantly correlated with 6MWD in both groups. Patients whose hemodynamic parameters rose in response to passive leg raising were more likely to have better exercise capacity. Hemodynamic variation in response to passive leg raising measured by ICG may be more sensitive in predicting exercise capacity of patients with HFPEF.

  5. Left ventricular markers of global dyssynchrony predict limited exercise capacity in heart failure, but not in patients with preserved ejection fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajraktari Gani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to prospectively examine echocardiographic parameters that correlate and predict functional capacity assessed by 6 min walk test (6-MWT in patients with heart failure (HF, irrespective of ejection fraction (EF. Methods In 147 HF patients (mean age 61 ± 11 years, 50.3% male, a 6-MWT and an echo-Doppler study were performed in the same day. Global LV dyssynchrony was indirectly assessed by total isovolumic time - t-IVT [in s/min; calculated as: 60 – (total ejection time + total filling time], and Tei index (t-IVT/ejection time. Patients were divided into two groups based on the 6-MWT distance (Group I: ≤300 m and Group II: >300 m, and also in two groups according to EF (Group A: LVEF ≥ 45% and Group B: LVEF  Results In the cohort of patients as a whole, the 6-MWT correlated with t-IVT (r = −0.49, p  Conclusion In patients with HF, the limited exercise capacity, assessed by 6-MWT, is related mostly to severity of global LV dyssynchrony, more than EF or raised filling pressures. The lack of exercise predictors in HFpEF reflects its multifactorial pathophysiology.

  6. Verification, Validation and Credibility Assessment of a Computational Model of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C. R.; Humphreys, B. T.; Mulugeta, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) is the resistive exercise device used by astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) to mitigate bone loss and muscle atrophy due to extended exposure to microgravity (micro g). The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a multi-body dynamics model of biomechanics models for use in spaceflight exercise physiology research and operations. In an effort to advance model maturity and credibility of the ARED model, the DAP performed verification, validation and credibility (VV and C) assessment of the analyses of the model in accordance to NASA-STD-7009 'Standards for Models and Simulations'.

  7. Geometric Brownian Motion, Option Pricing, and Simulation: Some Spreadsheet-Based Exercises in Financial Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Brewer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some Excel-based simulation exercises that are suitable for use in financial modeling courses. Such exercises are based on a stochastic process of stock price movements, called geometric Brownian motion, that underlies the derivation of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Guidance is provided in assigning appropriate values of the drift parameter in the stochastic process for such exercises. Some further simulation exercises are also suggested. As the analytical underpinning of the materials involved is provided, this paper is expected to be of interest also to instructors and students of investment courses.

  8. Integrative model for predicting thermal balance in exercising horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, H J; Lund, R J; Guthrie, A J; Cilliers, P J

    1996-07-01

    A theoretical integrative model was developed to determine the heat balance of horses working in a given environment. This model included the following parameters: metabolic heat gain, solar heat gain, evaporative heat loss due to sweating, respiratory tract heat loss, radiation from the body and heat gain or loss due to convection and conduction. The model developed in this study includes an unique approach for estimating heat loss via evaporation of sweat from the animal's skin surface. Previous studies modelling evaporative heat dissipation were based on the volume of sweat loss. While it is known that the ambient conditions affect evaporation rate, these effects have not been adequately described. The present model assumes the horse's skin surface is adequately represented by a body of water and it describes the interaction of that water body with the atmosphere. It is assumed that sweat has thermodynamic characteristics equivalent to distilled water. Sweat, however, has high electrolyte and protein concentrations and anecdotal evidence has shown that the thermodynamic characteristics may be significantly affected. Further research is, therefore, required to confirm these characteristics for equine sweat. The model describes all factors known to affect the thermal balance of the horse working in a given environment. The relative significance of the various variables on the whole integrative model has been illustrated. The effect of ambient temperature and humidity on the evaporative heat loss, the most significant and critical avenue of heat dissipation, is defined and quantified. The model illustrates clearly how increasing relative humidity limits evaporative heat loss, which can be further compromised when horses exercise on treadmills with no air movement.

  9. Effects of elastic resistance exercise on body composition and physical capacity in older women with sarcopenic obesity: A CONSORT-compliant prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-De; Tsauo, Jau-Yih; Lin, Li-Fong; Huang, Shih-Wei; Ku, Jan-Wen; Chou, Lin-Chuan; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2017-06-01

    Sarcopenia is associated with loss of muscle mass and an increased risk of physical disability in elderly people. However, the prevalence of sarcopenia has increased in obese elderly populations. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical efficacy of elastic resistance exercise training (RET) in patients with sarcopenic obesity. This study was conducted at the rehabilitation center of a university-based teaching hospital and was designed as a prospective and randomized controlled trial with an intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 46 women aged 67.3 (5.2) years were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). The EG underwent elastic RET for 12 weeks, and the CG received no RET intervention. All outcome measures were assessed at the baseline and posttest, including body composition measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle quality (MQ) defined as a ratio of muscular strength to muscle mass, and physical capacity assessed using functional mobility tests. One-way analysis of covariance and Pearson correlation were used to compare outcomes between the 2 groups and to identify the relationship between changes in body composition and physical outcomes, respectively. A chi-square test was performed to identify differences in qualitative data between the 2 groups. At the posttest, a significant between-group difference was observed in fat-free mass, MQ, and physical capacity (all P exercise exerted benefits on the body composition, MQ, and physical function in patients with sarcopenic obesity. Regular exercise incorporating elastic RET should be used to attenuate muscle mass loss and prevent physical difficulty in obese older adults with sarcopenia on reconditioning therapy. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-IPR-15006069.

  10. Forecasting societies' adaptive capacities through a demographic metabolism model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Wolfgang; Muttarak, Raya

    2017-03-01

    In seeking to understand how future societies will be affected by climate change we cannot simply assume they will be identical to those of today, because climate and societies are both dynamic. Here we propose that the concept of demographic metabolism and the associated methods of multi-dimensional population projections provide an effective analytical toolbox to forecast important aspects of societal change that affect adaptive capacity. We present an example of how the changing educational composition of future populations can influence societies' adaptive capacity. Multi-dimensional population projections form the human core of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways scenarios, and knowledge and analytical tools from demography have great value in assessing the likely implications of climate change on future human well-being.

  11. A theoretical model to describe progressions and regressions for exercise rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Sam; Glasgow, Phil

    2014-08-01

    This article aims to describe a new theoretical model to simplify and aid visualisation of the clinical reasoning process involved in progressing a single exercise. Exercise prescription is a core skill for physiotherapists but is an area that is lacking in theoretical models to assist clinicians when designing exercise programs to aid rehabilitation from injury. Historical models of periodization and motor learning theories lack any visual aids to assist clinicians. The concept of the proposed model is that new stimuli can be added or exchanged with other stimuli, either intrinsic or extrinsic to the participant, in order to gradually progress an exercise whilst remaining safe and effective. The proposed model maintains the core skills of physiotherapists by assisting clinical reasoning skills, exercise prescription and goal setting. It is not limited to any one pathology or rehabilitation setting and can adapted by any level of skilled clinician.

  12. Effects of Tai Chi on exercise capacity and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu W

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Weibing Wu,1 Xiaodan Liu,2 Longbing Wang,1 Zhenwei Wang,3 Jun Hu,2 Juntao Yan41Department of Sports Medicine, Shanghai University of Sport, 2School of Rehabilitation Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise that has been widely practiced in the People's Republic of China for many centuries. This exercise has also been applied as a training modality in pulmonary rehabilitation programs for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effects of Tai Chi on exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL in COPD patients.Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ClinicalTrials.gov, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and China Biology Medicine disc were searched. Entries published from January 1980 to March 2014 were included in the search. Eligible studies included those that involved randomized controlled trials and those that lasted for at least 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were six-minute walking distance (6MWD, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, and Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ. Effect estimates were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis.Results: Eleven articles involving 824 patients met the inclusion criteria. All included articles compared COPD patients in a Tai Chi group versus COPD patients in nonexercise and/or physical exercise groups. The meta-analysis showed that compared with the nonexercise group, the COPD patients practicing Tai Chi demonstrated significantly enhanced 6MWD (mean difference 35.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 15.63–56.35, P

  13. AHP-FCE Based Physical Exercise Risk Evaluation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi-zhi; DING Yong-sheng; XU Hong-an

    2007-01-01

    Exercise is a highly proven and beneficial health promotion modality. But it is very difficult to determine whether the person during exercise is safe. A unique and comprehensive approach is proposed to perform physical exercise risk evaluation (PERE), in which personalized factors are determined basing on grey correlation analysis, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method is used to structure the large numbers of risk factors, and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) is applied to fuzzify the factors and compute the exercise risk level. Finally, an actual calculation example is used to verify the feasibility of the method.

  14. Model for Dimensioning Technology and Capacity of Border Railway Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Kire Dimanoski; Gordan Stojić; Slavko Vesković; Ilija Tanackov

    2012-01-01

    The participation of the national rail networks in the European corridors requires certain modifications and their redefinition. Because the railway stations are special parts of the railway networks, they should be modernized, especially in south-eastern Europe. The main issue in the process of construction or reconstruction of railway stations is dimensioning (projection) of infrastructure facilities. The dimensioning of the infrastructure capacity is in direct correlation with the projecte...

  15. Traffic Modelling for Capacity Analysis of CDMA Networks using Gausian Approximation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Omijeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents, modelling telephone traffic in cellular networks operating with Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA for the purpose of capacity analysis of such systems. With the current use of CDMA as the preferred multiple access technique due to its capacity advantage, there is the need for tools that will assist in ensuring quality of service and proper network dimensioning. This work produces a model useful for capacity analysis. Focusing on the reverse link, this is achieved by modelling telephone traffic using Gaussian assumptions to generate a CDMA blocking probability that is adapted into Erlang B formula for capacity calculations. A program written in MATLAB is used to realise the blocking probability formula with graphical outputs that is a tool for dimensioning. Results show that variations in network parameters affect CDMA capacity and that CDMA has a huge capacity advantage over TDMA and FDMA

  16. Supplementation with a whey protein hydrolysate enhances recovery of muscle force-generating capacity following eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jonathan D; Thomson, Rebecca L; Coates, Alison M; Howe, Peter R C; DeNichilo, Mark O; Rowney, Michelle K

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that protein hydrolysates can speed tissue repair following damage and may therefore be useful for accelerating recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. The potential for a hydrolysate (WPI(HD)) of whey protein isolate (WPI) to speed recovery following eccentric exercise was evaluated by assessing effects on recovery of peak isometric torque (PIT). In a double-blind randomised parallel trial, 28 sedentary males had muscle soreness (MS), serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, plasma TNFalpha, and PIT assessed at baseline and after 100 maximal eccentric contractions (ECC) of their knee extensors. Participants then consumed 250 ml of flavoured water (FW; n=11), or FW containing 25 g WPI (n=11) or 25 g WPI(HD) (n=6) and the assessments were repeated 1, 2, 6 and 24h later. PIT decreased approximately 23% following ECC, remained suppressed in FW and WPI, but recovered fully in WPI(HD) by 6h (P=0.006, treatment x time interaction). MS increased following ECC (P0.45). WPI(HD) may be a useful supplement for assisting athletes to recover from fatiguing eccentric exercise. Copyright (c) 2008 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP on Exercise Time Duration and Functional Capacity in Patients with Refractory Angina Pectoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bozorgi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP is a noninvasive technique used for patients with refractory angina pectoris. There are controversial data on the effectiveness of EECP in improving patients with refractory stable angina. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of EECP for the treatment of patients with refractory angina pectoris.Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with refractory angina pectoris were treated with EECP, and their symptoms, echocardiographic measures, treadmill exercise test parameters, and Canadian Cardiovascular Society Class were evaluated before and immediately after EECP. The patients were followed up for 6months post treatment.Results: There were significant differences regarding total exercise time before and after treatment (p value < 0.001. The patients showed a significant reduction in angina classes III and IV immediately after EECP (p value < 0.001; for most of the patients, these beneficial effects were sustained for 6 months (p value = 0.010. There was no significant improvement in the echocardiographic parameters.Conclusion: EECP decreased symptoms and increased total exercise time in our study population. These beneficial effectswere sustained for 6 months.

  18. Long-term pulmonary regurgitation following balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonary stenosis risk factors and relationship to exercise capacity and ventricular volume and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrild, David M; Powell, Andrew J; Tran, Trang X; Trang, Trang X; Geva, Tal; Lock, James E; Rhodes, Jonathan; McElhinney, Doff B

    2010-03-09

    This study sought to examine the prevalence and predictors of pulmonary regurgitation (PR) following balloon dilation (BD) for pulmonary stenosis (PS) and to investigate its impact on ventricular volume and function, and exercise tolerance. Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty relieves PS but can cause late PR. The sequelae of isolated PR are not well understood. Patients were at least 7 years of age and 5 years removed from BD, and had no other form of congenital heart disease or significant residual PS. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and exercise testing were performed prospectively to quantify PR fraction, ventricular volumes and function, and exercise capacity. Forty-one patients underwent testing a median of 13.1 years after BD. The median PR fraction was 10%; 14 patients (34%) had PR fraction >15%; 7 (17%) had PR >30%. PR fraction was associated with age at dilation (ln-transformed, R = -0.47, p = 0.002) and balloon:annulus ratio (R = 0.57, p or =2) was present in 14/35 patients (40%). PR fraction correlated closely with indexed RV end-diastolic volume (R = 0.79, p PR fraction >15% had significantly lower peak Vo(2) than those with less PR (85 +/- 17% vs. 96 +/- 16%, p = 0.03). Mild PR and RV dilation are common in the long term following BD. A PR fraction >15% is associated with lower peak Vo(2), suggesting that isolated PR and consequent RV dilation are related to impaired exercise cardiopulmonary function. Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of Bobath-based trunk exercises on trunk control, functional capacity, balance, and gait: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Muhammed; Avcu, Fatma; Onursal, Ozge; Ayvat, Ender; Savcun Demirci, Cevher; Aksu Yildirim, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Bobath-based individually designed trunk exercises on trunk control, upper and lower extremity function, and walking and balance in stroke patients. The main aim of treatment was to eliminate individual trunk impairments during various patient functions. The study was planned as an assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. A total of 22 patients volunteered to participate in the study. Trunk function, functional capacity, and gait were assessed with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), stroke rehabilitation assessment of movement (STREAM), and a 10-m walking test, respectively. The Berg Balance Test (BBT), functional reach (FR), and timed up-and-go (TUG) tests were used to evaluate balance. After the initial assessment, the patients were divided randomly into two groups, the study group (12 patients) and the control group (10 patients). The mean age of the patients in the study group was 55.91 years (duration of stroke 58.66 months) and that of the control group was 54.00 years (duration of stroke 67.20 months). Individual training programs were determined for the patients in the study group, taking into consideration their evaluation results; and strengthening, stretching, range of motion, and mat exercises were determined for the control group according to their functional level. The participants in both groups were taken into the physiotherapy program for 12 weeks, 3 days a week for 1 hour a day. In group analyses, both groups showed improvement in STREAM, TIS, and TUG tests. Only the study group produced significant gains in the BBT, FR, and 10 m walking tests (P 0.05). Individually developed exercise programs in the Bobath concept improve trunk performance, balance, and walking ability in stroke patients more than do conventional exercises.

  20. Near-Infrared Monitoring of Model Chronic Compartment Syndrome In Exercising Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Breit, G. A.; Gross, J. H.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Chance, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) is characterized by muscle ischemia, usually in the anterior oompartment of the leg, caused by high intramuscular pressure during exercise. Dual-wave near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is an optical technique that allows noninvasive tracking of variations in muscle tissue oxygenation (Chance et al., 1988). We hypothesized that with a model CCS, muscle tissue oxygenation will show a greater decline during exercise and a slower recovery post-exercise than under normal conditions.

  1. Electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models for energy policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronson, E.; Edenburn, M.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models developed for energy policy analysis. The models use the same principles (life cycle cost minimization, least operating cost dispatching, and incorporation of outages and reserve margin) as comprehensive utility capacity planning tools, but are faster and simpler. The models were not designed for detailed utility capacity planning, but they can be used to accurately project trends on a regional level. Because they use the same principles as comprehensive utility capacity expansion planning tools, the models are more realistic than utility modules used in present policy analysis tools. They can be used to help forecast the effects energy policy options will have on future utility power generation capacity expansion trends and to help formulate a sound national energy strategy. The models make renewable energy source competition realistic by giving proper value to intermittent renewable and energy storage technologies, and by competing renewables against each other as well as against conventional technologies.

  2. Capacity Prediction Model Based on Limited Priority Gap-Acceptance Theory at Multilane Roundabouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacity is an important design parameter for roundabouts, and it is the premise of computing their delay and queue. Roundabout capacity has been studied for decades, and empirical regression model and gap-acceptance model are the two main methods to predict it. Based on gap-acceptance theory, by considering the effect of limited priority, especially the relationship between limited priority factor and critical gap, a modified model was built to predict the roundabout capacity. We then compare the results between Raff’s method and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE method, and the MLE method was used to predict the critical gaps. Finally, the predicted capacities from different models were compared, with the observed capacity by field surveys, which verifies the performance of the proposed model.

  3. [A failed improvement in pulmonary function and exercise capacity with carvedilol in congestive heart failure despite an excellent effect on left ventricular function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzi, M; Pontone, G; Trevisi, N; Lomanto, M; Matturri, M; Agostoni, P

    1998-02-01

    This study was aimed at investigating in chronic heart failure (CHF) the effects that beta-blockade with carvedilol may have on lung function, and their relationship with left ventricular (LV) performance and peak exercise oxygen uptake (VO2p). CHF causes disturbances in ventilation and pulmonary gas transfer (stress failure of alveolar-capillary membrane) that participate in limiting VO2p. Carvedilol improves LV function and not VO2p. Twenty-one NYHA functional class II-III patients were randomized (2 to 1) to carvedilol (25 mg bid., 14 patients) or placebo (7 patients) for 6 months. Rest forced expiratory volume (FEV1), vital capacity (VC), total lung capacity (TLC), carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO), its alveolar-capillary membrane component (DM), pulmonary venous and transmitral flows (for monitoring changes in LV end-diastolic pressure, EDP), LV diastolic (EDD) and systolic (ESD) dimensions, stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), fiber shortening velocity (VCF) were measured at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. VO2p, peak ratio of dead space to tidal volume (VD/VTp), ventilatory equivalent for CO2 production (VE/VCO2), VO2 at anaerobic threshold (VO2at) were also determined. FEV1, VC, TLC, DLCO, DM were impaired in CHF compared to 14 volunteers, and did not vary with treatment. Carvedilol reduced EDP, EDD, ESD, and increased EF, SV, VCF, without affecting VO2p, VO2at, VD/VTp, VE/VCO2, at 3 and 6 months. Placebo was ineffective. In CHF, carvedilol exerts neutral effects on ventilation and pulmonary gas transfer and ameliorates LV function at rest. This proves that antifailure treatment may not be similarly effective on cardiac and pulmonary function; and does not contradict the possibility that persistence of lung impairment may contribute to lack of improvement in exercise performance with carvedilol.

  4. Modeling of Inhalation Administration of Vapors with Capacity Limited Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-12

    3 Vtid + VlungXlung/air + 6Xbl!air (1) Where FRC = functional residual capacity, Vtid = tidal vo- lume, Vlung = volume of lung parenchymal tissue, Q...ie 0h 4,5 kidney 0 71.5 brain 0 Mr. 4.2 6 120 yr -. I1.1 1I hr m i~i 4iI CONDITTONS q/-tiai hrq i n17r lunig frHQX325 IMPUT STATEMENTS 525-550...cardiac output rise temporarily because of strain excercise . 6. Preparation of data. On page 20 is a format of the pro- tocol we are using for

  5. Optimization of small portable hoist load-capacity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanheng; Yin, Hao; Liang, Zuotang; Xu, Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Small Portable Hoist (SPH) is needed in many special occasions; the load-capacity (LC) is one of the most important metrics. There are few researches direct related on SPH and the LC is calculated by Euler's formula in most published related literatures. Because of the SPH's unique, experimental research is carried out on the LC, an optimization of Euler's formula is got by analyzing the effects of wrap angle φ, end tension FB, and relative size of r and R. This optimization is more accurate and it deepens the understanding of the friction between wheel and the bending rope.

  6. Prehabilitation with Whey Protein Supplementation on Perioperative Functional Exercise Capacity in Patients Undergoing Colorectal Resection for Cancer: A Pilot Double-Blinded Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Chelsia; Loiselle, Sarah-Eve; Fiore, Julio F; Awasthi, Rashami; Wykes, Linda; Liberman, A Sender; Stein, Barry; Charlebois, Patrick; Carli, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    A previous comprehensive prehabilitation program, providing nutrition counseling with whey protein supplementation, exercise, and psychological care, initiated 4 weeks before colorectal surgery for cancer, improved functional capacity before surgery and accelerated functional recovery. Those receiving standard of care deteriorated. The specific role of nutritional prehabilitation alone on functional recovery is unknown. This study was undertaken to estimate the impact of nutrition counseling with whey protein on preoperative functional walking capacity and recovery in patients undergoing colorectal resection for cancer. We conducted a double-blinded randomized controlled trial at a single university-affiliated tertiary center located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Colon cancer patients (n=48) awaiting elective surgery for nonmetastatic disease were randomized to receive either individualized nutrition counseling with whey protein supplementation to meet protein needs or individualized nutrition counseling with a nonnutritive placebo. Counseling and supplementation began 4 weeks before surgery and continued for 4 weeks after surgery. The primary outcome was change in functional walking capacity as measured with the 6-minute walk test. The distance was recorded at baseline, the day of surgery, and 4 weeks after surgery. A change of 20 m was considered clinically meaningful. The whey group experienced a mean improvement in functional walking capacity before surgery of +20.8 m, with a standard deviation of 42.6 m, and the placebo group improved by +1.2 (65.5) m (P=0.27). Four weeks after surgery, recovery rates were similar between groups (P=0.81). Clinically meaningful improvements in functional walking capacity were achieved before surgery with whey protein supplementation. These pilot results are encouraging and justify larger-scale trials to define the specific role of nutrition prehabilitation on functional recovery after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Academy of

  7. Emerging concept: 'central benefit model' of exercise in falls prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Hsu, Chun Liang; Bolandzadeh, Niousha

    2013-01-01

    Falls are a common geriatric syndrome and are the third leading cause of chonic disability worldwide. Falls are not random events and occur, at least in part, due to impaired physiological function, such as impaired balance, and cognitive impairment. The clinical syndrome of falls is important for Sports and Exercise Medicine Clinicians as there is Level 1 evidence that targeted exercise prescription is an effective intervention strategy. The widely accepted dogma is that improved physical function, balance and muscle strength, underlies the effectiveness of the exercise in reducing falls. However, findings from randomised controlled trials suggest that exercise reduce falls via mechanisms other than improved physiological function. The authors propose that improved cognitive function - specifically, executive functions - and associated functional plasticity may be an important yet underappreciated mechanism by which the exercise reduces falls in older adults.

  8. Strategic assessment of capacity consumption in railway networks: Framework and model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new framework for strategic planning purposes to calculate railway infrastructure occupation and capacity consumption in networks, independent of a timetable. Furthermore, a model implementing the framework is presented. In this model different train sequences are gene......In this paper, we develop a new framework for strategic planning purposes to calculate railway infrastructure occupation and capacity consumption in networks, independent of a timetable. Furthermore, a model implementing the framework is presented. In this model different train sequences...

  9. Management model of productive capacity: integrating theory of constraints and the global operational efficiency index (IROG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Pacheco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of management capacity in productive systems integrating the concepts of the Theory of Constraints and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. The main objective of this study is to discuss and propose a model of management capacity, able to answer the following key questions: i capacity indicators which should be considered and how to measure them to measure the productive capacity of manufacturing systems? ii what is the real productive capacity of the system analyzed under a determined relationship between capacity and demand? The discussion of the proposed model is relevant because the definition of productive capacity system enables better management of resources and capabilities, improve production scheduling on the factory floor and meeting the demands imposed by the market. This paper presents the proposition of using the Operating Income Index Global (IROG with a different approach from traditional literature dealing with the theme, presented by Nakajima (1988. The results of this paper enable to develop a model to determine the capacity of the production system and the impact on the productive capacity of the entire system, not to consider the quality conformances that occur after the bottleneck resource of the production flow.

  10. Evaluation model for safety capacity of chemical industrial park based on acceptable regional risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohua Chen; Shukun Wang; Xiaoqun Tan

    2015-01-01

    The paper defines the Safety Capacity of Chemical Industrial Park (SCCIP) from the perspective of acceptable regional risk. For the purpose of exploring the evaluation model for the SCCIP, a method based on quantitative risk assessment was adopted for evaluating transport risk and to confirm reasonable safety transport capacity of chemical industrial park, and then by combining with the safety storage capacity, a SCCIP evaluation model was put forward. The SCCIP was decided by the smaller one between the largest safety storage capacity and the maximum safety transport capacity, or else, the regional risk of the park will exceed the acceptable level. The developed method was applied to a chemical industrial park in Guangdong province to obtain the maximum safety transport capacity and the SCCIP. The results can be realized in the regional risk control of the park effectively.

  11. Hospital capacity planning: from measuring stocks to modelling flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechel, Bernd; Wright, Stephen; Barlow, James; McKee, Martin

    2010-08-01

    The metric of "bed numbers" is commonly used in hospital planning, but it fails to capture key aspects of how hospital services are delivered. Drawing on a study of innovative hospital projects in Europe, we argue that hospital capacity planning should not be based on beds, but rather on the ability to deliver processes. We propose using approaches that are based on manufacturing theory such as "lean thinking" that focuses on the value that different processes add for the primary customer, i.e. the patient. We argue that it is beneficial to look at the hospital, not from the perspective of beds or specialties, but rather from the path taken by the patients who are treated in them, the respective processes delivered by health professionals and the facilities appropriate to those processes. Systematized care pathways seem to offer one avenue for achieving these goals. However, they need to be underpinned by a better understanding of the flows of patients, work and goods within a hospital, the bottlenecks that occur, and translation of this understanding into new capacity planning tools.

  12. Grit, conscientiousness, and the transtheoretical model of change for exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Justy; Pritschet, Brian L; Cutton, David M

    2013-05-01

    Grit and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) Conscientiousness dimension were examined with respect to the transtheoretical model (TTM) stages of change for exercise behavior. Participants (N = 1171) completed an online survey containing exercise-related TTM staging questions, the Short Grit Scale and BFI Conscientiousness. Ordinal regression analyses showed that grit significantly predicted high intensity and moderate intensity exercise TTM stage while BFI Conscientiousness did not. The results suggest that grit is a potentially important differentiator of TTM stage for moderate and high intensity exercise.

  13. Understanding exercise behavior among Korean adults: a test of the transtheoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoungHo; Cardinal, Bradley J; Lee, JongYoung

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the theorized association of Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change constructs by stage of change for exercise behavior among Korean adults. A total of 1,335 Korean adults were recruited and surveyed from the Nowon district, geographically located in northern Seoul. Four Korean-version questionnaires were used to identify the stage of exercise behavior and psychological attributes of adolescents. Data were analyzed by frequency analysis, MANOVA, correlation analysis, and discriminant analysis. Multivariate F tests indicated that behavioral and cognitive processes of change, exercise efficacy, and pros differentiated participants across the stages of exercise behavior. Furthermore, the findings revealed that adults' exercise behavior was significantly correlated with the TTM constructs and that overall classification accuracy across the stages of change was 50.6%. This study supports the internal and external validity of the TTM for explaining exercise behavior.

  14. Measurement and Model Validation of Nanofluid Specific Heat Capacity with Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry O'Hanley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofluids are being considered for heat transfer applications; therefore it is important to know their thermophysical properties accurately. In this paper we focused on nanofluid specific heat capacity. Currently, there exist two models to predict a nanofluid specific heat capacity as a function of nanoparticle concentration and material. Model I is a straight volume-weighted average; Model II is based on the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the particles and the surrounding fluid. These two models give significantly different predictions for a given system. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, a robust experimental methodology for measuring the heat capacity of fluids, the specific heat capacities of water-based silica, alumina, and copper oxide nanofluids were measured. Nanoparticle concentrations were varied between 5 wt% and 50 wt%. Test results were found to be in excellent agreement with Model II, while the predictions of Model I deviated very significantly from the data. Therefore, Model II is recommended for nanofluids.

  15. Treadmill exercise represses neuronal cell death in an aged transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Hyun-Sub; Kang, Eun-Bum; Koo, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Jin-Lee; Kim, Eung-Joon; Yang, Chun-Ho; An, Gil-Young; Cho, In-Ho; Cho, Joon-Yong

    2011-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to further investigate the protective effect of treadmill exercise on the hippocampal proteins associated with neuronal cell death in an aged transgenic (Tg) mice with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To address this, Tg mouse model of AD, Tg-NSE/PS2m, which expresses human mutant PS2 in the brain, was chosen. Animals were subjected to treadmill exercise for 12 weeks from 24 months of age. The exercised mice were treadmill run at speed of 12 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week on a 0% gradient for 3 months. Treadmill exercised mice improved cognitive function in water maze test. Treadmill exercised mice significantly reduced the expression of Aβ-42, Cox-2, and caspase-3 in the hippocampus. In parallel, treadmill exercised Tg mice decreased the phosphorylation levels of JNK, p38MAPK and tau (Ser404, Ser202, Thr231), and increased the phosphorylation levels of ERK, PI3K, Akt and GSK-3α/β. In addition, treadmill exercised Tg mice up-regulated the expressions of NGF, BDNF and phospho-CREB, and the expressions of SOD-1, SOD-2 and HSP-70. Treadmill exercised Tg mice up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, and down-regulated the expressions of cytochrome c and Bax in the hippocampus. The number of TUNEL-positive cells in the hippocampus in mice was significantly decreased after treadmill exercise. Finally, serum TC, insulin, glucose, and corticosterone levels were significantly decreased in the Tg mice after treadmill exercise. As a consequence of such change, Aβ-dependent neuronal cell death in the hippocampus of Tg mice was markedly suppressed following treadmill exercise. These results strongly suggest that treadmill exercise provides a therapeutic potential to inhibit both Aβ-42 and neuronal death pathways. Therefore, treadmill exercise may be beneficial in prevention or treatment of AD.

  16. Synchronisation of fertility with carrying capacity; an investigation using classical and agent based modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Crozier Murrell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A generalized Verhulst model subject to seasonal change in both fertility rate and carrying capacity is outlined. Numerical solutions to the Verhulst equations are employed to obtain optimal fertility rate phase shift with respect to carrying capacity. Possible natural selection for a preferred season of conception is investigated using agent based simulations. Both experiments indicate that synchronization of fertility rate to environment carrying capacity is beneficial to species survival.

  17. Effects of a Fluctuating Carrying Capacity on the Generalized Malthus-Verhulst Model

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Calisto; Chandía, Kristopher J.; Mauro Bologna

    2014-01-01

    We consider a generalized Malthus-Verhulst model with a fluctuating carrying capacity and we study its effects on population growth. The carrying capacity fluctuations are described by a Poissonian process with an exponential correlation function. We will find an analytical expression for the average of a number of individuals and show that even in presence of a fluctuating carrying capacity the average tends asymptotically to a constant quantity.

  18. Effects of a Fluctuating Carrying Capacity on the Generalized Malthus-Verhulst Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Calisto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a generalized Malthus-Verhulst model with a fluctuating carrying capacity and we study its effects on population growth. The carrying capacity fluctuations are described by a Poissonian process with an exponential correlation function. We will find an analytical expression for the average of a number of individuals and show that even in presence of a fluctuating carrying capacity the average tends asymptotically to a constant quantity.

  19. Tissue advanced glycation end products are associated with diastolic function and aerobic exercise capacity in diabetic heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Suzan; Hartog, Jasper W. L.; Hummel, Yoran M.; van Ruijven, Marieke H. I.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Voors, Adriaan A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are increased in patients with diabetes and are associated with diastolic dysfunction through the formation of collagen crosslinks in the heart. The association among AGEs, diastolic function, and aerobic capacity in heart failure (HF) patients with and wi

  20. Badminton Specific Testing and Development of Physical On-Court Exercise Capacity in Elite Youth Badminton Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Ole Møller

    in adult players only. This thesis aims to enhance the existing research within the field by also evaluating badminton-specific speed and endurance in elite youth players in both a cross-sectional and longitudinal manner, and with reference to the physiological capacities of world top-50 single players....

  1. Beneficial Effects of Exercise on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, Kathryn H.; Hornak, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Six adults with Prader Willi syndrome who participated in a six-month walking program showed significant differences in resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, body fat percentage, and weight loss, compared to a control group of five nonparticipants. (Author/JDD)

  2. Beneficial Effects of Exercise on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, Kathryn H.; Hornak, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Six adults with Prader Willi syndrome who participated in a six-month walking program showed significant differences in resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, body fat percentage, and weight loss, compared to a control group of five nonparticipants. (Author/JDD)

  3. It Takes One to Know One: A Class Exercise in Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    An active learning class exercise is presented that gives students the personal experience of the decision-making limitations of mental models. This innovative exercise was shown to increase student learning through greater understanding of the concept and higher retention of knowledge. The results suggest that student critical thinking skills…

  4. [pi] Backbonding in Carbonyl Complexes and Carbon-Oxygen Stretching Frequencies: A Molecular Modeling Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    An exercise is described that has illustrated the effect of various factors on [pi] backbonding to carbonyl ligands, where the students can view the molecular orbitals corresponding to the M-CO [pi] interaction as well as the competing interaction between the metal and co-ligands. The visual and hands-on nature of the modeling exercise has helped…

  5. modelling room cooling capacity with fuzzy logic procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Modelling with fuzzy logic is an approach to forming ... the way humans think and make judgments [10]. ... artificial intelligence and expert systems [17, 18] to .... from selected cases, human professional computation and the Model predictions.

  6. From a bundled energy-capacity pricing model to an energy-capacity-ancillary services pricing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raineri, Ricardo; Arce, Raul; Salamanca, Carlos [Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial y de Sistemas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago (Chile); Rios, Sebastian [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago (Chile)

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, we extend the Chilean power generation pricing mechanism, with capacity and energy payments, to one where ancillary services (AS), as frequency regulation and voltage control, are explicitly recognized. Adequacy and security attributes of the electric system and the public good characteristics of AS are set within the payment structure to distribute the financing of AS among those who benefit from their provision. The contribution to finance the provision of AS is determined assessing the value assigned to the system security by each agent, following what's an efficient pricing mechanism in the presence of public goods. (author)

  7. Capacity Model and Constraints Analysis for Integrated Remote Wireless Sensor and Satellite Network in Emergency Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the capacity problem of an integrated remote wireless sensor and satellite network (IWSSN in emergency scenarios. We formulate a general model to evaluate the remote sensor and satellite network capacity. Compared to most existing works for ground networks, the proposed model is time varying and space oriented. To capture the characteristics of a practical network, we sift through major capacity-impacting constraints and analyze the influence of these constraints. Specifically, we combine the geometric satellite orbit model and satellite tool kit (STK engineering software to quantify the trends of the capacity constraints. Our objective in analyzing these trends is to provide insights and design guidelines for optimizing the integrated remote wireless sensor and satellite network schedules. Simulation results validate the theoretical analysis of capacity trends and show the optimization opportunities of the IWSSN.

  8. Models of Verbal Working Memory Capacity: What Does It Take to Make Them Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Blume, Christopher L.; Saults, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Theories of working memory (WM) capacity limits will be more useful when we know what aspects of performance are governed by the limits and what aspects are governed by other memory mechanisms. Whereas considerable progress has been made on models of WM capacity limits for visual arrays of separate objects, less progress has been made in…

  9. Models Provide Specificity: Testing a Proposed Mechanism of Visual Working Memory Capacity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmering, Vanessa R.; Patterson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have established that visual working memory has a limited capacity that increases during childhood. However, debate continues over the source of capacity limits and its developmental increase. Simmering (2008) adapted a computational model of spatial cognitive development, the Dynamic Field Theory, to explain not only the source…

  10. The application of a phosphorus mass balance model for estimating the carrying capacity of Lake Kariba

    OpenAIRE

    MHLANGA, Lindah; MHLANGA, Wilson; MWERA, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use an empirical mass balance equation to estimate the carrying capacity of Lake Kariba, where cage culture for Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus has been practiced since 1996. The carrying capacity for the lake was estimated at 33.2 × 103 t per year using the Dillon-Rigler phosphorus budget model.

  11. Study and Analysis Capacity of MIMO Systems for AWGN Channel Model Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Bohra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Future wireless communication systems can utilize the spatial properties of the wireless channel to enhance the spectral efficiency and therefore increases its channel capacity. This can be designed by deploying multiple antennas at both the transmitter side and receiver side. The basic measure of performance is the capacity of a channel; the maximum rate of communication for which arbitrarily small error probability can be achieved. The AWGN (additive white Gaussian noise channel introduces the notion of capacity through a heuristic argument. The AWGN channel is then used as a basic building block to check the capacity of wireless fading channels in contrast to the AWGN channel. There is no single definition of capacity for fading channels that is applicable in all situations. Several notions of capacity are developed, and together they form a systematic study of performance limits of fading channels. The various capacity measures allow us to observe clearly the various types of resources available in fading channels: degrees of freedom, power and diversity. The MIMO systems capacity can be enhanced linearly with large the number of antennas. This paper elaborates the study of MIMO system capacity using the AWGN Channel Model, Channel Capacity, Channel Fast Fading, Spatial Autocorrelation and Power delay profile for various channel environments.

  12. Effect of Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibition on Exercise Capacity and Clinical Status in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, Margaret M; Chen, Horng H; Borlaug, Barry A; Semigran, Marc J.; Lee, Kerry L.; Lewis, Gregory; LeWinter, Martin M.; Rouleau, Jean L.; Bull, David A.; Mann, Douglas L.; Deswal, Anita; Stevenson, Lynne W.; Givertz, Michael M.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Felker, G. Michael; Goldsmith, Steven R.; Bart, Bradley A.; McNulty, Steven E; Ibarra, Jenny C.; Lin, Grace; Oh, Jae K.; Patel, Manesh R.; Kim, Raymond J.; Tracy, Russell P.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Mascette, Alice M.; Braunwald, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Importance Studies in experimental and human heart failure suggest that phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors may enhance cardiovascular function, and thus, exercise capacity in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Objective To determine the effect of the phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, in comparison to placebo on exercise capacity and clinical status in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Design, setting, and patients Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design, randomized clinical trial of 216 stable outpatients with heart failure, ejection fraction ≥ 50%, elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide or elevated invasively-measured filling pressures, and reduced exercise capacity. Participants were randomized from October 2008 through February 2012 at 26 centers in the United States and Canada. Intervention Sildenafil (n=113) or placebo (n=103) administered orally at 20 mg three times daily for 12 weeks followed by 60 mg three times daily for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures Primary endpoint was change in peak oxygen consumption after 24 weeks of therapy. Secondary endpoints included change in six-minute walk distance and a three tier hierarchical composite clinical status score where patients were ranked (range 1-N) based on time to death, time to cardiovascular or cardiorenal hospitalization and change in quality of life for participants alive without cardiovascular or cardiorenal hospitalization at 24 weeks. Results Median age was 69 years and 48% of patients were female. At baseline, median peak oxygen consumption (11.7 ml/kg/min) and six-minute walk distance (308 meters) were reduced and median E/e′ (16), left atrial volume index (44 ml/m2) and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (41 mmHg) were consistent with chronically-elevated left ventricular filling pressures. At 24 weeks, median (interquartile range) changes in peak oxygen consumption (ml/kg/min) in patients who received placebo [−0

  13. Predictive model for the heat capacity of ionic liquids using the mass connectivity index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valderrama, Jose O., E-mail: jvalderr@userena.cl [Univ. of La Serena, Fac. of Engineering, Dept. of Mech. Eng., Casilla 554, La Serena (Chile); Center for Technological Information (CIT), Casilla 724, La Serena (Chile); Martinez, Gwendolyn [Center for Technological Information (CIT), Casilla 724, La Serena (Chile); Univ. Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo, Fac. of Chemical Engineering, Lambayeque (Peru); Rojas, Roberto E. [Univ. of La Serena, Fac. of Sciences, Dept. of Chemistry, Casilla 554, La Serena (Chile)

    2011-01-20

    A simple and accurate model to predict the heat capacity of ionic liquids is presented. The proposed model considers variables readily available for ionic liquids and that have important effect on heat capacity, according to the literature information. Additionally a recently defined structural parameter known as mass connectivity index is incorporated into the model. A set of 602 heat capacity data for 146 ionic liquids have been used in the study. The results were compared with experimental data and with values reported by other available estimation methods. Results show that the new simple correlation gives low deviations and can be used with confidence in thermodynamic and engineering calculations.

  14. A model to estimate aquaculture carrying capacity in three areas of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarzan Legović

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A model was developed to estimate the production carrying capacity of water bodies based on nutrient inputs from aquaculture and other sources, flushing rates, and the risk of algal blooms for three different areas of the Philippines – Bolinao (marine site, Dagupan (brackishwater site and Taal Lake (freshwater site. The results suggest that aquaculture production in the Taal Lake was greater than the sustainable carrying capacity. Aquaculture structures in Bolinao were close to carrying capacity during average tidal exchange but greater than the carrying capacity during low tidal exchange and no winds.Aquaculture production in the Dagupan estuary has not overcome its carrying capacity even during low flow. However, during very low flow and no tidal flushing, carrying capacity has been overcome.

  15. Comparative effects of three 48-week community-based physical activity and exercise interventions on aerobic capacity, total cholesterol and mean arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Steven; Jimenez, Alfonso; Domone, Sarah; Beedie, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient research examines the treatment effectiveness of real-world physical activity (PA) interventions. We investigated the effects of 3 interventions on directly measured cardiovascular variables. All treatments and measures were administered in community settings by fitness centre staff. Participants were sedentary individuals receiving no medication to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk (n=369, age 43 ±5 years). In a semirandomised design, participants were allocated to a structured gym exercise programme (STRUC), unstructured gym exercise (FREE), physical activity counselling (PAC) or a measurement-only control condition (CONT). Measures were: predicted aerobic capacity (VO2: mL kg min), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP: mm Hg) and total cholesterol (TC: mmol/L), and were taken at baseline and 48 weeks. Data analysis indicated a statistically significant deterioration in TC in CONT (0.8%, SD=0.5, p=0.005), and a statistically significant improvement in MAP in STRUC (2.5%, SD=8.3, p=0.004). Following a median split by baseline VO2, paired-sample t tests indicated significant improvements in VO2 among low-fit participants in STRUC (3.5%, SD=4.8, p=0.003), PAC (3.3%, SD=7.7, p=0.050) and FREE (2.6%, SD=4.8, p=0.006), and significant deterioration of VO2 among high-fit participants in FREE (-2.0%, SD=5.6, p=0.037), and PAC (-3.2%, SD=6.4, p=0.031). Several forms of PA may offset increased cholesterol resulting from inactivity. Structured PA (exercise) might be more effective than either unstructured PA or counselling in improving blood pressure, and community-based PA interventions might be more effective in improving VO2 among low-fit than among high-fit participants.

  16. Incremental prognostic value of dobutamine-atropine stress{sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion imaging for predicting outcome in diabetic patients with limited exercise capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedone, Chiara [Bellaria Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Bologna (Italy); Schinkel, Arend F.L.; Elhendy, Abdou; Domburg, Ron T. van; Biagini, Elena; Simoons, Maarten L. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Valkema, Roelf [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bax, Jeroen J. [University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Poldermans, Don [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Thoraxcenter, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-09-01

    This study assessed the incremental value of dobutamine stress{sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the prediction of cardiac events in diabetic patients with limited exercise capacity. The study population comprised 125 consecutive diabetic patients (mean age 61{+-}9 years, 61% men) who were unable to perform an exercise test and underwent dobutamine{sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT. Follow-up was successful i