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Sample records for models examined associations

  1. A multi-level examination of the association between older social models in the school environment and overweight and obesity among younger students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Papadakis, Sophia

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have examined how school characteristics are associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the student- and school-level characteristics associated with being overweight and obese among 12,049 students in grades 9 and 10 (junior students) attending 76 secondary schools in Ontario, Canada. The sample was 49.2% female and the average age was 14.7 years. Overall, 15.0% of the sample was considered overweight and 6.3% of the sample was considered obese. Multi-level regression analysis revealed significant between-school random variation for the likelihood of a junior student (grade 9 or 10) being overweight or obese. For each 1% increase in the prevalence of obese senior students (grade 11 and 12) at a school, the odds of a junior student at that school being overweight or obese increased significantly. Important student-level characteristics included physical activity, screen time sedentary behaviour (e.g., watching television), participation in varsity sports and gender. Future research should evaluate if the optimal population level impact for school-based obesity prevention programming might be achieved by targeting the schools that are putting students at the greatest risk.

  2. Estimators for longitudinal latent exposure models: examining measurement model assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Brisa N; Kim, Sehee; Sammel, Mary D

    2017-06-15

    Latent variable (LV) models are increasingly being used in environmental epidemiology as a way to summarize multiple environmental exposures and thus minimize statistical concerns that arise in multiple regression. LV models may be especially useful when multivariate exposures are collected repeatedly over time. LV models can accommodate a variety of assumptions but, at the same time, present the user with many choices for model specification particularly in the case of exposure data collected repeatedly over time. For instance, the user could assume conditional independence of observed exposure biomarkers given the latent exposure and, in the case of longitudinal latent exposure variables, time invariance of the measurement model. Choosing which assumptions to relax is not always straightforward. We were motivated by a study of prenatal lead exposure and mental development, where assumptions of the measurement model for the time-changing longitudinal exposure have appreciable impact on (maximum-likelihood) inferences about the health effects of lead exposure. Although we were not particularly interested in characterizing the change of the LV itself, imposing a longitudinal LV structure on the repeated multivariate exposure measures could result in high efficiency gains for the exposure-disease association. We examine the biases of maximum likelihood estimators when assumptions about the measurement model for the longitudinal latent exposure variable are violated. We adapt existing instrumental variable estimators to the case of longitudinal exposures and propose them as an alternative to estimate the health effects of a time-changing latent predictor. We show that instrumental variable estimators remain unbiased for a wide range of data generating models and have advantages in terms of mean squared error. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Alternative models of DSM-5 PTSD: Examining diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Siobhan; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask; Yong Chen, Yoke; Raudzah Ghazali, Siti; Shevlin, Mark

    2018-04-01

    The factor structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively debated with evidence supporting the recently proposed seven-factor Hybrid model. However, despite myriad studies examining PTSD symptom structure few have assessed the diagnostic implications of these proposed models. This study aimed to generate PTSD prevalence estimates derived from the 7 alternative factor models and assess whether pre-established risk factors associated with PTSD (e.g., transportation accidents and sexual victimisation) produce consistent risk estimates. Seven alternative models were estimated within a confirmatory factor analytic framework using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Data were analysed from a Malaysian adolescent community sample (n = 481) of which 61.7% were female, with a mean age of 17.03 years. The results indicated that all models provided satisfactory model fit with statistical superiority for the Externalising Behaviours and seven-factor Hybrid models. The PTSD prevalence estimates varied substantially ranging from 21.8% for the DSM-5 model to 10.0% for the Hybrid model. Estimates of risk associated with PTSD were inconsistent across the alternative models, with substantial variation emerging for sexual victimisation. These findings have important implications for research and practice and highlight that more research attention is needed to examine the diagnostic implications emerging from the alternative models of PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  5. Women's experiences of the gynecologic examination: factors associated with discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilden, Malene; Sidenius, Katrine; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Wijma, Barbro; Schei, Berit

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how women experience the gynecologic examination and to assess possible factors associated with experiencing discomfort during the gynecologic examination. Consecutive patients visiting the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Glostrup County Hospital, Denmark, were invited to participate in the study, and received a postal questionnaire that included questions about the index visit, obstetric and gynecologic history and sexual abuse history. The response rate was 80% (n = 798). The degree of discomfort during the gynecologic examination was indicated on a scale from 0 to 10. Experiencing discomfort was defined as a score of 6 or more, based on the 75th percentile. Discomfort during the gynecologic examination was strongly associated with a negative emotional contact with the examiner and young age. Additionally, dissatisfaction with present sexual life, a history of sexual abuse and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and insomnia were significantly associated with discomfort. The emotional contact between patient and examiner seemed to have great importance when focusing on discomfort during the gynecologic examination. Furthermore, we found that discomfort was associated with a number of factors that are seldom known to the gynecologists, such as sexual abuse history, mental health problems and patients' sexual life. Gynecologists need to focus on the emotional contact and to reevaluate issues for communication before the examination.

  6. Factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welington dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is identify potential factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations. The forensic files of children under 12 years of age reporting sexual abuse at the Nina Rodrigues Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil between January 2008 and December 2009 were reviewed. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with finding evidence of sexual abuse in forensic examinations. The proportion of cases confirmed by the forensic physician based on material evidence was 10.4%. Adjusted analysis showed that the variables place of birth, type of abuse reported, family relationship between the child and the perpetrator, and the interval between the reported abuse and the forensic examination were not independently associated with finding forensic evidence of sexual abuse. A report of penetration was associated with a five-fold greater likelihood of confirmation, while the victim being 10-11 years of age was associated with a two-fold of abuse confirmation than younger children. These findings should be taken into consideration when drawing up guidelines for the multidisciplinary evaluation of children suspected of being victims of sexual abuse and in deciding whether to refer the child for forensic examination.

  7. Cultural Conceptions of Morality: Examining Laypeople's Associations of Moral Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Wilson, Marc; Fischer, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Whether moral conceptions are universal or culture-specific is controversial in moral psychology. One option is to refrain from imposing theoretical constraints and to ask laypeople from different cultures how "they" conceptualize morality. Our article adopts this approach by examining laypeople's associations of moral character in…

  8. The Promise of the Cross Examination Debate Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiappa, Edward; Keehner, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Provides a three-part overview of Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA): a brief history of the origins and growth of CEDA, an introduction to current practices, and a summary of the strengths of CEDA debate theory and practice. Suggests that CEDA's strengths include student participation patterns, sensitivity to argumentative complexity,…

  9. Risk and benefit associated with preventive mammography examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladar, M.; Nikodemova, D.

    1998-01-01

    The risk of mammographic examination was estimated. It is concluded that a mean glandular dose (MGD) of 1 mGy per exposure can be associated with a risk of 1 radiation-induced carcinoma per less than 100 positive detected by the preventive examination. The variability of actual MGD at various hospitals can be quite large. Although the majority of measurements were made on phantoms it is assumed that the national MGD average will exceed 3 mGy for the average breast size of 55 mm

  10. Examination of a conceptual model of child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Newton, Rae R; Litrownik, Alan J; Lewis, Terri; Briggs, Ernestine C; Thompson, Richard; English, Diana; Lee, Li-Ching; Feerick, Margaret M

    2005-05-01

    This study attempted to provide empirical support for conceptual definitions of child neglect. We identified 12 types of needs, conceptualizing neglect as occurring when children's basic needs are not adequately met. We examined measures administered to 377 children and caregivers at ages 4 and 6 years participating in longitudinal studies on child mal-treatment to identify potential indicators of these needs. Indicators were found for latent constructs, operationalizing three of the basic needs (emotional support and/or affection, protection from family conflict and/or violence, and from community violence). These latent constructs were used in a measurement model; this supported the conceptual definitions of neglect. A structural equation model then assessed whether the latent constructs were associated with child adjustment at age 8 years. Low level of perceived support from mother was associated with internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Exposure to family conflict was also linked to these problems, and to social difficulties. Finally, children's sense of experiencing little early affection was associated with subsequent externalizing behavior and social problems. The approach of conceptualizing neglect in terms of unmet child needs, developing a measurement model to define latent neglect constructs, and relating these constructs to subsequent adjustment can build our understanding of neglect.

  11. Examining assortativity in the mental lexicon: Evidence from word associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensbergen, Bram; Storms, Gert; De Deyne, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Words are characterized by a variety of lexical and psychological properties, such as their part of speech, word-frequency, concreteness, or affectivity. In this study, we examine how these properties relate to a word's connectivity in the mental lexicon, the structure containing a person's knowledge of words. In particular, we examine the extent to which these properties display assortative mixing, that is, the extent to which words in the lexicon are more likely to be connected to words that share these properties. We investigated three types of word properties: 1) subjective word covariates: valence, dominance, arousal, and concreteness; 2) lexical information: part of speech; and 3) distributional word properties: age-of-acquisition, word frequency, and contextual diversity. We assessed which of these factors exhibit assortativity using a word association task, where the probability of producing a certain response to a cue is a measure of the associative strength between the cue and response in the mental lexicon. Our results show that the extent to which these aspects exhibit assortativity varies considerably, with a high cue-response correspondence on valence, dominance, arousal, concreteness, and part of speech, indicating that these factors correspond to the words people deem as related. In contrast, we find that cues and responses show only little correspondence on word frequency, contextual diversity, and age-of-acquisition, indicating that, compared to subjective and lexical word covariates, distributional properties exhibit only little assortativity in the mental lexicon. Possible theoretical accounts and implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Interpersonal trust and voluntary associations: examining three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anheier, Helmut; Kendall, Jeremy

    2002-09-01

    The relationship between interpersonal trust and membership in voluntary associations is a persistent research finding in sociology. What is more, the notion of trust has become a central issue in current social science theorizing covering such diverse approaches as transaction costs economics or cognitive sociology. In different ways and for different purposes, these approaches address the role of voluntary organizations, although, as this paper argues, much of this thinking remains sketchy and underdeveloped. Against an empirical portrait of this relationship, the purpose of this paper is to assess such theorizing. We first set out to explicate major approaches to trust in economics, sociology and political science, using the non-profit or voluntary organization as a focal point. We then examine the various approaches in terms of their strengths and weaknesses, and, finally, identify key areas for theoretical development. In particular, we point to the social movement literature, the social psychology of trust, and recent thinking about civil society.

  13. Association of arsenobetaine with beta-cell function assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) in nondiabetic Koreans: data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kiook; Lee, Namhoon; Chung, Insung

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic is known as an endocrine disruptor that people are exposed to through various sources such as drinking water and indigestion of marine products. Although some epidemiological and animal studies have reported a correlation between arsenic exposure and diabetes development, there are limited studies regarding the toxic effects of organic arsenic including arsenobetaine on the human body. Here, we analyzed the association between urine arsenobetaine and the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β), which is an index for predicting diabetes development and reflecting the function of pancreatic β-cells. In the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), health and nutrition surveys and screening tests were performed. Of the total survey population, people with confirmed values for urine total arsenic and arsenobetaine were included, and known diabetic patients were excluded. A total 369 participants were finally included in the study. We collected surveys on health, height, body weight, body mass index, blood mercury level, fasting glucose level, and serum insulin level and calculated HOMA index. Owing to sexual discrepancy, we performed sexually stratified analysis. Urine total arsenic and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine was not associated with HOMA-IR and HOMA-β in univariate analysis or in sexually stratified analysis. However, urine arsenobetaine showed a statistically significant relationship with HOMA-β in univariate analysis, and only male participants showed a significant correlation in sexually stratified analysis. In the analysis adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity and blood mercury, the HOMA-β value in the group below the 25th percentile of arsenobetaine was significantly higher than the group between 50 and 75th percentile, while no difference was shown for HOMA-IR. In sexually stratified analysis, The value of HOMA-β was significantly higher in male participants

  14. Radiation dose associated with common computed tomography examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mokhtar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To survey computed tomography (CT radiation dose associated with non-contrast spiral Multislice CT examination in our institute. Methods: Detailed parameters for 362 consecutive examinations, including the patient weight, height, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol, scan length, and dose length product (DLP were recorded from the dose report. Effective dose (E was estimated for each patient. The differences between E doses were statistically analyzed using SSPS. Results: Patients body mass index (BMI was 13.4 to 51.42 (average BMI 29.5 kg/m. Patients dose data (1 scan phase for each patient from dose information: the median value of DLP was 586.45 mGy cm (83.30–1179.70 mGy cm, median value of CTDIvol was 12.07 (2.20–23.9 mGy, median value of mAs used was 186.50 (34–334 mAs. Effective dose range was (1.1–16.5 mSv according to international commission of radiological protection (ICRP 103 and according to ICRP60 the range was (1.3–18.93 mSv. Median value of frequent CT examinations for the same patient was 2 (min 1 scan/year & max 11 scan/year. CT dose variation was highly significant (p value <0.01 depending on high variation on mAs with (r = 0.98. CT dose was moderate depending on BMI (r = 0.55. Conclusion: There was statistically highly significant variation in effective radiation doses associated with non-contrast CT scan of abdomen and pelvis. The reason for this variation must be avoided. Keywords: Computed tomography (CT, CT dose, volume CT dose index, dose length product (DLP, Effective dose (E, International commission of radiological protection (ICRP 103

  15. An examination of the developmental propensity model of conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Friedman, Naomi P; Corley, Robin P; Hewitt, John K; Hink, Laura K; Johnson, Daniel P; Smith Watts, Ashley K; Young, Susan E; Robinson, JoAnn; Waldman, Irwin D; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2016-05-01

    The present study tested specific hypotheses advanced by the developmental propensity model of the etiology of conduct problems in the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study, a prospective, longitudinal, genetically informative sample. High negative emotionality, low behavioral inhibition, low concern and high disregard for others, and low cognitive ability assessed during toddlerhood (age 14 to 36 months) were examined as predictors of conduct problems in later childhood and adolescence (age 4 to 17 years). Each hypothesized antisocial propensity dimension predicted conduct problems, but some predictions may be context specific or due to method covariance. The most robust predictors were observed disregard for others (i.e., responding to others' distress with active, negative responses such as anger and hostility), general cognitive ability, and language ability, which were associated with conduct problems reported by parents, teachers, and adolescents, and change in observed negative emotionality (i.e., frustration tolerance), which was associated with conduct problems reported by teachers and adolescents. Furthermore, associations between the most robust early predictors and later conduct problems were influenced by the shared environment rather than genes. We conclude that shared environmental influences that promote disregard for others and detract from cognitive and language development during toddlerhood also predispose individuals to conduct problems in later childhood and adolescence. The identification of those shared environmental influences common to early antisocial propensity and later conduct problems is an important future direction, and additional developmental behavior genetic studies examining the interaction between children's characteristics and socializing influences on conduct problems are needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Examining empathy and its association with aggression in young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empathy scores, particularly those for callous-unemotional traits, were associated with aggression. We also found several associations between aspects of empathy, consistent with the international literature. Cognitive empathy, as measured by first-order false belief reasoning, was not well established, suggesting that ...

  17. Statistical associations between radiation exposure and the clinical examination data of Japanese radiology technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka; Aoyama, Takashi; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Tetsuaki; Yamamoto, Yoichi.

    1995-01-01

    The associations between occupational irradiation, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and clinical examination data were investigated in Japanese male radiology technicians. The number of investigated examination items was 35, including 29 biochemical serum test, four hematological tests and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The associations with each factor were evaluated using the multiple linear regression model. As single factors, radiation associated with urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase, monoamine oxidase and leukocyte count (four items), smoking associated with albumin-globulin index, zinc sulfate turbidity test, urea nitrogen, creatinine, neutral fat, amylase, serum iron, leukocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit (10 items), and drinking associated with creatinine, uric acid, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, leucine aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and erythrocyte count (six items). As synergistic factors, the combination of radiation and smoking associated with nine items, radiation and drinking 10 items, smoking and drinking four items, and radiation, smoking and drinking two items. These results suggested that the number of items which radiation associated as single-factor were less than that of smoking and of drinking, however suggested that associations between radiation and examination data was synergistic when combined with smoking or drinking. (author)

  18. Statistical associations between radiation exposure and the clinical examination data of Japanese radiology technicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Aoyama, Takashi; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Tetsuaki; Yamamoto, Yoichi

    1995-06-01

    The associations between occupational irradiation, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and clinical examination data were investigated in Japanese male radiology technicians. The number of investigated examination items was 35, including 29 biochemical serum test, four hematological tests and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The associations with each factor were evaluated using the multiple linear regression model. As single factors, radiation associated with urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase, monoamine oxidase and leukocyte count (four items), smoking associated with albumin-globulin index, zinc sulfate turbidity test, urea nitrogen, creatinine, neutral fat, amylase, serum iron, leukocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit (10 items), and drinking associated with creatinine, uric acid, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, leucine aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and erythrocyte count (six items). As synergistic factors, the combination of radiation and smoking associated with nine items, radiation and drinking 10 items, smoking and drinking four items, and radiation, smoking and drinking two items. These results suggested that the number of items which radiation associated as single-factor were less than that of smoking and of drinking, however suggested that associations between radiation and examination data was synergistic when combined with smoking or drinking. (author).

  19. Multilevel examination of the association of urbanization with inflammation in Chinese adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L.; Houck, Kelly M.; Adair, Linda; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry

    2014-01-01

    We examine the associations between overall urbanicity and specific physical and social components of community-level urbanization with C-reactive protein (CRP) in adults participating in the China Health and Nutrition Study. Higher overall urbanicity and environment-related urbanicity component scores, including education, housing quality, and access to markets, were associated with elevated CRP in multilevel models controlling for clustering by community. These associations differed by age and gender and persisted after controlling for individual-level anthropometric, diet, and pathogenic risk factors. These results highlight the importance of place in relation to inflammation across the spectrum of rural and urban environments. PMID:24908386

  20. Examination of factors associated in motorcycle crashes in work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the factors associated with motorcycle crashes in work zones. This analysis was completed : through the collection and inspection of three types of data: 1) practices used throughout the country on this topic, : 2) crash reports a...

  1. Examining Associations between Race, Urbanicity, and Patterns of Bullying Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldweber, Asha; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the role of race and urbanicity in bullying involvement has been limited. The present study examined bullying involvement subgroups that relate to race, urbanicity, and the perceived reason for the bullying. Self-report data were collected from 10,254 middle school youth (49.8% female; 62.4% Caucasian, 19.0% African American, and 5.6%…

  2. Examining the association between music lessons and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2011-08-01

    Although links between music training and cognitive abilities are relatively well-established, unresolved issues include the generality of the association, the direction of causation, and whether the association is mediated by executive function. Musically trained and untrained 9- to 12-year olds were compared on a measure of IQ and five measures of executive function. IQ and executive function were correlated. The musically trained group had higher IQs than their untrained counterparts and the advantage extended across the IQ subtests. The association between music training and executive function was negligible. These results provide no support for the hypothesis that the association between music training and IQ is mediated by executive function. When considered jointly with the available literature, the findings suggest that children with higher IQs are more likely than their lower-IQ counterparts to take music lessons, and to perform well on a variety of tests of cognitive ability except for those measuring executive function. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Examining factors associated with heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Scholly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking among college students is a serious health concern. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with heavy episodic drinking behaviors amongst a predominately Asian undergraduate college student population in the United States. A survey measuring alcohol use behaviors was completed by a random sample of 18-24 year old undergraduates during April, 2011. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with students’ heavy episodic drinking behavior. Independent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking included living on campus, ethnicity, perceived drinking behavior among peers, and a belief that alcohol is a central part of one’s social life. Heavy episodic drinking was also associated with poor academic performance. Campus-wide educational strategies to reduce heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates should incorporate accurate information regarding alcohol use norms to correct students’ perceived over estimation of their peers alcohol consumption rates and the under estimation of students protective alcohol use behaviors. These efforts should focus in on-campus residence halls where a higher occurrence of heavy episodic drinking is often found.

  4. An Examination of Amotivated Students within the Sport Education Model

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    Perlman, Dana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions and experiences of 33 amotivated students (i.e. students with low levels of motivation) during four consecutive seasons of the Sport Education Model. A qualitative case-study approach was utilized within this study and data was collected using interviews, field notes and reflective journals.…

  5. Examination of Self-Determination within the Sport Education Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the Sport Education Model (SEM) on students' self-determined motivation and underlying psychological need(s) in physical education. A total of 182 Year-9 students were engaged in 20 lesson units of volleyball, using either the SEM or a traditional approach. Data was collected using a…

  6. Interpersonal trust and voluntary associations: examining three approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Anheier, Helmut K. (President, Dean and Professor of Sociology); Kendall, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between interpersonal trust and membership in voluntary associations is a persistent research finding in sociology. What is more, the notion of trust has become a central issue in current social science theorizing covering such diverse approaches as transaction costs economics or cognitive sociology. In different ways and for different purposes, these approaches address the role of voluntary organizations, although, as this paper argues, much of this thinking remains sketchy ...

  7. Association of Fellowship Training With Otolaryngology Training Examination Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboyewa, Ibukun; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    No prior studies have evaluated whether residents who pursue fellowship training achieve higher performance on the Otolaryngology Training Examination (OTE) and whether a specific fellowship will demonstrate a correlation with the corresponding specialty-specific OTE score. To determine whether residents pursuing fellowship training achieve higher performance on the OTE and whether fellowship choice is correlated with higher scores on the related subspecialty section of the OTE. This retrospective analysis included 35 residents training in an academic otolaryngology residency program from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2014. The OTE scores for postgraduate years 2 through 5 and the type of fellowship were collected for all residents meeting inclusion criteria. Data were collected from September 1 to October 15, 2014, and analyzed from October 16 to December 1, 2014. Residents were divided by whether they pursued fellowship training and by the type of fellowship chosen. Outcome measures included comparison of scores between residents who pursued vs those who did not pursue fellowship training and comparison of subspecialty OTE scores between residents who pursued the corresponding fellowship and those who did not. Of the 35 residents who met the inclusion criteria (24 men and 11 women), 17 (49%) pursued fellowship training. The 3 most common fellowship choices were facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, pediatric otolaryngology, and rhinology (4 residents each [24%]). For all residents, mean scores on the OTE improved each subsequent training year, but this difference was only significant between postgraduate years 2 and 3 (from 60.9% to 68.6% correct; P otolaryngology, 72.9% vs 71.3% [P = .79]; and for rhinology, 72.2% vs 71.2% [P = .91]). Residents who pursued fellowship training did not achieve higher scores on the OTE in any examination year compared with residents who did not pursue fellowship training and did not achieve higher scores within the OTE

  8. Radiographic examination of mesiodens and their associated complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaumi, J I; Shibata, Y; Yanagi, Y; Hisatomi, M; Matsuzaki, H; Konouchi, H; Kishi, K

    2004-03-01

    To examine mesiodens with regard to their status, their influence on adjacent teeth and their alteration during the follow-up period. From retrospective reviews of all patients who visited our institution from 1990-2001, we identified 200 patients (256 mesiodentes) who were shown to have mesiodentes on the basis of a periapical radiograph, a panoramic radiograph or an axial radiograph. The number of supernumerary teeth was one in 146 cases (73%), two in 52 cases (26%) and three in 2 cases (1%). Of 256 mesiodentes, the direction of the crown of the mesiodens was inverted in 172 (67%), in a normal direction in 69 (27%) and in a horizontal direction with regard to the tooth axis in 15 (6%). Of the 147 mesiodentes for which axial radiography was performed, 131 (89%) were located at a palatal site against the dental arch, 16 (11%) overlapped the dental arch and none were at a labial site. Of our 200 cases, a delay of eruption of the permanent central incisor was seen in 12 (6%), malposition or rotation of the central incisor in 5 (2.5%) and dentigerous cyst formation arising from mesiodens in 22 (11%). Marked movement of the mesiodens was seen in 10 cases during the follow-up period of 5-7 years. Some complication arising from mesiodens was seen in 19.5% of all cases in our research. Although mesiodentes are not caused by malocclusion, they may cause it. A long period of impaction of mesiodentes may bring about dentigerous cyst formation or movement of the mesiodentes.

  9. Family evaluation of hospice care: Examining direct and indirect associations with overall satisfaction and caregiver confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jason M; Keene, Jennifer R; Kirkendall, Abbie; Luna, Nora

    2015-08-01

    The Family Evaluation of Hospice Care (FEHC) survey is widely employed by hospices, and several studies have examined this information to help inform and enhance end-of-life services. However, these studies have largely focused on examining relatively straightforward associations between variables and have not tested larger models that could reveal more complex effects. The present study aimed to examine the direct and mediating (i.e., via information/education, patient care, and family support) effects of demographic factors, length of stay, timing of referral, patient symptom severity, location of services, and relationship to caregiver on two outcome variables: overall satisfaction and caregiver confidence. Surveys were collected from 3226 participants who had lost a loved one who received hospice services. Structural equation modeling was employed to examine the direct and mediating effects of the independent variables on the two outcomes of interest. Participants reporting on racial minority patients, patients with more symptoms, and those referred too late or too early were the most likely to express some discontentment with hospice services. The information/education these individuals received was the only mediating factor significantly associated with caregiver confidence. More positive perceptions of patient care and information/education were both significantly related to greater overall satisfaction. These findings help to (1) pinpoint those most at risk for being less satisfied with hospice, (2) identify which aspects of care may be most strongly related to overall outcomes, and (3) provide a model for examining complex associations among FEHC variables that may be employed by other researchers.

  10. An Examination of Models of Relaxation in Complex Systems. I. Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-04

    M NRL Memorandum Report 5719 An Examination of Models of Relaxation in Complex Systems 1. Continuous Time Random Walk ( CTRW ) Models K. L. NGAI, R. W...Examination of Models of Relaxation in Complex Systems I. Continuous Time Random Walk ( CTRW ) Models E. PSRSONAL AUTHOR(S) Ntgi, K.L., Rendell. R.W...necessary and idenrify by block number) Models of relaxation in complex systemL based on the continuous time random walk ( CTRW ) formalism are examined on

  11. A Social Development Model of Serious Delinquency: Examining Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundra, Kenneth H.; Kiger, Gary; Bahr, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    This study offers a critical review and analysis of the Social Development Model and social control theory in delinquency. Results show that attachment and commitment to parents, school, and peers is associated with delinquency for both boys and girls. Parental attachment and commitment play a stronger role in female delinquency, while alienation…

  12. Where are weather-suicide associations valid? An examination of nine US counties with varying seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P. Grady; Kalkstein, Adam J.

    2016-11-01

    There has been much research on the associations between weather variables and suicide rates. However, the state of understanding has remained rather stagnant due to many contradictory findings. The purpose of this project is to examine a larger database of suicides that includes a longer and more recent period of record (1975-2010) across numerous locations in the USA. In all, we examine nine total counties (and the primary city associated with them) with a special effort made to compare locations with varying degrees of temperature seasonality: Cook (Chicago), Fulton (Atlanta), King (Seattle), Los Angeles (Los Angeles), Maricopa (Phoenix), Miami-Dade (Miami), Philadelphia (Philadelphia), Salt Lake (Salt Lake City), and St. Louis (St. Louis). We first examine the unique seasonal cycle in suicides evident in each locale and then use distributed lag nonlinear modeling (DLNM) to relate the suicide data to daily surface temperatures. Results suggest that a late spring/summer peak generally exists in suicide rates, and above average temperatures are associated with increased suicide risk in almost all study counties. Further, it appears that these associations can be found in both mid-latitude and sub-tropical climate types.

  13. Examining the Self-Reported Health Behaviors and the Importance of Role Modeling among Resident Directors Affiliated with the Association of College and University Housing Officers-International (ACUHO-I) Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, Maylen Lizeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported health behaviors (health responsibility, physical activity, nutrition, spiritual growth, interpersonal relations and stress management) of Resident Directors who self-reported being affiliated with ACUHO-I. The second purpose of the study was to examine which areas of health behaviors, do…

  14. Comparative examination of two methods for modeling autoimmune uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Aksenova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Uveitis is a disease of the uveal tract, characterized by a variety of causes and clinical manifestations. The internal antigens prevail often in the pathogenesis of the disease and develop the so-called autoimmune reactions. The uveitis treatment has an important medico-social significance because of the high prevalence of uveitis, the significant rate of the disease in young people, and high disability. The article compares the efficiency of two methods for modeling autoimmune uveitis. Materials and Methods: The research was conducted on 6 rabbits of the Chinchilla breed (12 eyes. Two models of experimental uveitis were reproduced on rabbits using normal horse serum during the research. A clinical examination of the inflammatory process course in the eyes was carried out by biomicroscopy using a slit lamp, and a direct ophthalmoscope. Histological and immunological examinations were conducted by the authors of the article. Results: The faster-reproducing and vivid clinical picture of the disease was observed in the second group. The obvious changes in the immunological status of the animals were noted also: an increase in the number of leukocytes, neutrophils, HCT-active neutrophils, and activation of phagocytosis. Discussion and Conclusions: The research has showed that the second model of uveitis is the most convenient working variant, which is characterized by high activity and duration of the inflammatory process in the eye.

  15. Modelling Terminal Examination System For Senior High Schools In Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidu Azizu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Modelling terminal examination management system using link softwares for Senior High Schools in Ghana is reported. Both Microsoft Excel and Access were integrated as back and front-end respectively. The two softwares were linked for update of records as well as security purposes during data entry of students records. The link was collapsed after the deadline of data entry to convert the access table to local and enhance data security. Based on the proposed system multiple parameters such as invigilators marks grades attendance and absenteeism were assessed and identified for the various subjects in the entire examination processes. The System applied structured query languagesql for searching specific named parameter for analysis where the total number written papers number of students and performance could also be accessed.

  16. Examining the association between livestock ownership typologies and child nutrition in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Sarah E; Kassa, Lea; Young, Sera L; Travis, Alexander J

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association between livestock ownership and dietary diversity, animal-source food consumption, height-for-age z-score, and stunting among children living in wildlife "buffer zones" of Zambia's Luangwa Valley using a novel livestock typology approach. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 838 children aged 6-36 months. Households were categorized into typologies based on the types and numbers of animals owned, ranging from no livestock to large numbers of mixed livestock. We used multilevel mixed-effects linear and logistic regression to examine the association between livestock typologies and four nutrition-related outcomes of interest. Results were compared with analyses using more common binary and count measures of livestock ownership. No measure of livestock ownership was significantly associated with children's odds of animal-source food consumption, child height-for-age z-score, or stunting odds. Livestock ownership Type 2 (having a small number of poultry) was surprisingly associated with decreased child dietary diversity (β = -0.477; powning no livestock. Similarly, in comparison models, chicken ownership was negatively associated with dietary diversity (β = -0.320; p<0.01), but increasing numbers of chickens were positively associated with dietary diversity (β = 0.022; p<0.01). Notably, neither child dietary diversity nor animal-source food consumption was significantly associated with height, perhaps due to unusually high prevalences of morbidities. Our novel typologies methodology allowed for an efficient and a more in-depth examination of the differential impact of livestock ownership patterns compared to typical binary or count measures of livestock ownership. We found that these patterns were not positively associated with child nutrition outcomes in this context. Development and conservation programs focusing on livestock must carefully consider the complex, context-specific relationship between livestock ownership and

  17. Examining Asphaltene Solubility on Deposition in Model Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Jiun; He, Peng; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Mathew, Nevin Thunduvila; Fatt, Yap Yit; Chai, John C; Goharzadeh, Afshin; Vargas, Francisco M; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2016-08-30

    Asphaltenes are known to cause severe flow assurance problems in the near-wellbore region of oil reservoirs. Understanding the mechanism of asphaltene deposition in porous media is of great significance for the development of accurate numerical simulators and effective chemical remediation treatments. Here, we present a study of the dynamics of asphaltene deposition in porous media using microfluidic devices. A model oil containing 5 wt % dissolved asphaltenes was mixed with n-heptane, a known asphaltene precipitant, and flowed through a representative porous media microfluidic chip. Asphaltene deposition was recorded and analyzed as a function of solubility, which was directly correlated to particle size and Péclet number. In particular, pore-scale visualization and velocity profiles, as well as three stages of deposition, were identified and examined to determine the important convection-diffusion effects on deposition.

  18. Examining a model of dispositional mindfulness, body comparison, and body satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    The present study examined the links between dispositional mindfulness, body comparison, and body satisfaction. It was expected that mindfulness would be associated with less body comparison and more body satisfaction. Two models were tested: one exploring body comparison as a mediator between

  19. College Students Coping with Interpersonal Stress: Examining a Control-Based Model of Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiro, Mary Jo; Bettis, Alexandra H.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The ways that college students cope with stress, particularly interpersonal stress, may be a critical factor in determining which students are at risk for impairing mental health disorders. Using a control-based model of coping, the present study examined associations between interpersonal stress, coping strategies, and symptoms.…

  20. Examination of Satellite and Model Reanalysis Precipitation with Climate Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, T. F.; Houser, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of satellite and model reanalysis precipitation with climate oscillations. Specifically, we examine and compare the relationship between the Global Precipitation Climate Project (GPCP) with Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application, Version 2 (MERRA-2) in regards to four climate indices: The North Atlantic Oscillation, Southern Oscillation Index, the Southern Annular Mode and Solar Activity. This analysis covers a 35-year observation period from 1980 through 2015. We ask two questions: How is global and regional precipitation changing over the observation period, and how are global and regional variations in precipitation related to global climate variation? We explore and compare global and regional precipitation trends between the two data sets. To do this, we constructed a total of 56 Regions of Interest (ROI). Nineteen of the ROIs were focused on geographic regions including continents, ocean basins, and marginal seas. Twelve ROIs examine hemispheric processes. The remaining 26 regions are derived from spatial-temporal classification analysis of GPCP data over a ten-year period (2001-2010). These regions include the primary wet and dry monsoon regions, regions influenced by western boundary currents, and orography. We investigate and interpret the monthly, seasonal and yearly global and regional response to the selected climate indices. Initial results indicate that no correlation exist between the GPCP data and Merra-2 data. Preliminary qualitative assessment between GCPC and solar activity suggest a possible relationship in intra-annual variability. This work is performed under the State of the Global Water and Energy Cycle (SWEC) project, a NASA-sponsored program in support of NASA's Energy and Water cycle Study (NEWS).

  1. Examining the Risk Factors Associated With Hypertension Among the Elderly in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Godfred Odei; Luginaah, Isaac N; Taabazuing, Mary-Margaret

    2015-10-01

    This study sought to examine the risk factors associated with hypertension among the elderly in Ghana. We focused on the association between chronic diseases, socioeconomic factors, and being hypertensive. Data for the study were drawn from Wave 1 of the 2007/2008 Ghana Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE). A binary logit model was used to estimate the effect of other noncommunicable diseases, psychosocial factors, lifestyle factors, and sociocultural and biosocial factors on the elderly being hypertensive. Elderly Ghanaians who had been diagnosed with arthritis, angina, diabetes, and asthma were significantly more likely to be hypertensive. Additionally, those depressed were found to be 1.22 times more likely to be hypertensive. Prevention and control of hypertension are complex and demand multistakeholder collaboration including governments, educational institutions, media, food and beverage industry, and a conscious focus on personal lifestyle factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Association of the pre-internship objective structured clinical examination in final year medical students with comprehensive written examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Hasan; Labaf, Ali; Anvari, Pasha; Jamali, Arsia; Sheybaee-Moghaddam, Farshad

    2012-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of the pre-internship Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in final year medical students with comprehensive written examinations. Subjects and material All medical students of October 2004 admission who took part in the October 2010 National Comprehensive Pre-internship Examination (NCPE) and pre-internship OSCE were included in the study (n=130). OSCE and NCPE scores and medical grade point average (GPA) were collected. Results GPA was highly correlated with NCPE (r=0.76 and POSCE (r=0.68 and POSCE scores(r=0.6 and POSCE score is 0.46 (β=0.68 and POSCE. OR of GPA and male gender for high OSCE score are 4.89 (95% CI=2.37–10.06) and 6.95 (95% CI=2.00–24.21), respectively (POSCE and examination which mainly evaluate knowledge, judged by GPA and NCPE are moderately to highly correlated. Our results illustrate the interwoven nature of knowledge and clinical skills. In other words, certain level of knowledge is crucial for appropriate clinical performance. Our findings suggest neither OSCE nor written forms of assessments can replace each other. They are complimentary and should also be combined by other evaluations to cover all attributes of clinical competence efficiently. PMID:22547924

  3. Interpersonal Style, Stress, and Depression: An Examination of Transactional and Diathesis-Stress Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Nicole K; Hammen, Constance L

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines a transactional, interpersonal model of depression in which stress generation (Hammen, 1991) in romantic relationships mediates the association between aspects of interpersonal style (i.e., attachment, dependency, and reassurance seeking) and depressive symptoms. It also examines an alternative, diathesis-stress model in which interpersonal style interacts with romantic stressors in predicting depressive symptoms. These models were tested in a sample of college women, both prospectively over a four-week period, as well as on a day-today basis using a daily diary methodology. Overall, there was strong evidence for a transactional, mediation model in which interpersonal style predicted romantic conflict stress, and in turn depressive symptoms. The alternative diathesis-stress model of depression was not supported. These results are interpreted in relation to previous research, and key limitations that should be addressed by future research are discussed.

  4. Examining the impact of lahars on buildings using numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Stuart R.; Magill, Christina; Lemiale, Vincent; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Prakash, Mahesh

    2017-05-01

    Lahars are volcanic flows containing a mixture of fluid and sediment which have the potential to cause significant damage to buildings, critical infrastructure and human life. The extent of this damage is controlled by properties of the lahar, location of elements at risk and susceptibility of these elements to the lahar. Here we focus on understanding lahar-induced building damage. Quantification of building damage can be difficult due to the complexity of lahar behaviour (hazard), varying number and type of buildings exposed to the lahar (exposure) and the uncertain susceptibility of buildings to lahar impacts (vulnerability). In this paper, we quantify and examine the importance of lahar hazard, exposure and vulnerability in determining building damage with reference to a case study in the city of Arequipa, Peru. Numerical modelling is used to investigate lahar properties that are important in determining the inundation area and forces applied to buildings. Building vulnerability is quantified through the development of critical depth-pressure curves based on the ultimate bending moment of masonry structures. In the case study area, results suggest that building strength plays a minor role in determining overall building losses in comparison to the effects of building exposure and hydraulic characteristics of the lahar.

  5. Examining the influence of working memory on updating mental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadao, Derick F; Anderson, Britt; Danckert, James

    2015-01-01

    The ability to accurately build and update mental representations of our environment depends on our ability to integrate information over a variety of time scales and detect changes in the regularity of events. As such, the cognitive mechanisms that support model building and updating are likely to interact with those involved in working memory (WM). To examine this, we performed three experiments that manipulated WM demands concurrently with the need to attend to regularities in other stimulus properties (i.e., location and shape). That is, participants completed a prediction task while simultaneously performing an n-back WM task with either no load or a moderate load. The distribution of target locations (Experiment 1) or shapes (Experiments 2 and 3) included some level of probabilistic regularity, which, unbeknown to participants, changed abruptly within each block. Moderate WM load hampered the ability to benefit from target regularities and to adapt to changes in those regularities (i.e., the prediction task). This was most pronounced when both prediction and WM requirements shared the same target feature. Our results show that representational updating depends on free WM resources in a domain-specific fashion.

  6. Examining the association between livestock ownership typologies and child nutrition in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Dumas

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between livestock ownership and dietary diversity, animal-source food consumption, height-for-age z-score, and stunting among children living in wildlife "buffer zones" of Zambia's Luangwa Valley using a novel livestock typology approach.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 838 children aged 6-36 months. Households were categorized into typologies based on the types and numbers of animals owned, ranging from no livestock to large numbers of mixed livestock. We used multilevel mixed-effects linear and logistic regression to examine the association between livestock typologies and four nutrition-related outcomes of interest. Results were compared with analyses using more common binary and count measures of livestock ownership.No measure of livestock ownership was significantly associated with children's odds of animal-source food consumption, child height-for-age z-score, or stunting odds. Livestock ownership Type 2 (having a small number of poultry was surprisingly associated with decreased child dietary diversity (β = -0.477; p<0.01 relative to owning no livestock. Similarly, in comparison models, chicken ownership was negatively associated with dietary diversity (β = -0.320; p<0.01, but increasing numbers of chickens were positively associated with dietary diversity (β = 0.022; p<0.01. Notably, neither child dietary diversity nor animal-source food consumption was significantly associated with height, perhaps due to unusually high prevalences of morbidities.Our novel typologies methodology allowed for an efficient and a more in-depth examination of the differential impact of livestock ownership patterns compared to typical binary or count measures of livestock ownership. We found that these patterns were not positively associated with child nutrition outcomes in this context. Development and conservation programs focusing on livestock must carefully consider the complex, context-specific relationship between

  7. Baseline Examination Factors Associated With Clinical Improvement After Dry Needling in Individuals With Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenhaver, Shane L; Walker, Michael J; Smith, Ryan W; Booker, Jacquelynn M; Walkup, Isaac D; Su, Jonathan; Hebert, Jeffrey J; Flynn, Timothy

    2015-08-01

    Quasi-experimental. To explore for associations between demographic, patient history, and physical examination variables and short-term improvement in self-reported disability following dry needling therapy performed on individuals with low back pain (LBP). Dry needling is an intervention used with increasing frequency in patients with LBP; however, the characteristics of patients who are most likely to respond are not known. Seventy-two volunteers with mechanical LBP participated in the study. Potential prognostic factors were collected from baseline questionnaires, patient history, and physical examination tests. Treatment consisted of dry needling to the lumbar multifidus muscles bilaterally, administered during a single treatment session. Improvement was based on percent change on the Oswestry Disability Index at 1 week. The univariate and multivariate associations between 33 potential prognostic factors and improved disability were assessed with correlation coefficients and multivariate linear regression. Increased LBP with the multifidus lift test (rpb = 0.31, P = .01) or during passive hip flexion performed with the patient supine (rpb = 0.23, P = .06), as well as positive beliefs about acupuncture/dry needling (rho = 0.22, P = .07), demonstrated univariate associations with Oswestry Disability Index improvement. Aggravation of LBP with standing (rpb = -0.27, P = .03), presence of leg pain (rpb = -0.29, P = .02), and any perception of hypermobility in the lumbar spine (rpb = -0.21, P = .09) were associated with less improvement. The multivariate model identified 2 predictors of improved disability with dry needling: pain with the multifidus lift test and no aggravation with standing (R(2) = 0.16, P = .01). Increased LBP with the multifidus lift test was the strongest predictor of improved disability after dry needling, suggesting that the finding of pain during muscle contraction should be studied in future dry needling studies. Prognosis, level 1b.

  8. Examination of HFE associations with childhood leukemia risk and extension to other iron regulatory genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Amy E; Kamdar, Kala Y; Lupo, Philip J; Okcu, M Fatih; Scheurer, Michael E; Baum, Marianna K; Dorak, M Tevfik

    2014-09-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE) variants correlating with body iron levels have shown associations with cancer risk, including childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using a multi-ethnic sample of cases and controls from Houston, TX, we examined two HFE variants (rs1800562 and rs1799945), one transferrin receptor gene (TFRC) variant (rs3817672) and three additional iron regulatory gene (IRG) variants (SLC11A2 rs422982; TMPRSS6 rs855791 and rs733655) for their associations with childhood ALL. Being positive for either of the HFE variants yielded a modestly elevated odds ratio (OR) for childhood ALL risk in males (1.40, 95% CI=0.83-2.35), which increased to 2.96 (95% CI=1.29-6.80) in the presence of a particular TFRC genotype for rs3817672 (P interaction=0.04). The TFRC genotype also showed an ethnicity-specific association, with increased risk observed in non-Hispanic Whites (OR=2.54, 95% CI=1.05-6.12; P interaction with ethnicity=0.02). The three additional IRG SNPs all showed individual risk associations with childhood ALL in males (OR=1.52-2.60). A polygenic model based on the number of variant alleles in five IRG SNPs revealed a linear increase in risk among males with the increasing number of variants possessed (OR=2.0 per incremental change, 95% CI=1.29-3.12; P=0.002). Our results replicated previous HFE risk associations with childhood ALL in a US population and demonstrated novel associations for IRG SNPs, thereby strengthening the hypothesis that iron excess mediated by genetic variants contributes to childhood ALL risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Examining the association between livestock ownership typologies and child nutrition in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Lea; Young, Sera L.; Travis, Alexander J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between livestock ownership and dietary diversity, animal-source food consumption, height-for-age z-score, and stunting among children living in wildlife “buffer zones” of Zambia’s Luangwa Valley using a novel livestock typology approach. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 838 children aged 6–36 months. Households were categorized into typologies based on the types and numbers of animals owned, ranging from no livestock to large numbers of mixed livestock. We used multilevel mixed-effects linear and logistic regression to examine the association between livestock typologies and four nutrition-related outcomes of interest. Results were compared with analyses using more common binary and count measures of livestock ownership. Results No measure of livestock ownership was significantly associated with children’s odds of animal-source food consumption, child height-for-age z-score, or stunting odds. Livestock ownership Type 2 (having a small number of poultry) was surprisingly associated with decreased child dietary diversity (β = -0.477; plivestock. Similarly, in comparison models, chicken ownership was negatively associated with dietary diversity (β = -0.320; plivestock ownership patterns compared to typical binary or count measures of livestock ownership. We found that these patterns were not positively associated with child nutrition outcomes in this context. Development and conservation programs focusing on livestock must carefully consider the complex, context-specific relationship between livestock ownership and nutrition outcomes–including how livestock are utilized by the target population–when attempting to use livestock as a means of improving child nutrition. PMID:29408920

  10. Relational Intimacy Mediates Sexual Outcomes Associated With Impaired Sexual Function: Examination in a Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, Marta Parkanyi; Chandraiah, Shambhavi; Seals, Samantha R; Sarver, Dustin E; Parisi, Kathryn E; Bugan, Antal

    2017-06-01

    Relational intimacy is hypothesized to underlie the association between female sexual functioning and various sexual outcomes, and married women and women with sexual dysfunction have been generally absent from prior studies investigating these associations, thus restricting generalizability. To investigate whether relational intimacy mediates sexual outcomes (sexual satisfaction, coital frequency, and sexual distress) in a sample of married women with and without impaired sexual functioning presenting in clinical settings. Using a cross-sectional design, 64 heterosexual married women with (n = 44) and without (n = 20) impaired sexual functioning completed a battery of validated measurements assessing relational intimacy, sexual dysfunction, sexual frequency, satisfaction, and distress. Intimacy measurements were combined using latent factor scores before analysis. Bias-corrected mediation models of the indirect effect were used to test mediation effects. Moderated mediation models examined whether indirect effects were influenced by age and marital duration. Patients completed the Female Sexual Function Index, the Couple's Satisfaction Index, the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, the Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale, and the Miller Social Intimacy Test. Mediation models showed that impaired sexual functioning is associated with all sexual outcomes directly and indirectly through relational intimacy. Results were predominantly independent of age and marital duration. Findings have important treatment implications for modifying interventions to focus on enhancing relational intimacy to improve the sexual functioning of women with impaired sexual functioning. The importance of the role relational intimacy plays in broad sexual outcomes of women with impaired sexual functioning is supported in clinically referred and married women. Latent factor scores to improve estimation of study constructs and the use of contemporary mediation analysis also are

  11. Comparison of 4 established DASH diet indexes: examining associations of index scores and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Cross, Amanda J; Subar, Amy F; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Park, Yikyung; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany; Hollenbeck, Albert; Reedy, Jill

    2013-09-01

    Multiple diet indexes have been developed to capture the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and examine relations with health outcomes but have not been compared within the same study population to our knowledge. We compared 4 established DASH indexes and examined associations with colorectal cancer. Scores were generated from a food-frequency questionnaire in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 491,841). Separate indexes defined by Dixon (7 food groups, saturated fat, and alcohol), Mellen (9 nutrients), Fung (7 food groups and sodium), and Günther (8 food groups) were used. HRs and 95% CIs for colorectal cancer were generated by using Cox proportional hazard models. From 1995 through 2006, 6752 incident colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. In men, higher scores were associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence by comparing highest to lowest quintiles for all indexes as follows: Dixon (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.87), Mellen (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.86), Fung (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.83), and Günther (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.90). Higher scores in women were inversely associated with colorectal cancer incidence by using methods defined by Mellen (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.91), Fung (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and Günther (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73.0.97) but not Dixon (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.28). The consistency in findings, particularly in men, suggests that all indexes capture an underlying construct inherent in the DASH dietary pattern, although the specific index used can affect results.

  12. Comparison of 4 established DASH diet indexes: examining associations of index scores and colorectal cancer123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Amanda J; Subar, Amy F; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Park, Yikyung; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany; Hollenbeck, Albert; Reedy, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple diet indexes have been developed to capture the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and examine relations with health outcomes but have not been compared within the same study population to our knowledge. Objective: We compared 4 established DASH indexes and examined associations with colorectal cancer. Design: Scores were generated from a food-frequency questionnaire in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 491,841). Separate indexes defined by Dixon (7 food groups, saturated fat, and alcohol), Mellen (9 nutrients), Fung (7 food groups and sodium), and Günther (8 food groups) were used. HRs and 95% CIs for colorectal cancer were generated by using Cox proportional hazard models. Results: From 1995 through 2006, 6752 incident colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. In men, higher scores were associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence by comparing highest to lowest quintiles for all indexes as follows: Dixon (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.87), Mellen (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.86), Fung (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.83), and Günther (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.90). Higher scores in women were inversely associated with colorectal cancer incidence by using methods defined by Mellen (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.91), Fung (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and Günther (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73.0.97) but not Dixon (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.28). Conclusion: The consistency in findings, particularly in men, suggests that all indexes capture an underlying construct inherent in the DASH dietary pattern, although the specific index used can affect results. PMID:23864539

  13. Modern statistical models for forensic fingerprint examinations: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joshua; Champod, Christophe; Lennard, Chris; Roux, Claude

    2013-10-10

    Over the last decade, the development of statistical models in support of forensic fingerprint identification has been the subject of increasing research attention, spurned on recently by commentators who claim that the scientific basis for fingerprint identification has not been adequately demonstrated. Such models are increasingly seen as useful tools in support of the fingerprint identification process within or in addition to the ACE-V framework. This paper provides a critical review of recent statistical models from both a practical and theoretical perspective. This includes analysis of models of two different methodologies: Probability of Random Correspondence (PRC) models that focus on calculating probabilities of the occurrence of fingerprint configurations for a given population, and Likelihood Ratio (LR) models which use analysis of corresponding features of fingerprints to derive a likelihood value representing the evidential weighting for a potential source. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Examining the Invariance of Holland's Vocational Interest Model across Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mary Z.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Multiple structural analyses of Strong Interest Inventory General Occupational Themes (GOT) matrices for seven men and seven women indicated GOT correspondence with Holland's circular order and circumplex models. Results suggested that these models are no more or less accurate for men than for women. (SK)

  15. Examining the role of nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissue (NALT) in mouse responses to vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisney, Emily D; Fernandez, Stefan; Hall, Shannan I; Krietz, Gale A; Ulrich, Robert G

    2012-08-01

    The nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissues (NALT) found in humans, rodents, and other mammals, contribute to immunity in the nasal sinuses(1-3). The NALT are two parallel bell-shaped structures located in the nasal passages above the hard palate, and are usually considered to be secondary components of the mucosal-associated lymphoid system(4-6). Located within the NALT are discrete compartments of B and T lymphocytes interspersed with antigen-presenting dendritic cells(4,7,8). These cells are surrounded by an epithelial cell layer intercalated with M-cells that are responsible for antigen retrieval from the mucosal surfaces of the air passages(9,10). Naive lymphocytes circulating through the NALT are poised to respond to first encounters with respiratory pathogens(7). While NALT disappear in humans by the age of two years, the Waldeyer's Ring and similarly structured lymphatic organs continue to persist throughout life(6). In contrast to humans, mice retain NALT throughout life, thus providing a convenient animal model for the study of immune responses originating within the nasal sinuses(11). Cultures of single-cell suspensions of NALT are not practical due to low yields of mononuclear cells. However, NALT biology can be examined by ex vivo culturing of the intact organ, and this method has the additional advantage of maintaining the natural tissue structure. For in vivo studies, genetic knockout models presenting defects limited to NALT are not currently available due to a poor understanding of the developmental pathway. For example, while lymphotoxin-α knockout mice have atrophied NALT, the Peyer's patches, peripheral lymph nodes, follicular dendritic cells and other lymphoid tissues are also altered in these genetically manipulated mice(12,13). As an alternative to gene knockout mice, surgical ablation permanently eliminates NALT from the nasal passage without affecting other tissues. The resulting mouse model has been used to establish

  16. Examining Associations between Narcissism, Behavior Problems, and Anxiety in Non-Referred Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational…

  17. Examining Associations Among ADHD, Homework Behavior, and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Callie W; Hart, Sara A; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2016-07-01

    Previous literature has indicated an important association between reading comprehension and both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and homework habits. This investigation sought to extend previous knowledge by providing information about how ADHD and homework behavior (i.e., completing homework regularly) may jointly influence reading comprehension. Using a genetically sensitive design, this study examined the genetic and environmental influences on and between ADHD, homework behavior and reading comprehension. Participants for this study included 691 twin pairs (351 monozygotic, 340 same-sex dizygotic) from the Florida Twin Project on Behavior and Environment (FTP-BE) and 2647 twin pairs (865 monozygotic, 1782 dizygotic) from the larger Florida Twin Project on Reading (FTP-R) in Grades 3 through 7. Three separate models, each representing a different definition of ADHD (full ADHD, inattention only, and hyperactivity/impulsivity only), showed similar patterns of results; therefore, results of the full ADHD model are discussed. Overlapping genetic influences were found between ADHD, homework behavior, and reading comprehension, but no shared environmental influences among all three. However, shared environmental influences overlapped between homework behavior and reading comprehension. Although the sources of this environmental overlap are unknown, these results have implications for improving homework practices and their subsequent influence on literacy skills through homework environments. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  18. An Examination of the Associations between ADHD, Homework Behavior and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Callie W.; Hart, Sara A.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    Previous literature has indicated an important association between reading comprehension and both ADHD and homework habits. This investigation sought to extend previous knowledge by providing information about how ADHD and homework behavior (i.e., completing homework regularly) may jointly influence reading comprehension. Using a genetically sensitive design, this study examined the genetic and environmental influences on and between ADHD, homework behavior and reading comprehension. Participants for this study included 691 twin pairs (351 monozygotic, 340 same-sex dizygotic) from the Florida Twin Project on Behavior and Environment (FTP-BE) and 2647 twin pairs (865 monozygotic, 1782 dizygotic) from the larger Florida Twin Project on Reading (FTP-R) in grades 3 through 7. Three separate models, each representing a different definition of ADHD (full ADHD, Inattention only, and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity only), showed similar patterns of results, therefore, results of the full ADHD model are discussed. Overlapping genetic influences were found between ADHD, homework behavior and reading comprehension, but no shared environmental influences among all three. However, shared environmental influences overlapped between homework behavior and reading comprehension. Although the sources of this environmental overlap are unknown, these results have implications for improving homework practices and their subsequent influence on literacy skills through homework environments. PMID:25349092

  19. EXAMINING TATOOINE: ATMOSPHERIC MODELS OF NEPTUNE-LIKE CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, E. M.; Rauscher, E. [University of Michigan (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Circumbinary planets experience a time-varying irradiation pattern as they orbit their two host stars. In this work, we present the first detailed study of the atmospheric effects of this irradiation pattern on known and hypothetical gaseous circumbinary planets. Using both a one-dimensional energy balance model (EBM) and a three-dimensional general circulation model (GCM), we look at the temperature differences between circumbinary planets and their equivalent single-star cases in order to determine the nature of the atmospheres of these planets. We find that for circumbinary planets on stable orbits around their host stars, temperature differences are on average no more than 1.0% in the most extreme cases. Based on detailed modeling with the GCM, we find that these temperature differences are not large enough to excite circulation differences between the two cases. We conclude that gaseous circumbinary planets can be treated as their equivalent single-star case in future atmospheric modeling efforts.

  20. The association between caffeine and cognitive decline: examining alternative causal hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, K; Ancelin, M L; Amieva, H; Rouaud, O; Carrière, I

    2014-04-01

    Numerous studies suggest that higher coffee consumption may reduce the rate of aging-related cognitive decline in women. It is thus potentially a cheap and widely available candidate for prevention programs provided its mechanism may be adequately understood. The assumed effect is that of reduced amyloid deposition, however, alternative pathways notably by reducing depression and diabetes type 2 risk have not been considered. A population study of 1,193 elderly persons examining depressive symptomatology, caffeine consumption, fasting glucose levels, type 2 diabetes onset, serum amyloid, and factors known to affect cognitive performance was used to explore alternative causal models. Higher caffeine consumption was found to be associated with decreased risk of incident diabetes in men (HR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.42-0.97) and increased risk in women (HR = 1.51; 95% CI 1.08-2.11). No association was found with incident depression. While in the total sample lower ratio Aβ42/Aβ40 levels (OR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.77, p = 0.02) were found in high caffeine consumers, this failed to reach significance when the analyses were stratified by gender. We found no evidence that reduced risk of cognitive decline in women with high caffeine consumption is moderated or confounded by diabetes or depression. The evidence of an association with plasma beta amyloid could not be clearly demonstrated. Insufficient proof of causal mechanisms currently precludes the recommendation of coffee consumption as a public health measure. Further research should focus on the high estrogen content of coffee as a plausible alternative explanation.

  1. Using Health Belief Model Constructs to Examine Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimy, Mahmood; Azarpira, Hossein; Araban, Marzieh

    2017-05-01

    Despite documented successful Pap tests in routine care of women, screening levels are unfortunately often lower than recommended. This study aimed to assess differences in adherence to Pap test guidelines among a sample of Iranian women using the Health Belief Model (HBM). In this descriptive and analytical study, information was collected from a total of 305 women, (age range of 15-49) from Zarandieh health centers in Iran using a random multistage sampling method. The questionnaire covered demographic characteristics; health belief model constructs were gathered by a self-report method. The results were analyzed using the independent samples t test and logistic regression in SPSS-20. A total 32% of the subjects had a history of a Pap test and the score mean of the whole constructs model (knowledge, susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers and self-efficacy) in these individuals was higher than those without a positive history. Among the predictive variables of HBM constructs, the highest weights were observed for perceived benefits ß)=0.36), perceived susceptibility =ß) 0.35) and self-efficacy ß)=0.29). Based on our finding of positive relationships for health belief model structures with performance of a pap smear test, designing educational interventions for changing the knowledge levels and beliefs of women is recommended. Creative Commons Attribution License

  2. An examination of the Sport Drug Control Model with elite Australian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Donovan, Robert J

    2011-11-01

    This study presents an opportunistic examination of the theoretical tenets outlined in the Sport Drug Control Model(1) using questionnaire items from a survey of 643 elite Australian athletes. Items in the questionnaire that related to the concepts in the model were identified and structural equation modelling was employed to test the hypothesised model. Morality (cheating), benefit appraisal (performance), and threat appraisal (enforcement) evidenced the strongest relationships with attitude to doping, which in turn was positively associated with doping susceptibility. Self-esteem, perceptions of legitimacy and reference group opinions showed small non-significant associations with attitude to doping. The hypothesised model accounted for 30% and 11% of the variance in attitudes to doping and doping susceptibility, respectively. These present findings provide support for the model even though the questionnaire items were not constructed to specifically measure concepts contained in it. Thus, the model appears useful for understanding influences on doping. Nevertheless, there is a need to further explore individual and social factors that may influence athletes' use of performance enhancing drugs. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Association Between Vestibular Physical Examination, Vertigo Questionnaires, and the Electronystagmography in Patients With Vestibular Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofrit, Shany G; Mayler, Yulia; Eliashar, Ron; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Ilan, Ophir; Gross, Menachem

    2017-04-01

    Dizziness makes up a diagnostic and treatment challenge. The diagnostic accuracy of the medical history and vestibular physical examination in cases of vestibular symptoms is not clear. The aim of this study is to determine the association between vestibular physical examination, vestibular questionnaires, and electronystagmography (ENG) test in patients with vestibular symptoms. This is a prospective study of 135 adults with vestibular symptoms. The subjects underwent targeted physical examination and filled vestibular questionnaires, including the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), before ENG testing. The results of the physical examination and questionnaires were compared with the final ENG findings. Of patients who had normal ENG results, 32.1% (17/52) showed abnormal physical examination, and 48.8% (40/82) of the patient who had normal physical examination showed abnormal ENG results ( P = .46). Among patients with severe disability by DHI, 46.4% (13/28) had an abnormal ENG, and 42.9% (12/28) had a normal ENG ( P = .39). This study did not demonstrate association between vestibular physical examination, vestibular questionnaires, and ENG results. Although history (augmented by questionnaires) and physical examination are the initial steps in the evaluation of vertigo, the current study suggests that they should be complemented by objective testing for evaluation of inner ear origin of vertigo.

  4. Construct Validity of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Psychiatry: Associations with the Clinical Skills Examination and Other Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Robin S.; Chibnall, John T.; Blaskiewicz, Robert J.; Furman, Gail E.; Powell, Jill K.; Mohr, Clinton J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The construct validity of checklist and global process scores for an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in psychiatry was assessed. Multiple regression analysis was used to predict psychiatry OSCE scores from the clinical skills examination, an obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN) OSCE, and the National Board of Medical…

  5. Problem gambling in adolescents: an examination of the pathways model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rina; Nower, Lia; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Blaszczynski, Alex; Faregh, Neda; Temcheff, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    This research tests the applicability of the Integrated Pathways Model for gambling to adolescent problem gamblers, utilizing a cross-sectional design and self-report questionnaires. Although the overall sample consisted of 1,133 adolescents (Quebec: n = 994, 87.7 %; Ontario: n = 139, 12.3 %: Male = 558, 49.5 %; Female = 569, 50.5 %), only problem gamblers were retained in testing the model (N = 109). Personality and clinical features were assessed using the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory, attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) using the Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-Report Scale, and the DSM-IV-MR-J and Gambling Activities Questionnaire to determine gambling severity and reasons for gambling. Latent class analysis concluded 5 classes, yet still provided preliminary support for three distinct subgroups similar to those proposed by the Pathways Model, adding a depression only subtype, and a subtype of problem gamblers experiencing both internalizing and externalizing disorders. ADHD symptoms were found to be common to 4 of the 5 classes.

  6. Examining Associations of Environmental Characteristics with Recreational Cycling Behaviour by Street-Level Strava Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yeran; Du, Yunyan; Wang, Yu; Zhuang, Liyuan

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers pay much attention to effectively increasing frequency of people’s cycling in\\ud the context of developing sustainable and green cities. Investigating associations of environmental characteristics and cycling behaviour could offer implications for changing urban infrastructure aiming at encouraging active travel. However, earlier examinations of associations between environmental characteristics and active travel behaviour are limited by low spatial granularity and coverage of tr...

  7. Examining the exobase approximation: DSMC models of Titan's upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, O. J.; Waalkes, W.; Tenishev, V.; Johnson, R. E.; Bieler, A. M.; Nagy, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Chamberlain (1963) developed the so-called exobase approximation for planetary atmospheres below which it is assumed that molecular collisions maintain thermal equilibrium and above which collisions are negligible. Here we present an examination of the exobase approximation applied in the DeLaHaye et al. (2007) study used to extract the energy deposition and non-thermal escape rates from Titan's atmosphere using the INMS data for the TA and T5 Cassini encounters. In that study a Liouville theorem based approach is used to fit the density data for N2 and CH4 assuming an enhanced population of suprathermal molecules (E >> kT) was present at the exobase. The density data was fit in the altitude region of 1450 - 2000 km using a kappa energy distribution to characterize the non-thermal component. Here we again fit the data using the conventional kappa energy distribution function, and then use the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique (Bird 1994) to determine the effect of molecular collisions. The results for the fits are used to obtain improved fits compared to the results in DeLaHaye et al. (2007). In addition the collisional and collisionless DSMC results are compared to evaluate the validity of the assumed energy distribution function and the collisionless approximation. We find that differences between fitting procedures to the INMS data carried out within a scale height of the assumed exobase can result in the extraction of very different energy deposition and escape rates. DSMC simulations performed with and without collisions to test the Liouville theorem based approximation show that collisions affect the density and temperature profiles well above the exobase as well as the escape rate. This research was supported by grant NNH12ZDA001N from the NASA ROSES OPR program. The computations were made with NAS computer resources at NASA Ames under GID 26135.

  8. College students coping with interpersonal stress: Examining a control-based model of coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiro, Mary Jo; Bettis, Alexandra H; Compas, Bruce E

    2017-04-01

    The ways that college students cope with stress, particularly interpersonal stress, may be a critical factor in determining which students are at risk for impairing mental health disorders. Using a control-based model of coping, the present study examined associations between interpersonal stress, coping strategies, and symptoms. A total of 135 undergraduate students from 2 universities. Interpersonal stress, coping strategies, depression, anxiety, and somatization were assessed via self-report. Students reporting more interpersonal stress reported more depression, anxiety, and somatization, and they reported less use of engagement coping strategies and greater use of disengagement coping strategies. Engagement coping strategies accounted for a significant portion of the association between interpersonal stress and mental health symptoms. Unexpectedly, coping strategies did not moderate the association between stress and mental health symptoms. Interventions designed to improve students' coping strategies may be an effective way to reduce mental health problems on college campuses.

  9. Examining rainfall and cholera dynamics in Haiti using statistical and dynamic modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marisa C; Kujbida, Gregory; Tuite, Ashleigh R; Fisman, David N; Tien, Joseph H

    2013-12-01

    Haiti has been in the midst of a cholera epidemic since October 2010. Rainfall is thought to be associated with cholera here, but this relationship has only begun to be quantitatively examined. In this paper, we quantitatively examine the link between rainfall and cholera in Haiti for several different settings (including urban, rural, and displaced person camps) and spatial scales, using a combination of statistical and dynamic models. Statistical analysis of the lagged relationship between rainfall and cholera incidence was conducted using case crossover analysis and distributed lag nonlinear models. Dynamic models consisted of compartmental differential equation models including direct (fast) and indirect (delayed) disease transmission, where indirect transmission was forced by empirical rainfall data. Data sources include cholera case and hospitalization time series from the Haitian Ministry of Public Health, the United Nations Water, Sanitation and Health Cluster, International Organization for Migration, and Hôpital Albert Schweitzer. Rainfall data was obtained from rain gauges from the U.S. Geological Survey and Haiti Regeneration Initiative, and remote sensing rainfall data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. A strong relationship between rainfall and cholera was found for all spatial scales and locations examined. Increased rainfall was significantly correlated with increased cholera incidence 4-7 days later. Forcing the dynamic models with rainfall data resulted in good fits to the cholera case data, and rainfall-based predictions from the dynamic models closely matched observed cholera cases. These models provide a tool for planning and managing the epidemic as it continues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Examining Associations between Reading Motivation and Inference Generation beyond Reading Comprehension Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between reading motivation and inference generation while reading. Undergraduate participants (N = 69) read two science articles while thinking aloud, completed a standardized reading comprehension assessment, and self reported their habitual reading motivation. Findings indicate that…

  11. An Examination of the Situational Factors Associated with the Misuse of Prescription Analgesics among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Andrew R.; Wynveen, Chris; Hackman, Christine; Meyer, Andrew; Usdan, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the effect that students' educational environment has on the prevalence and motivations associated with the misuse of prescription analgesics (MPA). A sample of 893 undergraduate students was recruited from one religiously affiliated private university and one public university in the Southern United States. Participants…

  12. Effectiveness of the Gynecology Teaching Associate in Teaching Pelvic Examination Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Susan M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of using gynecology teaching associates is compared with training by gynecology residents on clinic patients for teaching the gynecologic examination. Sophomore medical students at the University of Iowa participated in the instruction and an evaluation session with a simulated patient trained to rate the students' examination…

  13. Factors associated with participation of Korean women in cervical cancer screening examination by age group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjee; Chang, Hoo Sun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Yu, Seung-Hum; Sohn, Myongsei; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the 6th most common cancer among Korean women, and the prevalence of cervical cancer was 21.9 (per 100,000) in 2008. This study was designed to identify factors associated with Korean women' s participation by age group in cervical cancer screening. Based on the 2007-2009 Korea Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we studied 6,964 women who were 30 years or older without a history of cervical cancer and completed a health questionnaire, physical examination, and nutrition examination. Information about their participation in cervical cancer screening examination was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with their participation in cervical cancer screening over the last 2 years. Approximately 51.9% of women had been screened for cervical cancer over the previous 2 years. Women aged 65 years or older were less likely to undergo the screening than women aged 30-64 years. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, private health insurance, smoking, and body mass index were significantly associated with participation of women aged 30-44 years old in cervical cancer screening examination. Education, health insurance type, private health insurance, and smoking were significantly associated with the participation rate for women aged 45-64 years old. Participation of women aged 65 years or older was associated with private health insurance, body mass index, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, age at first birth, and number of pregnancies. Indicators of socio-demographic factors, health behavioral factors and reproductive factors seem to have varying impacts on Korean women' s participation in cervical cancer screening according to age group. These results demonstrate the need for more aggressive and age-based interventions and policy programs to improve the cervical cancer screening rate.

  14. Mining association rules between abnormal health examination results and outpatient medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao Huang, Yi

    Currently, interpretation of health examination reports relies primarily on the physician's own experience. If health screening data could be integrated with outpatient medical records to uncover correlations between disease and abnormal test results, the physician could benefit from having additional reference resources for medical examination report interpretation and clinic diagnosis. This study used the medical database of a regional hospital in Taiwan to illustrate how association rules can be found between abnormal health examination results and outpatient illnesses. The rules can help to build up a disease-prevention knowledge database that assists healthcare providers in follow-up treatment and prevention. Furthermore, this study proposes a new algorithm, the data cutting and sorting method, or DCSM, in place of the traditional Apriori algorithm. DCSM significantly improves the mining performance of Apriori by reducing the time to scan health examination and outpatient medical records, both of which are databases of immense sizes.

  15. The Role of Distance in Examining the Association Between Active Commuting to School and Students' Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, Robin; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2015-09-01

    Active commuting to school (ACS) increases students' daily physical activity, but associations between student weight and ACS are inconsistent. Few studies examining ACS and weight account for distance commuted. This study examines the association between students' weight status and ACS, taking into account distance to school. In 2009-10 a random digit-dial household survey conducted in low-income minority cities collected information about ACS for 1 randomly selected school-going student per household. Parents provided measured heights and weights. Distance commuted was obtained using geocoded home and school addresses. Multivariate regression analyses assessed associations of ACS and distance commuted with weight status. 36.6% of students were overweight/obese; 47.2% engaged in ACS. Distance walked/biked to school was associated with 7% lower odds of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88- 0.99). Without distance commuted in the model, ACS was not associated with students' weight status. Compared with no ACS, ACS greater than a half-mile was associated with 65% lower odds of a student being overweight/obese (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16- 0.78); ACS less than a half-mile was not. ACS is significantly inversely associated with overweight/obesity among students who commute beyond a one-half mile threshold.

  16. Examining associations between adolescent binge eating and binge eating in parents and friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Choo, Tse-Hwei J.; Bruening, Meg; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective Binge eating is prevalent among adolescents, but little is known about how parents and friends may influence such behaviors. This study examined associations between adolescent binge eating behaviors, and similar behaviors in their parents and friends. Method Participants were 2,770 target adolescent boys and girls who had at least one friend and/or parent who also participated. Logistic regression, stratified by gender, examined associations between parents’ and friends’ self-reported binge eating, and similar behaviors in target adolescents. Results Girls’ binge eating was associated with their male friends’ (odds ratio=2.33; p=.03) and fathers’ binge eating (odds ratio=3.38; p=.02), but not with their female friends’ or mothers’ binge eating (p>.05). For boys, binge eating was not associated with parents’ or friends’ behavior. Discussion Adolescent girls’ binge eating is associated with similar behaviors in their other-sex parents and friends. Results should be replicated, and mechanisms explaining this relation should be further explored. PMID:24105696

  17. Association between Patient History and Physical Examination and Osteoarthritis after Ankle Sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ochten, John M; de Vries, Anja D; van Putte, Nienke; Oei, Edwin H G; Bindels, Patrick J E; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2017-09-01

    Structural abnormalities on MRI are frequent after an ankle sprain. To determine the association between patient history, physical examination and early osteoarthritis (OA) in patients after a previous ankle sprain, 98 patients with persistent complaints were selected from a cross-sectional study. Patient history taking and physical examination were applied and MRI was taken. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to test possible associations. Signs of OA (cartilage loss, osteophytes and bone marrow edema) were seen in the talocrural joint (TCJ) in 40% and the talonavicular joint (TNJ) in 49%. Multivariable analysis showed a significant positive association between swelling (OR 3.58, 95%CI 1.13;11.4), a difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion (OR 1.09, 95%CI 1.01;1.18) and bone edema in the TCJ. A difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion (OR 1.07, 95%CI 1.00;1.15) and pain at the end range of dorsiflexion/plantar flexion (OR 5.23, 95%CI 1.88;14.58) were associated with osteophytes in the TNJ. Pain at the end of dorsiflexion/plantar flexion, a difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion and swelling seem to be associated with features of OA (bone marrow edema, osteophytes) in the TCJ and TNJ. Our findings may guide physicians to predict structural joint abnormalities as signs of osteoarthritis. 1b. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Parallel models of associative memory

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Geoffrey E

    2014-01-01

    This update of the 1981 classic on neural networks includes new commentaries by the authors that show how the original ideas are related to subsequent developments. As researchers continue to uncover ways of applying the complex information processing abilities of neural networks, they give these models an exciting future which may well involve revolutionary developments in understanding the brain and the mind -- developments that may allow researchers to build adaptive intelligent machines. The original chapters show where the ideas came from and the new commentaries show where they are going

  19. Associations between family characteristics and public health nurses' concerns at children's health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutiainen, Hannele; Hakulinen-Viitanen, Tuovi; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2014-06-01

    The family and the way it functions have a key role for the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Approximately 10-30% of children grow up in families where their health and well-being may be endangered or weakened. There is very little research data on public health nurses' concerns in connection with children's health examinations related to family characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of children's gender, age, family structure, mother's employment status and parents' perception on the sufficiency of income with public health nurses' concerns on physical and psychosocial health at children's health examinations. In 2007-2009, information about children's health and well-being and their background factors was collected from the health examinations of altogether 6506 children in Finland using a cross-sectional design. Associations between family characteristics and nurses concern related to physical and psychosocial health and development of children were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Physical health and psychosocial issues of school-age children raised most concern in public health nurses. Especially, public health nurses felt concern for the psychosocial development of boys both under and of school age. Family structure and the family's financial situation were associated with public health nurses' concern for children's physical health, psychosocial development and the presence of at least one concern. The fact that public health nurses found cause for concern during health examinations was associated with the child's gender, development stage and family characteristic. The research findings may be utilised in planning and targeting health counselling and services in child and school health care. Understanding the role of family characteristics in health and well-being challenges in children is useful in promoting multidisciplinary work in health care. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  20. A Systematic Examination of the Association between Parental and Child Obesity across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Min, Jungwon; Khuri, Jacob; Li, Miao

    2017-05-01

    Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic. Parents can have an important influence on their children's health behaviors and weight status. Many studies have examined the association between parental and childhood weight status. However, much heterogeneity between studies exists, and the parent-child (P-C) association in obesity has varied. The purpose of this systematic examination and meta-analysis was to examine the strength and variation of the P-C association in obesity and to identify factors (e.g., demographic characteristics and country's economic level) that may influence this association. PubMed was searched for relevant studies published between January 2000 and July 2015. Thirty-two studies from 21 countries met inclusion criteria; 27 reported ORs for the P-C obesity association and were included in a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed a strong P-C obesity association (pooled OR: 2.22; 95% CI: 2.09, 2.36), which varied by type of P-C pair (i.e., parents-child, father-child, and mother-child), child age, parent and child weight status, and the country's economic level. Stronger associations were shown in older children than in younger children (β ± SE: 0.02 ± 0.01), in both parents than in father only (β ± SE: 0.51 ± 0.11) or mother only (β ± SE: 0.38 ± 0.11), in parental obesity (β ± SE: 0.26 ± 0.10) and child obesity (β ± SE: 0.28 ± 0.12) than in parental and child overweight, and in high- than in middle-income countries (β ± SE: 0.23 ± 0.08). Thus, research from multiple countries shows significant P-C associations in weight status, but this association varies by child age, type of P-C pair, weight status, and the country's economic level. Results suggest that families and parents should be a key target for obesity intervention efforts. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Association models for petroleum applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics plays an important role in many applications in the petroleum industry, both upstream and downstream, ranging from flow assurance, (enhanced) oil recovery and control of chemicals to meet production and environmental regulations. There are many different applications in the oil & gas...... industry, thus thermodynamic data (phase behaviour, densities, speed of sound, etc) are needed to study a very diverse range of compounds in addition to the petroleum ones (CO2, H2S, water, alcohols, glycols, mercaptans, mercury, asphaltenes, waxes, polymers, electrolytes, biofuels, etc) within a very...... extensive range of conditions, up to very high pressures. Actually, the petroleum industry was one of the first industrial sectors which used extensively thermodynamic models and even contributed to the development of several of the most popular and still widely used approaches. While traditional...

  2. Examining spatially varying relationships between coca crops and associated factors in Colombia, using geographically weight regression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rincón-Ruiz, A.; Pascual, U.; Flantua, S.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the expansion of illicit crops (coca) and the associated socio-institutional and geographical drivers in Colombia between 2001 and 2008. The analysis is based on a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models and shows that the relationships between the analyzed variables

  3. A simple program to reduce the stress associated with NRC nuclear operator examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajwau, T.; Chardos, S.

    1988-01-01

    The NRC license for nuclear reactor operators requires periodic written examinations to demonstrate ongoing technical competency. Poor performance raises a competency question and can affect the individuals' careers. Accordingly, the exams can be highly stressful events. Stress has been demonstrated to affect memory, perception, other cognitive attitudes, and test performance. The phenomenon of test anxiety is well known. Instead of a generic, broadly focused stress management approach, a sharply focused, two-part program was developed for TVA operators scheduled to take the NRC examination. The first part was presented early in preparatory training, and the second part was given just prior to the examination. The first part consisted of a simple model of stress found in exams, early warning signs of test stress, and tactics of stress management that were practical to use during the NRC exam itself

  4. Associations between severe obesity and depression: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Arlene M

    2011-05-01

    My objectives were to investigate the association between obesity and depression in a representative sample of American adults, investigate sex and severity of obesity as modifiers of the association between depression and body mass index, determine whether large waist circumference is associated with depression, and explore whether specific health behaviors and poor physical health are possible mediators of the association between obesity and depression, if found. The sample consisted of 3,599 nonpregnant adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006. I operationalized obesity as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference from the anthropometric measurements of participants and current depression from Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores. I ran logistic regression models with depression as the dependent variable. In unadjusted analyses, large waist circumference (≥ 88 cm for women and ≥ 102 cm for men) and class III obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2)) were associated with higher prevalence of depression in women only. All of these associations dramatically weakened after adjusting for demographic factors, self-rated health status, and number of chronic conditions. These findings support an association between depression and obesity in women who are severely obese. Future studies should investigate poor physical health as a possible mediator of the association between obesity and depression in this population of women.

  5. Associations of metabolic syndrome with inflammation in CKD: results From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Kimmel, Paul L; Ramkumar, Nirupama; Cheung, Alfred K

    2005-10-01

    Although metabolic syndrome is associated with inflammation in the general population, it is unknown whether similar associations exist in patients with chronic kidney disease. +7 cross-sectional associations of metabolic syndrome and its component conditions (diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, abdominal obesity, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level) with inflammation (C-reactive protein level > 3 mg/L) were examined by using logistic regression models in groups with high (>90 mL/min/1.73 m2 [>1.50 mL/s]), moderate (45 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2 [0.75 to 1.49 mL/s]), and low (creatinine clearances in 15,314 subjects participating in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Adjusted for demographics, smoking, history of myocardial infarction or stroke, exercise level, and use of cholesterol medications, the presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with greater odds for inflammation in the groups with high (odds ratio, 2.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99 to 3.27), moderate (odds ratio, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.81 to 2.60), and low (odds ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.56) creatinine clearances. When all 5 components of metabolic syndrome were included in the same model, only hypertension, abdominal obesity, and low high-density lipoprotein level were associated significantly with inflammation in all 3 groups. There also was a graded association between number of component conditions of metabolic syndrome and inflammation within each creatinine-clearance group. Metabolic syndrome is associated with inflammation in patients with varying levels of kidney function. Future studies are warranted to determine in patients with chronic kidney disease whether there is a synergistic effect of metabolic syndrome and inflammation on the incidence of atherosclerotic events and whether interventions targeted toward metabolic syndrome might modulate inflammation.

  6. Prevalence of hepatic lesions at post-mortem examination in dogs and association with pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P J; Roulois, A J A; Scase, T J; Irvine, R; Herrtage, M E

    2010-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of canine chronic hepatitis (CH) and other liver diseases in first opinion practice and identify associations with concurrent chronic pancreatitis (CP). One large section of left lateral lobe of liver was taken from 200 unselected canine post-mortem examinations from first opinion practices. Histological changes were categorised based on WSAVA criteria. Prevalence of CH and other liver diseases were calculated. Relative risks (RR) for liver histopathology in association with CP and for CH in different breeds were also calculated. The prevalence of CH was 12%. Some breeds had an increased RR of CH, although sample sizes were small. Dogs with CP had an increased RR of reactive hepatitis but no significant association with the other liver diseases. CH is common in the first opinion dog population but less common than CP. CP was significantly associated with reactive hepatitis but not CH. Possible breed associations mirrored another recent UK study. Some dogs with CP may be erroneously diagnosed clinically as having CH on the basis of increased serum liver enzymes because of concurrent reactive hepatitis if the diagnosis is not confirmed histologically. © 2010 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  7. The Associations Between Clerkship Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) Grades and Subsequent Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting; Zahn, Christopher; Saguil, Aaron; Swygert, Kimberly A; Yoon, Michelle; Servey, Jessica; Durning, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Construct: We investigated the extent of the associations between medical students' clinical competency measured by performance in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) during Obstetrics/Gynecology and Family Medicine clerkships and later performance in both undergraduate and graduate medical education. There is a relative dearth of studies on the correlations between undergraduate OSCE scores and future exam performance within either undergraduate or graduate medical education and almost none on linking these simulated encounters to eventual patient care. Of the research studies that do correlate clerkship OSCE scores with future performance, these often have a small sample size and/or include only 1 clerkship. Students in USU graduating classes of 2007 through 2011 participated in the study. We investigated correlations between clerkship OSCE grades with United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Knowledge, Clinical Skills, and Step 3 Exams scores as well as Postgraduate Year 1 program director's evaluation scores on Medical Expertise and Professionalism. We also conducted contingency table analysis to examine the associations between poor performance on clerkship OSCEs with failing Step 3 and receiving poor program director ratings. The correlation coefficients were weak between the clerkship OSCE grades and the outcomes. The strongest correlations existed between the clerkship OSCE grades and the Step 2 CS Integrated Clinical Encounter component score, Step 2 Clinical Skills, and Step 3 scores. Contingency table associations between poor performances on both clerkships OSCEs and poor Postgraduate Year 1 Program Director ratings were significant. The results of this study provide additional but limited validity evidence for the use of OSCEs during clinical clerkships given their associations with subsequent performance measures.

  8. Association between sleep quality and C-reactive protein: results from national health and nutrition examination survey, 2005-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore the association between poor sleep quality and hs_CRP in an adult U.S. population. METHODS: This study focused on 9,317 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 2005-2008 who were aged 20-85 years, completed a sleep disorder questionnaire, and had available information on serum hs_CRP. Sleep quality was classified into three categories (good, moderate, poor based on the responses of participants to the NHANES sleep disorder questionnaire. High CRP was defined as hs-CRP >1 md/dL. Linear regression model was applied to investigate the association between poor sleep quality and log-transformed hs_CRP. And logistic regression model was fitted to evaluate the association between sleep quality and the risk of high CRP. RESULTS: Females were more likely to report poor sleep quality than males (26% vs. 19%, p<0.0001. Each sleep disorder was significantly associated with increased hs_CRP and correlative to other sleep disorders. In fully-adjusted linear regression model, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with elevated hs_CRP (log transformed among the overall sample and in females only (β = 0.10, se = 0.03, p<0.01 and β = 0.13, se = 0.04, p<0.01, respectively. In fully-adjusted logistics regression model, poor sleep quality was linked with risk of high CRP(OR: 1.42, 95%CI: 1.15-1.76 in overall sample and OR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.18-2.14 in females, respectively. CONCLUSION: We found that poor sleep quality was independently associated with elevated hs_CRP in females but not in males in a U.S. adult population.

  9. Bicycling injury hospitalisation rates in Canadian jurisdictions: analyses examining associations with helmet legislation and mode share

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Kay; Koehoorn, Mieke; Shen, Hui; Dennis, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to calculate exposure-based bicycling hospitalisation rates in Canadian jurisdictions with different helmet legislation and bicycling mode shares, and to examine whether the rates were related to these differences. Methods Administrative data on hospital stays for bicycling injuries to 10 body region groups and national survey data on bicycling trips were used to calculate hospitalisation rates. Rates were calculated for 44 sex, age and jurisdiction strata for all injury causes and 22 age and jurisdiction strata for traffic-related injury causes. Inferential analyses examined associations between hospitalisation rates and sex, age group, helmet legislation and bicycling mode share. Results In Canada, over the study period 2006–2011, there was an average of 3690 hospitalisations per year and an estimated 593 million annual trips by bicycle among people 12 years of age and older, for a cycling hospitalisation rate of 622 per 100 million trips (95% CI 611 to 633). Hospitalisation rates varied substantially across the jurisdiction, age and sex strata, but only two characteristics explained this variability. For all injury causes, sex was associated with hospitalisation rates; females had rates consistently lower than males. For traffic-related injury causes, higher cycling mode share was consistently associated with lower hospitalisation rates. Helmet legislation was not associated with hospitalisation rates for brain, head, scalp, skull, face or neck injuries. Conclusions These results suggest that transportation and health policymakers who aim to reduce bicycling injury rates in the population should focus on factors related to increased cycling mode share and female cycling choices. Bicycling routes designed to be physically separated from traffic or along quiet streets fit both these criteria and are associated with lower relative risks of injury. PMID:26525719

  10. Examining the association between male circumcision and sexual function: evidence from a British probability survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homfray, Virginia; Tanton, Clare; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Miller, Robert F; Field, Nigel; Macdowall, Wendy; Wellings, Kaye; Sonnenberg, Pam; Johnson, Anne M; Mercer, Catherine H

    2015-07-17

    Despite biological advantages of male circumcision in reducing HIV/sexually transmitted infection acquisition, concern is often expressed that it may reduce sexual enjoyment and function. We examine the association between circumcision and sexual function among sexually active men in Britain using data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Natsal-3 asked about circumcision and included a validated measure of sexual function, the Natsal-SF, which takes into account not only sexual difficulties but also the relationship context and overall level of satisfaction. A stratified probability survey of 6293 men and 8869 women aged 16-74 years, resident in Britain, undertaken 2010-2012, using computer-assisted face-to-face interviewing with computer-assisted self-interview for the more sensitive questions. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) to examine the association between reporting male circumcision and aspects of sexual function among sexually active men (n = 4816). The prevalence of male circumcision in Britain was 20.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 19.3-21.8]. There was no association between male circumcision and, being in the lowest quintile of scores for the Natsal-SF, an indicator of poorer sexual function (adjusted OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.76-1.18). Circumcised men were as likely as uncircumcised men to report the specific sexual difficulties asked about in Natsal-3, except that a larger proportion of circumcised men reported erectile difficulties. This association was of borderline statistical significance after adjusting for age and relationship status (adjusted OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.99-1.63). Data from a large, nationally representative British survey suggest that circumcision is not associated with men's overall sexual function at a population level.

  11. Examining Factors Affecting Science Achievement of Hong Kong in PISA 2006 Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Terence Yuk Ping; Lau, Kwok Chi

    2014-10-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling to examine the influence of a range of factors on the science performances of Hong Kong students in PISA 2006. Hong Kong has been consistently ranked highly in international science assessments, such as Programme for International Student Assessment and Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study; therefore, an exploration of the factors that affect science performances of Hong Kong students can give a lens to examine how science education can be improved in Hong Kong and other countries. The analyses reveal that student backgrounds as male, at higher grade levels, and born in mainland (when in the same grade) are associated with better science performance. Among the attitudinal factors, enjoyment of science and self-efficacy in science play important roles in scientific achievements. Most of the parental factors, on the other hand, are not having significant impacts on achievement after student attitudes are taken into account, with only parents' value of science having a small effect. School student intake is found to be a strong predictor of school average achievement, as well as a major mediator of the effects of school enrollment size and school socio-economic status. The findings differ from recently reported results, which suggested that school enrollment size was associated with achievement. This study also points out the problems of the use of science instruction time as a school-level variable to explain science achievement in Hong Kong.

  12. Examination of the interpersonal model of loss of control eating in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Lisa M; Crosby, Ross D; Grammer, Anne Claire; Shomaker, Lauren B; Vannucci, Anna; Burke, Natasha L; Stojek, Monika; Brady, Sheila M; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James C; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2017-07-01

    The interpersonal model of loss of control (LOC) eating proposes that interpersonal problems lead to negative affect, which in turn contributes to the onset and/or persistence of LOC eating. Despite preliminary support, there are no data examining the construct validity of the interpersonal model of LOC eating using temporally sensitive reports of social stress, distinct negative affective states, and laboratory energy intake. 117 healthy adolescent girls (BMI: 75th-97th %ile) were recruited for a prevention trial targeting excess weight gain in adolescent girls who reported LOC eating. Prior to the intervention, participants completed questionnaires of recent social stress and consumed lunch from a multi-item laboratory test meal. Immediately before the test meal, participants completed a questionnaire of five negative affective states (anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, anxiety). Bootstrapping mediation models were conducted to evaluate pre-meal negative affect states as explanatory mediators of the association between recent social stress and palatable (desserts and snack-type) food intake. All analyses adjusted for age, race, pubertal stage, height, fat mass percentage, and lean mass. Pre-meal state anxiety was a significant mediator for recent social stress and palatable food intake (ps.05). Pre-meal anxiety appears to be the salient mood state for the interpersonal model among adolescent girls with LOC eating. Interventions that focus on improving both social functioning and anxiety may prove most effective at preventing and/or ameliorating disordered eating and obesity in these adolescents. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Sociocultural factors associated with breast self-examination among Iranian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abolhasan Naghibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the ways to fight breast cancer and reduce deaths hazard due to early detection is one of early detection programs in women's breast self- examination. Examining breast by oneself increase individuals knowledge of her breast health that helps in detecting breast cancer early. Different cultural, social, family and individual factors play roles in women's behavior about breast self- examination applying PEN-3 model in this study is to analyze factors influencing on breast self-examination. The research is a descriptive- analytical, cross-sectional type. Research community consists of women at fertility age of 20-49 in sari. Sample volume is 415 individuals and sampling method is cluster method. In this study, a 50-item questionnaire based on PEN-3 was used. Questions were answered by Likert scoring method. Questionnaire was gathered by personal presence of questioners. Data was analyzed via descriptive statistics and logistic regression methods. Based on the study findings, the most significant positive behaviors related to perceptual factors included effectiveness of disease background in family and relatives (73%, believing in breast self- examination for pursuing health (93% and the most important negative behaviors were shyness and modesty (83.9% and increased worry (78.9%. The most remarkable positive behaviors regarding enabling factors covered the skill to do breast examination oneself (35.2%, the availability of health and therapeutic centers (80.7% and the most significant negative behavior was being busy and lack of time (85.3%. The most important positive behavior about nurturing factors included family consent (68.9% and the most significant negative one was the inappropriate treatment of health and therapeutic personnel (61.8%. In this study, there is a meaningful difference between employment ages, education with PEN-3 model constituents. Since behaviors due to enabling and nurturing perceptual factors have been important in

  14. Examining Equity Sensitivity: An Investigation Using the Big Five and HEXACO Models of Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Hayden J R; Bourdage, Joshua S; Ogunfowora, Babatunde; Nguyen, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    The construct of equity sensitivity describes an individual's preference about his/her desired input to outcome ratio. Individuals high on equity sensitivity tend to be more input oriented, and are often called "Benevolents." Individuals low on equity sensitivity are more outcome oriented, and are described as "Entitleds." Given that equity sensitivity has often been described as a trait, the purpose of the present study was to examine major personality correlates of equity sensitivity, so as to inform both the nature of equity sensitivity, and the potential processes through which certain broad personality traits may relate to outcomes. We examined the personality correlates of equity sensitivity across three studies (total N = 1170), two personality models (i.e., the Big Five and HEXACO), the two most common measures of equity sensitivity (i.e., the Equity Preference Questionnaire and Equity Sensitivity Inventory), and using both self and peer reports of personality (in Study 3). Although results varied somewhat across samples, the personality variables of Conscientiousness and Honesty-Humility, followed by Agreeableness, were the most robust predictors of equity sensitivity. Individuals higher on these traits were more likely to be Benevolents, whereas those lower on these traits were more likely to be Entitleds. Although some associations between Extraversion, Openness, and Neuroticism and equity sensitivity were observed, these were generally not robust. Overall, it appears that there are several prominent personality variables underlying equity sensitivity, and that the addition of the HEXACO model's dimension of Honesty-Humility substantially contributes to our understanding of equity sensitivity.

  15. Estimating organ doses from tube current modulated CT examinations using a generalized linear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostani, Maryam; McMillan, Kyle; Lu, Peiyun; Kim, Grace Hyun J; Cody, Dianna; Arbique, Gary; Greenberg, S Bruce; DeMarco, John J; Cagnon, Chris H; McNitt-Gray, Michael F

    2017-04-01

    Currently, available Computed Tomography dose metrics are mostly based on fixed tube current Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and/or physical measurements such as the size specific dose estimate (SSDE). In addition to not being able to account for Tube Current Modulation (TCM), these dose metrics do not represent actual patient dose. The purpose of this study was to generate and evaluate a dose estimation model based on the Generalized Linear Model (GLM), which extends the ability to estimate organ dose from tube current modulated examinations by incorporating regional descriptors of patient size, scanner output, and other scan-specific variables as needed. The collection of a total of 332 patient CT scans at four different institutions was approved by each institution's IRB and used to generate and test organ dose estimation models. The patient population consisted of pediatric and adult patients and included thoracic and abdomen/pelvis scans. The scans were performed on three different CT scanner systems. Manual segmentation of organs, depending on the examined anatomy, was performed on each patient's image series. In addition to the collected images, detailed TCM data were collected for all patients scanned on Siemens CT scanners, while for all GE and Toshiba patients, data representing z-axis-only TCM, extracted from the DICOM header of the images, were used for TCM simulations. A validated MC dosimetry package was used to perform detailed simulation of CT examinations on all 332 patient models to estimate dose to each segmented organ (lungs, breasts, liver, spleen, and kidneys), denoted as reference organ dose values. Approximately 60% of the data were used to train a dose estimation model, while the remaining 40% was used to evaluate performance. Two different methodologies were explored using GLM to generate a dose estimation model: (a) using the conventional exponential relationship between normalized organ dose and size with regional water equivalent diameter

  16. Cumulative effective dose associated with computed tomography examinations in adolescent trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Hyung Sik; Choi, Hye-Young; Cho, Jinseong; Yang, Hyuk Jun; Chung, Yong Eun

    2014-07-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze cumulative effective dose (cED) and to assess lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer due to radiation exposure during computed tomography (CT) examinations in adolescent trauma patients. Between January 2010 and May 2011, the adolescent patients with trauma were enrolled in this study. Numbers of CT examinations and body regions examined were collated, and cEDs were calculated using dose-length product values and conversion factors. Lifetime attributable risk for cancer incidence and cancer-associated mortality were quantified based on the studies of survivors of the atomic bombs on Japan. Data were stratified according to severity of trauma: minor trauma, injury severity score of less than 16; and major trauma, injury severity score of 16 or greater. A total of 698 CT scans were obtained on the following regions of 484 adolescent patients: head CT, n = 647; rest of the body, n = 41; and thorax, n = 10. Mean cED per patient was 3.4 mSv, and mean LARs for cancer incidence and mortality were 0.05% and 0.02%, respectively. The majority of patients (98.4%) experienced minor trauma, and their mean cED and LARs for cancer incidence and mortality (3.0 mSv and 0.04% and 0.02%, respectively) were significantly lower than those of patients with major trauma (24.3 mSv and 0.31% and 0.15%, respectively, all P values CT examinations performed for the initial assessment of minor trauma was found to be relatively low in adolescent patients. However, adolescent patients with major trauma were exposed to a substantial amount of radiation during multiple CT examinations.

  17. Associations Between Selected Xenobiotics and Antinuclear Antibodies in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinse, Gregg E; Jusko, Todd A; Whitt, Irene Z; Co, Caroll A; Parks, Christine G; Satoh, Minoru; Chan, Edward K L; Rose, Kathryn M; Walker, Nigel J; Birnbaum, Linda S; Zeldin, Darryl C; Weinberg, Clarice R; Miller, Frederick W

    2016-04-01

    Potential associations between background environmental chemical exposures and autoimmunity are understudied. Our exploratory study investigated exposure to individual environmental chemicals and selected mixtures in relation to the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a widely used biomarker of autoimmunity, in a representative sample of the U.S. This cross-sectional analysis used data on 4,340 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004), of whom 14% were ANA positive, to explore associations between ANA and concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorines, organophosphates, phenols, metals, and other environmental exposures and metabolites measured in participants' serum, whole blood, or urine. For dioxin-like compounds with toxic equivalency factors, we developed and applied a new statistical approach to study selected mixtures. Lognormal models and censored-data methods produced estimates of chemical associations with ANA in males, nulliparous females, and parous females; these estimates were adjusted for confounders and accommodated concentrations below detectable levels. Several associations between chemical concentration and ANA positivity were observed, but only the association in males exposed to triclosan remained statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons (mean concentration ratio = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.8, 4.5; p xenobiotic exposures typical in the U.S. population are not strongly associated with ANA. Future studies should ideally reduce exposure misclassification by including prospective measurement of the chemicals of concern and should track changes in ANA and other autoantibodies over time. Dinse GE, Jusko TA, Whitt IZ, Co CA, Parks CG, Satoh M, Chan EKL, Rose KM, Walker NJ, Birnbaum LS, Zeldin DC, Weinberg CR, Miller FW. 2016. Associations between selected xenobiotics and antinuclear antibodies in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  18. Associations Between Selected Xenobiotics and Antinuclear Antibodies in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinse, Gregg E.; Jusko, Todd A.; Whitt, Irene Z.; Co, Caroll A.; Parks, Christine G.; Satoh, Minoru; Chan, Edward K.L.; Rose, Kathryn M.; Walker, Nigel J.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Miller, Frederick W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Potential associations between background environmental chemical exposures and autoimmunity are understudied. Objectives: Our exploratory study investigated exposure to individual environmental chemicals and selected mixtures in relation to the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a widely used biomarker of autoimmunity, in a representative sample of the U.S. population. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis used data on 4,340 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004), of whom 14% were ANA positive, to explore associations between ANA and concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorines, organophosphates, phenols, metals, and other environmental exposures and metabolites measured in participants’ serum, whole blood, or urine. For dioxin-like compounds with toxic equivalency factors, we developed and applied a new statistical approach to study selected mixtures. Lognormal models and censored-data methods produced estimates of chemical associations with ANA in males, nulliparous females, and parous females; these estimates were adjusted for confounders and accommodated concentrations below detectable levels. Results: Several associations between chemical concentration and ANA positivity were observed, but only the association in males exposed to triclosan remained statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons (mean concentration ratio = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.8, 4.5; p xenobiotic exposures typical in the U.S. population are not strongly associated with ANA. Future studies should ideally reduce exposure misclassification by including prospective measurement of the chemicals of concern and should track changes in ANA and other autoantibodies over time. Citation: Dinse GE, Jusko TA, Whitt IZ, Co CA, Parks CG, Satoh M, Chan EKL, Rose KM, Walker NJ, Birnbaum LS, Zeldin DC, Weinberg CR, Miller FW. 2016. Associations between selected xenobiotics and antinuclear

  19. A Longitudinal Examination of the Associations Between Shyness, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chelsie M; DiBello, Angelo M; Traylor, Zachary K; Zvolensky, Michael J; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-09-01

    The current study evaluated the roles of drinking motives and shyness in predicting problem alcohol use over 2 years. First-year college student drinkers (n = 818) completed assessments of alcohol use and related problems, shyness, and drinking motives every 6 months over a 2-year period. Generalized linear mixed models indicated that shyness was associated with less drinking, but more alcohol-related problems. Further, shyness was associated with coping, conformity, and enhancement drinking motives, but was not associated with social drinking motives. However, when examining coping motives, moderation analyses revealed that social drinking motives were more strongly associated with coping motives among individuals higher in shyness. In addition, coping, conformity, and enhancement motives, but not social motives, mediated associations between shyness and alcohol-related problems over time. Finally, coping motives mediated the association between the interaction of shyness and social motives and alcohol-related problems. Together, the results suggest that shy individuals may drink to reduce negative affect, increase positive affect, and fit in with others in social situations, which may then contribute to greater risk for subsequent alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Bronchoscopic examinations for evaluating chest abnormal shadows associated with hematological disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Masayuki; Bando, Masashi; Kobayashi, Akira; Yamasawa, Hideaki; Ohno, Shoji; Sugiyama, Yukihiko

    2006-01-01

    Hematological diseases cause various respiratory complications, but their differentiation only by blood tests and chest radiology is often difficult. To clarify the characteristics of respiratory complications associated with hematological diseases and the diagnostic usefulness of bronchoscopic examinations for these complications, we clinically evaluated mainly underlying diseases, chest radiological findings, and bronchoscopic findings in 31 patients in whom we performed bronchoscopy for chest abnormal shadows associated with hematological disease during the past 13-year period. Among hematological disease, leukemia was most frequently observed, followed by malignant lymphoma and myelodysplastic syndrome. The most frequently observed chest CT findings were localized consolidation and diffuse Ground-glass opacity. Bronchoscopic examinations provided a definitive diagnosis in 20 patients (64.5%), and the most frequent diagnosis was pulmonary invasion by neoplastic cells (7 patients). Pulmonary invasion by neoplastic cells showed various images, and transbronchial lung biopsy : TBLB was useful for definitive diagnosis. After consideration of the general condition of patients and the risk of complications, bronchoscopy including TBLB should be performed when possible. (author)

  1. Association of volume of patient encounters with residents' in-training examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Christopher P; Stenerson, Matthew B; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Homme, Jason H; McDonald, Furman S

    2013-08-01

    Patient care and medical knowledge are Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. The correlation between amount of patient contact and knowledge acquisition is not known. To determine if a correlation exists between the number of patient encounters and in-training exam (ITE) scores in internal medicine (IM) and pediatric residents at a large academic medical center. Retrospective cohort study Resident physicians at Mayo Clinic from July 2006 to June 2010 in IM (318 resident-years) and pediatrics (66 resident-years). We tabulated patient encounters through review of clinical notes in an electronic medical record during post graduate year (PGY)-1 and PGY-2. Using linear regression models, we investigated associations between ITE score and number of notes during the previous PGY, adjusted for previous ITE score, gender, medical school origin, and conference attendance. For IM, PGY-2 admission and consult encounters in the hospital and specialty clinics had a positive linear association with ITE-3 % score (β = 0.02; p = 0.004). For IM, PGY-1 conference attendance is positively associated with PGY-2 ITE performance. We did not detect a correlation between PGY-1 patient encounters and subsequent ITE scores for IM or pediatric residents. No association was found between IM PGY-2 ITE score and inpatient, outpatient, or total encounters in the first year of training. Resident continuity clinic and total encounters were not associated with change in PGY-3 ITE score. We identified a positive association between hospital and subspecialty encounters during the second year of IM training and subsequent ITE score, such that each additional 50 encounters were associated with an increase of 1 % correct in PGY-3 ITE score after controlling for previous ITE performance and continuity clinic encounters. We did not find a correlation for volume of encounters and medical knowledge for IM PGY-1 residents or the pediatric cohort.

  2. The association between scheduling a gynecologic clinical visit and clinical breast examination in Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luís Felipe L; de Almeida, Liz Maria; Szklo, André S; Tupinambá, Helena A; Szklo, Moyses; Coeli, Cláudia M

    2015-12-01

    To investigate factors associated with gynecology health professionals' failure to perform clinical breast examinations (CBEs) during clinical visits. A cross-sectional, interview-based survey was conducted in 2010 among women aged at least 18 years who had undergone a cervical smear in 2007 at primary-care units in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Binomial regression was used to generate prevalence ratios and absolute differences between visits for routine examinations or gynecologic complaints. Analyses included 982 women, of whom 182 (18.5%) did not have a CBE during their visit. Significant interactions were observed between age and primary reason for the visit: the prevalence ratio for no CBE during a visit for gynecologic complaints versus routine examination was 3.2 for women aged at least 40 years, and 1.3 among younger women (P for multiplicative interaction=0.001). Absolute differences were 6.4% and 18.5% for younger and older women, respectively (P for additive interaction=0.04). A high proportion of eligible women do not undergo a CBE during cervical smear appointments at primary-care units in Rio de Janeiro, particularly older women presenting with gynecologic complaints. Understanding of health professionals' barriers to following and implementing guidelines for secondary prevention of breast cancer is urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Examination of Associations Among Three Distinct Subjective Aging Constructs and Their Relevance for Predicting Developmental Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Allyson; Miche, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Diehl, Manfred

    2017-07-01

    This study examined (a) the empirical associations among three subjective aging (SA) constructs: felt age, attitudes toward own aging (ATOA), and awareness of age-related change (AARC); (b) the moderating role of chronological age in these associations; and (c) the predictive relevance of the SA constructs with regard to two developmental correlates: functional health and satisfaction with life. Participants were 819 adults aged 40-98 years from the United States and Germany. Parallel multiple mediation, moderated mediation, and hierarchical regression analyses were used. As hypothesized, AARC mediated the association between the global measures of SA (felt age and ATOA) and the developmental correlates. Specifically, more negative global subjective aging predicted more AARC losses, which predicted poorer health and well-being. Furthermore, this mediation pathway was moderated by chronological age, such that, with increasing age, greater AARC was more strongly related to poorer functional health (but not well-being). The multidimensional measure, AARC, accounted for a significant amount of the variance in the developmental correlates over and above the unidimensional SA constructs. A consistent pattern emerged supporting the role of domain specificity and valence. These findings support the need for conceptualizing SA across different behavioral domains and for distinguishing between positive and negative SA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Examining Associations of Environmental Characteristics with Recreational Cycling Behaviour by Street-Level Strava Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yeran; Du, Yunyan; Wang, Yu; Zhuang, Liyuan

    2017-06-15

    Policymakers pay much attention to effectively increasing frequency of people's cycling in the context of developing sustainable and green cities. Investigating associations of environmental characteristics and cycling behaviour could offer implications for changing urban infrastructure aiming at encouraging active travel. However, earlier examinations of associations between environmental characteristics and active travel behaviour are limited by low spatial granularity and coverage of traditional data. Crowdsourced geographic information offers an opportunity to determine the fine-grained travel patterns of people. Particularly, Strava Metro data offer a good opportunity for studies of recreational cycling behaviour as they can offer hourly, daily or annual cycling volumes with different purposes (commuting or recreational) in each street across a city. Therefore, in this study, we utilised Strava Metro data for investigating associations between environmental characteristics and recreational cycling behaviour at a large spatial scale (street level). In this study, we took account of population density, employment density, road length, road connectivity, proximity to public transit services, land use mix, proximity to green space, volume of motor vehicles and traffic accidents in an empirical investigation over Glasgow. Empirical results reveal that Strava cyclists are more likely to cycle for recreation on streets with short length, large connectivity or low volume of motor vehicles or on streets surrounded by residential land.

  6. Examining Associations of Environmental Characteristics with Recreational Cycling Behaviour by Street-Level Strava Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeran Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Policymakers pay much attention to effectively increasing frequency of people’s cycling in the context of developing sustainable and green cities. Investigating associations of environmental characteristics and cycling behaviour could offer implications for changing urban infrastructure aiming at encouraging active travel. However, earlier examinations of associations between environmental characteristics and active travel behaviour are limited by low spatial granularity and coverage of traditional data. Crowdsourced geographic information offers an opportunity to determine the fine-grained travel patterns of people. Particularly, Strava Metro data offer a good opportunity for studies of recreational cycling behaviour as they can offer hourly, daily or annual cycling volumes with different purposes (commuting or recreational in each street across a city. Therefore, in this study, we utilised Strava Metro data for investigating associations between environmental characteristics and recreational cycling behaviour at a large spatial scale (street level. In this study, we took account of population density, employment density, road length, road connectivity, proximity to public transit services, land use mix, proximity to green space, volume of motor vehicles and traffic accidents in an empirical investigation over Glasgow. Empirical results reveal that Strava cyclists are more likely to cycle for recreation on streets with short length, large connectivity or low volume of motor vehicles or on streets surrounded by residential land.

  7. Examining the associations between overeating, disinhibition, and hunger in a nonclinical sample of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Geneviève; Bergeron, Sophie; Meilleur, Dominique; D'Antono, Bianca; Dubé, Isabelle

    2014-04-01

    Binge eating (BE) has long been identified as a correlate of overweight and obesity. However, less empirical attention has been given to overeating with and without loss of control (LOC) in nonclinical samples. The goal of the present study was to examine the association of (1) established correlates of BE, namely, weight and shape concerns, dietary restraint, and negative affect, and (2) three additional correlates, disinhibition, hunger, and interoceptive awareness (IA), to overeating in a nonclinical sample of college women. Female students (n = 1,447) aged 18 to 21 years recruited from colleges in three Canadian metropolitan areas completed self-report questionnaires in class to assess sociodemographic and anthropomorphic characteristics, overeating, LOC, dietary restraint, negative affect, weight and shape concerns, IA, disinhibition, and hunger. The established correlates of BE were significant correlates of all types of overeating and explained 33 % of the variance. Disinhibition was the most strongly associated correlate of overeating. Findings suggest that established correlates of BE are associated with other types of overeating such as objective overeating (OOE), as are disinhibition and hunger.

  8. Examining Associations of Environmental Characteristics with Recreational Cycling Behaviour by Street-Level Strava Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yeran; Du, Yunyan; Wang, Yu; Zhuang, Liyuan

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers pay much attention to effectively increasing frequency of people’s cycling in the context of developing sustainable and green cities. Investigating associations of environmental characteristics and cycling behaviour could offer implications for changing urban infrastructure aiming at encouraging active travel. However, earlier examinations of associations between environmental characteristics and active travel behaviour are limited by low spatial granularity and coverage of traditional data. Crowdsourced geographic information offers an opportunity to determine the fine-grained travel patterns of people. Particularly, Strava Metro data offer a good opportunity for studies of recreational cycling behaviour as they can offer hourly, daily or annual cycling volumes with different purposes (commuting or recreational) in each street across a city. Therefore, in this study, we utilised Strava Metro data for investigating associations between environmental characteristics and recreational cycling behaviour at a large spatial scale (street level). In this study, we took account of population density, employment density, road length, road connectivity, proximity to public transit services, land use mix, proximity to green space, volume of motor vehicles and traffic accidents in an empirical investigation over Glasgow. Empirical results reveal that Strava cyclists are more likely to cycle for recreation on streets with short length, large connectivity or low volume of motor vehicles or on streets surrounded by residential land. PMID:28617345

  9. Examining Fluoroquinolone Claims Among Gonorrhea-Associated Prescription Drug Claims, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Carroll, Danya S; Gift, Thomas L

    2015-11-01

    After the release of CDC's revised gonorrhea treatment guidelines in April 2007, a study reported the declining use of fluoroquinolones to treat gonorrhea among health departments participating in the Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance Network. In this study, we examine the proportion of fluoroquinolone claims among gonorrhea-associated prescription drug claims from a large insurance database from 2000 through 2010. We extracted drug claims associated with gonorrhea diagnosis claims from the MarketScan database for 2000-2010 and calculated the proportion of the drug claims for fluoroquinolones on a monthly basis. We then used an interrupted time series analysis to investigate trend characteristics of fluoroquinolone claims before and after the gonorrhea treatment guidelines were revised in April 2007. Although there was a monthly decline in the proportion of fluoroquinolone claims before April 2007 (-0.11 percentage points, pfluoroquinolones after April 2007, implying a gradual permanent decline over the analytic period. Our results are consistent with the findings of the previous study and indicate a gradual and permanent decline (over the analytic period) in the proportion of fluoroquinolone claims among gonorrhea-associated prescription drug claims. However, because this is a convenience sample of claims data, these findings cannot be generalized to the entire privately insured population in the U.S. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Examining confounding by diet in the association between perfluoroalkyl acids and serum cholesterol in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuladottir, Margret; Ramel, Alfons; Rytter, Dorte; Haug, Line Småstuen; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have consistently been associated with higher cholesterol levels in cross sectional studies. Concerns have, however, been raised about potential confounding by diet and clinical relevance. Objective: To examine the association between concentrations of PFOS and PFOA and total cholesterol in serum during pregnancy taking into considerations confounding by diet. Methods: 854 Danish women who gave birth in 1988–89 and provided a blood sample and reported their diet in week 30 of gestation. Results: Mean serum PFOS, PFOA and total cholesterol concentrations were 22.3 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL and 7.3 mmol/L, respectively. Maternal diet was a significant predictor of serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations. In particular intake of meat and meat products was positively associated while intake of vegetables was inversely associated (P for trend <0.01) with relative difference between the highest and lowest quartile in PFOS and PFOA concentrations ranging between 6% and 25% of mean values. After adjustment for dietary factors both PFOA and PFOS were positively and similarly associated with serum cholesterol (P for trend ≤0.01). For example, the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.39 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.09, 0.68) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of PFOA concentrations. In comparison the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.61 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.17, 1.05) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of saturated fat intake. Conclusion: In this study associations between PFOS and PFOA with serum cholesterol appeared unrelated to dietary intake and were similar in magnitude as the associations between saturated fat intake and serum cholesterol. - Highlights: • PFOS and PFOA have consistently been linked with raised serum cholesterol • Clinical relevance remains uncertain and confounding by diet has been suggested • The aim of this study was to address these issues in

  11. Examining systemic steroid Use in older inflammatory bowel disease patients using hurdle models: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sophia L; Palta, Mari; Bartels, Christie M; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Weiss, Jennifer M; Smith, Maureen A

    2015-12-08

    Interpreting clinical guideline adherence and the appropriateness of medication regimens requires consideration of individual patient and caregiver factors. Factors leading to initiation of a medication may differ from those determining continued use. We believe this is the case for systemic steroid therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), resulting in a need to apply methods that separately consider factors associated with initiation and duration of therapy. To evaluate the relationship between patient characteristics and the frequency and duration of incident steroid use we apply a 2-part hurdle model to Medicare data. We do so in older patients with tumor necrosis factor antagonist (anti-TNFs) contraindications, as they are of special interest for compliance with Medicare-adopted, quality metrics calling for anti-TNFs and nonbiologic immune therapies to reduce steroid utilization. Many older patients have contraindications to anti-TNFs. However, nonbiologics cause adverse events that are concerning in older adults, limiting their use in this population and increasing reliance on systemic steroids. We used a national Medicare sample for 2006-2009 including patients with 12 months or greater of Parts A and B and 6 months or greater of Part D coverage, IBD confirmed with at least 2 claims for ICD-9CM 555.xx or 556.xx, anti-TNF contraindications and without contraindications to nonbiologic agents. We applied a negative binomial-logit hurdle model to examine patient characteristics associated with systemic steroid utilization. Among the 1,216 IBD patients without baseline steroid use, 21% used systemic steroids. Odds of receiving systemic steroids were greater in those younger, rural, and those receiving other agents. Available patient characteristics failed to predict longer steroid treatment duration. Our study identified differences in predictors of frequency and duration of medication use and suggests the utility of two-part models to examine drug utilization

  12. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset was used to create graphics associated with manuscript: Garcia et al., Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a...

  13. The association between leisure time physical activity and smoking in adolescence: an examination of potential mediating and moderating factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, K.T.; Nielsen, G.A.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Although physical activity has been associated negatively with smoking in adolescence, the association is not well understood. Purpose: This study examines the relationship between adolescents' leisure time physical activity and smoking behavior, while considering BMI, weight concern, sense of

  14. Online Teacher Professional Development for Gifted Education: Examining the Impact of a New Pedagogical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    This article theoretically develops and examines the outcomes of a pilot study that evaluates the PACKaGE Model of online Teacher Professional Development (the Model). The Model was created to facilitate positive pedagogical change within gifted education teachers' practice, attitude, collaboration, content knowledge, and goal effectiveness.…

  15. Uncertainty associated with selected environmental transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.; Miller, C.W.

    1979-11-01

    A description is given of the capabilities of several models to predict accurately either pollutant concentrations in environmental media or radiological dose to human organs. The models are discussed in three sections: aquatic or surface water transport models, atmospheric transport models, and terrestrial and aquatic food chain models. Using data published primarily by model users, model predictions are compared to observations. This procedure is infeasible for food chain models and, therefore, the uncertainty embodied in the models input parameters, rather than the model output, is estimated. Aquatic transport models are divided into one-dimensional, longitudinal-vertical, and longitudinal-horizontal models. Several conclusions were made about the ability of the Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model to predict accurately downwind air concentrations from releases under several sets of conditions. It is concluded that no validation study has been conducted to test the predictions of either aquatic or terrestrial food chain models. Using the aquatic pathway from water to fish to an adult for 137 Cs as an example, a 95% one-tailed confidence limit interval for the predicted exposure is calculated by examining the distributions of the input parameters. Such an interval is found to be 16 times the value of the median exposure. A similar one-tailed limit for the air-grass-cow-milk-thyroid for 131 I and infants was 5.6 times the median dose. Of the three model types discussed in this report,the aquatic transport models appear to do the best job of predicting observed concentrations. However, this conclusion is based on many fewer aquatic validation data than were availaable for atmospheric model validation

  16. Prenatal particulate air pollution and neurodevelopment in urban children: Examining sensitive windows and sex-specific associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Coull, Brent A; Bellinger, David C; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2016-02-01

    Brain growth and structural organization occurs in stages beginning prenatally. Toxicants may impact neurodevelopment differently dependent upon exposure timing and fetal sex. We implemented innovative methodology to identify sensitive windows for the associations between prenatal particulate matter with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and children's neurodevelopment. We assessed 267 full-term urban children's prenatal daily PM2.5 exposure using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporally resolved prediction model. Outcomes included IQ (WISC-IV), attention (omission errors [OEs], commission errors [CEs], hit reaction time [HRT], and HRT standard error [HRT-SE] on the Conners' CPT-II), and memory (general memory [GM] index and its components - verbal [VEM] and visual [VIM] memory, and attention-concentration [AC] indices on the WRAML-2) assessed at age 6.5±0.98 years. To identify the role of exposure timing, we used distributed lag models to examine associations between weekly prenatal PM2.5 exposure and neurodevelopment. Sex-specific associations were also examined. Mothers were primarily minorities (60% Hispanic, 25% black); 69% had ≤12 years of education. Adjusting for maternal age, education, race, and smoking, we found associations between higher PM2.5 levels at 31-38 weeks with lower IQ, at 20-26 weeks gestation with increased OEs, at 32-36 weeks with slower HRT, and at 22-40 weeks with increased HRT-SE among boys, while significant associations were found in memory domains in girls (higher PM2.5 exposure at 18-26 weeks with reduced VIM, at 12-20 weeks with reduced GM). Increased PM2.5 exposure in specific prenatal windows may be associated with poorer function across memory and attention domains with variable associations based on sex. Refined determination of time window- and sex-specific associations may enhance insight into underlying mechanisms and identification of vulnerable subgroups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling of Phase Equilibria Containing Associating Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derawi, Samer; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    glycol + heptane, methylcyclohexane, hexane, propylene glycol + heptane, diethylene glycol + heptane, triethylene glycol + heptane, and tetraethylene glycol + heptane. The data obtained were correlated with the NRTL model and two different versions of the UNIQUAC equation. The NRTL model and one...... in terms of an activity coefficient model or an equation of state. Our target in this thesis is to review and develop such models capable of describing qualitatively as well as quantitatively phase equilibria in multicomponent multiphase systems containing non-polar, polar, and associating compounds...... coefficient) calculations has been carried out. UNIFAC is an activity coefficient model while AFC is a model specifically developed for Pow calculations. Five different versions of UNIFAC and the AFC correlation model have been compared with each other and with experimental data. The range of applicability...

  18. Association Between Inflammatory Markers and Progression to Kidney Dysfunction: Examining Different Assessment Windows in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nathaniel L; Hunt, Kelly J; Stevens, Danielle R; Jarai, Gabor; Rosen, Glenn D; Klein, Richard L; Virella, Gabriel; Lopes-Virella, Maria F

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are associated with the development of kidney dysfunction and the time frame of their association. Biomarkers were measured at four time points during 28 years of treatment and follow-up in patients with type 1 diabetes in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) cohort. In addition to traditional biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen), we measured interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR-1/2), markers of endothelial dysfunction (soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin [sE-selectin]), and fibrinolysis (total and active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]). Renal outcomes were defined as progression to incident chronic kidney disease (stage 3 or more severe) or macroalbuminuria (albumin excretion rate ≥300 mg/24 h). Prospective multivariate event-time analyses were used to determine the association of each biomarker with each subsequent event within prespecified intervals (3-year and 10-year windows). Multivariate event-time models indicated that several markers of inflammation (sTNFR-1/2), endothelial dysfunction (sE-selectin), and clotting/fibrinolysis (fibrinogen and PAI-1) are significantly associated with subsequent development of kidney dysfunction. Although some markers showed variations in the associations between the follow-up windows examined, the results indicate that biomarkers (sTNFR-1/2, sE-selectin, PAI-1, and fibrinogen) are associated with progression to chronic kidney disease in both the 3-year and the 10-year windows. Plasma markers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and clotting/fibrinolysis are associated with progression to kidney dysfunction in type 1 diabetes during both short-term and long-term follow-up. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. Preliminary report: medical examiner reports of deaths associated with Hurricane Andrew--Florida, August 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-04

    On August 24, 1992, at 1:40 a.m. eastern daylight time (EDT), rain bands associated with Hurricane Andrew reached the eastern coast of Florida. At 4:45 a.m. EDT, Hurricane Andrew made landfall 35 miles southeast of Miami at Homestead, with sustained winds of 145 miles per hour (mph) and gusts of 164 mph. These winds extended 45 miles outward of the storm center. The storm moved across the state at 18 mph toward the Gulf of Mexico (Figure 1). The tidal surge on the eastern coast was estimated at 7-19 feet. During the storm, approximately 2.5 million Florida residents were left without electrical power, and approximately 56,000 family dwelling units were destroyed or severely damaged. This report presents preliminary data from Florida medical examiner (ME) offices about deaths attributed to Hurricane Andrew.

  20. Respiratory symptoms were associated with lower spirometry results during the first examination of WTC responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udasin, Iris; Schechter, Clyde; Crowley, Laura; Sotolongo, Anays; Gochfeld, Michael; Luft, Benjamin; Moline, Jacqueline; Harrison, Denise; Enright, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Determine if World Trade Center (WTC) disaster responders had lower lung function and higher bronchodilator responsiveness than those with respiratory symptoms and conditions. We evaluated cardinal respiratory symptoms (dyspnea, wheezing, dry cough, productive cough) and determined the difference in FEV1, FVC, and bronchodilator responsiveness. All respiratory symptoms were associated with a lower FEV1 and FVC, and a larger bronchodilator response. Responders reporting chronic productive cough, starting during WTC work and persisting, had a mean FEV1 109 mL lower than those without chronic persistent cough; their odds of having abnormally low FEV1 was 1.40 times higher; and they were 1.65 times as likely to demonstrate bronchodilator responsiveness. Responders reporting chronic persistent cough, wheezing or dyspnea at first medical examination were more likely to have lower lung function and bronchodilator responsiveness.

  1. Prenatal particulate air pollution exposure and body composition in urban preschool children: Examining sensitive windows and sex-specific associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Wilson, Ander; Coull, Brent A; Pendo, Mathew P; Baccarelli, Andrea; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O; Taveras, Elsie M; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-10-01

    Evolving animal studies and limited epidemiological data show that prenatal air pollution exposure is associated with childhood obesity. Timing of exposure and child sex may play an important role in these associations. We applied an innovative method to examine sex-specific sensitive prenatal windows of exposure to PM 2.5 on anthropometric measures in preschool-aged children. Analyses included 239 children born ≥ 37 weeks gestation in an ethnically-mixed lower-income urban birth cohort. Prenatal daily PM 2.5 exposure was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporal model. Body mass index z-score (BMI-z), fat mass, % body fat, subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, waist and hip circumferences and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed at age 4.0 ± 0.7 years. Using Bayesian distributed lag interaction models (BDLIMs), we examined sex differences in sensitive windows of weekly averaged PM 2.5 levels on these measures, adjusting for child age, maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and pre-pregnancy BMI. Mothers were primarily Hispanic (55%) or Black (26%), had ≤ 12 years of education (66%) and never smoked (80%). Increased PM 2.5 exposure 8-17 and 15-22 weeks gestation was significantly associated with increased BMI z-scores and fat mass in boys, but not in girls. Higher PM 2.5 exposure 10-29 weeks gestation was significantly associated with increased WHR in girls, but not in boys. Prenatal PM 2.5 was not significantly associated with other measures of body composition. Estimated cumulative effects across pregnancy, accounting for sensitive windows and within-window effects, were 0.21 (95%CI = 0.01-0.37) for BMI-z and 0.36 (95%CI = 0.12-0.68) for fat mass (kg) in boys, and 0.02 (95%CI = 0.01-0.03) for WHR in girls, all per µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 . Increased prenatal PM 2.5 exposure was more strongly associated with indices of increased whole body size in boys and with an indicator of body shape in girls. Methods to better characterize

  2. Longitudinal examination of the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani

    2010-12-01

    This 2-year prospective study examined the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women (N = 143) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled exercise trial. Across the 2-year period, increases in physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy and reductions in body mass index (BMI) were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition, and reductions in BMI were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The effects of PA, self-efficacy, and BMI on changes in physical self-worth and global self-esteem were mediated by changes in self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The results of this longitudinal analysis support the hierarchical and multidimensional structure of self-esteem and indicate that middle-aged women can enhance how they perceive their condition and body attractiveness by continued participation in physical activity, increasing their self-efficacy, and maintaining healthy BMI levels.

  3. An examination of the perceptions of social network characteristics associated with grandiose and vulnerable narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Joanna; Clifton, Allan; Campbell, W Keith; Miller, Joshua D

    2014-04-01

    Two dimensions of narcissism exist, grandiose and vulnerable, which are thought to be associated with distinctly different patterns of interpersonal behavior. Social network analysis is a way of quantifying and analyzing interpersonal interactions that may prove useful for characterizing the networks associated with these narcissism dimensions. In the current study, participants (N = 148) completed scales assessing both narcissism dimensions and a measure of the five-factor model of personality. Egocentric network information about participants' 30 closest friends and family members (i.e., "alters") was also obtained. Both narcissism dimensions were characterized by negative perceptions of the individuals who comprise one's social networks, and many of these relations were mediated by individuals' higher levels of antagonism. Grandiose narcissism also interacted with alter centrality (i.e., importance to the network) such that individuals low on grandiose narcissism were less likely to perceive central alters in a negative light and were more attuned to central alters than were individuals high on grandiose narcissism. Overall, both narcissism dimensions were associated with perceiving one's overall social environment negatively because of the high levels of antagonism that characterize both narcissism dimensions. Individuals high on grandiose narcissism, however, appear to be more insensitive to the relative importance of individuals in their social networks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Examining the Association between Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Dementia in High-Risk Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, O; Smeall, K; Watson, T; Donnelly-Vanderloo, M; O'Connor, C; Foley, N; Madill, J

    2015-12-01

    To explore the association between vitamin B12 deficiency and dementia in patients at high risk for vitamin B12 deficiency. Chart review. Emergency, critical care/ trauma, neurology, medicine, and rehabilitation units of two hospitals in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Adult patients (n = 666) admitted from 2010 to 2012. Data collection included: reason for admission, gender, age, clinical signs and symptoms of B12 deficiency, serum B12 concentration, and B12 supplementation. Patients with dementia were identified based on their medication profile and medical history. Vitamin B12 deficiency (pmol/L) was defined as serum B12 concentration 220. Comparisons between B12-deficient patients with and without dementia were examined using parametric and non-parametric tests. Serum B12 values were available for 60% (399/666) of the patients, of whom 4% (16/399) were B12-deficient and 14% (57/399) were marginally deficient. Patients with dementia were not more likely to be B12-deficient or marginally deficient [21% (26/121)] compared to those with no dementia [17% (47/278), p=0.27)]. Based on documentation, 34% (25/73) of the B12-deficient and marginally-deficient patients did not receive B12 supplementation, of whom 40% (10/25) had dementia. In this sample of patients, there was no association between B12 deficiency and dementia. However, appropriate B12 screening protocols are necessary for high risk patient to identify deficiency and then receive B12 supplementation as needed.

  5. Examining the association between motivations for induced abortion and method safety among women in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biney, Adriana A E; Atiglo, D Yaw

    2017-10-01

    This article draws on data from 552 women interviewed in the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey to examine the association between motivations for women's pregnancy terminations and the safety of methods used. Women's reasons for induced abortions represented their vulnerability types at the critical time of decision making. Different motivations can result in taking various forms of action with the most vulnerable potentially resorting to the most harmful behaviors. Analysis of survey data pointed to spacing/delaying births as the main reason for abortion. Furthermore, women were more likely to terminate pregnancies unsafely if their main motivation for abortion was financial constraints. Especially among rural women, abortions for any reason were more likely associated with safe methods than if for financial reasons. These findings suggest a theme of vulnerability, resulting from poverty, as the motivations for women to resort to harmful abortion methods. Therefore, interventions formulated to reduce instances of unsafe pregnancy terminations should target reducing poverty and capacity building with the aim of economic advancement, in addition to curbing the root of the problem: unintended pregnancy.

  6. Prediction and uncertainty in associative learning: examining controlled and automatic components of learned attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, David; Vadillo, Miguel A; Le Pelley, Mike E; Beesley, Tom

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that attention is guided by two factors that operate during associative learning: a predictiveness principle, by which attention is allocated to the best predictors of outcomes, and an uncertainty principle, by which attention is allocated to learn about the less known features of the environment. Recent studies have shown that predictiveness-driven attention can operate rapidly and in an automatic way to exploit known relationships. The corresponding characteristics of uncertainty-driven attention, on the other hand, remain unexplored. In two experiments we examined whether both predictiveness and uncertainty modulate attentional processing in an adaptation of the dot probe task. This task provides a measure of automatic orientation to cues during associative learning. The stimulus onset asynchrony of the probe display was manipulated in order to explore temporal characteristics of predictiveness- and uncertainty-driven attentional effects. Results showed that the predictive status of cues determined selective attention, with faster attentional capture to predictive than to non-predictive cues. In contrast, the level of uncertainty slowed down responses to the probe regardless of the predictive status of the cues. Both predictiveness- and uncertainty-driven attentional effects were very rapid (at 250 ms from cue onset) and were automatically activated.

  7. An Examination of Information Technology Valuation Models for the Air Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peachey, Todd

    1998-01-01

    .... This thesis is designed to examine models that are currently being used in the public and private sector of the economy to evaluate Information Technology investments to learn which ones might serve...

  8. Examining Equity Sensitivity: An Investigation Using the Big Five and HEXACO Models of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Hayden J. R.; Bourdage, Joshua S.; Ogunfowora, Babatunde; Nguyen, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The construct of equity sensitivity describes an individual's preference about his/her desired input to outcome ratio. Individuals high on equity sensitivity tend to be more input oriented, and are often called “Benevolents.” Individuals low on equity sensitivity are more outcome oriented, and are described as “Entitleds.” Given that equity sensitivity has often been described as a trait, the purpose of the present study was to examine major personality correlates of equity sensitivity, so as to inform both the nature of equity sensitivity, and the potential processes through which certain broad personality traits may relate to outcomes. We examined the personality correlates of equity sensitivity across three studies (total N = 1170), two personality models (i.e., the Big Five and HEXACO), the two most common measures of equity sensitivity (i.e., the Equity Preference Questionnaire and Equity Sensitivity Inventory), and using both self and peer reports of personality (in Study 3). Although results varied somewhat across samples, the personality variables of Conscientiousness and Honesty-Humility, followed by Agreeableness, were the most robust predictors of equity sensitivity. Individuals higher on these traits were more likely to be Benevolents, whereas those lower on these traits were more likely to be Entitleds. Although some associations between Extraversion, Openness, and Neuroticism and equity sensitivity were observed, these were generally not robust. Overall, it appears that there are several prominent personality variables underlying equity sensitivity, and that the addition of the HEXACO model's dimension of Honesty-Humility substantially contributes to our understanding of equity sensitivity. PMID:26779102

  9. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated with Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Alan L.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Hatch, John P.; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 6 decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a longstanding concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt motor and vocal tics associated with Tourette’s disorder, it presents an excellent opportunity to empirically evaluate the potential risk for symptom substitution associated with behavior therapy. The present study examined the possible presence of symptom substitution using 4 methods: (1) the onset of new tic symptoms; (2) the occurrence of adverse events; (3) change in tic medications; and (4) worsening of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Two hundred twenty-eight participants with Tourette’s disorder or persistent motor or vocal tic disorders were randomly assigned to receive behavioral therapy or supportive therapy for tics. Both therapies consisted of 8 sessions over 10 weeks. Results indicated that participants treated with behavior therapy were not more likely to have an onset of new tic symptoms, experience adverse events, increase tic medications, or have an exacerbation in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms relative to participants treated with supportive therapy. Further analysis suggested that the emergence of new tics was attributed with the normal waxing and waning nature of Tourette’s disorder. Findings provide empirical support to counter the longstanding concern of symptom substitution in response to behavior therapy for individuals with Tourette's Disorder. PMID:26763495

  10. Examining Associations Between Relocation, Continuity of Care, and Patient Satisfaction in Military Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Jessica L; Beck, Kenneth H

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how frequent permanent change of station moves and turnover in primary care providers are associated with continuity of care and patient satisfaction in military spouses. These domains have been studied extensively in civilian populations, but this study seeks to begin filling a gap in the literature surrounding military spouses and their experiences with the military health system. Spouses were recruited via social media to complete a brief online questionnaire to examine factors related to continuity of care and satisfaction with military health care. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance and χ 2 tests, and through logistic regression. Continuity of care scores were significantly lower as the number of moves and providers increased. Patient satisfaction was also significantly associated with continuity. In logistic regression analyses, patient-provider relationship and health status were the only significant predictors across two measures of patient satisfaction. Respondents with higher relationship scores were nearly two times more likely to report being satisfied than those with lower scores. Qualitative results indicated that the majority of dissatisfied spouses were unhappy with their military providers, which supported quantitative findings related to patient-provider relationship. No studies have previously been conducted to determine why military health system beneficiaries are less satisfied with care than their civilian counterparts. Discontinuous care is an ongoing issue for military families, which can impact satisfaction and potentially lead to poorer health outcomes. Although the military culture may not allow for fewer relocations, these results indicate that taking steps to promote enduring, trusting relationships with primary care providers may improve patient satisfaction. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  11. Examining the profile of high-potency cannabis and its association with severity of cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, T P; Winstock, A R

    2015-11-01

    Cannabis use is decreasing in England and Wales, while demand for cannabis treatment in addiction services continues to rise. This could be partly due to an increased availability of high-potency cannabis. Adults residing in the UK were questioned about their drug use, including three types of cannabis (high potency: skunk; low potency: other grass, resin). Cannabis types were profiled and examined for possible associations between frequency of use and (i) cannabis dependence, (ii) cannabis-related concerns. Frequent use of high-potency cannabis predicted a greater severity of dependence [days of skunk use per month: b = 0.254, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.161-0.357, p cannabis was not associated with dependence (days of other grass use per month: b = 0.020, 95% CI -0.029 to 0.070, p = 0.436; days of resin use per month: b = 0.025, 95% CI -0.019 to 0.067, p = 0.245). Frequency of cannabis use (all types) did not predict severity of cannabis-related concerns. High-potency cannabis was clearly distinct from low-potency varieties by its marked effects on memory and paranoia. It also produced the best high, was preferred, and most available. High-potency cannabis use is associated with an increased severity of dependence, especially in young people. Its profile is strongly defined by negative effects (memory, paranoia), but also positive characteristics (best high, preferred type), which may be important when considering clinical or public health interventions focusing on cannabis potency.

  12. The Association Between Barium Examination and Subsequent Appendicitis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao-Ming; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Huang, Ying-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and association between appendicitis and barium examination (BE) remain unclear. Such potential risk may be omitted. We conducted a longitudinal, nationwide, population-based cohort study to investigate the association between BE and appendicitis risk. From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, a total of 24,885 patients who underwent BE between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 were enrolled in a BE cohort; an additional 98,384 subjects without BE exposure were selected as a non-BE cohort, matched by age, sex, and index date. The cumulative incidences of subsequent appendicitis in the BE and non-BE cohorts were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were employed to calculate the appendicitis risk between the groups. The cumulative incidence of appendicitis was higher in the BE cohort than in the non-BE cohort (P = .001). The overall incidence rates of appendicitis for the BE and non-BE cohorts were 1.19 and 0.80 per 1000 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for sex, age, and comorbidities, the risk of appendicitis was higher in the BE cohort (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.23-1.73) compared with the non-BE cohort, especially in the first 2 months (adjusted hazard ratio = 9.72, 95% confidence interval = 4.65-20.3). BE was associated with an increased, time-dependent appendicitis risk. Clinicians should be aware of this potential risk to avoid delayed diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Longitudinal Examination of Resilience After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwitz, Jennifer H; Sima, Adam P; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S; Dreer, Laura E; Bergquist, Thomas F; Zafonte, Ross; Johnson-Greene, Douglas; Felix, Elizabeth R

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate (1) the trajectory of resilience during the first year after a moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI); (2) factors associated with resilience at 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury; and (3) changing relationships over time between resilience and other factors. Longitudinal analysis of an observational cohort. Five inpatient rehabilitation centers. Patients with TBI (N=195) enrolled in the resilience module of the TBI Model Systems study with data collected at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Not applicable. Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Initially, resilience levels appeared to be stable during the first year postinjury. Individual growth curve models were used to examine resilience over time in relation to demographic, psychosocial, and injury characteristics. After adjusting for these characteristics, resilience actually declined over time. Higher levels of resilience were related to nonminority status, absence of preinjury substance abuse, lower anxiety and disability level, and greater life satisfaction. Resilience is a construct that is relevant to understanding brain injury outcomes and has potential value in planning clinical interventions. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Examining Variability in Model Skill During the 7 January 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blufer, Jonathan L.

    Recent analyses of numerical weather prediction models have shown that stratospheric regime changes (e.g. strong and weak vortex events) are not skillfully predicted at medium-range lead times. Motivated by these recent analyses, this thesis investigates the sources of variability in stratospheric forecast skill amongst several operational models initiated at different lead times prior to the 7 January 2013 sudden stratospheric warming (SSW). This study extends upon a previous analysis by the Stratospheric Network for the Assessment of Predictability (SNAP), which concluded that a change in forecast lead-time from 15 to 10 days increased model skill in predicting the 2013 SSW by roughly 50 percent. The sources of such variability in predictive skill are investigated further in this thesis. Coordinated reforecasts from the SNAP dataset are used to examine model variability and forecast skill in six medium-range operational ensemble forecast models. Both elliptical diagnostics of the polar vortex that quantify the vortex eccentricity, center longitude and latitude, and area, as well as zonal mean metrics are used to assess model errors and biases in the stratosphere. Ensemble skill is categorized into low and high error composite groups according to two separate metrics: the strength of the 10-hPa zonal mean zonal wind at 60?N and the center latitude of the 10-hPa vortex ellipse. Analysis reveals that ensemble members forecasting an ellipse center located equatorward of 70°N prior to 7 January 2013 had greater skill in predicting an easterly 10-hPa zonal mean zonal wind regime at the time of verified SSW onset. It is hypothesized that model error in forecasting thermodynamic processes linked to the SSW precursor tropospheric blocking in the N. Atlantic resulted in systematic biases and variability in dynamical forcing (e.g. upward wave activity flux) into the polar stratosphere in forecasts of the 7 January 2013 SSW event. Results indicate that errors in maintaining

  15. An attachment theory perspective in the examination of relational processes associated with coach-athlete dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Louise; Jowett, Sophia; Lafrenière, Marc-André K

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine actor and partner effects of (a) athletes' and coaches' attachment styles (avoidant and anxious) on the quality of the coach-athlete relationship, and (b) athletes' and coaches' quality of the coach-athlete relationship on relationship satisfaction employing the actor-partner interdependence model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006). Coaches (N = 107) and athletes (N = 107) completed a questionnaire related to attachment styles, relationship quality, and relationship satisfaction. Structural equation model analyses revealed (a) actor effects for coaches' and athletes' avoidant attachment styles on their own perception of relationship quality and coaches' and athletes' perception of relationship quality on their own perception of relationship satisfaction, and (b) partner effects for athletes' avoidant attachment style on coaches' perceptions of relationship quality and for coaches' perceptions of relationship quality on athletes' perceptions of relationship satisfaction. The findings highlight that attachments styles can help us understand the processes involved in the formation and maintenance of quality relational bonds between coaches and athletes.

  16. Latent constructs in psychosocial factors associated with cardiovascular disease: an examination by race and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Jo Clark

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study examines race and sex differences in the latent structure of a wide range of psychosocial measures and whether the identified factors are related to self-reported history of coronary heart disease (CHD. Materials and Methods : The sample included 4,128 participants of the Chicago Health and Aging Project. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA with oblique geomin rotation was used to identify latent factors among 10 psychosocial measures. Multi-group comparisons of the EFA model were conducted using exploratory structural equation modeling. Measurement invariance was defined by a difference in the CFI of less than 0.01. For invariant factor(s, a factor-based scale score was created. Differences in mean scale scores across race-sex subgroups were tested with analysis of variance and Sheffe’s test. Logistic regression was used to test the relationship between the factor score(s and CHD adjusting for relevant confounders. Effect modification of the relationship by race-sex subgroup was tested.Results : A two-factor model fit the data well (CFI=0.986; TLI=0.969; RMSEA=0.039. Factor I was comprised of depressive symptoms, neuroticism, perceived stress, and low life satisfaction. Factor II was comprised of social engagement, spirituality, social networks, and extraversion. Only Factor I, renamed Distress, showed measurement invariance across subgroups, although the level of Distress varied by race and sex. Distress was significantly related to report of CHD (odds ratio: 1.37; p-value < 0.0001. This effect did not differ by race or sex (interaction p-value=0.43. Conclusions: This study found two underlying latent constructs among a large range of psychosocial variables, but only one, Distress, was validly measured across race-sex subgroups. This construct was also robustly related to prevalent CHD, highlighting the potential importance of latent constructs as predictors of cardiovascular disease.

  17. Examining the association between bullying and adolescent concerns about teen dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnam, Katrina J; Johnson, Sarah L; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2014-07-01

    The school environment is an important context for understanding risk factors for teen dating violence. This study seeks to add to the growing literature base linking adolescent experiences with bullying and involvement with teen dating violence. Data were collected from 27,074 adolescents at 58 high schools via a Web-based survey. Three-level hierarchical linear models indicated that adolescents who had been bullied were more concerned about both physical and emotional dating violence among students at their school. Schools that were perceived by students as safer were rated as having lower levels of teen dating violence. Older students and male students consistently reported greater concerns about dating violence. These results suggest that adolescents who experience bullying may also have concerns about violence in teen dating relationships. Findings also indicate that schools perceived as being unsafe may be an important context for targeting dating violence prevention efforts. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  18. Extension of association models to complex chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard

    ; CPA and sPC-SAFT. Phase equilibrium and monomer fraction calculations with sPC-SAFT for methanol are used in the thesis to illustrate the importance of parameter estimation when using SAFT. Different parameter sets give similar pure component vapor pressure and liquid density results, whereas very......Summary of “Extension of association models to complex chemicals”. Ph.D. thesis by Ane Søgaard Avlund The subject of this thesis is application of SAFT type equations of state (EoS). Accurate and predictive thermodynamic models are important in many industries including the petroleum industry...... not account for steric self-hindrance for tree-like structures. An important practical problem is how to obtain optimal and consistent parameters. Moreover, multifunctional associating molecules represent a special challenge. In this work two equations of state using the SAFT theory for association are used...

  19. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5-6 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5-6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5-6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5-6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5–6 year olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L.; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5–6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. Methods 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5–6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Results Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Conclusions Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5–6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. PMID:26647364

  1. Comparing Multidimensional and Continuum Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: An Empirical Examination of the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeffrey; Batty, Aaron Olaf; Bovee, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Second language vocabulary acquisition has been modeled both as multidimensional in nature and as a continuum wherein the learner's knowledge of a word develops along a cline from recognition through production. In order to empirically examine and compare these models, the authors assess the degree to which the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS;…

  2. Measuring and Examining General Self-Efficacy among Community College Students: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Starobin, Soko S.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined a psychosocial mechanism of how general self-efficacy interacts with other key factors and influences degree aspiration for students enrolled in an urban diverse community college. Using general self-efficacy scales, the authors hypothesized the General Self-efficacy model for Community College students (the GSE-CC model). A…

  3. African Immigrants, the "New Model Minority": Examining the Reality in U.S. K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukpokodu, Omiunota N.

    2018-01-01

    African immigrants in the U.S. have been headlined as America's "new model minority." The purpose of this paper is to examine if evidence exists to support the claim of African immigrant students' (AIS) educational achievement and excellence (a core indicator of the "model minority" theory) in U.S. k-12 schools. Using a…

  4. Examining IS Curriculum Profiles and the IS 2010 Model Curriculum Guidelines in AACSB-Accredited Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Robert J.; Velasquez, Nicole Forsgren; Fadel, Kelly J.; Bell, Corbin C.

    2012-01-01

    The IS 2010 Model Curriculum Guidelines were developed to provide recommendations for standardized information systems curricula while simultaneously allowing for customization within individual programs. While some studies have examined program adherence to the IS 2010 Model Curriculum Guidelines, a more detailed analysis of IS curriculum…

  5. Sarcopenia exacerbates obesity-associated insulin resistance and dysglycemia: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Srikanthan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia often co-exists with obesity, and may have additive effects on insulin resistance. Sarcopenic obese individuals could be at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We performed a study to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with impairment in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in obese and non-obese individuals.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III data utilizing subjects of 20 years or older, non-pregnant (N = 14,528. Sarcopenia was identified from bioelectrical impedance measurement of muscle mass. Obesity was identified from body mass index. Outcomes were homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR, glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1C, and prevalence of pre-diabetes (6.0≤ HbA1C<6.5 and not on medication and type 2 diabetes. Covariates in multiple regression were age, educational level, ethnicity and sex.Sarcopenia was associated with insulin resistance in non-obese (HOMA IR ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.26 to 1.52 and obese individuals (HOMA-IR ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.18. Sarcopenia was associated with dysglycemia in obese individuals (HbA1C ratio 1.021, 95% CI 1.011 to 1.043 but not in non-obese individuals. Associations were stronger in those under 60 years of age. We acknowledge that the cross-sectional study design limits our ability to draw causal inferences.Sarcopenia, independent of obesity, is associated with adverse glucose metabolism, and the association is strongest in individuals under 60 years of age, which suggests that low muscle mass may be an early predictor of diabetes susceptibility. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, further research is urgently needed to develop interventions to prevent sarcopenic obesity and its metabolic consequences.

  6. Investigating models for associating fluids using spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Passos, Claudia Pereira

    2005-01-01

    Two equations of state (PC-SAFT and CPA) are used to predict the monomer fraction of pure associating fluids. The models each require five pure-component parameters usually obtained by fitting to experimental liquid density and vapor pressure data. Here we also incorporate monomer fractions...... measured using spectroscopy, resulting in models that better predict the monomer fraction (fraction of molecules not participating in hydrogen bonding), without sacrificing the accuracy of the liquid density and vapor pressure correlations. Thus, it is clear that monomer fraction prediction depends......-site schemes perform about equally for ethanol; for higher alcohols a two-site scheme is preferred. This is in accordance with steric arguments. Some difficulties in the interpretation of spectroscopic data and their comparison with the predictions of association models are illustrated. Apparently anomalous...

  7. Examining the associations between sex trade involvement, rape, and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H

    2015-07-01

    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma

  8. Urban Aboriginal mobility in Canada: examining the association with health care utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Marcie; Wilson, Kathi

    2012-12-01

    In recent decades, Indigenous peoples across the globe have become increasingly urbanized. Growing urbanization has been associated with high rates of geographic mobility between rural areas and cities, as well as within cities. In Canada, over 54 percent of Aboriginal peoples are urban and change their place of residence at a higher rate than the non-Aboriginal population. High rates of mobility may affect the delivery and use of health services. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between urban Aboriginal peoples' mobility and conventional (physician/nurse) as well as traditional (traditional healer) health service use in two distinct Canadian cities: Toronto and Winnipeg. Using data from Statistics Canada's 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, this analysis demonstrates that mobility is a significant predisposing correlate of health service use and that the impact of mobility on health care use varies by urban setting. In Toronto, urban newcomers were more likely to use a physician or nurse compared to long-term residents. This was in direct contrast to the effect of residency on physician and nurse use in Winnipeg. In Toronto, urban newcomers were less likely to use a traditional healer than long-term residents, indicating that traditional healing may represent an unmet health care need. The results demonstrate that distinct urban settings differentially influence patterns of health service utilization for mobile Aboriginal peoples. This has important implications for how health services are planned and delivered to urban Aboriginal movers on a local, and potentially global, scale. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pilot study examining the association between ambulatory activity and falls among hospitalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Steve R; Galloway, Rebecca V; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Graham, James E; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Ostir, Glenn V; Goodwin, James S

    2011-12-01

    To examine the ambulatory activity of older patients who had a documented fall during hospitalization for acute illness. A retrospective case-control design was used in a pilot study of patients (n=10; ≥65y) who had a documented fall during their hospital stay and matched controls (n=25) who did not fall. Acute care medical/surgical unit. Men and women 65 years and older who wore a step activity monitor while hospitalized. Not applicable. Fall incidents during the hospital stay were documented by the nurse in a standardized patient safety event report in accordance with hospital policy. The number of steps per 24-hour interval, time spent walking, and total number of activity episodes were determined for patients and controls. On average ± SD, patients who fell took 480.3 ± 432.2 steps per hospital day, spent 53.8 ± 36.9 minutes walking, and engaged in 25.8 ± 16.9 episodes of activity. Mean daily steps, time spent walking, and number of activity episodes for patients who did not fall were 680.1 ± 876.0, 50.1 ± 58.6, and 21.6 ± 23.8, respectively. Logistic regression results indicated no association between the fall outcome and mean daily steps (odds ratio=.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.06). Ambulatory activity among patients who fell varied widely. Mean daily steps, time spent walking, and number of episodes of activity were comparable with matched controls who did not fall. Patient falls were more likely to be associated with cognitive and hospital environmental factors than actual amount of walking. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Examining the Associations between Daily Caregiving Discontinuity and Children’s Social-Emotional Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Vi-Nhuan; Schaack, Diana; Setodji, Claude Messan

    2015-01-01

    Many child care centers temporarily move children and teachers in and out of their assigned classrooms throughout the day. Such practices create frequent discontinuity in children’s experiences in child care, including discontinuity in their peer and teacher relationships. This study examined the prevalence and patterns of teacher and child movement between classrooms, the characteristics of teachers and children who were more likely to move between classrooms on a daily basis, and the associations between children’s and teachers’ rate of daily movement between classrooms with children’s social-emotional outcomes. A moderate to high prevalence of child and teacher movement between classrooms was observed (29% and 83%, respectively). Children who were younger, considered solitary, and who had been enrolled in their classroom for shorter periods of time were less likely to transition between classrooms. Children’s rate of movement was a positive predictor of teachers’ perceived conflict with children in their care, and a negative predictor of teachers’ perceived closeness. In addition, the more frequently teachers moved, the less children were inclined to indicate liking their teachers or centers. However, the more frequently children moved, the more likely children were to indicate liking their peers and for their peers to indicate liking them. Results are interpreted in light of additional research avenues that can inform sensible daily teacher continuity practices. PMID:25822893

  11. Examining the associations between daily caregiving discontinuity and children's social-emotional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Vi-Nhuan; Schaack, Diana; Setodji, Claude Messan

    2015-05-01

    Many child care centers temporarily move children and teachers in and out of their assigned classrooms throughout the day. Such practices create frequent discontinuity in children's experiences in child care, including discontinuity in their peer and teacher relationships. This study examined the prevalence and patterns of teacher and child movement between classrooms, the characteristics of teachers and children who were more likely to move between classrooms on a daily basis, and the associations between children's and teachers' rate of daily movement between classrooms with children's social-emotional outcomes. A moderate to high prevalence of child and teacher movement between classrooms was observed (29% and 83%, respectively). Children who were younger, considered solitary, and who had been enrolled in their classroom for shorter periods of time were less likely to transition between classrooms. Children's rate of movement was a positive predictor of teachers' perceived conflict with children in their care, and a negative predictor of teachers' perceived closeness. In addition, the more frequently teachers moved, the less children were inclined to indicate liking their teachers or centers. However, the more frequently children moved, the more likely children were to indicate liking their peers and for their peers to indicate liking them. Results are interpreted in light of additional research avenues that can inform sensible daily teacher continuity practices. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Examining the bidirectional association between veteran homelessness and incarceration within the context of permanent supportive housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Meagan; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth

    2017-05-01

    Homelessness and incarceration share a bidirectional association: individuals experiencing homelessness are more likely to be incarcerated and former inmates are more likely to become homeless. Permanent supportive housing (PSH) programs have demonstrated positive outcomes for participants with criminal histories, yet participants continue to exit to jail or prison and experience subsequent homelessness. Using data on Veterans participating in a PSH program at 4 locations between 2011 and 2014 (N = 1,060), logistic regression was used to examine the risk factors for exiting PSH because of incarceration and returning to homelessness. Though exiting because of incarceration was uncommon, Veterans with a drug use disorder who decreased the frequency of related care over time had an increased risk for this outcome, and a history of incarceration increased Veterans' risk of experiencing ongoing homelessness. Findings can inform housing and reentry interventions which should account for participant risk factors and service needs in an effort to end the cycle of homelessness and incarceration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Examining Profiles of Family Functioning in Pediatric Asthma: Longitudinal Associations With Child Adjustment and Asthma Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al G Hriwati, Nour; Winter, Marcia A; Everhart, Robin S

    2017-05-01

    Identify profiles of functioning in families of children with asthma and examine whether profile membership predicts subsequent child mental and physical well-being. Primary caregivers and children ( N  = 1,030) from the Childhood Asthma Management Program completed questionnaires assessing family functioning and child adaptation at five time points. Asthma severity was also assessed via spirometry. Latent profile analyses identified a four-profile solution as best fitting the data: cohesive, permissive, controlling/disengaged, and controlling/enmeshed families. Distal outcome analyses using Bolck-Croon-Hagenaars techniques suggested that children from families that were more cohesive had fewer internalizing and externalizing symptoms. These associations remained stable across time. Family profiles did not differ with regards to child asthma severity. Results highlight the importance of looking beyond the effects of distinct components of family functioning and instead using pattern-based approaches. Recommendations for incorporating screenings and services for families in pediatric care settings are provided. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. International note: what factors are associated with reading, mathematics, and science literacy of Indian adolescents? A multilevel examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2014-06-01

    A sample of 15-year-olds in India took part in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for the first time in 2010. The PISA reading, mathematics, and science literacy scores of Indian adolescents were considerably lower than their counterparts in most PISA participating countries. In order to explore potential reasons for this, the present study, therefore, drawing on data from the fourth cycle of PISA and employing multilevel modeling, examined the relations of student- and school-level factors to reading, mathematics, and science literacy among 4826 15-year-old students from 213 schools in India. Gender, metacognitive learning strategies, students' positive attitudes toward school, and students' positive perceptions of classroom climate were found to be significantly associated with Indian adolescents' performance on the PISA assessment. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Examining the Associations of Racism, Sexism, and Stressful Life Events on Psychological Distress among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.

    2013-01-01

    African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African American women, and are correlated both with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434

  17. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirect...

  18. Factors associated with testicular self-examination among unaffected men from multiple-case testicular cancer families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadaparampil Susan T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lifetime testicular cancer (TC risk in the general population is relatively low (~1 in 250, but men with a family history of TC are at 4 to 9 times greater risk than those without. Some health and professional organizations recommend consideration of testicular self-examination (TSE for certain high-risk groups (e.g. men with a family history of TC. Yet little is known about factors associated with TSE behaviors in this at-risk group. Methods We collected information on this subject during an on-going NCI multidisciplinary, etiologically-focused, cross-sectional Familial Testicular Cancer (FTC study. We present the first report specifically targeting TSE behaviors among first- and second-degree relatives (n = 99 of affected men from families with ≥ 2 TC cases. Demographic, medical, knowledge, health belief, and psychological factors consistent with the Health Belief Model (HBM were evaluated as variables related to TSE behavior, using chi-square tests of association for categorical variables, and t-tests for continuous variables. Results For men in our sample, 46% (n = 46 reported performing TSE regularly and 51% (n = 50 reported not regularly performing TSE. Factors associated (p Conclusion The findings suggest that, even in this high-risk setting, TSE practices are sub-optimal. Our data provide a basis for further exploring psychosocial issues that are specific to men with a family history of TC, and formulating intervention strategies aimed at improving adherence to TSE guidelines.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative examination of the performance of regional air quality models representing different modeling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhumralkar, C.M.; Ludwig, F.L.; Shannon, J.D.; McNaughton, D.

    1985-04-01

    The calculations of three different air quality models were compared with the best available observations. The comparisons were made without calibrating the models to improve agreement with the observations. Model performance was poor for short averaging times (less than 24 hours). Some of the poor performance can be traced to errors in the input meteorological fields, but error exist on all levels. It should be noted that these models were not originally designed for treating short-term episodes. For short-term episodes, much of the variance in the data can arise from small spatial scale features that tend to be averaged out over longer periods. These small spatial scale features cannot be resolved with the coarse grids that are used for the meteorological and emissions inputs. Thus, it is not surprising that the models performed for the longer averaging times. The models compared were RTM-II, ENAMAP-2 and ACID. (17 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  20. A multilevel examination of school and student characteristics associated with physical education class enrollment among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin P; Leatherdale, Scott T; Manske, Steve R; Burkhalter, Robin; Woodruff, Sarah J

    2010-09-01

    Schools can be an efficient venue for promoting physical activity (PA) among adolescents. Physical education (PE) requires investigation because it is a variable associated with adolescent PA levels and its existence in schools represents a significant opportunity for strategies to combat declining PA levels among this population. This article examines the between-school variability in student rates of PE enrollment among a large sample of high schools in Ontario, Canada, and identifies the school- and student-level characteristics associated with PE enrollment. This cross-sectional study utilized self-reported school- and student-level data from administrators and students at 73 high schools. Students' enrollment in PE, demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial variables was linked to school environment data comprising of school demographics and administrator assessed quality of policies, facilities, and programs related to PA. Analysis involved multilevel modeling. The mean rate of PE enrollment among the 73 high schools was 62.4%, with rates by school ranging from 28.9% to 81.1%. When student demographics, behavioral, and psychosocial factors were controlled for, there was still a school effect for student PE enrollment. The school effect was explained by the provision of daily PE and school median household income. This is the first study to examine the extent to which PE enrollment varies between schools and to identify school factors associated with school variability in rates of PE enrollment. Although most variation in PE enrollment lies between students within schools, there is sufficient between-school variation to be of interest to practitioners and policy makers.

  1. Examination of Solubility Models for the Determination of Transition Metals within Liquid Alkali Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Isler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The experimental solubility of transition metals in liquid alkali metal was compared to the modeled solubility calculated using various equations for solubility. These equations were modeled using the enthalpy calculations of the semi-empirical Miedema model and various entropy calculations. The accuracy of the predicted solubility compared to the experimental data is more dependent on which liquid alkali metal is being examined rather than the transition metal solute examined. For liquid lithium the calculated solubility by the model was generally larger than experimental values, while for liquid cesium the modeling solubility was significantly smaller than the experimental values. For liquid sodium, potassium, and rubidium the experimental solubilities were within the range calculated by this study. Few data approached the predicted temperature dependence of solubility and instead most data exhibited a less pronounced temperature dependence.

  2. Examining Attitudes of Students Regarding the Sports Education Model and Direct Teaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Nevruz; Dalkiran, Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effects of sports education model and direct teaching model on the attitudes of the students, and the differences among the attitudes of students. The study group of the research included 29 students from 6th and 7th grade of a secondary school in the 2015-2016 academic years. The experimental group…

  3. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment Model: A Structural Equation Model Examination of Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Susan E.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation sought to operationalize a comprehensive theoretical model, the Trauma Outcome Process Assessment, and test it empirically with structural equation modeling. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment reflects a robust body of research and incorporates known ecological factors (e.g., family dynamics, social support) to explain…

  4. A model of olfactory associative learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoni, Gaia; Balasubramanian, Vijay

    We propose a mechanism, rooted in the known anatomy and physiology of the vertebrate olfactory system, by which presentations of rewarded and unrewarded odors lead to formation of odor-valence associations between piriform cortex (PC) and anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) which, in concert with neuromodulators release in the bulb, entrains a direct feedback from the AON representation of valence to a group of mitral cells (MCs). The model makes several predictions concerning MC activity during and after associative learning: (a) AON feedback produces synchronous divergent responses in a localized subset of MCs; (b) such divergence propagates to other MCs by lateral inhibition; (c) after learning, MC responses reconverge; (d) recall of the newly formed associations in the PC increases feedback inhibition in the MCs. These predictions have been confirmed in disparate experiments which we now explain in a unified framework. For cortex, our model further predicts that the response divergence developed during learning reshapes odor representations in the PC, with the effects of (a) decorrelating PC representations of odors with different valences, (b) increasing the size and reliability of those representations, and enabling recall correction and redundancy reduction after learning. Simons Foundation for Mathematical Modeling of Living Systems.

  5. Being mum's confidant, a boon or bane? Examining gender differences in the association of maternal disclosure with adolescents' depressive feelings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Finkenauer, C.; Van der Vorst, H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal study investigating gender differences in the association between maternal disclosure and adolescents' depressive symptoms. Little research has examined the relationship of parental disclosure to adolescents' depressive symptoms and research on sex differences

  6. Examination of atmospheric dynamic model's performance over complex terrain under temporally changing synoptic meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1995-01-01

    The mesoscale atmospheric dynamic model, a submodel of the numerical atmospheric dispersion model named PHYSIC, was improved and its performance was examined in a coastal area with a complex terrain. To introduce temporally changing synoptic meteorological conditions into the model, the initial and boundary conditions were improved. Moreover, land surface temperature calculations were modified to apply the model to snow-covered areas. These improvements worked effectively in the model simulation of four series of the observations during winter and summer in 1992. The model successfully simulated the wind fields and its temporal variations under the condition of strong westerlies and a land and sea breeze. Limitation of model's performance caused by the temporal and spatial resolutions of input data was also discussed. (author)

  7. Which factors are associated with OB/GYN trainees' confidence in performing ultrasound examinations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk; Rasmussen, Morten; Tappert, C

    2014-01-01

    To explore the association between clinical training characteristics and trainees' level of confidence in performing ultrasound scans independently.......To explore the association between clinical training characteristics and trainees' level of confidence in performing ultrasound scans independently....

  8. Examination of the home destruction in Los Alamos associated with the Cerro Grande Fire - July 10, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Cohen

    2000-01-01

    I arrived at Los Alamos on May 14, 2000 to conduct an examination of the home destruction associated with the Cerro Grande Fire. My examination occurred between the afternoon of 5/14 and late afternoon on 5/16. I had contact with the southern command post incident management team, the Los Alamos Fire Department, and the Santa Fe National Forest.The...

  9. Population-based cohort study examining the association between splenectomy and empyema in adults in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-Feng; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Chang, Ching-Mei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lai, Shih-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the association between splenectomy and empyema in Taiwan. Methods A population-based cohort study was conducted using the hospitalisation dataset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. A total of 13 193 subjects aged 20–84 years who were newly diagnosed with splenectomy from 2000 to 2010 were enrolled in the splenectomy group and 52 464 randomly selected subjects without splenectomy were enrolled in the non-splenectomy group. Both groups were matched by sex, age, comorbidities and the index year of undergoing splenectomy. The incidence of empyema at the end of 2011 was calculated. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the HR with 95% CI of empyema associated with splenectomy and other comorbidities. Results The overall incidence rate of empyema was 2.56-fold higher in the splenectomy group than in the non-splenectomy group (8.85 vs 3.46 per 1000 person-years). The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a higher cumulative incidence of empyema in the splenectomy group than in the non-splenectomy group (6.99% vs 3.37% at the end of follow-up). After adjusting for confounding variables, the adjusted HR of empyema was 2.89 for the splenectomy group compared with that for the non-splenectomy group. Further analysis revealed that HR of empyema was 4.52 for subjects with splenectomy alone. Conclusion The incidence rate ratio between the splenectomy and non-splenectomy groups reduced from 2.87 in the first 5 years of follow-up to 1.73 in the period following the 5 years. Future studies are required to confirm whether a longer follow-up period would further reduce this average ratio. For the splenectomy group, the overall HR of developing empyema was 2.89 after adjusting for age, sex and comorbidities, which was identified from previous literature. The risk of empyema following splenectomy remains high despite the absence of these comorbidities. PMID:28947439

  10. Association between performance on Neurology In-Training and Certification Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Frederick G.; Gutmann, Laurie; Pascuzzi, Robert M.; Webb, Lynn; Massey, Janice M.; DeKosky, Steven T.; Foertsch, Mary; Faulkner, Larry R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study analyzed the relationship between performance on the American Academy of Neurology Residency In-Service Training Examination (RITE) and subsequent performance on the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) Certification Examination. Methods: Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between performance on the RITE and the Certification Examination for 2 cohorts of adult neurologists and 2 cohorts of child neurologists. The 2 cohorts represented test takers for 2008 and 2009. Results: For adult neurologists, the correlation between the total RITE and the Certification Examination scores was 0.77 (p < 0.01) in 2008 and 0.65 (p < 0.01) in 2009. For child neurologists, it was 0.74 (p < 0.01) in 2008 and 0.56 (p < 0.01) in 2009. Discussion: For 2 consecutive years, there was a significant correlation between performance on the RITE and performance on the ABPN Certification Examination for both adult and child neurologists. The RITE is a self-assessment examination, and performance on the test is a positive predictor of future performance on the ABPN Certification Examination. PMID:23296130

  11. Association between alcohol consumption and periodontal disease: the 2008 to 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Beom; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu; Ko, Youngkyung

    2014-11-01

    A positive association has been reported between alcohol and periodontal disease. Therefore, this study is conducted to assess the relationship between alcohol intake and severity of periodontal disease in a large probability sample of the Korean population using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Data from KNHANES, conducted between 2008 and 2010 by the Division of Chronic Disease Surveillance under the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, were used for this study. The presence of periodontal treatment needs according to demographic variables and anthropometric and hematologic characteristics of the participants are presented as means with their standard errors. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations of periodontal treatment needs with the amount of alcohol intake and other variables including smoking and the number of times of toothbrushing per day. An association between drinking alcohol and periodontal treatment needs could be seen in men after adjustment for variables. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in males were 1.271 (1.030 to 1.568) for heavy drinkers after controlling for age, smoking, body mass index, exercise, education, income, white blood cell count, diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and number of toothbrushing episodes per day (model 3). Adjusted ORs and their 95% CIs in males were 1.569 (1.284 to 1.916) for alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) level ≥20 in model 3. ORs increased with the increase in alcohol consumption levels and AUDIT levels. Statistically significant correlations between drinking and periodontal treatment needs could not be seen in female heavy drinkers or female drinkers with AUDIT levels ≥20. Men with higher alcohol intake were more likely to have a higher prevalence of treatment needs regardless of their age, socioeconomic factors

  12. Association between Chronic Laryngitis and Particulate Matter Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hoon Joo

    Full Text Available Chronic laryngitis (CL has been described as chronic inflammation of the larynx. CL have various causes such as long-term smoking, acid reflux, voice overuse, bronchitis, allergies, pneumonia, excessive exposure to toxic chemicals and complications from the flu or a chronic cold. However, the prevalence of CL and role of air pollution in the etiology is uncertain.The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CL and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10 in South Korea using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES during 2008-2012.KNHANES is a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n = 21,116. A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist moved with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and physical examinations. The mean annual concentrations of ambient PM10, SO2, O3, NO2, and CO levels in Korea were determined from monitoring station data. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the relationship of air pollution to CL.Among the population ≥ 19 years of age, the weighted prevalence of CL was 3.37 ± 0.30% (95% confidence interval, 2.79-3.95%. CL was more prevalent in men, current smokers, and those with lower household income and prevalence increased with age. A significant decrease over time was observed in the prevalence of CL (P for trend = 0.0049 and the annual average concentrations of PM10 (P for trend < 0.0001 from 2008 to 2012. In a multivariate model, the factors associated with CL included PM10 (odds ratio [OR], 1.378, p = 0.0457, age (OR, 1.020, p<0.0001, sex (OR, 0.734, p = 0.0179, and smoking status (OR, 1.438, p = 0.0054.Elevated PM10 exposures could be associated with increased risk of CL in South Koreans. Further epidemiological and experimental studies are necessary to clarify the impact of chronic PM10 exposure on CL.

  13. Validation of a Theory of Planned Behavior-Based Questionnaire to Examine Factors Associated With Milk Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yeon K; Dinour, Lauren M

    2017-11-01

    A proper assessment of multidimensional needs for breastfeeding mothers in various settings is crucial to facilitate and support breastfeeding and its exclusivity. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has been used frequently to measure factors associated with breastfeeding. Full utility of the TPB requires accurate measurement of theory constructs. Research aim: This study aimed to develop and confirm the psychometric properties of an instrument, Milk Expression on Campus, based on the TPB and to establish the reliability and validity of the instrument. In spring 2015, 218 breastfeeding (current or in the recent past) employees and students at one university campus in northern New Jersey completed the online questionnaire containing demography and theory-based items. Internal consistency (α) and split-half reliability ( r) tests and factor analyses established and confirmed the reliability and construct validity of this instrument. Milk Expression on Campus showed strong and significant reliabilities as a full scale (α = .78, r = .74, p theory construct subscales. Validity was confirmed as psychometric properties corresponded to the factors extracted from the scale. Four factors extracted from the direct construct subscales accounted for 79.49% of the total variability. Four distinct factors from the indirect construct subscales accounted for 73.68% of the total variability. Milk Expression on Campus can serve as a model TPB-based instrument to examine factors associated with women's milk expression behavior. The utility of this instrument extends to designing effective promotion programs to foster breastfeeding and milk expression behaviors in diverse settings.

  14. Educational productivity in higher education : An examination of part of the Walberg Educational Productivity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.

    Several factors in the H. J. Walberg Educational Productivity Model, which assumes that 9 factors affect academic achievement, were examined with a limited sample of 1st-year students in the University of Groningen. Information concerning 8 of these factors - grades, motivation, age, prior

  15. Examining Factors Affecting Science Achievement of Hong Kong in PISA 2006 Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Terence Yuk Ping; Lau, Kwok Chi

    2014-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling to examine the influence of a range of factors on the science performances of Hong Kong students in PISA 2006. Hong Kong has been consistently ranked highly in international science assessments, such as Programme for International Student Assessment and Trends in International Mathematics and Science…

  16. A reusable simulation model to evaluate the effects of walk-in for diagnostic examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, A.; Kortbeek, N.; Smid, K.; Sprengers, M. E. S.

    2017-01-01

    Enabling patients to walk in for their diagnostic examination without an appointment has considerable potential in terms of quality of care, patient service, and system efficiency. We present a model to evaluate the effect of implementing a combined walk-in and appointment system, offering

  17. Examination of a Group Counseling Model of Career Decision Making with College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, P. Clay; Mobley, A. Keith; Kemer, Gulsah; Giordano, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the effectiveness of a group career counseling model (Pyle, K. R., 2007) on college students' career decision-making abilities. They used a Solomon 4-group design and found that students who participated in the career counseling groups had significantly greater increases in career decision-making abilities than those who…

  18. Using the Kaleidoscope Career Model to Examine Generational Differences in Work Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sherry E.; Forret, Monica L.; Carraher, Shawn M.; Mainiero, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine, utilising the Kaleidoscope Career Model, whether members of the Baby Boom generation and Generation X differ in their needs for authenticity, balance, and challenge. Design/methodology/approach: Survey data were obtained from 982 professionals located across the USA. Correlations, t-tests, and…

  19. An Examination of Preservice Teachers' Capacity to Create Mathematical Modeling Problems for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Catherine; Wessels, Helena

    2017-01-01

    This study examined preservice teachers' (PSTs) capacity to create mathematical modeling problems (MMPs) for grades 1 to 3. PSTs created MMPs for their choice of grade level and aligned the mathematical content of their MMPs with the relevant mathematics curriculum. PSTs were given criteria adapted from Galbraith's MMP design principles to guide…

  20. Developing an Innovative Customer Relationship Management Model for Better Health Examination Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyu JrJung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People emphasize on their own health and wish to know more about their conditions. Chronic diseases now take up to 50 percent of top 10 causes of death. As a result, the health-care industry has emerged and kept thriving. This work adopts an innovative customer-oriented business model since most clients are proactive and spontaneous in taking the “distinguished” health examination programs. We adopt the soft system dynamics methodology (SSDM to develop and to evaluate the steps of introducing customer relationship management model into a case health examination organization. Quantitative results are also presented for a case physical examination center and to assess the improved efficiency. The case study shows that the procedures developed here could provide a better service.

  1. Developing a Customer Relationship Management Model for Better Health Examination Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyu Jr-Jung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People emphasize on their own health and wish to know more about their conditions. Chronic diseases now take up to 50 percent of top 10 causes of death. As a result, the health-care industry has emerged and kept thriving. This work adopts a customer-oriented business model since most clients are proactive and spontaneous in taking the “distinguished” health examination programs. We adopt the soft system dynamics methodology (SSDM to develop and to evaluate the steps of introducing customer relationship management model into a case health examination organization. Quantitative results are also presented for a case physical examination center and to assess the improved efficiency. The case study shows that the procedures developed here could provide a better service.

  2. Examining substance use and affective processes as multivariate risk factors associated with overweight body mass among treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Robles, Zuzuky; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and obesity are two major public health problems. However, factors related to the underlying risk for being overweight are not well established. Certain demographic, smoking, and psychological factors have been linked to overweight/obese body mass. The current study examined a multivariate risk model, stratified by gender, in order to better explicate the nature of overweight body mass among daily smokers. In a sample of treatment-seeking smokers (n = 395), among males and females, (1) older age, (2) stronger expectancies about the weight/appetite control effects of smoking, (3) greater smoking-based inflexibility/avoidance due to smoking-related sensations, and (4) less problematic alcohol use, were associated with being overweight. Additionally, among males, having a tobacco-related medical problem and higher tolerance for physical discomfort aided in the discriminant function model for classifying smokers as overweight. Together, numerous cognitive-affective vulnerabilities and smoking processes may be targetable and potentially inform weight-related prevention programs among smokers.

  3. Examining the causal association of fasting glucose with blood pressure in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goharian, T S; Andersen, Lars Bo; Franks, P W

    2015-01-01

    of this study could not support a causal association between FG and BP in healthy children and adolescents; however, it is possible that rs560887 has pleiotropic effects on unknown factors with a BP lowering effect or that these results were due to a lack of statistical power.Journal of Human Hypertension......The aim of the study was to determine whether genetically raised fasting glucose (FG) levels are associated with blood pressure (BP) in healthy children and adolescents. We used 11 common genetic variants of FG discovered in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including the rs560887 single......-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the G6PC2 locus found to be robustly associated with FG in children and adolescents, as an instrument to associate FG with resting BP in 1506 children and adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Rs560887 was associated with increased FG levels corresponding...

  4. A cross-sectional examination of school characteristics associated with overweight and obesity among grade 1 to 4 students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T

    2013-10-20

    Excessive weight gain among youth is an ongoing public health concern. Despite evidence linking both policies and the built environment to adolescent and adult overweight, the association between health policies or the built environment and overweight are often overlooked in research with children. The purpose of this study was to examine if school-based physical activity policies and the built environment surrounding a school are associated with weight status among children. Objectively measured height and weight data were available for 2,331 grade 1 to 4 students (aged 6 to 9 years) attending 30 elementary schools in Ontario, Canada. Student-level data were collected using parent reports and the PLAY-On questionnaire administered to students by study nurses. School-level policy data were collected from school administrators using the Physical Activity Module of the Healthy School Planner tool, and built environment data were provided by the Enhanced Points of Interest data resource. Multi-level logistic regression models were used to examine the school- and student-level characteristics associated with the odds of a student being overweight or obese. There was significant between-school random variation in the odds of a student being overweight [σ²(μ0) = 0.274(0.106), p student attended a school that provided student access to a variety of facilities on and off school grounds during school hours or supported active transportation to and from school, he/she was less likely to overweight than a similar student attending a school without these policies. Characteristics of the built environment were not associated with overweight or obesity among this large cross-sectional sample of children. This new evidence suggests that it may be wise to target obesity prevention efforts to schools that do not provide student access to recreation facilities during school hours or schools that do not support active transportation for students. Future research should evaluate if

  5. An integrative process model of leadership: examining loci, mechanisms, and event cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberly, Marion B; Johnson, Michael D; Hernandez, Morela; Avolio, Bruce J

    2013-09-01

    Utilizing the locus (source) and mechanism (transmission) of leadership framework (Hernandez, Eberly, Avolio, & Johnson, 2011), we propose and examine the application of an integrative process model of leadership to help determine the psychological interactive processes that constitute leadership. In particular, we identify the various dynamics involved in generating leadership processes by modeling how the loci and mechanisms interact through a series of leadership event cycles. We discuss the major implications of this model for advancing an integrative understanding of what constitutes leadership and its current and future impact on the field of psychological theory, research, and practice. © 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Examining the Support Peer Supporters Provide Using Structural Equation Modeling: Nondirective and Directive Support in Diabetes Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah D; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Cherrington, Andrea L; Horton, Lucy A; Safford, Monika M; Soto, Sandra; Tang, Tricia S; Fisher, Edwin B

    2017-12-01

    Little research has examined the characteristics of peer support. Pertinent to such examination may be characteristics such as the distinction between nondirective support (accepting recipients' feelings and cooperative with their plans) and directive (prescribing "correct" choices and feelings). In a peer support program for individuals with diabetes, this study examined (a) whether the distinction between nondirective and directive support was reflected in participants' ratings of support provided by peer supporters and (b) how nondirective and directive support were related to depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Three hundred fourteen participants with type 2 diabetes provided data on depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, and HbA1c before and after a diabetes management intervention delivered by peer supporters. At post-intervention, participants reported how the support provided by peer supporters was nondirective or directive. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), correlation analyses, and structural equation modeling examined the relationships among reports of nondirective and directive support, depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, and measured HbA1c. CFA confirmed the factor structure distinguishing between nondirective and directive support in participants' reports of support delivered by peer supporters. Controlling for demographic factors, baseline clinical values, and site, structural equation models indicated that at post-intervention, participants' reports of nondirective support were significantly associated with lower, while reports of directive support were significantly associated with greater depressive symptoms, altogether (with control variables) accounting for 51% of the variance in depressive symptoms. Peer supporters' nondirective support was associated with lower, but directive support was associated with greater depressive symptoms.

  7. Examining human behavior in video games: The development of a computational model to measure aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Richard; Annetta, Leonard; Hoston, Douglas; Shapiro, Marina; Matthews, Benjamin

    2018-06-01

    Video games with violent content have raised considerable concern in popular media and within academia. Recently, there has been considerable attention regarding the claim of the relationship between aggression and video game play. The authors of this study propose the use of a new class of tools developed via computational models to allow examination of the question of whether there is a relationship between violent video games and aggression. The purpose of this study is to computationally model and compare the General Aggression Model with the Diathesis Mode of Aggression related to the play of violent content in video games. A secondary purpose is to provide a method of measuring and examining individual aggression arising from video game play. Total participants examined for this study are N = 1065. This study occurs in three phases. Phase 1 is the development and quantification of the profile combination of traits via latent class profile analysis. Phase 2 is the training of the artificial neural network. Phase 3 is the comparison of each model as a computational model with and without the presence of video game violence. Results suggest that a combination of environmental factors and genetic predispositions trigger aggression related to video games.

  8. Examining the impact of the walking school bus with an agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Diez-Roux, Ana; Evenson, Kelly R; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-07-01

    We used an agent-based model to examine the impact of the walking school bus (WSB) on children's active travel to school. We identified a synergistic effect of the WSB with other intervention components such as an educational campaign designed to improve attitudes toward active travel to school. Results suggest that to maximize active travel to school, children should arrive on time at "bus stops" to allow faster WSB walking speeds. We also illustrate how an agent-based model can be used to identify the location of routes maximizing the effects of the WSB on active travel. Agent-based models can be used to examine plausible effects of the WSB on active travel to school under various conditions and to identify ways of implementing the WSB that maximize its effectiveness.

  9. Examining anxiety sensitivity as a mediator of the association between PTSD symptoms and suicide risk among women firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with increased suicide risk. Anxiety sensitivity (AS)-the fear of anxiety-related sensations-is both a vulnerability factor for and consequence of PTSD symptoms. AS also predicts suicide risk. To our knowledge, no study has examined whether AS concerns account for the association between PTSD symptoms and suicide risk. A total of 254 women firefighters completed a web-based mental health survey. The Life Events Checklist for DSM-5 (LEC-5) was administered as a prelude to the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) to assess for exposure to a Criterion A event. The PCL-5, Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) were utilized to assess PTSD symptoms, AS concerns, and suicide risk, respectively. Bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted, controlling for depression symptoms as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Revised (CESD-R). Global and cognitive AS concerns, but neither physical nor social AS concerns, were statistically significant mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms (total score, re-experiencing and numbing clusters) and suicide risk. Alternate mediation models testing PTSD symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between AS concerns and suicide risk were not statistically significant, supporting the specificity of our proposed model. Anxiety sensitivity concerns-specifically, cognitive AS concerns-account for the link between PTSD symptoms and suicide risk among women firefighters. Among firefighters with elevated PTSD symptoms, interventions that address cognitive AS concerns may thwart the trajectory to suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Racial and Ethnic Minority College Students' Stigma Associated with Seeking Psychological Help: Examining Psychocultural Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Sevig, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Many college students underuse professional psychological help for mental health difficulties. The stigma associated with seeking such help appears to be one of the reasons for this underuse. Levels of psychological distress and past use of counseling/psychotherapy have been found to be important correlates of stigma associated with seeking…

  11. Discrete Event Simulation Models for CT Examination Queuing in West China Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Tang, Shijun; Shi, Yingkang; Guo, Huili

    2016-01-01

    In CT examination, the emergency patients (EPs) have highest priorities in the queuing system and thus the general patients (GPs) have to wait for a long time. This leads to a low degree of satisfaction of the whole patients. The aim of this study is to improve the patients' satisfaction by designing new queuing strategies for CT examination. We divide the EPs into urgent type and emergency type and then design two queuing strategies: one is that the urgent patients (UPs) wedge into the GPs' queue with fixed interval (fixed priority model) and the other is that the patients have dynamic priorities for queuing (dynamic priority model). Based on the data from Radiology Information Database (RID) of West China Hospital (WCH), we develop some discrete event simulation models for CT examination according to the designed strategies. We compare the performance of different strategies on the basis of the simulation results. The strategy that patients have dynamic priorities for queuing makes the waiting time of GPs decrease by 13 minutes and the degree of satisfaction increase by 40.6%. We design a more reasonable CT examination queuing strategy to decrease patients' waiting time and increase their satisfaction degrees. PMID:27547237

  12. Examining the short term effects of emotion under an Adaptation Level Theory model of tinnitus perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, Mithila; O'Keeffe, Mary G; Searchfield, Grant D

    2017-03-01

    Existing evidence suggests a strong relationship between tinnitus and emotion. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of short-term emotional changes along valence and arousal dimensions on tinnitus outcomes. Emotional stimuli were presented in two different modalities: auditory and visual. The authors hypothesized that (1) negative valence (unpleasant) stimuli and/or high arousal stimuli will lead to greater tinnitus loudness and annoyance than positive valence and/or low arousal stimuli, and (2) auditory emotional stimuli, which are in the same modality as the tinnitus, will exhibit a greater effect on tinnitus outcome measures than visual stimuli. Auditory and visual emotive stimuli were administered to 22 participants (12 females and 10 males) with chronic tinnitus, recruited via email invitations send out to the University of Auckland Tinnitus Research Volunteer Database. Emotional stimuli used were taken from the International Affective Digital Sounds- Version 2 (IADS-2) and the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) (Bradley and Lang, 2007a, 2007b). The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross and John, 2003) was administered alongside subjective ratings of tinnitus loudness and annoyance, and psychoacoustic sensation level matches to external sounds. Males had significantly different emotional regulation scores than females. Negative valence emotional auditory stimuli led to higher tinnitus loudness ratings in males and females and higher annoyance ratings in males only; loudness matches of tinnitus remained unchanged. The visual stimuli did not have an effect on tinnitus ratings. The results are discussed relative to the Adaptation Level Theory Model of Tinnitus. The results indicate that the negative valence dimension of emotion is associated with increased tinnitus magnitude judgements and gender effects may also be present, but only when the emotional stimulus is in the auditory modality. Sounds with emotional associations may be

  13. Performance in the FRCR (UK) Part 2B examination: Analysis of factors associated with success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawtin, K.E.; Williams, H.R.T.; McKnight, L.; Booth, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess factors that influence pass rates and examination scores in the Fellowship of the Royal College of Radiologists (FRCR) 2B examination. Materials and methods: 2238 attempts at the FRCR 2B examination were evaluated between Spring 2006 and Spring 2010. Pass rates and examination scores were analysed by gender and ethnicity, and the influence of factors such as radiology training (UK versus non-UK), sitting (Spring versus Autumn), and the presence of an undergraduate or postgraduate degree were examined. Results: 1571 candidates made 2238 examination attempts, with an overall pass rate of 59.4% (63.1% at first attempt). 66.2% entrants were male; 48.8% attempts were by candidates from a UK radiology training scheme. UK candidates were significantly more likely to pass than non-UK candidates (p < 0.0001). White candidates were more likely to pass at first or second attempt than non-white candidates (p < 0.0001), but when restricted to UK entrants ethnicity did not influence success at first attempt. Overall, females were more successful than males (p < 0.001). Presence of an undergraduate (p = 0.19) or postgraduate (p = 0.80) degree did not affect pass rate at first attempt for UK candidates. However, logistic regression demonstrated that the only significant factor influencing pass rates at first attempt was whether radiology training was undertaken in the UK (p < 0.0001). A trend towards increased pass rates in autumn sittings was seen (p = 0.06), but ethnicity (p = 0.99) and gender (p = 0.41) were not significant factors. Conclusion: The FRCR 2B examination is non-discriminatory for UK candidates with respect to gender and ethnicity. Poorer performance of non-UK trained candidates is a consistent outcome in the literature. - Highlights: • Factors influencing pass rates and scores in FRCR 2B examination were assessed. • UK candidates are more likely to pass than non-UK candidates. • There is no effect of gender or ethnicity on UK

  14. Cerebral white matter changes are associated with abnormalities on neurological examination in non-disabled elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2013-01-01

    age 74.1 ± 5.0, M/F: 288/351). Severe WMC at baseline were associated with gait and stance abnormalities, upper motor signs, and fingertap slowing. This effect was independent of age, sex, lacunar and non-lacunar infarcts. The occurrence of stance abnormalities, upper motor signs, primitive reflexes......Cerebral white matter changes (WMC) are associated with motor, cognitive, mood, urinary disturbances, and disability, but little is known about the prevalence of neurological signs in patients with these brain lesions. We assessed the presence and occurrence of neurological abnormalities over a 3...... and fingertap slowing during the 3-year follow-up period was associated with both baseline WMC load and their progression. The occurrence of the same abnormalities plus extrapyramidal and primitive reflexes was associated with incident lacunar infarcts. In our cohort of non-disabled elders, severe WMC were...

  15. Application of model bread baking in the examination of arabinoxylan-protein complexes in rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof

    2016-09-05

    The changes in molecular mass of arabinoxylan (AX) and protein caused by bread baking process were examined using a model rye bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, water-extractable AX and protein which were isolated from rye wholemeal. From the crumb of selected model breads, starch was removed releasing AX-protein complexes, which were further examined by size exclusion chromatography. On the basis of the research, it was concluded that optimum model mix can be composed of 3-6% AX and 3-6% rye protein isolate at 94-88% of rye starch meaning with the most similar properties to low extraction rye flour. Application of model rye bread allowed to examine the interactions between AX and proteins. Bread baked with a share of AX, rye protein and starch, from which the complexes of the highest molar mass were isolated, was characterized by the strongest structure of the bread crumb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Examination of constitutive model for evaluating long-term mechanical behavior of buffer. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Shigeno, Yoshimasa; Shimogouchi, Takafumi; Shiratake, Toshikazu; Tamura, Hirokuni

    2004-02-01

    On the R and D of the high-level radioactive waste repository, it is essential that Engineered Barrier System (EBS) is stable mechanically over a long period of time for maintaining each ability required to EBS. After closing the repository, the various external forces will be affected to buffer intricately for a long period of time. So, to make clear the mechanical deformation behavior of buffer against the external force is important, because of carrying out safety assessment of EBS accurately. In this report, several sets of parameters are chosen for the previously selected two constitutive models, Sekiguchi-Ohta model and Adachi-Oka model, and the element tests and mock-up tests are simulated using these parameters. Through the simulation, applicability of the constitutive models and parameters is examined. Moreover, simulation analyses of EBS using these parameters is examined. Moreover, simulation analyses of EBS using these parameters were carried out, and mechanical behavior is evaluated over a long period of time. Analysis estimated the amount of settlement of the over pack, the stress state of buffer material, the reaction force to a base rock, etc., and the result that EBS is mechanically stable over a long period of time was obtained. Next, in order to prove analyses results a side, literature survey was conducted about geological age, the dynamics history of a Smectite layer. The outline plan was drawn up about the natural analogue verification method and preliminary examination was performed about the applicability of Freezing Sampling'. (author)

  17. Examining the nature of impairment in visual paired associate learning in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Brian T; Darby, David; Pietrzak, Robert H; Ellis, Kathryn A; Snyder, Peter J; Maruff, Paul

    2011-11-01

    Visual spatial learning is impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) although the nature of this impairment is not clear. This study investigated the nature and magnitude of errors made by adults with amnestic MCI (aMCI) when learning pattern-location paired associations in a continuous manner. Visual associate learning was measured using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning (CPAL) task in which 30 adults who met clinical criteria for aMCI and 30 matched controls were required to learn a set of associations between patterns and locations across increasing memory loads (two, four, six, and eight). As hypothesized, the aMCI group made more total errors than controls for all memory loads above two. However, the rate of increase in errors with memory load in the aMCI group was approximately twice that for controls. In controls, errors on the CPAL task reflected almost exclusively difficulty in memory. In the aMCI group, errors on the CPAL reflected limitations in associative learning but also in short-term memory and response monitoring. These results suggest that impairments in specific aspects of executive function and working memory might contribute to poor performance on visual paired associate learning in aMCI.

  18. Factors Associated with Success in a Calculus Course: An Examination of Personal Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubuz, Behiye

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships between students' personal variables (gender, prior achievements, age and academic major) and their success in the first year undergraduate calculus course. The study sample consisted of 59 first year undergraduate students taking Math 154 Calculus II course. A written test about integral, sequence and series…

  19. Examination of the external and internal load indicators' association with overuse injuries in professional soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Arne; Kuyvenhoven, Jurian P; Staes, Filip; Frencken, Wouter G P; Helsen, Werner F; Brink, Michel S

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Research in professional soccer focusing on the relevance of external and internal load indicators for injury prevention is scarce. This study examined the relationship between load indicators and overuse injuries. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Data were collected from 35

  20. Sexual Revictimization in Adult Women: Examining Factors Associated with Their Childhood and Adulthood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmel, Cassandra; Postmus, Judy L.; Lee, Inseon

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from a sample of adult women (n = 234), this study examined the relationship between the experience and disclosure of childhood sexual abuse and subsequent adult sexual violence. Multivariate analyses revealed that physical force during the childhood sexual abuse experience was significant in both children's decisions to…

  1. Trust but Verify: Examining the Association between Students' Sourcing Behaviors and Ratings of Text Trustworthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Alexandra; Alexander, Patricia A.; Stephens, Lori A.

    2017-01-01

    Three indicators of undergraduate students' (n = 197) source evaluation were investigated as students completed an academic task requiring the use of multiple texts. The source evaluation metrics examined were students' (1) accessing of document information, (2) trustworthiness ratings, and (3) citation in written responses. All three indicators…

  2. Key Competencies in Secondary Schools: An Examination of the Factors Associated with Successful Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, R. J.; Farruggia, S. F.; Peterson, E. R.; Carne, S.

    2013-01-01

    Many countries are at varying stages of implementing competency-based education into their schools to equip youth with skills necessary to adapt to a changing world. Very little is known regarding practical approaches to incorporate competencies into school curriculum. This study examines five schools in Auckland, New Zealand from a variety of…

  3. Animal Models of Cancer-Associated Hypercalcemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohart, Nicole A; Elshafae, Said M; Breitbach, Justin T; Rosol, Thomas J

    2017-04-13

    Cancer-associated hypercalcemia (CAH) is a frequently-occurring paraneoplastic syndrome that contributes to substantial patient morbidity and occurs in both humans and animals. Patients with CAH are often characterized by markedly elevated serum calcium concentrations that result in a range of clinical symptoms involving the nervous, gastrointestinal and urinary systems. CAH is caused by two principle mechanisms; humorally-mediated and/or through local osteolytic bone metastasis resulting in excessive calcium release from resorbed bone. Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) is the most common mechanism and is due to the production and release of tumor-associated cytokines and humoral factors, such as parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), that act at distant sites to increase serum calcium concentrations. Local osteolytic hypercalcemia (LOH) occurs when primary or metastatic bone tumors act locally by releasing factors that stimulate osteoclast activity and bone resorption. LOH is a less frequent cause of CAH and in some cases can induce hypercalcemia in concert with HHM. Rarely, ectopic production of parathyroid hormone has been described. PTHrP-mediated hypercalcemia is the most common mechanism of CAH in human and canine malignancies and is recognized in other domestic species. Spontaneous and experimentally-induced animal models have been developed to study the mechanisms of CAH. These models have been essential for the evaluation of novel approaches and adjuvant therapies to manage CAH. This review will highlight the comparative aspects of CAH in humans and animals with a discussion of the available animal models used to study the pathogenesis of this important clinical syndrome.

  4. Association Between Flexible Duty Hour Policies and General Surgery Resident Examination Performance: A Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Eddie; Hewitt, D Brock; Chung, Jeanette W; Biester, Thomas; Fiore, James F; Dahlke, Allison R; Quinn, Christopher M; Lewis, Frank R; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2017-02-01

    Concerns persist about the effect of current duty hour reforms on resident educational outcomes. We investigated whether a flexible, less-restrictive duty hour policy (Flexible Policy) was associated with differential general surgery examination performance compared with current ACGME duty hour policy (Standard Policy). We obtained examination scores on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination, Qualifying Examination (written boards), and Certifying Examination (oral boards) for residents in 117 general surgery residency programs that participated in the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial. Using bivariate analyses and regression models, we compared resident examination performance across study arms (Flexible Policy vs Standard Policy) for 2015 and 2016, and 1 year of the Qualifying Examination and Certifying Examination. Adjusted analyses accounted for program-level factors, including the stratification variable for randomization. In 2016, FIRST trial participants were 4,363 general surgery residents. Mean American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination scores for residents were not significantly different between study groups (Flexible Policy vs Standard Policy) overall (Flexible Policy: mean [SD] 502.6 [100.9] vs Standard Policy: 502.7 [98.6]; p = 0.98) or for any individual postgraduate year level. There was no difference in pass rates between study arms for either the Qualifying Examination (Flexible Policy: 90.4% vs Standard Policy: 90.5%; p = 0.99) or Certifying Examination (Flexible Policy: 86.3% vs Standard Policy: 88.6%; p = 0.24). Results from adjusted analyses were consistent with these findings. Flexible, less-restrictive duty hour policies were not associated with differences in general surgery resident performance on examinations during the FIRST Trial. However, more years under flexible duty hour policies might be needed to observe an effect. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons

  5. Bayesian graphical models for genomewide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzilli, Claudio J; Stallard, Nigel; Whittaker, John C

    2006-07-01

    As the extent of human genetic variation becomes more fully characterized, the research community is faced with the challenging task of using this information to dissect the heritable components of complex traits. Genomewide association studies offer great promise in this respect, but their analysis poses formidable difficulties. In this article, we describe a computationally efficient approach to mining genotype-phenotype associations that scales to the size of the data sets currently being collected in such studies. We use discrete graphical models as a data-mining tool, searching for single- or multilocus patterns of association around a causative site. The approach is fully Bayesian, allowing us to incorporate prior knowledge on the spatial dependencies around each marker due to linkage disequilibrium, which reduces considerably the number of possible graphical structures. A Markov chain-Monte Carlo scheme is developed that yields samples from the posterior distribution of graphs conditional on the data from which probabilistic statements about the strength of any genotype-phenotype association can be made. Using data simulated under scenarios that vary in marker density, genotype relative risk of a causative allele, and mode of inheritance, we show that the proposed approach has better localization properties and leads to lower false-positive rates than do single-locus analyses. Finally, we present an application of our method to a quasi-synthetic data set in which data from the CYP2D6 region are embedded within simulated data on 100K single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Analysis is quick (<5 min), and we are able to localize the causative site to a very short interval.

  6. Examining the relationship between affect and implicit associations: implications for risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohle, Simone; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-07-01

    It has been suggested that affect may play an important role in risk perception. Slovic et al. argued that people make use of the "affect heuristic" when assessing risks because it is easier and more efficient to rely on spontaneous affective reactions than to analyze all available information. In the present studies, a single category implicit association test (SC-IAT) to measure associations evoked by different hazards was employed. In the first study, we tested the extent to which the SC-IAT corresponds to the theoretical construct of affect in a risk framework. Specifically, we found that the SC-IAT correlates with other explicit measures that claim to measure affect, as well as with a measure of trust, but not with a measure that captures a different construct (subjective knowledge). In the second study, we addressed the question of whether hazards that vary along the dread dimension of the psychometric paradigm also differ in the affect they evoke. The results of the SC-IAT indicated that a high-dread hazard (nuclear power) elicits negative associations. Moreover, the high-dread hazard evoked more negative associations than a medium-dread hazard (hydroelectric power). In contrast, a nondread hazard (home appliances) led to positive associations. The results of our study highlight the importance of affect in shaping attitudes and opinions toward risks. The results further suggest that implicit measures may provide valuable insight into people's risk perception above and beyond explicit measures.

  7. On computational modeling of visual saliency: Examining what's right, and what's left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Neil D B; Wloka, Calden; Frosst, Nick; Rahman, Shafin; Tsotsos, John K

    2015-11-01

    In the past decade, a large number of computational models of visual saliency have been proposed. Recently a number of comprehensive benchmark studies have been presented, with the goal of assessing the performance landscape of saliency models under varying conditions. This has been accomplished by considering fixation data, annotated image regions, and stimulus patterns inspired by psychophysics. In this paper, we present a high-level examination of challenges in computational modeling of visual saliency, with a heavy emphasis on human vision and neural computation. This includes careful assessment of different metrics for performance of visual saliency models, and identification of remaining difficulties in assessing model performance. We also consider the importance of a number of issues relevant to all saliency models including scale-space, the impact of border effects, and spatial or central bias. Additionally, we consider the biological plausibility of models in stepping away from exemplar input patterns towards a set of more general theoretical principles consistent with behavioral experiments. As a whole, this presentation establishes important obstacles that remain in visual saliency modeling, in addition to identifying a number of important avenues for further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Collapsing Factors in Multitrait-Multimethod Models: Examining Consequences of a Mismatch Between Measurement Design and Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eGeiser

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Models of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA are frequently applied to examine the convergent validity of scores obtained from multiple raters or methods in so-called multitrait-multimethod (MTMM investigations. Many applications of CFA-MTMM and similarly structured models result in solutions in which at least one method (or specific factor shows non-significant loading or variance estimates. Eid et al. (2008 distinguished between MTMM measurement designs with interchangeable (randomly selected versus structurally different (fixed methods and showed that each type of measurement design implies specific CFA-MTMM measurement models. In the current study, we hypothesized that some of the problems that are commonly seen in applications of CFA-MTMM models may be due to a mismatch between the underlying measurement design and fitted models. Using simulations, we found that models with M method factors (where M is the total number of methods and unconstrained loadings led to a higher proportion of solutions in which at least one method factor became empirically unstable when these models were fit to data generated from structurally different methods. The simulations also revealed that commonly used model goodness-of-fit criteria frequently failed to identify incorrectly specified CFA-MTMM models. We discuss implications of these findings for other complex CFA models in which similar issues occur, including nested (bifactor and latent state-trait models.

  9. Silent game as Model for Examining Student Online Creativity - Preliminary Results from an Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2016-01-01

    -called “Silent game” (Habraken & Gross, 1988). But where Habraken et al.’s research in design games focussed on how professional architects and designers collaborate, we examine the potential of Silent game as model for researching online creative collaboration among students. This paper presents the results...... of the experiment and a tentative analysis. The aim is to discuss the possibilities in using Silent game as a model for examining and improving online creativity.......The ERASMUS+ project “OnCreate” aims at improving online mediated creative collaboration among students. But what are the differences between collaboration online and in a face-to-face setting in terms of creative processes? Theories on media richness and collaborative creativity can provide...

  10. Examining Systems Change in the Response to Domestic Violence: Innovative Applications of Multilevel Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javdani, Shabnam; Allen, Nicole E; Todd, Nathan R; Anderson, Carolyn J

    2011-03-01

    Facilitating systems change in the response to domestic violence has been touted as a central goal in the effort to hold systems accountable and create a coordinated response for survivors. However, examination of systems change and whether particular social change efforts (e.g., coordinating councils) contribute to such change is a notoriously difficult research endeavor due in large part to methodological barriers, including those that stem from nonexperimental designs and complex data that are characterized as nested and measured in proportions. This article describes important methodological challenges and proposes innovative techniques to address these challenges. Specifically, multilevel modeling is applied to examine two key systems markers, including protection order and domestic violence program referral rates over time in one state. For each marker, the methodological approach is highlighted and innovations in employing multilevel modeling are discussed. © The Author(s) 2011.

  11. Assessment of PWR fuel degradation by post-irradiation examinations and modeling in DEGRAD-1 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanheira, Myrthes; Lucki, Georgi; Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da; Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Teodoro, Celso A.; Damy, Margaret de A.

    2005-01-01

    On the majority of the cases, the inquiries on primary failures and secondary in PWR fuel rods are based on results of analysis were made use of the non-destructive examination results (coolant activities monitoring, sipping tests, visual examination). The complementary analysis methodology proposed in this work includes a modeling approach to characterization of the physical effects of the individual chemistry mechanisms that constitute the incubation phase of degradation phenomenon after primary failure that are integrated in the reactor operational history under stationary operational regime, and normal power transients. The computational program called DEGRAD-1 was developed based on this modeling approach. The practical outcome of the program is to predict cladding regions susceptible to massive hydriding. The applications presented demonstrate the validity of proposed method and models by actual cases simulation, which (primary and secondary) defects positions were known and formation time was estimated. By using the modeling approach, a relationship between the hydrogen concentration in the gap and the inner cladding oxide thickness has been identified which, when satisfied, will induce massive hydriding. The novelty in this work is the integrated methodology, which supplements the traditional analysis methods (using data from non-destructive techniques) with mathematical models for the hydrogen evolution, oxidation and hydriding that include refined approaches and criteria for PWR fuel, and using the FRAPCON-3 fuel performance code as the basic tool. (author)

  12. Examining the dimensional structure models of secondary traumatic stress based on DSM-5 symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordeno, Imelu G; Go, Geraldine P; Yangson-Serondo, April

    2017-02-01

    Latent factor structure of Secondary Traumatic Stress (STS) has been examined using Diagnostic Statistic Manual-IV (DSM-IV)'s Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) nomenclature. With the advent of Diagnostic Statistic Manual-5 (DSM-5), there is an impending need to reexamine STS using DSM-5 symptoms in light of the most updated PTSD models in the literature. The study investigated and determined the best fitted PTSD models using DSM-5 PTSD criteria symptoms. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine model fit using the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale in 241 registered and practicing Filipino nurses (166 females and 75 males) who worked in the Philippines and gave direct nursing services to patients. Based on multiple fit indices, the results showed the 7-factor hybrid model, comprising of intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behavior, anxious arousal, and dysphoric arousal factors has excellent fit to STS. This model asserts that: (1) hyperarousal criterion needs to be divided into anxious and dysphoric arousal factors; (2) symptoms characterizing negative and positive affect need to be separated to two separate factors, and; (3) a new factor would categorize externalized, self-initiated impulse and control-deficit behaviors. Comparison of nested and non-nested models showed Hybrid model to have superior fit over other models. The specificity of the symptom structure of STS based on DSM-5 PTSD criteria suggests having more specific interventions addressing the more elaborate symptom-groupings that would alleviate the condition of nurses exposed to STS on a daily basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining the Role of Nasopharyngeal-associated Lymphoreticular Tissue (NALT) in Mouse Responses to Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Cisney, Emily D.; Fernandez, Stefan; Hall, Shannan I.; Krietz, Gale A.; Ulrich, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    The nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissues (NALT) found in humans, rodents, and other mammals, contribute to immunity in the nasal sinuses1-3. The NALT are two parallel bell-shaped structures located in the nasal passages above the hard palate, and are usually considered to be secondary components of the mucosal-associated lymphoid system4-6. Located within the NALT are discrete compartments of B and T lymphocytes interspersed with antigen-presenting dendritic cells4,7,8. These cel...

  14. A critical examination of the youth foyer model for alleviating homelessness: Strengthening a promising evidence base

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Iris; Borlagdan, Joseph; Mallett, Shelley; Ben, Jehonathan

    2017-01-01

    This article assesses the quality of 15 primary studies that examined the effectiveness of youth foyer or foyer-like programs on the lives of young homeless people. The youth foyer model provides an integrated approach to tackling youth homelessness, connecting affordable accommodation to training and employment. In Australia, there is growing support from government for the development and funding of foyer programs. However to date, there has been very limited development and investment in t...

  15. Examining Teacher Outcomes of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Model in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Mari-Anne Sørlie; Terje Ogden; Asgeir Røyrhus Olseth

    2016-01-01

    Research on teacher outcomes of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) model has been scarce. The present study adds to the knowledge base by examining the effects of the Norwegian version of SWPBS (N-PALS) on school staffs’ behavior management practices and on their individual and collective efficacy. Questionnaire data were collected from staff and students (Grades 4-7) at four measurement points across fo...

  16. A Longitudinal Examination of Middle School Science Learners' Use of Scaffolding In and Around a Dynamic Modeling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretz, Eric Bruce

    Scaffolding is a term rooted in multiple research communities over decades of development. Customized, contingent support can be provided to learners to enable performances beyond what they can do alone. This dissertation seeks to examine how effectively scaffolds designed to promote articulation (written expressions of learner understanding) actually work, and if this effectiveness and/or the quality of the resulting models changes over time. It longitudinally examines the use of scaffolds designed into a dynamic modeling tool, as it is used by middle school science learners to create, test, and revise models of complex science phenomena like stream ecosystems. This dissertation also reviews the origins of the scaffolding construct, and summarizes conceptions of scaffolding from various lines of research. Scaffolding can be provided by both human and non-human agents, such as computers, which require specialized interface design to ensure maximum effectiveness. In the study, learners created models in four curriculum units over the seventh and eighth grade school years. Additionally, this dissertation examines the nature of the discussion learners have while using these scaffolds and the frequency and types of interpersonal scaffolds employed during the creation of models. Model quality is also examined using a rubric developed through review of prior research on assessing models and concept maps. Learner pairs' model creation sessions on a computer are captured with screen video and learner audio, and then distilled to transcripts for subsequent coding and analysis, supported by qualitative analysis software. Articulation scaffolds were found to succeed in promoting articulations and the quality of those articulations improved over time. Learner dialog associated with these written articulations is of reasonable quality but did not improve over time. Quality of model artifacts did improve over time. The overall use of scaffolding by each learner pair was

  17. Utilizing interview and self-report assessment of the Five-Factor Model to examine convergence with the alternative model for personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Ashley C; Trull, Timothy J; Widiger, Thomas A; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-07-01

    An alternative model for personality disorders is included in Section III (Emerging Models and Measures) of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (5th ed.; DSM-5). The DSM-5 dimensional trait model is an extension of the Five-Factor Model (FFM; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) assesses the 5 domains and 25 traits in the alternative model. The current study expands on recent research to examine the relationship of the PID-5 with an interview measure of the FFM. The Structured Interview for the Five Factor Model of Personality (SIFFM) assesses the 5 bipolar domains and 30 facets of the FFM. Research has indicated that the SIFFM captures maladaptive aspects of personality (as well as adaptive). The SIFFM, NEO PI-R, and PID-5 were administered to participants to examine their respective convergent and discriminant validity. Results provide evidence for the convergence of the 2 models using self-report and interview measures of the FFM. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed, particularly a call for the development of a structured interview for the assessment of the DSM-5 dimensional trait model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Examining the Association between the "Imagination Library" Early Childhood Literacy Program and Kindergarten Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiei, Shahin; Bush, Andrew J.; Sell, Marie; Imig, Doug

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated participation in the "Imagination Library" early childhood literacy enrichment program and children's pre-literacy and pre-numeracy skills at kindergarten entry in an urban school district. Previous studies have demonstrated that program participation is associated with greater early childhood reading practices.…

  19. An Examination of the Association between Demographic and Educational Factors and African American Achievement in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010…

  20. Exploring Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism in Youth: Examination of Associations with Antisocial Behavior and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to explore the differential associations of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissistic traits, and Machiavellian traits with overt aggression, relational aggression, delinquency, behavioral dysregulation, and emotional dysregulation in a community sample of boys and girls (ages 11-17). Results indicated that the three personality…

  1. Phase II Examination of Principal's Perceptions in Identifying Instructional Stages Associated with Teacher Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMoulin, Donald F.; Guyton, John

    Research previous to this study suggested that the efficiency of teachers increases to a zenith and from there decreases to a degree of inefficiency. This research led to a hypothesis that teaching characteristics can be associated with career development stages. In phase I of this study (conducted in 1983) 145 principals from 2 midwestern states…

  2. Examining Associations among ADHD, Homework Behavior, and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Callie W.; Hart, Sara A.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature has indicated an important association between reading comprehension and both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and homework habits. This investigation sought to extend previous knowledge by providing information about how ADHD and homework behavior (i.e., completing homework regularly) may jointly influence…

  3. The Association of Social Work Boards' Licensure Examinations: A Review of Reliability and Validity Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Stephen M.; DeAngelis, Donna; Mittal, Nisha

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to create transparency for the psychometric methods employed for the development of the Association of Social Work Boards' (ASWB) exams. Results: The article includes an assessment of the macro (political) and micro (statistical) environments of testing social work competence. The seven-step process used…

  4. Examining the associations between DSM-5 section III antisocial personality disorder traits and psychopathy in community and university samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin; Wygant, Dustin B; Salekin, Randall T; Krueger, Robert F

    2014-10-01

    The current investigation examined the associations between personality traits representing DSM-5 Section III Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), its psychopathy specifier, and contemporary models of psychopathic personality disorder. We used two samples consisting of university students (n = 463) and community-dwelling participants (n = 148) recruited for subclinical psychopathic proclivities. Both samples were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (Krueger et al., 2012), Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (Patrick, 2010), and versions of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). University students also completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders-Personality Questionnaire (First, Gibbon, Spitzer, Williams, & Benjamin, 1997). Across both samples, the Section III ASPD traits were moderately strongly correlated with psychopathy measures, except the fearless-dominance/boldness domain. However, as would be expected, traits representing the Section III psychopathy specifier accounted for a substantial amount of variance within this domain. Furthermore, additional DSM-5 Section III personality traits augmented the characterization of psychopathy from the PPI and Triarchic perspectives.

  5. Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle.

  6. An examination of the cross-cultural validity of the Identity Capital Model: American and Japanese students compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, James E; Mizokami, Shinichi; Roberts, Sharon E; Nakama, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    The Identity Capital Model proposes that forms of personal agency are associated with identity development as part of the transition to adulthood. This model was examined in two cultural contexts, taking into account age and gender, among college and university students aged 18 to 24 (N = 995). Confirmatory Factor Analyses verified cultural, age, and gender invariance of the two key operationalizations of the model. A Structural Equation Model path analysis confirmed that the model applies in both cultures with minor variations-types of personal agency are associated with the formation of adult- and societal-identities as part of the resolution of the identity stage. It was concluded that forms of personal agency providing the most effective ways of dealing with "individualization" (e.g., internal locus of control) are more important in the transition to adulthood among American students, whereas types of personal agency most effective in dealing with "individualistic collectivism" (e.g., ego strength) are more important among Japanese students. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using the SIRDE model of social change to examine the vote of Scottish teenagers in the 2014 independence referendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Peter R; Bennett, Mark; Abrams, Dominic

    2017-09-01

    Five hundred and seventy-three Scottish high school students were surveyed in the 2 months following the 2014 referendum on Scotland's independence. We used the Social Identity, Relative Deprivation, collective Efficacy (SIRDE) model of social change to examine the social psychological factors that should have influenced the voting choices of these teenagers. Structural equation modelling indicated that the SIRDE model fit the data and largely supported four sets of hypotheses derived from the model. Specifically, (1) those with a stronger Scottish identity, (2) those who felt frustrated and angry that Scottish people are discriminated against in British society, and (3) those who believed that Scottish people are not able to improve their relatively poor social conditions within the United Kingdom (a lack of collective efficacy) were more likely to hold separatist beliefs. Further, the relationships between identity, relative deprivation, and collective efficacy, on the one hand, and voting for Scotland's independence, on the other, were fully mediated by separatist social change beliefs. Consistent with the specificity of the model, neither political engagement nor personal relative deprivation were associated with voting choice, whereas the latter was associated with lower life satisfaction. The implications and limitations of these findings are discussed. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Examining the work–crime association in emerging adulthood: A longitudinal analysis based on a Dutch population sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensveen, Maaike; Palmen, Hanneke; Blokland, Arjan; Meeus, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Social control theory links being employed with reduced criminal behaviour. In particular, the indirect social control generated by the perceived benefits of the current job are expected to underlie the work–crime association. Features specific to the emerging adult period, however, call into question the strength of the work–crime association during this new life stage. This study uses data from the Utrecht Study of Adolescent Development (USAD), a longitudinal self-report study among 669 men and women aged 18 to 24 at the start of the study to examine the extent to which working a paid job is associated with reduced levels of delinquency and crime, and the extent to which this association is conditional on individual job perceptions. We also test for gender differences in these associations. Results indicate that for men – but not for women – paid work is associated with lower levels of delinquency and crime, but only from age 24 onwards. PMID:28781582

  9. Physiologic changes associated with violence and abuse exposure: an examination of related medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshin, Brooks R; Cronholm, Peter F; Strawn, Jeffrey R

    2012-01-01

    Although the extant evidence is replete with data supporting linkages between exposure to violence or abuse and the subsequent development of medical illnesses, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are poorly defined and understood. Physiologic changes occurring in violence- or abuse-exposed individuals point to potentially common biological pathways connecting traumatic exposures with medical outcomes. Herein, the evidence describing the long-term physiologic changes in abuse- and violence-exposed populations and associated medical illnesses are reviewed. Current data support that (a) specific neurobiochemical changes are associated with exposure to violence and abuse; (b) several biological pathways have the potential to lead to the development of future illness; and (c) common physiologic mechanisms may moderate the severity, phenomenology, or clinical course of medical illnesses in individuals with histories of exposure to violence or abuse. Importantly, additional work is needed to advance our emerging understanding of the biological mechanisms connecting exposure to violence and abuse and negative health outcomes.

  10. Examining the Association Between Different Aspects of Socioeconomic Status, Race, and Disability in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Jason; Davis, James; Taira, Deborah Ann

    2018-02-20

    Socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity are known to be associated with health disparities. This study used data (2010-2014) from the American Community Survey. Respondents over age 30 from Hawaii were included (n = 44,921). Outcome variables were self-reported disability in vision, hearing, ambulatory function, self-care, independent living, or cognitive function. Four measures of socioeconomic status were personal income, average income for the area, income inequality for area, and education. This study used multivariable logistic regression to predict disability by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, controlling for age and gender. All four measures of socioeconomic status were significant predictors of at least one type of disability after adjustment for age, gender, and other measures of socioeconomic status. Higher education was significantly related to having every type of disability. Similarly, people with high personal income were less likely to have each type of disability than those with middle income, and those with low income were more likely to have all disabilities except hearing. Income inequality was significantly associated with half the disabilities. Low area income was significantly associated with increased vision-related disability, while high income was associated with less likelihood of hearing-related disability. Native Hawaiians were significantly more likely to report having a disability than Filipinos and Chinese for all six types of disability, Japanese for four, and whites for two, after adjustment. These results suggest that in order to reduce health disparities for Native Hawaiians, as well as other ethnic groups, a range of socioeconomic factors need to be addressed.

  11. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated with Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Alan L.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Hatch, John P.; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 6 decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a longstanding concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt...

  12. An initial examination of the association of reflective functioning to parenting of fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Carla Smith; Kiselica, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Parental reflective functioning (RF) is a parent's capacity to understand and take into account the mental states of their children. Research on RF is somewhat scarce and has focused primarily on mothers. Mothers high in RF have improved parent-child relationships in terms of attachment, sensitivity, and more balanced mental representations of their children, in addition to displaying more caregiving behaviors than do those low in this characteristic. Moreover, better maternal RF appears to be a key to the parenting success of substance-abusing mothers and predicts changes in the caregiving behaviors of these mothers following attachment-based interventions. Research on RF in fathers, on the other hand, has been limited to a few studies. This research has suggested that about half of new fathers have deficits in RF, but did not assess predictors of RF or measure RF in relation to parenting. The present study sought to present an initial exploration of the association of RF to the parenting of fathers in a sample of 79 fathers, approximately half with substance-abuse and violence problems and half without. Fathers were administered the Parent Developmental Interview-Revised (A. Slade, J.L. Aber, I. Bresgi, B. Berger, & M. Kaplan, ) and self-report measures of parenting. Results suggested that less education and increased drug use are associated with lower RF. RF was not predictive of self-reported parenting behaviors in this sample. Although RF may vary with substance-abuse level and socioeconomic status among men and women, these results indicate that RF may be less associated with parenting behaviors of fathers. However, further research in this area is needed. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  13. An intercalated BSc degree is associated with higher marks in subsequent medical school examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer A; Milne, Andrew; Sinclair, Hazel; Lee, Amanda J

    2009-05-19

    To compare medical students on a modern MBChB programme who did an optional intercalated degree with their peers who did not intercalate; in particular, to monitor performance in subsequent undergraduate degree exams. This was a retrospective, observational study of anonymised databases of medical student assessment outcomes. Data were accessed for graduates, University of Aberdeen Medical School, Scotland, UK, from the years 2003 to 2007 (n = 861). The main outcome measure was marks for summative degree assessments taken after intercalating. Of 861 medical students, 154 (17.9%) students did an intercalated degree. After adjustment for cohort, maturity, gender and baseline (3rd year) performance in matching exam type, having done an IC degree was significantly associated with attaining high (18-20) common assessment scale (CAS) marks in three of the six degree assessments occurring after the IC students rejoined the course: the 4th year written exam (p < 0.001), 4th year OSCE (p = 0.001) and the 5th year Elective project (p = 0.010). Intercalating was associated with improved performance in Years 4 and 5 of the MBChB. This improved performance will further contribute to higher academic ranking for Foundation Year posts. Long-term follow-up is required to identify if doing an optional intercalated degree as part of a modern medical degree is associated with following a career in academic medicine.

  14. Selection of asset investment models by hospitals: examination of influencing factors, using Switzerland as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    Hospitals are responsible for a remarkable part of the annual increase in healthcare expenditure. This article examines one of the major cost drivers, the expenditure for investment in hospital assets. The study, conducted in Switzerland, identifies factors that influence hospitals' investment decisions. A suggestion on how to categorize asset investment models is presented based on the life cycle of an asset, and its influencing factors defined based on transaction cost economics. The influence of five factors (human asset specificity, physical asset specificity, uncertainty, bargaining power, and privacy of ownership) on the selection of an asset investment model is examined using a two-step fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. The research shows that outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are particularly favored in the presence of two combinations of influencing factors: First, if technological uncertainty is high and both human asset specificity and bargaining power of a hospital are low. Second, if assets are very specific, technological uncertainty is high and there is a private hospital with low bargaining power, outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are favored too. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis, it can be demonstrated that investment decisions of hospitals do not depend on isolated influencing factors but on a combination of factors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Preparticipation Physical Examinations and Disqualifying Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Kevin M.; Bolin, Delmas J.; Carek, Peter J.; Konin, Jeff G.; Neal, Timothy L.; Violette, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Objective To present athletic trainers with recommendations for the content and administration of the preparticipation physical examination (PPE) as well as considerations for determining safe participation in sports and identifying disqualifying conditions. Background Preparticipation physical examinations have been used routinely for nearly 40 years. However, considerable debate exists as to their efficacy due to the lack of standardization in the process and the lack of conformity in the information that is gathered. With the continuing rise in sports participation at all levels and the growing number of reported cases of sudden death in organized athletics, the sports medicine community should consider adopting a standardized process for conducting the PPE to protect all parties. Recommendations Recommendations are provided to equip the sports medicine community with the tools necessary to conduct the PPE as effectively and efficiently as possible using available scientific evidence and best practices. In addition, the recommendations will help clinicians identify those conditions that may threaten the health and safety of participants in organized sports, may require further evaluation and intervention, or may result in potential disqualification. PMID:24499039

  16. Model of chromosome associations in Mus domesticus spermatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Berríos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial organization of the chromosomes in meiotic nuclei is crucial to our knowledge of the genome's functional regulation, stability and evolution. This study examined the nuclear architecture of Mus domesticus 2n=40 pachytene spermatocytes, analyzing the associations among autosomal bivalents via their Centromere Telomere Complexes (CTC. The study developed a nuclear model in which each CTC was represented as a 3D computer object. The probability of a given combination of associations among CTC was estimated by simulating a random distribution of 19 indistinguishable CTC over n indistinguishable "cells" on the nuclear envelope. The estimated association frequencies resulting from this numerical approach were similar to those obtained by quantifying actual associations in pachytene spermatocyte spreads. The nuclear localization and associations of CTC through the meiotic prophase in well-preserved nuclei were also analyzed. We concluded that throughout the meiotic prophase: 1 the CTC of autosomal bivalents are not randomly distributed in the nuclear space; 2 the CTC associate amongst themselves, probably at random, over a small surface of the nuclear envelope, at the beginning of the meiotic prophase; 3 the initial aggregation of centromere regions occurring in lepto-zygotene likely resolves into several smaller aggregates according to patterns of preferential partitioning; 4 these smaller aggregates spread over the inner face of the nuclear envelope, remaining stable until advanced stages of the meiotic prophase or even until the first meiotic division.

  17. Examination of the geology and seismology associated with area 410 at the Nevada test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, W.J.; McKague, H.L.

    1975-01-01

    This report summarizes regional and local geology at the Nevada Test Site and identifies major tectonic features and active faults. Sufficient information is given to perform seismic safety analyses of present and future critical construction at the Super Kukla Site and Sites A and B in Area 410. However, examination of local minor faults and joints and soil thickness studies should be undertaken at construction time. The Cane Spring Fault is identified as the most significant geologic feature from the viewpoint of the potential seismic risk. Predictions of the peak ground acceleration (0.9 g), the response spectra for the Safe Shutdown Earthquake, and the maximum displacement across the Cane Spring Fault are made. (U.S.)

  18. Examination of the Nonlinear Dynamic Systems Associated with Science Student Cognition While Engaging in Science Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Richard; Cavagnetto, Andy; Akmal, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    A critical problem with the examination of learning in education is that there is an underlying assumption that the dynamic systems associated with student information processing can be measured using static linear assessments. This static linear approach does not provide sufficient ability to characterize learning. Much of the modern research…

  19. The Application of Strength of Association Statistics to the Item Analysis of an In-Training Examination in Diagnostic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, James J.; McCormick, Janet

    1986-01-01

    Using item responses from an in-training examination in diagnostic radiology, the application of a strength of association statistic to the general problem of item analysis is illustrated. Criteria for item selection, general issues of reliability, and error of measurement are discussed. (Author/LMO)

  20. An Examination of the Impact of Maladaptive Coping on the Association between Stressor Type and Alcohol Use in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Isha W.; Blevins, Claire; Calhoun, Casey D.; Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Stewart, Regan; Bountress, Kaitlin E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Examine the impact of maladaptive coping style on the association between source of stress (academic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, environmental) and alcohol use (consumption, heavy episodic drinking, driving under the influence) among college students. Participants: 1,027 college students completed an online survey in April 2014.…

  1. An Indirect Examination of the Function of Problem Behavior Associated with Fragile X Syndrome and Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are associated with a number of specific topographies of problem behavior. Very few studies have examined the function served by problem behavior in these groups. Using the Questions About Behavioral Function scale Matson and Vollmer (User's guide: questions about behavioral function…

  2. Adolescent Peer Victimization, Peer Status, Suicidal Ideation, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Examining Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, Nicole; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among peer victimization, peer status, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (i.e., suicidal ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) over a 2-year period. A community sample of 493 adolescents (51% girls) in Grades 6-8 participated in the study. Participants completed measures…

  3. Adolescent Peer Victimization, Peer Status, Suicidal Ideation, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Examining Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heilbron, N.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among peer victimization, peer status, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (i.e., suicidal ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) over a 2-year period. A community sample of 493 adolescents (51% girls) in Grades 6-8

  4. Being Mum's Confidant, a Boon or Bane? Examining Gender Differences in the Association of Maternal Disclosure with Adolescents' Depressive Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Finkenauer, Catrin; van de Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal study investigating gender differences in the association between maternal disclosure and adolescents' depressive symptoms. Little research has examined the relationship of parental disclosure to adolescents' depressive symptoms and research on sex differences is particularly lacking. In a sample of 428…

  5. An examination of the association between chronic sleep restriction and electrocortical arousal in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Sarah; Trujillo, Logan T; Sherman, Stephanie M; Carter, Patricia; Matthews, Michael D; Schnyer, David M

    2015-03-01

    The deleterious neurocognitive effects of laboratory-controlled short-term sleep deprivation are well-known. The present study investigated neurocognitive changes arising from chronic sleep restriction outside the laboratory. Sleep patterns of 24 undergraduates were tracked via actigraphy across a 15-week semester. At the semester beginning, at a midpoint, and a week before finals, students performed the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) and cortical arousal was measured via event-related potentials (ERP) and resting state electroencephalography (EEG). Average daily sleep decreased between Session 1 and Sessions 2 and 3. Calculated circadian rhythm measures indicated nighttime movement increased and sleep quality decreased from Sessions 1 and 2 to Session 3. Parallel to the sleep/activity measures, PVT reaction time increased between Session 1 and Sessions 2 and 3 and resting state alpha EEG reactivity magnitude and PVT-evoked P3 ERP amplitude decreased between Session 1 and Sessions 2 and 3. Cross-sectional regressions showed PVT reaction time was negatively associated with average daily sleep, alpha reactivity, and P3 changes; sleep/circadian measures were associated with alpha reactivity and/or P3 changes. Small, but persistent sleep deficits reduced cortical arousal and impaired vigilant attention. Chronic sleep restriction impacts neurocognition in a manner similar to laboratory controlled sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. All rights reserved.

  6. Examination of factors associated with use rates after transition from a universal to partial motorcycle helmet use law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Brendan J; Barrette, Timothy P; Morden, Jeffery; Savolainen, Peter T; Gates, Timothy J

    2017-01-02

    Motorcycle riders account for a disproportionately high number of traffic injuries and fatalities compared to occupants of other vehicle types. Though research has demonstrated the benefits of helmet use in preventing serious and fatal injuries in the event of a crash, helmet use has remained relatively stable in the United States, where the most recent national estimates show a 64% use rate. Use rates have been markedly lower among those states that do not have a universal helmet law for all riders. In 2012, the state of Michigan repealed its longstanding mandatory helmet use law. In order to gain insights as to the effects of this legislative change, a study was conducted to examine short-term changes in helmet use and identify factors associated with use rates. A statewide direct observation survey was conducted 1 year after the transition from a universal helmet law to a partial helmet law. A random parameters logistic regression model was estimated to identify motorcyclist, roadway, and environmental characteristics associated with helmet use. This modeling framework accounts for both intravehicle correlation (between riders and passengers on the same motorcycle) as well as unobserved heterogeneity across riders due to important unobserved factors. Helmet use was shown to vary across demographic segments of the motorcyclist population. Use rates were higher among Caucasian riders, as well as among those age 60 and above. No significant difference was observed between male and female riders. Use was also found to vary geographically, temporally, and with respect to various environmental characteristics. Geographically, helmet use rates tended to be correlated with historical restraint use trends, which may be reflective of riding environment and general differences in the riding population. To this end, rates were also highly variable based upon the type of motorcycle and whether the motorcyclist was wearing high-visibility gear. The study results demonstrate

  7. Numerical examinations of simplified spondylodesis models concerning energy absorption in magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadert Nicole

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metallic implants in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are a potential safety risk since the energy absorption may increase temperature of the surrounding tissue. The temperature rise is highly dependent on implant size. Numerical examinations can be used to calculate the energy absorption in terms of the specific absorption rate (SAR induced by MRI on orthopaedic implants. This research presents the impact of titanium osteosynthesis spine implants, called spondylodesis, deduced by numerical examinations of energy absorption in simplified spondylodesis models placed in 1.5 T and 3.0 T MRI body coils. The implants are modelled along with a spine model consisting of vertebrae and disci intervertebrales thus extending previous investigations [1], [2]. Increased SAR values are observed at the ends of long implants, while at the center SAR is significantly lower. Sufficiently short implants show increased SAR along the complete length of the implant. A careful data analysis reveals that the particular anatomy, i.e. vertebrae and disci intervertebrales, has a significant effect on SAR. On top of SAR profile due to the implant length, considerable SAR variations at small scale are observed, e.g. SAR values at vertebra are higher than at disc positions.

  8. Examining the Correlates of Women's Use of Sexual Coercion: Proposing an Explanatory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A; Bouffard, Leana A; Miller, Holly A

    2016-08-01

    Research in the last few years has begun to examine the prevalence of female sexual offending as well as attempting to understand the predictors of sexually coercive behavior among women. Although women engage in sexual coercion significantly less often than men, more research on female sexual coercion is warranted. The current study provides an exploratory examination of the relationship between several attitudinal, experiential, and situational factors, and the use of various sexual coercion tactics among a sample of 582 sexually active, female undergraduate students, as well as proposing an explanatory model of female sexual coercion. Results indicate that several variables that are significant predictors of sexual aggression for men are also predictive for women. However, these variables seem to work differently in predicting sexually coercive behavior for women. Implications for theory and further study are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Development and effects of client trust in criminal defense attorneys: preliminary examination of the congruence model of trust development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccini, Marcus T; Boothby, Jennifer L; Brodsky, Stanley L

    2004-01-01

    The present study examines the relation between client participation in attorney-client relationships, the development of client trust in criminal defense attorneys, and client satisfaction with attorneys and case outcomes. The congruence model of trust development (CMTD) is proposed to explain the relation between desired participation by clients, allowed participation by attorneys, and the development of client trust in attorneys. The CMTD predicts that clients who trust their attorneys will subsequently be satisfied with their attorneys and case outcomes. A sample of 96 experienced criminal defendants currently in prison completed the Attorney-Client Trust Scale (ACTS: Boccaccini and Brodsky, 2002) and provided information about their experiences with their most recent criminal defense attorneys. Findings were generally consistent with the CMTD in suggesting that (i) allowed participation is associated with trust in attorneys, and (ii) trust is associated with satisfaction with attorneys and case outcomes. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. 3D Modeling of Lower Extremities With Biplanar Radiographs: Reliability of Measures on Subsequent Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberry, David E; Carpenter, Ashley M

    2017-08-02

    Biplanar radiography with 3-dimensional (3D) modeling (EOS) provides a comprehensive assessment of lower limb alignment in an upright weight-bearing position with less radiation than conventional radiography. A study was performed to assess the consistency and reliability of 2 lower extremity 3D biplanar radiograph models created at least 1 year apart in a pediatric population. All patients who had 2 lower extremity radiographic evaluations with EOS performed at visits a minimum of 1 year apart were reviewed. Digital radiographs, of lower extremities in both frontal and sagittal planes, were acquired simultaneously, using the EOS system. The 3D reconstruction of the images was achieved utilizing the SterEOS software. Pelvic position, femoral and tibial anatomy, and the torsional profile were evaluated and compared using t tests. In total, 53 patients with a mean age of 11.7 years (range, 6.1 to 18.9 y) met inclusion criteria. When comparing 3D models between visits, minimal differences were noted in proximal femoral anatomy and pelvic alignment (pelvic incidence, sacral slope, sagittal tilt, neck shaft angle). Expected differences in femoral and tibial length corresponded with normal longitudinal growth between visits. Sagittal plane knee position varied widely between examinations. Femoral and/or tibial rotational osteotomies were performed in 37% of extremities between examinations. After femoral derotational osteotomy, a significant difference in femoral anteversion was appreciated when comparing preoperative and postoperative 3D models. However, this difference was less than the expected difference based on the anatomic correction achieved intraoperatively. No differences were noted in tibial torsion measures after tibial derotational osteotomy. The 3D modeling based on biplanar radiographs provides consistent and reliable measures of pelvic and hip joint anatomy of the lower extremity. Patient positioning may influence the reproducibility of knee alignment

  11. Voluntary Medication Error Reporting by ED Nurses: Examining the Association With Work Environment and Social Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Amany; Blegen, Mary; Gedney-Lose, Amalia; Lose, Daniel; Perkhounkova, Yelena

    2017-05-01

    Medication errors are one of the most frequently occurring errors in health care settings. The complexity of the ED work environment places patients at risk for medication errors. Most hospitals rely on nurses' voluntary medication error reporting, but these errors are under-reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among work environment (nurse manager leadership style and safety climate), social capital (warmth and belonging relationships and organizational trust), and nurses' willingness to report medication errors. A cross-sectional descriptive design using a questionnaire with a convenience sample of emergency nurses was used. Data were analyzed using descriptive, correlation, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis statistics. A total of 71 emergency nurses were included in the study. Emergency nurses' willingness to report errors decreased as the nurses' years of experience increased (r = -0.25, P = .03). Their willingness to report errors increased when they received more feedback about errors (r = 0.25, P = .03) and when their managers used a transactional leadership style (r = 0.28, P = .01). ED nurse managers can modify their leadership style to encourage error reporting. Timely feedback after an error report is particularly important. Engaging experienced nurses to understand error root causes could increase voluntary error reporting. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Using the Single Prolonged Stress Model to Examine the Pathophysiology of PTSD

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    Rimenez R. Souza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The endurance of memories of emotionally arousing events serves the adaptive role of minimizing future exposure to danger and reinforcing rewarding behaviors. However, following a traumatic event, a subset of individuals suffers from persistent pathological symptoms such as those seen in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Despite the availability of pharmacological treatments and evidence-based cognitive behavioral therapy, a considerable number of PTSD patients do not respond to the treatment, or show partial remission and relapse of the symptoms. In controlled laboratory studies, PTSD patients show deficient ability to extinguish conditioned fear. Failure to extinguish learned fear could be responsible for the persistence of PTSD symptoms such as elevated anxiety, arousal, and avoidance. It may also explain the high non-response and dropout rates seen during treatment. Animal models are useful for understanding the pathophysiology of the disorder and the development of new treatments. This review examines studies in a rodent model of PTSD with the goal of identifying behavioral and physiological factors that predispose individuals to PTSD symptoms. Single prolonged stress (SPS is a frequently used rat model of PTSD that involves exposure to several successive stressors. SPS rats show PTSD-like symptoms, including impaired extinction of conditioned fear. Since its development by the Liberzon lab in 1997, the SPS model has been referred to by more than 200 published papers. Here we consider the findings of these studies and unresolved questions that may be investigated using the model.

  13. Can the intra-examiner variability of Little's Irregularity Index be improved using 3D digital models of study casts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Adam H; Burns, Angus; Macauley, Donal; Garvey, Thérèse M; Fleming, Garry J P

    2013-12-01

    To compare contact point displacement measurements, used to determine the Little's Irregularity Index (LII) score on study casts and digital models of study casts by an independent examiner. The contact point displacement measurements of the six maxillary anterior labial teeth were measured on ten study casts using digital callipers and their associated digital models using Creo Parametric software on five occasions following scanning using a LAVA Chairside Oral Scanner (LCOS) three-dimensional (3D) intra oral scanner. Means, standard deviations and coefficients of variation (CoV) were determined, data analyses (Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCCs) and Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs)) and statistical analyses (three and two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and Independent Sample Student's t-tests) were carried out (p0.978; p0.910; p0.963; p0.986; porthodontic community be identified or a new method for measuring anterior incisor crowding be sought. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Serological examination of fattening pigs reveals associations between Ascaris suum, lung pathogens and technical performance parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Düsseldorf, Simon; Heres, Lourens; Geldhof, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Diagnosing the presence of the highly prevalent and economically important pig parasite Ascaris suum on fattening farms has so far been challenging. Currently, only the number of livers affected at slaughter is routinely used to measure parasite exposure. However, recently, a new serological test was developed based on the detection of antibodies to the A. suum haemoglobin molecule. The test showed to be highly sensitive for the detection of exposure to A. suum in fattening pigs. In this study we first compared the performance of A. suum serology versus the percentage of affected livers at slaughter, subsequently we investigated potential associations between A. suum infection levels and exposure to important lung pathogens and finally we identified correlations between serological data and technical performance parameters (TPIs) from 20 Belgian and 20 German pig fattening farms. In both Belgian and German farms, a significant relationship was detected between elevated average Ascaris serology and percentages of affected livers (ρ=0.63 and ρ=0.75, respectively). On the Belgian farms, both Ascaris serology and the percentage of affected livers were negatively correlated with average daily gain (ADG) (ρ=-0.69 and ρ=-0.56, respectively). Using the German dataset, only a borderline negative association was detected between the percentage of affected livers and the ADG (ρ=-0.44, P=0.053). In contrast, only in the German farms, correlations between the percentage of affected lungs at slaughter and elevated presence of A. suum and several other airway pathogens were detected. To conclude, this study indicates that serological screening for A. suum on fattening farms is an attractive new diagnostic tool that can be used to indicate the presence of roundworm infection by measuring infection intensity. Furthermore the results of this study also add weight to the evidence that both roundworm infections as well as herd exposure to airway pathogens have a significant

  15. Examining factors associated with elevated Lie Scale responding on the Child Abuse Potential Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Amanda H; Shook, Natalie J; Wallace, Nancy M; McNeil, Cheryl B

    2018-02-01

    Child maltreatment remains a serious public health issue in the United States. Therefore, it is important to engage in quality control of the assessment, prevention, and treatment services for families affected by maltreatment. Parenting capacity assessments (PCAs) are typically an integral part of service delivery for families affected by maltreatment and can carry serious consequences for the referred parent. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) is a measure that is widely used in PCAs; however, socially desirable responding on the CAPI can serve to invalidate the important information derived from this assessment, as well as lead to negative impressions of the parent. Using data collected via multiple methods (including a non-face valid behavioral measure, intelligence screening, and self-report) from a predominantly at-risk sample of parents, the aim of this study was to better understand factors that may predict socially desirable responding on the CAPI. Results indicated that lower parental intelligence, a "positivity bias" (i.e., the tendency to learn and attend to positive over negative information during the non-face valid behavioral task), and lower reported depressive symptoms were associated with higher socially desirable responding. These findings suggest that assessors should thoughtfully consider the possibility that invalid CAPI scores may be more related to low intelligence and a positivity bias than to psychopathy and manipulation (e.g., purposefully trying to present oneself in a positive light to gain favor in a PCA). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Examining Associations of Sexual Attraction and Attitudes on Women's Disordered Eating Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Sarah M; Marks, Amy K; Swenson, Lance P; Pantalone, David W

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to expand the scant research on disordered eating in women identifying same-sex sexual attractions. We used multiple linear regressions to explore potential mechanisms driving disordered eating--both explicit and implicit weight bias and heterosexism--in a cross-sectional, online-recruited community sample of women (N = 437). Participants endorsed a range of sexual attractions from exclusively opposite-sex (21.1%) to exclusively same-sex (19.5%) attraction. Findings revealed no associations between sexual attraction and disordered eating. Awareness of sociocultural norms valuing thinness accounted for disordered eating for all women, regardless of sexual attraction, and was influenced by attitudes regarding weight. Among women endorsing same-sex attractions, self-reported internalized heterosexism influenced disordered eating. Findings contradict long-held beliefs that same-sex attracted women are protected from disordered eating. They emphasize a universal risk, for all women, of sociocultural norms valuing thinness, as well as the risk of internalized heterosexism among same-sex attracted women. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Examining Teacher Outcomes of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Model in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Anne Sørlie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on teacher outcomes of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS model has been scarce. The present study adds to the knowledge base by examining the effects of the Norwegian version of SWPBS (N-PALS on school staffs’ behavior management practices and on their individual and collective efficacy. Questionnaire data were collected from staff and students (Grades 4-7 at four measurement points across four successive school years in 28 intervention schools and 20 comparison schools. Using longitudinal multilevel analyses, indications of positive 3-year main effects of the N-PALS model were observed for staff-reported collective efficacy, self-efficacy, and positive behavior support practices. The intervention effects as measured by Cohen’s d ranged from .14 to .91. The effects on student perceptions of teachers’ behavior management strategies were, however, not consistent with the positive staff ratings. Results are discussed in relation to prior research, future research, and study limitations.

  18. A modified self-controlled case series method to examine association between multidose vaccinations and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Ronny; Hecker, Hartmut; Poethko-Müller, Christina; Schlaud, Martin; Vennemann, Mechtild; Whitaker, Heather J; Farrington, C Paddy

    2011-03-15

    The self-controlled case series method (SCCS) was developed to analyze the association between a time-varying exposure and an outcome event. We consider penta- or hexavalent vaccination as the exposure and unexplained sudden unexpected death (uSUD) as the event. The special situation of multiple exposures and a terminal event requires adaptation of the standard SCCS method. This paper proposes a new adaptation, in which observation periods are truncated according to the vaccination schedule. The new method exploits known minimum spacings between successive vaccine doses. Its advantage is that it is very much simpler to apply than the method for censored, perturbed or curtailed post-event exposures recently introduced. This paper presents a comparison of these two SCCS methods by simulation studies and an application to a real data set. In the simulation studies, the age distribution and the assumed vaccination schedule were based on real data. Only small differences between the two SCCS methods were observed, although 50 per cent of cases could not be included in the analysis with the SCCS method with truncated observation periods. By means of a study including 300 uSUD, a 16-fold risk increase after the 4th dose could be detected with a power of at least 90 per cent. A general 2-fold risk increase after vaccination could be detected with a power of 80 per cent. Reanalysis of data from cases of the German case-control study on sudden infant death (GeSID) resulted in slightly higher point estimates using the SCCS methods than the odds ratio obtained by the case-control analysis. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Associations Between the Periodontal Disease in Women Before Menopause and Menstrual Cycle Irregularity: The 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyungdo; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-02-01

    The association between menstrual cycle irregularities and system disease has been evaluated in previous studies. However, the association between periodontal disease and menstrual cycle irregularity has not been fully investigated. The study aimed to evaluate the relationship between periodontal disease and tooth loss in women before menopause and menstrual cycle irregularity using nationally representative data.This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed. The analysis in this study was confined to a total of 1553 respondents over 19 years old who had not gone through menopause and had no missing values for the reproductive factors and outcome variables. A community periodontal index was greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontal treatment needs.The risk of periodontal treatment needs tended to increase in the presence of menstrual cycle irregularity after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = .0481 in model 1; 0.0613 in model 2; 0.0369 in model 3; 0.0456 in model 4). The number of natural teeth of 28 did not reach statistically significant differences (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.2204 in model 1; 0.2373 in model 2; 0.2814 in model 3; 0.2609 in model 4).Menstrual cycle irregularity was positively associated with the risk of periodontal treatment needs in Korean women before menopause. However, there was no significant association between tooth loss and menstrual cycle irregularity. Menstrual cycle irregularity may be considered to be a potential risk indicator for periodontal treatment needs in Korean women before menopause.

  20. A new binary model for university examination timetabling: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komijan, Alireza Rashidi; Koupaei, Mehrdad Nouri

    2012-12-01

    Examination timetabling problem (ETP) is one of the most important issues in universities. An improper timetable may result in students' dissatisfaction as it may not let them study enough between two sequential exams. In addition, the many exams to be scheduled, the large number of students who have taken different courses, the limited number of rooms, and some constraints such as no conflict in a single student's exams make it very difficult to schedule experimentally. A mathematical programming model is required to formulate such a sophisticated problem. In this paper, a new binary model is developed for ETP. The novelty of the paper can be discussed in two directions. The first one is that a course can be offered more than once in a semester. If a course is requested by a few students, then it is enough to be offered once. If the number of students requesting a course is more than the maximum number of students who are allowed to attend a single class, then the course is multi-offered. The second novelty is that sharing a room for two simultaneous exams is allowed. Also, the model considers some hard and soft constraints, and the objective function is set in such a way that soft constraints are satisfied as much as possible. Finally, the model is applied in a sample department and is solved by GAMS.

  1. Performance of BSEd Science Graduates in Licensure Examination for Teachers: Basis for a Regression Model

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    Roy C. Ferrer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study determined predictors of LET performance of BSEd Science graduates of the four state universities in Region I in the September 2013 Licensure Examination for Teachers using descriptive-correlation method and documentary analysis. It found that graduates were young, dominated by female with high school average grade of 88.731, college entrance average percentage score of 59.1%, and majority attended review classes.The overall academicperformance was 1.995 while the overall LET performance was77.59. Majority passed the LET. Gender, high school average grade, college entrance score, attendance to review class and academic performance significantly predict LET performance. The regression model equation is Y = 0.153a + 0.257b – 10.767c + 1.105d – 5.459e + 75.976 with a margin of error of  4.26 where Y is LET rating; the constant is 75.976; a is college entrance test score; and b, c, d, e are averages in high school, general education, professional education, and major, respectively. Thus, in the event that male and female applicants are tied along admission requirements, males be given due consideration. Universities need to intensify admission requirements and retention policies. School administrators must provide their graduates with review classes. Faculty members should prepare examinations based on the LET examination format.

  2. Innovative Business Model for Realization of Sustainable Supply Chain at the Outsourcing Examination of Logistics Services

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    Péter Tamás

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of sustainability is becoming more and more important because of the increase in the human population and the extraction of non-renewable natural resources. We can make decisive steps towards sustainability in the fields of logistics services by improvement of logistics processes and/or application of new environment-friendly technologies. These steps are very important for companies because they have a significant effect on competitiveness. Nowadays significant changes are taking place in applied methods and technologies in the fields of logistics services as part of the 4th Industrial Revolution. Most companies are not able to keep pace with these changes in addition to carrying out their main activities by using own resources; consequently, in many cases logistics services are outsourced in the interest of maintaining or increasing competitiveness. The currently applied outsourcing examination process contains numerous shortcomings. We have elaborated a new business model to eliminate these shortcomings, namely the basic concept for an outsourcing investigation system integrated in the electronic marketplace. The paper introduces the current process of logistics service outsourcing examination and the elaborated business model concept.

  3. Examining a Dual-Process Model of Desensitization and Hypersensitization to Community Violence in African American Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K; Bai, Grace J; Simic, Dusan

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine a dual-process model of reactivity to community violence exposure in African American male adolescents from urban communities. The model focused on desensitization and hypersensitization effects as well as desensitization and hypersensitization as predictors of aggressive behavior. Participants were 133 African American male high school students, mean age = 15.17 years, SD = 0.96. Participants completed measures of exposure to community violence, depressive symptoms, hyperarousal symptoms, aggressive beliefs, and aggressive behaviors at two time points. Community violence exposure predicted changes in aggression, β = .25, p = .004, and physiological arousal, β = .22, p = .010, over time, but not aggressive beliefs. The curvilinear association between community violence exposure and changes in depression over time was not significant, β = .42, p = .083, but there was a significant linear association between the exposure to community violence (ECV) and changes in levels of depression over time, β = .21, p = .014. Results indicated a significant mediation effect for hyperarousal on the association between community violence exposure and aggressive behavior, B = 0.20, 95% CI = [0.04, 0.54]. Results showed support for physiological hypersensitization, with hypersensitization increasing the risk for aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  4. Examining the associations between emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, and eating disorder severity among inpatients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynos, Ann F; Roberto, Christina A; Attia, Evelyn

    2015-07-01

    There is growing interest in the role of emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa (AN). Although anxiety is also hypothesized to impact symptoms of AN, little is known about how emotion regulation, anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms interact in AN. In this study, we examined the associations between emotion regulation, anxiety, and eating disorder symptom severity in AN. Questionnaires and interviews assessing emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, eating disorder symptoms, and eating disorder-related clinical impairment were collected from group of underweight individuals with AN (n=59) at admission to inpatient treatment. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the associations of emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, and the interaction of these constructs with eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related clinical impairment. Emotion regulation difficulties were significantly positively associated with eating disorder symptoms and related clinical impairment only when anxiety levels were low and anxiety was significantly positively associated with eating disorder symptoms and related clinical impairment only when emotion regulation problems were not elevated. This study adds to a growing literature suggesting that emotion regulation deficits are associated with eating disorder symptoms in AN. Certain individuals with AN may especially benefit from a focus on developing emotion regulation skills in the acute stages of illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling birth weight neonates and associated factors

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    Mansour Rezaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonate with abnormal weight is at risk of increased mortality and morbidity. Many factors affect pregnancy outcome. Because of the importance and vital role in birth weight, in this study, some of the factors associated with birth weight in a sample of Iranians neonates were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 245 newborns in a sample of Iranians neonates in the year 2013 were selected, and characteristics of neonate and their mothers were derived. Birth weights were registered by the neonatal scale. To identify the direct and indirect factors affecting birth weight, we used path analysis (PA and IBM AMOS and SPSS software. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of weight in girls (3200 ± 421 g less than boys (3310 ± 444 g significantly (P = 0.04. Gestational age (P < 0.001, birth rank (P = 0.012, distance from a previous pregnancy (P = 0.028, and mother weight (P = 0.04 had a statistical significant relationship with birth weight. In the final PA model, gestational age has a highest total effect, type of delivery with gestational age-mediated had the highest indirect effect and type of delivery, and gestational age had the greatest total impact on the birth weight. Conclusion: Gestational age, sex, distance from a previous pregnancy, maternal weight, type of delivery, number of abortion, and birth rank were related with birth weight. Due to the termination of pregnancy and avoid unnecessary deliveries through cesarean section and other related factors should be further consideration by childbirth experts. In addition, factors affecting these variables are carefully identified and prevented as much as possible.

  6. The association of transient ischemic attack symptoms with memory impairment among elderly participants of the Third US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Paul Y; Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Thomas, Kris G; Cedeno, Onelis Quirindongo; North, Frederick; Stroebel, Robert J; DeJesus, Ramona S; Targonski, Paul V

    2009-03-01

    Stroke is a well-known risk factor for vascular dementia. However, the association of transient ischemic attacks with cognitive impairment is less well-established. Records from Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were abstracted for demographic and medical information for participants with an age >or=60 years who reported being free of stroke. Five self-reported symptoms (weakness, numbness, loss of vision, inability to speak, and severe dizziness) were used as surrogates representing transient ischemic attacks. Information on conventional risk factors for vascular dementia was also obtained. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine risk factors for memory impairment. 4617 participants were included with a sample-weighted prevalence of memory impairment of 6.6% (1417 participants). The final multivariable analysis revealed a significant association between transient weakness and memory impairment (odds ratio 1.52, 95% CI 1.11-2.07). The other 4 transient ischemic attacks symptoms were not significantly associated with memory impairment in the final model. Systolic blood pressure >140 was most strongly associated with prevalent memory impairment (odds ratio, 9.78, 95% CI 1.49-64.3). Other associated risk factors included non-white race, male gender, age, education impairment. This study indicates that transient ischemic attacks symptoms are, even in the absence of stroke, associated with memory impairment. Aggressive risk factor modification in patients with TIA symptoms may be warranted to prevent potential future memory loss.

  7. Ethnic Identity Development and Ethnic Discrimination: Examining Longitudinal Associations with Adjustment for Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies examine normative developmental processes among teenage mothers. Framed from a risk and resilience perspective, this prospective study examined the potential for ethnic identity status (e.g., diffuse, achieved), a normative developmental task during adolescence, to buffer the detrimental effects of discrimination on later adjustment and self-esteem in a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Ethnic discrimination was associated with increases in depressive symptoms and decreases in self-esteem over time, regardless of ethnic identity status. However, ethnic discrimination was only associated with increases in engagement in risky behavior among diffuse adolescents, suggesting that achieved or foreclosed identities buffered the risk of ethnic discrimination on later risky behavior. Findings suggest that ethnic identity resolution (i.e., the component shared by those in foreclosed and achieved statuses) may be a key cultural factor to include in prevention and intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of ethnic discrimination on later externalizing problems. PMID:24011098

  8. A snapshot of patients' awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with medical imaging examinations at an Australian radiology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N; Mohacsy, A; Connell, D A; Schneider, M E

    2017-05-01

    Cumulative radiation exposure is linked to increasing the lifetime attributable risk of cancer. To avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and facilitate shared decision making, patients should be aware of these issues. This paper examines patients' awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with medical imaging examinations. Consecutive patients attending a private radiology clinic over a nine week period in 2014 in Metropolitan Melbourne were surveyed while waiting to undergo an imaging examination. Patients who were under 18 years of age, did not speak English and/or were referred for interventional imaging procedures were excluded from participation. Survey questions addressed patients' awareness of radiation dose associated with various imaging modalities' and patients' experience and preferences regarding communication of information about radiation. Data was analysed using SPSS (Ver 20.1). A total of 242 surveys were completed. Most participants were male (143/239, 59.8%) and aged between 33 and 52 years (109/242, 45%). Over half of participants were not concerned about radiation from medical imaging (130/238, 54.6%). Only a third of participants (80/234, 34.2%) correctly reported that CT has a higher radiation dose than X-ray. Very few participants correctly identified mammography, DEXA, PET and PET/CT as radiation emitting examinations. The majority of participants (202/236, 85.6%) indicated that they were not informed about radiation dose and risks by their referring doctor in advance. This paper provides information relevant to a single private radiology clinic in Australia. Nevertheless, our results have shown that patients presenting for medical imaging have little awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with these examinations and received little information by their referring physicians or staff at the radiology clinic. Copyright © 2016 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical activity and fatigue in breast cancer survivors: a panel model examining the role of self-efficacy and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Siobhan M; McAuley, Edward

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity is associated with reductions in fatigue in breast cancer survivors. However, mechanisms underlying this relationship are not well-understood. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally test a model examining the role of self-efficacy and depression as potential mediators of the relationship between physical activity and fatigue in a sample of breast cancer survivors using both self-report and objective measures of physical activity. All participants (N = 1,527) completed self-report measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, depression, and fatigue at baseline and 6 months. A subsample was randomly selected to wear an accelerometer at both time points. It was hypothesized that physical activity indirectly influences fatigue via self-efficacy and depression. Relationships among model constructs were examined over the 6-month period using panel analysis within a covariance modeling framework. The hypothesized model provided a good model-data fit (χ(2) = 599.66, df = 105, P ≤ 0.001; CFI = 0.96; SRMR = 0.02) in the full sample when controlling for covariates. At baseline, physical activity indirectly influenced fatigue via self-efficacy and depression. These relationships were also supported across time. In addition, the majority of the hypothesized relationships were supported in the subsample with accelerometer data (χ(2) = 387.48, df = 147, P ≤ 0.001, CFI = 0.94, SRMR = 0.04). This study provides evidence to suggest the relationship between physical activity and fatigue in breast cancer survivors may be mediated by more proximal, modifiable outcomes of physical activity participation. Recommendations are made relative to future applications and research concerning these relationships.

  10. Non-trauma-associated additional findings in whole-body CT examinations in patients with multiple trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffstetter, P.; Herold, T.; Daneschnejad, M.; Zorger, N.; Jung, E.M.; Feuerbach, S.; Schreyer, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: whole-body CT scans for patients with multiple trauma represent an increasingly accepted first diagnostic tool. The multidetector approach in particular provides appropriate diagnostic algorithms for detecting nearly all relevant traumatic findings in a short time with a high grade of sensitivity and specificity. Non-trauma-associated additional findings are commonly depicted based on these CT examinations. The aim of this study is to evaluate the number and quality of these additional findings in consecutive patients with multiple trauma. Materials and methods: between 3/04 and 8/06 we scanned 304 patients according to our dedicated multiple trauma protocol. The examination protocol includes a head scan without intravenous contrast followed by a whole-body scan including the neck, thorax and abdomen acquired by a 16-row CT Scanner (Siemens, Sensation 16). The CT scans were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists with respect to non-trauma-associated findings. Lesions were assessed according to their clinical relevance (highly relevant, moderately relevant, not relevant). For patients with highly relevant findings, additional follow-up research was performed. Results: The average age was 43 years (range 3 - 92). 236 of the patients were male (77.6%), 68 female (22.4%). 153 patients (50.3%) had additional non-trauma-associated findings. In 20 cases (6.6%) lesions with high clinical relevance were detected (e.g. carcinoma of the kidney or the ovary). In 71 patients (23.4%) findings with moderate relevance were described. In 63 patients (20.7%) additional findings without major relevance were diagnosed. Conclusion: Whole-body CT scans of patients randomized by a trauma show a considerable number of non-trauma-associated additional findings. In about 30% of cases, these findings are clinically relevant because further diagnostic workup or treatment in the short or medium-term is needed. The results of these analyses emphasize the diagnostic value of CT

  11. A Theoretical Model for the Associative Nature of Conference Participation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Smiljanić

    Full Text Available Participation in conferences is an important part of every scientific career. Conferences provide an opportunity for a fast dissemination of latest results, discussion and exchange of ideas, and broadening of scientists' collaboration network. The decision to participate in a conference depends on several factors like the location, cost, popularity of keynote speakers, and the scientist's association with the community. Here we discuss and formulate the problem of discovering how a scientist's previous participation affects her/his future participations in the same conference series. We develop a stochastic model to examine scientists' participation patterns in conferences and compare our model with data from six conferences across various scientific fields and communities. Our model shows that the probability for a scientist to participate in a given conference series strongly depends on the balance between the number of participations and non-participations during his/her early connections with the community. An active participation in a conference series strengthens the scientist's association with that particular conference community and thus increases the probability of future participations.

  12. Examining the virulence of Candida albicans transcription factor mutants using Galleria mellonella and mouse infection models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eAmorim-Vaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify C. albicans transcription factors (TF involved in virulence. Although mice are considered the gold-standard model to study fungal virulence, mini-host infection models have been increasingly used. Here, barcoded TF mutants were first screened in mice by pools of strains and fungal burdens quantified in kidneys. Mutants of unannotated genes which generated a kidney fungal burden significantly different from that of wild-type were selected and individually examined in G. mellonella. In addition, mutants that could not be detected in mice were also tested in G. mellonella. Only 25 % of these mutants displayed matching phenotypes in both hosts, highlighting a significant discrepancy between the two models. To address the basis of this difference (pool or host effects, a set of 19 mutants tested in G. mellonella were also injected individually into mice. Matching fungal burden phenotypes were observed in 50 % of the cases, highlighting the bias due to host effects. In contrast, 33.4 % concordance was observed between pool and single strain infections in mice, thereby highlighting the bias introduced by the pool effect. After filtering the results obtained from the two infection models, mutants for MBF1 and ZCF6 were selected. Independent marker-free mutants were subsequently tested in both hosts to validate previous results. The MBF1 mutant showed impaired infection in both models, while the ZCF6 mutant was only significant in mice infections. The two mutants showed no obvious in vitro phenotypes compared with the wild-type, indicating that these genes might be specifically involved in in vivo adaptation.

  13. Mouse Models of Fragile X-Associated Tremor Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Robert F.; Willemsen, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the development of mouse models of Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia (FXTAS) and the behavioral, histological and molecular characteristics of these mice. Method This paper compares the pathophysiology and neuropsychological features of FXTAS in humans to the major mouse models of FXTAS. Specifically, the development of a transgenic mouse line carrying an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5′untranslated regions of the Fmr1 gene is described along with a description of the characteristic intranuclear ubiquitin positive inclusions and the behavioral sequella observed in these mice. Results CGG KI mice model many of the important features of FXTAS, although some aspects are not well modeled in mice. Aspects of FXTAS that are modeled well include elevated levels of Fmr1 mRNA, reduced levels of Fmrp, the presence of intranuclear inclusions that develop with age and show similar distributions within neurons, and neuropsychological and cognitive deficits, including poor motor function, impaired memory and evidence of increased anxiety. Features of FXTAS that are not well modeled in these mice include intentional tremors that are observed in some FXTAS patients but have not been reported in CGG KI mice. In addition, while intranuclear inclusions in astrocytes are very prominent in FXTAS, there are relatively few observed in CGG KI mice. A number of additional features of FXTAS have not been systematically examined in mouse models yet, including white matter disease, hyperintensities in T2-weighted MRI, and brain atrophy, although these are currently under investigation in our laboratories. Conclusion The available mouse model has provided valuable insights into the molecular biology and pathophysiology of FXTAS, and will be particularly useful for developing and testing new therapeutic treatments in the future. PMID:19574928

  14. Examining the utility of satellite-based wind sheltering estimates for lake hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hoek, Jamon; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke A.; Montesano, Paul; Markfort, Corey D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite-based measurements of vegetation canopy structure have been in common use for the last decade but have never been used to estimate canopy's impact on wind sheltering of individual lakes. Wind sheltering is caused by slower winds in the wake of topography and shoreline obstacles (e.g. forest canopy) and influences heat loss and the flux of wind-driven mixing energy into lakes, which control lake temperatures and indirectly structure lake ecosystem processes, including carbon cycling and thermal habitat partitioning. Lakeshore wind sheltering has often been parameterized by lake surface area but such empirical relationships are only based on forested lakeshores and overlook the contributions of local land cover and terrain to wind sheltering. This study is the first to examine the utility of satellite imagery-derived broad-scale estimates of wind sheltering across a diversity of land covers. Using 30 m spatial resolution ASTER GDEM2 elevation data, the mean sheltering height, hs, being the combination of local topographic rise and canopy height above the lake surface, is calculated within 100 m-wide buffers surrounding 76,000 lakes in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. Uncertainty of GDEM2-derived hs was compared to SRTM-, high-resolution G-LiHT lidar-, and ICESat-derived estimates of hs, respective influences of land cover type and buffer width on hsare examined; and the effect of including satellite-based hs on the accuracy of a statewide lake hydrodynamic model was discussed. Though GDEM2 hs uncertainty was comparable to or better than other satellite-based measures of hs, its higher spatial resolution and broader spatial coverage allowed more lakes to be included in modeling efforts. GDEM2 was shown to offer superior utility for estimating hs compared to other satellite-derived data, but was limited by its consistent underestimation of hs, inability to detect within-buffer hs variability, and differing accuracy across land cover types. Nonetheless

  15. Local overfishing may be avoided by examining parameters of a spatio-temporal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Stuart; Shackell, Nancy; Mills Flemming, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Spatial erosion of stock structure through local overfishing can lead to stock collapse because fish often prefer certain locations, and fisheries tend to focus on those locations. Fishery managers are challenged to maintain the integrity of the entire stock and require scientific approaches that provide them with sound advice. Here we propose a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal modelling framework for fish abundance data to estimate key parameters that define spatial stock structure: persistence (similarity of spatial structure over time), connectivity (coherence of temporal pattern over space), and spatial variance (variation across the seascape). The consideration of these spatial parameters in the stock assessment process can help identify the erosion of structure and assist in preventing local overfishing. We use Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in eastern Canada as a case study an examine the behaviour of these parameters from the height of the fishery through its collapse. We identify clear signals in parameter behaviour under circumstances of destructive stock erosion as well as for recovery of spatial structure even when combined with a non-recovery in abundance. Further, our model reveals the spatial pattern of areas of high and low density persists over the 41 years of available data and identifies the remnant patches. Models of this sort are crucial to recovery plans if we are to identify and protect remaining sources of recolonization for Atlantic cod. Our method is immediately applicable to other exploited species.

  16. Examining the Efficiency of Models Using Tangent Coordinates or Principal Component Scores in Allometry Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigirli, Deniz; Ercan, Ilker

    2015-09-01

    Most of the studies in medical and biological sciences are related to the examination of geometrical properties of an organ or organism. Growth and allometry studies are important in the way of investigating the effects of diseases and the environmental factors effects on the structure of the organ or organism. Thus, statistical shape analysis has recently become more important in the medical and biological sciences. Shape is all geometrical information that remains when location, scale and rotational effects are removed from an object. Allometry, which is a relationship between size and shape, plays an important role in the development of statistical shape analysis. The aim of the present study was to compare two different models for allometry which includes tangent coordinates and principal component scores of tangent coordinates as dependent variables in multivariate regression analysis. The results of the simulation study showed that the model constructed by taking tangent coordinates as dependent variables is more appropriate than the model constructed by taking principal component scores of tangent coordinates as dependent variables, for all sample sizes.

  17. The role of a local mammography workshop, considered from the results of reading examinations and associated questionnaires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunami, Nobuki; Tatsuta, Masayuki; Nishi, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The mammography workshop group for the southern Osaka prefectural area (Hannan Mammography Workshop Group) started in April, 2001, and reading examinations have been carried out periodically since the 9th workshop held in April, 2004, in order to promote mammography breast cancer screening and improve quality control. Questionnaire studies were performed in association with the 3rd (December, 2006) and 4th (March, 2008) reading examinations in order to analyze the role of the local workshop. The questionnaires included items inquiring about the examinee's sex, age, institution location, type of occupation, attendance at mammography training courses provided by the Central Committee for Quality Control, the number of attendances at the local workshop, performance of breast cancer screening, experience of recall examinations, and the number of readings performed. In addition, the questions that yielded varied interpretations at reading examinations were carefully checked in order to better manage subsequent workshops. Examinees who had attended the workshops more than 6 times tended to have a high category sensitivity (62.2% at the 3rd reading examination, and 58.9% at the 4th). Test cases that showed a low conformity rate of category judgment were as follows: judgment of typically benign calcifications, distinction between amorphous or indistinct calcifications and pleomorphic or heterogeneous calcifications, judgment of focal asymmetric density (FAD) and architectural distortion. We intend to use these results to improve the quality control of breast cancer screening through our local mammography workshop activity. (author)

  18. Examining word association networks: A cross-country comparison of women's perceptions of HPV testing and vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd C Schmid

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the perceptual associations women hold with regard to cervical cancer testing and vaccination across two countries, the U.S. and Australia. In a large-scale online survey, we presented participants with 'trigger' words, and asked them to state sequentially other words that came to mind. We used this data to construct detailed term co-occurrence network graphs, which we analyzed using basic topological ranking techniques. The results showed that women hold divergent perceptual associations regarding trigger words relating to cervical cancer screening tools, i.e. human papillomavirus (HPV testing and vaccination, which indicate health knowledge deficiencies with non-HPV related associations emerging from the data. This result was found to be consistent across the country groups studied. Our findings are critical in optimizing consumer education and public service announcements to minimize misperceptions relating to HPV testing and vaccination in order to maximize adoption of cervical cancer prevention tools.

  19. Examining word association networks: A cross-country comparison of women’s perceptions of HPV testing and vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Bernd C.; Carlson, Jamie; Rezniczek, Günther A.; Wyllie, Jessica; Jaaback, Kenneth; Vencovsky, Filip

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the perceptual associations women hold with regard to cervical cancer testing and vaccination across two countries, the U.S. and Australia. In a large-scale online survey, we presented participants with ‘trigger’ words, and asked them to state sequentially other words that came to mind. We used this data to construct detailed term co-occurrence network graphs, which we analyzed using basic topological ranking techniques. The results showed that women hold divergent perceptual associations regarding trigger words relating to cervical cancer screening tools, i.e. human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and vaccination, which indicate health knowledge deficiencies with non-HPV related associations emerging from the data. This result was found to be consistent across the country groups studied. Our findings are critical in optimizing consumer education and public service announcements to minimize misperceptions relating to HPV testing and vaccination in order to maximize adoption of cervical cancer prevention tools. PMID:28982130

  20. Educational Intervention on Breast Self-Examination Behavior in Women Referred to Health Centers: Application of Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiyali, Zahra; Aliyan, Farzaneh; Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan; Mansourian, Morteza; Khani Jeihooni, Ali

    2017-10-26

    Introduction and aims: Screening can play a major role in reducing deaths associated with cancer. Breast selfexamination (BSE) is a cheap, non-complicated and non-invasive method for breast cancer screening. This study aimed to examine the effects of an educational intervention based on the health belief model (HBM) on BSE behavior in women referred to health centers in Fasa, Iran. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 92 women, divided into an experimental and a control group. Data were collected using a validated questionnaire covering demographic characteristics, knowledge, HBM constructs and breast self-examination performance. An educational program was performed in five sessions through group discussion with questions and answers and training videos for participants in the experimental group. Questionnaires were filled before and three months after the intervention in the two groups. Data were analyzed with SPSS-22 software for descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The results of this study showed that the mean scores for knowledge, HBM constructs and self-examination behavior in the experimental group were elevated compared to the control group after the intervention (Pmodel are proposed for officers involved in education and health promotion in Iran. Creative Commons Attribution License

  1. An examination of the factors controlling net methylation in estuarine sediments: Results from measurements and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schartup A. T.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An examination of the distribution of mercury and methylmercury across estuarine ecosystems in the northeast USA was completed under a number of projects. Sites ranged from Maine to the Chesapeake Bay and included both pristine and contaminated sites. In addition to measurements of bulk sediment and porewater, methylation and demethylation rates were also measured. Results showed that the relationships between sediment-porewater partitioning and methylation potential with sediment organic content are complex and that sediment organic content alone is not always a good predictor of the potential for a system to produce methylmercury. Modeling and correlations between variables suggest that the sulfur content of the system needs to be considered and for high organic content sediments, both sulfur and organic content.

  2. A re-examination of thermodynamic modelling of U-Ru binary phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.C.; Kaye, M.H., E-mail: matthew.kaye@uoit.ca [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) is one of the more abundant fission products (FPs) both in fast breeder reactors and thermal reactors. Post irradiation examinations (PIE) show that both 'the white metallic phase' (MoTc-Ru-Rh-Pd) and 'the other metallic phase' (U(Pd-Rh-Ru)3) are present in spent nuclear fuels. To describe this quaternary system, binary subsystems of uranium (U) with Pd, Rh, and Ru are necessary. Presently, only the U-Ru system has been thermodynamically described but with some problems. As part of research on U-Ru-Rh-Pd quaternary system, an improved consistent thermodynamic model describing the U-Ru binary phase diagram has been obtained. (author)

  3. Examine Trustiness of Medical Information Through Social Networks Using Path Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistolis, John; Diomidous, Marianna; Zimeras, Stelios; Chardalias, Kostis; Filntisis, George

    2016-01-01

    Social networks provide an alternative way to communicate and exchange of information with various people. Especially for Health Care Professionals, information ought to be exchanged and shared between individuals for diagnosis and proposed therapies. In this research, the important sources of medical information that people trust, through the exchange of information on social networks, were analyzed based on the perceived information quality using path models. A questionnaire was developed to run the survey. Based on the answers, it seems that the surveyed population does not trust heavily the content of social networks as source of information for healthcare issues. Further research is needed to examine the trustiness of social networks as a Source of Health Care Information.

  4. Using the Stereotype Content Model to examine group depictions in Fascism: An Archival Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Federica; Volpato, Chiara; Fiske, Susan T

    2010-04-01

    The Stereotype Content Model (SCM) suggests potentially universal intergroup depictions. If universal, they should apply across history in archival data. Bridging this gap, we examined social groups descriptions during Italy's Fascist era. In Study 1, articles published in a Fascist magazine- La Difesa della Razza -were content analyzed, and results submitted to correspondence analysis. Admiration prejudice depicted ingroups; envious and contemptuous prejudices depicted specific outgroups, generally in line with SCM predictions. No paternalistic prejudice appeared; historical reasons might explain this finding. Results also fit the recently developed BIAS Map of behavioral consequences. In Study 2, ninety-six undergraduates rated the content-analysis traits on warmth and competence, without knowing their origin. They corroborated SCM's interpretations of the archival data.

  5. An Examination of the Tripartite Model of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in African American Youth: Stressors and Coping Strategies as Common and Specific Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Elmore, Corinn A.; Campbell, Cynthya L.; Wethington, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the tripartite model of depression and anxiety in a community-based sample of 278 African American adolescents (M age = 12.89) from low-income communities and to identify stressors and coping strategies that were associated with the specific features of each disorder. Participants reported on…

  6. Modeling Relationships between Two Categorical Variables When Data Are Missing: Examining Consequences of the Missing Data Mechanism in an HIV Data Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Shiela M.; Rindskopf, David M.; Falkin, Gregory P.

    2001-01-01

    Used empirical data about HIV risk behaviors from 330 female participants in a drug treatment program to explore the implications and consequences of using various statistical models to describe the association of one ordinal and one dichotomous variable in which data are incomplete for the dichotomous variable. Examined the statistical fit and…

  7. FVB/NJ Mice Are a Useful Model for Examining Cardiac Adaptations to Treadmill Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Andrew A; McNally, Lindsey A; Riggs, Daniel W; Conklin, Daniel J; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Hill, Bradford G

    2016-01-01

    Mice are commonly used to examine the mechanisms by which exercise improves cardiometabolic health; however, exercise compliance and adaptations are often strain-dependent or are variable due to inconsistency in exercise training protocols. In this study, we examined nocturnal/diurnal behavior, treadmill exercise compliance, and systemic as well as cardiac-specific exercise adaptations in two commonly used mouse strains, C57BL/6J, and FVB/NJ mice. Metabolic cage analysis indicated a strong nocturnal nature of C57BL/6J mice, whereas FVB/NJ mice showed no circadian element to activity, food or water intake, VO 2 , or VCO 2 . Initial exercise capacity tests revealed that, compared with C57BL/6J mice, FVB/NJ mice are capable of achieving nearly 2-fold higher workloads prior to exhaustion. FVB/NJ mice tested during the day were capable of achieving significantly more work compared with their night-tested counterparts. Following 4 weeks of training, FVB/NJ mice showed significant increases in exercise capacity as well as physiologic cardiac growth characterized by enlarged myocytes and higher mitochondrial DNA content. C57BL/6J mice showed no increases in exercise capacity or cardiac growth regardless of whether they exercised during the day or the night. This lack of adaptation in C57BL/6J mice was attributable, at least in part, to their progressive loss of compliance to the treadmill training protocol. We conclude that the FVB/NJ strain is a useful and robust mouse model for examining cardiac adaptations to treadmill exercise and that treadmill training during daytime hours does not negatively affect exercise compliance or capacity.

  8. Examining School-Based Bullying Interventions Using Multilevel Discrete Time Hazard Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagaman, M. Alex; Geiger, Jennifer Mullins; Bermudez-Parsai, Monica; Hedberg, E. C.

    2014-01-01

    Although schools have been trying to address bulling by utilizing different approaches that stop or reduce the incidence of bullying, little remains known about what specific intervention strategies are most successful in reducing bullying in the school setting. Using the social-ecological framework, this paper examines school-based disciplinary interventions often used to deliver consequences to deter the reoccurrence of bullying and aggressive behaviors among school-aged children. Data for this study are drawn from the School-Wide Information System (SWIS) with the final analytic sample consisting of 1,221 students in grades K – 12 who received an office disciplinary referral for bullying during the first semester. Using Kaplan-Meier Failure Functions and Multi-level discrete time hazard models, determinants of the probability of a student receiving a second referral over time were examined. Of the seven interventions tested, only Parent-Teacher Conference (AOR=0.65, pbullying and aggressive behaviors. By using a social-ecological framework, schools can develop strategies that deter the reoccurrence of bullying by identifying key factors that enhance a sense of connection between the students’ mesosystems as well as utilizing disciplinary strategies that take into consideration student’s microsystem roles. PMID:22878779

  9. Association of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older adults: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2015-01-01

    several studies have found nutrients, including antioxidants, to be associated with sarcopenia. However, whether specific foods, such as vegetables and fruits, are associated with sarcopenia has not been studied. to examine the association of the frequency of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older people. this study used cross-sectional data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-09. Subjects were community-dwelling 823 men and 1,089 women aged ≥65 years. Frequency of food group consumption was obtained by using the food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and sarcopenia was defined as appendicular lean mass adjusted for height and fat mass. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of the frequency of food group consumption with sarcopenia, controlling for sociodemographics and health-related variables. dietary intake of vegetables, fruits and both vegetables and fruits was associated with a significantly reduced risk of sarcopenia after controlling for covariates in men (P = 0.026 for trend, P = 0.012 for trend, P = 0.003 for trend, respectively). Men in the highest quintile, compared with those in the lowest quintile, of vegetables [odds ratio (OR) = 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24-0.95], fruits (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.70) and vegetables and fruits consumption (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16-0.67) demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia. In women, high consumption of fruits demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.83). frequent vegetables and fruits consumption was inversely associated with sarcopenia in older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Obesity explains gender differences in the association between education level and metabolic syndrome in South Korea: the results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ki Dong; Cho, BeLong; Lee, Won Chul; Lee, Hae Won; Lee, Hyun Ki; Oh, Bum Jo

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of educational level with metabolic syndrome (MS) and its risk factors by gender in South Korea. A total of 6178 participants aged 20 years or older from The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. A generalized linear model and adjusted proportion were used to identify educational disparities in MS, its components, and its risk factors (smoking, high-risk alcohol consumption, obesity, and stress). In women, a clearly inverse association between education level and MS were observed with significant trend, and the decreasing trends of all risk factors across education quartiles were in line with the inverse association. However, the association between education level and MS was not observed with a significant trend among men. An opposite trend of risk factors across education levels was shown in men, with an increasing trend for obesity and decreasing trends for smoking and high-risk alcohol consumption. These findings demonstrate that obesity can explain gender differences in the association between education level and MS in South Korea. © 2013 APJPH.

  11. Health belief model and practice of breast self-examination and breast cancer screening in Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Auladi, Sahar

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the role of different health belief model components in practice of breast cancer screening among Iranian women. A cross-sectional study of 500 women aged 18-65 years was conducted in an urban population under the coverage of a health therapeutic system in Babol, northern Iran in 2012. Demographic data and data regarding practice of breast self-examination (BSE), breast clinical examination (BCE), and mammography were collected by interview, and a standard health belief model questionnaire was used to assess women's attitudes in six different domains based on a Likert scale that ranked from 1 to 5. The average score of each item for each domain was calculated. The Wilcoxon rank test and a multiple logistic regression model were used to estimate the odds ratio of each domain for performing breast cancer screening (BSE, BCE, and mammography). The mean age of the women was 31.2 (9.4) years. Overall, the average scores in domains of perceived benefit, self-efficacy, and health motivation were significantly higher among those who performed BSE and BCE, but not for mammography. For the domains of perception of susceptibility, seriousness, and barriers, no significant differences were observed. Higher scores on the scales of perceived benefits, perceived confidence/self-efficacy, and health motivation showed significant positive association with performing BSE [adjusted OR (95 % confidence interval [CI]) 1.73 (1.11, 2.72), 4.01 (2.39, 6.73), and 2.01 (1.30, 3.08), respectively] and BCE [adjusted OR (95 % CI) 1.65 (1.0, 2.95), 2.33 (1.39, 3.91), and 1.58 (1.0, 2.53), respectively], but not for performing mammography. For perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, and barriers, no significant association was observed. Positive attitudes toward perceived benefits, perceived confidence/self-efficacy, and health motivation have a strong association with performing BSE and BCE. The impact of health belief model subscales on

  12. Associated factors for falls among the community-dwelling older people assessed by annual geriatric health examinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hao Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Falls are very common among the older people. Nearly one-third older people living in a community fall each year. However, few studies have examined factors associated with falls in a community-dwelling population of older Taiwanese adults. OBJECTIVES: To identify the associated factors for falls during the previous 12 months among the community-dwelling Taiwanese older people receiving annual geriatric health examinations. PARTICIPANTS: People aged sixty-five years or older, living in the community, assessed by annual geriatric health examinations METHODS: 1377 community-dwellers aged ≥65 years who received annual geriatric health examinations at one hospital in northern Taiwan between March and November of 2008. They were asked about their history of falls during the year prior to their most recent health examination. RESULTS: The average age of the 1377 participants was 74.9±6.8 years, 48.9% of which were women. Three-hundred and thirteen of the participants (22.7% had at least one fall during the previous year. Multivariate analysis showed that odds ratio for the risk of falling was 1.94 (95% CI 1.36-2.76 when the female gender group is compared with the male gender group. The adjusted odds ratios of age and waist circumference were 1.03 (95% CI 1.00-1.06 and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.05 respectively. The adjusted odds ratios of visual acuity, Karnofsky scale, and serum albumin level were 0.34 (95% CI 0.15-0.76, 0.94 (95% CI 0.89-0.98, and 0.37 (95% CI 0.18-0.76 respectively. Larger waist circumference, older age, female gender, poorer visual acuity, lower score on the Karnofsky Performance Scale, and lower serum albumin level were the independent associated factors for falls. CONCLUSION: In addition to other associated factors, waist circumference should be included as a novel risk factor for falls.

  13. Respiratory flows during early childhood: Computational models to examine therapeutic aerosols in the developing airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Hofemeier, Philipp; Sznitman, Josué; Janna Tenenbaum-Katan Team

    2015-11-01

    Inhalation therapy is the cornerstone of early-childhood respiratory treatments, as well as a rising potential for systemic drug delivery and pulmonary vaccination. As such, indispensable understanding of respiratory flow phenomena, coupled with particle transport at the deep regions of children's lungs is necessary to attain efficient targeting of aerosol therapy. However, fundamental research of pulmonary transport is overwhelmingly focused on adults. In our study, we have developed an anatomically-inspired computational model of representing pulmonary acinar regions at several age points during a child's development. Our numerical simulations examine respiratory flows and particle deposition maps within the acinar model, accounting for varying age dependant anatomical considerations and ventilation patterns. Resulting deposition maps of aerosols alter with age, such findings might suggest that medication protocols of inhalation therapy in young children should be considered to be accordingly amended with the child's development. Additionally to understanding basic scientific concepts of age effects on aerosol deposition, our research can potentially contribute practical guidelines to therapy protocols, and its' necessary modifications with age. We acknowledge the support of the ISF and the Israeli ministry of Science.

  14. Aerosol penetration of leak pathways : an examination of the available data and models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Dana Auburn

    2009-04-01

    Data and models of aerosol particle deposition in leak pathways are described. Pathways considered include capillaries, orifices, slots and cracks in concrete. The Morewitz-Vaughan criterion for aerosol plugging of leak pathways is shown to be applicable only to a limited range of particle settling velocities and Stokes numbers. More useful are sampling efficiency criteria defined by Davies and by Liu and Agarwal. Deposition of particles can be limited by bounce from surfaces defining leak pathways and by resuspension of particles deposited on these surfaces. A model of the probability of particle bounce is described. Resuspension of deposited particles can be triggered by changes in flow conditions, particle impact on deposits and by shock or vibration of the surfaces. This examination was performed as part of the review of the AP1000 Standard Combined License Technical Report, APP-GW-GLN-12, Revision 0, 'Offsite and Control Room Dose Changes' (TR-112) in support of the USNRC AP1000 Standard Combined License Pre-Application Review.

  15. Perspectives: Using Results from HRSA's Health Workforce Simulation Model to Examine the Geography of Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Robin A; Zangaro, George A; Chattopadhyay, Arpita

    2017-02-01

    Inform health planning and policy discussions by describing Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA's) Health Workforce Simulation Model (HWSM) and examining the HWSM's 2025 supply and demand projections for primary care physicians, nurse practitioners (NPs), and physician assistants (PAs). HRSA's recently published projections for primary care providers derive from an integrated microsimulation model that estimates health workforce supply and demand at national, regional, and state levels. Thirty-seven states are projected to have shortages of primary care physicians in 2025, and nine states are projected to have shortages of both primary care physicians and PAs. While no state is projected to have a 2025 shortage of primary care NPs, many states are expected to have only a small surplus. Primary care physician shortages are projected for all parts of the United States, while primary care PA shortages are generally confined to Midwestern and Southern states. No state is projected to have shortages of all three provider types. Projected shortages must be considered in the context of baseline assumptions regarding current supply, demand, provider-service ratios, and other factors. Still, these findings suggest geographies with possible primary care workforce shortages in 2025 and offer opportunities for targeting efforts to enhance workforce flexibility. © Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Using Simpson’s diversity index to examine multidimensional models of diversity in health professions education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Gerald W.; McLaughlin, Josetta S.; White, Carla Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study explored new models of diversity for health professions education that incorporate multiple attributes and examined differences in diversity based on urbanicity, geographic region, and institutional structure. Methods Simpson’s Diversity Index was used to develop race, gender, and interprofessional diversity indices for health professions schools in the United States (N = 318). Sullivan’s extension was used to develop a composite diversity index that incorporated multiple individual attributes for each school. Pearson’s r was used to investigate correlations between continuous variables. ANOVA and independent t-tests were used to compare groups based on urbanicity, geographic region, and Basic Carnegie Classification. Results Mean (SD) for race, gender, and interprofessional  diversity indices were 0.36(0.17), 0.45(0.07), and 0.22(0.27) respectively. All correlations between the three indices were weak. The composite diversity index for this sample was 0.34(0.13). Significant differences in diversity were found between institutions based on urbanicity, Basic Carnegie Classification, and geographic region. Conclusions Multidimensional models provide support for expanding measures of diversity to include multiple characteristics and attributes. The approach demonstrated in this study enables institutions to complement and extend traditional measures of diversity as a means of providing evidence for decision-making and progress towards institutional initiatives. PMID:26724917

  17. Bayesian Graphical Models for Genomewide Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Verzilli, Claudio J.; Stallard, Nigel; Whittaker, John C.

    2006-01-01

    As the extent of human genetic variation becomes more fully characterized, the research community is faced with the challenging task of using this information to dissect the heritable components of complex traits. Genomewide association studies offer great promise in this respect, but their analysis poses formidable difficulties. In this article, we describe a computationally efficient approach to mining genotype-phenotype associations that scales to the size of the data sets currently being ...

  18. Contemporary model fidelity over the Maritime Continent: Examination of the diurnal cycle, synoptic, intraseasonal and seasonal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Dariusz

    2017-04-01

    One of the key challenges in subseasonal weather forecasting is the fidelity in representing the propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) across the Maritime Continent (MC). In reality both propagating and non-propagating MJO events are observed, but in numerical forecast the latter group largely dominates. The fact that models still struggle to realistically represent the MJO over MC is generally attributed to its complex terrain and associated vigorous diurnal cycle of convection, multi-scale interactions between local and propagating modes of convection and regional air-sea interactions. In this study, multi-model simulations from the GEWEX Atmospheric System Study (GASS) / Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC) MJO Project are analyzed to quantify contemporary model performance in representing the MC mean climate and its variability, including the diurnal cycle, synoptic, intraseasonal, and seasonal variability. This dataset has been shown to be useful in such multi-model evaluation studies over different regions and/or focusing on different physical processes (e.g. Jiang et al., JGR, 2015; Mani et al., Clim. Dyn, 2016) For this study, comprehensive model performances are evaluated using metrics that utilize the mean precipitation pattern and the amplitude and phase of the diurnal cycle, with a particular focus on the linkage between a model's local MC variability and its fidelity in representing propagation of the MJO and equatorial Kelvin waves across the MC. Subseasonal to seasonal variability of mean precipitation and its diurnal cycle in 20 year long climate simulations from over 20 general circulation models (GCMs) is examined to benchmark model performance. Furthermore, we utilize cross model differences to gain insight into which processes are most critical to realistically represent multi-scale interactions over the MC region. This includes distinguishing the behavior between a number of land (Sumatra, Borneo, New Guinea and Southeast Asia) and

  19. Associations between the Five-Factor Model of Personality and Health Behaviors among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Douglas A.; Levine, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In fall 2006, the authors examined associations between the five-factor model of personality and several key health behaviors. Methods: College students (N = 583) completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment and the International Personality Item Pool Big Five short-form questionnaire. Results:…

  20. Modeling Fan Effects on the Time Course of Associative Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Darryl W.; Anderson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the time course of associative recognition using the response signal procedure, whereby a stimulus is presented and followed after a variable lag by a signal indicating that an immediate response is required. More specifically, we examined the effects of associative fan (the number of associations that an item has with other items…

  1. Modeling von Karman vortex shedding in cylinder wake to examine energetic coherent motions on hydrokinetic turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, V. S.; Gunawan, B.; Chamorro, L. P.; Stekovic, S.; Hill, C.

    2012-12-01

    Numerous investigators have examined vortex-shedding in the wake of cylinders. This is a classical flow problem that has many engineering applications, including pronounced flow disturbance, turbulence generation, and sediment scour in the wakes of in stream structures, e.g. bridge piers and towers for marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. It is also important to understand the contribution of large coherent motions on the unsteady loading and performance of hydrokinetic turbines. Unsteady vortex shedding is caused by flow separation and detachment within the near-wall region along the cylinder surface. Our aim is to examine the unsteady flow field and von Karman vortex shedding resulting from unsteady turbulent flow around an emergent cylinder mounted perpendicular to a fixed surface by conducting physical and numerical modeling experiments. The numerical simulation emulates an open-channel flow experiment at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory at the University of Minnesota, where instantaneous velocity was measured using three synchronized acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs). The open-channel flume is 80 m long, and 2.75 m wide. The flow depth is 1.15 m. The cylinder diameter is 0.116 m. The flow is turbulent, with a cylinder Reynolds number equal to 5.44E4. We use the commercial CFD software, STAR-CCM+, to generate the computational mesh that models the flow geometry around the cylinder, and to numerically solve the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations. The generated mesh is fine enough (> 2 million elements) to resolve the coherent structures of vortex shedding. The Frost high-performance cluster (an ORNL supercomputer) is used to run the simulation. The results show how a validated CFD model can be used to design the layout and spacing of synchronized ADV point measurements to characterize essential features of the Karman shedding in the cylinder wake. A similar approach can be used to design field ADV arrays for measuring more complex

  2. A structural equation modelling approach examining the pathways between safety climate, behaviour performance and workplace slipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Verma, Santosh K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melayne; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-07-01

    Safety climate has previously been associated with increasing safe workplace behaviours and decreasing occupational injuries. This study seeks to understand the structural relationship between employees' perceptions of safety climate, performing a safety behaviour (ie, wearing slip-resistant shoes) and risk of slipping in the setting of limited-service restaurants. At baseline, we surveyed 349 employees at 30 restaurants for their perceptions of their safety training and management commitment to safety as well as demographic data. Safety performance was identified as wearing slip-resistant shoes, as measured by direct observation by the study team. We then prospectively collected participants' hours worked and number of slips weekly for the next 12 weeks. Using a confirmatory factor analysis, we modelled safety climate as a higher order factor composed of previously identified training and management commitment factors. The 349 study participants experienced 1075 slips during the 12-week follow-up. Confirmatory factor analysis supported modelling safety climate as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. In a structural equation model, safety climate indirectly affected prospective risk of slipping through safety performance, but no direct relationship between safety climate and slips was evident. Results suggest that safety climate can reduce workplace slips through performance of a safety behaviour as well as suggesting a potential causal mechanism through which safety climate can reduce workplace injuries. Safety climate can be modelled as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Associations Among Sleep, Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Among US Childbearing-Age Women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vézina-Im, Lydi-Anne; Nicklas, Theresa A; Baranowski, Tom

    2018-03-27

    Women of childbearing age (18-44 years) present an important group for understanding sleep, but few studies have focused on this population. No study has investigated the associations among sleep, overweight/obesity, and risk of type 2 diabetes among childbearing-age women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Data were from NHANES, 2005-2008. The study population consisted of 18-44 year old women. Pregnant women and those diagnosed with sleep disorders were excluded. Sleep duration and quality were self-reported. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) measurements, and a 2-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed by trained NHANES staff. An unadjusted linear regression analysis; a second adjusted for demographics only (partially adjusted model); and a third adjusted for demographics and variables associated with overweight/obesity and diabetes (fully adjusted model) were computed to assess associations among sleep duration/quality and BMI, WC, and 2-hour OGTT. Total sample consisted of 2388 childbearing-age women. Only sleep duration was significantly associated with BMI and WC in the unadjusted and partially adjusted models, but was no longer significant in the fully adjusted model. Neither sleep duration nor quality was significantly associated with 2-hour OGTT in any of the models. Targeting sleep duration and sleep quality alone would not likely contribute to significantly lower BMI, WC, or risk of type 2 diabetes in US childbearing-age women. Additional studies, especially longitudinal ones using objective measures of sleep, are needed to confirm these findings.

  4. Inverse association between insulin resistance and gait speed in nondiabetic older men: results from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yau-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have revealed the associations between insulin resistance (IR and geriatric conditions such as frailty and cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the relation of IR to physical impairment and limitation in the aging process, eg. slow gait speed and poor muscle strength. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of IR in performance-based physical function, specifically gait speed and leg strength, among nondiabetic older adults. Methods Cross-sectional data were from the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002. A total of 1168 nondiabetic adults (≥ 50 years with nonmissing values in fasting measures of insulin and glucose, habitual gait speed (HGS, and leg strength were analyzed. IR was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, whereas HGS and peak leg strength by the 20-foot timed walk test and an isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. We used multiple linear regression to examine the association between IR and performance-based physical function. Results IR was inversely associated with gait speed among the men. After adjusting demographics, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking status, chronic co-morbidities, and markers of nutrition and cardiovascular risk, each increment of 1 standard deviation in the HOMA-IR level was associated with a 0.04 m/sec decrease (p = 0.003 in the HGS in men. We did not find such association among the women. The IR-HGS association was not changed after further adjustment of leg strength. Last, HOMA-IR was not demonstrated in association with peak leg strength. Conclusion IR is inversely associated with HGS among older men without diabetes. The results suggest that IR, an important indicator of gait function among men, could be further investigated as an intervenable target to prevent walking limitation.

  5. The Association between Food Insecurity and Obesity in Children-The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasbir; Lamb, Molly M; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2015-05-01

    Food insecurity can put children at greater risk of obesity because of altered food choices and nonuniform consumption patterns. We examined the association between obesity and both child-level food insecurity and personal food insecurity in US children. Data from 9,701 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2010, aged 2 to 11 years were analyzed. Child-level food insecurity was assessed with the US Department of Agriculture's Food Security Survey Module based on eight child-specific questions. Personal food insecurity was assessed with five additional questions. Obesity was defined, using physical measurements, as body mass index (calculated as kg/m²) greater than or equal to the age- and sex-specific 95th percentile of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Logistic regressions adjusted for sex, race/ethnic group, poverty level, and survey year were conducted to describe associations between obesity and food insecurity. Obesity was significantly associated with personal food insecurity for children aged 6 to 11 years (odds ratio=1.81; 95% CI 1.33 to 2.48), but not in children aged 2 to 5 years (odds ratio=0.88; 95% CI 0.51 to 1.51). Child-level food insecurity was not associated with obesity among 2- to 5-year-olds or 6- to 11-year-olds. Personal food insecurity is associated with an increased risk of obesity only in children aged 6 to 11 years. Personal food-insecurity measures may give different results than aggregate food-insecurity measures in children. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The validity of the 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory in older Spanish population: an examination of the androgyny model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, Afshin; Alvarado, Beatriz; Tomás, Concepcion; Muro, Carmen; Martinez, Beatriz; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) is the most commonly used and validated gender role measurement tool across countries and age groups. However, it has been rarely validated in older adults and sporadically used in aging and health studies. Perceived gender role is a crucial part of a person's identity and an established determinant of health. Androgyny model suggests that those with high levels of both masculinity and femininity (androgynous) are more adaptive and hence have better health. Our objectives were to explore the validity of BSRI in an older Spanish population, to compare different standard methods of measuring gender roles, and to examine their impact on health indicators. The BSRI and health indicator questions were completed by 120 community-dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Aragon, Spain. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to examine psychometric properties of the BSRI. Androgyny was measured by three approaches: geometric mean, t-ratio, and traditional four-gender groups classification. Relationships between health indicators and gender roles were explored. Factor analysis resulted in two-factor solution consistent with the original masculine and feminine items with high loadings and good reliability. There were no associations between biological sex and gender roles. Different gender role measurement approaches classified participants differently into gender role groups. Overall, androgyny was associated with better mobility and physical and mental health. The traditional four groups approach showed higher compatibility with the androgyny model and was better able to disentangle the differential impact of gender roles on health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An examination of sources of sensitivity of consumer surplus estimates in travel cost models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Thomas W; Lichtkoppler, Frank R; Bader, Timothy J; Hartman, Travis J; Lucente, Joseph E

    2015-03-15

    We examine sensitivity of estimates of recreation demand using the Travel Cost Method (TCM) to four factors. Three of the four have been routinely and widely discussed in the TCM literature: a) Poisson verses negative binomial regression; b) application of Englin correction to account for endogenous stratification; c) truncation of the data set to eliminate outliers. A fourth issue we address has not been widely modeled: the potential effect on recreation demand of the interaction between income and travel cost. We provide a straightforward comparison of all four factors, analyzing the impact of each on regression parameters and consumer surplus estimates. Truncation has a modest effect on estimates obtained from the Poisson models but a radical effect on the estimates obtained by way of the negative binomial. Inclusion of an income-travel cost interaction term generally produces a more conservative but not a statistically significantly different estimate of consumer surplus in both Poisson and negative binomial models. It also generates broader confidence intervals. Application of truncation, the Englin correction and the income-travel cost interaction produced the most conservative estimates of consumer surplus and eliminated the statistical difference between the Poisson and the negative binomial. Use of the income-travel cost interaction term reveals that for visitors who face relatively low travel costs, the relationship between income and travel demand is negative, while it is positive for those who face high travel costs. This provides an explanation of the ambiguities on the findings regarding the role of income widely observed in the TCM literature. Our results suggest that policies that reduce access to publicly owned resources inordinately impact local low income recreationists and are contrary to environmental justice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A critical examination of the youth foyer model for alleviating homelessness: Strengthening a promising evidence base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Levin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the quality of 15 primary studies that examined the effectiveness of youth foyer or foyer-like programs on the lives of young homeless people. The youth foyer model provides an integrated approach to tackling youth homelessness, connecting affordable accommodation to training and employment. In Australia, there is growing support from government for the development and funding of foyer programs. However to date, there has been very limited development and investment in the evidence base on the effectiveness of this model in Australia or internationally. Following an extensive literature search, we argue that there is a need to lift the standard of the evidence base of youth foyer effectiveness. We discuss two main issues: the difficulty studies had validating claims of foyer effectiveness, and limitations of research design and methodology. The implications of the lack of rigour in the research reviewed are three-fold. Firstly, youth foyer evaluation study quality could be improved by: clearer methodological and model documentation; post intervention follow-up design; comparison of data to non-randomised comparison groups; and a pre-publication peer-review process. This would be supported with clearer expectations from the research community regarding the production and assessment of grey literature. Secondly, while the standard of reporting needs to be raised, the ‘gold standard’ (i.e. randomised controlled trials of research design in the scientific community is not a relevant benchmark in the field of homelessness research. This is due to the complexity of homelessness interventions and the inadequate funding of the homelessness research field. Greater investment in robust research and evaluation should accompany the substantial investment in youth foyer programs in order to accurately appraise the effectiveness of the youth foyer model. Thirdly, the lack of rigour in the studies reviewed suggests gaps in the service

  9. A correlation between low back pain and associated factors: a study involving 772 patients who had undergone general physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min A; Shim, Woo Seok; Kim, Myung Hee; Gwak, Mi Sook; Hahm, Tae Soo; Kim, Gaab Soo; Kim, Chung Su; Choi, Yoon Ho; Park, Jeong Heon; Cho, Hyun Sung; Kim, Tae Hyeong

    2006-12-01

    Many factors are associated with the development of low back pain. Among them, exercise, obesity, smoking, age, educational level and stress are the most common. This study examined the association of these factors with low back pain. An additional aim was to determine a procedure for preventing low back pain. This study analyzed the responses to a questionnaire sent to 772 individuals who had undergone a medical examination at this hospital in 2003 and excluded the individuals who had shown symptoms or their test results indicated a particular disease. Assuming that there were no variables, individuals who exercised regularly 3-4 times per week would have a lower chance of having low back pain than those who did not exercise regularly. The analysis revealed that individuals with a college degree or higher education have a lower chance of experiencing low back pain than those with only a high school education or even college drop-outs. When the other variables were constant, age, extent of obesity (body mass index), smoking and level of stress were not found to affect the development of low back pain. The level of education was associated with the development of low back pain. However, regular exercise 3-4 times per week or more would be most effective in reducing the incidence and duration of low back pain.

  10. "Just how graphic are graphic novels?" An examination of aggression portrayals in manga and associations with aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura; Coutts, Holly; Collier, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Manga, a type of graphic novel, represent a widely popular literary genre worldwide and are one of the fastest growing areas of the publishing arena aimed at adolescents in the United States. However, to our knowledge, there has been almost no empirical research examining content or effects of reading manga. This article consists of 2 studies. Study 1 represents a content analysis of aggressive behavior in best-selling manga aimed at adolescents. Results revealed that aggression was common and was often portrayed in ways that may influence subsequent behavior. Study 2 examined the relationship between reading manga and aggressive behavior in 223 adolescents. Manga readers were more physically aggressive than non-manga readers and also reported more peer relationships with lonely individuals and smaller groups. In addition, reading manga with particularly high levels of aggression was associated with physical aggression even after controlling for media violence exposure in other media. Implications regarding these findings are discussed.

  11. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Min Ko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMenstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women.MethodsA total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity.ResultsSignificantly higher ORs (95% CI were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48 and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86 after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity.ConclusionWe found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle.

  12. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Min; Han, Kyungdo; Chung, Youn Jee; Yoon, Kun Ho; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2017-06-01

    Menstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women. A total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity. Significantly higher ORs (95% CI) were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48) and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86) after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity. We found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  13. Examination of a dual-process model predicting riding with drinking drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Brittney A; Scaglione, Nichole M; Cleveland, Michael J; Turrisi, Rob

    2015-06-01

    Nearly 1 in 5 of the fatalities in alcohol-related crashes are passengers. Few studies have utilized theory to examine modifiable psychosocial predictors of individuals' tendencies to be a passenger in a vehicle operated by a driver who has consumed alcohol. This study used a prospective design to test a dual-process model featuring reasoned and reactive psychological influences and psychosocial constructs as predictors of riding with drinking drivers (RWDD) in a sample of individuals aged 18 to 21. College students (N = 508) completed web-based questionnaires assessing RWDD, psychosocial constructs (attitudes, expectancies, and norms), and reasoned and reactive influences (intentions and willingness) at baseline (the middle of the spring semester) and again 1 and 6 months later. Regression was used to analyze reasoned and reactive influences as proximal predictors of RWDD at the 6-month follow-up. Subsequent analyses examined the relationship between the psychosocial constructs as distal predictors of RWDD and the mediation effects of reasoned and reactive influences. Both reasoned and reactive influences predicted RWDD, while only the reactive influence had a significant unique effect. Reactive influences significantly mediated the effects of peer norms, attitudes, and drinking influences on RWDD. Nearly all effects were constant across gender except parental norms (significant for females). Findings highlight that the important precursors of RWDD were reactive influences, attitudes, and peer and parent norms. These findings suggest several intervention methods, specifically normative feedback interventions, parent-based interventions, and brief motivational interviewing, may be particularly beneficial in reducing RWDD. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Factors associated with testicular self-examination among unaffected men from multiple-case testicular cancer families

    OpenAIRE

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Moser, Richard P; Loud, Jennifer; Peters, June A; Greene, Mark H; Korde, Larissa

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The lifetime testicular cancer (TC) risk in the general population is relatively low (~1 in 250), but men with a family history of TC are at 4 to 9 times greater risk than those without. Some health and professional organizations recommend consideration of testicular self-examination (TSE) for certain high-risk groups (e.g. men with a family history of TC). Yet little is known about factors associated with TSE behaviors in this at-risk group. Methods We collected informati...

  15. Examining the genetic and environmental associations among spelling, reading fluency, reading comprehension and a high stakes reading test in a combined sample of third and fourth grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Callie W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an examination of the genetic and environmental effects on the associations among reading fluency, spelling and earlier reading comprehension on a later reading comprehension outcome (FCAT) in a combined sample of 3rd and 4th grade students using data from the 2011-2012 school year of the Florida Twin project on Reading (Taylor et al., 2013). A genetically sensitive model was applied to the data with results indicating a common genetic component among all four measures, along with shared and non-shared environmental influences common between reading fluency, spelling and FCAT. PMID:26770052

  16. A test of the Olson Circumplex Model: examining its curvilinear assumption and the presence of extreme types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S A; Gavazzi, S M

    1990-09-01

    The debate over the usefulness of different family models continues. Recent attention has been paid to comparisons between the Olson Circumplex Model and the Beavers Systems Model. The present study seeks to contribute evidence that bears directly upon one of the most fundamental points of controversy surrounding the Olson model--the linear versus curvilinear nature of the cohesion and adaptability dimensions. A further contribution is an examination of the actual occurrence of the Circumplex Model's extreme types in a clinical population.

  17. PALM KERNEL OIL SOLUBITY EXAMINATION AND ITS MODELING IN EXTRACTION PROCESS USING SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Bahari Setianto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Application of  supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 to vegetable oil extraction became an attractive technique due to its high solubility, short extraction time and simple purification. The method is considered as earth friendly technology due to the absence of chemical usage. Solubility of solute-SC-CO2 is an important data for application of the SC-CO2 extraction. In this work, the equilibrium solubility of the palm kernel oil (PKO in SC-CO2 has been examined using extraction curve analysis. The examinations were performed at temperature and pressure ranges of  323.15 K to 353.15 K and 20.7 to 34.5 MPa respectively. It was obtained that the experimental solubility were from 0.0160 to 0.0503 g oil/g CO2 depend on the extraction condition. The experimental solubility data was well correlated with a solvent density based model with absolute percent deviation of 0.96. PENENTUAN KELARUTAN MINYAK INTI KELAPA SAWIT DAN PEMODELAN EKSTRAKSI DENGAN KARBON DIOKSIDA SUPERKRITIK. Sehubungan dengan kelarutan yang tinggi, waktu ekstraksi yang pendek dan pemurnian hasil yang mudah, aplikasi karbon dioksida superkritis (SC-CO2 pada ekstraksi minyak nabati menjadi sebuah teknik ekstraksi yang menarik. Karena tanpa penggunaan bahan kimia, metode ekstraksi ini dianggap sebagai teknologi yang ramah lingkungan. Kelarutan zat terlarut pada SC-CO2 merupakan data yang penting dalam aplikasi SC-CO2 pada proses ekstraksi.  Pada penelitian ini,  kelarutan kesetimbangan dari minyak biji sawit (PKO dalam SC-CO2 telah diuji dengan mengunakan analisa kurva proses ekstraksi. Pengujian kelarutan tersebut dilakukan pada rentang suhu 323,15 K sampai 353,15 K dan rentang tekanan 20,7 MPa sampai 34,5 MPa. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa kelarutan kesetimbangan hasil percobaan  PKO pada SC-CO2 adalah 0.0160 g minyak/g CO2 sampai 0,0503 g minyak/g CO2 tergantung pada kondisi ekstraksi. Data kelarutan kesetimbangan hasil percobaan  telah dikorelasaikan dengan baik menggunakan

  18. Optic nerve sheath diameter measurement techniques: examination using a novel ex-vivo porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaum, Derek M; Antonsen, Erik; Bockhorst, Kurt H; Easley, R Blaine; Clark, Jonathan B; Brady, Kenneth M; Kibler, Kathleen K; Sutton, Jeffrey P; Kramer, Larry; Sargsyan, Ashot E

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound (U/S) and MRI measurements of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) have been proposed as intracranial pressure measurement surrogates, but these methods have not been fully evaluated or standardized. The purpose of this study was to develop an ex-vivo model for evaluating ONSD measurement techniques by comparing U/S and MRI measurements to physical measurements. The left eye of post mortem juvenile pigs (N = 3) was excised and the subdural space of the optic nerve cannulated. Caliper measurements and U/S imaging measurements of the ONSD were acquired at baseline and following 1 cc saline infusion into the sheath. The samples were then embedded in 0.5% agarose and imaged in a 7 Tesla (7T) MRI. The ONSD was subsequently measured with digital calipers at locations and directions matching the U/S and direct measurements. Both MRI and sonographic measurements were in agreement with direct measurements. U/S data, especially axial images, exhibited a positive bias and more variance (bias: 1.318, 95% limit of agreement: 8.609) compared to MRI (bias: 0.3156, 95% limit of agreement: 2.773). In addition, U/S images were much more dependent on probe placement, distance between probe and target, and imaging plane. This model appears to be a valid test-bed for continued scrutiny of ONSD measurement techniques. In this model, 7T MRI was accurate and potentially useful for in-vivo measurements where direct measurements are not available. Current limitations with ultrasound imaging for ONSD measurement associated with image acquisition technique and equipment necessitate further standardization to improve its clinical utility.

  19. The association of parent's outcome expectations for child TV viewing with parenting practices and child TV viewing: an examination using path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauren; Chen, Tzu-An; Hughes, Sheryl O; O'Connor, Teresia M

    2015-05-28

    Television (TV) viewing has been associated with many undesirable outcomes for children, such as increased risk of obesity, but TV viewing can also have benefits. Although restrictive parenting practices are effective in reducing children's TV viewing, not all parents use them and it is currently unclear why. The current study examined parenting practices related to TV viewing in the context of social- cognitive theory. Specifically, we hypothesized that positive and negative Parental Outcome Expectations for child's TV Viewing (POETV) would be associated with social co-viewing and restrictive parenting practices, and that POETV and parenting practices influence the amount of TV viewed by child. Data were collected from an internet survey of 287 multi-ethnic parents and their 6-12 year old children on participants' sociodemographic information, parenting practices related to TV use, POETV, and parent and child TV viewing. Path analysis was used to examine the relationship amongst variables in separate models for weekday and weekend TV viewing. controlling for child age, household education, and parental TV viewing. The results provided partial support for the hypotheses, with notable differences between weekday and weekend viewing. The models explained 13.6% and 23.4% of the variance in children's TV viewing on weekdays and weekends respectively. Neither positive nor negative POETV were associated with restrictive TV parenting in either model. One subscale each from positive and negative POETV were associated with social co-viewing parenting on both weekends and weekdays in the expected direction. Restrictive parenting practices were directly negatively associated with children's TV viewing on weekdays, but not weekends. Social co-viewing parenting was directly positively associated with children's TV viewing on weekends, but not weekdays. The strongest influence on children's TV viewing was having a TV in the child's bedroom. Negative POETV was weakly associated

  20. Gender differences in the associations between urinary bisphenol A and body composition among American children: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: As an endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A (BPA exposure has been implicated as a potential risk factor in childhood obesity, which is defined using percentiles of body mass index for age. We aimed to examine the associations between BPA exposure, reflected by urinary BPA concentration, and body composition in American children. Methods: Data of 1860 children aged 8–19 years who participated in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were analyzed in this study. Urinary BPA concentration (ng/mL was used to indicate BPA status in the body. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Multivariate linear regression models were fitted using survey procedures to investigate the associations between urinary BPA level and body composition separately for boys and girls. Results: After adjusting for demographic and lifestyle covariates, higher quartiled and log-transformed urinary BPA levels were significantly associated with elevated lean body mass index (LBMI z-scores in boys (p < 0.05, and significantly associated with elevated fat mass index (FMI z-scores in girls (p < 0.05. Lower urinary BPA concentration was associated with lower percentage of trunk fat in girls (compared to 1st quartile, 2nd-quartile: β = 2.85, 95% CI, 0.92–4.78; 3rd-quartile: β = 2.57, 95% CI, 0.28–4.85; 4th-quartile: β = 2.79, 95% CI, 0.44–5.14; all p < 0.05. Such patterns were not observed in boys. Conclusions: Higher BPA levels may be associated with elevated LBM in boys, but not in girls, while higher BPA levels may be associated with elevated FM in girls, but not in boys.

  1. When Traits Match States: Examining the Associations between Self-Report Trait and State Mindfulness following a State Mindfulness Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R; Wilson, Adam D; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has found inconsistent relationships between trait mindfulness and state mindfulness. To extend previous research, we sought to examine the unique associations between self-report trait mindfulness and state mindfulness by levels of meditation experience (meditation-naïve vs. meditation-experienced) and by mindfulness induction (experimentally induced mindful state vs. control group). We recruited 299 college students (93 with previous mindfulness meditation experience) to participate in an experiment that involved the assessment of five facets of trait mindfulness (among other constructs), followed by a mindfulness induction (vs. control), followed by the assessment of state mindfulness of body and mind. Correlational analyses revealed limited associations between trait mindfulness facets and facets of state mindfulness, and demonstrated that a brief mindfulness exercise focused on bodily sensations and the breath elicited higher state mindfulness of body but not state mindfulness of mind. We found significant interactions such that individuals with previous meditation experience and higher scores on the observing facet of trait mindfulness had the highest levels of state mindfulness of body and mind. Among individuals with meditation experience, the strengths of the associations between observing trait mindfulness and the state mindfulness facets increased with frequency of meditation practice. Some other interactions ran counter to expectations. Overall, the relatively weak associations between trait and state mindfulness demonstrates the need to improve our operationalizations of mindfulness, advance our understanding of how to best cultivate mindfulness, and reappraise the ways in which mindfulness can manifest as a state and as a trait.

  2. Association of heart rate with albuminuria in a general adult population: the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H S; Hong, J W; Lee, J H; Noh, J H; Kim, D J

    2015-04-01

    Albuminuria is associated with increased risk of multiple adverse health outcomes, such as progressive renal failure, cardiovascular disease and death. However, in the general population, it is uncertain whether albuminuria is associated with elevated heart rate, which is an independent and powerful risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To investigate whether an elevated heart rate is an independent factor associated with albuminuria in the general adult population of Korea. A cross-sectional analysis was carried out on 5198 Korean adults aged 19 years or older who participated in the fifth (2011) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-2). The prevalence of albuminuria showed an increasing trend throughout the whole range of heart rate, even after adjusting for confounders (P = 0.002). The increment was most profound at the heart rate of 70-75 and >76 beats per minute (b.p.m.; P = 0.011). In multiple logistic regression analysis, age (P albuminuria in Korean adults. Compared with participants with heart rate ≤ 64 b.p.m., the odds ratio (95% CI) for albuminuria was 1.50 (1.15-1.96) for those with heart rate ≥ 76 b.p.m. The prevalence of albuminuria is independently associated with heart rate in the general adult population of Korea. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  3. Examination of a cognitive model of stress, burnout, and intention to resign for Japanese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohue, Takashi; Moriyama, Michiko; Nakaya, Takashi

    2011-06-01

    A reduction in burnout is required to decrease the voluntary turnover of nurses. This study was carried out with the aim of establishing a cognitive model of stress, burnout, and intention to resign for nurses. A questionnaire survey was administered to 336 nurses (27 male and 309 female) who had worked for ≤5 years at a hospital with multiple departments. The survey included an evaluation of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), stress (Nursing Job Stressor Scale), automatic thoughts (Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised), and irrational beliefs (Japanese Irrational Belief Test), in addition to the intention to resign. The stressors that affected burnout in the nurses included conflict with other nursing staff, nursing role conflict, qualitative workload, quantitative workload, and conflict with patients. The irrational beliefs that were related to burnout included dependence, problem avoidance, and helplessness. In order to examine the automatic thoughts affecting burnout, groups with low and high negative automatic thoughts and low and high positive automatic thoughts were established. A two-way ANOVA showed a significant interaction of these factors with emotional exhaustion, but no significant interaction with depersonalization and a personal sense of accomplishment. Only the major effect was significant. The final model showed a process of "stressor → irrational beliefs → negative automatic thoughts/positive automatic thoughts → burnout". In addition, a relationship between burnout and an intention to resign was shown. These results suggest that stress and burnout in nurses might be prevented and that the number of nurses who leave their position could be decreased by changing irrational beliefs to rational beliefs, decreasing negative automatic thoughts, and facilitating positive automatic thoughts. © 2010 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2010 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  4. Association of Previous Clinical Breast Examination With Reduced Delays and Earlier-Stage Breast Cancer Diagnosis Among Women in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanoff, Anya; Constant, Tara Hayes; Johnson, Kay M; Guadiamos, Manuel Cedano; Vega, Ana María Burga; Zunt, Joseph; Anderson, Benjamin O

    2017-11-01

    Mammographic screening is impractical in most of the world where breast cancers are first identified based on clinical signs and symptoms. Clinical breast examination may improve early diagnosis directly by finding breast cancers at earlier stages or indirectly by heightening women's awareness of breast health concerns. To investigate factors that influence time to presentation and stage at diagnosis among patients with breast cancer to determine whether history of previous clinical breast examination is associated with earlier presentation and/or earlier cancer stage at diagnosis. In this cross-sectional analysis of individual patient interviews using a validated Breast Cancer Delay Questionnaire, 113 (71.1%) of 159 women with breast cancer treated at a federally funded tertiary care referral cancer center in Trujillo, Peru, from February 1 through May 31, 2015, were studied. Method of breast cancer detection and factors that influence time to and stage at diagnosis. Of 113 women with diagnosed cancer (mean [SD] age, 54 [10.8] years; age range, 32-82 years), 105 (92.9%) had self-detected disease. Of the 93 women for whom stage was documented, 45 (48.4%) were diagnosed with early-stage disease (American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] stage 0, I, or II), and 48 (51.6%) were diagnosed with late-stage disease (AJCC stage III or IV). Mean (SD) total delay from symptom onset to initiation of treatment was 407 (665) days because of patient (mean [SD], 198 [449] days) and health care system (mean [SD], 241 [556] days) delay. Fifty-two women (46.0%) had a history of clinical breast examination, and 23 (20.4%) had undergone previous mammography. Women who underwent a previous clinical breast examination were more likely to have shorter delays from symptom development to presentation compared with women who had never undergone a previous clinical breast examination (odds ratio, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.30-6.60; P = .01). Women diagnosed with shorter patient delay were more

  5. A model-based examination of multivariate physical modes in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, A. J.; Ladd, C.; Cheng, W.; Curchitser, E. N.; Hedstrom, K.

    2016-10-01

    We use multivariate output from a hydrodynamic model of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) to explore the covariance among its physical state and air/sea fluxes. We attempt to summarize this coupled variability using a limited set of patterns, and examine their correlation to three large-scale climate indices relevant to the Northeast Pacific. This analysis is focused on perturbations from monthly climatology of the following attributes of the GOA: sea surface temperature, sea surface height, mixed layer depth, sea surface salinity, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, shortwave irradiance, net long wave irradiance, currents at 40 m depth, and wind stress. We identified two multivariate modes, both substantially correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Multivariate El Nino (MEI) indices on interannual timescales, which together account for 30% of the total normalized variance of the perturbation time series. These two modes indicate the following covarying events during periods of positive PDO/MEI: (1) anomalously warm, wet and windy conditions (typically in winter), with elevated coastal SSH, followed 2-5 months later by (2) reduced cloud cover, with emerging shelf-break eddies. Similar modes are found when the analysis is performed separately on the eastern and western GOA; in general, modal amplitudes appear stronger in the western GOA.

  6. An examination of the association of selected toxic metals with total and central obesity indices: NHANES 99-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A; Elobeid, Mai; Ruden, Douglas M; Allison, David B

    2010-09-01

    It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten). Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium), and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead). Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings.

  7. An Examination of the Association of Selected Toxic Metals with Total and Central Obesity Indices: NHANES 99-02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Ruden

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten. Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium, and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead. Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings.

  8. Associations Between Periodontitis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Ho; Hwang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Tae Ho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether oral hygiene and self-care, particularly in periodontal health, are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Korean population. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012 were used to assess the community periodontal index (CPI) of 5,878 participants (normal lung function: n = 5,181; obstructive spirometric pattern: n = 697) aged ≥40 years, who underwent spirometry. Participants with COPD brushed their teeth less frequently and used the following less frequently: 1) dental floss and/or interdental brush; 2) mouthwash; and 3) electric toothbrush (P age; 2) income; 3) education; 4) smoking; 5) alcohol consumption; 6) exercise; 7) body mass index; 8) toothbrushing frequency; 9) diabetes mellitus; and 10) number of teeth (CPI 3: relative risk [RR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12 to 2.05; CPI 4: RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.56). Findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that COPD in males may be associated with severe periodontitis and indicates the importance of promoting dental care in patients with COPD.

  9. Sources of stress for breast cancer survivors involved in dragon boating: examining associations with treatment characteristics and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadd, Valerie; Sabiston, Catherine M; McDonough, Meghan H; Crocker, Peter R E

    2010-07-01

    This study sought to (1) identify common stressors faced by breast cancer survivors involved in dragon boating, (2) examine the conceptual and statistical factor groupings of the stressors, (3) identify differences in stressor factors based on treatment characteristics, and (4) examine the associations between stressor factors and two indicators of self-esteem. Survivors (n = 470) involved in dragon boating completed a survey assessing stressor frequency, stressor intensity, stressor valence, physical self-worth, and global self-esteem, along with demographic and cancer treatment information. An exploratory factor analyses (EFA) using maximum likelihood extraction with oblique rotation revealed a four-factor solution that included physical, emotional, social, and exercise-related stressors. Exercise-related stressors were reported more frequently and intensely but were appraised positively by most survivors. The physical, emotional, and social stressors were perceived predominantly as negative. Findings also revealed that physical and emotional stressors and exercise-related stressors were correlates of physical self-worth (R(2) = 0.26). Emotional, social, and exercise-related stressors were significant correlates of global self-esteem (R(2) = 0.11). Cancer treatments were also associated with the experience of stressors, with the strongest effects reported for chemotherapy treatment. Overall, the results demonstrate that participants experienced many stressors but that exercise-related stressors were viewed as more adaptive and were positive correlates of self-esteem processes.

  10. The importance of examining movements within the US health care system: sequential logit modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chioun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Utilization of specialty care may not be a discrete, isolated behavior but rather, a behavior of sequential movements within the health care system. Although patients may often visit their primary care physician and receive a referral before utilizing specialty care, prior studies have underestimated the importance of accounting for these sequential movements. Methods The sample included 6,772 adults aged 18 years and older who participated in the 2001 Survey on Disparities in Quality of Care, sponsored by the Commonwealth Fund. A sequential logit model was used to account for movement in all stages of utilization: use of any health services (i.e., first stage, having a perceived need for specialty care (i.e., second stage, and utilization of specialty care (i.e., third stage. In the sequential logit model, all stages are nested within the previous stage. Results Gender, race/ethnicity, education and poor health had significant explanatory effects with regard to use of any health services and having a perceived need for specialty care, however racial/ethnic, gender, and educational disparities were not present in utilization of specialty care. After controlling for use of any health services and having a perceived need for specialty care, inability to pay for specialty care via income (AOR = 1.334, CI = 1.10 to 1.62 or health insurance (unstable insurance: AOR = 0.26, CI = 0.14 to 0.48; no insurance: AOR = 0.12, CI = 0.07 to 0.20 were significant barriers to utilization of specialty care. Conclusions Use of a sequential logit model to examine utilization of specialty care resulted in a detailed representation of utilization behaviors and patient characteristics that impact these behaviors at all stages within the health care system. After controlling for sequential movements within the health care system, the biggest barrier to utilizing specialty care is the inability to pay, while racial, gender, and educational disparities

  11. Whole grain and fiber consumption are associated with lower body weight measures in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Zanovec, Michael; Cho, Susan S; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association of whole grain consumption with body weight measures and prevalence of overweight/obesity in a recent, nationally representative sample of adults. A secondary analysis of 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data was conducted using adults 19 to 50 years of age (y) (n = 7,039) and 51+ y (n = 6,237). Participants were categorized by whole grain consumption: ≥ 0 to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and prevalence of overweight/obesity. Sample weights were applied and the number and percentages of adults in whole grain consumption groups were determined. Least-square means and standard errors were calculated for body weight measures. Two regression models were developed and compared. Model 1 covariates included age, gender, ethnicity, and total energy intake; Model 2 was extended to include cereal fiber. Trend analysis was conducted to test for differences between least-square means. Significance was set at P ≤ .05. Adults 19-50 and 51+ y consumed a mean of 0.63 and 0.77 servings of whole grains/day, respectively. A significant trend was observed in both age groups for increased consumption of whole grains with lower BMI, WC, and percentage overweight/obese (Model 1); however, a significant trend was not observed when cereal fiber was added as a covariate (Model 2). Results confirm overall whole grain intake well below recommendations, and adults who consumed the most servings of whole grains had lower body weight measures. Results also suggest that fiber in whole grain foods may mediate associations with weight measures in adults. Intake of whole grain foods should be encouraged by health professionals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Examination of the Involvement of Cholinergic-Associated Genes in Nicotine Behaviors in European and African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melroy-Greif, Whitney E; Simonson, Matthew A; Corley, Robin P; Lutz, Sharon M; Hokanson, John E; Ehringer, Marissa A

    2017-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is a physiologically harmful habit. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are bound by nicotine and upregulated in response to chronic exposure to nicotine. It is known that upregulation of these receptors is not due to a change in mRNA of these genes, however, more precise details on the process are still uncertain, with several plausible hypotheses describing how nAChRs are upregulated. We have manually curated a set of genes believed to play a role in nicotine-induced nAChR upregulation. Here, we test the hypothesis that these genes are associated with and contribute risk for nicotine dependence (ND) and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Studies with genotypic data on European and African Americans (EAs and AAs, respectively) were collected and a gene-based test was run to test for an association between each gene and ND and CPD. Although several novel genes were associated with CPD and ND at P African Americans. Although no genes were associated after multiple testing correction, this study has several strengths: by manually curating a set of genes we circumvented the limitations inherent in many pathway analyses and tested several genes that had not yet been examined in a human genetic study; gene-based tests are a useful way to test for association with a set of genes; and these genes were collected based on literature review and conversations with experts, highlighting the importance of scientific collaboration. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Emergency department documentation templates: variability in template selection and association with physical examination and test ordering in dizziness presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurer William J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical documentation systems, such as templates, have been associated with process utilization. The T-System emergency department (ED templates are widely used but lacking are analyses of the templates association with processes. This system is also unique because of the many different template options available, and thus the selection of the template may also be important. We aimed to describe the selection of templates in ED dizziness presentations and to investigate the association between items on templates and process utilization. Methods Dizziness visits were captured from a population-based study of EDs that use documentation templates. Two relevant process outcomes were assessed: head computerized tomography (CT scan and nystagmus examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of each outcome for patients who did or did not receive a relevant-item template. Propensity scores were also used to adjust for selection effects. Results The final cohort was 1,485 visits. Thirty-one different templates were used. Use of a template with a head CT item was associated with an increase in the adjusted probability of head CT utilization from 12.2% (95% CI, 8.9%-16.6% to 29.3% (95% CI, 26.0%-32.9%. The adjusted probability of documentation of a nystagmus assessment increased from 12.0% (95%CI, 8.8%-16.2% when a nystagmus-item template was not used to 95.0% (95% CI, 92.8%-96.6% when a nystagmus-item template was used. The associations remained significant after propensity score adjustments. Conclusions Providers use many different templates in dizziness presentations. Important differences exist in the various templates and the template that is used likely impacts process utilization, even though selection may be arbitrary. The optimal design and selection of templates may offer a feasible and effective opportunity to improve care delivery.

  14. A Daily Process Examination of the Temporal Association Between Alcohol Use and Verbal and Physical Aggression in Community Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use has been associated with intimate partner aggression perpetration and victimization; however, much of the evidence is based on survey research. Few studies have addressed the proximal effects of drinking episodes on the subsequent occurrence of partner aggression. The current study used daily diary methodology to consider the daily and temporal association between drinking episodes and episodes of partner verbal and physical aggression among a community sample of married and cohabiting couples (N = 118). Male and female partners each provided 56 days of independent daily reports of drinking and partner conflict episodes, including verbal and physical aggression, using interactive voice response technology. Dyadic data analyses, guided by the actor-partner interdependence model, were conducted using hierarchical generalized linear modeling with multivariate outcomes. Daily analyses revealed that alcohol consumption was associated with perpetration of verbal and physical aggression the same day, but not with victimization. Temporal analyses revealed that the likelihood of perpetrating verbal and physical aggression, and the likelihood of being verbally and physically victimized, increased significantly when alcohol was consumed in the previous four hours. Findings did not differ according to gender of perpetrator or victim, and the interaction between perpetrator and victim's alcohol use was not significant in any analysis. The study provides clear evidence that, within a sample of community couples without substance-use disorders or other psychopathology, alcohol consumption by men and women contributes to the occurrence of partner aggression episodes. PMID:24341618

  15. Association of the 2011 ACGME resident duty hour reform with general surgery patient outcomes and with resident examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Ravi; Chung, Jeanette W; Jones, Andrew T; Cohen, Mark E; Dahlke, Allison R; Ko, Clifford Y; Tarpley, John L; Lewis, Frank R; Hoyt, David B; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2014-12-10

    In 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) restricted resident duty hour requirements beyond those established in 2003, leading to concerns about the effects on patient care and resident training. To determine if the 2011 ACGME duty hour reform was associated with a change in general surgery patient outcomes or in resident examination performance. Quasi-experimental study of general surgery patient outcomes 2 years before (academic years 2009-2010) and after (academic years 2012-2013) the 2011 duty hour reform. Teaching and nonteaching hospitals were compared using a difference-in-differences approach adjusted for procedural mix, patient comorbidities, and time trends. Teaching hospitals were defined based on the proportion of cases at which residents were present intraoperatively. Patients were those undergoing surgery at hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP). General surgery resident performance on the annual in-training, written board, and oral board examinations was assessed for this same period. National implementation of revised resident duty hour requirements on July 1, 2011, in all ACGME accredited residency programs. Primary outcome was a composite of death or serious morbidity; secondary outcomes were other postoperative complications and resident examination performance. In the main analysis, 204,641 patients were identified from 23 teaching (n = 102,525) and 31 nonteaching (n = 102,116) hospitals. The unadjusted rate of death or serious morbidity improved during the study period in both teaching (11.6% [95% CI, 11.3%-12.0%] to 9.4% [95% CI, 9.1%-9.8%], P general surgery patient outcomes or differences in resident examination performance. The implications of these findings should be considered when evaluating the merit of the 2011 ACGME duty hour reform and revising related policies in the future.

  16. Analysis of stress fractures associated with lameness in Thoroughbred flat racehorses training on different track surfaces undergoing nuclear scintigraphic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, M C; Bonder, D; Boston, R C; Ross, M W

    2015-05-01

    There is limited information regarding the impact of training track surface on the occurrence of stress fractures. To evaluate the impact of training track surface on the proportion of long bone and pelvic stress fractures associated with lameness in Thoroughbred horses in flat race training undergoing nuclear scintigraphic examination. Retrospective study. Scintigraphic examinations of Thoroughbred flat racehorses were evaluated from 2 hospitals (hospital A [Toronto Equine Hospital], 2003-2009, and hospital B [George D. Widener Hospital for Large Animals, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania], 1994-2006). Horses admitted to hospital A trained at a single track, at which the main training surface changed from dirt to synthetic on 27 August 2006. Two distinct populations existed at hospital B: horses that trained on dirt (numerous trainers) and those that trained on turf (single trainer). All scintigraphic images were evaluated by a blinded reviewer. Fisher's exact test and logistic regression were used when appropriate, and significance was set at Pfractures detected in scintigraphic examinations from horses training on a synthetic surface (31.7%) in comparison to scintigraphic examinations from horses training on a dirt surface (23.0%) at an earlier point in time (P = 0.03). There was a greater proportion of hindlimb/pelvic and tibial stress fractures diagnosed in horses from the synthetic surface-trained group than from the dirt-trained group at hospital A (Pfractures diagnosed, but other factors, such as training philosophy, appear to be important. Future prospective investigations to fully elucidate the relationship between training track surface and the proportion of stress fractures and other nonfatal musculoskeletal injuries are warranted. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Using the common sense model of illness perceptions to examine osteoarthritis change: a 6-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Ad A; Bijsterbosch, Jessica; Scharloo, Margreet; Hampson, Sarah E; Kroon, Herman M; Kloppenburg, Margreet

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association between changes in common sense models and changes in functional status over a 6-year follow-up in patients with osteoarthritis. At baseline and follow-up, osteoarthritis outpatients (N = 241) recruited from a university medical center completed the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R), the Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index, and the Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Also, their physician-assessed pain intensity, and biomedical, and clinical measures of medical severity of osteoarthritis were recorded. Functional disability, pain intensity. Over 6 years, functional disability and pain intensity increased. The IPQ-R dimensions of timeline, personal control, and illness coherence became more negative, and emotional representations became less negative (i.e., more accepting). Patients identified as sharing a similar profile of negative changes on the IPQ-R had significantly worse functioning on 2 of 3 outcomes, independent of objectively measured osteoarthritis severity. Changes in illness perceptions were associated with changes in outcomes. Interventions to prevent increasingly negative patterns of illness perceptions over time, with an emphasis on strengthening control cognitions, may benefit functional status outcomes in patients with osteoarthritis.

  18. Examining a comprehensive model of disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder in systematically studied survivors of 10 disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Carol S; Oliver, Julianne; Pandya, Anand

    2012-10-01

    Using a comprehensive disaster model, we examined predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combined data from 10 different disasters. The combined sample included data from 811 directly exposed survivors of 10 disasters between 1987 and 1995. We used consistent methods across all 10 disaster samples, including full diagnostic assessment. In multivariate analyses, predictors of PTSD were female gender, younger age, Hispanic ethnicity, less education, ever-married status, predisaster psychopathology, disaster injury, and witnessing injury or death; exposure through death or injury to friends or family members and witnessing the disaster aftermath did not confer additional PTSD risk. Intentionally caused disasters associated with PTSD in bivariate analysis did not independently predict PTSD in multivariate analysis. Avoidance and numbing symptoms represented a PTSD marker. Despite confirming some previous research findings, we found no associations between PTSD and disaster typology. Prospective research is needed to determine whether early avoidance and numbing symptoms identify individuals likely to develop PTSD later. Our findings may help identify at-risk populations for treatment research.

  19. An examination of bullying in georgia schools: demographic and school climate factors associated with willingness to intervene in bullying situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldammer, Lori; Swahn, Monica H; Strasser, Sheryl M; Ashby, Jeffrey S; Meyers, Joel

    2013-08-01

    Research dedicated to identification of precursors to cases of aggravated bullying in schools has led to enhanced knowledge of risk factors for both victimization and perpetration. However, characteristics among those who are more likely to intervene in such situations are less understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, school climate and psychosocial factors, and willingness to intervene in a bullying situation among middle and high school students in Georgia. We computed analyses using cross-sectional data from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (GSHS 2006) administered to public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=175,311). We used logistic regression analyses to determine the demographic, school climate and psychosocial factors associated with a willingness to intervene in a bullying situation. Students who were white and who were girls were most likely to report willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Several school-climate factors, such as feeling safe at school, liking school, feeling successful at school and perceiving clear rules at school, were associated with willingness to intervene, while youth who reported binge drinking were less willing to intervene. These findings, while preliminary, indicate that girls, students who are white, and students who experience a relatively positive school climate and adaptive psychosocial factors are more likely to report that they would intervene in bullying situations. These findings may guide how bullying is addressed in schools and underscore the importance of safe school climates.

  20. Examining the direct and indirect effects of visual-verbal paired associate learning on Chinese word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George; Liu, Cuina; Xu, Shiyang

    2017-08-01

    Associative learning, traditionally measured with paired associate learning (PAL) tasks, has been found to predict reading ability in several languages. However, it remains unclear whether it also predicts word reading in Chinese, which is known for its ambiguous print-sound correspondences, and whether its effects are direct or indirect through the effects of other reading-related skills such as phonological awareness and rapid naming. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of visual-verbal PAL on word reading in an unselected sample of Chinese children followed from the second to the third kindergarten year. A sample of 141 second-year kindergarten children (71 girls and 70 boys; mean age=58.99months, SD=3.17) were followed for a year and were assessed at both times on measures of visual-verbal PAL, rapid naming, and phonological awareness. In the third kindergarten year, they were also assessed on word reading. The results of path analysis showed that visual-verbal PAL exerted a significant direct effect on word reading that was independent of the effects of phonological awareness and rapid naming. However, it also exerted significant indirect effects through phonological awareness. Taken together, these findings suggest that variations in cross-modal associative learning (as measured by visual-verbal PAL) place constraints on the development of word recognition skills irrespective of the characteristics of the orthography children are learning to read. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cohort profile for the Nurture Observational Study examining associations of multiple caregivers on infant growth in the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Østbye, Truls; Bennett, Gary G; Kravitz, Richard M; Clancy, Shayna M; Stroo, Marissa; Iversen, Edwin; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-02-08

    Childcare has been associated with obesity in children in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, although some observed no association. Few studies have focused on care during infancy, a period when children may be especially vulnerable. The Nurture Study is an observational birth cohort designed to assess longitudinal associations of childcare and the presence of multiple caregivers on infant adiposity and weight trajectories throughout the first year of life. We examine as potential mediators feeding, physical activity, sleep and stress. We completed recruitment in 2015. Of the 860 women who enrolled during pregnancy, 799 delivered a single live infant who met our inclusion criteria. Of those, 666 mothers (77.4%) agreed to participate in the study for themselves and their infants. Among the 666 women in the study, 472 (71%) identified as black, 127 (19%) as white, 7 (1%) as Asian or Asian American, 6 (1%) as Native American and 49 (7%) as other race or more than one race; 43 (7%) identified as Hispanic/Latina. Just under half (48%) had a high school diploma or less, 61% had household incomes childcare in infancy and subsequent obesity. Findings will also inform intervention and policy efforts to improve childcare environments and help prevent obesity in settings where many infants spend time. Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01788644. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Examining Associations Between Effortful Control and Teacher-Child Relationships in Relation to Head Start Children's Socioemotional Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Sonya S; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2009-07-01

    The current project examined the unique and interactive relations of child effortful control and teacher-child relationships to low-income preschoolers' socioemotional adjustment. One hundred and forty Head Start children (77 boys and 63 girls), their parents, lead teachers, and teacher assistants participated in this study. Parents provided information on child effortful control, whereas lead teachers provided information on their relationships with students. Teacher assistants provided information on children's socioemotional adjustment (emotional symptoms, peer problems, conduct problems, prosocial behaviors) in the preschool classroom. Both teacher-child closeness and conflict were significantly related to low-income preschoolers' socioemotional adjustment (i.e., emotional symptoms, peer problems, conduct problems, and prosocial behaviors) in expected directions. In addition, teacher-child conflict was significantly associated with emotional symptoms and peer problems among children with low effortful control; however, teacher-child conflict was not significantly associated with socioemotional difficulties among children with high effortful control. Teacher-child closeness, on the other hand, was associated with fewer socioemotional difficulties regardless of children's level of effortful control. Results are discussed in terms of (a) the utility of intervention efforts focusing on promoting positive teacher-child interactions and enhancing child self-regulatory abilities and (b) the implications for children's socioemotional adjustment.

  3. Improvement of a three-dimensional atmospheric dynamic model and examination of its performance over complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1994-11-01

    A three-dimensional atmospheric dynamic model (PHYSIC) was improved and its performance was examined using the meteorological data observed at a coastal area with a complex terrain. To introduce synoptic meteorological conditions into the model, the initial and boundary conditions were improved. By this improvement, the model can predict the temporal change of wind field for more than 24 hours. Moreover, the model successfully simulates the land and sea breeze observed at Shimokita area in the summer of 1992. (author)

  4. Modeling Bivariate Change in Individual Differences: Prospective Associations Between Personality and Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounkpatin, Hilda Osafo; Boyce, Christopher J; Dunn, Graham; Wood, Alex M

    2017-09-18

    A number of structural equation models have been developed to examine change in 1 variable or the longitudinal association between 2 variables. The most common of these are the latent growth model, the autoregressive cross-lagged model, the autoregressive latent trajectory model, and the latent change score model. The authors first overview each of these models through evaluating their different assumptions surrounding the nature of change and how these assumptions may result in different data interpretations. They then, to elucidate these issues in an empirical example, examine the longitudinal association between personality traits and life satisfaction. In a representative Dutch sample (N = 8,320), with participants providing data on both personality and life satisfaction measures every 2 years over an 8-year period, the authors reproduce findings from previous research. However, some of the structural equation models overviewed have not previously been applied to the personality-life satisfaction relation. The extended empirical examination suggests intraindividual changes in life satisfaction predict subsequent intraindividual changes in personality traits. The availability of data sets with 3 or more assessment waves allows the application of more advanced structural equation models such as the autoregressive latent trajectory or the extended latent change score model, which accounts for the complex dynamic nature of change processes and allows stronger inferences on the nature of the association between variables. However, the choice of model should be determined by theories of change processes in the variables being studied. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A Bayesian model averaging approach to examining changes in quality of life among returning Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Eileen M; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Meyer, Eric C; Copeland, Laurel A; Monte, Ralph; Zeber, John E; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Morissette, Sandra B

    2014-09-01

    Many Veterans from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan return home with physical and psychological impairments that impact their ability to enjoy normal life activities and diminish their quality of life (QoL). The present research aimed to identify predictors of QoL over an eight-month period using Bayesian model averaging (BMA), which is a statistical technique useful for maximizing power with smaller sample sizes. A sample of 117 Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans receiving care in a southwestern health care system was recruited, and BMA examined the impact of key demographics (e.g., age, gender), diagnoses (e.g., depression), and treatment modalities (e.g., individual therapy, medication) on QoL over time. Multiple imputation based on Gibbs sampling was employed for incomplete data (6.4% missingness). Average follow-up QoL scores were significantly lower than at baseline (73.2 initial versus 69.5 four-month and 68.3 eight-month). Employment was associated with increased QoL during each follow-up, while post-traumatic stress disorder and Black race were inversely related. Additionally, predictive models indicated that depression, income, treatment for a medical condition, and group psychotherapy were strong negative predictors of four-month QoL but not eight-month QoL. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. When Does Money Matter Most? Examining the Association between Income and Life Satisfaction over the Life Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research shows that the correlation between income and life satisfaction is small to medium in size. We hypothesized that income may mean different things to people at different ages, and therefore, that the association between income and life satisfaction may vary at different points in the life course. We tested this hypothesis in three nationally representative panel studies. Multilevel modeling techniques were used to test whether age moderated both the within- and between-person associations. Consistent with past research, we found that individuals who earned more on average and individuals who earned more over time reported higher levels of life satisfaction. Importantly, these effects were strongest for midlife individuals (those in their 30s–50s) compared to individuals who were younger or older. PMID:25621741

  7. Understanding Knowledge Sharing Behavior: An Examination of the Extended Model of Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina O. Sihombing

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Knowledge is recognized as one valuable asset for many organizations. Thus, knowledge-sharing is one of important activities in many organizations, including university. Knowledge sharing is defined as activities of transferring or disseminating organizationally relevant information, ideas, suggestions, and expertise with one another. This research applied Christian values as a moderating variable in the framework of theory of planned behavior. The aims of this research to assess applicability of the theory of planned behavior to predict knowledge sharing and to examine the effects of Christian values in the relationship between attitude and intention to share knowledge. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data for this study. The data was then analyzed using structural equation modeling. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF WEB-BASED EXAMINATION SYSTEM USING OPEN SOURCE PROGRAMMING MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    ABASS, Olalere A.; OLAJIDE, Samuel A.; SAMUEL, Babafemi O.

    2017-01-01

    The traditional method of assessment (examination) is often characterized by examination questions leakages, human errors during marking of scripts and recording of scores. The technological advancement in the field of computer science has necessitated the need for computer usage in majorly all areas of human life and endeavors, education sector not excluded. This work, Web-based Examination System (WES) was, therefore, born out of the will to stymie the problems plaguing the conventional (pa...

  9. Examining the Association of Economic Development with Intercity Multimodal Transport Demand in China: A Focus on Spatial Autoregressive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbao Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is generally perceived as a catalyst for economic development. This has been highlighted in previous studies. However, less attention has been paid to examine the relationship between economy and transport demand by exploring spatially cross-sectional data, especially for countries with significant regional economic imbalance, like China. In this article, we assess the economic influence of intercity multimodal transport demand at the prefecture level in China. Spatial autoregressive regression models are used to examine the impact of transport demand on economy by deep analysis of transport modes (land, air, and water and regions (eastern, central, and western. Through contrasting results from spatial lag model and spatial error model with those from the ordinary least square, this study finds that the estimation results can become more accurate by controlling for spatial autocorrelation, especially at the national level. Through rigorous analysis it is identified that except for water passenger traffic, all other intercity transport demand significantly contribute to a city’s economic development level in gross domestic product. In particular, air transport demands distribute more evenly and are estimated with the highest beta coefficients at both national and regional levels. In addition, the beta coefficients for land, air and water transportation are estimated with different magnitudes and significances at the national and regional levels. This study contributes to the ongoing discussion on the relationship between intercity multimodal transport demand and economic development level. Findings from this paper provide planning makers with valid and efficient strategies to better develop the economy by leveraging the special “⊣” cluster pattern of economic development and the benefits of air transportation.

  10. Poor Socioeconomic and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Osteoporosis in Korean Postmenopausal Women: Data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Jung Sun; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    As the population ages, osteoporosis is a growing global public health problem. This study examined potential risk factors associated with osteoporosis in a nationally representative sample of Korean postmenopausal women. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of Korean menopausal women participating in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey KNHANES 2009 (n = 1467; mean age ± SE = 65.2 ± 0.3 years). Bone mineral density of total femur, femoral neck, and spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Osteoporosis was determined as t-score of -2.5 or below in at least 1 of the 3 sites. Menopausal status was confirmed by self-reports. About 41% of the study sample met the criteria for osteoporosis. Poor socioeconomic status, lower BMI, and shorter estrogen exposure duration were significantly associated with osteoporosis in the study sample. Poor dietary intake was also related to osteoporosis. In the age- and energy-adjusted logistic regression models, participants consuming less protein, vitamin B2, or vitamin C than the estimated average requirement (EAR) showed higher odds of having osteoporosis than their counterparts. Participants consuming no milk or milk products had 45% increased odds of having osteoporosis than those consuming milk or milk products. The findings of this study suggest several risk factors associated with osteoporosis, which can be addressed in the development and implementation of tailored nutritional interventions to promote the bone health of Korean postmenopausal women.

  11. Association of racial disparities in the prevalence of insulin resistance with racial disparities in vitamin D levels: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen K; Fiscella, Kevin; Winters, Paul; Martins, David; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2013-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that racial differences in vitamin D levels are associated with racial disparities in insulin resistance between blacks and whites. Among 3628 non-Hispanic black and white adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2006, we examined the association between race and insulin resistance using the homeostasis assessment model for insulin resistance. We conducted analyses with and without serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D). We adjusted for age, sex, educational level, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Blacks had a lower mean serum 25(OH)D level compared with whites (14.6 [0.3] ng/mL vs 25.6 [0.4] ng/mL, respectively; P insulin resistance without controlling for serum 25(OH)D levels (OR, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.20). The association was not significant (OR, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.82) after accounting for serum 25(OH)D levels. The higher burden of insulin resistance in blacks compared with whites may be partially mediated by the disparity in serum 25(OH)D levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender Difference in the Epidemiological Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Olfactory Dysfunction: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Hwan Hwang

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with a higher risk of morbidity and/or mortality for various chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships of MetS and its components with olfactory dysfunction in a representative Korean population. We analyzed the data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010. A total of 11,609 adults who underwent otolaryngological examination were evaluated. The olfactory function was classified as normosmia or hyposmia by a self-report questionnaire according to the sense problems of smell during the past 3 months. MetS was diagnosed if a participant had at least three of the following: (1 WC ≥90 cm in men and ≥80 cm in women; (2 fasting blood sugar ≥ 100 mg/dL or medication use for elevated glucose; (3 fasting triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dL or cholesterol-lowering medication use; (4 HDL-cholesterol <40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women or cholesterol-lowering medication use; and (5 SBP ≥ 130 mmHg and/or DBP ≥ 85 mmHg or antihypertensive drug use for patients with a history of hypertension. The prevalence of olfactory dysfunction in the study population was 6.3%. The prevalence of olfactory dysfunction was significantly higher in older people with MetS than in those without MetS in both sexes (male, 42.0 ± 3.4% vs. 34.7 ± 0.9%, p = 0.0354; female, 46.2 ± 2.8% vs. 37.8 ± 0.8%, p = 0.0026. However, elevated waist circumference, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, severe stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation were significantly associated with olfactory dysfunction only in women. After controlling for confounders, olfactory dysfunction was significantly associated with MetS (odds ratio, 1.352; 95% confidence interval, 1.005-1.820 only in women. MetS are associated with olfactory dysfunction only in Korean women.

  13. An outline for a vocabulary of nominal properties and examinations--basic and general concepts and associated terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Gunnar; Dybkaer, René; Forsum, Urban; Fuentes-Arderiu, Xavier; Schadow, Gunther; Pontet, Françoise

    2010-11-01

    Scientists of disciplines in clinical laboratory sciences have long recognized the need for a common language for efficient and safe request of investigations, reporting of results, and communication of experience and scientific achievements. Widening the scope, most scientific disciplines, not only clinical laboratory sciences, rely to some extent on various nominal examinations, in addition to measurements. The 'International vocabulary of metrology--Basic and general concepts and associated terms' (VIM) is designed for metrology, science of measurement. The aim of the proposed vocabulary is to suggest definitions and explanations of concepts and terms related to nominal properties, i.e., properties that can be compared for identity with other properties of the same kind-of-property, but that have no magnitude.

  14. Application of 16S rDNA-DGGE to examine the microbial ecology associated with a social wasp Vespula germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeson, A F; Jankovic, T; Kasper, M L; Rogers, S; Austin, A D

    2003-02-01

    Invertebrates host numerous bacteria, with interactions ranging from pathogenesis to symbiosis. While certain symbiotic relationships have been well studied, little is known about the dynamics of these bacterial communities. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to examine the bacterial microflora associated with the eusocial wasp Vespula germanica. DGGE profiles of larval guts revealed a variable microflora, suggesting that V. germanica is not dependent on a particular suite of mutualists. The variation in profiles was not related to season, nest size or macrohabitat. Sequences corresponding to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, a novel Leuconostoc and two Rickettsiella grylli strains were obtained. DGGE proved to be a useful technique for characterizing the wasp microflora. Given the importance of microbial communities to invertebrates, there is much to be gained from the application of such techniques.

  15. Examining the Physical Self in Adolescent Girls Over Time: Further Evidence against the Hierarchical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kent C.; Crocker, Peter R. E.; Kowalski, Nanette P.; Chad, Karen E.; Humbert, M. Louise

    2003-01-01

    Examined the direction of causal flow between global and specific dimensions of self-concept. Adolescent girls completed the Physical Self-Perception Profile and a global self-esteem scale in 9th and 10th grade. Results showed little support for top-down or bottom-up effects over the year. When self-concept was examined over time, there was…

  16. Age-related association of refractive error with intraocular pressure in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin A; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Moon; Park, Chan Kee

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and refractive errors according to age group in a representative sample of non-glaucomatous Korean adults. A total of 7,277 adults (≥ 19 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011 underwent ophthalmic examination were divided into three groups according to age: the young- (19-39 years), middle- (40-59 years), and old- (≥ 60 years) age groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses between IOP and various parameters (including the refractive error) were conducted. The mean IOP of the total population was 14.0 ± 0.1 mmHg [young: 13.9 ± 0.1 mmHg; middle: 14.1 ± 0.1 mmHg; old: 13.8 ± 0.2 mmHg (P for trend = 0.085)]. Myopia and high myopia were more prevalent in the young- (70.8% and 16.1%, respectively), compared to the middle- (44.6% and 10.9%) and old- (8.9% and 2.2%) age groups. Univariate analysis in the total population showed that higher IOP was associated with myopic refractive error, the female gender, higher body mass index (BMI), diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia (all Prefractive error, the female gender, higher BMI, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes (all Prefractive error was not significant (P = 0.828). In multiple linear regression analysis, similar significant relationships between the refractive error and IOP were found in the young- and middle-age groups (beta =  -0.08 and -0.12; P = 0.002 and refractive error was an independent predictor of higher IOP in non- glaucomatous eyes, and the association between refractive error and IOP differed according to age.

  17. Research on Associative Memory Models of Emotional Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Associative memory is essential to realize man-machine cooperation in the natural interaction between humans and robots. The establishment of associative memory model is to solve the problem. First, based on the theory of emotional energy, mood spontaneous metastasis model and stimulate metastasis model are put forward. Then we can achieve affective computing on the external excitation combining with Markov chain model which is about emotions of spontaneous metastasis and HMM model which is about stimulating metastasis. Second, based on the neural network, the associative memory model which is applied in emotional robots is put forward by calculating the emotional state of the robot's dynamic change of mind and considering their own needs at the same time. Finally, the model was applied to the emotional robot platform which we developed. The effect is validated better.

  18. Reanalyses of case-control studies examining the temporal association between sudden infant death syndrome and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Ronny; Schlaud, Martin; Poethko-Müller, Christina; Vennemann, Mechtild; Fleming, Peter; Blair, Peter S; Mitchell, Ed; Thompson, John; Hecker, Hartmut

    2012-03-16

    In this paper we examine different time periods after vaccinations and investigate whether the risk of sudden infant death is different during the post-vaccination period than at other times. Three already published case-control studies are re-examined in this context. Several evaluation approaches are presented. The recently developed self-controled case series (SCCS) method for terminal events, which only takes the cases into account, is used in addition. There is no increased or reduced risk of sudden infant death during the period after the vaccination. The previously reported protective effect seen in case contol studies is based on the inclusion of unvaccinated cases. The results of the case-control analysis of one study is affected by two confounders. The SCCS method for terminal events, in which all time-independent confounders are eliminated, is an alternative to case-control analysis when it comes to the temporal association between exposed time periods and SIDS after vaccination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between leukocyte count and sarcopenia in postmenopausal women: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Ha; Shim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the association between leukocyte counts and sarcopenia according in postmenopausal women. Cross-sectional study. We examined the relationship between leukocyte counts and sarcopenia in 2152 post-menopausal Korean women who participated in the 2010-2011 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) divided by weight (%) that was greater than 1SD below the mean of young adults. The odds ratios (ORs) for sarcopenia were calculated using multiple logistic regression across leukocyte count quartiles (Q1:≤4710, Q2:4720-5600, Q3:5610-6600, and Q4:≥6610cells/μL) after adjusting for confounding variables. The prevalence of sarcopenia gradually increased in accordance with leukocyte quartiles. Compared with the lowest quartile of leukocyte counts, the corresponding OR (95% CI) of the highest quartile of leukocyte counts for sarcopenia was 2.41 (1.12-5.22) after adjusting for age, waist circumference, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, regular exercise, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol. Leukocyte counts were positively related to a higher risk of sarcopenia in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. AOM/DSS Model of Colitis-Associated Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parang, Bobak; Barrett, Caitlyn W; Williams, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of colitis-associated carcinoma (CAC) has benefited substantially from mouse models that faithfully recapitulate human CAC. Chemical models, in particular, have enabled fast and efficient analysis of genetic and environmental modulators of CAC without the added requirement of time-intensive genetic crossings. Here we describe the Azoxymethane (AOM)/Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) mouse model of inflammatory colorectal cancer.

  1. FAMULATUR PLUS – A successful model for improving students' physical examination skills?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerg, Achim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Project description: Several studies have revealed insufficient physical examination skills among medical students, both with regard to the completeness of the physical examination and the accuracy of the techniques used. FAMULATUR PLUS was developed in response to these findings. As part of this practice-oriented instructional intervention, physical examination skills should be taught through examination seminars and problem-oriented learning approaches. In order to ensure practical relevance, all courses are integrated into a 30-day clinical traineeship in the surgery or internal medicine department of a hospital (FAMULATUR PLUS.Research question: Does participation in the FAMULATUR PLUS project lead to a more optimistic self-assessment of examination skills and/or improved performance of the physical examination?Methodology: A total of 49 medical students participated in the study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: enrollment in the clinical studies element of their degree program at the University of Ulm and completion of the university course in internal medicine examinations. Based on their personal preferences, students were assigned to either the intervention (surgery/internal medicine; n=24 or the control group (internal medicine; n=25. All students completed a self-assessment of their physical examination skills in the form of a questionnaire. However, practical examination skills were only assessed in the students in the intervention group. These students were asked to carry out a general physical examination of the simulation patient, which was recorded and evaluated in a standardized manner. In both instances, data collection was carried out prior to and after the intervention. Results: The scores arising from the student self-assessment in the intervention (IG and control groups (CG improves significantly in the pre-post comparison, with average scores increasing from 3.83 (±0.72; IG and 3.54 (±0.37; CG to 1

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF WEB-BASED EXAMINATION SYSTEM USING OPEN SOURCE PROGRAMMING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalere A. ABASS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional method of assessment (examination is often characterized by examination questions leakages, human errors during marking of scripts and recording of scores. The technological advancement in the field of computer science has necessitated the need for computer usage in majorly all areas of human life and endeavors, education sector not excluded. This work, Web-based Examination System (WES was, therefore, born out of the will to stymie the problems plaguing the conventional (paper-based examination system by providing a campus-wide service for e-assessment devoid of irregularities and generally fair to examinees and equally enhances instant feedback. This system developed using combination of CSS, HTML, PHP SQL MySQL and Dreamweaver is capable of reducing proportion of workload on examination, grading and reviewing on the part of examiners. Thus, the system enables the release of examination results in record time and without error. WES can serve as an effective solution for mass education evaluation and offers many novel features that cannot be implemented in paper-based systems, such as real time data collection, management and analysis, distributed and interactive assessment towards promoting distance education.

  3. Dynamic examination of the femur in a rat model of osteoporosis after injection of CPC containing ABK and PLLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, A.; Kusaka, T.; Sasaki, S.; Takano, I.; Tahara, Y.; Ishii, Y. [Kyorin Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    2001-07-01

    We developed calcium phosphate cement containing antibiotics and poly lactic acid, and examined the effects on bone strength by injecting the cement into the medullary space of the femur in model rats with osteoporosis. A good strength of bone was obtained over 6 months by injecting bone paste into the medullary space of the femur in model rats with bone formation. (orig.)

  4. Integrating Social Activity Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis: A Multilayered Methodological Model for Examining Knowledge Mediation in Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Ayelet; Orland-Barak, Lily

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests an integrative qualitative methodological framework for capturing complexity in mentoring activity. Specifically, the model examines how historical developments of a discipline direct mentors' mediation of professional knowledge through the language that they use. The model integrates social activity theory and a framework of…

  5. An Examination of Exercise-Induced Feeling States and Their Association With Future Participation in Physical Activity Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Guérin, Eva; Speranzini, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Although exercise-induced feeling states may play a role in driving future behavior, their role in relation to older adults' participation in physical activity (PA) has seldom been considered. The objectives of this study were to describe changes in older adults' feeling states during exercise, and examine if levels of and changes in feeling states predicted their future participation in PA. Self-reported data on feeling states were collected from 82 older adults immediately before, during, and after a moderate-intensity exercise session, and on participation in PA 1 month later. Data were analyzed using latent growth modeling. Feelings of revitalization, positive engagement, and tranquility decreased during exercise, whereas feelings of physical exhaustion increased. Feelings of revitalization immediately before the exercise session predicted future participation in PA; changes in feeling states did not. This study does not provide empirical evidence that older adults' exercise-induced feeling states predict their future participation in PA.

  6. Personality, negative affect coping, and drinking alone: a structural equation modeling approach to examine correlates of adolescent solitary drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Wright, Aidan G C; Clark, Duncan B; Black, Jessica J; Martin, Christopher S

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the personality traits of negative emotionality and constraint and the ability to resist drinking during negative affective states as correlates of solitary drinking in adolescence. We hypothesized that higher levels of negative emotionality and lower levels of constraint would predict solitary drinking and that these relationships would be mediated by the ability to resist drinking in response to negative emotions. Structural equation modeling was used to fit a path model from the personality traits of negative emotionality and constraint to solitary drinking status through intermediate effects on the ability to resist drinking during negative emotions using cross-sectional data. Clinical and community settings in Pennsylvania, USA. The sample included 761 adolescent drinkers (mean age = 17.1). Adolescents completed the Lifetime Drinking History, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Constructive Thinking Inventory and the Situational Confidence Questionnaire. The path model provided a good fit to the data. The association between trait negative emotionality and solitary drinking was fully mediated by adolescents' ability to resist drinking during negative affective states (b = 0.05, P = 0.01). In contrast, constraint had a direct effect on solitary drinking (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, b = -0.23, P<0.01), as well as an indirect effect through the ability to resist drinking during negative affective states (b = -0.03, P = 0.02). The ability to resist drinking while experiencing negative feelings or emotions may be an important underlying mechanism linking trait negative emotionality (a tendency toward depression, anxiety and poor reaction to stress) and constraint (lack of impulsiveness) to adolescent solitary drinking. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Association of meal frequency with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Lee, Ji Sung; Ahn, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin-Sun; Noh, Min Young; Lee, Ji Jeung; Lee, Eun Young; Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Young Ran; Yoon, So Yoon; Kim, Chong Hwa; Cho, Dong-Hyeok; Choi, Young Sik; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2017-01-01

    Although previous studies have established a close relationship between caloric intake and metabolic syndrome, there is limited research exploring the impact of meal frequency adjusted by caloric intake on metabolic syndrome (MetS). To evaluate the association of meal frequency and MetS after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake in Korean men and women. We analyzed the national representative data of a total 12,389 adults (5171 men, 7218 women) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. Subjects were categorized as eating 3 meals/day (MF3) or 2 or fewer meals/day (MF ≤ 2). Daily caloric intake was calculated using CAN-Pro 4.0 (The Korean Nutrition Society, Seoul, Korea). The prevalence of components of MetS differed significantly according to meal frequency in both men and women. In an unadjusted analysis, the prevalence of MetS in women was significantly higher in the MF3 group than the MF ≤ 2 group (27.5% vs. 17.8%, P  meal frequency did not affect the risk of metabolic syndrome in women after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake (OR = 1.09, 95%, CI = 0.90-1.31). This study suggests that lower meal frequency adjusted for caloric intake, physical activity, age, smoking, alcohol, income, and education may be associated with increased risk of MetS in Korean men.

  8. Associations of sleep duration with open angle glaucoma in the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ah; Han, Kyungdo; Min, Jung Ah; Choi, Jin A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and glaucoma, stratified by obesity status.This study was conducted using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V 2010 to 2012. Open-angle glaucoma was diagnosed according to the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Subjects were divided into subgroups based on those who were overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m or sleep duration (pattern (P for trend = 0.072). Among overweight individuals, subjects who slept exercise, education level, household income, hypertension, intraocular pressure, stress, and depression (odds ratio, 2.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-5.03). Unlike for overweight individuals, sleep duration in nonoverweight individuals was not statistically significantly associated with glaucoma.Our results reveal a U-shaped association between sleep duration and the prevalence of glaucoma. An effect of sleep duration on glaucoma was present in the subgroup of overweight patients.

  9. Association between Obesity and Chronic Laryngitis in Women--Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young-Hoon; Han, Kyung-Do; Lee, Seong-Su

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between obesity and chronic laryngitis in South Korea using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) collected during 2008-2010. KNHANES was a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n = 13,819). Obesity status was measured by using BMI and waist circumference. Among the population over 19 years of age, the prevalence of chronic laryngitis was 4.0 ± 0.4%. Chronic laryngitis was significantly associated with age, BMI, waist circumference, fat proportion, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women. Old age and current smoking were significantly associated with chronic laryngitis in men. Obese women were at a higher risk for chronic laryngitis than women without obesity (odds ratio (OR) 2.022, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.412-2.895) after further adjustment for confounders. Women with abdominal obesity were also at higher risk for chronic laryngitis (OR 1.475, 95% CI 1.024-2.126). Obese women in Korea have an elevated risk for developing chronic laryngitis. Further epidemiological and experimental studies are necessary to clarify the impact of obesity on this condition. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. Examining the Role of Voluntary Associations in Environmental Management: The Case of the Sam Houston National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaying; Schuett, Michael A.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of voluntary associations involved in forest management. The specific areas examined in this study include organizational attributes, membership profile, attitudes toward forest-management priorities, and concerns about forest-management issues. To achieve this purpose, data were collected using a case study approach with mixed-methods (document reviews, personal interviews, and a Web survey) at a national forest in Texas, USA. Overall, the voluntary associations in this study can be described as place-based, small to moderate in scale, activity-oriented, and active groups that are adaptive to sociopolitical and environmental changes. General group members placed high importance on aesthetic, ecological, and recreation management of the national forest. In addition, this study showed five key forest management issues: (1) limited recreation access; (2) financial challenges for forest management; (3) conflict among recreation user groups; (4) inadequate communication by the United States Forest Service to the general public, and (5) sustainability of the forest. Theoretical and managerial implications of the results are discussed.

  11. Misery loves company? A meta-regression examining aggregate unemployment rates and the unemployment-mortality association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfs, David J; Shor, Eran; Blank, Aharon; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2015-05-01

    Individual-level unemployment has been consistently linked to poor health and higher mortality, but some scholars have suggested that the negative effect of job loss may be lower during times and in places where aggregate unemployment rates are high. We review three logics associated with this moderation hypothesis: health selection, social isolation, and unemployment stigma. We then test whether aggregate unemployment rates moderate the individual-level association between unemployment and all-cause mortality. We use six meta-regression models (each using a different measure of the aggregate unemployment rate) based on 62 relative all-cause mortality risk estimates from 36 studies (from 15 nations). We find that the magnitude of the individual-level unemployment-mortality association is approximately the same during periods of high and low aggregate-level unemployment. Model coefficients (exponentiated) were 1.01 for the crude unemployment rate (P = .27), 0.94 for the change in unemployment rate from the previous year (P = .46), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 5-year running average (P = .87), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 10-year running average (P = .73), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average (measured as a continuous variable; P = .61), and showed no variation across unemployment levels when the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average was measured categorically. Heterogeneity between studies was significant (P unemployment experiences change when macroeconomic conditions change. Efforts to ameliorate the negative social and economic consequences of unemployment should continue to focus on the individual and should be maintained regardless of periodic changes in macroeconomic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of Coupled Eutrophication and Network Models for Examination of Fisheries and Eutrophication Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cerco, Carl F; Tillman, Dorothy H

    2008-01-01

    ...) was designed to be a flexible, widely applicable eutrophication model. Ecopath with Ecosim (EWE) is a freely distributed network model supported by the Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia...

  13. Intake of added sugars is not associated with weight measures in children 6 to 18 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies examining an association between consumption of added sugars (AS) and weight measures in children are inconclusive. This study examined the association between intake of AS and 5 measures of weight or adiposity using a nationally recent representative sample of children. National Health and ...

  14. An Examination of Bullying in Georgia Schools: Demographic and School Climate Factors Associated with Willingness to Intervene in Bullying Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Goldammer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research dedicated to identification of precursors to cases of aggravated bullying in schools has led to enhanced knowledge of risk factors for both victimization and perpetration. However, characteristics among those who are more likely to intervene in such situations are less understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, school climate and psychosocial factors, and willingness to intervene in a bullying situation among middle and high school students in Georgia.Methods: We computed analyses using cross-sectional data from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (GSHS 2006 administered to public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=175,311. We used logistic regression analyses to determine the demographic, school climate and psychosocial factors associated with a willingness to intervene in a bullying situation.Results: Students who were white and who were girls were most likely to report willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Several school-climate factors, such as feeling safe at school, liking school, feeling successful at school and perceiving clear rules at school, were associated with willingness to intervene, while youth who reported binge drinking were less willing to intervene.Conclusion: These findings, while preliminary, indicate that girls, students who are white, and students who experience a relatively positive school climate and adaptive psychosocial factors are more likely to report that they would intervene in bullying situations. These findings may guide how bullying is addressed in schools and underscore the importance of safe school climates. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:324–328.

  15. Multi-state Markov models for disease progression in the presence of informative examination times: an application to hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, M J; Farewell, V T; De Angelis, D

    2010-05-20

    In many chronic diseases it is important to understand the rate at which patients progress from infection through a series of defined disease states to a clinical outcome, e.g. cirrhosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals or AIDS in HIV-infected individuals. Typically data are obtained from longitudinal studies, which often are observational in nature, and where disease state is observed only at selected examinations throughout follow-up. Transition times between disease states are therefore interval censored. Multi-state Markov models are commonly used to analyze such data, but rely on the assumption that the examination times are non-informative, and hence the examination process is ignorable in a likelihood-based analysis. In this paper we develop a Markov model that relaxes this assumption through the premise that the examination process is ignorable only after conditioning on a more regularly observed auxiliary variable. This situation arises in a study of HCV disease progression, where liver biopsies (the examinations) are sparse, irregular, and potentially informative with respect to the transition times. We use additional information on liver function tests (LFTs), commonly collected throughout follow-up, to inform current disease state and to assume an ignorable examination process. The model developed has a similar structure to a hidden Markov model and accommodates both the series of LFT measurements and the partially latent series of disease states. We show through simulation how this model compares with the commonly used ignorable Markov model, and a Markov model that assumes the examination process is non-ignorable. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Caffeine intake and its association with urinary incontinence in United States men: results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2006 and 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nicole J; Vaughan, Camille P; Johnson, Theodore M; Goode, Patricia S; Burgio, Kathryn L; Redden, David T; Markland, Alayne D

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies in women have revealed an association between caffeine intake and urinary incontinence, although evidence among men is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the association between caffeine intake and urinary incontinence in United States men. Data were used from male NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys) 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 participants. Urinary incontinence was defined using a standard questionnaire with Incontinence Severity Index scores 3 or greater categorized as moderate to severe. Structured dietary recall was used to determine caffeine consumption (mg per day), water intake (gm per day) and total dietary moisture (gm per day). Stepwise multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association between caffeine intake at or above the 75th and 90th percentiles and moderate to severe urinary incontinence, controlling for potential confounders, urinary incontinence risk factors and prostate conditions in men age 40 years or older. Of the 5,297 men 3,960 (75%) were 20 years old or older with complete data. Among these men the prevalence of any urinary incontinence was 12.9% and moderate to severe urinary incontinence was 4.4%. Mean caffeine intake was 169 mg per day. Caffeine intake at the upper 75th percentile (234 mg or more daily) and 90th percentile (392 mg or more per day) was significantly associated with having moderate to severe urinary incontinence (1.72, 95% 1.18-2.49 and 2.08, 95% 1.15-3.77, respectively). In addition, after adjusting for prostate conditions, the effect size for the association between caffeine intake and moderate to severe urinary incontinence remained. Caffeine consumption equivalent to approximately 2 cups of coffee daily (250 mg) is significantly associated with moderate to severe urinary incontinence in United States men. Our findings support the further study of caffeine modification in men with urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association

  17. Examining the Effects of Video Modeling and Prompts to Teach Activities of Daily Living Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldi, Catarina; Crigler, Alexandra; Kates-McElrath, Kelly; Long, Brian; Smith, Hillary; Rehak, Kim; Wilkinson, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Video modeling has been shown to be effective in teaching a number of skills to learners diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, we taught two young men diagnosed with ASD three different activities of daily living skills (ADLS) using point-of-view video modeling. Results indicated that both participants met criterion for all ADLS. Participants did not maintain mastery criterion at a 1-month follow-up, but did score above baseline at maintenance with and without video modeling. • Point-of-view video models may be an effective intervention to teach daily living skills. • Video modeling with handheld portable devices (Apple iPod or iPad) can be just as effective as video modeling with stationary viewing devices (television or computer). • The use of handheld portable devices (Apple iPod and iPad) makes video modeling accessible and possible in a wide variety of environments.

  18. The reasoned/reactive model: A new approach to examining eating decisions among female college dieters and nondieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Holly; Holub, Shayla C; Dolan, Elaine A

    2016-12-01

    Female college students are prone to unhealthy eating patterns that can impact long-term health. This study examined female students' healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors with three decision-making models. Specifically, the theory of reasoned action, prototype/willingness model, and new reasoned/reactive model were compared to determine how reasoned (logical) and reactive (impulsive) factors relate to dietary decisions. Females (N=583, M age =20.89years) completed measures on reasoned cognitions about foods (attitudes, subjective norms, nutrition knowledge, intentions to eat foods), reactive cognitions about foods (prototypes, affect, willingness to eat foods), dieting, and food consumption. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed the new reasoned/reactive model to be the preeminent model for examining eating behaviors. This model showed that attitudes were related to intentions and willingness to eat healthy and unhealthy foods. Affect was related to willingness to eat healthy and unhealthy foods, whereas nutrition knowledge was related to intentions and willingness to eat healthy foods only. Intentions and willingness were related to healthy and unhealthy food consumption. Dieting status played a moderating role in the model and revealed mean-level differences between dieters and nondieters. This study highlights the importance of specific factors in relation to female students' eating decisions and unveils a comprehensive model for examining health behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Examination of evaporative fraction diurnal behaviour using a soil-vegetation model coupled with a mixed-layer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Lhomme

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In many experimental conditions, the evaporative fraction, defined as the ratio between evaporation and available energy, has been found stable during daylight hours. This constancy is investigated over fully covering vegetation by means of a land surface scheme coupled with a mixed-layer model, which accounts for entrainment of overlying air. The evaporation rate follows the Penman-Monteith equation and the surface resistance is given by a Jarvis type parameterization involving solar radiation, saturation deficit and leaf water potential. The diurnal course of the evaporative fraction is examined, together with the influence of environmental factors (soil water availability, solar radiation input, wind velocity, saturation deficit above the well-mixed layer. In conditions of fair weather, the curves representing the diurnal course of the evaporative fraction have a typical concave-up shape. Around midday (solar time these curves appear as relatively constant, but always lower that the daytime mean value. Evaporative fraction decreases when soil water decreases or when solar energy increases. An increment of saturation deficit above the mixed-layer provokes only a slight increase of evaporative fraction, and wind velocity has almost no effect. The possibility of estimation daytime evaporation from daytime available energy multiplied by the evaporative fraction at a single time of the day is also investigated. It appears that it is possible to obtain fairly good estimates of daytime evaporation by choosing adequately the time of the measurement of the evaporative fraction. The central hours of the day, and preferably about 3 hr before or after noon, are the most appropriate to provide good estimates. The estimation appears also to be much better when soil water availability (or evaporation is high than when it is low.

  20. Association between socioeconomic status and oral health behaviors: The 2008-2010 Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Beom; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu; Ko, Youngkyung

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has been reported to be associated with oral health behavior. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the relationship between SES and oral health behaviors in a large sample of the Korean population. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted between 2008 and 2010 by the Division of Chronic Disease Surveillance under the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, were used in the present study. Daily tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products according to demographic variables and anthropometric characteristics of the participants were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the associations between daily tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products, and SES, urban/rural residence, body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake and smoking. An association between SES and tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products was detected after adjustment. Following adjustment for age, gender, BMI, smoking, drinking, exercise, energy intake, fat intake, periodontal treatment needs and education or income, the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of tooth brushing ≥3 per day in the highest income group were 1.264 (95% CI, 1.094-1.460) and 2.686 (95% CI, 2.286-3.155) for highest education level group. The adjusted odds ratios for the use of secondary oral products in the highest income and highest education groups were 1.835 (95% CI, 1.559-2.161) and 5.736 (95% CI, 4.734-6.951), respectively, after adjustment for age, gender, smoking, BMI, exercise, calorie intake, periodontal treatment requirements or income. The present study demonstrated an association between SES and oral health behaviors in a large sample of the Korean population. Within the limits of the present study, income and education were suggested as potential risk indicators

  1. Generalized memory associativity in a network model for the neuroses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemann, Roseli S.; Donangelo, Raul; de Carvalho, Luís A. V.

    2009-03-01

    We review concepts introduced in earlier work, where a neural network mechanism describes some mental processes in neurotic pathology and psychoanalytic working-through, as associative memory functioning, according to the findings of Freud. We developed a complex network model, where modules corresponding to sensorial and symbolic memories interact, representing unconscious and conscious mental processes. The model illustrates Freud's idea that consciousness is related to symbolic and linguistic memory activity in the brain. We have introduced a generalization of the Boltzmann machine to model memory associativity. Model behavior is illustrated with simulations and some of its properties are analyzed with methods from statistical mechanics.

  2. On a Model of Associative Memory with Huge Storage Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircigil, Mete; Heusel, Judith; Löwe, Matthias; Upgang, Sven; Vermet, Franck

    2017-07-01

    In Krotov et al. (in: Lee (eds) Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, Curran Associates, Inc., Red Hook, 2016) Krotov and Hopfield suggest a generalized version of the well-known Hopfield model of associative memory. In their version they consider a polynomial interaction function and claim that this increases the storage capacity of the model. We prove this claim and take the "limit" as the degree of the polynomial becomes infinite, i.e. an exponential interaction function. With this interaction we prove that model has an exponential storage capacity in the number of neurons, yet the basins of attraction are almost as large as in the standard Hopfield model.

  3. Examining secular trend  and seasonality in count data using dynamic generalized linear modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Dethlefsen, Claus; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders

    Aims  Time series of incidence counts often show secular trends and seasonal patterns. We present a model for incidence counts capable of handling a possible gradual change in growth rates and seasonal patterns, serial correlation and overdispersion. Methods  The model resembles an ordinary time...... series regression model for Poisson counts. It differs in allowing the regression coefficients to vary gradually over time in a random fashion. Data  In the period January 1980 to 1999, 17,989 incidents of acute myocardial infarction were recorded in the county of Northern Jutland, Denmark. Records were...... updated daily. Results  The model with a seasonal pattern and an approximately linear trend was fitted to the data, and diagnostic plots indicate a good model fit. The analysis with the dynamic model revealed peaks coinciding with influenza epidemics. On average the peak-to-trough ratio is estimated...

  4. A Qualitative Examination of the Importance of Female Role Models in Investment Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Sealy, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    A number of practitioner surveys across a range of industries have cited the lack of senior female role models as a barrier to career progression. There is very little academic literature to explain this at a senior organizational level. An initial review of the extant role model literature led to the inclusion of two further related areas – organizational demographics, as a contextual factor affecting the availability of role models, and work identity development as a link bet...

  5. The Distribution of Thai Mental State Examination Scores among Non-Demented Elderly in Suburban Bangkok Metropolitan and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangpaisan, Weerasak; Assantachai, Prasert; Sitthichai, Kobkul; Richardson, Kathryn; Brayne, Carol

    2015-09-01

    To obtain the distribution of Thai Mental State Examination (TMSE) scores in the Thai population across different age groups and educational levels in men and women aged 50 years and older and its relationship with demographic factors. The different cutpoints in literate and illiterate participants and item performance in both groups were also determined. Community-dwelling participants aged 50 years and over were invited to join the study. Personal information, general health history, and specific illness questionnaires including the activities of daily living, designed by the Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly, a ConcertedAction (SENECA), and the Thai Mental State Examination (TMSE) were completed in the face-to-face interview. There were 4,459 participants with no specific reported conditions that could potentially influence cognitive performance. The mean (SD) age was 64.2 (7.9) years and mostparticipants were women (71.7%). The median (interquartile range) of the TMSE was 27 (25-29) and 23 (19-26) in literate and illiterate participants, respectively. The distribution of TMSE scores were reported here determined by age, gender and educational level. Percentage of correct response in each TMSE item was low in recall and calculation performance. TMSE score declined with age in both genders and had greater variation with increasing age. TMSE score also increased with increasing levels of education and better financial status. Gender was not associated with the TMSE score adjusting for age, educational level, and economic status. Age, education, and economic status have an influence on the TMSE performance. Controllingfor these three factors, genders does not contribute to significant differences in TMSE performance. Norms adjustedfor these factors should be considered before employing single cutpoints to identify impairment.

  6. Alcohol Drinking Among Kosovar Adolescents: An Examination of Gender-Specific Sociodemographic, Sport, and Familial Factors Associated With Harmful Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajber, Dorica; Tahiraj, Enver; Zenic, Natasa; Peric, Mia; Sekulic, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol consumption is a significant public-health problem, although there is a lack of studies investigating this issue in Kosovo. The aim of this investigation was to examine the prevalence of alcohol drinking, and the factors associated with harmful drinking (HD) in Kosovar 17-18 years old adolescents. The sample comprised 636 girls and 366 boys (17-18 years old) from Pristina, Kosovo. The independent variables included sociodemographic factors, variables examining familial-monitoring and conflict (familial-variables), and sport-factors. Alcohol-drinking (dependent variable) was measured by means of the alcohol use disorders identification test scale. 39% of the girls and 43% of the boys reported HD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.17; 95% confidence interval = 0.90-1.55). A higher likelihood of HD is found for those girls whose mothers have an advanced education (OR = 1.59), who reported a higher level of conflict with their parents (OR = 1.95), whose parents are frequently absent from home (OR = 1.93), and who reported lower religiosity (OR = 0.90). HD is more frequent among boys who have participated longer in sports (OR = 1.49), whose fathers have an advanced education (OR = 1.80), and who reported higher level of familial conflict (OR = 2.87). The prevalence of HD is high. Knowing the problems related to alcohol drinking in girls (violence, trafficking, etc.), public-health authorities should urgently develop a specific preventive programme (SPP) to combat the misuse of alcohol. In preparing SPP, special attention should be paid to the varying influences of the studied factors on HD in boys and girls.

  7. Impact of Partial-Mouth Periodontal Examination Protocols on the Association Between Gingival Bleeding and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediani Machado, Michely; Tomazoni, Fernanda; Ruffo Ortiz, Fernanda; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin

    2017-07-01

    It is not clear how using partial-mouth periodontal examination (PMPE) protocols affects estimates of the association between gingival bleeding (GB) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The aim of the present study is to assess impact of different PMPEs on the association between GB and OHRQoL in 12-year-old adolescents. A total of 1,134 adolescents were evaluated for clinical and subjective variables. GB was determined by full-mouth examination (FME) of six sites (disto-buccal [DB], mid-buccal [B], mesio-buccal [MB], disto-lingual [DL], mid-lingual, and mesio-lingual [ML]) and different PMPEs were calculated using a 15% cut-off point: 1) full-mouth (MB-B-DB/MB-B-DL); 2) two diagonal quadrants (six sites/MB-B-DB/MB-B-DL); 3) two randomly selected half-mouth quadrants (six sites/MB-B-DB/ MB-B-DL/MB-DB-ML-DL); and 4) the community periodontal index. OHRQoL was assessed using the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ 11-14 ). Adjusted negative binomial regression models were used to calculate the rate ratio of CPQ 11-14 scores for each PMPE. Adolescents with GB showed significantly poorer OHRQoL than their counterparts when FME was used. In contrast, more than half of PMPE protocols did not detect significant associations between GB and CPQ 11-14 scores in the adjusted analysis. Using PMPE to assess GB in adolescents significantly affects associations with OHRQoL outcomes, depending on the protocol used. PMPEs that evaluated MB-B-DL sites of randomly selected half-mouth quadrants (1 or 2 and 3 or 4) achieved results closer to those obtained with FME.

  8. Modifiable variables in physical therapy education programs associated with first-time and three-year National Physical Therapy Examination pass rates in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Cook

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to examine the modifiable programmatic characteristics reflected in the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE Annual Accreditation Report for all accredited programs that reported pass rates on the National Physical Therapist Examination, and to build a predictive model for first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates. Methods: This observational study analyzed programmatic information from the 185 CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs in the United States and Puerto Rico out of a total of 193 programs that provided the first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates in 2011. Fourteen predictive variables representing student selection and composition, clinical education length and design, and general program length and design were analyzed against first-time pass rates and ultimate pass rates on the NPTE. Univariate and multivariate multinomial regression analysis for first-time pass rates and logistic regression analysis for three-year ultimate pass rates were performed. Results: The variables associated with the first-time pass rate in the multivariate analysis were the mean undergraduate grade point average (GPA and the average age of the cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that mean undergraduate GPA was associated with the three-year ultimate pass rate. Conclusions: Mean undergraduate GPA was found to be the only modifiable predictor for both first-time and three-year pass rates among CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs.

  9. A Simulation Model for Drift Resistive Ballooning Turbulence Examining the Influence of Self-consistent Zonal Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim; Joseph, Ilon

    2015-11-01

    Progress is reported on including self-consistent zonal flows in simulations of drift-resistive ballooning turbulence using the BOUT + + framework. Previous published work addressed the simulation of L-mode edge turbulence in realistic single-null tokamak geometry using the BOUT three-dimensional fluid code that solves Braginskii-based fluid equations. The effects of imposed sheared ExB poloidal rotation were included, with a static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In new work our goal is to include the self-consistent effects on the radial electric field driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We describe a model for including self-consistent zonal flows and an algorithm for maintaining underlying plasma profiles to enable the simulation of steady-state turbulence. We examine the role of Braginskii viscous forces in providing necessary dissipation when including axisymmetric perturbations. We also report on some of the numerical difficulties associated with including the axisymmetric component of the fluctuating fields. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL-ABS-674950).

  10. Hearing Impairment Associated With Depression in US Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-Ming; Zhang, Xinzhi; Hoffman, Howard J.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Themann, Christa L.; Wilson, M. Roy

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Depression among hearing impaired US adults has not been studied previously. OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for depression among adults with hearing loss. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Adults aged 18 years or older (N = 18 318) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–2010, a nationally representative sample. INTERVENTIONS Multistage probability sampling of US population. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Depression, assessed by the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scale, and hearing impairment (HI), assessed by self-report and audiometric examination for adults aged 70 years or older. RESULTS The prevalence of moderate to severe depression (PHQ-9 score, ≥10) was 4.9% for individuals reporting excellent hearing, 7.1% for those with good hearing, and 11.4% for participants who reported a little trouble or greater HI. Using excellent hearing as the reference, after adjusting for all covariates, multivariate odds ratios (ORs) for depression were 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1–1.8) for good hearing, 1.7 (1.3–2.2) for a little trouble, 2.4 (1.7–3.2) for moderate trouble, 1.5 (0.9–2.6) for a lot of trouble, and 0.6 (0.1–2.6) for deaf. Moderate HI (defined by better ear pure-tone average of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz within the range 35- to 49-dB hearing level) was significantly associated with depression among older women (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.3–11.3), after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, lifestyle characteristics, and selected health conditions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE After accounting for health conditions and other factors, including trouble seeing, self-reported HI and audiometrically determined HI were significantly associated with depression, particularly in women. Health care professionals should be aware of an increased risk for depression among adults with hearing loss. PMID:24604103

  11. Incorporating published univariable associations in diagnostic and prognostic modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.P.A. Debray (Thomas); H. Koffijberg (Hendrik); D. Lu (Difei); Y. Vergouwe (Yvonne); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); K.G.M. Moons (Karel)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Diagnostic and prognostic literature is overwhelmed with studies reporting univariable predictor-outcome associations. Currently, methods to incorporate such information in the construction of a prediction model are underdeveloped and unfamiliar to many researchers. Methods.

  12. The Associative Basis of Scientific Creativity: A Model Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Kanli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is accepted as an important part of scientific skills. Scientific creativity proceeds from a need or urge to solve a problem, and in-volves the production of original and useful ideas or products. Existing scientific creativity theories and tests do not feature the very im-portant thinking processes, such as analogical and associative thinking, which can be consid-ered crucial in creative scientific problem solv-ing. Current study’s aim is to provide an alter-native model and explicate the associative basis of scientific creativity. Emerging from the re-viewed theoretical framework, Scientific Asso-ciations Model is proposed. This model claims that, similarity and mediation constitutes the basis of creativity and focuses on three compo-nents namely; associative thinking, analogical thinking (analogical reasoning & analogical problem solving and insight which are consid-ered to be main elements of scientific associa-tive thinking.

  13. Ion Association versus Ion Interaction Models in Examining Electrolyte Solutions: Application to Calcium Hydroxide Solubility Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, M. Isabel; Borge, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The heterogeneous equilibrium of the solubility of calcium hydroxide in water is used to predict both its solubility product from solubility and solubility values from solubility product when inert salts, in any concentration, are present. Accepting the necessity of including activity coefficients to treat the saturated solution of calcium…

  14. Examining the Etiology of Reading Disability as Conceptualized by the Hybrid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbeli, Florina; Hart, Sara A.; Wagner, Richard K.; Taylor, Jeanette

    2018-01-01

    A fairly recent definition of reading disability (RD) is that in the form of a hybrid model. The model views RD as a latent construct that is manifested through various observable unexpected impairments in reading-related skills and through inadequate response to intervention. The current report evaluated this new conceptualization of RD from an…

  15. Developing a Model for an Innovative Culinary Competency Curriculum and Examining Its Effects on Students' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng-Lei I-Chen Monica; Horng, Jeou-Shyan; Teng, Chih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The present study designs and develops an innovative culinary competency curriculum (ICCC) model comprising seven sections: innovative culture, aesthetics, techniques, service, product, management, and creativity. The model is formulated based on culinary concept, creativity, innovation, and competency theory. The four elements of curriculum…

  16. Sex differences in the association between obesity and albuminuria among Korean adults: a cross-sectional study using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hye-Mi; Kim, Un-Young; Park, Yong Soon; Song, Young Rim; Oh, Hye-Young; Park, Kyung-Hee; Paek, Yu-Jin; Roh, Yong Kyun; Song, Hong Ji

    2017-02-01

    The association between obesity and albuminuria in the general population remains unclear. We aimed to identify the association between obesity and albuminuria as well as sex differences regarding the associations using several obesity indices, including waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHR). This study included 3841 subjects (1730 males and 2111 females; age 20-80 years) who participated in the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2011. Subjects with hypertension, diabetes, renal failure, or a malignant tumor and those who were pregnant or menstruating were excluded. Albuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. Anthropometric parameters were categorized into sex-specific quartiles. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between each anthropometric parameter and albuminuria. All of the obesity indices of the fourth quartile group of females showed a twofold higher risk for albuminuria than the second quartile group, and it was persistently significant after adjusting for age, smoking, and physical activity. After further adjustment for high blood pressure and impaired fasting glucose and triglyceride levels, WC and BMI of the fourth quartile group of females still showed a significantly higher risk for albuminuria than the second quartile group (odds ratios 1.96 and 2.24; 95 % confidence intervals 1.03-3.74 and 1.15-4.37). None of the associations between albuminuria and the obesity indices were significant in males. Higher WC and BMI were significantly associated with the risk of albuminuria among females, but not males.

  17. Prediction Models for Licensure Examination Performance using Data Mining Classifiers for Online Test and Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy M. Tarun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuse d on two main points: the generation of licensure examination performan ce prediction models; and the development of a Decision Support System. In this study, data mining classifiers were used to generate the models using WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis. These models were integrated into the Decision Support System as default models to support decision making as far as appropriate interventions during review sessions are concerned. The system developed mainly involves the repeated generation of MR models for performance prediction and also provides a Mock Boar d Exam for the reviewees to take. From the models generated, it is established that the General Weighted Average of the reviewees in their General Education subjects, the result of the Mock Board Exam and the instance when the reviewee is conducting a sel f - review are good predictors of the licensure examination performance. Further , it is concluded that the General Weighted Average of the reviewees in their Major or Content courses is the best predictor of licensure examination performance. Based from the evaluation results of the system , the system satisfied its implied functions and is efficient, usable, reliable and portable. Hence, it can already be used not as a substitute to the face - to - face review sessions but to enhance the reviewees’ licensure exa mination review and allow initial identification of those who are likely to have difficulty in passing the licensure examination, therefore providing sufficient time and opportunities for appropriate interventions.

  18. Abdominal obesity is associated with albuminuria in women: the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong Gyu; Kim, Yang Hyun; Lee, Kyung Shik; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Do Hoon

    2014-03-01

    The effects of obesity on the kidney, apart from diabetes or hypertension, have not drawn much attention. Moreover, only a few studies have reported the relationship between obesity status and albuminuria in Asian countries, including South Korea. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between obesity status and albuminuria in Korean adults. We analyzed data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Of the 4,979 subjects included in the general-population group, 3,274 were sorted into a nondiabetic and nonhypertensive population group. Obesity status was measured by body mass index and waist circumference. Albuminuria was defined as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. Abdominally obese women were at higher risk for albuminuria than were women without abdominal obesity both in the general population (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.08 [1.04-4.16]) and in the nondiabetic and nonhypertensive population (OR [95% CI]: 6.96 [2.34-20.64]) after further adjustment for confounders. Among generally nonobese women, abdominally obese women were at higher risk for albuminuria than were women without abdominal obesity both in the general population (OR [95% CI]: 2.82 [1.51-5.29]) and in the nondiabetic and nonhypertensive population (OR [95% CI]: 5.32 [1.47-19.22]). Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk for albuminuria in Korean women, independently of diabetes or hypertension. Screening for abdominal obesity, especially in women, may therefore provide earlier identification of individuals at risk for developing renal disease and cardiovascular disease, even those who are nondiabetic and nonhypertensive.

  19. The Marginalized "Model" Minority: An Empirical Examination of the Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we propose a shift in race research from a one-dimensional hierarchical approach to a multidimensional system of racial stratification. Building upon Claire Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory, we examine how the American public rates Asians relative to blacks and whites along two dimensions of racial stratification: racial…

  20. An Effective School Autonomy Model: Examining Headteachers' Job Satisfaction and Work-Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidou Solomou, Galatia; Pashiardis, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although school autonomy has been a matter of great interest during the last decades and several relevant measures have been implemented toward this end, the relation between school autonomy and school effectiveness has not been examined thoroughly. The purpose of this paper is to explore this relation and to propose an effective school…

  1. Examining Technology Perception of Social Studies Teachers with Rogers' Diffusion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Özkan; Koçoglu, Erol

    2017-01-01

    Mobile learning has started to take place in education literature with the developing technology, and this technology started to have an increasing spread along with its advantages. This study examines the responses of social studies teachers to the innovations in the field of mobile learning. The study was designed within the framework of theory…

  2. Examination of a Process Model of Adolescent Smoking Self-Change Efforts in Relation to Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Laura; Myers, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Little information describes how adolescents change their smoking behavior. This study investigated the role of gender in the relationship of motivation and cognitive variables with adolescent smoking self-change efforts. Self-report and semi-structured interview data from a prospective study of smoking self-change efforts were examined among 98…

  3. Examining Pictorial Models and Virtual Manipulatives for Third-Grade Fraction Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Ulmer, Lori A.; Anderson, Katie L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine pictorial representations, whether in static or dynamic modalities, and their impact on student learning in a classroom with low-achieving students. The investigation emerged from a classroom teacher's action research project. During a three-week fraction unit, nineteen third-grade low-achieving students…

  4. Examining the Structure of Vocational Interests in Turkey in the Context of the Personal Globe Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardarli, Bade; Özyürek, Ragip; Wilkins-Yel, Kerrie G.; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2017-01-01

    The structural validity of the Personal Globe Inventory-Short (PGI-S: Tracey in J Vocat Behavi 76:1-15, 2010) was examined in a Turkish sample of high school and university students. The PGI-S measures eight basic interest scales, Holland's ("Making vocational choice," Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1997) six types, Prediger's ("J…

  5. Examining Big-Fish-Little-Pond-Effects across 49 Countries: A Multilevel Latent Variable Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, this study examined the big-fish-little-pond-effects (BFLPEs) in 49 countries. In this study, the effect of math ability on math self-concept was decomposed into a within- and a between-level components using implicit mean centring and the complex data…

  6. Examination of Soil Moisture Retrieval Using SIR-C Radar Data and a Distributed Hydrological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, A. Y.; ONeill, P. E.; Wood, E. F.; Zion, M.

    1997-01-01

    A major objective of soil moisture-related hydrological-research during NASA's SIR-C/X-SAR mission was to determine and compare soil moisture patterns within humid watersheds using SAR data, ground-based measurements, and hydrologic modeling. Currently available soil moisture-inversion methods using active microwave data are only accurate when applied to bare and slightly vegetated surfaces. Moreover, as the surface dries down, the number of pixels that can provide estimated soil moisture by these radar inversion methods decreases, leading to less accuracy and, confidence in the retrieved soil moisture fields at the watershed scale. The impact of these errors in microwave- derived soil moisture on hydrological modeling of vegetated watersheds has yet to be addressed. In this study a coupled water and energy balance model operating within a topographic framework is used to predict surface soil moisture for both bare and vegetated areas. In the first model run, the hydrological model is initialized using a standard baseflow approach, while in the second model run, soil moisture values derived from SIR-C radar data are used for initialization. The results, which compare favorably with ground measurements, demonstrate the utility of combining radar-derived surface soil moisture information with basin-scale hydrological modeling.

  7. Preclinical QSP Modeling in the Pharmaceutical Industry: An IQ Consortium Survey Examining the Current Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijsen, Marjoleen J M A; Wu, Fan; Bansal, Loveleena; Bradshaw-Pierce, Erica; Chan, Jason R; Liederer, Bianca M; Mettetal, Jerome T; Schroeder, Patricia; Schuck, Edgar; Tsai, Alice; Xu, Christine; Chimalakonda, Anjaneya; Le, Kha; Penney, Mark; Topp, Brian; Yamada, Akihiro; Spilker, Mary E

    2018-03-01

    A cross-industry survey was conducted to assess the landscape of preclinical quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) modeling within pharmaceutical companies. This article presents the survey results, which provide insights on the current state of preclinical QSP modeling in addition to future opportunities. Our results call attention to the need for an aligned definition and consistent terminology around QSP, yet highlight the broad applicability and benefits preclinical QSP modeling is currently delivering. © 2018 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  8. Effect of health-belief-model-based training on performance of women in breast self-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahidi, Fatemeh; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Asadi, Zeynab; Shakeri, Nezhat

    2017-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among women in the world. With prevention and examinations, including breast self-examination, the death rate will be reduced. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of health-belief-model-based training on the performance of women in breast self-examination in the province of Fars (Iran). An empirical study examined the effect of an eight-week training program based on the health belief model among 144 women who visited health care centers in the city of Abadeh in Fars Province (Iran) in 2015. Data gathered through researcher-made questionnaires including awareness, components of the health belief model, performance, and demographic information. IBM-SPSS software version 20, descriptive and inferential statistical tests such as T-test, chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and repeated measurements were used for data analysis. After the intervention, a significant difference was seen in average awareness, perceived susceptibility, and performance of women (phealth belief model with an increase of the perceived susceptibility could be effective in improving their performance in breast self-examination.

  9. Sarcopenic obesity and overall mortality: Results from the application of novel models of body composition phenotypes to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aller, Carla; Lara, Jose; Stephan, Blossom C M; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Heymsfield, Steven; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Wells, Jonathan C K; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario

    2018-02-15

    There is no consensus on the definition of sarcopenic obesity (SO), resulting in inconsistent associations of SO with mortality risk. We aim to evaluate association of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) SO models with mortality risk in a US adult population (≥50 years). The study population consisted of 3577 participants aged 50 years and older from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey with mortality follow-up data through December 31, 2011. Difference in survival time in people with and without SO defined by three body composition DXA models (Model 1: body composition phenotype model; Model 2: Truncal Fat Mass (TrFM)/Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass (ASM) ratio model; Model 3: Fat Mass (FM)/Fat Free Mass (FFM) ratio). The differences between the models were assessed by the acceleration failure time model, and expressed as time ratios (TR). Participants age 50-70 years with SO had a significantly decreased survival time, according to the body composition phenotype model (TR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.97), and TrFM/ASM ratio model (TR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81-0.95). The FM/FFM ratio model did not detect significant differences in survival time. Participants with SO aged 70 years and older did not have a significantly decreased survival time, according to all three models. A SO phenotype increases mortality risk in people of age 50-70 years, but not in people aged 70 years and older. The application of the body composition phenotype and the TrFM/ASM ratio models may represent useful diagnostic approaches to improve the prediction of disease and mortality risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Formulation, Implementation and Examination of Vertical Coordinate Choices in the Global Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barron, Charlie N; Kara, A. B; Martin, Paul J; Rhodes, Robert C; Smedstad, Lucy F

    2006-01-01

    .... NCOM is a baroclinic, hydrostatic, Boussinesq, free-surface ocean model that allows its vertical coordinate to consist of sigma coordinates for the upper layers and z-levels below a user-specified depth...

  11. Examining Competing Models of Transformational Leadership, Leadership Trust, Change Commitment, and Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2016-08-01

    This study discusses the influence of transformational leadership on job satisfaction through assessing six alternative models related to the mediators of leadership trust and change commitment utilizing a data sample (N = 341; M age = 32.5 year, SD = 5.2) for service promotion personnel in Taiwan. The bootstrap sampling technique was used to select the better fitting model. The tool of hierarchical nested model analysis was applied, along with the approaches of bootstrapping mediation, PRODCLIN2, and structural equation modeling comparison. The results overall demonstrate that leadership is important and that leadership role identification (trust) and workgroup cohesiveness (commitment) form an ordered serial relationship. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. A New Model to Facilitate Individualized Case Conceptualization and Treatment of Social Phobia: An Examination and Reaction to Moscovitch's Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimberg, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Moscovitch's (2009) model of social phobia is put forth as an integration and extension of previous cognitive-behavioral models. The author asserts that his approach overcomes a number of shortcomings of previous models and will serve to better guide case conceptualization, treatment planning, and intervention implementation for clients with…

  13. Examining Policies to Reduce Homelessness Using a General Equilibrium Model of the Housing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mansur, Erin; Quigley, John M.; Raphael, Steven; Smolensky, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we use a general equilibrium simulation model to assess the potential impacts on homelessness of various housing-market policy interventions. We calibrate the model to the four largest metropolitan areas in California. We explore the welfare con- sequences and the effects on homelessness of three housing-market policy interventions: extending housing vouchers to all low-income households, subsidizing all landlords, and subsidizing those landlords who supply low-income housing. ...

  14. Animal models of antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Salama, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    To provide an update on the experimental models that have been developed recapitulating clinical antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis. The application of the models in the study of pathogenesis, and the therapeutic implications of this, are covered in the article by van Timmeren and Heeringa in this issue.

  15. The Victim-Offender Overlap and Fear of In-School Victimization: A Longitudinal Examination of Risk Assessment Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melde, Chris; Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    2009-01-01

    Reports of serious violence in schools have raised general awareness and concern about safety in America's schools. In this article, the authors examine the extent to which in-school victimization is associated with students' perceived risk and fear of victimization. By expanding on Ferraro's risk assessment framework, the current study explores…

  16. An examination of school- and student-level characteristics associated with the likelihood of students' meeting the Canadian physical activity guidelines in the COMPASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Amanda; Faulkner, Guy; Giangregorio, Lora; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-11-09

    To examine school- and student-level correlates of physical activity. Cross-sectional Year 2 data collected from 45 298 grade 9-12 students attending 89 secondary schools in the COMPASS study were examined using multi-level modelling to predict the likelihood of students a) achieving 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily; and b) achieving the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) activity guideline for youth (60 minutes/MVPA daily, vigorous physical activity at least three days in a week, and resistance training at least three days in a week). The prevalence of students achieving 60 minutes of MVPA daily and meeting the CSEP guideline was 49.3% and 31.0% respectively. Modest between-school variability was identified (1.1% for 60 minutes MVPA and 0.8% for CSEP guideline). School-level characteristics significantly associated with the outcome measures included location, school size, quality of facilities, and accessibility of facilities. Significant student-level correlates included sex, grade, weekly income, binge drinking, fruit and vegetable consumption, and body mass index. Most youth in this large study reported inadequate physical activity levels. Students were more likely to achieve 60 minutes of MVPA if they attended a larger school or a school in an urban location, whereas students were less likely to meet the CSEP guideline if they attended a school in a small urban location. However, student-level factors, such as binge drinking and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, were more strongly associated with the outcomes examined.

  17. One of Us: Multilevel Models Examining the Impact of Descriptive Representation on Civic Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Pippa; Krook, Mona Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of descriptive representation in comparative perspective. The goals are to establish (1) whether descriptive representation mobilizes attitudinal and behavioral indicators of civic engagement; (2) whether the strength of any such relationship differs for women and young people; and (3) whether this relationship is evident cross-nationally. The first section provides an overview of existing research on descriptive representation and the civic engagement of women ...

  18. Online Reviews as Health Data: Examining the Association Between Availability of Health Care Services and Patient Star Ratings Exemplified by the Yelp Academic Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nam N; Lee, Joon

    2017-07-12

    There have been public health interventions that aim to reduce barriers to health care access by extending opening hours of health care facilities. However, the impact of opening hours from the patient's perspective is not well understood. This study aims to investigate the relationship between temporal accessibility of health care services and how patients rate the providers on Yelp, an online review website that is popular in the United States. Using crowdsourced open Internet data, such as Yelp, can help circumvent the traditional survey method. From Yelp's limited academic dataset, this study examined the pattern of visits to health care providers and performed a secondary analysis to examine the association between patient rating (measured by Yelp's rating) and temporal accessibility of health care services (measured by opening hours) using ordinal logistic regression models. Other covariates included were whether an appointment was required, the type of health care service, the region of the health care service provider, the number of reviews the health care service provider received in the past, the number of nearby competitors, the mean rating of competitors, and the standard deviation of competitors' ratings. From the 2085 health care service providers identified, opening hours during certain periods, the type of health care service, and the variability of competitors' ratings showed an association with patient rating. Most of the visits to health care service providers took place between normal working hours (9 AM-5 PM) from Sunday to Thursday, and the least on Saturday. A model fitted to the entire sample showed that increasing hours during normal working hours on Monday (OR 0.926, 95% CI 0.880-0.973, P=0.03), Saturday (OR 0.897, 95% CI 0.860-0.935, Ponline reviews as a health dataset. ©Nam N Tran, Joon Lee. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 12.07.2017.

  19. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency is associated with cardiometabolic risk in Korean adolescents: the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu; Han, Kyung Do; Kim, Seon Mee; Lee, Seung Hwan; Ko, Byung Joon; Kim, Min Ji

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is known to be related to cardiometabolic disorders; however, the associations among serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents have not yet been clearly delineated. For this reason, we investigated the relationship among serum 25(OH)D concentration and metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factors among Korean adolescents. We performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analysis models to adjust for confounding variables. We used the data gathered during the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Our subjects included 1504 Korean adolescents aged 12-18 years who participated in the KNHANES. Vitamin D insufficiency, defined as 25(OH)D concentration Korean adolescents and was associated with an increased risk of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference and BMI were the most closely correlated cardiometabolic components of metabolic syndrome according to serum 25(OH)D status, but no significant relationship was found between serum 25(OH)D concentration and insulin resistance or for the risks for high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, reduced HDL-cholesterol or hypertriacylglycerolaemia, with or without adjustment for confounding variables. Low serum 25(OH)D concentration appears to be associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors and an increased risk of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents.

  20. An examination of adaptive cellular protective mechanisms using a multi-stage carcinogenesis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schollnberger, H.; Stewart, R. D.; Mitchel, R. E. J.; Hofmann, W.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-stage cancer model that describes the putative rate-limiting steps in carcinogenesis was developed and used to investigate the potential impact on lung cancer incidence of the hormesis mechanisms suggested by Feinendegen and Pollycove. In this deterministic cancer model, radiation and endogenous processes damage the DNA of target cells in the lung. Some fraction of the misrepaired our unrepaired DNA damage induces genomic instability and, ultimately, leads to the accumulation of malignant cells. The model accounts for cell birth and death processes. Ita also includes a rate of malignant transformation and a lag period for tumour formation. Cellular defence mechanisms are incorporated into the model by postulating dose and dose rate dependent radical scavenging. The accuracy of DNA damage repair also depends on dose and dose rate. Sensitivity studies were conducted to identify critical model inputs and to help define the shapes of the cumulative lung cancer incidence curves that may arise when dose and dose rate dependent cellular defence mechanisms are incorporated into a multi-stage cancer model. For lung cancer, both linear no-threshold (LNT) and non-LNT shaped responses can be obtained. The reported studied clearly show that it is critical to know whether or not and to what extent multiply damaged DNA sites are formed by endogenous processes. Model inputs that give rise to U-shaped responses are consistent with an effective cumulative lung cancer incidence threshold that may be as high as 300 mGy (4 mGy per year for 75 years). (Author) 11 refs

  1. Steroid-associated osteonecrosis animal model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhen Zheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Objective: Established preclinical disease models are essential for not only studying aetiology and/or pathophysiology of the relevant diseases but more importantly also for testing prevention and/or treatment concept(s. The present study proposed and established a detailed induction and assessment protocol for a unique and cost-effective preclinical steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON in rats with pulsed injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS and methylprednisolone (MPS. Methods: Sixteen 24-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were used to induce SAON by one intravenous injection of LPS (0.2 mg/kg and three intraperitoneal injections of MPS (100 mg/kg with a time interval of 24 hour, and then, MPS (40 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected three times a week from week 2 until sacrifice. Additional 12 rats were used as normal controls. Two and six weeks after induction, animals were scanned by metabolic dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for evaluation of tissue composition; serum was collected for bone turnover markers, Microfil perfusion was performed for angiography, the liver was collected for histopathology and bilateral femora and bilateral tibiae were collected for histological examination. Results: Three rats died after LPS injection, i.e., with 15.8% (3/19 mortality. Histological evaluation showed 100% incidence of SAON at week 2. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry showed significantly higher fat percent and lower lean mass in SAON group at week 6. Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT showed significant bone degradation at proximal tibia 6 weeks after SAON induction. Angiography illustrated significantly less blood vessels in the proximal tibia and significantly more leakage particles in the distal tibia 2 weeks after SAON induction. Serum amino-terminal propeptide of type I collagen and osteocalcin were significantly lower at both 2 and 6 weeks after SAON induction, and serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide was significantly

  2. Examining the Effects of Model-Based Inquiry on Concepetual Understanding and Engagement in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baze, Christina L.

    Model-Based Inquiry (MBI) is an instructional model which engages students in the scientific practices of modeling, explanation, and argumentation while they work to construct explanations for natural phenomena. This instructional model has not been previously studied at the community college level. The purpose of this study is to better understand how MBI affects the development of community college students' conceptual understanding of evolution and engagement in the practices of science. Mixed-methods were employed to collect quantitative and qualitative data through the multiple-choice Concepts Inventory of Natural Selection, student artifacts, and semi-structured interviews. Participants were enrolled in Biology Concepts, an introductory class for non-science majors, at a small, rural community college in the southwestern United States. Preliminary data shows that conceptual understanding is not adversely affected by the implementation of MBI, and that students gain valuable insights into the practices of science. Specifically, students who participated in the MBI intervention group gained a better understanding of the role of models in explaining and predicting phenomena and experienced feeling ownership of their ideas, an appropriate depth of thinking, more opportunities for collaboration, and coherence and context within the unit. Implications of this study will be of interest to postsecondary science educators and researchers who seek to reform and improve science education.

  3. Vitamin D intake and status are associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Rains, Tia M; Park, Keigan M; Rubin, Martyn R

    2012-10-01

    Previous reports have shown that metabolic syndrome and some metabolic syndrome components are associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 2003-2006, we evaluated the associations of vitamin D intake (n=3543) and vitamin D status [25(OH)D; n=3529], with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in adults 20 years and older. Exclusion criteria included nonfasted subjects, those pregnant and/or lactating, and, for intake analyses, those with unreliable 24-h recall records. Subjects were separately classified into quartiles of vitamin D intake (both including and excluding supplements) and serum 25(OH)D. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios (OR) for metabolic syndrome after adjusting for multiple confounders. Those in the highest quartile of serum 25(OH)D had 60% lower odds for metabolic syndrome as compared to those in the lowest quartile [OR=0.40; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27, 0.59]. Elevated waist circumference (OR=0.57; 95% CI 0.39, 0.84), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR=0.54; 95% CI 0.39, 0.75), and high homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (OR=0.40; 95% CI 0.29, 0.55) were the main components associated with serum 25(OH)D. Compared with the lowest vitamin D intake quartile (excluding supplements), those in the highest intake quartile had 28% lower odds for metabolic syndrome (OR=0.72; 95% CI 0.58, 0.90). No components of metabolic syndrome were significantly associated with dietary intake of vitamin D with supplements included or excluded. We conclude that higher 25(OH)D, and, to a lesser degree, greater dietary vitamin D intake, are associated with reduced prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  4. Examining the Relationships among Antecedents of Guests’ Behavioural Intentions in Ghana’s Hospitality Industry: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Gyasi Nimako; Anthony Freeman Mensah

    2013-01-01

    This study empirically examines the critical antecedents of behavioural intentions and the structural interrelationships that exist among the antecedents in the hotel industry in Ghana. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 700 respondents using structured questionnaire personally administered. A usable 359 questionnaire were obtained, representing 51.3% response rate and analysed using Structural Equation Modelling approach. The findings indicate that the proposed model has high goodness...

  5. Examining wide-arc digital breast tomosynthesis: optimization using a visual-search model observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mini; Liang, Zhihua; Gifford, Howard C.

    2015-03-01

    Mathematical model observers are expected to assist in preclinical optimization of image acquisition and reconstruction parameters. A clinically realistic and robust model observer platform could help in multiparameter optimizations without requiring frequent human-observer validations. We are developing search-capable visual-search (VS) model observers with this potential. In this work, we present initial results on optimization of DBT scan angle and the number of projection views for low-contrast mass detection. Comparison with human-observer results shows very good agreement. These results point towards the benefits of using relatively wider arcs and low projection angles per arc degree for improved mass detection. These results are particularly interesting considering that the FDA-approved DBT systems like Hologic Selenia Dimensions uses a narrow (15-degree) acquisition arc and one projection per arc degree.

  6. Century-scale variability in global annual runoff examined using a water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    A monthly water balance model (WB model) is used with CRUTS2.1 monthly temperature and precipitation data to generate time series of monthly runoff for all land areas of the globe for the period 1905 through 2002. Even though annual precipitation accounts for most of the temporal and spatial variability in annual runoff, increases in temperature have had an increasingly negative effect on annual runoff after 1980. Although the effects of increasing temperature on runoff became more apparent after 1980, the relative magnitude of these effects are small compared to the effects of precipitation on global runoff. ?? 2010 Royal Meteorological Society.

  7. Colorectal cancer screening at US community health centers: Examination of sociodemographic disparities and association with patient-provider communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sue C; McKinley, Duane; Sripipatana, Alek; Makaroff, Laura

    2017-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are low among underserved populations. High-quality patient-physician communication potentially influences patients' willingness to undergo CRC screening. Community health centers (HCs) provide comprehensive primary health care to underserved populations. This study's objectives were to ascertain national CRC screening rates and to explore the relations between sociodemographic characteristics and patient-provider communication on the receipt of CRC screening among HC patients. Using 2014 Health Center Patient Survey data, bivariate and multivariate analyses examined the association of sociodemographic variables (sex, race/ethnicity, age, geography, preferred language, household income, insurance, and employment status) and patient-provider communication with the receipt of CRC screening. Patients between the ages of 65 and 75 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-4.64) and patients not in the labor force (aOR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.37-3.94) had higher odds of receiving CRC screening, whereas patients who were uninsured (aOR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.18-0.61) and patients who were non-English-speaking (aOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18-0.99) had lower odds. Patient-provider communication was not associated with the receipt of CRC screening. The CRC screening rate for HC patients was 57.9%, whereas the rate was 65.1% according to the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 58.2% according to the 2013 National Health Interview Survey. The high ratings of patient-provider communication, regardless of the screening status, suggest strides toward a patient-centered medical home practice transformation that will assist in a positive patient experience. Addressing the lack of insurance, making culturally and linguistically appropriate patient education materials available, and training clinicians and care teams in cultural competency are critical for increasing future CRC screening rates. Cancer 2017

  8. Characterizing the Undergraduate Neuroscience Major in the U.S.: An Examination of Course Requirements and Institution-Program Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard-Welyczko, Kira M.; Garrison, Anna C. S.; Ramos, Raddy L.; Carter, Bradley S.

    2017-01-01

    Neuroscience is a rapidly expanding field, and many colleges and universities throughout the country are implementing new neuroscience degree programs. Despite the field’s growth and popularity, little data exists on the structural character of current undergraduate neuroscience programs. We collected and examined comprehensive data on existing undergraduate neuroscience programs, including academic major requirements and institution characteristics such as size, financial resources, and research opportunities. Thirty-one variables covering information about course requirements, department characteristics, financial resources, and institution characteristics were collected from 118 colleges and universities in the United States that offer a major titled “neuroscience” or “neural sciences.” Data was collected from publicly available sources (online databases, institutions’ neuroscience program websites) and then analyzed to define the average curriculum and identify associations between institution and program characteristics. Our results suggest that the average undergraduate neuroscience major requires 3 chemistry, 3 biology, 3 laboratory, 2–3 neuroscience, 1 physics, 1 math, and 2 psychology courses, suggesting that most neuroscience programs emphasize the natural sciences over the social sciences. Additionally, while 98% of institutions in our database offer research opportunities, only 31% required majors to perform research. Of note, 70% of institutions offering a neuroscience major do not have a neuroscience department, suggesting that most institutions offer neuroscience as an interdisciplinary major spanning several departments. Finally, smaller liberal arts colleges account for the majority of institutions offering a neuroscience major. Overall, these findings may be useful for informing groups interested in undergraduate neuroscience training, including institutions looking to improve or establish programs, students wanting to major in

  9. Examining the Relationship between Role Models and Leadership Growth during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jill R.; Rosch, David M.; Collier, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Leadership and developmental scholars have highlighted the need to enhance youth leadership skills. Yet, research that explains youths' perceptions of how and when role models influences their leadership growth processes is limited. To address these gaps and begin to develop an understanding of youths' perspectives, we employed a qualitative,…

  10. Examination of Bond Properties through Infrared Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizmar, Clifford M.; Force, Dee Ann; Warner, Don L.

    2012-01-01

    A concerted effort has been made to increase the opportunities for undergraduate students to address scientific problems employing the processes used by practicing chemists. As part of this effort, an infrared (IR) spectroscopy and molecular modeling experiment was developed for the first-year general chemistry laboratory course. In the…

  11. Examining Engineering & Technology Students' Acceptance of Network Virtualization Technology Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Wael K.

    2010-01-01

    This causal and correlational study was designed to extend the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and to test its applicability to Valencia Community College (VCC) Engineering and Technology students as the target user group when investigating the factors influencing their decision to adopt and to utilize VMware as the target technology. In…

  12. Introducing a Model for Optimal Design of Sequential Objective Structured Clinical Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaz Hejri, Sara; Yazdani, Kamran; Labaf, Ali; Norcini, John J.; Jalili, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    In a sequential OSCE which has been suggested to reduce testing costs, candidates take a short screening test and who fail the test, are asked to take the full OSCE. In order to introduce an effective and accurate sequential design, we developed a model for designing and evaluating screening OSCEs. Based on two datasets from a 10-station…

  13. Examination of Different Item Response Theory Models on Tests Composed of Testlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogar, Esin Yilmaz; Kelecioglu, Hülya

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to first estimate the item and ability parameters and the standard error values related to those parameters obtained from Unidimensional Item Response Theory (UIRT), bifactor (BIF) and Testlet Response Theory models (TRT) in the tests including testlets, when the number of testlets, number of independent items, and…

  14. A Monte Carlo Examination of an MTMM Model with Planned Incomplete Data Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Brendan P.; Adamson, Gary; Mulhall, Peter K.

    2002-01-01

    Studied planned incomplete data designs for the purpose of substantially reducing the amount of data required for multitrait-multimethod models. Simulations studied the effectiveness of Listwise Deletion, Pairwise Deletion, and the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Results indicate that EM is generally precise and efficient. (SLD)

  15. Examining the Relations of Time Management and Procrastination within a Model of Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Christopher A.; Won, Sungjun; Hussain, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to investigate whether college students' academic time management could be used to understand their engagement in traditional and active forms of procrastination within a model of self-regulated learning. College students (N = 446) completed a self-report survey that assessed motivational and strategic aspects of…

  16. Examination of the wind speed limit function in the Rothermel surface fire spread model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Miguel G. Cruz; Richard C. Rothermel

    2013-01-01

    The Rothermel surface fire spread model includes a wind speed limit, above which predicted rate of spread is constant. Complete derivation of the wind limit as a function of reaction intensity is given, along with an alternate result based on a changed assumption. Evidence indicates that both the original and the revised wind limits are too restrictive. Wind limit is...

  17. A Mixed-Methodological Examination of Investment Model Variables among Abused and Nonabused College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardis, Christina M.; Kelley, Erika L.; Edwards, Katie M.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed abused and nonabused women's perceptions of Investment Model (IM) variables (ie, relationship investment, satisfaction, commitment, quality of alternatives) utilizing a mixed-methods design. Participants: Participants included 102 college women, approximately half of whom were in abusive dating relationships.…

  18. Further Examining Berry’s Model: The Applicability of Latent Profile Analysis to Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Rina S.; Merz, Erin L.; Solórzano, Martha T.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2017-01-01

    This study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify acculturation profiles. A 3-profile solution fit the data best, and comparisons on demographic and psychosocial outcomes as a function of profile yielded expected results. The findings support using LPA as a parsimonious way to model acculturation without anticipating profiles in advance. PMID:28819336

  19. Further Examining Berry's Model: The Applicability of Latent Profile Analysis to Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Rina S.; Merz, Erin L.; Solórzano, Martha T.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    This study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify acculturation profiles. A three-profile solution fit the data best, and comparisons on demographic and psychosocial outcomes as a function of profile yielded expected results. The findings support using LPA as a parsimonious way to model acculturation without anticipating profiles in…

  20. An Econometric Examination of the Behavioral Perspective Model in the Context of Norwegian Retailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Kahamseh, Saeed; Gunnarsson, Didrik; Larsen, Nils Magne; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral perspective model's (BPM; Foxall, 1990) retailing literature is built on extensive empirical research and techniques that were originally refined in choice experiments in behavioral economics and behavior analysis, and then tested mostly on British consumer panel data. We test the BPM in the context of Norwegian retailing. This…

  1. Examining a Causal Model of Early Drug Involvement Among Inner City Junior High School Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; And Others

    Reflecting the need to construct more inclusive, socially and culturally relevant conceptions of drug use than currently exist, the determinants of drug involvement among inner-city youths within the context of a causal model were investigated. The drug involvement of the Black and Puerto Rican junior high school girls and boys was hypothesized to…

  2. An Alternative Theoretical Model: Examining Psychosocial Identity Development of International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunyoung

    2012-01-01

    Despite the plethora of college student identity development research, very little attention has been paid to the identity formation of international students. Rather than adopting existing identity theories in college student development, this exploratory qualitative study proposes a new psychosocial identity development model for international…

  3. Examining the Mathematical Modeling Processes of Primary School 4th-Grade Students: Shopping Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify primary school students' thinking processes within the mathematical modeling process and the challenges they encounter, if any. This is a basic qualitative research study conducted in a primary school in the city of Kütahya in the academic year of 2015-2016. The study group of the research was composed of…

  4. Examining the Simple View of Reading Model for United States High School Spanish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard; Patton, Jon

    2016-01-01

    The Simple View of Reading (SVR) model, which posits that reading comprehension is the product of word decoding and language comprehension that make independent contributions to reading skill, has been found to explain the acquisition of first language (L1) reading and second language (L2) reading in young English language learners (ELLs).…

  5. Using a Structural Equation Model to Examine Factors Affecting Married Individuals' Sexual Embarrassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Eyup; Arici, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to predict the effects of levels of sexual awareness, sexual courage, and sexual self-disclosure on sexual embarrassment. Data was collected from 336 married individuals, who have students in the Sultangazi District of Istanbul. According to the structural equation model (SEM), sexual self-disclosure, directly, and sexual courage…

  6. Testing a Dual Process Model of Gender-Based Violence: A Laboratory Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-01-01

    The dire impact of gender-based violence on society compels development of models comprehensive enough to capture the diversity of its forms. Research has established hostile sexism (HS) as a robust predictor of gender-based violence. However, to date, research has yet to link men's benevolent sexism (BS) to physical aggression toward women, despite correlations between BS and HS and between BS and victim blaming. One model, the opposing process model of benevolent sexism (Sibley & Perry, 2010), suggests that, for men, BS acts indirectly through HS to predict acceptance of hierarchy-enhancing social policy as an expression of a preference for in-group dominance (i. e., social dominance orientation [SDO]). The extent to which this model applies to gender-based violence remains untested. Therefore, in this study, 168 undergraduate men in a U. S. university participated in a competitive reaction time task, during which they had the option to shock an ostensible female opponent as a measure of gender-based violence. Results of multiple-mediation path analyses indicated dual pathways potentiating gender-based violence and highlight SDO as a particularly potent mechanism of this violence. Findings are discussed in terms of group dynamics and norm-based violence prevention.

  7. Examining the determinants of efficiency using a latent class stochastic frontier model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Danquah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we combine the latent class stochastic frontier model with the complex time decay model to form a single-stage approach that accounts for unobserved technological differences to estimate efficiency and the determinants of efficiency. In this way, we contribute to the literature by estimating “pure” efficiency and determinants of productive units based on the class structure. An application of this proposed model is presented using data on the Ghanaian banking system. Our results show that inefficiency effects on the productive unit are specific to the class structure of the productive unit and therefore assuming a common technology for all productive units as is in the popular Battese and Coelli model used extensively in the literature may be misleading. The study therefore provides useful empirical evidence on the importance of accounting for unobserved technological differences across productive units. A policy based on the identified classes of the productive unit enables a more accurate and effectual measures to address efficiency challenges within the banking industry, thereby promoting financial sector development and economic growth.

  8. Examining the Antecedents of ICT Adoption in Education Using an Extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeroovengadum, Viraiyan; Heeraman, Nabeel; Jugurnath, Bhavish

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses the determinants of ICT adoption by educators in the teaching and learning process in the context of a developing country, Mauritius. A hierarchical regression analysis is used, to firstly determine the incremental effects of factors from the technology acceptance model (TAM) while controlling for demographic variables such as…

  9. A structural equation modelling approach examining the pathways between safety climate, behaviour performance and workplace slipping

    OpenAIRE

    Swedler, David I; Verma, Santosh K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melayne; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Safety climate has previously been associated with increasing safe workplace behaviours and decreasing occupational injuries. This study seeks to understand the structural relationship between employees’ perceptions of safety climate, performing a safety behaviour (ie, wearing slip-resistant shoes) and risk of slipping in the setting of limited-service restaurants. Methods: At baseline, we surveyed 349 employees at 30 restaurants for their perceptions of their safety training and m...

  10. A Bidimensional Model of Acculturation for Examining Differences in Family Functioning and Behavior Problems in Hispanic Immigrant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Summer; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Shi Huang,; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationships of adolescent acculturation orientations to adolescent and parent reports of family functioning and behavior problems in a sample of 338 Hispanic families. Acculturation orientations are derived from the model proposed by Berry. Results indicate that integrated adolescents, who both maintain heritage culture…

  11. Rat Models of Cardiometabolic Diseases: Baseline Clinical Chemistries, and Rationale for their Use in Examining Air Pollution Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first of a series of 8 papers examining susceptibility of various rodent cardiometabolic disease models to ozone induced health effects. Individuals with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (CVD) are shown to be more susceptible to adverse health effects o...

  12. Predicting risky sexual behavior in emerging adulthood: examination of a moderated mediation model among child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather L; Grills, Amie E; Drum, Katherine B

    2014-01-01

    Although having a sexual victimization history is associated with engaging in sexual risk behavior, the mechanisms whereby sexual victimization increases risk behavior are unclear. This study examined use of sex as an affect regulation strategy as a mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior among 1,616 sexually active college women as well as examined having a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA), or both (CSA/ASA) as moderators. Results supported the mediated model as well as moderated mediation, where depressive symptoms were more strongly associated with use of sex as an affect regulation strategy among ASA victims, and sex as an affect regulation strategy was more strongly related to sexual risk behavior for CSA/ASA victims.

  13. Examining the antecedents of Facebook acceptance via structural equation modeling: A case of CEGEP students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenzin Doleck

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the last decade has witnessed social networking sites of varied flavors, Facebook’s user growth continues to balloon, and relatedly, Facebook remains popular among the college populace. While there has been a growing body of work on ascertaining antecedents of Facebook use among college students, Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel (CEGEP students’ acceptance of Facebook remains underexplored. The purpose of this study was to analyze CEGEP students’ acceptance of Facebook using the technology acceptance model (TAM. Structural equation modeling was conducted on data from a survey of 214 CEGEP students. We find that Facebook use is motivated by the core TAM constructs as well as the added factors of peer influence, perceived enjoyment, perceived self-efficacy, relative advantage, risk, and trust.

  14. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in Collective Frog Choruses Examined by Mathematical Modeling and Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Ikkyu; Mizumoto, Takeshi; Otsuka, Takuma; Awano, Hiromitsu; Nagira, Kohei; Okuno, Hiroshi G.; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports theoretical and experimental studies on spatio-temporal dynamics in the choruses of male Japanese tree frogs. First, we theoretically model their calling times and positions as a system of coupled mobile oscillators. Numerical simulation of the model as well as calculation of the order parameters show that the spatio-temporal dynamics exhibits bistability between two-cluster antisynchronization and wavy antisynchronization, by assuming that the frogs are attracted to the edge of a simple circular breeding site. Second, we change the shape of the breeding site from the circle to rectangles including a straight line, and evaluate the stability of two-cluster and wavy antisynchronization. Numerical simulation shows that two-cluster antisynchronization is more frequently observed than wavy antisynchronization. Finally, we recorded frog choruses at an actual paddy field using our sound-imaging method. Analysis of the video demonstrated a consistent result with the aforementioned simulation: namely, two-cluster antisynchronization was more frequently realized.

  15. Encouraging IS developers to learn business skills: an examination of the MARS model

    OpenAIRE

    Tsay, Han-Huei (Crystal)

    2016-01-01

    Though prior research has recognized business skills as one of the keys to successful information system development, few studies have investigated the determinants of an IS developer’s behavioral intention to learn such skills. Based on the Motivation–Ability–Role Perception–Situational factors (i.e., the MARS model), this study argues that the intention of IS developers to acquire business skills is influenced by learning motivation (M), learning self-efficacy (A), change agent role percept...

  16. EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT ON MOTIVATION VIA STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELLING: TURKISH ACADEMICIANS CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Saraçlı, Sinan; KESKINTURK, Timur; CİCEK, Mukades; GAZELOGLU, Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    Earlier studies on motivation have all showed that there is a strong correlation between the organizational commitments and motivations of the workers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of organizational commitment on individual’s extrinsic and intrinsic motivation which are effective factors of job motivation. With this purpose Explanatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) used to determine the effects of three sub factors of organizational commitm...

  17. Examining global electricity supply vulnerability to climate change using a high-fidelity hydropower dam model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sean W D; Ng, Jia Yi; Galelli, Stefano

    2017-07-15

    An important and plausible impact of a changing global climate is altered power generation from hydroelectric dams. Here we project 21st century global hydropower production by forcing a coupled, global hydrological and dam model with three General Circulation Model (GCM) projections run under two emissions scenarios. Dams are simulated using a detailed model that accounts for plant specifications, storage dynamics, reservoir bathymetry and realistic, optimized operations. We show that the inclusion of these features can have a non-trivial effect on the simulated response of hydropower production to changes in climate. Simulation results highlight substantial uncertainty in the direction of change in globally aggregated hydropower production (~-5 to +5% change in mean global production by the 2080s under a high emissions scenario, depending on GCM). Several clearly impacted hotspots are identified, the most prominent of which encompasses the Mediterranean countries in southern Europe, northern Africa and the Middle East. In this region, hydropower production is projected to be reduced by approximately 40% on average by the end of the century under a high emissions scenario. After accounting for each country's dependence on hydropower for meeting its current electricity demands, the Balkans countries emerge as the most vulnerable (~5-20% loss in total national electricity generation depending on country). On the flipside, a handful of countries in Scandinavia and central Asia are projected to reap a significant increase in total electrical production (~5-15%) without investing in new power generation facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between serum alkaline phosphatase and C-reactive protein in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Matthew; Krishnan, Aisling; Thomas, Neil G; Cheung, Bernard M Y

    2010-02-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a widely used marker for skeletal and hepatobiliary disorders, but its activity is also increased in atherosclerosis and peripheral vascular disease. It is an inflammatory marker like C-reactive protein (CRP). We therefore analyzed its relationship with CRP in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006. The analysis included 4155 men and non-pregnant women over the age of 20 years. The relationship between log-transformed ALP and plasma CRP was analyzed using univariate and multivariate models. ALP activity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure, exercise, alcohol, triglycerides, and other liver enzymes after adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity (p<0.001). ALP was significantly associated with a higher frequency of cardiovascular disease (p=0.02), hypertension (p=0.01) hypercholesterolemia (p=0.04), and diabetes (p=0.02). Compared to the lowest quartile of ALP, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) associated with the highest quartile were 1.9 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.1-3.5], 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.5), 1.5 (95% CI 1.1-2.1) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.0-2.4) for cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes, respectively. In multivariate analysis, log ALP was an independent predictor of log CRP (p=1.0x10(-6)). A multivariate model that included log ALP, ethnicity, glycohemoglobin, waist circumference, albumin, apolipoprotein B, gamma-glutamyltransferase and uric acid explained 40% of the variance in log CRP. ALP is a marker of cardiometabolic risk, but it needs to be tested as part of a multivariate model in prospective studies.

  19. An Examination of the Association of Social Media Use with the Satisfaction with Daily Routines and Healthy Lifestyle Habits for Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Austin-McCain

    2017-01-01

    Background: Social media use has become an integral daily occupation of college and graduate students. In the United States, 90% of adults aged 18 to 29 years use social media (Pew Internet, 2015). Positive and negative data has been found which examined associations between social media use and other daily occupations (activities) that impact emotional and physical health. The purpose of this study is to examine the association of social media use with the satisfaction of daily r...

  20. Stigma in the Area of Intellectual Disabilities: Examining a Conceptual Model of Public Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shirli

    2015-09-01

    Studies in the area of intellectual disability (ID) stigma are few and atheoretical. This study examined the adequacy of the conceptual framework of stigma from the mental illness field regarding ID. Telephone interviews were conducted with a nationally representative sample of 304 adults in Israel. Participants were read a vignette describing a man with ID and answered items related to cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions. Behavioral dimensions included: Withdrawal, Social distance, and Helping behaviors. The stigma process leading to Withdrawal was drawn through Negative affect, whereas the process to Social distance was drawn through Calm affect. One unique aspect of the stigma process in ID is the importance of Calm affect, which helped reduce Social distance.

  1. An examination of quinone toxicity using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Chester E; Shinyashiki, Masaru; Froines, John; Yu, Rong Chun; Fukuto, Jon M; Cho, Arthur K

    2004-09-01

    The toxicity of quinones is generally thought to occur by two mechanisms: the formation of covalent bonds with biological molecules by Michael addition chemistry and the catalytic reduction of oxygen to superoxide and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) (redox cycling). In an effort to distinguish between these general mechanisms of toxicity, we have examined the toxicity of five quinones to yeast cells as measured by their ability to reduce growth rate. Yeast cells can grow in the presence and absence of oxygen and this feature was used to evaluate the role of redox cycling in the toxicity of each quinone. Furthermore, yeast mutants deficient in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were used to assess the role of this antioxidant enzyme in protecting cells against quinone-induced reactive oxygen toxicity. The effects of different quinones under different conditions of exposure were compared using IC50 values (the concentration of quinone required to inhibit growth rate by 50%). For the most part, the results are consistent with the chemical properties of each quinone with the exception of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ). This quinone, which is not an electrophile, exhibited an unexpected toxicity under anaerobic conditions. Further examination revealed a potent induction of cell viability loss which poorly correlated with decreases in the GSH/2GSSG ratio but highly correlated (r2 > 0.7) with inhibition of the enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), suggesting disruption of glycolysis by this quinone. Together, these observations suggest an unexpected oxygen-independent mechanism in the toxicity of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone.

  2. Associations Between Severe Obesity and Depression: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Keddie, Arlene M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction My objectives were to investigate the association between obesity and depression in a representative sample of American adults, investigate sex and severity of obesity as modifiers of the association between depression and body mass index, determine whether large waist circumference is associated with depression, and explore whether specific health behaviors and poor physical health are possible mediators of the association between obesity and depression, if found. Methods The sa...

  3. A Multilevel Analysis Examining the Association between School-Based Smoking Policies, Prevention Programs and Youth Smoking Behavior: Evaluating a Provincial Tobacco Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnaghan, D. A.; Leatherdale, S. T.; Sihvonen, M.; Kekki, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined how smoking policies and programs are associated with smoking behavior among Grade 10 students (n = 4709) between 1999 and 2001. Data from the Tobacco Module from the School Health Action Planning and Evaluation System were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. We identified that (i) attending a school with…

  4. Examining levels of risk behaviors among black men who have sex with Men (MSM and the association with HIV acquisition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risha Irvin

    Full Text Available Seroadaptation is defined as the practice of modifying sexual behavior based on one's own HIV serostatus, the perceived HIV serostatus of sexual partners, and differences in risk of HIV transmission by sexual acts. Because this definition implies intent, we use the term "seroprotection" to describe HIV negative participants reporting condomless anal sex (CAS either exclusively with seronegative partners, or only as the insertive partner with HIV positive or unknown serostatus partners. Little is known about seroprotection in Black men who have sex with men (MSM. We evaluated the independent association of seroprotection and HIV acquisition among the 1144 HIV-negative Black MSM enrolled in HPTN 061 using Cox models; we stratified by city of enrollment, and controlled for number of partners, age, and drug use. Behaviors reported at 0, 6, and 12 months were assigned to three mutually exclusive categories: (1 No CAS; (2 Seroprotection; and (3 CAS without seroprotection. In 2,861 six-month intervals; 28 HIV seroconversions occurred. No CAS was reported at 33.3% of visits, seroprotection at 46.6% of visits, and CAS without seroprotection at 20.1% of visits. The seroconversion rate per 100 person-years for no CAS was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.27, 2.51, compared with 2.39 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.71 and 13.33 (95% CI: 7.62, 21.66 for seroprotection and CAS without seroprotection, respectively. Compared to CAS without seroprotection, intervals without CAS were associated with an 87% reduction (aHR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03-0.46 in HIV acquisition and intervals with seroprotection with a 78% reduction (aHR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.09-0.57. No CAS is the safest behavior to prevent HIV acquisition. Seroprotective behaviors significantly reduced risk, but HIV incidence was still >2/100 person-years, suggesting that additional strategies, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis, are warranted for this population.

  5. Examining the link between patient satisfaction and adherence to HIV care: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Bich N; Westbrook, Robert A; Black, William C; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Giordano, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    Analogous to the business model of customer satisfaction and retention, patient satisfaction could serve as an innovative, patient-centered focus for increasing retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART, and ultimately HIV suppression. To test, through structural equation modeling (SEM), a model of HIV suppression in which patient satisfaction influences HIV suppression indirectly through retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART. We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults receiving HIV care at two clinics in Texas. Patient satisfaction was based on two validated items, one adapted from the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey ("Would you recommend this clinic to other patients with HIV?) and one adapted from the Delighted-Terrible Scale, ("Overall, how do you feel about the care you got at this clinic in the last 12 months?"). A validated, single-item question measured adherence to HAART over the past 4 weeks. Retention in HIV care was based on visit constancy in the year prior to the survey. HIV suppression was defined as plasma HIV RNA satisfaction score had a mean of 8.5 (median 9.2) on a 0- to 10- point scale. A total of 46% reported "excellent" adherence, 76% had adequate retention, and 70% had HIV suppression. In SEM analyses, patient satisfaction with care influences retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART, which in turn serve as key determinants of HIV suppression (all psatisfaction may have direct effects on retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART. Interventions to improve the care experience, without necessarily targeting objective clinical performance measures, could serve as an innovative method for optimizing HIV outcomes.

  6. Examining the link between patient satisfaction and adherence to HIV care: a structural equation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bich N Dang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Analogous to the business model of customer satisfaction and retention, patient satisfaction could serve as an innovative, patient-centered focus for increasing retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART, and ultimately HIV suppression. OBJECTIVE: To test, through structural equation modeling (SEM, a model of HIV suppression in which patient satisfaction influences HIV suppression indirectly through retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults receiving HIV care at two clinics in Texas. Patient satisfaction was based on two validated items, one adapted from the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey ("Would you recommend this clinic to other patients with HIV? and one adapted from the Delighted-Terrible Scale, ("Overall, how do you feel about the care you got at this clinic in the last 12 months?". A validated, single-item question measured adherence to HAART over the past 4 weeks. Retention in HIV care was based on visit constancy in the year prior to the survey. HIV suppression was defined as plasma HIV RNA <48 copies/mL at the time of the survey. We used SEM to test hypothesized relationships. RESULTS: The analyses included 489 patients (94% of eligible patients. The patient satisfaction score had a mean of 8.5 (median 9.2 on a 0- to 10- point scale. A total of 46% reported "excellent" adherence, 76% had adequate retention, and 70% had HIV suppression. In SEM analyses, patient satisfaction with care influences retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART, which in turn serve as key determinants of HIV suppression (all p<.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Patient satisfaction may have direct effects on retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART. Interventions to improve the care experience, without necessarily targeting objective clinical performance measures, could serve as an innovative method for optimizing HIV outcomes.

  7. Examining the Link between Patient Satisfaction and Adherence to HIV Care: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Bich N.; Westbrook, Robert A.; Black, William C.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Giordano, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Analogous to the business model of customer satisfaction and retention, patient satisfaction could serve as an innovative, patient-centered focus for increasing retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART, and ultimately HIV suppression. Objective To test, through structural equation modeling (SEM), a model of HIV suppression in which patient satisfaction influences HIV suppression indirectly through retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults receiving HIV care at two clinics in Texas. Patient satisfaction was based on two validated items, one adapted from the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey (“Would you recommend this clinic to other patients with HIV?) and one adapted from the Delighted-Terrible Scale, (“Overall, how do you feel about the care you got at this clinic in the last 12 months?”). A validated, single-item question measured adherence to HAART over the past 4 weeks. Retention in HIV care was based on visit constancy in the year prior to the survey. HIV suppression was defined as plasma HIV RNA patient satisfaction score had a mean of 8.5 (median 9.2) on a 0- to 10- point scale. A total of 46% reported “excellent” adherence, 76% had adequate retention, and 70% had HIV suppression. In SEM analyses, patient satisfaction with care influences retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART, which in turn serve as key determinants of HIV suppression (all pPatient satisfaction may have direct effects on retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART. Interventions to improve the care experience, without necessarily targeting objective clinical performance measures, could serve as an innovative method for optimizing HIV outcomes. PMID:23382948

  8. Novel associative-memory-based self-learning neurocontrol model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke

    1992-09-01

    Intelligent control is an important field of AI application, which is closely related to machine learning, and the neurocontrol is a kind of intelligent control that controls actions of a physical system or a plant. Linear associative memory model is a good analytic tool for artificial neural networks. In this paper, we present a novel self-learning neurocontrol on the basis of the linear associative memory model to support intelligent control. Using our self-learning neurocontrol model, the learning process is viewed as an extension of one of J. Piaget's developmental stages. After a particular linear associative model developed by us is presented, a brief introduction to J. Piaget's cognitive theory is described as the basis of our self-learning style control. It follows that the neurocontrol model is presented, which usually includes two learning stages, viz. primary learning and high-level learning. As a demonstration of our neurocontrol model, an example is also presented with simulation techniques, called that `bird' catches an aim. The tentative experimental results show that the learning and controlling performance of this approach is surprisingly good. In conclusion, future research is pointed out to improve our self-learning neurocontrol model and explore other areas of application.

  9. Examining the physical meaning of the bank erosion coefficient used in meander migration modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Candice R.; Dunne, Thomas; Hanson, Gregory J.

    2009-05-01

    Widely used models of meander evolution relate migration rate to vertically averaged near-bank velocity through the use of a coefficient of bank erosion ( E). In applications to floodplain management problems, E is typically determined through calibration to historical planform changes, and thus its physical meaning remains unclear. This study attempts to clarify the extent to which E depends on measurable physical characteristics of the channel boundary materials using data from the Sacramento River, California, USA. Bend-average values of E were calculated from measured long-term migration rates and computed near-bank velocities. In the field, unvegetated bank material resistance to fluvial shear ( k) was measured for four cohesive and noncohesive bank types using a jet-test device. At a small set of bends for which both E and k were obtained, we discovered that variability in k explains much of the variability in E. The form of this relationship suggests that when modeling long-term meander migration of large rivers, E depends largely on bank material properties. This finding opens up the possibility that E may be estimated directly from field data, enabling prediction of meander migration rates for systems where historical data are unavailable or controlling conditions have changed. Another implication is that vegetation plays a limited role in affecting long-term meander migration rates of large rivers like the Sacramento River. These hypotheses require further testing with data sets from other large rivers.

  10. A spatial generalized ordered response model to examine highway crash injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marisol; Paleti, Rajesh; Bhat, Chandra R

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a flexible econometric structure for injury severity analysis at the level of individual crashes that recognizes the ordinal nature of injury severity categories, allows unobserved heterogeneity in the effects of contributing factors, as well as accommodates spatial dependencies in the injury severity levels experienced in crashes that occur close to one another in space. The modeling framework is applied to analyze the injury severity sustained in crashes occurring on highway road segments in Austin, Texas. The sample is drawn from the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) crash incident files from 2009 and includes a variety of crash characteristics, highway design attributes, driver and vehicle characteristics, and environmental factors. The results from our analysis underscore the value of our proposed model for data fit purposes as well as to accurately estimate variable effects. The most important determinants of injury severity on highways, according to our results, are (1) whether any vehicle occupant is ejected, (2) whether collision type is head-on, (3) whether any vehicle involved in the crash overturned, (4) whether any vehicle occupant is unrestrained by a seat-belt, and (5) whether a commercial truck is involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Examination of a mechanical amplifier in the incudostapedial joint gap: FEM simulation and physical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Martin; Eßinger, Till Moritz; Bornitz, Matthias; Zahnert, Thomas

    2014-08-07

    Implantable assembly components that are biocompatible and highly miniaturized are an important objective for hearing aid development. We introduce a mechanical transducer, which could be suitable as part of a prospective fully-implantable hearing aid. The transducer comprises a sensor and an actuator unit in one housing, located in the joint gap between the middle ear ossicles, the incus and stapes. The setup offers the advantage of a minimally invasive and reversible surgical solution. However, feedback between actuator and sensor due to mechanical coupling limits the available stable gain. We show that the system can be stabilized by digital control algorithms. The transducer is tested both in a finite elements method simulation of the middle ear and a physical model of a human middle ear. First, we characterize the sensor and actuator elements separately. Then, the maximum stable gain (MSG) of the whole transducer is experimentally determined in the middle ear model. With digital feedback control (using a least mean squares algorithm) in place, the total signal gain is greater than 30 dB for frequencies of 1 kHz and above. This shows the potential of the transducer as a high frequency hearing aid.

  12. Examining the addictive-like properties of binge eating using an animal model of sugar dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M

    2007-10-01

    The increase in the incidence of obesity and eating disorders has encouraged research efforts aimed at understanding the etiology of abnormal eating behaviors. Clinical reports have led to the suggestion that some individuals may develop addictive-like behaviors when consuming palatable foods. Binge eating is a behavioral component of bulimia and obesity and has also become increasingly common in nonclinical populations in our society. This review summarizes the behavioral and neurochemical similarities between binge eating of palatable foods and the administration of drugs of abuse. An animal model of bingeing on sugar is used to illustrate behaviors found with some drugs of abuse, such as opiate-like withdrawal signs, enhanced intake following abstinence, and cross-sensitization. Related neurochemical changes commonly observed with drugs of abuse, including changes in dopamine and acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens, can also be found with bingeing on sugar. These neurochemical alterations are exacerbated when animals binge on sugar while at a low body weight or when the food they ingest is purged. Drawing on other animal models and the clinical literature, parallels between drug abuse and binge-eating behavior are discussed. (c) 2007 APA

  13. Examining the impact of multi-layer graphene using cellular and amphibian models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzi, Laura; Russier, Julie; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Bianco, Alberto; Mouchet, Florence; Cadarsi, Stéphanie; Pinelli, Eric; Gauthier, Laury; Janowska, Izabela; Risuleo, Gianfranco; Soula, Brigitte; Galibert, Anne-Marie; Flahaut, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, graphene has been defined as the revolutionary material showing an incredible expansion in industrial applications. Different graphene forms have been applied in several contexts, spreading from energy technologies and electronics to food and agriculture technologies. Graphene showed promises also in the biomedical field. Hopeful results have been already obtained in diagnostic, drug delivery, tissue regeneration and photothermal cancer ablation. In view of the enormous development of graphene-based technologies, a careful assessment of its impact on health and environment is demanded. It is evident how investigating the graphene toxicity is of fundamental importance in the context of medical purposes. On the other hand, the nanomaterial present in the environment, likely to be generated all along the industrial life-cycle, may have harmful effects on living organisms. In the present work, an important contribution on the impact of multi-layer graphene (MLG) on health and environment is given by using a multifaceted approach. For the first purpose, the effect of the material on two mammalian cell models was assessed. Key cytotoxicity parameters were considered such as cell viability and inflammatory response induction. This was combined with an evaluation of MLG toxicity towards Xenopus laevis, used as both in vivo and environmental model organism. (paper)

  14. Examination of Growth Hormone (GH) Gene Polymorphism and its Association with Body Weight and Selected Body Dimensions in Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurowski, Artur; Frieske, Anna; Kokoszynski, Dariusz; Mroczkowski, Sławomir; Bernacki, Zenon; Wilkanowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess the polymorphism in intron 2 of the GH gene and its association with some morphological traits (body weight--BW, length of trunk with neck--LTN, length of trunk--LT, chest girth--CG, length of breast bone--LBB, length of shank--LS). Polymorphism in intron 2 of the GH gene was evaluated for four duck populations (Pekin ducks AF51, Muscovy ducks from a CK and CRAMMLCFF mother and Mulard ducks). Genetic polymorphism was determined with the PCR-RFLP method using the BsmFI restriction enzyme. In the studied duck sample two alleles (GH(C) and GH(T)) and three genotypes (GH/TT, GH/CT, GH/CC) were found at locus GH/BsmFI. In both groups of Muscovies and in Mulards the dominant allele was GH(T). On the contrary in Pekin ducks AF51, the frequency of both alleles was found to be similar. The most frequent genotype in the examined ducks was GH/TT. In Pekin ducks AF51 three genotypes were observed, while in Mulard ducks and in male Muscovy ducks from a mother marked as CK, two genotypes (GH/TT and GH/CT) were identified. Muscovy duck females from a CK mother and all males and females of Muscovy duck from a CRAMMLCFF mother were monomorphic with only the GH/TTgenotype detected. The results showed that males of Pekin duck AF51 with the GH/TT genotype were characterized by higher (P GH/CC and GH/CTgenotype. In females of Pekin ducks AF51, this same trend was observed; individuals with GH/TT genotype were superior (P GH/TT genotype were distinguished by higher values of all evaluated traits compared to ducks with GH/CT and GH/CC genotypes, however most of the recorded differences were not significant. The only trait markedly impacted (P GH gene intron 2 was the LS value in males.

  15. AN EXAMINATION OF THE GLUTEAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED WITH DYNAMIC HIP ABDUCTION AND HIP EXTERNAL ROTATION EXERCISE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macadam, Paul; Cronin, John; Contreras, Bret

    2015-10-01

    A wide variety of hip abduction and hip external rotation exercises are used for training, both in athletic performance and in rehabilitation programming. Though several different exercises exist, a comprehensive understanding of which exercises best target the gluteus maximus (Gmax) and gluteus medius (Gmed) and the magnitude of muscular activation associated with each exercise is yet to be established. The purpose of this systematic review was to quantify the electromyographic (EMG) activity of exercises that utilize the Gmax and Gmed muscles during hip abduction and hip external rotation. Pubmed, Sports Discuss, Web of Science and Science Direct were searched using the Boolean phrases (gluteus medius OR gluteus maximus) AND (activity OR activation) AND (electromyography OR EMG) AND (hip abduction OR hip external rotation). A systematic approach was used to evaluate 575 articles. Articles that examined injury-free participants of any age, gender or activity level were included. No restrictions were imposed on publication date or publication status. Articles were excluded when not available in English, where studies did not normalize EMG activity to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), where no hip abduction or external rotation motion occurred or where the motion was performed with high acceleration. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria and were retained for analysis. The highest Gmax activity was elicited during the lateral step up, cross over step up and rotational single leg squat (ranging from 79 to 113 % MVIC). Gmed activity was highest during the side bridge with hip abduction, standing hip abduction with elastic resistance at the ankle and side lying hip abduction (ranging from 81 to 103 % MVIC). The methodological approaches varied between studies, notably in the different positions used for obtaining MVIC, which could have dramatically impacted normalized levels of gluteal activation, while variation also occurred in exercise

  16. Examining the Genetic and Environmental Associations between Autistic Social and Communication Deficits and Psychopathic Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth O'Nions

    Full Text Available Difficulties in appropriate social interaction are characteristic of both children with autism spectrum disorders and children with callous-unemotional traits (who are at risk of developing psychopathy. Extant experimental studies suggest that the nature of atypical social cognition that characterises these two profiles is not identical. However, 'empathizing' difficulties have been hypothesised for both groups, raising questions about the degree of aetiological separation between social impairments that characterize each disorder. This study explored the relative contribution of independent vs. shared aetiological influences to social and communication impairments associated with autistic traits and callous-unemotional traits, indexed by parent-report in a population-based cohort of twins.Participants were over 5,000 twin pairs from a UK cohort (the Twins Early Development Study; TEDS, assessed for callous-unemotional traits at 7 years and autistic social and communication impairments at 8 years. Multivariate model-fitting was used to explore the relative contribution of independent vs. overlapping genetic/environmental influences on these traits.Both social and communication impairments and callous-unemotional traits were highly heritable, although the genetic and environmental influences accounting for individual differences on each domain were predominantly independent.Extant evidence from experimental and neuro-imaging studies has suggested that, despite some superficially overlapping behaviours, the social difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and callous-unemotional traits are largely distinct. The current study is the first to demonstrate considerable aetiological independence of the social interaction difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and those with callous-unemotional traits.

  17. Examining the Genetic and Environmental Associations between Autistic Social and Communication Deficits and Psychopathic Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Tick, Beata; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Happé, Francesca; Plomin, Robert; Ronald, Angelica; Viding, Essi

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties in appropriate social interaction are characteristic of both children with autism spectrum disorders and children with callous-unemotional traits (who are at risk of developing psychopathy). Extant experimental studies suggest that the nature of atypical social cognition that characterises these two profiles is not identical. However, 'empathizing' difficulties have been hypothesised for both groups, raising questions about the degree of aetiological separation between social impairments that characterize each disorder. This study explored the relative contribution of independent vs. shared aetiological influences to social and communication impairments associated with autistic traits and callous-unemotional traits, indexed by parent-report in a population-based cohort of twins. Participants were over 5,000 twin pairs from a UK cohort (the Twins Early Development Study; TEDS), assessed for callous-unemotional traits at 7 years and autistic social and communication impairments at 8 years. Multivariate model-fitting was used to explore the relative contribution of independent vs. overlapping genetic/environmental influences on these traits. Both social and communication impairments and callous-unemotional traits were highly heritable, although the genetic and environmental influences accounting for individual differences on each domain were predominantly independent. Extant evidence from experimental and neuro-imaging studies has suggested that, despite some superficially overlapping behaviours, the social difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and callous-unemotional traits are largely distinct. The current study is the first to demonstrate considerable aetiological independence of the social interaction difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and those with callous-unemotional traits.

  18. A suggested model for physical examination and conservative treatment of athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Eric J; Stern, Ben; Reiman, Michael P; Tarara, Dan; Wright, Alexis A

    2013-02-01

    Athletic pubalgia (AP) is a chronic debilitating syndrome that affects many athletes. As a syndrome, AP is difficult to diagnose both with clinical examination and imaging. AP is also a challenge for conservative intervention with randomized controlled trials showing mixed success rates. In other syndromes where clinical diagnosis and conservative treatment have been less than clear, a paradigm has been suggested as a framework for clinical decision making. To propose a new clinical diagnostic and treatment paradigm for the conservative management of AP. Relevant studies were viewed with regard to diagnosis and intervention and where a gap in evidence existed, clinical expertise was used to fill that gap and duly noted. A new paradigm is proposed to assist with clinical diagnosis and non-surgical intervention in patients suffering with AP. The level of evidence supporting this paradigm, according to the SORT taxonomy, is primarily level 2B. Further testing is warranted but following the suggested paradigm should lead to a clearer diagnosis of AP and allow more meaningful research into homogeneous patient populations within the AP diagnostic cluster. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): 2B. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Incorporating published univariable associations in diagnostic and prognostic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Debray Thomas P

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic and prognostic literature is overwhelmed with studies reporting univariable predictor-outcome associations. Currently, methods to incorporate such information in the construction of a prediction model are underdeveloped and unfamiliar to many researchers. Methods This article aims to improve upon an adaptation method originally proposed by Greenland (1987 and Steyerberg (2000 to incorporate previously published univariable associations in the construction of a novel prediction model. The proposed method improves upon the variance estimation component by reconfiguring the adaptation process in established theory and making it more robust. Different variants of the proposed method were tested in a simulation study, where performance was measured by comparing estimated associations with their predefined values according to the Mean Squared Error and coverage of the 90% confidence intervals. Results Results demonstrate that performance of estimated multivariable associations considerably improves for small datasets where external evidence is included. Although the error of estimated associations decreases with increasing amount of individual participant data, it does not disappear completely, even in very large datasets. Conclusions The proposed method to aggregate previously published univariable associations with individual participant data in the construction of a novel prediction models outperforms established approaches and is especially worthwhile when relatively limited individual participant data are available.

  20. The Changing Body Mass-Mortality Association in the United States: Evidence of Sex-Specific Cohort Trends from Three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The association between body mass index (BMI) categories and mortality remains uncertain. Using three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys covering the 1971-2006 period for cohorts born between 1896 and 1968, this study estimates separately for men and women models for year-of-birth (cohort) and year-of-observation (period) trends in how age-specific mortality rates differ across BMI categories. Among women, relative to the normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), there are increasing trends in mortality rates for the overweight (BMI 25-29.9) or obese (BMI ≥ 30). Among men, mortality rates relative to the normal weight decrease for the overweight, do not change for the moderately obese (BMI 30-34.9), and increase for the severely obese (BMI ≥ 35). Period and cohort trends are similar, but the cohort trends are more consistent. In the latest cohorts, compared with the normal weight, mortality rates are 50 percent lower for overweight men, not different for moderately obese men, and 100-200 percent higher for severely obese men and for overweight or obese women. For U.S. cohorts born after the 1920s, a lower overweight than normal weight mortality is confined to men. I speculate on possible reasons why the mortality association with overweight and obesity varies by sex and cohort.

  1. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome: Results from Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongni; Zhang, Haiying; Gao, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Yao, Ziting; Jiang, Yonghua; Lin, Xinggu; Wu, Chunlei; Yang, Xiaobo; Tan, Aihua; Mo, Zengnan

    2015-06-15

    It is controversial whether serum uric acid (SUA) is a risk factor for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The current study was designed to highlight the association of SUA and MetS and its components. Data on 3675 healthy male subjects, aged 17-88 years, were collected for the cross-sectional study. A representative sample of 2575 individuals who did not suffer from MetS at baseline was involved in the cohort study. A cox regression model was applied to evaluate causality for the 2- and 4-year large scale longitudinal study. In the cross-sectional analysis, SUA showed a statistically significant negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and a positive correlation with blood pressure (BP), triglycerides (TG), waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI) (all P<0.001). In longitudinal analysis, examining the risk of developing MetS, SUA concentrations (hazard ratios comparing fourth quartile to the first quartile of 1.75; 95% CI, 1.26-2.41) were positively associated with incident MetS after adjusted for age, blood pressure, glucose, TG, HDL-c, smoking, alcohol drinking and education. SUA is positively correlated with the prevalence of MetS. Increased SUA concentration may be an independent risk factor for MetS. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Examining the Conditions Under Which Internalized Homophobia Is Associated with Substance Use and Condomless Sex in Young MSM: the Moderating Role of Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Jae A; Newcomb, Michael E; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-08-01

    Internalized homophobia (IH) is the internalization of homophobic attitudes by sexual minorities due to social bias. IH has been inconsistently related to substance use and condomless sex for young men who have sex with men (YMSM). We examined negative urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative emotional experiences), positive urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to positive emotional experiences), and sensation seeking as independent moderators of the association of IH with binge drinking, drug use, and condomless anal sex. Data were collected from 450 YMSM (mean age = 18.9) over the course of 18 months (baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up). Hierarchical generalized linear modeling revealed that there was a significant moderation for binge drinking and receptive condomless anal sex, with the association between IH and these risk behaviors increased for those with higher levels of negative urgency and positive urgency. IH is important to the negative health outcomes of binge drinking and condomless anal sex for individuals high in negative and/or positive urgency, who may act impulsively to avoid subjective negative experiences or in the face of positive emotional experiences. Future research is needed to further establish additional conditions under which IH may be important to understanding risk behaviors in YMSM, which is essential to developing targeted prevention and intervention efforts.

  3. Association of Coffee Consumption with Sarcopenia in Korean Elderly Men: Analysis Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyewon; Moon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Ju Il; Kong, Mi Hee; Huh, Jung Sik

    2017-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is an age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. Coffee has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that have been shown to be inversely related to the mechanism of sarcopenia. While there have been some studies on the effect of coffee on sarcopenia in animals, studies on the topic in humans are rare. Therefore, we investigated this relationship in elderly Korean men. Methods The cross-sectional data were derived from the 2008–2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After applying the exclusion criteria, the study sample consisted of 1,781 men who were at least 60 years of age. Study participants were identified as having sarcopenia if their appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared was less than two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean of this value for young adults. Daily coffee consumption amounts were categorized as coffee a day, people who consumed at least 3 cups (adjusted odds ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.94) showed significantly decreased sarcopenia; however, the decrease was not significant when the daily coffee consumption was 1 or 2 cups. In multivariate logistic regression models, significant associations were observed between sarcopenia and coffee consumption (P for trend=0.039). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that consuming at least 3 cups of coffee per day was associated with a lower prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly Korean elderly men. PMID:28572890

  4. Association of Coffee Consumption with Sarcopenia in Korean Elderly Men: Analysis Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyewon; Moon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Ju Il; Kong, Mi Hee; Huh, Jung Sik; Kim, Hyeon Ju

    2017-05-01

    Sarcopenia is an age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. Coffee has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that have been shown to be inversely related to the mechanism of sarcopenia. While there have been some studies on the effect of coffee on sarcopenia in animals, studies on the topic in humans are rare. Therefore, we investigated this relationship in elderly Korean men. The cross-sectional data were derived from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After applying the exclusion criteria, the study sample consisted of 1,781 men who were at least 60 years of age. Study participants were identified as having sarcopenia if their appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared was less than two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean of this value for young adults. Daily coffee consumption amounts were categorized as coffee a day, people who consumed at least 3 cups (adjusted odds ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.94) showed significantly decreased sarcopenia; however, the decrease was not significant when the daily coffee consumption was 1 or 2 cups. In multivariate logistic regression models, significant associations were observed between sarcopenia and coffee consumption (P for trend=0.039). The results of this study suggest that consuming at least 3 cups of coffee per day was associated with a lower prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly Korean elderly men.

  5. In situ examination of microbial populations in a model drinking water distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Adam Camillo; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    A flow cell set-up was used as a model drinking water distribution system to analyze the in situ microbial population. Biofilm growth was followed by transmission light microscopy for 81 days and showed a biofilm consisting of microcolonies separated by a monolayer of cells. Protozoans (ciliates...... revealed that the majority of the isolated strains from the bulk water and biofilm were affiliated to the family of Comamonadaceae in the β-lineage of Proteobacteria. The majority of the strains from the α-lineage were affiliated to the family of Sphingomonadaceae. We were unable to detect any strains from...... of a mixed population of α- and β-Proteobacteria. 65 strains from the inlet water and 20 from the biofilm were isolated on R2A agar plates and sorted into groups with amplified rDNA restriction analysis. The 16S rDNA gene was sequenced for representatives of the abundant groups. A phylogenetic analysis...

  6. Re-Examining of Moffitt's Theory of Delinquency through Agent Based Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ning Leaw

    Full Text Available Moffitt's theory of delinquency suggests that at-risk youths can be divided into two groups, the adolescence- limited group and the life-course-persistent group, predetermined at a young age, and social interactions between these two groups become important during the adolescent years. We built an agent-based model based on the microscopic interactions Moffitt described: (i a maturity gap that dictates (ii the cost and reward of antisocial behavior, and (iii agents imitating the antisocial behaviors of others more successful than themselves, to find indeed the two groups emerging in our simulations. Moreover, through an intervention simulation where we moved selected agents from one social network to another, we also found that the social network plays an important role in shaping the life course outcome.

  7. In situ examination of microbial populations in a model drinking water distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Adam Camillo; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    A flow cell set-up was used as a model drinking water distribution system to analyze the in situ microbial population. Biofilm growth was followed by transmission light microscopy for 81 days and showed a biofilm consisting of microcolonies separated by a monolayer of cells. Protozoans (ciliates...... of a mixed population of α- and β-Proteobacteria. 65 strains from the inlet water and 20 from the biofilm were isolated on R2A agar plates and sorted into groups with amplified rDNA restriction analysis. The 16S rDNA gene was sequenced for representatives of the abundant groups. A phylogenetic analysis...... revealed that the majority of the isolated strains from the bulk water and biofilm were affiliated to the family of Comamonadaceae in the β-lineage of Proteobacteria. The majority of the strains from the α-lineage were affiliated to the family of Sphingomonadaceae. We were unable to detect any strains from...

  8. Examination of Gelatinase Isoforms in Rodent Models of Acute Neurodegenerative Diseases Using Two-Dimensional Zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanyan; Meng, Fanjun; Chen, Zhenzhou; Qu, Zhe; Cui, Jiankun; Gu, Zezong

    2017-01-01

    Pathological activation of gelatinases (matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9; MMP-2/-9) has been shown to cause a number of detrimental outcomes in neurodegenerative diseases. In gel gelatin zymography is a highly sensitive methodology commonly used in revealing levels of gelatinase activity and in separating the proform and active form of gelatinases, based on their different molecular weights. However, this methodology is inadequate in resolving complex enzyme isoforms, because gelatinase expression and activity can be regulated at transcriptional and/or post-translational levels under in vivo conditions resulting in alternation of their isoelectric focusing (IEF) points. In this chapter, we describe an advanced methodology, termed two-dimensional zymography, combining IEF with zymographic electrophoresis under non-reducing conditions to achieve significant improvement in separation of the gelatinase isoforms in both cell-based and in vivo models for acute brain injuries and neuroinflammation.

  9. Using lab notebooks to examine students' engagement in modeling in an upper-division electronics lab course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jacob T.; Su, Weifeng; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate how students' use of modeling can be examined and assessed using student notebooks collected from an upper-division electronics lab course. The use of models is a ubiquitous practice in undergraduate physics education, but the process of constructing, testing, and refining these models is much less common. We focus our attention on a lab course that has been transformed to engage students in this modeling process during lab activities. The design of the lab activities was guided by a framework that captures the different components of model-based reasoning, called the Modeling Framework for Experimental Physics. We demonstrate how this framework can be used to assess students' written work and to identify how students' model-based reasoning differed from activity to activity. Broadly speaking, we were able to identify the different steps of students' model-based reasoning and assess the completeness of their reasoning. Varying degrees of scaffolding present across the activities had an impact on how thoroughly students would engage in the full modeling process, with more scaffolded activities resulting in more thorough engagement with the process. Finally, we identified that the step in the process with which students had the most difficulty was the comparison between their interpreted data and their model prediction. Students did not use sufficiently sophisticated criteria in evaluating such comparisons, which had the effect of halting the modeling process. This may indicate that in order to engage students further in using model-based reasoning during lab activities, the instructor needs to provide further scaffolding for how students make these types of experimental comparisons. This is an important design consideration for other such courses attempting to incorporate modeling as a learning goal.

  10. Examining the design and developmental factors associated with crashes involving pedestrians, cyclists, and motorists in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    "Using a parcel-level database of crash incidence and urban form developed for the San Antonio-Bexar : County metropolitan region, this study examined how urban form-related variables affect the incidence of : crashes involving pedestrians, bicyclist...

  11. Associations between young adult romantic relationship quality and problem behaviors : An examination of personality-environment interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, W.H.J.

    This longitudinal study examined person–environment interplay by testing interaction effects between adolescent personality type (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, and resilients) and young adult romantic relationship quality on young adult delinquency and anxiety. The study employed six

  12. Associations between Young Adult Romantic Relationship Quality and Problem Behaviors: An Examination of Personality-Environment Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined person-environment interplay by testing interaction effects between adolescent personality type (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, and resilients) and young adult romantic relationship quality on young adult delinquency and anxiety. The study employed six

  13. Distributed multi-criteria model evaluation and spatial association analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Model performance, if evaluated, is often communicated by a single indicator and at an aggregated level; however, it does not embrace the trade-offs between different indicators and the inherent spatial heterogeneity of model efficiency. In this study, we simulated the water balance of the Mississippi watershed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The model was calibrated against monthly river discharge at 131 measurement stations. Its time series were bisected to allow for subsequent validation at the same gauges. Furthermore, the model was validated against evapotranspiration which was available as a continuous raster based on remote sensing. The model performance was evaluated for each of the 451 sub-watersheds using four different criteria: 1) Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), 2) percent bias (PBIAS), 3) root mean square error (RMSE) normalized to standard deviation (RSR), as well as 4) a combined indicator of the squared correlation coefficient and the linear regression slope (bR2). Conditions that might lead to a poor model performance include aridity, a very flat and steep relief, snowfall and dams, as indicated by previous research. In an attempt to explain spatial differences in model efficiency, the goodness of the model was spatially compared to these four phenomena by means of a bivariate spatial association measure which combines Pearson's correlation coefficient and Moran's index for spatial autocorrelation. In order to assess the model performance of the Mississippi watershed as a whole, three different averages of the sub-watershed results were computed by 1) applying equal weights, 2) weighting by the mean observed river discharge, 3) weighting by the upstream catchment area and the square root of the time series length. Ratings of model perfo