WorldWideScience

Sample records for models downy woodpecker

  1. Woodpecker Excavation and Use of Cavities in Polystyrene Snags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    1996-01-01

    We examined woodpecker excavation and use of artificial polystyrene snags in four forest types in eastern Texas for five years. Twenty-three of 47 artificial snags were used by Downy Woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens) for cavity excavation and subsequent nocturnal roosting; they did not use the artificial snags for nesting. Although six ather species of woodpeckers...

  2. Epidemiology and population biology of Pseudoperonospora cubensis: a model system for management of downy mildews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiambo, Peter S; Gent, David H; Quesada-Ocampo, Lina M; Hausbeck, Mary K; Holmes, Gerald J

    2015-01-01

    The resurgence of cucurbit downy mildew has dramatically influenced production of cucurbits and disease management systems at multiple scales. Long-distance dispersal is a fundamental aspect of epidemic development that influences the timing and extent of outbreaks of cucurbit downy mildew. The dispersal potential of Pseudoperonospora cubensis appears to be limited primarily by sporangia production in source fields and availability of susceptible hosts and less by sporangia survival during transport. Uncertainty remains regarding the role of locally produced inoculum in disease outbreaks, but evidence suggests multiple sources of primary inoculum could be important. Understanding pathogen diversity and population differentiation is a critical aspect of disease management and an active research area. Underpinning advances in our understanding of pathogen biology and disease management has been the research capacity and coordination of stakeholders, scientists, and extension personnel. Concepts and approaches developed in this pathosystem can guide future efforts when responding to incursions of new or reemerging downy mildew pathogens.

  3. Epidemiology and population biology of pseudoperonospora cubensis: a model system for management of downy mildews

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resurgence of cucurbit downy mildew has dramatically influenced production of cucurbits and disease management systems at multiple scales. Long-distance dispersal is a fundamental aspect of epidemic development that influences the timing and extent of disease outbreaks. Dispersal potential of th...

  4. Integration of Long-Term Research into a GIS Based Landscape Habitat Model for the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, K.; Lloyd, F.T.

    2000-10-01

    The red cockaded woodpecker has been intensively studied since 1985 when the population was on the verge of extinction. The population decline is primarily the result of timber harvesting prior to 1950 and restricted burning. Construction of artificial cavities, translocations, competitor control, and removal of hardwood mid-story has provided suitable habitat. Since 1985, the population has increased from 4 to 99 birds. A GIS model is being developed to simulate the development of habitat at SRS in relation to management and existing vegetation.

  5. [An early warning method of cucumber downy mildew in solar greenhouse based on canopy temperature and humidity modeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Mei-lan; Xu, Jian-ping; Chen, Mei-xiang; Li, Wen-yong; Li, Ming

    2015-10-01

    The greenhouse environmental parameters can be used to establish greenhouse nirco-climate model, which can combine with disease model for early warning, with aim of ecological controlling diseases to reduce pesticide usage, and protecting greenhouse ecological environment to ensure the agricultural product quality safety. Greenhouse canopy leaf temperature and air relative humidity, models were established using energy balance and moisture balance principle inside the greenhouse. The leaf temperature model considered radiation heat transfer between the greenhouse crops, wall, soil and cover, plus the heat exchange caused by indoor net radiation and crop transpiration. Furthermore, the water dynamic balance in the greenhouse including leaf transpiration, soil evaporation, cover and leaf water vapor condensation, was considered to develop a relative humidity model. The primary infection and latent period warning models for cucumber downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) were validated using the results of the leaf temperature and relative humidity model, and then the estimated disease occurrence date of cucumber downy mildew was compared with actual disease occurrence date of field observation. Finally, the results were verified by the measured temperature and humidity data of September and October, 2014. The results showed that the root mean square deviations (RMSDs) of the measured and estimated leaf temperature were 0.016 and 0.024 °C, and the RMSDs of the measured and estimated air relative humidity were 0.15% and 0.13%, respectively. Combining the result of estimated temperature and humidity models, a cucumber disease early warning system was established to forecast the date of disease occurrence, which met with the real date. Thus, this work could provide the micro-environment data for the early warning system of cucumber diseases in solar greenhouses.

  6. Foraging Behaviour in Magellanic Woodpeckers Is Consistent with a Multi-Scale Assessment of Tree Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Pablo M.; Soto, Gerardo E.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Meneses, Luis O.; Pérez-Hernández, Christian G.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that animals should make foraging decisions after assessing the quality of available habitat, but most models fail to consider the spatio-temporal scales at which animals perceive habitat availability. We tested three foraging strategies that explain how Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus) assess the relative quality of trees: 1) Woodpeckers with local knowledge select trees based on the available trees in the immediate vicinity. 2) Woodpeckers lacking local knowledge select trees based on their availability at previously visited locations. 3) Woodpeckers using information from long-term memory select trees based on knowledge about trees available within the entire landscape. We observed foraging woodpeckers and used a Brownian Bridge Movement Model to identify trees available to woodpeckers along foraging routes. Woodpeckers selected trees with a later decay stage than available trees. Selection models indicated that preferences of Magellanic woodpeckers were based on clusters of trees near the most recently visited trees, thus suggesting that woodpeckers use visual cues from neighboring trees. In a second analysis, Cox’s proportional hazards models showed that woodpeckers used information consolidated across broader spatial scales to adjust tree residence times. Specifically, woodpeckers spent more time at trees with larger diameters and in a more advanced stage of decay than trees available along their routes. These results suggest that Magellanic woodpeckers make foraging decisions based on the relative quality of trees that they perceive and memorize information at different spatio-temporal scales. PMID:27416115

  7. Foraging Behaviour in Magellanic Woodpeckers Is Consistent with a Multi-Scale Assessment of Tree Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Pablo M; Soto, Gerardo E; Moreira-Arce, Darío; Rodewald, Amanda D; Meneses, Luis O; Pérez-Hernández, Christian G

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that animals should make foraging decisions after assessing the quality of available habitat, but most models fail to consider the spatio-temporal scales at which animals perceive habitat availability. We tested three foraging strategies that explain how Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus) assess the relative quality of trees: 1) Woodpeckers with local knowledge select trees based on the available trees in the immediate vicinity. 2) Woodpeckers lacking local knowledge select trees based on their availability at previously visited locations. 3) Woodpeckers using information from long-term memory select trees based on knowledge about trees available within the entire landscape. We observed foraging woodpeckers and used a Brownian Bridge Movement Model to identify trees available to woodpeckers along foraging routes. Woodpeckers selected trees with a later decay stage than available trees. Selection models indicated that preferences of Magellanic woodpeckers were based on clusters of trees near the most recently visited trees, thus suggesting that woodpeckers use visual cues from neighboring trees. In a second analysis, Cox's proportional hazards models showed that woodpeckers used information consolidated across broader spatial scales to adjust tree residence times. Specifically, woodpeckers spent more time at trees with larger diameters and in a more advanced stage of decay than trees available along their routes. These results suggest that Magellanic woodpeckers make foraging decisions based on the relative quality of trees that they perceive and memorize information at different spatio-temporal scales.

  8. Foraging Behaviour in Magellanic Woodpeckers Is Consistent with a Multi-Scale Assessment of Tree Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M Vergara

    Full Text Available Theoretical models predict that animals should make foraging decisions after assessing the quality of available habitat, but most models fail to consider the spatio-temporal scales at which animals perceive habitat availability. We tested three foraging strategies that explain how Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus assess the relative quality of trees: 1 Woodpeckers with local knowledge select trees based on the available trees in the immediate vicinity. 2 Woodpeckers lacking local knowledge select trees based on their availability at previously visited locations. 3 Woodpeckers using information from long-term memory select trees based on knowledge about trees available within the entire landscape. We observed foraging woodpeckers and used a Brownian Bridge Movement Model to identify trees available to woodpeckers along foraging routes. Woodpeckers selected trees with a later decay stage than available trees. Selection models indicated that preferences of Magellanic woodpeckers were based on clusters of trees near the most recently visited trees, thus suggesting that woodpeckers use visual cues from neighboring trees. In a second analysis, Cox's proportional hazards models showed that woodpeckers used information consolidated across broader spatial scales to adjust tree residence times. Specifically, woodpeckers spent more time at trees with larger diameters and in a more advanced stage of decay than trees available along their routes. These results suggest that Magellanic woodpeckers make foraging decisions based on the relative quality of trees that they perceive and memorize information at different spatio-temporal scales.

  9. Specimen-based modeling, stopping rules, and the extinction of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Chao, Anne; Colwell, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    stopping rules for terminating the search for missing or allegedly extinct species. These stopping rules are based on survey data for counts of co-occurring species that are encountered in the search for a target species. We illustrate both these methods with a case study of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker......Assessing species survival status is an essential component of conservation programs. We devised a new statistical method for estimating the probability of species persistence from the temporal sequence of collection dates of museum specimens. To complement this approach, we developed quantitative...... (Campephilus principalis), long assumed to have become extinct in the United States in the 1950s, but reportedly rediscovered in 2004. We analyzed the temporal pattern of the collection dates of 239 geo-referenced museum specimens collected throughout the southeastern United States from 1853 to 1932...

  10. Forecasting and management of hop downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy mildew of hop, caused by Pseudoperonospora humuli, is managed in the Pacific Northwestern U.S. by regular application of fungicides. A degree-day model that forecasts the first emergence of shoots systemically infection with P. humuli (termed basal spikes) and a risk index for secondary sprea...

  11. Large-scale translocation strategies for reintroducing red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Kristen A. Baum; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Ralph Costa

    2002-01-01

    Translocation of wild birds is a potential conservation strategy for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). We developed and tested 8 large-scale translocation strategy models for a regional red-cockaded woodpecker reintroduction program. The purpose of the reintroduction program is to increase the number of red-cockaded...

  12. Evaluating habitat suitability models for nesting white-headed woodpeckers in unburned forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; Victoria A. Saab; Kim Mellen-Mclean; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2015-01-01

    Habitat suitability models can provide guidelines for species conservation by predicting where species of interest are likely to occur. Presence-only models are widely used but typically provide only relative indices of habitat suitability (HSIs), necessitating rigorous evaluation often using independently collected presence-absence data. We refined and evaluated...

  13. Sequencing of the Litchi Downy Blight Pathogen Reveals It Is a Phytophthora Species With Downy Mildew-Like Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yang; Shen, Danyu; Li, Delong; Pu, Tianhuizi; Jiang, Zide; Zhang, Zhengguang; Zheng, Xiaobo; Tyler, Brett M; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of its downy mildew-like morphology, the litchi downy blight pathogen was previously named Peronophythora litchii. Recently, however, it was proposed to transfer this pathogen to Phytophthora clade 4. To better characterize this unusual oomycete species and important fruit pathogen, we obtained the genome sequence of Phytophthora litchii and compared it to those from other oomycete species. P. litchii has a small genome with tightly spaced genes. On the basis of a multilocus phylogenetic analysis, the placement of P. litchii in the genus Phytophthora is strongly supported. Effector proteins predicted included 245 RxLR, 30 necrosis-and-ethylene-inducing protein-like, and 14 crinkler proteins. The typical motifs, phylogenies, and activities of these effectors were typical for a Phytophthora species. However, like the genome features of the analyzed downy mildews, P. litchii exhibited a streamlined genome with a relatively small number of genes in both core and species-specific protein families. The low GC content and slight codon preferences of P. litchii sequences were similar to those of the analyzed downy mildews and a subset of Phytophthora species. Taken together, these observations suggest that P. litchii is a Phytophthora pathogen that is in the process of acquiring downy mildew-like genomic and morphological features. Thus P. litchii may provide a novel model for investigating morphological development and genomic adaptation in oomycete pathogens.

  14. Habitat use of woodpeckers in the Big Woods of eastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, David G.; Lehnen, Sarah E.; Luscier, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Big Woods of eastern Arkansas contain some of the highest densities of woodpeckers recorded within bottomland hardwood forests of the southeastern United States. A better understanding of habitat use patterns by these woodpeckers is a priority for conservationists seeking to maintain these high densities in the Big Woods and the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley as a whole. Hence, we used linear mixed-effects and linear models to estimate the importance of habitat characteristics to woodpecker density in the Big Woods during the breeding seasons of 2006 and 2007 and the winter of 2007. Northern flicker Colaptes auratus density was negatively related to tree density both for moderate (. 25 cm diameter at breast height) and larger trees (>61 cm diameter at breast height). Red-headed woodpeckers Melanerpes erythrocephalus also had a negative relationship with density of large (. 61 cm diameter at breast height) trees. Bark disfiguration (an index of tree health) was negatively related to red-bellied woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus and yellow-bellied sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius densities. No measured habitat variables explained pileated woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus density. Overall, the high densities of woodpeckers observed in our study suggest that the current forest management of the Big Woods of Arkansas is meeting the nesting, roosting, and foraging requirements for these birds.

  15. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Myczko

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species.

  16. Should Habitat Trading Be Based on Mitigation Ratios Derived from Landscape Indices? A Model-Based Analysis of Compensatory Restoration Options for the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Douglas J.; Jones, Michael L.

    2008-10-01

    Many species of conservation concern are spatially structured and require dispersal to be persistent. For such species, altering the distribution of suitable habitats on the landscape can affect population dynamics in ways that are difficult to predict from simple models. We argue that for such species, individual-based and spatially explicit population models (SEPMs) should be used to determine appropriate levels of off-site restoration to compensate for on-site loss of ecologic resources. Such approaches are necessary when interactions between biologic processes occur at different spatial scales (i.e., local [recruitment] and landscape [migration]). The sites of restoration and habitat loss may be linked to each other, but, more importantly, they may be linked to other resources in the landscape by regional biologic processes, primarily migration. The common management approach for determining appropriate levels of off-site restoration is to derive mitigation ratios based on best professional judgment or pre-existing data. Mitigation ratios assume that the ecologic benefits at the site of restoration are independent of the ecologic costs at the site of habitat loss. Using an SEPM for endangered red-cockaded woodpeckers, we show that the spatial configuration of habitat restoration can simultaneously influence both the rate of recruitment within breeding groups and the rate of migration among groups, implying that simple mitigation ratios may be inadequate.

  17. Experimental reintroduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Dawn K. Carrie; Richard R. Schaefer

    1992-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to the pine forests of the southeastern United States (Jackson 1971). Deforestation and habitat alteration have severely affected Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations; current populations are isolated and most are declining (Jackson 1971, Lennartz et al. 1983, Conner and Rudolph 1989, Costa...

  18. Distributional changes and range predictions of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) in Rocky Mountain National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, J.E.; Kumar, S.; Brown, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive winter annual grass, may be increasing in extent and abundance at high elevations in the western United States. This would pose a great threat to high-elevation plant communities and resources. However, data to track this species in high-elevation environments are limited. To address changes in the distribution and abundance of downy brome and the factors most associated with its occurrence, we used field sampling and statistical methods, and niche modeling. In 2007, we resampled plots from two vegetation surveys in Rocky Mountain National Park for presence and cover of downy brome. One survey was established in 1993 and had been resampled in 1999. The other survey was established in 1996 and had not been resampled until our study. Although not all comparisons between years demonstrated significant changes in downy brome abundance, its mean cover increased nearly fivefold from 1993 (0.7%) to 2007 (3.6%) in one of the two vegetation surveys (P = 0.06). Although the average cover of downy brome within the second survey appeared to be increasing from 1996 to 2007, this slight change from 0.5% to 1.2% was not statistically significant (P = 0.24). Downy brome was present in 50% more plots in 1999 than in 1993 (P = 0.02) in the first survey. In the second survey, downy brome was present in 30% more plots in 2007 than in 1996 (P = 0.08). Maxent, a species-environmental matching model, was generally able to predict occurrences of downy brome, as new locations were in the ranges predicted by earlier generated models. The model found that distance to roads, elevation, and vegetation community influenced the predictions most. The strong response of downy brome to interannual environmental variability makes detecting change challenging, especially with small sample sizes. However, our results suggest that the area in which downy brome occurs is likely increasing in Rocky Mountain National Park through increased frequency and cover

  19. How does vegetation structure influence woodpeckers and secondary cavity nesting birds in African cork oak forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Amalia

    2017-08-01

    The Great Spotted Woodpecker provides important information about the status of a forest in terms of structure and age. As a primary cavity creator, it provides small-medium size cavities for passerines. However, despite its interest as an ecosystem engineer, studies of this species in Africa are scarce. Here, spatially explicit predictive models were used to investigate how forest structural variables are related to both the Great Spotted Woodpecker and secondary cavity nesting birds in Maamora cork oak forest (northwest Morocco). A positive association between Great Spotted Woodpecker and both dead-tree density and large mature trees (>60 cm dbh) was found. This study area, Maamora, has an old-growth forest structure incorporating a broad range of size and condition of live and dead trees, favouring Great Spotted Woodpecker by providing high availability of foraging and excavating sites. Secondary cavity nesting birds, represented by Great Tit, African Blue Tit, and Hoopoe, were predicted by Great Spotted Woodpecker detections. The findings suggest that the conservation of the Maamora cork oak forest could be key to maintaining these hole-nesting birds. However, this forest is threatened by forestry practises and livestock overgrazing and the challenge is therefore to find sustainable management strategies that ensure conservation while allowing its exploitation.

  20. Parental care by Black-backed Woodpeckers in burned and unburned habitats of eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay Junior A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nest care is an important parental contribution to offspring. In woodpeckers, males often have an equal or greater contribution to parental care, including nest sanitation. The Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus is a North American boreal woodpecker for which both parents are highly involved in parental care. By modifying their territory size in optimal and suboptimal habitat (e.g. burned vs unburned habitats, this species seems to have a large tolerance to variation in prey abundance at a landscape scale, and could provide a useful biological model to investigate the adaptability of parent care, particularly to relative contribution of each sex. We investigated sex- and habitat-specific parental care behaviour of Black-backed Woodpeckers at 9 nests by daily monitoring during the nestling period. Specifically, we examined two different aspects of parental care: 1 time spent at the nest, and 2 food delivery. We also compared relative contribution between sexes to nest sanitation. Despite our small sample sizes, our results show that males are more involved in nest sanitation and spend longer at the nest, and both sexes exhibit higher food delivery rates and spend less time at the nest in burned habitat. This latter result may suggest that greater effort is needed to provision Black-backed Woodpecker nestlings in unburned habitat compared to burned habitat.

  1. Global population decline of the Great Slaty Woodpecker (Mulleripicus pulverulentus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammertink, M.; Prawiradilaga, D.M.; Setiorini, U.; Zaw Naing, T.; Duckworth, J.W.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Great Slaty Woodpecker (Mulleripicus pulverulentus) of South and Southeast Asia, the third largest woodpecker species in the world, is currently in the IUCN Red List category of Least Concern. This woodpecker appears associated with old-growth forests, and the rapid reductions in forest cover an

  2. Global variation in woodpecker species richness shaped by tree availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsoe, Sigrid Kistrup; Kissling, W. Daniel; Fjeldsa, Jon

    2017-01-01

    a negative indirect effect on woodpecker species richness. Main conclusions: Global species richness of woodpeckers is primarily shaped by current tree cover and precipitation, reflecting a strong biotic association between woodpeckers and trees. Human influence can have a negative effect on woodpecker...... also showed a strong indirect effect on woodpecker richness via the effects on tree availability. Deep-time tree availability, Quaternary climate change, human influence and other abiotic factors showed weaker direct effects. Human influence had a negative effect on tree availability, and hence....... As an example, woodpeckers (Picidae) are closely associated with trees and woody habitats because of multiple morphological and ecological specializations. In this study, we test whether this strong biotic association causes woodpecker diversity to be closely linked to tree availability at a global scale...

  3. Genetics of resistance against lettuce downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most valuable vegetable crops in the U.S. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Bremia lactucae, is the most important foliar disease of lettuce worldwide, which decreases the quality of the marketable portion of the crop. The use of resistant varieties carrying dominan...

  4. Genetic dissection of Lactuca saligna nonhost resistance to downy mildew at various lettuce developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, N.; Lindhout, P.; Niks, R.E.; Jeuken, M.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    This study used the pathosystem of lettuce (Lactuca spp.) and downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) as a model to investigate the inheritance of nonhost resistance, and focused on the contribution of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to nonhost resistance at various developmental stages in the lettuce life cy

  5. Epidemiology of Basil Downy Mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yigal; Ben Naim, Yariv; Falach, Lidan; Rubin, Avia E

    2017-06-09

    Basil downy mildew (BDM) caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii is a destructive disease of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) worldwide. It originated in Uganda in the 1930s and recently spread to Europe, the Middle East, Americas, and the Far East. Seed transmission may be responsible for its quick global spread. The pathogen attacks leaf blades, producing chlorotic lesions with ample dark asexual spores on the lower leaf surface. Oospores may form in the mesophyll of infected leaves. The asexual spores germinate on a wet leaf surface within 2 h and penetrate into the epidermis within 4 h. Spore germination and infection occur at a wide range of temperatures from 5 to 28.5°C. Infection intensity depends on the length of dew period, leaf temperature, and inoculum dose. The duration of latent period (from infection to sporulation) extends from 5 to 10 days, depending on temperature and light regime. The shortest is 5 days at 25°C under continuous light. Sporulation requires high humidity but not free leaf wetness. Sporulation occurs at 10 to 26°C. At the optimum temperature of 18°C, the process of sporulation requires 7.5 h at relative humidity ≥ 85%, with 3 h for sporophores emergence from stomata and 4.5 h for spore formation. Sporophores can emerge under light or darkness, but spore formation occurs in the dark only. Limited data are available on spore dispersal. Spores dispersed from sporulating plants contaminate healthy plants within 2 h of exposure. Settled spores may survive on leaf surface of healthy plants for prolonged periods, depending on temperature. Seed transmission of the disease occurs in Europe, but not in Israel or the United States. P. belbahrii in Israel also attacks species belonging to Rosemarinus, Nepeta, Agastache, Micromeria, and Salvia but not Plectranthus (coleus). A Peronospora species that infects coleus does not infect sweet basil. Control of BDM includes chemical, physical, and genetic means. The fungicide mefenoxam was

  6. Woodpecker densities in the big woods of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscier, J.D.; Krementz, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Sightings of the now-feared-extinct ivory-billed woodpecker Campephilus principalis in 2004 in the Big Woods of Arkansas initiated a series of studies on how to best manage habitat for this endangered species as well as all woodpeckers in the area. Previous work suggested that densities of other woodpeckers, particularly pileated Dryocopus pileatus and red-bellied Melanerpes carolinus woodpeckers, might be useful in characterizing habitat use by the ivory-billed woodpecker. We estimated densities of six woodpecker species in the Big Woods during the breeding seasons of 2006 and 2007 and also during the winter season of 2007. Our estimated densities were as high as or higher than previously published woodpecker density estimates for the Southeastern United States. Density estimates ranged from 9.1 to 161.3 individuals/km2 across six woodpecker species. Our data suggest that the Big Woods of Arkansas is attractive to all woodpeckers using the region, including ivory-billed woodpeckers.

  7. Red-bellied woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford E. Shackelford; Raymond E. Brown; Richard N. Conner

    2000-01-01

    This familiar, eastern U.S. woodpecker is an active and vocal species, with a preference for humid forests dominated by pines or hardwoods, or a mixture of both. It seldom excavates wood for insects; instead, depending on season, it forages opportunistically for a wide range of fruit, mast, seeds and arboreal arthropods. It is also known to take small or young...

  8. The Geographic Distribution of a Tropical Montane Bird Is Limited by a Tree: Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) and Colombian Oaks (Quercus humboldtii) in the Northern Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Benjamin G; Mason, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Species distributions are limited by a complex array of abiotic and biotic factors. In general, abiotic (climatic) factors are thought to explain species' broad geographic distributions, while biotic factors regulate species' abundance patterns at local scales. We used species distribution models to test the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with a tree, the Colombian oak (Quercus humboldtii), limits the broad-scale distribution of the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in the Northern Andes of South America. North American populations of Acorn Woodpeckers consume acorns from Quercus oaks and are limited by the presence of Quercus oaks. However, Acorn Woodpeckers in the Northern Andes seldom consume Colombian oak acorns (though may regularly drink sap from oak trees) and have been observed at sites without Colombian oaks, the sole species of Quercus found in South America. We found that climate-only models overpredicted Acorn Woodpecker distribution, suggesting that suitable abiotic conditions (e.g. in northern Ecuador) exist beyond the woodpecker's southern range margin. In contrast, models that incorporate Colombian oak presence outperformed climate-only models and more accurately predicted the location of the Acorn Woodpecker's southern range margin in southern Colombia. These findings support the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with Colombian oaks sets Acorn Woodpecker's broad-scale geographic limit in South America, probably because Acorn Woodpeckers rely on Colombian oaks as a food resource (possibly for the oak's sap rather than for acorns). Although empirical examples of particular plants limiting tropical birds' distributions are scarce, we predict that similar biotic interactions may play an important role in structuring the geographic distributions of many species of tropical montane birds with specialized foraging behavior.

  9. Analysis of microsatellites from the transcriptome of downy mildew pathogens and their application for characterization of Pseudoperonospora populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C. Wallace

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Downy mildew pathogens affect several economically important crops worldwide but, due to their obligate nature, few genetic resources are available for genomic and population analyses. Draft genomes for emergent downy mildew pathogens such as the oomycete Pseudoperonospora cubensis, causal agent of cucurbit downy mildew, have been published and can be used to perform comparative genomic analysis and develop tools such as microsatellites to characterize pathogen population structure. We used bioinformatics to identify 2,738 microsatellites in the P. cubensis predicted transcriptome and evaluate them for transferability to the hop downy mildew pathogen, Pseudoperonospora humuli, since no draft genome is available for this species. We also compared the microsatellite repertoire of P. cubensis to that of the model organism Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, which causes downy mildew in Arabidopsis. Although trends in frequency of motif-type were similar, the percentage of SSRs identified from P. cubensis transcripts differed significantly from H. arabidopsidis. The majority of a subset of microsatellites selected for laboratory validation (92% produced a product in P. cubensis isolates, and 83 microsatellites demonstrated transferability to P. humuli. Eleven microsatellites were found to be polymorphic and consistently amplified in P. cubensis isolates. Analysis of Pseudoperonospora isolates from diverse hosts and locations revealed higher diversity in P. cubensis compared to P. humuli isolates. These microsatellites will be useful in efforts to better understand relationships within Pseudoperonospora species and P. cubensis on a population level.

  10. Epidemiology and control of spinach downy mildew in coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most serious threat to global fresh market spinach production is spinach downy mildew, caused by the obligate biotrophic pathogen, Peronospora effusa. Downy mildew causes yellow chlorotic lesions on spinach leaf tissue, often accompanied by abundant sporulation on the undersides of leaves. Very ...

  11. Snag Condition and Woodpecker Foraging Ecology in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Stanley D. Jones; Gretchen D. Jones

    1994-01-01

    We studied woodpecker foraging behavior, snag quality, and surrounding habitat in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest from December 1984 through November 1986. The amount and location of woodpecker foraging excavations indicated that woodpeckers excavated mainly at the well-decayed tops and bases of snags. Woodpeckers preferred to...

  12. Population trends of red-cockaded woodpeckers in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2006-01-01

    tracked population trends of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in eastern Texas from 1983 through 2004. After declining precipitously during the 1980s, woodpecker population trends on federal lands (National Forests and Grasslands in Texas, but excluding the Big Thicket National Preserve) increased between 1990 and 2000, and have been...

  13. Species using red-cockaded woodpecker cavities in eastern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    1997-01-01

    Because of its ability to excavate cavities in living pines, the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is a keystone species in the tire-disclimax, pine ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Many species representing multiple taxonomic classes are dependent on this woodpecker species for the cavities it creates. We examined the...

  14. Forest habitat loss, fragmentation, and red-cockaded woodpecker populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1991-01-01

    Loss of mature forest habitat was measured around Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity tree clusters (colonies) in three National Forests in eastern Texas. Forest removal results in a loss of foraging habitat and causes habitat fragmentation of the remaining mature forest. Habitat loss was negatively associated with woodpecker group size in small...

  15. Habitat suitability and nest survival of white-headed woodpeckers in unburned forests of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, J.P.; Saab, V.A.; Frenzel, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated habitat suitability and nest survival of breeding white-headed woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus) in unburned forests of central Oregon, USA. Daily nest-survival rate was positively related to maximum daily temperature during the nest interval and to density of large-diameter trees surrounding the nest tree. We developed a niche-based habitat suitability model (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) for nesting white-headed woodpeckers using remotely sensed data. Along with low elevation, high density of large trees, and low slope, our habitat suitability model suggested that interspersion-juxtaposition of low- and high-canopy cover ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) patches was important for nest-site suitability. Cross-validation suggested the model performed adequately for management planning at a scale >1 ha. Evaluation of mapped habitat suitability index (HSI) suggested that the maximum predictive gain (HSI=0.36), where the number of nest locations are maximized in the smallest proportion of the modeled landscape, provided an objective initial threshold for identification of suitable habitat. However, managers can choose the threshold HSI most appropriate for their purposes (e.g., locating regions of low-moderate suitability that have potential for habitat restoration). Consequently, our habitat suitability model may be useful for managing dry coniferous forests for white-headed woodpeckers in central Oregon; however, model validation is necessary before our model could be applied to other locations. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  16. Spatial analysis of lettuce downy mildew using geostatistics and geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B M; van Bruggen, A H; Subbarao, K V; Pennings, G G

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT The epidemiology of lettuce downy mildew has been investigated extensively in coastal California. However, the spatial patterns of the disease and the distance that Bremia lactucae spores can be transported have not been determined. During 1995 to 1998, we conducted several field- and valley-scale surveys to determine spatial patterns of this disease in the Salinas valley. Geostatistical analyses of the survey data at both scales showed that the influence range of downy mildew incidence at one location on incidence at other locations was between 80 and 3,000 m. A linear relationship was detected between semivariance and lag distance at the field scale, although no single statistical model could fit the semi-variograms at the valley scale. Spatial interpolation by the inverse distance weighting method with a power of 2 resulted in plausible estimates of incidence throughout the valley. Cluster analysis in geographic information systems on the interpolated disease incidence from different dates demonstrated that the Salinas valley could be divided into two areas, north and south of Salinas City, with high and low disease pressure, respectively. Seasonal and spatial trends along the valley suggested that the distinction between the downy mildew conducive and nonconducive areas might be determined by environmental factors.

  17. Inventory and monitoring of red-cockaded woodpecker Nesting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report provides nesting monitoring and group size summary data associated with the red-cockaded woodpecker population at Noxubee NWR in 2012.

  18. Proposal - Inventory and Monitoring for Red-cockaded Woodpecker Nesting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal is to monitor the nesting success and productivity of the red-cockaded woodpecker population at the Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge during...

  19. Video analysis of the escape flight of Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus: does the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis persist in continental North America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collinson J Martin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The apparent rediscovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis in Arkansas, USA, previously feared extinct, was supported by video evidence of a single bird in flight (Fitzpatrick et al, Science 2005, 308:1460–1462. Plumage patterns and wingbeat frequency of the putative Ivory-billed Woodpecker were said to be incompatible with the only possible confusion species native to the area, the Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus. Results New video analysis of Pileated Woodpeckers in escape flights comparable to that of the putative Ivory-billed Woodpecker filmed in Arkansas shows that Pileated Woodpeckers can display a wingbeat frequency equivalent to that of the Arkansas bird during escape flight. The critical frames from the Arkansas video that were used to identify the bird as an Ivory-billed Woodpecker are shown to be equally, or more, compatible with the Pileated Woodpecker. Conclusion The identification of the bird filmed in Arkansas in April 2004 as an Ivory-billed Woodpecker is best regarded as unsafe. The similarities between the Arkansas bird and known Pileated Woodpeckers suggest that it was most likely a Pileated Woodpecker.

  20. Influence of artificial cavity age on red-cockaded woodpecker translocation success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Dawn K. Carrie; M. Stephen Best

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) translocations have been used to bolster woodpecker populations and to fill breeding vacancies. Artificial, insert cavities have been used to offset cavity shortages in woodpecker clusters and are the primary cavity type used in recruitment clusters in Texas and Arkansas, but inserts may lose their...

  1. Heartwood, sapwood, and fungal decay associated with red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    1994-01-01

    Provision of suitable sites for red-cockaded woodpecker (Picotdes borealis) cavity excavation is essential for successful management of the woodpecker. To evaluate internal characteristics of pines used by the woodpecker, we increment-cored longleaf pines (Pinus palustris) to determine heartwood diameter, sapwood thickness, and...

  2. Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Large, Complex Slope Instability: Case study of Downie Slide, British Columbia, Canada. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenchuk, K. S.; Hutchinson, D.; Diederichs, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Downie Slide, one of the world's largest landslides, is a massive, active, composite, extremely slow rockslide located on the west bank of the Revelstoke Reservoir in British Columbia. It is a 1.5 billion m3 rockslide measuring 2400 m along the river valley, 3300m from toe to headscarp and up to 245 m thick. Significant contributions to the field of landslide geomechanics have been made by analyses of spatially and temporally discriminated slope deformations, and how these are controlled by complex geological and geotechnical factors. Downie Slide research demonstrates the importance of delineating massive landslides into morphological regions in order to characterize global slope behaviour and identify localized events, which may or may not influence the overall slope deformation patterns. Massive slope instabilities do not behave as monolithic masses, rather, different landslide zones can display specific landslide processes occurring at variable rates of deformation. The global deformation of Downie Slide is extremely slow moving; however localized regions of the slope incur moderate to high rates of movement. Complex deformation processes and composite failure mechanism are contributed to by topography, non-uniform shear surfaces, heterogeneous rockmass and shear zone strength and stiffness characteristics. Further, from the analysis of temporal changes in landslide behaviour it has been clearly recognized that different regions of the slope respond differently to changing hydrogeological boundary conditions. State-of-the-art methodologies have been developed for numerical simulation of large landslides; these provide important tools for investigating dynamic landslide systems which account for complex three-dimensional geometries, heterogenous shear zone strength parameters, internal shear zones, the interaction of discrete landslide zones and piezometric fluctuations. Numerical models of Downie Slide have been calibrated to reproduce observed slope behaviour

  3. The Novel Mechanical Property of Tongue of a Woodpecker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Zhou; X Q Kong; C W Wu; Z Chen

    2009-01-01

    Biomaterials such as bone, teeth, nacre and silk are known to have superior mechanical properties due to their specific nanocomposite structures. Here we report that the woodpecker's tongue exhibits a novel strength and flexibility due to its special composite micro/nanostructure. The tongue consists of a flexible cartilage-and-bone skeleton covered with a thin layer tissue of high strength and elasticity. At the interface between the cartilage-and-bone skeleton and the tissue layer, there is a hierarchical fiber-typed connection. It is this special design of the tongue that makes the woodpeckers efficient in catching the insects inside trees. The special micro/nanostructures of the woodpecker's tongue show us a potential method to enhance the interfacial connection between soft and hard material layers forr bio-inspired composite system designs.

  4. Comparison of three fungicide spray advisories for lettuce downy mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, B.M.; Subbarao, K.V.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Koike, S.T.

    2001-01-01

    Lettuce growers in coastal California have relied mainly on protective fungicide sprays to control downy mildew. Thus, timing of sprays before infection is critical for optimal results. A leaf-wetness-driven, infection-based advisory system, previously developed, did not always perform satisfactoril

  5. Effect of climate change on infection of grapevine by downy and powdery mildew under controlled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, M; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2011-01-01

    Plant responses to elevated CO2 and temperature have been much studied in recent years, but effects of climate change on pathological responses are largerly unknown. The pathosystems grapevine (Vitis vinifera) - downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe necatrix) were chosen as models to assess the potential impact of increased CO2 and temperature on disease incidence and severity under controlled environment. Grapevine potted plants were grown in phytotrons under 4 different simulated climatic conditions: (1) standard temperature (ranging from 18 degrees to 22 degrees C) and standard CO2 concentration (450 ppm); (2) standard temperature and elevated CO2 concentration (800 ppm); (3) elevated temperature (ranging from 22 degrees to 26 degrees C, 4 degrees C higher than standard) and standard CO2 concentration; (4) elevated temperature and CO2 concentration. Each plant was inoculated with a spore suspension containing 5x10(5) cfu/ml. Disease index and physiological parameters (chlorophyll content, fluorescence, assimilation rate) were assessed. Results showed an increase of the chlorophyll content with higher temperatures and CO2 concentration, to which consequently corresponded an higher fluorescence index. Disease incidence of downy mildew increased when both CO2 and temperatures were higher, while an increase in CO2 did not influenced powdery mildew incidence, probably due to the increased photosynthetic activity of plants under such conditions. Considering that the rising concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases will lead to an increase in global temperature and longer seasons, we can assume that this will allow more time for pathogens evolution and could increase pathogen survival, indirectly affecting downy and powdery mildews of grapevine.

  6. Causes of mortality of red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; David L. Kulhavy; Ann E. Snow

    1991-01-01

    Over a 13-year period we examined the mortality of cavity trees (n = 453) used by red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) on national forests in eastern Texas. Bark beetles (53%), wind snap (30%), and fire (7%) were the major causes of cavity tree mortality. Bark beetles were the major cause of mortality in loblolly (Pinus taeda...

  7. Red-cockaded woodpecker recovery: An integrated strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2004-01-01

    Populations of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) have experienced massive declines since European colonization of North America. This is due to extensive habitat loss and alteration. Logging of old-growth pine forests and alteration of the fire regime throughout the historic range of the species were the primary causes of population decline. Listing of...

  8. Resource selection by black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) and American three-toed woodpeckers (P. dorsalis) in South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean R. Mohren; Mark A. Rumble; Chadwick P. Lehman; Stanley H. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus, [BBWO]) and American three-toed woodpeckers (P. dorsalis, [ATTW]) are uncommon inhabitants of conifer forests and are sympatric in some areas, including the Black Hills. Both species exhibit genetic characteristics associated with isolated populations, are species of special management concern, and for which data...

  9. Nestling diets and provisioning rates of sympatric Golden-fronted and Ladder-backed Woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Evonne L.; Boal, Clint W.; Glasscock, Selma N.

    2013-01-01

    We examined comparative food use and provisioning of Golden-fronted (Melanerpes aurifrons) and Ladder-backed (Picoides scalaris) woodpeckers at the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge, in San Patricio County, Texas. We combined video surveillance and direct observations to monitor provisioning rates and identify items delivered by adult woodpeckers to nestlings. We collected 328 hours of data at Ladder-backed Woodpecker nest cavities and 230 hours of data at Golden-fronted Woodpecker nest cavities. Ladder-backed Woodpecker nestling diets consisted of 100% animal matter, comprised of invertebrate larvae (99%) and invertebrate adults (nestlings were also high in animal matter (77%) with more invertebrate adults (55%) and fewer invertebrate larvae (27%), but also included vegetable matter (16%). Morisita's measure of overlap suggested a relatively low dietary overlap of 31% between nestlings of these two sympatric woodpecker species. Foraging methods used by these species may explain their low dietary overlap and facilitate their coexistence.

  10. Quantitative Morphological and Biochemical Studies on Human Downy Hairs using 3-D Quantitative Phase Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, SangYun; Lee, Yuhyun; Park, Sungjin; Shin, Heejae; Yang, Jongwon; Ko, Kwanhong; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the morphological and biochemical findings on human downy arm hairs using 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques. 3-D refractive index tomograms and high-resolution 2-D synthetic aperture images of individual downy arm hairs were measured using a Mach-Zehnder laser interferometric microscopy equipped with a two-axis galvanometer mirror. From the measured quantitative images, the biochemical and morphological parameters of downy hairs were non-invasively quantified including the mean refractive index, volume, cylinder, and effective radius of individual hairs. In addition, the effects of hydrogen peroxide on individual downy hairs were investigated.

  11. The Conservation Value of Traditional Rural Landscapes: The Case of Woodpeckers in Transylvania, Romania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ine Dorresteijn

    Full Text Available Land use change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Forest species face the dual threats of deforestation and intensification of forest management. In regions where forests are under threat, rural landscapes that retain structural components of mature forests potentially provide valuable additional habitat for some forest species. Here, we illustrate the habitat value of traditional wood pastures for a woodpecker assemblage of six species in southern Transylvania, Romania. Wood pastures are created by long-term stable silvo-pastoral management practices, and are composed of open grassland with scattered large, old trees. Because of their demanding habitat requirements, woodpeckers share habitat with many other bird species, and have been considered as possible indicator species for bird species diversity. We first compared woodpecker assemblages between forests and wood pastures. Second, we grouped features of wood pastures into three spatial contexts and addressed how these features related to the occurrence of three woodpecker species that are formally protected. Woodpecker species composition, but not the number of species, differed between forests and wood pastures, with the green woodpecker occurring more commonly in wood pastures, and the lesser spotted woodpecker more commonly in forests. Within wood pastures, the intermediate context (especially surrounding forest cover best explained the presence of the grey-headed and middle spotted woodpecker. By contrast, variables describing local vegetation structure and characteristics of the surrounding landscape did not affect woodpecker occurrence in wood pastures. In contrast to many other parts of Europe, in which several species of woodpeckers have declined, the traditional rural landscape of Transylvania continues to provide habitat for several woodpecker species, both in forests and wood pastures. Given the apparent habitat value of wood pastures for woodpeckers we recommend wood

  12. Identification of QTLs conferring resistance to downy mildew in legacy cultivars of lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Ivan; Atallah, Amy J; Ochoa, Oswaldo E; Antonise, Rudie; Galeano, Carlos H; Truco, Maria Jose; Michelmore, Richard W

    2013-10-07

    Many cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), the most popular leafy vegetable, are susceptible to downy mildew disease caused by Bremia lactucae. Cultivars Iceberg and Grand Rapids that were released in the 18th and 19th centuries, respectively, have high levels of quantitative resistance to downy mildew. We developed a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) originating from a cross between these two legacy cultivars, constructed a linkage map, and identified two QTLs for resistance on linkage groups 2 (qDM2.1) and 5 (qDM5.1) that determined resistance under field conditions in California and the Netherlands. The same QTLs determined delayed sporulation at the seedling stage in laboratory experiments. Alleles conferring elevated resistance at both QTLs originate from cultivar Iceberg. An additional QTL on linkage group 9 (qDM9.1) was detected through simultaneous analysis of all experiments with mixed-model approach. Alleles for elevated resistance at this locus originate from cultivar Grand Rapids.

  13. When is an “Extinct” Species Really Extinct? Gauging the Search Efforts for Hawaiian Forest Birds and the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael. Scott

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare species, particularly those in inaccessible habitat, can go years without being observed. If we are to allocate conservation resources appropriately to conserving such species, it is important to be able to distinguish “rare” from “extinct.” Criteria for designating extinction, however, tend to be arbitrary or vaguely defined. This designation should not be made unless the search effort has been sufficient to yield a high degree of confidence that the species is in fact absent. We develop models to assess the probability of extinction and the search effort necessary to detect an individual in a small population. We apply these models to searches for nine potentially extinct Hawaiian forest birds and for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis in intensively searched areas in Arkansas. The Hawaiian forest bird survey was extensive, providing excellent information on population sizes and habitat associations of species encountered during the survey. Nonetheless, we conclude that the survey effort was not sufficient to conclude extinction (p > 0.90 for populations of 10 or fewer individuals for those species that were not encountered during surveys. In contrast, our analysis for Ivory-billed Woodpeckers suggests that, unless there were actually two or fewer birds present, the search effort was sufficient to conclude (p > 0.95 that Ivory-billed woodpeckers were not present in the intensively searched area. If one assumes distributions other than uniform, there is a greater chance that Ivory-billed Woodpeckers may persist in the intensively searched areas. Conclusions regarding occupancy of suitable habitat throughout the rest of the former range will require similarly intensive survey efforts. The degree of confidence in the absence of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker depended in part on our assumptions about the distribution of birds in the search area. For species with limited detection distance and small populations, a

  14. Mutants of downy mildew resistance in Lactuca sativa (lettuce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubara, P A; Anderson, P A; Ochoa, O E; Michelmore, R W

    1994-07-01

    As part of our investigation of disease resistance in lettuce, we generated mutants that have lost resistance to Bremia lactucae, the casual fungus of downy mildew. Using a rapid and reliable screen, we identified 16 distinct mutants of Latuca sativa that have lost activity of one of four different downy mildew resistance genes (Dm). In all mutants, only a single Dm specificity was affected. Genetic analysis indicated that the lesions segregated as single, recessive mutations at the Dm loci. Dm3 was inactivated in nine of the mutants. One of five Dm 1 mutants was selected from a population of untreated seeds and therefore carried a spontaneous mutation. All other Dm1, Dm3, Dm5/8 and Dm7 mutants were derived from gamma- or fast neutron-irradiated seed. In two separate Dm 1 mutants and in each of the eight Dm3 mutants analyzed, at least one closely linked molecular marker was absent. Also, high molecular weight genomic DNA fragments that hybridized to a tightly linked molecular marker in wild type were either missing entirely or were truncated in two of the Dm3 mutants, providing additional evidence that deletions had occurred in these mutants. Absence of mutations at loci epistatic to the Dm genes suggested that such loci were either members of multigene families, were critical for plant survival, or encoded components of duplicated pathways for resistance; alternatively, the genes determining downy mildew resistance might be limited to the Dm loci.

  15. Resistance Against Basil Downy Mildew in Ocimum Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Yariv; Falach, Lidan; Cohen, Yigal

    2015-06-01

    Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii, is a devastating disease of sweet basil. In this study, 113 accessions of Ocimum species (83 Plant Introduction entries and 30 commercial entries) were tested for resistance against downy mildew at the seedling stage in growth chambers, and during three seasons, in the field. Most entries belonging to O. basilicum were highly susceptible whereas most entries belonging to O. americanum, O. kilimanadascharicum, O. gratissimum, O. campechianum, or O. tenuiflorum were highly resistant at both the seedling stage and the field. Twenty-seven highly resistant individual plants were each crossed with the susceptible sweet basil 'Peri', and the F1 progeny plants were examined for disease resistance. The F1 plants of two crosses were highly resistant, F1 plants of 24 crosses were moderately resistant, and F1 plants of one cross were susceptible, suggesting full, partial, or no dominance of the resistance gene(s), respectively. These data confirm the feasibility of producing downy mildew-resistant cultivars of sweet basil by crossing with wild Ocimum species.

  16. Genome analyses of the sunflower pathogen Plasmopara halstedii provide insights into effector evolution in downy mildews and Phytophthora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Rahul; Xia, Xiaojuan; Cano, Liliana M; Evangelisti, Edouard; Kemen, Eric; Judelson, Howard; Oome, Stan; Sambles, Christine; van den Hoogen, D Johan; Kitner, Miloslav; Klein, Joël; Meijer, Harold J G; Spring, Otmar; Win, Joe; Zipper, Reinhard; Bode, Helge B; Govers, Francine; Kamoun, Sophien; Schornack, Sebastian; Studholme, David J; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Thines, Marco

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Downy mildews are the most speciose group of oomycetes and affect crops of great economic importance. So far, there is only a single deeply-sequenced downy mildew genome available, from Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Further genomic resources for downy mildews are required to study thei

  17. Competition for red-cockaded woodpecker roost and nest cavities: effects of resin age and entrance diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Janet Turner

    1990-01-01

    Competition for roost and nest cavities was investigated in a Texas population of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) habitat. Twenty-two percent of all examined cavities were occupied by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers, and 46% were occupied by other species. Red-cockaded Woodpeckers did not roost in the open or...

  18. Does red-cockaded woodpecker excavation of resin wells increase risk of bark beetle infestation of cavity trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; William G. Ross; David L. Kulhavy; Robert N. Coulson

    2001-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is unique among North American woodpeckers in that it nests and roosts almost exclusively in living pines (Pinus spp.) The red-cockaded woodpecker makes daily excavations at small wounds, termed "resin wells," around the cavity entrance and on the bole of the cavity tree...

  19. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Jennings

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp. since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.

  20. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, David E; Gould, Juli R; Vandenberg, John D; Duan, Jian J; Shrewsbury, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.

  1. Identification of QTLs conferring resistance to downy mildew in legacy cultivars of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), the most popular leafy vegetable, are susceptible to downy mildew disease caused by Bremia lactucae. Cultivars Iceberg and Grand Rapids that were released in 18th and 19th century, respectively, have high levels of quantitative resistance to downy milde...

  2. Effects of stacked quantitative resistances to downy mildew in lettuce do not simply add up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, den E.; Pelgrom, K.T.B.; Zhang, N.; Visser, R.G.F.; Niks, R.E.; Jeuken, M.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Key message In a stacking study of eight resistance QTLs in lettuce against downy mildew, only three out of ten double combinations showed an increased resistance effect under field conditions. Abstract Complete race nonspecific resistance to lettuce downy mildew, as observed for the nonhost wild le

  3. Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Useful for Sorghum Downy Mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) and Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent outbreak of sorghum downy mildew, in Texas, has led to the discovery of both metalaxyl resistance and a new pathotype in the causal organism, Peronosclerospora sorghi. These observations and the difficulty in resolving among phylogenetically related downy mildew pathogens dramatically poin...

  4. An unusually large number of eggs laid by a breeding red-cockaded woodpecker female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; James R. McCormick

    2001-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is a cooperatively breeding species that typically uses a single cavity for nesting (Ligon 1970, Walters et al. 1988). A single tree, or aggregation of cavity trees, termed the cluster, is inhabited by a group of woodpeckers that includes a single breeding pair and up to several helpers, which are...

  5. Heart rot hotel: fungal communities in red-cockaded woodpecker excavations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel L. Lindner; Mark T. Banik; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2015-01-01

    Tree-cavity excavators such as woodpeckers are ecosystem engineers that have potentially complex but poorly documented associations with wood decay fungi. Fungi facilitate cavity excavation by preparing and modifying excavation sites for cavity excavators. Associations between fungi and endangered red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCWs) are particularly interesting because...

  6. Red-cockaded woodpeckers vs rat snakes: the effectiveness of the resin barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Howard Kyle; Richard N. Conner

    1990-01-01

    Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) excavate resin wells in the immediate vicinity of roost and nest cavity entrances. Resin wells are worked regularly, resulting in a copious and persistent resin flow that coats the tree trunk, especially below cavity entrances. Red-cockaded Woodpeckers also scale loose bark from cavity trees and closely adjacent trees....

  7. Avian community response to southern pine ecosystem restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Clifford E. Shackelford; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2002-01-01

    The effects of Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) management on nontarget birds is not widely known. Intensive managentcnt for pine specialists such as the Red-cockaded Woodpecker may negatively impact both Nearctic-Neotropical and Temperate Zone migrants associated with hardwood vegetation. To evaluate possible positive and...

  8. Influence of habitat and number of nestlings on partial brood loss in red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. McCormick; Richard N. Conner; D. Brent Burt; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    Partial brood loss in red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) was studied during 2 breeding seasons in eastern Texas. The timing of partial brood loss, group size, number of initial nestlings, number of birds fledged, and habitat characteristics of the group's cavity-tree cluster were examined for 37 woodpecker groups in loblolly- (

  9. Rainfall, El Niño, and reproduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; James R. McCormick; D. Craig Rudolph; D. Brent Burt

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis Vieillot) reproduction and rainfall during May when group members are provisioning nestlings with food. Patterns of variation over a 4-year period of approximately 30 woodpecker groups suggested that the mean number of hatchling deaths was positively related to...

  10. Red-cockaded woodpecker nesting success, forest structure, and southern flying squirrels in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    1996-01-01

    For several decades general opinion has suggested that southern flying squirrels (Gluucomys volans) have a negative effect on Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) through competition for cavities and egg/nestling predation. Complete removal of hardwood trees from Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity tree clusters has occurred on some forests because southern flying...

  11. Do Red-cockaded Woodpeckers Select Cavity Trees Based on Chemical Composition of Pine Resin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Robert H. Johnson; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz

    2003-01-01

    We examined resin chemistry of loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pines selected as cavity trees by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in eastern Texas. We sampled resin from (1) pines selected by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers that contained naturally excavated active cavities, (2) pines...

  12. Drill, baby, drill: the influence of woodpeckers on post-fire vertebrate communities through cavity excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gina L. Tarbill; Patricia N. Manley; Angela M. White

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the importance of woodpeckers as ecological engineers in forests due to their excavation of cavities. Although research in green, unburned forests has identified the influence of different excavators on secondary use by cavity-dependent species, little is known about the relative importance of cavities created by woodpeckers in recently...

  13. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 9. Habitat Management and Habitat Relationships. Pp 553-561. Abstract: I constructed a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined the foraging behavior and reproductive success of 7 groups of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

  14. Nocturnal Fanning Suppresses Downy Mildew Epidemics in Sweet Basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yigal; Ben-Naim, Yariv

    2016-01-01

    Downy mildew is currently the most serious disease of sweet basil around the world. The oomycete causal agent Peronospora belbahrii requires ≥ 4h free leaf moisture for infection and ≥7.5h of water-saturated atmosphere (relative humidity RH≥95%) at night for sporulation. We show here that continued nocturnal fanning (wind speed of 0.4-1.5 m/s) from 8pm to 8am dramatically suppressed downy mildew development. In three experiments conducted during 2015, percent infected leaves in regular (non-fanned) net-houses reached a mean of 89.9, 94.3 and 96.0% compared to1.2, 1.7 and 0.5% in adjacent fanned net-houses, respectively. Nocturnal fanning reduced the number of hours per night with RH≥95% thus shortened the dew periods below the threshold required for infection or sporulation. In experiments A, B and C, the number of nights with ≥4h of RH≥95% was 28, 10 and 17 in the non-fanned net-houses compared to 5, 0 and 5 in the fanned net-houses, respectively. In the third experiment leaf wetness sensors were installed. Dew formation was strongly suppressed in the fanned net-house as compared to the non-fanned net-house. Healthy potted plants became infected and sporulated a week later if placed one night in the non-fanned house whereas healthy plants placed during that night in the fanned house remained healthy. Infected potted basil plants sporulated heavily after one night of incubation in the non-fanned house whereas almost no sporulation occurred in similar plants incubated that night in the fanned house. The data suggest that nocturnal fanning is highly effective in suppressing downy mildew epidemics in sweet basil. Fanning prevented the within-canopy RH from reaching saturation, reduced dew deposition on the leaves, and hence prevented both infection and sporulation of P. belbahrii.

  15. Diet of Nesting Red-Cockaded Woodpecker at Three Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, J.L.; Lipcomb, D.; Franzreb, K.E.; Loeb, S.C.

    1998-12-03

    The authors studied diets of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers for two years on three sites in South Carolina and Georgia. Cameras recorded 33 different types of prey. Wood roaches were the most common, amounting to 50% of the prey. In addition, blueberries and saw fly larvae were collected by birds. Snail shells were also collected. Morista's index of diet overlap ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 for breeding males and females. We conclude that nestling diets are similar across the region.

  16. Host‐induced gene silencing inhibits the biotrophic pathogen causing downy mildew of lettuce

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Govindarajulu, Manjula; Epstein, Lynn; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Michelmore, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    .... As a proof‐of‐concept, we generated stable transgenic lettuce plants expressing si RNA s targeting potentially vital genes of Bremia lactucae , a biotrophic oomycete that causes downy mildew, the most important...

  17. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  18. THE USE OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI AS BIOPESTICIDE AGAINST DOWNY MILDEW PERONOSCLEROSPORA SPP. ON MAIZE

    OpenAIRE

    AMIN, NUR; La Daha; Nasruddin, Andi; Junaed, M; Iqbal, Andi

    2013-01-01

    Downy mildew is a major disease of maize caused by the fungus Peronosclerospora spp., widely distributed in all corn production centers in Indonesia. The disease can cause considerable losses; even total losses have been reported occurring on susceptible varieties. The purpose of the research was to determine the effectiveness of some isolates of endophytic fungi for the control of downy mildew on maize. The study consisted of four isolate treatments: Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma spp, Beauv...

  19. Nocturnal Fanning Suppresses Downy Mildew Epidemics in Sweet Basil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigal Cohen

    Full Text Available Downy mildew is currently the most serious disease of sweet basil around the world. The oomycete causal agent Peronospora belbahrii requires ≥ 4h free leaf moisture for infection and ≥7.5h of water-saturated atmosphere (relative humidity RH≥95% at night for sporulation. We show here that continued nocturnal fanning (wind speed of 0.4-1.5 m/s from 8pm to 8am dramatically suppressed downy mildew development. In three experiments conducted during 2015, percent infected leaves in regular (non-fanned net-houses reached a mean of 89.9, 94.3 and 96.0% compared to1.2, 1.7 and 0.5% in adjacent fanned net-houses, respectively. Nocturnal fanning reduced the number of hours per night with RH≥95% thus shortened the dew periods below the threshold required for infection or sporulation. In experiments A, B and C, the number of nights with ≥4h of RH≥95% was 28, 10 and 17 in the non-fanned net-houses compared to 5, 0 and 5 in the fanned net-houses, respectively. In the third experiment leaf wetness sensors were installed. Dew formation was strongly suppressed in the fanned net-house as compared to the non-fanned net-house. Healthy potted plants became infected and sporulated a week later if placed one night in the non-fanned house whereas healthy plants placed during that night in the fanned house remained healthy. Infected potted basil plants sporulated heavily after one night of incubation in the non-fanned house whereas almost no sporulation occurred in similar plants incubated that night in the fanned house. The data suggest that nocturnal fanning is highly effective in suppressing downy mildew epidemics in sweet basil. Fanning prevented the within-canopy RH from reaching saturation, reduced dew deposition on the leaves, and hence prevented both infection and sporulation of P. belbahrii.

  20. Inheritance of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) resistance in grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolsawat, O; Mahanil, S; Laosuwan, P; Wongkaew, S; Tharapreuksapong, A; Reisch, B I; Tantasawat, P A

    2013-12-13

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) are two of the major diseases of most grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars grown in Thailand. Therefore, breeding grapevines for improved downy mildew and anthracnose resistance is crucial. Factorial crosses were made between three downy mildew and/or anthracnose resistant lines ('NY88.0517.01', 'NY65.0550.04', and 'NY65.0551.05'; male parents) and two or three susceptible cultivars of V. vinifera ('Black Queen', 'Carolina Black Rose', and/or 'Italia'; female parents). F1 hybrid seedlings were evaluated for downy mildew and anthracnose resistance using a detached/excised leaf assay. For both diseases, the general combining ability (GCA) variance among male parents was significant, while the variance of GCA among females and the specific combining ability (SCA) variance were not significant, indicating the prevalence of additive over non-additive gene actions. The estimated narrow sense heritabilities of downy mildew and anthracnose resistance were 55.6 and 79.2%, respectively, suggesting that downy mildew/anthracnose resistance gene(s) were highly heritable. The 'Carolina Black Rose x NY65.0550.04' cross combination is recommended for future use.

  1. The Status of the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Red-cockaded Woodpecker is a rare southern bird with exacting habitat requirements. The species is unable or slow to adapt to man's activities and has been...

  2. Availability and abundance of prey for the red-cockaded woodpecker.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, James, L.; Horn, Scott

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 11. Prey, Fire, and Community Ecology. Pp 633-645. Abstract: Over a 10-year period we investigated red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) prey use, sources of prey, prey distribution within trees and stands, and how forest management decisions affect prey abundance in South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Florida. Cameras were operated at 31 nest cavities to record nest visits with prey in 4 locations that ranged in foraging habitat from pine stands established in old fields to an old-growth stand in South Georgia. Examination of nearly 12,000 photographs recorded over 5 years revealed that, although red-cockaded woodpeckers used over 40 arthropods for food, the majority of the nestling diet is comprised of a relatively small number of common arthropods.

  3. History, Status and National Distribution of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker in 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This presents a summary of the distribution and life history of the red-cockaded woodpecker in Texas, Mississippi, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama,...

  4. Natural History Miscellanea: Potential Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Habitat in Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Red Cockaded Woodpecker on Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge discusses the current status of the species, habitat requirements and limiting...

  5. Letter pertaining to alleged Ivory-billed Woodpecker observation on Choctaw National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter is in response to observation of bird resembling the Ivory-billed Woodpecker on Choctaw National Wildlife Refuge in October 2007 which you reported in a...

  6. The Status of the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Red Cockaded woodpecker on Blackwater discusses the current status of the species, habitat requirements and limiting factors, recovery...

  7. Letter about Ivory-billed Woodpecker on Allan Grey Estate (Dahomey NWR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Letter contains historic information regarding ivory-billed woodpecker occurance on Dahomey NWR prior to World War II. Letter found in museum in PA by Dr. Jerome...

  8. A red-cockaded woodpecker group with two simultaneous nest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; James M. McCormick; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2001-01-01

    During a study of red cockaded woodpecker (P icoides borealis) nesting in eastern Texas, we discovered a single breeding pair of woodpeckers with two simultaneous nests in nest trees that were 24 m apart. Incubation of eggs in each nest tree was at least 13 d and may have been as long as 16 d. The breeding male incubated and fed a nestling in one...

  9. Dynamics of Woodpecker – Common Starling interactions: a comparison of Old World and New World species and populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Jerome A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Woodpecker species whose cavities are most usurped by Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris are widespread and generalists in their use of habitats. These include primarily woodpeckers that are similar in size to or slightly larger than the starling - such as the Great-spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major of Eurasia and the Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus and Red-bellied (Melanerpes carolinus and Red-headed (M. erythrocephalus Woodpeckers of North America. Usurpation occurs primarily in human-dominated urban, suburban and exurban habitats with pastures, sports fields and other open areas that serve as prime feeding habitats for starlings. Starlings prefer high, more exposed cavities with a minimal entrance diameter relative to their body size. Usurpation success depends on timing - optimally just as a cavity is completed and before egg-laying by the woodpeckers. Starlings likely reduce woodpecker populations in more open, human-dominated habitats. Woodpecker habitat losses and fragmentation are more serious problems that enhance habitat quality for starlings and reduce habitat quality for most woodpeckers. The only woodpeckers that might become in danger of extinction as a primary result of starling cavity usurpation are likely island species with small populations. Conservation of rare species limited to islands, such as Fernandina’s Flicker (Colaptes fernandinae of Cuba, may depend on our ability to prevent the establishment of the Common Starling or other aggressive cavity competitors on their island.

  10. Difference on cone size preferences between two coniferous species by Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylewski, Łukasz; Yosef, Reuven; Myczko, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The number of species that specialize in pre-dispersal seed predation is relatively small. Examples of specialized pre-dispersal seed predators adapted to feeding on closed cones include vertebrate species like Crossbills, Squirrels, Nutcrackers and Woodpeckers. Seed predation selects against certain phenotypic features of cones and favors another phenotypic features. In this study, we document preferences of the Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) for specific traits in the cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We found that the Great Spotted Woodpecker prefers to feed on medium sized Norway spruce cones. The results suggest a disruptive selection that favors the extreme cone lengths in Norway spruce. In Scots pine, the woodpeckers avoided cones with large apophyses. Further, the selectivity for the specific characteristics of the cones is probably related to the configuration of the anvil, a place at which woodpeckers extract seeds from the cones. We think that the Great Spotted Woodpecker preferences in relation to the morphological characteristics of cones are a key to the design of the anvil in order to maximize the use of it as a tool for processing cones of both the Norway spruce and the Scots pine.

  11. Intra-annual variation in habitat choice by an endemic woodpecker: Implications for forest management and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-del-Rey, Eduardo; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Muñoz, Pascual Gil

    2009-09-01

    The Canary Islands great spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos major canariensis is an endemic bird restricted to the Pinus canariensis forests of Tenerife and Gran Canaria. Classification tree models were applied to explore the relationship of the occurrence of this picid and habitat variables between two contrasting periods (breeding vs. non-breeding seasons) and for the entire annual cycle. During the reproductive period the availability of mature trees (DBH > 60 cm), and snags (dead trees), for nesting and roosting, characterize the breeding territory. Outside the breeding season the choice of locations was driven by a tree cover larger than 28.5% and the presence of trees taller than 8.5 m on average, a pattern explained by the availability of pine seeds in the cones of well-developed canopies, and less so by predation risk. Overall, during the annual cycle, well-developed canopy sites influenced the presence of this picidae (tree cover > 38%) and on more open sites ( 60 cm) became the second most important predictor of occurrence. We suggest that food abundance and availability could be the ultimate factor explaining the intra-annual variation observed, with the availability of snags being an important factor during nesting. In the range of this endemic, we recommend selective cuts in pine plantations, to allow the trees to set seed and improve their crops, minimizing the elimination of snags, and killing some large pine trees if the priority is to expand the distributional range of the woodpecker.

  12. Effector identification in the lettuce downy mildew Bremia lactucae by massively parallel transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassen, Joost H M; Seidl, Michael F; Vergeer, Pim W J; Nijman, Isaäc J; Snel, Berend; Cuppen, Edwin; Van den Ackerveken, Guido

    2012-09-01

    Lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) is a rapidly adapting oomycete pathogen affecting commercial lettuce cultivation. Oomycetes are known to use a diverse arsenal of secreted proteins (effectors) to manipulate their hosts. Two classes of effector are known to be translocated by the host: the RXLRs and Crinklers. To gain insight into the repertoire of effectors used by B. lactucae to manipulate its host, we performed massively parallel sequencing of cDNA derived from B. lactucae spores and infected lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedlings. From over 2.3 million 454 GS FLX reads, 59 618 contigs were assembled representing both plant and pathogen transcripts. Of these, 19 663 contigs were determined to be of B. lactucae origin as they matched pathogen genome sequences (SOLiD) that were obtained from >270 million reads of spore-derived genomic DNA. After correction of cDNA sequencing errors with SOLiD data, translation into protein models and filtering, 16 372 protein models remained, 1023 of which were predicted to be secreted. This secretome included elicitins, necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1-like proteins, glucanase inhibitors and lectins, and was enriched in cysteine-rich proteins. Candidate host-translocated effectors included 78 protein models with RXLR effector features. In addition, we found indications for an unknown number of Crinkler-like sequences. Similarity clustering of secreted proteins revealed additional effector candidates. We provide a first look at the transcriptome of B. lactucae and its encoded effector arsenal.

  13. Effects of soil amendments on germination and emergence of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) and Hilaria jamesii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, J.; Sherrod, S.K.; Miller, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    Downy brome is an introduced Mediterranean annual grass that now dominates millions of hectares of western U.S. rangelands. The presence of this grass has eliminated many native species and accelerated wildfire cycles. The objective of this study was to identify soil additives that allowed germination but inhibited emergence of downy brome, while not affecting germination or emergence of the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii. On the basis of data from previous studies, we focused on additives that altered the availability of soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). Most water-soluble treatments inhibited downy brome germination and emergence. We attribute the inhibitory effects of these treatments to excessive salinity and ion-specific effects of the additives themselves. An exception to this was oxalic acid, which showed no effect. Most water-insoluble treatments had no effect in soils with high P but did have an effect in soils with low P. Zeolite was effective regardless of P level, probably due to the high amounts of Na+ it added to the soil solution. Most treatments at higher concentrations resulted in lower downy brome emergence rates in soils currently dominated by downy brome than in uninvaded (but theoretically invadable) Hilaria soils. This difference is possibly attributable to inherent differences in labile soil P. In Stifa soils, where Stipa spp. grow, but which are generally considered to be uninvadable by downy brome, additions of high amounts of N resulted in lower emergence. This may have been an effect of NH4+ interference with uptake of K or other cations or toxicity of high N. We also saw a positive relationship between downy brome emergence and pH in Stipa soils. Hilaria development parameters were not as susceptible to the treatments, regardless of concentration, as downy brome. Our results suggest that there are additions that may be effective management tools for inhibiting downy brome in calcareous soils, including (1

  14. Genetic investigation of the nonhost resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to lettuce downy mildew, Bremia lactucae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, den E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a devastating foliar disease causing high losses in lettuce cultivation. The wild lettuce and nonhost species, Lactuca saligna, is absolute resistant to downy mildew and cross-fertile with L. sativa, albeit with

  15. Real-time PCR and spore trap-based detection of the downy mildew pathogen, Peronospora effusa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peronospora effusa is an obligate pathogen and the causal agent of downy mildew on spinach. The pathogen can be dispersed by splashing rain and wind, and may overwinter as oospores. Outbreaks of downy mildew on spinach are common in the cool climate of central coastal California, including the Sal...

  16. Southern pine beetle-induced mortality of pines with natural and artificial red-cockaded woodpecker cavities in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Robert N. Coulson

    1998-01-01

    Southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) infestation is the major cause of mortality for red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees in loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pines. Recent intensive management for red-cockaded woodpeckers includes the use of artificial cavity inserts. Between 1991 and 1996 the authors examined southern...

  17. The winter and spring habitat suitability of black woodpecker (Dryocopusmartius in ShastKalateh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Karimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the ecological characteristics of wildlife species and determination of habitat suitability for them is one of the main pillars for wildlife management and protection. In this study, the winter and spring habitat suitability of black woodpecker (Dryocopusmartius was studied in ShastKalateh forest. Habitat characteristics, including forest vegetationtype, structural characteristics of vegetation and topographic parameters together with presence and absence of woodpeckers were recorded within each of 103 sampling plots with a radius of 25 m. The Results of binary logistic regression showed that forest vegetation type, the number of snags, fallen dead trees and trees with height more than 20 m together with habitat elevation (a.s.l. were the most important parameters affecting the presence of black woodpecker in spring. Moreover, forest vegetation type, the number of snags, trees with height more than 20 m and trees with dbh more than 20 cm together with the elevation (a.s.l. and slope of habitat were the most important parameters affecting the presence of black woodpecker in winter. The results indicated that this bird species prefers old forest habitats composed with tall and thick trees specially beech trees. Due to high dependency of species such as black woodpecker on the old and undisturbed forest habitats, controlling severe exploitation of such habitats is therefore essential for the conservation of such bird species.

  18. Genetic characterization of quantitative resistance to Bremia lactucae, the causal organism of lettuce downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most valuable vegetable crops in the United States. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Bremia lactucae, is the most important foliar disease of lettuce worldwide, which decreases the quality of the marketable portion of the crop. The use of resistant varieties carryi...

  19. Genetic dissection of nonhost resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to downy mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, N.

    2008-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew is the most destructive disease in lettuce (Lactuca spp.) cultivation and is caused by Bremia lactucae. The successful cross between its host L. sativa and the nonhost, L. saligna, and offers a rare chance to study the genetics of the nonhost resistance. From a set of 29 Backcro

  20. Effector identification in the lettuce downy mildew Bremia lactucae by massively parallel transcriptome sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stassen, J.H.; Seidl, M.F.; Vergeer, P.W.; Nijman, I.J.; Snel, B.; Cuppen, E.; van den Ackerveken, G.

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) is a rapidly adapting oomycete pathogen affecting commercial lettuce cultivation. Oomycetes are known to use a diverse arsenal of secreted proteins (effectors) to manipulate their hosts. Two classes of effector are known to be translocated by the host: the

  1. Downy mildew on coleus (Plectranthus scutellarioides) caused by Peronospora belbahrii sensu lato in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleus (Plectranthus scutellarioides [syn. = Solenostemon scutellarioides]) is a popular ornamental plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae), prized for its colorful and showy foliage. In August 2015, disease symptoms typical of downy mildew were observed at two sites in Nashville, Tennessee: (i) at the...

  2. Effector identification in the lettuce downy mildew Bremia lactucae by massively parallel transcriptome sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stassen, J.H.; Seidl, M.F.; Vergeer, P.W.; Nijman, I.J.; Snel, B.; Cuppen, E.; van den Ackerveken, G.

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) is a rapidly adapting oomycete pathogen affecting commercial lettuce cultivation. Oomycetes are known to use a diverse arsenal of secreted proteins (effectors) to manipulate their hosts. Two classes of effector are known to be translocated by the host: the RXLR

  3. Identification of breeding signatures in grapevine hybrids, donors of resistances against downy and powdery mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezzulli, S.; Peressotti, E.; Banchi, E.; Dolzani, C.; Micheli, S.; Stefanini, M.; Salamini, F.; Velasco, R.; Riaz, S.; Walker, M.A.; Reisch, B.I.; De Weg, Van W.E.; Bink, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most valuable crops in the world, but has been often plagued by encountering new parasites that still represent a major constraint, such as downy (DM) and powdery (PM) mildew. Nowadays, growers are still obliged to recur to a massive use of pesticides t

  4. Identification of breeding signatures in grapevine hybrids, donors of resistances against downy and powdery mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezzulli, S.; Peressotti, E.; Banchi, E.; Dolzani, C.; Micheli, S.; Stefanini, M.; Salamini, F.; Velasco, R.; Riaz, S.; Walker, M.A.; Reisch, B.I.; De Weg, Van W.E.; Bink, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most valuable crops in the world, but has been often plagued by encountering new parasites that still represent a major constraint, such as downy (DM) and powdery (PM) mildew. Nowadays, growers are still obliged to recur to a massive use of pesticides

  5. Assessing the vulnerability of sorghum converted lines to anthracnose and downy mildew infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 59 converted sorghum lines and six checks were evaluated for resistance to two foliar fungal diseases, anthracnose and downy mildew (SDM) in 2008 and 2009 growing seasons at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research Farm, College Station, Texas. In 2008, 23 lines exhibited resistance (35%), 29 sus...

  6. Association of RGA-SSCP markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantasawat, P A; Poolsawat, O; Prajongjai, T; Chaowiset, W; Tharapreuksapong, A

    2012-07-02

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) are two major diseases that severely affect most grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars grown commercially in Thailand. Progress of conventional breeding programs of grapevine for improved resistance to these diseases can be speeded up by selection of molecular markers associated with resistance traits. We evaluated the association between 13 resistance gene analog (RGA)-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in 71 segregating progenies of seven cross combinations between susceptible cultivars and resistant lines. F(1) hybrids from each cross were assessed for resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose (isolates Nk4-1 and Rc2-1) under laboratory conditions. Association of resistance traits with RGA-SSCP markers was evaluated using simple linear regression analysis. Three RGA-SSCP markers were found to be significantly correlated with anthracnose resistance, whereas significant correlation with downy mildew resistance was observed for only one RGA-SSCP marker. These results demonstrate the usefulness of RGA-SSCP markers. Four candidate markers with significant associations to resistance to these two major diseases of grapevine were identified. However, these putative associations between markers and resistance need to be verified with larger segregating populations before they can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  7. Process-based management approaches for salt desert shrublands dominated by downy brome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy brome grass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion has severely altered key ecological processes such as disturbance regimes, soil nutrient cycling, community assembly, and successional pathways in semi-arid Great Basin salt desert shrublands. Restoring the structure and function of these severly alte...

  8. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-05-01

    ABSTRACT. Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior of and use of cavities byRed-headedWoodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus). Using backpack harnesses, we attached 2.1-g transmitter packages that averaged 3.1% of body weight (range = 2.5–3.6%) to Red-headed Woodpeckers. We observed both radio-tagged (N = 23) and nonradio-tagged (N = 28) woodpeckers and determined the percentage of time spent engaged in each of five behaviors: flight, foraging, perching, preening, and territorial behavior. We found no difference between the two groups in the percentage of time engaged in each behavior. In addition, we found that transmitters had no apparent effect on use of cavities for roosting by radio-tagged woodpeckers (N = 25).We conclude that backpack transmitters weighing less than 3.6% of body weight had no impact on either their behavior or their ability to use cavities.

  9. Experimental evidence of a symbiosis between red-cockaded woodpeckers and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel L. Lindner; Mark T. Banik; Kevin R. Rose; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2016-01-01

    Primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers, are ecosystem engineers in many systems. Associations between cavity excavators and fungi have long been hypothesized to facilitate cavity excavation, but these relationships have not been experimentally verified. Fungi may help excavators by softening wood, while excavators may facilitate fungal dispersal. Here we...

  10. Effects of southern flying squirrels Glaucomys volans on red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin S. Laves; Susan C. Loeb

    1999-01-01

    Anecdotal data gathered from many populations suggest that southern flying squirrel (SFS, Glaucomys volans) use of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker's (RCW, Picoides borealis) nest and roost cavities may negatively affect RCW populations. The authors conducted a controlled experiment to determine the effects of SFS’s on...

  11. Influence of ecosystem restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers on breeding bird and small mammal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. Masters; Christopher W. Wilson; Douglas S. Cram; George A. Bukenhofer; Robert L. Lochmiller

    2002-01-01

    Shortleaf pine-bluestem (Pinus echinata Mill.- Andropogon spp.) restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) has been underway for more than 2 decades on the Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas. Restoration efforts consist of modifying stand structure to basal areas similar to presettlement times...

  12. Relationships among red-cockaded woodpecker group density, nestling provisioning rates, and habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz; Clifford E. Shackelford

    1999-01-01

    We examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) food provisioning rates of nestlings during the 1992 and 1993 breeding seasons on the Vernon Ranger District of the Kisatchie National Forest in Louisiana. Provisioning rates were monitored at nest trees in moderate (9.8 groups/2 km radius, n=10) and low (5.9 groups/2 km radius, n=10) density...

  13. Red-cockaded woodpecker population trends and management on Texas national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1994-01-01

    Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population trends and concurrent management on four national forests in eastern Texas were evaluated from 1983 through 1993. Following years of decline, populations stabilized and began to increase after intensive management efforts were initiated. Management activities included control of hardwood midstory and understory,...

  14. Initial and long-term use of inserts by red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Richard N. Conner; Christopher S. Collins; D. Craig Rudolph

    2001-01-01

    Artificial cavities have become a standard management technique for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis). Seventy cavity inserts were installed in our study sites on the Angelina National Forest in eastern Texas from 1990 to 1995. Eighty-two percent of the inserts were used for at least one year. It is still too early to make a direct...

  15. Does the availability of artificial cavities affect cavity excavation rates in red-cockaded woodpeckers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer

    2002-01-01

    Rates of cavity excavation by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) were examined from 1983 to 1999 on the Angelina National Forest in east Texas. We compared the rare of natural cavity excavation between 1983 and 1990 (before artificial cavities were available) with the rate of cavity excavation between 1992 and 1993, a period when...

  16. Losses of red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees to southern pine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1995-01-01

    Over an 1 l-year period (1983-1993), we examined the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) infestation rate of single Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees on the Angelina National Forest in Texas. Southern pine beetles infested and killed 38 cavity trees during this period. Typically, within each cavity tree cluster, beetles infested only...

  17. Red-cockaded woodpecker nestling provisioning and reproduction in two different pine habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    We obtained nestling provisioning and rcpntductive data from 24 Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) groups occupying two different pine habitats-longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and a mixture of loblolly (P. taeda) and shortleaf pine (P. echinata)--in eastern Texas during 1990 and 1901....

  18. Macro- and microscopic leaf characteristics of six grapevine genotypes (Vitis spp.) with different susceptibilities to grapevine downy mildew

    OpenAIRE

    Boso Alonso, Susana; Alonso-Villaverde Iglesias, Virginia; Santiago Blanco, José Luis; Gago Montaña, Pilar; Dürrenberger, M.; Düggelin, M.; Kassemeyer, H. H.; Martínez Rodríguez, María del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This work reports the leaf morphology of six grapevine genotypes, five belonging to Vitis vinifera and one to Vitis riparia. Earlier studies on these genotypes showed different levels of susceptibility to grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). The aim of this work was to detect differences between the leaf morphology of these cultivars at the macro- and microscopic levels, and to characterize morphological traits which could be associated with susceptibility and resistance to downy ...

  19. Correlations between the contents of phytic acid and inorganic phosphorous and downy mildew resistance of corn inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Pantipa Na Chiangmai*; Phrutiya Nilprapruck; Warapon Bunkoed; Phakatip Yodmingkhwan; Chokechai Aekatasanawan; Mana Kanjanamaneesathian

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of corn inbred lines collected at the National Corn and Sorghum Research Center (NCSRC), Kasetsart University, were analyzed to determine the contents of phytic acid (PA) and inorganic phosphorous (InP). These 28 and 29 inbred lines were cultivated at the NCSRC (in the 2008 late rainy season and 2009 early rainy season) to evaluate their resistance to corn downy mildew caused by Peronosclerospora sorghi. Results showed that the values of the PA, InP contents and downy mildew...

  20. Biogeography and diversification dynamics of the African woodpeckers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc; Bowie, Rauri C K

    2017-03-01

    The dynamics of species accumulation of African terrestrial vertebrates over time remains underexplored in comparison with those in the New World, despite Africa hosting about 25% of the world's avian diversity. This lack of knowledge hampers our understanding of the fundamental processes that drive biodiversity and the dynamics of speciation. To begin to address this gap, we reconstructed species-level phylogenies of two unrelated clades of African woodpeckers (12 species of Geocolaptes/Campethera and 13 species of Chloropicus/Mesopicos/Dendropicos/Ipophilus) that diverged from their closest Indo-Malayan relatives at similar times. Our results demonstrate that the current taxonomy is misleading: three (Campethera, Dendropicos and Mesopicos) out of four polytpic genera/subgenera are not monophyletic. Our results also show that current estimates of diversity at the species level are significantly understated, as up to 18 species for the 'Campethera clade' and 19 for the 'Dendropicos clade' could be recognized. The first splits within both clades involve species that are largely restricted to the Guineo-Congolian biogeographic regions, followed by later adaptations to particular habitats (forest versus savannah) and colonization of other regions (e.g. Southern Africa), each of which occurred multiple times in both clades. Assuming a conservative species delimitation scheme, our results indicate that diversification rates are decreasing through time for both clades. Applying a more extreme species recognition scheme (18 and 19 species for the Campethera and Dendropicos clades, respectively), our results support a decrease in diversification rates only for the Dendropicos clade and thus underline the importance of the number of species included in our diversification analyses. Greater ecological diversity of the Campethera clade where multiple species exhibit either an arboreal or terrestrial foraging strategy might explain the constant diversification rates through

  1. Red-cockaded woodpecker colony status and trends on the Angelina, Davy Crockett and Sabine national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1989-01-01

    Abundant hardwood midstory, colony isolation, and habitat fragmentation are believed to be the causes for severe population declines of red-cockaded woodpeckers on three national forests in eastern Texas.

  2. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaotao; Jiang, Yuping; Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  3. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Ding

    Full Text Available Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  4. Isolation and evaluation of proteolytic actinomycete isolates as novel inducers of pearl millet downy mildew disease protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Kurjogi, Mahantesh; Govind, Sharathchandra Ramasandra; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Basappa, Vedamurthy Ankala; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    Native endophytic actinomycetes isolated from pearl millet roots were examined for their efficacy to protect pearl millet against downy mildew. Nineteen of 39 isolates were found to be proteolytic, of which 7 strains could directly suppress the sporangium formation of Sclerospora graminicola, the pearl millet downy mildew pathogen. Thus, mycelial suspensions containing either spores or cell-free extract of these 7 isolates were used for seed-coating and -soaking treatments to test for their induction of downy mildew resistance. Results indicated that seed-coating overall provided better protection to downy mildew than seed-soaking. In both treatments, the tested isolates demonstrated differential abilities in downy mildew disease protection, with Streptomyces griseus SJ_UOM-07-09 and Streptosporangium roseum SJ_UOM-18-09 showing the highest protection rates. Additionally, the levels of disease protection conferred by the actinomycetes were just slightly lower than that of the systemic fungicide Apron, suggesting their effectiveness. Further studies revealed that the more rapid root colonization by SJ_UOM-18-09 resulted in faster and higher induced resistance in comparison with SJ_UOM-07-09 under greenhouse conditions, indicating that SJ_UOM-18-09 was superior than SJ_UOM-07-09 in inducing resistance. Results from this study provide comprehensive information on biocontrol functions of SJ_UOM- 18-09 with great potential to control downy mildew disease in pearl millet. PMID:27499196

  5. Systematic review of the influence of foraging habitat on red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, James E. [North Carolina State University

    2014-04-01

    Relationships between foraging habitat and reproductive success provide compelling evidence of the contribution of specific vegetative features to foraging habitat quality, a potentially limiting factor for many animal populations. For example, foraging habitat quality likely will gain importance in the recovery of the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis (RCW) in the USA as immediate nesting constraints are mitigated. Several researchers have characterized resource selection by foraging RCWs, but emerging research linking reproductive success (e.g. clutch size, nestling and fledgling production, and group size) and foraging habitat features has yet to be synthesized. Therefore, we reviewed peer-refereed scientific literature and technical resources (e.g. books, symposia proceedings, and technical reports) that examined RCW foraging ecology, foraging habitat, or demography to evaluate evidence for effects of the key foraging habitat features described in the species’ recovery plan on group reproductive success. Fitness-based habitat models suggest foraging habitat with low to intermediate pine Pinus spp. densities, presence of large and old pines, minimal midstory development, and herbaceous groundcover support more productive RCW groups. However, the relationships between some foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success are not well supported by empirical data. In addition, few regression models account for > 30% of variation in reproductive success, and unstandardized multiple and simple linear regression coefficient estimates typically range from -0.100 to 0.100, suggesting ancillary variables and perhaps indirect mechanisms influence reproductive success. These findings suggest additional research is needed to address uncertainty in relationships between foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success and in the mechanisms underlying those relationships.

  6. A Risk-Based Approach to Evaluating Wildlife Demographics for Management in a Changing Climate: A Case Study of the Lewis's Woodpecker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towler, Erin; Saab, Victoria A.; Sojda, Richard S.; Dickinson, Katherine; Bruyère, Cindy L.; Newlon, Karen R.

    2012-12-01

    Given the projected threat that climate change poses to biodiversity, the need for proactive response efforts is clear. However, integrating uncertain climate change information into conservation planning is challenging, and more explicit guidance is needed. To this end, this article provides a specific example of how a risk-based approach can be used to incorporate a species' response to climate into conservation decisions. This is shown by taking advantage of species' response (i.e., impact) models that have been developed for a well-studied bird species of conservation concern. Specifically, we examine the current and potential impact of climate on nest survival of the Lewis's Woodpecker ( Melanerpes lewis) in two different habitats. To address climate uncertainty, climate scenarios are developed by manipulating historical weather observations to create ensembles (i.e., multiple sequences of daily weather) that reflect historical variability and potential climate change. These ensembles allow for a probabilistic evaluation of the risk posed to Lewis's Woodpecker nest survival and are used in two demographic analyses. First, the relative value of each habitat is compared in terms of nest survival, and second, the likelihood of exceeding a critical population threshold is examined. By embedding the analyses in a risk framework, we show how management choices can be made to be commensurate with a defined level of acceptable risk. The results can be used to inform habitat prioritization and are discussed in the context of an economic framework for evaluating trade-offs between management alternatives.

  7. Rapid Staining Method to Detect and Identify Downy Mildew (Peronospora belbahrii in Basil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfina R. Koroch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Demand for fresh-market sweet basil continues to increase, but in 2009 a new pathogen emerged, threatening commercial field/greenhouse production and leading to high crop losses. This study describes a simple and effective staining method for rapid microscopic detection of basil downy mildew (Peronospora belbahrii from leaves of basil (Ocimum basilicum. Methods and Results: Fresh leaf sections infected with P. belbahrii were placed on a microscope slide, cleared with Visikol™, and stained with iodine solution followed by one drop of 70% sulfuric acid. Cell walls of the pathogen were stained with a distinct coloration, providing a high-contrast image between the pathogen and plant. Conclusions: This new staining method can be used successfully to identify downy mildew in basil, which then can significantly reduce its spread if identified early, coupled with mitigation strategies. This technique can facilitate the control of the disease, without expensive and specialized equipment.

  8. Genetic dissection of nonhost resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to downy mildew

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, N.

    2008-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew is the most destructive disease in lettuce (Lactuca spp.) cultivation and is caused by Bremia lactucae. The successful cross between its host L. sativa and the nonhost, L. saligna, and offers a rare chance to study the genetics of the nonhost resistance. From a set of 29 Backcross Inbred Lines (BILs) representing in total 96% of the L. saligna genome, 15 introgressions were identified to contribute to this resistance at one to four tested lettuce developmental stages and ...

  9. rDNA-ITS sequence analysis of pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na WANG; Yajun MA; Cuiyun YANG; Guanghui DAI; Zhezhi WANG

    2008-01-01

    To determine the pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew by molecular marker,we amplified and sequenced the rDNA-ITS region of the pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew collected from the Shanghai region.The intra-/interspecific sequence difference was analyzed by rDNA-ITS sequence.The results show that the length of rDNA-ITS1 and rDNA-ITS2 of cucumber downy mildew's pathogen was 141 bp and 406 bp,respectively,with GC contents of 41.13% in ITS1 and 46.8% (Minhang and Jinshan District,sml and sm2) or 46.55% (Pudong District,sm3) in ITS2.The rDNA-ITS sequence was intraspecific conservation.The interspecific difference was related with their kin relationship.The pathogen of cucumber downy mildew was identified as Pseudoperonospora cubensis by molecular marker.The length of rDNA-ITS1 and rDNA-ITS2 of cucumber powdery mildew's pathogen was 136 bp and 89 bp,respectively,with GC contents being 59.56% and 66.29%,and rDNA-ITS sequence being highly conservative in this study that was the same as Sphaerotheca cucurbitae.But the sequence difference between the strains in the Shanghai region in this study with S.fuliginea was 4.5%,which was identified by morphology.It is suggested that the pathogen of cucumber powdery mildew should be further clarified and determined.

  10. Daytime Solar Heating Controls Downy Mildew Peronospora belbahrii in Sweet Basil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigal Cohen

    Full Text Available The biotrophic oomycete Peronospora belbahrii causes a devastating downy mildew disease in sweet basil. Due to the lack of resistant cultivars current control measures rely heavily on fungicides. However, resistance to fungicides and strict regulation on their deployment greatly restrict their use. Here we report on a 'green' method to control this disease. Growth chamber studies showed that P. belbahrii could hardly withstand exposure to high temperatures; exposure of spores, infected leaves, or infected plants to 35-45 °C for 6-9 hours suppressed its survival. Therefore, daytime solar heating was employed in the field to control the downy mildew disease it causes in basil. Covering growth houses of sweet basil already infected with downy mildew with transparent infra-red-impermeable, transparent polyethylene sheets raised the daily maximal temperature during sunny hours by 11-22 °C reaching 40-58 °C (greenhouse effect. Such coverage, applied for a few hours during 1-3 consecutive days, had a detrimental effect on the survival of P. belbahrii: killing the pathogen and/or suppressing disease progress while enhancing growth of the host basil plants.

  11. Daytime Solar Heating Controls Downy Mildew Peronospora belbahrii in Sweet Basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E

    2015-01-01

    The biotrophic oomycete Peronospora belbahrii causes a devastating downy mildew disease in sweet basil. Due to the lack of resistant cultivars current control measures rely heavily on fungicides. However, resistance to fungicides and strict regulation on their deployment greatly restrict their use. Here we report on a 'green' method to control this disease. Growth chamber studies showed that P. belbahrii could hardly withstand exposure to high temperatures; exposure of spores, infected leaves, or infected plants to 35-45 °C for 6-9 hours suppressed its survival. Therefore, daytime solar heating was employed in the field to control the downy mildew disease it causes in basil. Covering growth houses of sweet basil already infected with downy mildew with transparent infra-red-impermeable, transparent polyethylene sheets raised the daily maximal temperature during sunny hours by 11-22 °C reaching 40-58 °C (greenhouse effect). Such coverage, applied for a few hours during 1-3 consecutive days, had a detrimental effect on the survival of P. belbahrii: killing the pathogen and/or suppressing disease progress while enhancing growth of the host basil plants.

  12. Specific In Planta Recognition of Two GKLR Proteins of the Downy Mildew Bremia lactucae Revealed in a Large Effector Screen in Lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stassen, J.H.M.; Boer, den E.; Vergeer, P.W.J.; Andel, A.; Ellendorff, U.; Pelgrom, K.T.B.; Pel, M.; Schut, J.; Zonneveld, O.; Jeuken, M.J.W.; Ackerveken, van den G.

    2013-01-01

    Breeding lettuce (Lactuca sativa) for resistance to the downy mildew pathogen Bremia lactucae is mainly achieved by introgression of dominant downy mildew resistance (Dm) genes. New Bremia races quickly render Dm genes ineffective, possibly by mutation of recognized host-translocated effectors or by

  13. Genetics and mapping of a novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl18, introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower downy mildew is considered to be the most destructive foliar disease that has spread to every major sunflower-growing country of the world, except Australia. A new dominant downy mildew resistance gene (Pl18) transferred from wild Helianthus argophyllus (PI 494573) into cultivated sunflowe...

  14. Relationship of Course Woody Debris to Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Prey Diversity and Abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, G.S.

    1999-09-03

    The abundance of diversity of prey commonly used by the red-cockaded woodpecker were monitored in experimental plots in which course woody debris was manipulated. In one treatment, all the woody debris over four inches was removed. In the second treatment, the natural amount of mortality remained intact. The overall diversity of prey was unaffected; however, wood roaches were significantly reduced by removal of woody debris. The latter suggests that intensive utilizations or harvesting practices may reduce foraging.

  15. Red-cockaded woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinus spp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in contrast to earlier foraging behavior studies that focused on more mature forest. The Redcockaded Woodpecker at the Savannah River site is intensively managed including monitoring, translocation, and installation of artificial cavity inserts for roosting and nesting. Over a 3-year period, 6,407 foraging observations covering seven woodpecker family groups were recorded during all seasons of the year and all times of day. The most striking differences occurred in foraging method (males usually scaled [45% of observations] and females mostly probed [47%]),substrate used (females had a stronger preference [93%] for the trunk than males [79%]), and foraging height from the ground (mean 6 SE foraging height was higher for males [11.1 6 0.5 m] than females [9.8 6 0.5 m]). Niche overlap between males and females was lowest for substrate (85.6%) and foraging height (87.8%), and highest for tree species (99.0%), tree condition (98.3%), and tree height (96.4%). Both males and females preferred to forage in older, large pine trees. The habitat available at the Savannah River Site was considerably younger than at most other locations, but the pattern of male/female habitat partitioning observed was similar to that documented elsewhere within the range attesting to the species’ ability to adjust behaviorally.

  16. Habitat Requirements of Breeding Black-Backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus in Managed, Unburned Boreal Forest

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    Junior A. Tremblay

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated home-range characteristics and habitat selection by Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus in an unburned, boreal forest landscape managed by mosaic harvesting in Quebec, Canada. Habitat selection by this species was specifically examined to determine home-range establishment and foraging activities. We hypothesized that Black-backed Woodpeckers would respond to harvesting by adjusting their home-range size as a function of the amount of dead wood available. Twenty-two birds were tracked using radiotelemetry, and reliable estimates of home-range size were obtained for seven breeding individuals (six males and one female. The average home-range size was 151.5 ± 18.8 ha (range: 100.4-256.4 ha. Our results indicate that this species establishes home ranges in areas where both open and forested habitats are available. However, during foraging activities, individuals preferentially selected areas dominated by old coniferous stands. The study also showed that the spatial distribution of preferred foraging habitat patches influenced space use, with home-range area increasing with the median distance between old coniferous habitat patches available within the landscape. Finally, these data show that Black-backed Woodpeckers may successfully breed in an unburned forest with at least 35 m3 • ha-1 of dead wood, of which 42% (15 m3 • ha-1 is represented by dead wood at the early decay stage.

  17. The Potential for Long-Term Sustainability in Seminatural Forestry: A Broad Perspective Based on Woodpecker Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõhmus, Asko; Nellis, Renno; Pullerits, Mirjam; Leivits, Meelis

    2016-03-01

    We assessed ecological sustainability of seminatural forestry by analyzing 80-year dynamics and the current distribution of all woodpecker species in Estonia. We found that, despite the clear-cutting-based forestry system, woodpeckers inhabited commercial seminatural forests in substantial numbers, including the species generally considered vulnerable to timber harvesting. The only negative trend, a drastic decline in the Green Woodpecker, paralleled the loss of seminatural, wooded grasslands and is mostly an issue for landscape planning and agricultural land use. Major silvicultural factors supporting other species in commercial forests include natural regeneration with multiple native tree species and deadwood abundance. In such context, the main role of protected areas is to provide ecological resilience; however, we estimated that the current strict reserves could further double their carrying capacities for woodpeckers through successional recovery and, perhaps, active restoration. The long time series used were instrumental in detecting unexpected dynamics and the impacts of climatically extreme years. We conclude that (1) seminatural forestry can serve as a basis for reconciling timber harvesting and biodiversity protection at the landscape scale, given appropriate attention to key structures and landscape zoning and (2) woodpeckers represent a biological indicator system for the sustainability of forest landscapes in Europe.

  18. Foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; King, Sammy L.; Kaller, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    In bottomland hardwood forests, partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife like Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Neotropical migrants. Although partial cutting may be beneficial to some species, those that use dead wood may be negatively affected since large diameter and poor quality trees (deformed, moribund, or dead) are rare, but normally targeted for removal. On the other hand, partial cutting can create dead wood if logging slash is left on-site. We studied foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in one- and two-year-old partial cuts designed to benefit priority species and in uncut forest during winter, spring, and summer of 2006 and 2007 in Louisiana. Males and females did not differ in their use of tree species, dbh class, decay class, foraging height, use of foraging tactics or substrate types; however, males foraged on larger substrates than females. In both partial cut and uncut forest, standing live trees were most frequently used (83% compared to 14% for standing dead trees and 3% for coarse woody debris); however, dead trees were selected (i.e. used out of proportion to availability). Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) and bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) were also selected and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) avoided. Pileated woodpeckers selected trees >= 50 cm dbh and avoided trees in smaller dbh classes (10-20 cm). Density of selected foraging substrates was the same in partial cut and uncut forest. Of the foraging substrates, woodpeckers spent 54% of foraging time on live branches and boles, 37% on dead branches and boles, and 9% on vines. Of the foraging tactics, the highest proportion of foraging time was spent excavating (58%), followed by pecking (14%), gleaning (14%), scaling (7%), berry-eating (4%), and probing (3%). Woodpecker use of foraging tactics and substrates, and foraging height and substrate

  19. Correlations between the contents of phytic acid and inorganic phosphorous and downy mildew resistance of corn inbred lines

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    Pantipa Na Chiangmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of corn inbred lines collected at the National Corn and Sorghum Research Center (NCSRC, Kasetsart University, were analyzed to determine the contents of phytic acid (PA and inorganic phosphorous (InP. These 28 and 29 inbred lines were cultivated at the NCSRC (in the 2008 late rainy season and 2009 early rainy season to evaluate their resistance to corn downy mildew caused by Peronosclerospora sorghi. Results showed that the values of the PA, InP contents and downy mildew infection were statistically different among these inbred lines in both seasons. However, there were no correlations between the contents of either PA or InP and downy mildew infection.

  20. The relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population genetic variation in the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Douglas J; Wiegand, Thorsten; Fernández, Néstor

    2010-09-01

    The relative influence of habitat loss, fragmentation and matrix heterogeneity on the viability of populations is a critical area of conservation research that remains unresolved. Using simulation modelling, we provide an analysis of the influence both patch size and patch isolation have on abundance, effective population size (N(e)) and F(ST). An individual-based, spatially explicit population model based on 15 years of field work on the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) was applied to different landscape configurations. The variation in landscape patterns was summarized using spatial statistics based on O-ring statistics. By regressing demographic and genetics attributes that emerged across the landscape treatments against proportion of total habitat and O-ring statistics, we show that O-ring statistics provide an explicit link between population processes, habitat area, and critical thresholds of fragmentation that affect those processes. Spatial distances among land cover classes that affect biological processes translated into critical scales at which the measures of landscape structure correlated best with genetic indices. Therefore our study infers pattern from process, which contrasts with past studies of landscape genetics. We found that population genetic structure was more strongly affected by fragmentation than population size, which suggests that examining only population size may limit recognition of fragmentation effects that erode genetic variation. If effective population size is used to set recovery goals for endangered species, then habitat fragmentation effects may be sufficiently strong to prevent evaluation of recovery based on the ratio of census:effective population size alone.

  1. Simple sequence repeat markers useful for sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi and related species

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    Odvody Gary N

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent outbreak of sorghum downy mildew in Texas has led to the discovery of both metalaxyl resistance and a new pathotype in the causal organism, Peronosclerospora sorghi. These observations and the difficulty in resolving among phylogenetically related downy mildew pathogens dramatically point out the need for simply scored markers in order to differentiate among isolates and species, and to study the population structure within these obligate oomycetes. Here we present the initial results from the use of a biotin capture method to discover, clone and develop PCR primers that permit the use of simple sequence repeats (microsatellites to detect differences at the DNA level. Results Among the 55 primers pairs designed from clones from pathotype 3 of P. sorghi, 36 flanked microsatellite loci containing simple repeats, including 28 (55% with dinucleotide repeats and 6 (11% with trinucleotide repeats. A total of 22 microsatellites with CA/AC or GT/TG repeats were the most abundant (40% and GA/AG or CT/TC types contribute 15% in our collection. When used to amplify DNA from 19 isolates from P. sorghi, as well as from 5 related species that cause downy mildew on other hosts, the number of different bands detected for each SSR primer pair using a LI-COR- DNA Analyzer ranged from two to eight. Successful cross-amplification for 12 primer pairs studied in detail using DNA from downy mildews that attack maize (P. maydis & P. philippinensis, sugar cane (P. sacchari, pearl millet (Sclerospora graminicola and rose (Peronospora sparsa indicate that the flanking regions are conserved in all these species. A total of 15 SSR amplicons unique to P. philippinensis (one of the potential threats to US maize production were detected, and these have potential for development of diagnostic tests. A total of 260 alleles were obtained using 54 microsatellites primer combinations, with an average of 4.8 polymorphic markers per SSR across 34

  2. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the black hills, South Dakota.

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    Christopher T Rota

    Full Text Available Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.

  3. The Role of Wildfire, Prescribed Fire, and Mountain Pine Beetle Infestations on the Population Dynamics of Black-Backed Woodpeckers in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Christopher T.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Rumble, Mark A.; Lehman, Chad P.; Kesler, Dylan C.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire. PMID:24736502

  4. Using next-generation sequencing to develop molecular diagnostics for Pseudoperonospora cubensis, the cucurbit downy mildew pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) allow for rapid development of genomics resources needed to generate molecular diagnostics assays for infectious agents. NGS approaches are particularly helpful for organisms that cannot be cultured, such as the downy mildew pathogens, a group of biotrop...

  5. Resistance to downy mildew in lettuce ‘La Brillante’ is conferred by dm50 gene and multiple QTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are susceptible to downy mildew, a nearly globally ubiquitous disease caused by Bremia lactucae. We previously determined that Batavia type cultivar La Brillante has a high level of field resistance to the disease in California. Testing of a mapping popu...

  6. Elicitation of resistance and associated defense responses in Trichoderma hamatum induced protection against pearl millet downy mildew pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddaiah, Chandra Nayaka; Satyanarayana, Niranjan Raj; Mudili, Venkataramana; Kumar Gupta, Vijai; Gurunathan, Selvakumar; Rangappa, Shobith; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic Trichoderma hamatum UoM 13 isolated from pearl millet roots was evaluated for its efficiency to suppress downy mildew disease. Under laboratory conditions, T. hamatum seed treatment significantly enhanced pearl millet seed germination and seedling vigor. T. hamatum seed treatment resulted in systemic and durable immunity against pearl millet downy mildew disease under greenhouse and field conditions. T. hamatum treated seedlings responded to downy mildew infection with high lignification and callose deposition. Analysis of defense enzymes showed that T. hamatum treatment significantly enhanced the activities of glucanase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase in comparison to untreated control. RT-PCR analysis revealed differentially expressed transcripts of the defense enzymes and PR-proteins in treated, untreated, and checks, wherein PR-1, PR-5, and cell wall defense HRGPs were significantly over expressed in treated seedlings as against their lower expression in controls. T. hamatum treatment significantly stimulated endogenous salicylic acid (SA) levels and significantly upregulated important SA biosynthesis gene isochorismate synthase. The results indicated that T. hamatum UoM13 treatment induces resistance corresponding to significant over expression of endogenous SA, important defense enzymes, PR-proteins, and HRGPs, suggesting that SA biosynthetic pathway is involved in pearl millet for mounting systemic immunity against downy mildew pathogen. PMID:28322224

  7. Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum L. and Broadleaf Weed Control in Winter Wheat with Acetolactate Synthase-Inhibiting Herbicides

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    Patrick W. Geier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted for three seasons in northwest Kansas, USA to evaluate acetolactate synthase (ALS-inhibiting herbicides for downy brome (Bromus tectorum L. and winter annual broadleaf weed control in winter wheat. Herbicides included pyroxsulam at 18.4 g ai ha−1, propoxycarbazone-Na at 44 g ai ha−1, premixed propoxycarbazone-Na & mesosulfuron-methyl at 27 g ai ha−1, and sulfosulfuron at 35 g ai ha−1. The herbicides were applied postemergence in fall and spring seasons. Averaged over time of application, no herbicide controlled downy brome more than 78% in any year. When downy brome densities were high, control was less than 60%. Pyroxsulam controlled downy brome greater than or similar to other herbicides tested. Flixweed (Descurainia sophia L., blue mustard [Chorispora tenella (Pallas DC.], and henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L. control did not differ among herbicide treatments. All herbicides tested controlled flixweed and blue mustard at least 87% and 94%, respectively. However, none of the herbicides controlled henbit more than 73%. Fall herbicide applications improved weed control compared to early spring applications; improvement ranged from 3% to 31% depending on the weed species. Henbit control was greatly decreased by delaying herbicide applications until spring compared to fall applications (49% vs. 80% control. Herbicide injury was observed in only two instances. The injury was ≤13% with no difference between herbicides and the injury did not impact final plant height or grain yield.

  8. Pl17 is a novel gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

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    Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berl. et de Toni, is one of the serious sunflower diseases in the world due to its high virulence and the variability of the pathogen. DM resistance in the USDA inbred line, HA 458, has been shown to be effective against all virulent races of...

  9. Extracts of Inula viscosa Control Downy Mildew of Grapes Caused by Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yigal; Wang, Wenqiao; Ben-Daniel, Bat-Hen; Ben-Daniel, Yigal

    2006-04-01

    ABSTRACT The oily paste extracts of Inula viscosa leaves made with organic solvents were effective in controlling downy mildew caused by Plasmopara viticola in detached leaf tissues of grapes in growth chambers. Thin-layer chromatography of such extracts revealed the presence of 11 Rf regions of which four contained highly effective compounds against the disease. Two major inhibitory compounds, each comprising 10.6% of the total paste weight, were identified as tomentosin and costic acid. An emulsified concentrate formulation of the oily paste extracts provided excellent activity against the disease in the field. The effective dose (concentration) required for 90% control of the disease in treated shoots in the field was below 0.125% (paste in water). No seasonal fluctuations were observed in the control efficacy of six extracts made from I. viscosa leaves harvested during the period of May to July. In whole vines, treated and artificially inoculated, the paste concentration required for 90% control of the disease ranged between 0.30 to 0.37%, whereas in naturally infected vines it was 0.58%. It appears that I. viscosa is a valuable source for fungicidal preparations against downy mildew of grapes. This is the first report on the control of a disease with I. viscosa extracts under field conditions.

  10. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Downy Mildew Resistance-Related cDNA Sequences in Melon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Melon downy mildew caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis leads to significant losses in melon yields worldwide.Reverse-transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using cDNAs as templates from melonHuangdanzi induced with fungus Pseudoperonospora cubensis, and degenerate primers designed based on the conserved amino acid sequences of known plant disease-resistance genes. A polymorphic cDNA fragment which we named mp-19was cloned and sequenced. The Open Reading Frame (ORF) of this product comprised of 510 base pairs which encodes DNA or RNA-binding protein with 170 amino acids. The putative amino acid sequence of mp-19 appeared highly homologous with those of NBS-type resistant-genes isolated from other plants. Southern blot indicated that the melon genome contained more than 3 copies of mp-19. The obvious expression differences detected by semi-quantitative RTPCR could be observed between resistant-line Huangdanzi and susceptible-line Jiashi after Pseudoperonospora cubensis infection, which implied that mp-19 gene may be related to the resistance of downy mildew in melon.

  11. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF S3 MAIZE GENOTYPES RESISTANT TO DOWNY MILDEW BASED ON SSR MARKERS

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    Amran Muis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The compulsory requirement for releasing new high yielding maize varieties is resistance to downy mildew. The study aimed to determine the level of homozygosity, genetic diversity, and  genetic distance of 30 S3 genotypes of maize. Number of primers to be used were 30 polymorphic SSR loci which are distributed over the entire maize genomes. The S3 genotypes used were resistant to downy mildew with homozygosity level of >80%, genetic distance between the test and tester strains >0.7, and anthesis silking interval (ASI between inbred lines and tester lines was maximum 3 days. The results showed that 30 SSR primers used were spread evenly across the maize genomes which were manifested in the representation of SSR loci on each chromosome of a total of 10 chromosomes. The levels of polymorphism ranged from 0.13 to 0.78, an average of 0.51, and the number of alleles ranged from 2 to 8 alleles per SSR locus, an average of 4 alleles per SSR locus. The size of nucleotides in each locus also varied from 70 to 553 bp. Cophenetic correlation value (r at 0.67 indicated that the Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA was less reliable for differentiating genotypes in five groups. Of the total of 30 genotypes analyzed, 17 genotypes had homozygosity level of >80% so it can be included in the hybrid assembly program.

  12. Morphological and molecular characterization of the causal agent of downy mildew on Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Danielsen, Solveig; Lübeck, Mette; Hong, Seung-Beom; Delhey, Rolf; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2010-05-01

    Downy mildew is an economically important and widespread disease in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) growing areas. Although in many studies Peronospora farinosa is most commonly regarded as the causal agent of the disease, identification and classification of the pathogen remain still uncertain due to its taxonomic confusion. Thirty-six Peronospora isolates from quinoa with different geographic origins including Argentina, Bolivia, Denmark, Ecuador, and Peru were morphologically and molecularly compared with Peronospora species from other Chenopodium species. The morphology of three herbarium specimens was similar to that of P. variabilis, which originated from C. album, characterized by flexuous to curved ultimate branchlets and pedicellated conidia. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS rDNA sequences also placed the quinoa pathogen within the same clade as P. variabilis. Within the ITS rDNA sequences of the quinoa pathogens, two base substitutions were found, which separated the majority of the Danish isolates from isolates from South America, but no sequence difference was found among the isolates from different cultivars of quinoa. The present results indicate that the pathogen responsible for the quinoa downy mildew is identical to Peronospora variabilis and that it should not be lumped with P. farinosa as claimed previously by most studies.

  13. Transcriptome and Small RNAome Dynamics during a Resistant and Susceptible Interaction between Cucumber and Downy Mildew

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    Alyssa Burkhardt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber ( L. downy mildew, caused by the obligate oomycete pathogen (Berk. and Curt. Rostov., is the primary factor limiting cucumber production. Although sources of resistance have been identified, such as plant introduction line PI 197088, the genes and processes involved in mediating resistance are still unknown. In the current study, we conducted a comprehensive transcriptome and small RNAome analysis of a resistant (PI 197088 and susceptible (‘Vlaspik’ cucumber during a time course of infection using Illumina sequencing. We identified significantly differentially expressed (DE genes within and between resistant and susceptible cucumber leaves over a time course of infection. Weighted gene correlation network analyses (WGCNA created coexpression modules containing genes with unique expression patterns between Vlaspik and PI 197088. Recurring data trends indicated that resistance to cucumber downy mildew is associated with earlier response to the pathogen, hormone signaling, and regulation of nutrient supply. Candidate resistance genes were identified from multiple transcriptome analyses and literature support. Additionally, parallel sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs from cucumber and during the infection time course was used to identify and quantify novel and existing microRNA (miRNA in both species. Predicted miRNA targets of cucumber transcripts suggest a complex interconnectedness of gene expression regulation in this plant–pathogen system. This work bioinformatically uncovered gene expression patterns involved in the mediation of or response to resistance. Herein, we provide the foundation for future work to validate candidate resistance genes and miRNA-based regulation proposed in this study.

  14. Habitat Preference of Great-Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major Linnaeus, 1758 and Lesser-Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos minor Linnaeus, 1758 in the Presence of Invasive Plant Species - Preliminary Study

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    Ónodi Gábor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in Hungary, in an old, unmanaged, riparian poplar-willow forest, where two invasive tree species, the green ash and the boxelder maple are presented and reproduce more effectively therefore are more abundant than the native species in the study area. There are also invasive hybrid wild grapes to be found. These invasive plants cause widespread problems in floodplain forests in Central Europe. We studied Great-spotted and Lesser-spotted Woodpeckers. We investigated the following questions: Which tree species are preferred by the foraging birds? How are the foraging birds distributed spatially between the microhabitats? Are there any differences in terms of foraging niche utilization between the two studied species? We gathered our data through weekly standard observations throughout two whole years. Based on our findings we could determine that both species preferred the less abundant native trees rather than the invasive ash and maple trees, though Lesser-spotted Woodpeckers preferred hybrid wild grapes the most. Great-spotted Woodpeckers preferred the middle heights of the trees, they also moved mainly on trunks. Lesser-spotted Woodpeckers used the thinnest branches in the canopy. Based on our results we predict that the decrease of the native tree species may create a suboptimal habitat compared to the current situation. As the studied species are the major cavity excavators, the above mentioned changes will probably have significant effects on numerous cavity dependent species.

  15. Downy mildew resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum T39 in susceptible grapevines partially mimics transcriptional changes of resistant genotypes

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    Perazzolli Michele

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola, is one of the most severe diseases of grapevine and is commonly controlled by fungicide treatments. The beneficial microorganism Trichoderma harzianum T39 (T39 can induce resistance to downy mildew, although the molecular events associated with this process have not yet been elucidated in grapevine. A next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq approach was used to study global transcriptional changes associated with resistance induced by T39 in Vitis vinifera Pinot Noir leaves. The long-term aim was to develop strategies to optimize the use of this agent for downy mildew control. Results More than 14.8 million paired-end reads were obtained for each biological replicate of T39-treated and control leaf samples collected before and 24 h after P. viticola inoculation. RNA-Seq analysis resulted in the identification of 7,024 differentially expressed genes, highlighting the complex transcriptional reprogramming of grapevine leaves during resistance induction and in response to pathogen inoculation. Our data show that T39 has a dual effect: it directly modulates genes related to the microbial recognition machinery, and it enhances the expression of defence-related processes after pathogen inoculation. Whereas several genes were commonly affected by P. viticola in control and T39-treated plants, opposing modulation of genes related to responses to stress and protein metabolism was found. T39-induced resistance partially inhibited some disease-related processes and specifically activated defence responses after P. viticola inoculation, causing a significant reduction of downy mildew symptoms. Conclusions The global transcriptional analysis revealed that defence processes known to be implicated in the reaction of resistant genotypes to downy mildew were partially activated by T39-induced resistance in susceptible grapevines. Genes identified in this work are an important source of markers

  16. Is a "hands-off" approach appropriate for red-cockaded woodpecker conservation in twenty-first-century landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; R. Todd Engstrom

    2001-01-01

    The endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is well adapted to fire-maintained pine ecosystems of the Southeastern United States. Management practices vary greatly among land ownerships. In some wilderness areas and state parks, a "no management" policy has eliminated use of prescribed fire, artificial cavities, and...

  17. Red-cockaded woodpeckers and silvicultural practice: is uneven-aged silviculture preferable to even-aged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner

    1996-01-01

    The endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) has become a high-profile management issue in the southeastern United States. Suitable habitat consists of mature to old pine, or mixed pine-hardwood forest, with minimal hardwood midstory vegetation. Loss of habitat, detrimental silvicultural practices, and changes in the fire regime have...

  18. A bark-shaving technique to deter rat snakes from climbing red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner

    1999-01-01

    We developed a bark-shaving technique to deter rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) from climbing red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) trees as an aesthetically pleasing, more cost-effective, and safer alternative to other snake excluder devices. We used a drawknife to carefully shave the bark around the circumference of 4 treatment trees in a l-m-wide band to...

  19. Seasonal diet of the Great Spotted Woodpecker (Picoides major) in shelterwood plantations of Wulate Qianqi County, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Zhen-biao; WAN Tao; WEN Jun-bao; HU Jia-fu; LUO You-qing; FU Lin-ju; Zhang Lin-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The feeding habits of the Great Spotted Woodpecker (Picoides major) were surveyed by field observations and trace checking from 2005 to 2007, in Wulate Qianqi County, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, during which the woodpecker performed fourteen types of foraging techniques. Pecking and hammering were most common in winter; gleaning and probing were most common at times of high food availability at the trunk and tree branches during the breeding season and in summer. The woodpecker gleans arthropods and insect larvae in the breeding season and summer, seeds and nuts mainly in the winter and pokes holes for sap-sucking in winter. The main diet consisted of arthropods and plant seeds. The diet was significantly different between seasons. The Great Spotted Woodpecker primarily consumes defoliators and the food on tree trunks from March to October. The contribution of wood borers to the diet was higher in winter, lower in the breeding season and summer. The proportion of the food on ground was small in the breeding season and high in the Summer and winter.

  20. A new classification of the Pied Woodpeckers assemblage (Dendropicini, Picidae) based on a comprehensive multi-locus phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc

    2015-07-01

    The pied woodpecker assemblage historically included the widespread genera Picoides and Dendrocopos. The assignment of species to either of these two genera has for long puzzled systematists due to their overall plumage similarity. Recent molecular studies not only suggested that both of these genera are not monophyletic, but also that four other genera, the African Dendropicos the South American Veniliornis and two Asian monospecific genera (Hypopicus and Sapheopipo) are nested within the Dendrocopos-Picoides clade. Yet, our current understanding of the phylogeny and taxonomy of this group is still very partial because several distinctive Old World species that have been assigned to different genera throughout their taxonomic history have not been sampled yet. Here, using DNA sequence data gathered from four loci, we reconstructed a species level phylogeny of the Indo-Malayan and Palearctic Pied Woodpeckers to understand the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of the Eurasian species with respect to African and New World lineages. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed nine strongly supported clades within the Dendropicini. Noticeably, two species that had disputed affinities at the genus level clustered in clades with species from the same biogeographical region: the Brown-backed Woodpecker (D. obsoletus) is nested in Dendropicos and the Arabian Woodpecker (D. dorae) is related to two Eurasian species, the Brown-fronted (D. auriceps) and Middle-spotted woodpeckers (D. medius). The nine clades have a strong biogeographic component and very few dispersal event among bioregions occurred. For example, the African species formed a clade, suggesting that only one dispersal event is needed to explain the presence of Dendropicini in Africa. Based on our phylogenetic results, we propose a new classification of the Dendropicini that recognizes nine genera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Breakdown of resistance to grapevine downy mildew upon limited deployment of a resistant variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellin Diana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural disease resistance is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of controlling plant disease. Breeding programmes need to make sure that the resistance deployed is effective and durable. Grapevine downy mildew, caused by the Oomycete Plasmopara viticola, affects viticulture and it is controlled with pesticides. Downy mildew resistant grapevine varieties are a promising strategy to control the disease, but their use is currently restricted to very limited acreages. The arising of resistance-breaking isolates under such restricted deployment of resistant varieties would provide valuable information to design breeding strategies for the deployment of resistance genes over large acreages whilst reducing the risks of the resistance being defeated. The observation of heavy downy mildew symptoms on a plant of the resistant variety Bianca, whose resistance is conferred by a major gene, provided us with a putative example of emergence of a resistance-breaking isolate in the interaction between grapevine and P. viticola. Results In this paper we describe the emergence of a P. viticola isolate (isolate SL that specifically overcomes Rpv3, the major resistance gene carried by Bianca at chromosome 18. We show that isolate SL has the same behaviour as two P. viticola isolates avirulent on Bianca (isolates SC and SU when inoculated on susceptible plants or on resistant plants carrying resistances derived from other sources, suggesting there is no fitness cost associated to the virulence. Molecular analysis shows that all three isolates are genetically closely related. Conclusions Our results are the first description of a resistance-breaking isolate in the grapevine/P. viticola interaction, and show that, despite the reduced genetic variability of P. viticola in Europe compared to its basin of origin and the restricted use of natural resistance in European viticulture, resistance-breaking isolates overcoming monogenic

  2. Use of suppression subtractive hybridization to identify downy mildew genes expressed during infection of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner-Eddy, Peter D; Allen, Rebecca L; Rehmany, Anne P; Birch, Paul; Beynon, Jim L

    2003-11-01

    SUMMARY Peronospora parasitica is an obligate biotrophic oomycete that causes downy mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species. Our goal is to identify P. parasitica (At) genes that are involved in pathogenicity. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to generate cDNA libraries enriched for in planta-expressed parasite genes and up-regulated host genes. A total of 1345 clones were sequenced representing cDNA fragments from 25 putative P. parasitica (At) genes (Ppat 1-25) and 618 Arabidopsis genes. Analyses of expression patterns showed that 15 Ppats were expressed only in planta. Eleven Ppats encoded peptides with homology (BlastP values planta-expressed genes from P. parasitica (At) that complements other gene discovery approaches such as EST sequencing.

  3. Genetic dissection of sex determinism, inflorescence morphology and downy mildew resistance in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerit, Elisa; Boury, Christophe; Manicki, Aurélie; Donnart, Martine; Butterlin, Gisèle; Némorin, Alice; Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Sabine; Merdinoglu, Didier; Ollat, Nathalie; Decroocq, Stéphane

    2009-05-01

    A genetic linkage map of grapevine was constructed using a pseudo-testcross strategy based upon 138 individuals derived from a cross of Vitis vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon x Vitis riparia Gloire de Montpellier. A total of 212 DNA markers including 199 single sequence repeats (SSRs), 11 single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs) and two morphological markers were mapped onto 19 linkage groups (LG) which covered 1,249 cM with an average of 6.7 cM between markers. The position of SSR loci in the maps presented here is consistent with the genome sequence. Quantitative traits loci (QTLs) for several traits of inflorescence and flower morphology, and downy mildew resistance were investigated. Two novel QTLs for downy mildew resistance were mapped on linkage groups 9 and 12, they explain 26.0-34.4 and 28.9-31.5% of total variance, respectively. QTLs for inflorescence morphology with a large effect (14-70% of total variance explained) were detected close to the Sex locus on LG 2. The gene of the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, involved in melon male organ development and located in the confidence interval of all QTLs detected on the LG 2, could be considered as a putative candidate gene for the control of sexual traits in grapevine. Co-localisations were found between four QTLs, detected on linkage groups 1, 14, 17 and 18, and the position of the floral organ development genes GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE1, FRUITFULL, LEAFY and AGAMOUS. Our results demonstrate that the sex determinism locus also determines both flower and inflorescence morphological traits.

  4. Polygalacturonase-inhibitor proteins in pearl millet: possible involvement in resistance against downy mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Ashok Prabhu; K. Ramachandra Kini; S. Niranjan Raj; Bruno M. Moerschbacher; H. S. Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibitor protein (PGIP) is a defense protein found in plant cell walls.It prevents the degradation of pectin by modulating the endo-polygalacturonase activity.The present study has used heterologous antibean PGIP probes to investigate the role of PGIP in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L) R.Br.] resistance against downy mildew caused by oomycete pathogen Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) Schroet.Northern blot analysis using bean pgip2 DNA fragment as probe showed an early and marked induction of transcripts (~1.2 kb) upon pathogen-inoculation in pearl millet cultivar resistant to downy mildew,with the maximum level observed at 24 and 48 h post-inoculation (h.p.i.).Western blot analysis of pearl millet total cell wall proteins using antibodies against bean PGIP showed the presence of a major band of ~43 kDa,and several minor ones.The protein accumulation was higher in resistant seedlings than in susceptible seedlings with a differential expression observed only in the case of incompatible interaction.lmmunocytochemical localization in epidermal peelings of coleoptiles and tissue-printing showed a similar trend in the PGIP accumulation.PGIP was found to localize in the epidermal as well as in the vascular regions of tissues.Higher accumulation was observed in the stomatal guard cells of resistant cultivar inoculated with the pathogen.PGIP activity of pearl millet total protein extracts when assayed against Aspergillus niger PG displayed differential PG inhibitory activities between the resistant and suceptible cultivars with resistant sample showing the highest inhibition of 16%,post-pathogen treatment.Thus,PGIP appeared to be an important player in pearl millet-S,graminicola interaction leading to host resistance.

  5. Nitric oxide donor seed priming enhances defense responses and induces resistance against pearl millet downy mildew disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manjunatha, G.; Raj, S. Niranjan; Shetty, Nandini Prasad

    2008-01-01

    , a structural analog of NO donor lacking NO moiety failed to protect the pearl millet plants from downy mildew indicating a role for NO in induced host resistance. Spatio-temporal studies corroborated that the protection offered by NO donor treatment was systemic in nature and a minimum of 3-day time gap...... experiments with NO donors showed no adverse effect either on the host or pathogen. Aqueous SNP seed treatment with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) priming was the most effective in inducing the host resistance against downy mildew both under greenhouse and field conditions. Potassium Ferrocyanide...... between the inducer treatment and subsequent pathogen inoculation was necessary for maximum resistance development. Disease protection ability of NO donors was also validated as durable in nature. Conversely, prior-treatment with NO scavenger 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5 tetrazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium...

  6. Impact of major gene resistance management for sunflower on fitness of Plasmopara halstedii (downy mildew populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourvieille de Labrouhe Denis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in virulence of Plasmopara halstedii populations under different major gene (Pl management strategies were studied over 5 years continuous cropping of one sunflower hybrid under netting cages. Strategies were monoculture of forms of the hybrid with 1 gene or with combinations of 2 genes, alternation of different genes, and mixtures of several different forms of the hybrid. Monoculture with single resistance genes led to loss of efficient resistance after 3 years, with high levels of disease and increased variability of the pathogen, whatever the Pl gene used. Combinations of genes, alternation and mixtures gave longer term control of downy mildew. In particular, combinations of resistance genes coming from both female and male parents of the hybrid (such that even impurities had a resistance gene gave the best control and least variation in pathogen virulence. Results are discussed with the object of durable control of downy mildew by all methods available.

  7. High dilutions of Sulphur and relationship with the onion thrips, downy mildew incidence and yield of onion in organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antonio de Souza Gonçalves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate high dilutions of Sulphur on the incidence of onion thrips, downy mildew, chlorophyll content and yield of onion under organic production system. The study was carried out at Ituporanga Experiment Station of Epagri, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, from August to December of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Treatments were foliar sprays of 0.5% Sulphur at high dilutions 6, 12 and 30 CH (CH, hahnemannian centesimal scale and untreated plot as control check. The experimental design was a randomized block design with four replications. The incidence and damage of onion thrips, reduction of the severity of downy mildew, chlorophyll index, total and commercial yield, bulb weight, postharvest conservation were not influenced by the treatments.

  8. Quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Kaszewska, Katarzyna

    2014-03-01

    The paper contains a review of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae). Three new species are described: Picobia mentalis Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Picus mentalis Temminck, Neopicobia ea Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Celeus flavus (St. Mueller) (type host), C. elegans (St. Mueller), C. torquatus (Boddaert), and Neopicobia freya Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Dryocopus galeatus (Temminck) (type host) and Piculus rubiginosus (Swainson). Additionally, six new host species for Picobia heeri Haller, 1878 and 12 new host species for Picobia dryobatis (Fritsch, 1956) are reported. A complete list of the picobiines parasitising birds of the family Picidae is presented in the tabular form.

  9. Molecular phylogenetics, vocalizations, and species limits in Celeus woodpeckers (Aves: Picidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Brett W; Robbins, Mark B

    2011-10-01

    Species limits and the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped diversification of woodpeckers and allies (Picidae) remain obscure, as inter and intraspecific phylogenetic relationships have yet to be comprehensively resolved for most genera. Herein, we analyzed 5020 base pairs of nucleotide sequence data from the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Celeus woodpeckers. Broad geographic sampling was employed to assess species limits in phenotypically variable lineages and provide a first look at the evolution of song and plumage traits in this poorly known Neotropical genus. Our results strongly support the monophyly of Celeus and reveal several novel relationships across a shallow phylogenetic topology. We confirm the close sister relationship between Celeus spectabilis and the enigmatic Celeus obrieni, both of which form a clade with Celeus flavus. The Mesoamerican Celeus castaneus was placed as sister to a Celeus undatus-grammicus lineage, with the species status of the latter drawn into question given the lack of substantial genetic, morphological, and vocal variation in these taxa. We recovered paraphyly in Celeus elegans; however, this result appears to be the consequence of mitochondrial introgression from Celeus lugubris considering the monophyly of elegans at the ß-FIBI7 locus. A second instance of paraphyly was observed in Celeus flavescens with deep genetic splits and substantial phenotypic variation indicating the presence of two distinct species in this broadly distributed lineage. As such, we advocate elevation of Celeus flavescens ochraceus to species status. Our analysis of Celeus vocalizations and plumage characters demonstrates a pattern of lability consistent with a relatively recent origin of the genus and potentially rapid speciation history.

  10. Trading Habitat Patches for the Red Cockaded Woodpecker: Incorporating the Role of Landscape Structure and Uncertainty in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-11

    home range size as 80.2 ha based on 23 territories on MCBCL by analyzing the movement data using the Animal Movement Analysis extension in ArcView...importance of control populations for the identification and management of genetic diversity. Genetica 110: 109-115. Bruggeman, D. J., M. L. Jones, F. Lupi...Cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis populations. Journal of Animal Ecology 71: 710-721. Stanford Environmnental Law Society. 2001. The

  11. Development and dissection of diagnostic SNP markers for the downy mildew resistance genes PlArg and Pl8 and maker-assisted gene pyramiding in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy mildew, which is caused by fungus Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berlese & de Toni, is one of the most important diseases that affect sunflower production globally. Two downy mildew resistance genes, PlArg and Pl8, were discovered in the late 1980s. Over two decades, PlArg is still effective aga...

  12. Incidence of downy mildew Plasmopara viticola (Berk. et Curtis ex. de Bary Berl. et de Toni in Terceira island, Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Zorman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Downy mildew is one of the most economically important disease affecting vine production in Terceira island, Azores. By its incidence, frequency and quantity of pathogens, supported with favourable temperate humid climate conditions, this disease is difficult to control in terms of sustainable integrated plant protection policy. The objectives of INTERFRUTA project were to determine the incidence of the disease, to better understand it and to adopt an adequate forecasting model with necessary adjustments to predict the disease appearance and its in-time integrated plant protection control measures. Plasmopara viticola was directly observed in two weeks time periods on seven representative vineyards at different altitudes. Three of the monitored plots were established during study inside one plantation. Incidence was registered as result of visual symptoms in percentage, where 10% of plants in each vineyard were observed. Seasonal evolution of the disease was studied in one of the wine producing area.O Míldio é uma das doenças que mais afecta a vinha, na ilha Terceira, Açores. É uma doença fúngica de difícil controlo, pela sua incidência e frequência de aparecimento. Os objectivos do projecto INTERFRUTA II foram determinar a incidência desta doença para melhorar o conhecimento sobre esta e adoptar e validar um modelo matemático adequado à previsão do aparecimento da doença de modo a permitir a aplicação de medidas de protecção integrada. A evolução do míldio foi acompanhada em sete parcelas de vinha, da área vitivinícola dos Biscoitos, através da observação visual de folhas. Numa das parcelas, três dos talhões não foram tratados para servirem de controlo. Em cada parcela foram observadas 10% das plantas, tendo sido registada a percentagem de plantas com sintomas visuais da presença de míldio.

  13. Decay of genes encoding the oomycete flagellar proteome in the downy mildew Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard S Judelson

    Full Text Available Zoospores are central to the life cycles of most of the eukaryotic microbes known as oomycetes, but some genera have lost the ability to form these flagellated cells. In the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans, genes encoding 257 proteins associated with flagella were identified by comparative genomics. These included the main structural components of the axoneme and basal body, proteins involved in intraflagellar transport, regulatory proteins, enzymes for maintaining ATP levels, and others. Transcripts for over three-quarters of the genes were up-regulated during sporulation, and persisted to varying degrees in the pre-zoospore stage (sporangia and motile zoospores. Nearly all of these genes had orthologs in other eukaryotes that form flagella or cilia, but not species that lack the organelle. Orthologs of 211 of the genes were also absent from a sister taxon to P. infestans that lost the ability to form flagella, the downy mildew Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Many of the genes retained in H. arabidopsidis were also present in other non-flagellates, suggesting that they play roles both in flagella and other cellular processes. Remnants of the missing genes were often detected in the H. arabidopsidis genome. Degradation of the genes was associated with local compaction of the chromosome and a heightened propensity towards genome rearrangements, as such regions were less likely to share synteny with P. infestans.

  14. Research Progress of Induced Resistance to Cucumber Downy Mildew%黄瓜霜霉病诱导抗性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯丽琴; 李长松; 徐作珽; 李林; 齐军山; 张博; 杨革

    2012-01-01

    Cucumber downy mildew is a worldwide disease, and also an destructive disease in protected cucumber production. The disease spreads fast and has a great threat to cucumber production. In this paper, the research progress of inducer types to cucumber downy mildew, induced mechanism and relevant genes on downy mildew resistance were reviewed and summarized, and then the developing trend was prospected.%黄瓜霜霉病是一种世界性病害,也是保护地黄瓜生产上的一种毁灭性病害.本文概述了黄瓜霜霉病诱抗剂种类、诱抗机制、抗霜霉病相关基因等方面的研究进展,并对未来发展趋势提出了展望.

  15. Comparison of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker (Piciodes borealis) Nestling Diet in Old-Growth and Old-Field Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, J.L.; Engstrom, R.T.

    1999-10-01

    Automatic cameras were used to record adult woodpecker diets in old-growth and old-field longleaf pine in the South. Roaches were the number one prey for the woodpeckers based on either biomass or numbers. The latter ranged from 37% to 57% of the prey numbers and 55%-73% of the biomass. Morisita's index of similarity between old-field and old growth varied from 0.89 to 0.95. The authors conclude that the prey base is similar in both conditions and that old-growth provides similar foraging habitat.

  16. Uncertain sightings and the extinction of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solow, Andrew; Smith, Woollcott; Burgman, Mark; Rout, Tracy; Wintle, Brendan; Roberts, David

    2012-02-01

    The extinction of a species can be inferred from a record of its sightings. Existing methods for doing so assume that all sightings in the record are valid. Often, however, there are sightings of uncertain validity. To date, uncertain sightings have been treated in an ad hoc way, either excluding them from the record or including them as if they were certain. We developed a Bayesian method that formally accounts for such uncertain sightings. The method assumes that valid and invalid sightings follow independent Poisson processes and use noninformative prior distributions for the rate of valid sightings and for a measure of the quality of uncertain sightings. We applied the method to a recently published record of sightings of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis). This record covers the period 1897-2010 and contains 39 sightings classified as certain and 29 classified as uncertain. The Bayes factor in favor of extinction was 4.03, which constitutes substantial support for extinction. The posterior distribution of the time of extinction has 3 main modes in 1944, 1952, and 1988. The method can be applied to sighting records of other purportedly extinct species.

  17. Response of sorghum accessions from Chad and Uganda to natural infection by the downy mildew pathogen, Peronosclerospora sorghi in Mexico and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, 78 accessions from Chad, West Africa and 20 photoperiod insensitive accessions from Uganda, East Africa were evaluated for downy mildew resistance in Ocotlan, Mexico in 2004 and 2005. Ninety-four of these accessions were also evaluated at two locations in Wharton County, Texas, USA, ...

  18. Lactuca saligna, a non-host for lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae), harbors a new race-specific Dm gene and three QTL's for resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, M.J.W.; Lindhout, P.

    2002-01-01

    Lactuca sativa (lettuce) is susceptible to Bremia lactucae (downy mildew). In cultivated and wild Lactuca species, Dm genes have been identified that confer race-specific resistance. However, these genes were soon rendered ineffective by adaptation of the pathogen. Lactuca saligna (wild lettuce) is

  19. Screening exotic sorghum germplasm, hybrids and elite lines for resistance to a new virulent pathotype (P6) of Peronsclerospora sorghi causing downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent outbreak of sorghum downy mildew (SDM) in Texas has led to the discovery of both metalaxyl fungicide resistance and a new pathotype, P6, in the causal organism Peronsclerospora sorghi. New and alternate sources of the host plant resistance are needed for successful management of SDM. To i...

  20. Genetic signature of a range expansion and leap-frog event after the recent invasion of Europe by the grapevine downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine, Michael C.; Austerlitz, Frederic; Giraud, Tatiana; Labbe, Frederic; Papura, Daciana; Richard-Cervera, Sylvie; Delmotte, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Biologic invasions can have important ecological, economic and social consequences, particularly when they involve the introduction and spread of plant invasive pathogens, as they can threaten natural ecosystems and jeopardize the production of human food. Examples include the grapevine downy mildew

  1. Growth and Decline and Control Countermeasures of Grape Downy Mildew%葡萄霜霉病田间消长规律及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊义; 范咏梅; 姜新丽; 刘新智; 周泽容; 韩先旭

    2011-01-01

    [目的]调查研究葡萄霜霉病的田间流行动态,以期提出合理的用药时间和药剂种类.[方法]采用5点法对新疆北部昌吉市葡萄霜霉病的田间消长规律进行调查,采用叶盘法测定不同药剂对葡萄藉霉病菌的敏感性;采用生测法筛选葡萄霜霉病田间药剂.[结果]6-7月降雨量和降雨次数是导致北疆葡萄霜霉病流行的主要因子之一.霜疫必克、杜邦易保对葡萄霜霉病菌表现出较强的毒力,对葡萄霜霉病菌比较敏感,属一个敏感水平,杀毒矾次之,而甲霜灵对葡萄霜霉菌表现出极不敏感.通过两年对10种药剂的田间药效试验表明:在葡萄霜霉病发病期喷施安克、霜疫必克、杀毒矾,隔7d喷一次,连续喷2次,相对防效达61.59%-71.70%,比其它药剂防效明显.[结论]新疆昌吉葡萄霜霉病的发生危害程度与降雨日持续时间和雨量大小呈一定的相关性.安克、霜疫必克、杀毒矾三种杀菌剂具有良好控制病害蔓延效果,且属低毒农药,对葡萄安全,对环境污染小,值得推广应用.%[ Objective]ln this paper, Crape downy mildew epidemic dynamics were investigated in Xinjiang in order to provide reasonable treatment time and type of chemicals against the disease. [Method ] By 5 - point method, epidemic dynamic of grape downy mildew was investigated in Changji city in northem Xinjiang; using the leaf disc method , it was determined for the aensitivity of different fungicides to the pathogen of grape downy mildew; the fungicides which were sensitive to grape downy mildew were screened by bioassay. [ Result]ln June and July, the amount of precipitation is one major factor which led to the popular of grape downy mildew in northem Xinjiang. The fungicides (SYBK and DuPont) showed strong virulence to grape downy mildew pathogen , more sensitive to downy mildew of grape than other fungicides, such as Oxadixyl+ Mancozeb, and metalaxyl on grape downy mildew pathogen were very

  2. Occurrence and control of Wheat Downy Mildew%小麦霜霉病的发生与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦玉芬

    2013-01-01

    小麦霜霉病是一种以土壤传染为主的真菌病害,主要在苗期阶段侵染.在防治上我们通过采取以轮作、选种抗病品种、加强肥水管理和药剂拌种等综合防治措施,使其得到了有效控制.%The wheat downy mildew is a kind of fungi diseases which are mainly infected by soil and the wheat ismainly contaminated during seeding stage.In prevention,we mainly take comprehensive preventive health measures such as rotation,choosing disease-resistant seed,the enhancement the management of fertilizer and water,medicament mixed with seed etc to extend effective control.

  3. Toward the Identification of Two Glycoproteins Involved in the Stomatal Deregulation of Downy Mildew-Infected Grapevine Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillier, Christelle; Gamm, Magdalena; Lucchi, Géraldine; Truntzer, Caroline; Pecqueur, Delphine; Ducoroy, Patrick; Adrian, Marielle; Héloir, Marie-Claire

    2015-11-01

    Stomata remain abnormally opened and unresponsive to abscisic acid in grapevine leaves infected by downy mildew. This deregulation occurs from 3 days postinoculation and increases concomitantly with leaf colonization by the pathogen. Using epidermal peels, we demonstrated that the active compound involved in this deregulation is located in the apoplast. Biochemical assays showed that the active compound present in the apoplastic fluids isolated from Plasmopara viticola-infected grapevine leaves (IAF) is a CysCys bridge-independent, thermostable and glycosylated protein. Fractionation guided assays based on chromatography coupled to stomatal response and proteomic analysis allowed the identification of both plant and pathogen proteins in the active fraction obtained from IAF. Further in silico analysis and discriminant filtrations based on the comparison between predictions and experimental indications lead to the identification of two Vitis vinifera proteins as candidates for the observed stomatal deregulation.

  4. Resistance to Downy Mildew in Lettuce 'La Brillante' is Conferred by Dm50 Gene and Multiple QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Ivan; Ochoa, Oswaldo E; Pel, Mathieu A; Tsuchida, Cayla; Font I Forcada, Carolina; Hayes, Ryan J; Truco, Maria-Jose; Antonise, Rudie; Galeano, Carlos H; Michelmore, Richard W

    2015-09-01

    Many cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are susceptible to downy mildew, a nearly globally ubiquitous disease caused by Bremia lactucae. We previously determined that Batavia type cultivar 'La Brillante' has a high level of field resistance to the disease in California. Testing of a mapping population developed from a cross between 'Salinas 88' and La Brillante in multiple field and laboratory experiments revealed that at least five loci conferred resistance in La Brillante. The presence of a new dominant resistance gene (designated Dm50) that confers complete resistance to specific isolates was detected in laboratory tests of seedlings inoculated with multiple diverse isolates. Dm50 is located in the major resistance cluster on linkage group 2 that contains at least eight major, dominant Dm genes conferring resistance to downy mildew. However, this Dm gene is ineffective against the isolates of B. lactucae prevalent in the field in California and the Netherlands. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) located at the Dm50 chromosomal region (qDM2.2) was detected, though, when the amount of disease was evaluated a month before plants reached harvest maturity. Four additional QTL for resistance to B. lactucae were identified on linkage groups 4 (qDM4.1 and qDM4.2), 7 (qDM7.1), and 9 (qDM9.2). The largest effect was associated with qDM7.1 (up to 32.9% of the total phenotypic variance) that determined resistance in multiple field experiments. Markers identified in the present study will facilitate introduction of these resistance loci into commercial cultivars of lettuce.

  5. Historical introgression of the downy mildew resistance gene Rpv12 from the Asian species Vitis amurensis into grapevine varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Venuti

    Full Text Available The Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr. thrives naturally in cool climates of Northeast Asia. Resistance against the introduced pathogen Plasmopara viticola is common among wild ecotypes that were propagated from Manchuria into Chinese vineyards or collected by Soviet botanists in Siberia, and used for the introgression of resistance into wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.. A QTL analysis revealed a dominant gene Rpv12 that explained 79% of the phenotypic variance for downy mildew resistance and was inherited independently of other resistance genes. A Mendelian component of resistance-a hypersensitive response in leaves challenged with P. viticola-was mapped in an interval of 0.2 cM containing an array of coiled-coil NB-LRR genes on chromosome 14. We sequenced 10-kb genic regions in the Rpv12(+ haplotype and identified polymorphisms in 12 varieties of V. vinifera using next-generation sequencing. The combination of two SNPs in single-copy genes flanking the NB-LRR cluster distinguished the resistant haplotype from all others found in 200 accessions of V. vinifera, V. amurensis, and V. amurensis x V. vinifera crosses. The Rpv12(+ haplotype is shared by 15 varieties, the most ancestral of which are the century-old 'Zarja severa' and 'Michurinets'. Before this knowledge, the chromosome segment around Rpv12(+ became introgressed, shortened, and pyramided with another downy mildew resistance gene from North American grapevines (Rpv3 only by phenotypic selection. Rpv12(+ has an additive effect with Rpv3(+ to protect vines against natural infections, and confers foliar resistance to strains that are virulent on Rpv3(+ plants.

  6. Molecular detection of Peronospora variabilis in quinoa seed and phylogeny of the quinoa downy mildew pathogen in South America and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testen, Anna L; del Mar Jiménez-Gasco, María; Ochoa, José B; Backman, Paul A

    2014-04-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an important export of the Andean region, and its key disease is quinoa downy mildew, caused by Peronospora variabilis. P. variabilis oospores can be seedborne and rapid methods to detect seedborne P. variabilis have not been developed. In this research, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection method was developed to detect seedborne P. variabilis and a sequencing-based method was used to validate the PCR-based method. P. variabilis was detected in 31 of 33 quinoa seed lots using the PCR-based method and in 32 of 33 quinoa seed lots using the sequencing-based method. Thirty-one of the quinoa seed lots tested in this study were sold for human consumption, with seed originating from six different countries. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (COX2) phylogenies were examined to determine whether geographical differences occurred in P. variabilis populations originating from Ecuador, Bolivia, and the United States. No geographical differences were observed in the ITS-derived phylogeny but the COX2 phylogeny indicated that geographical differences existed between U.S. and South American samples. Both ITS and COX2 phylogenies supported the existence of a Peronospora sp., distinct from P. variabilis, that causes systemic-like downy mildew symptoms on quinoa in Ecuador. The results of these studies allow for a better understanding of P. variabilis populations in South America and identified a new causal agent for quinoa downy mildew. The PCR-based seed detection method allows for the development of P. variabilis-free quinoa seed, which may prove important for management of quinoa downy mildew.

  7. Fort Bragg and the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker: A Content Analysis of Selected Local Newspapers’ Coverage of Fort Bragg’s Endangered Species Protection Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    woodpecker species? 3) How did the amount and tone of coverage differ between Fort Bragg’s command information newspaper, the Paraglide , and the civilian...to Fort * Bragg and its potential to offer a sample of local newspaper articles not inspired by a prepared media release. The Paraglide , a weekly...newspapers yielded 15 stories (241 paragraphs, 15 headlines) from the Fort Bragg Paraglide , 37 stories (666 paragraphs, 36 headlines) from the

  8. Identification and characterization of potential NBS-encoding resistance genes and induction kinetics of a putative candidate gene associated with downy mildew resistance in Cucumis

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    Wan Hongjian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the variation and mutation of the races of Pseudoperonospora cubensis, downy mildew has in recent years become the most devastating leaf disease of cucumber worldwide. Novel resistance to downy mildew has been identified in the wild Cucumis species, C. hystrix Chakr. After the successful hybridization between C. hystrix and cultivated cucumber (C. sativus L., an introgression line (IL5211S was identified as highly resistant to downy mildew. Nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR genes are the largest class of disease resistance genes cloned from plant with highly conserved domains, which can be used to facilitate the isolation of candidate genes associated with downy mildew resistance in IL5211S. Results Degenerate primers that were designed based on the conserved motifs in the NBS domain of resistance (R proteins were used to isolate NBS-type sequences from IL5211S. A total of 28 sequences were identified and named as cucumber (C. sativus = CS resistance gene analogs as CSRGAs. Polygenetic analyses separated these sequences into four different classes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analysis showed that these CSRGAs expressed at different levels in leaves, roots, and stems. In addition, introgression from C. hystrix induced expression of the partial CSRGAs in cultivated cucumber, especially CSRGA23, increased four-fold when compared to the backcross parent CC3. Furthermore, the expression of CSRGA23 under P. cubensis infection and abiotic stresses was also analyzed at different time points. Results showed that the P. cubensis treatment and four tested abiotic stimuli, MeJA, SA, ABA, and H2O2, triggered a significant induction of CSRGA23 within 72 h of inoculation. The results indicate that CSRGA23 may play a critical role in protecting cucumber against P. cubensis through a signaling the pathway triggered by these molecules. Conclusions Four classes of NBS-type RGAs were

  9. Differential recognition of highly divergent downy mildew avirulence gene alleles by RPP1 resistance genes from two Arabidopsis lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmany, Anne P; Gordon, Anna; Rose, Laura E; Allen, Rebecca L; Armstrong, Miles R; Whisson, Stephen C; Kamoun, Sophien; Tyler, Brett M; Birch, Paul R J; Beynon, Jim L

    2005-06-01

    The perception of downy mildew avirulence (Arabidopsis thaliana Recognized [ATR]) gene products by matching Arabidopsis thaliana resistance (Recognition of Peronospora parasitica [RPP]) gene products triggers localized cell death (a hypersensitive response) in the host plant, and this inhibits pathogen development. The oomycete pathogen, therefore, is under selection pressure to alter the form of these gene products to prevent detection. That the pathogen maintains these genes indicates that they play a positive role in pathogen survival. Despite significant progress in cloning plant RPP genes and characterizing essential plant components of resistance signaling pathways, little progress has been made in identifying the oomycete molecules that trigger them. Concluding a map-based cloning effort, we have identified an avirulence gene, ATR1NdWsB, that is detected by RPP1 from the Arabidopsis accession Niederzenz in the cytoplasm of host plant cells. We report the cloning of six highly divergent alleles of ATR1NdWsB from eight downy mildew isolates and demonstrate that the ATR1NdWsB alleles are differentially recognized by RPP1 genes from two Arabidopsis accessions (Niederzenz and Wassilewskija). RPP1-Nd recognizes a single allele of ATR1NdWsB; RPP1-WsB also detects this allele plus three additional alleles with divergent sequences. The Emco5 isolate expresses an allele of ATR1NdWsB that is recognized by RPP1-WsB, but the isolate evades detection in planta. Although the Cala2 isolate is recognized by RPP1-WsA, the ATR1NdWsB allele from Cala2 is not, demonstrating that RPP1-WsA detects a novel ATR gene product. Cloning of ATR1NdWsB has highlighted the presence of a highly conserved novel amino acid motif in avirulence proteins from three different oomycetes. The presence of the motif in additional secreted proteins from plant pathogenic oomycetes and its similarity to a host-targeting signal from malaria parasites suggest a conserved role in pathogenicity.

  10. Identification of downy mildew resistance gene candidates by positional cloning in maize (Zea mays subsp. mays; Poaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Yoon; Moon, Jun-Cheol; Kim, Hyo Chul; Shin, Seungho; Song, Kitae; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Byung-Moo

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Positional cloning in combination with phenotyping is a general approach to identify disease-resistance gene candidates in plants; however, it requires several time-consuming steps including population or fine mapping. Therefore, in the present study, we suggest a new combined strategy to improve the identification of disease-resistance gene candidates. Methods and Results: Downy mildew (DM)–resistant maize was selected from five cultivars using a spreader row technique. Positional cloning and bioinformatics tools were used to identify the DM-resistance quantitative trait locus marker (bnlg1702) and 47 protein-coding gene annotations. Eventually, five DM-resistance gene candidates, including bZIP34, Bak1, and Ppr, were identified by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) without fine mapping of the bnlg1702 locus. Conclusions: The combined protocol with the spreader row technique, quantitative trait locus positional cloning, and quantitative RT-PCR was effective for identifying DM-resistance candidate genes. This cloning approach may be applied to other whole-genome-sequenced crops or resistance to other diseases. PMID:28224059

  11. Antisporulant Activity of Watery Extracts of Plants against Sclerospora graminicola Causing Downy Mildew Disease of Pearl Millet

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    S. A. Deepak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Watery extracts of forty plant species commonly growing in across India have been screened for antisporulant activity against Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc. Schroet., the causative agent of pearl millet downy mildew. The collection represented 38 genera of 30 families. The extracts of thirteen species did not show any effect, whereas the activity of extracts of Allium sativum, Clematis gouriana, Evolvulus alsinoides, Mimusops elengi, Parthenium hysterophorus, Piper nigrum and Tagetes erecta were commensurable to that of marketed botanical fungicides and Mikal 70 wp. The crude extracts of 12 species (Agave americana, Aloe vera, Artemisia parviflora, Citrus limon, Citrus sinensis, Eucalyptus globosus, Euphorbia hirta, Leucas aspera, Murraya koenigi, Ocimum sanctum, Santalum album and Zingiber offinale completely inhibited the zoosprorangium formation while in the case of remaining 8 plants the crude extracts reduced only partially the sporulation. The antisporulant activity of commercialised Azadirachta preparation (Nutri-Neem was more pronounced than that of Reynutria based one (Milsana and Sabadilla (veratrin, however, these botanical preparations held off synthetic fungicides and the most active watery extracts.

  12. Lactuca saligna, a non-host for lettuce downy mildew ( Bremia lactucae), harbors a new race-specific Dm gene and three QTLs for resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, M.; Lindhout, P.

    2002-08-01

    Lactuca sativa (lettuce) is susceptible to Bremia lactucae (downy mildew). In cultivated and wild Lactuca species, Dm genes have been identified that confer race-specific resistance. However, these genes were soon rendered ineffective by adaptation of the pathogen. Lactuca saligna (wild lettuce) is resistant to all downy mildew races and can be considered as a non-host. Therefore, L. saligna might be an alternative source for a more-durable resistance to downy mildew in lettuce. In order to analyze this resistance, we have developed an F(2) population based on a resistant L. saligna x susceptible L. sativa cross. This F(2) population was fingerprinted with AFLP markers and tested for resistance to two Bremia races NL14 and NL16. The F(2) population showed a wide and continuous range of resistance levels from completely resistant to completely susceptible. By comparison of disease tests, we observed a quantitative resistance against both Bremia races as well as a race-specific resistance to Bremia race NL16 and not to NL14. QTL mapping revealed a qualitative gene ( R39) involved in the race-specific resistance and three QTLs ( RBQ1, RBQ2 and RBQ3) involved in the quantitative resistance. The qualitative gene R39 is a dominant gene that gives nearly complete resistance to race NL16 in L. saligna CGN 5271 and therefore it showed features similar to Dm genes. The three QTLs explained 51% of the quantitative resistance against NL14, which indicated that probably only the major QTLs have been detected in this F(2) population. The perspectives for breeding for durable resistance are discussed.

  13. Molecular cloning of a coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding-site-leucine-rich repeat gene from pearl millet and its expression pattern in response to the downy mildew pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Mariswamy; Melvin, Prasad; Prabhu, Sreedhara Ashok; Shailasree, Sekhar; Shetty, Hunthrike Shekar; Kini, Kukkundoor Ramachandra

    2016-03-01

    Downy mildew caused by Sclerospora graminicola is a devastating disease of pearl millet. Based on candidate gene approach, a set of 22 resistance gene analogues were identified. The clone RGPM 301 (AY117410) containing a partial sequence shared 83% similarity to rice R-proteins. A full-length R-gene RGA RGPM 301 of 3552 bp with 2979 bp open reading frame encoding 992 amino acids was isolated by the degenerate primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) approach. It had a molecular mass of 113.96 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 8.71. The sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis grouped it to a non-TIR NBS LRR group. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed higher accumulation of the transcripts following inoculation with S. graminicola in the resistant cultivar (IP18296) compared to susceptible cultivar (7042S). Further, significant induction in the transcript levels were observed when treated with abiotic elicitor β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) and biotic elicitor Pseudomonas fluorescens. Exogenous application of phytohormones jasmonic acid or salicylic acid also up-regulated the expression levels of RGA RGPM 301. The treatment of cultivar IP18296 with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) suppressed the levels of RGA RGPM 301. A 3.5 kb RGA RGPM 301 which is a non-TIR NBS-LRR protein was isolated from pearl millet and its up-regulation during downy mildew interaction was demonstrated by qRT-PCR. These studies indicate a role for this RGA in pearl millet downy mildew interaction.

  14. Identification and introgression of QTLs implicated in resistance to sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi (Weston and Uppal) C. G. Shaw) in maize through marker-assisted selection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H. C. Lohithaswa; K. Jyothi; K. R. Sunil Kumar; Puttaramanaik; Shailaja Hittalmani

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum downy mildew caused by Peronosclerospora sorghi is a major disease of maize and resistance is under the control of polygenes which necessitated identification of quantitative-trait loci (QTLs) for initiating marker-assisted introgression of resistant QTLs in elite susceptible inbred lines. In the present study, QTLs for sorghum downy mildew (SDM) resistance in maize were identified based on cosegregation with linked simple sequence repeats in 185 F2 progeny from a cross between susceptible (CM500-19) and resistant (MAI105) parents. F3 families were screened in the National Sorghum Downy Mildew Screening Nursery during 2010 and 2011. High heritability was observed for the disease reaction. The final map generated using 87 SSR markers had 10 linkage groups, spanning a length of 1210.3 cM. Although, we used only 87 SSR markers for mapping, the per cent of genome within 20 cM to the nearest marker was 88.5. Three putative QTLs for SDM resistance were located on chromosomes 3 (bin 3.01), 6 (bin 6.01) and 2 (bin 2.02) using composite interval mapping. The locus on chromosome 3 had a major effect and explained up to 12.6% of the phenotypic variation. The other two QTLs on chromosomes 6 and 2 had minor effects with phenotypic variation of 7.1 and 2%. The three QTLs appeared to have additive effects on resistance. The QTLs on chromosomes 3 and 6 were successfully used in the marker-assisted selection programme for introgression of resistance to SDM in eight susceptible maize lines.

  15. Exogenous Trehalose Treatment Enhances the Activities of Defense-Related Enzymes and Triggers Resistance against Downy Mildew Disease of Pearl Millet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, Sharathchandra R.; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Shetty, Hunthrike S.; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, diverse physiological functions of various sugars are the subject of investigations. Their roles in signal transduction in plant responses to adverse biotic and abiotic stress conditions have become apparent, and growing scientific evidence has indicated that disaccharides like sucrose and trehalose mediate plant defense responses in similar way as those induced by elicitors against the pathogens. Trehalose is a well-known metabolic osmoregulator, stress-protectant and non-reducing disaccharide existing in a variety of organisms, including fungi, bacteria, and plants. Commercially procured trehalose was applied to seeds of susceptible pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) cultivar “HB3,” and tested for its ability to reduce downy mildew disease incidence by induction of resistance. Seed treatment with trehalose at 200 mM for 9 h recorded 70.25% downy mildew disease protection, followed by those with 100 and 50 mM trehalose which offered 64.35 and 52.55% defense, respectively, under greenhouse conditions. Furthermore, under field conditions treatment with 200 mM trehalose for 9 h recorded 67.25% downy mildew disease protection, and reduced the disease severity to 32.75% when compared with untreated control which displayed 90% of disease severity. Trehalose did not affect either sporangial formation or zoospore release from sporangia, indicating that the reduction in disease incidence was not due to direct inhibition but rather through induction of resistance responses in the host. Additionally, trehalose was shown to enhance the levels of polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and peroxidase, which are known as markers of both biotic and abiotic stress responses. Our study shows that osmoregulators like trehalose could be used to protect plants against pathogen attacks by seed treatment, thus offering dual benefits of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:27895647

  16. Extrapair paternity and maternity in the three-toed woodpecker, Picoides tridactylus: insights from microsatellite-based parentage analysis.

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    Meng-Hua Li

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques have revealed that avian mating systems are more diverse and complex than previously thought. We used microsatellite markers to determine genetic parentage, the prevalence of extrapair paternity and quasi-parasitism (i.e. situations where a male's extrapair mate lay in his nest in a socially monogamous population of three-toed woodpeckers (Picoides tridactylus in southern Finland. A total of 129 adults and nestlings, representing 5-9 families annually from 2004-2007, were genotyped at up to ten microsatellite loci. The results of genetic assignment tests confirmed that monogamous parentage characterized the majority (84.6%, 22/26 of broods, and that most (93.8%, 75/80 nestlings were the offspring of their social parents. Two of 80 nestlings (2.5% in two of 26 broods (7.7% were sired by extrapair males and quasi-parasitism occurred in 3.8% (3/80 of nestlings and 7.7% (2/26 of broods. Hence, the levels of extrapair parentage were low, possibly because both genetic polygyny and polyandry are constrained by the high paternal effort required for parental care. The co-occurrence of low levels of extrapair paternity and quasi-parasitism are discussed in light of ecological and behavioural factors characterizing the species biology.

  17. Coping with uncertainty: woodpecker finches (Cactospiza pallida from an unpredictable habitat are more flexible than birds from a stable habitat.

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    Sabine Tebbich

    Full Text Available Behavioural flexibility is thought to be a major factor in evolution. It may facilitate the discovery and exploitation of new resources, which in turn may expose populations to novel selective forces and facilitate adaptive radiation. Darwin's finches are a textbook example of adaptive radiation. They are fast learners and show a range of unusual foraging techniques, probably as a result of their flexibility. In this study we aimed to test whether variability of the environment is correlated with flexibility. We compared woodpecker finches from a dry area (hereafter, Arid Zone, where food availability is variable, with individuals from a cloud forest (hereafter, Scalesia zone where food abundance is stable. As parameters for flexibility, we measured neophilia and neophobia, which are two aspects of reaction to novelty, reversal learning and problem-solving. We found no differences in performance on a problem-solving task but, in line with our prediction, individuals from the Arid Zone were significantly faster reversal learners and more neophilic than their conspecifics from the Scalesia zone. The latter result supports the notion that environmental variability drives flexibility. In contrast to our prediction, Arid Zone birds were even more neophobic than birds from the Scalesia Zone. The latter result could be the consequence of differences in predation pressure between the two vegetation zones.

  18. A transgenic mutant of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) with a T-DNA tightly linked to loss of downy mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubara, P A; Arroyo-Garcia, R; Shen, K A; Mazier, M; Meyers, B C; Ochoa, O E; Kim, S; Yang, C H; Michelmore, R W

    1997-11-01

    One hundred and ninety-two independent primary transformants of lettuce cv. Diana were obtained by co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying constructs containing maize Ac transposase and Ds. R2 families were screened for mutations at four genes (Dm) for resistance to downy mildew. One family, designated dm3t524, had lost resistance to an isolate of Bremia lactucae expressing the avirulence gene Avr3. Loss of resistance segregated as a single recessive allele of Dm3. The mutation was not due to a large deletion as all molecular markers flanking Dm3 were present. Loss of Dm3 activity co-segregated with a T-DNA from which Ds had excised. Genomic DNA flanking the right border of this T-DNA was isolated by inverse polymerase chain reaction. This genomic sequence was present in four to five copies in wild-type cv. Diana. One copy was missing in all eight deletion mutants of Dm3 and altered in dm3t524, indicating tight physical linkage to Dm3. Three open reading frames (ORFs) occurred in a 6.6-kb region flanking the insertion site; however, expression of these ORFs was not detected. No similarities were detected between these ORFs and resistance genes cloned from other species. Transgenic complementation with 11-to 27-kb genomic fragments of Diana spanning the insertion site failed to restore Dm3 function to two ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutants of Dm3 or to cv. Cobham Green, which naturally lacks Dm3 activity. Therefore, either the T-DNA inserted extremely close to, but not within, Dm3 and the mutation may have been caused by secondary movement of Ds, or Dm3 activity is encoded by a gene extending beyond the fragments used for complementation.

  19. Preliminary Trial of 11 New Hybrid Maize Genotype to The Resistance on Java Downy Mildew (Peronosclerospora maydis

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    Budi Setyawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maize or corn (Zea mays L. belongs to the family of grasses (Poaceae.  Maize is grown globally and one of the most important cereal crop in the world.  In many countries, corn is the main agricultural crop, and are used as food, feed and industrial raw materials. Together with rice and wheat, corn included in the cereals that provide about 65% carbohydrates and 50% protein that humans need. For this purpose, many developing countries, especially in Asia and Africa are in a strong effort to increase their corn yields through the use of better seeds.  Although in Indonesia, corn is the second important food crop after rice, however, with the rapid growth of the livestock industry, corn is a major component (60% in feed ingredient.  It is estimated that more than 55% of the corn used for feed in Indonesia.  Java Downy Mildew (Peronosclerospora maydis is the main disease that is concerned by maize corn growers. This disease often resulting in substantial losses for farmers, even reach 100% in susceptible genotypes.  Therefore trial on 11 new prospective hybrids was conducted with the expectation that they can be classified in the criteria “less resistant or higher” according to the criteria of modified Reid (2005.  Of the 11 new hybrids, 3 new hybrids (27.3% classified in the criteria “very resistant”, 4 new hybrids (36.4% classified in the criteria “resistant”, 2 new hybrid (18.2% classified in the criteria “less resistant”, and 2 other new hybrids (18.2% classified in the criteria “less susceptible”.

  20. Over-expression of VvWRKY1 in grapevines induces expression of jasmonic acid pathway-related genes and confers higher tolerance to the downy mildew.

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    Chloé Marchive

    Full Text Available Most WRKY transcription factors activate expression of defence genes in a salicylic acid- and/or jasmonic acid-dependent signalling pathway. We previously identified a WRKY gene, VvWRKY1, which is able to enhance tolerance to fungal pathogens when it is overexpressed in tobacco. The present work analyzes the effects of VvWRKY1 overexpression in grapevine. Microarray analysis showed that genes encoding defence-related proteins were up-regulated in the leaves of transgenic 35S::VvWRKY1 grapevines. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that three genes putatively involved in jasmonic acid signalling pathway were overexpressed in the transgenic grapes. The ability of VvWRKY1 to trans-activate the promoters of these genes was demonstrated by transient expression in grape protoplasts. The resistance to the causal agent of downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola, was enhanced in the transgenic plants. These results show that VvWRKY1 can increase resistance of grapevine against the downy mildew through transcriptional reprogramming leading to activation of the jasmonic acid signalling pathway.

  1. Specific in planta recognition of two GKLR proteins of the downy mildew Bremia lactucae revealed in a large effector screen in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassen, Joost H M; den Boer, Erik; Vergeer, Pim W J; Andel, Annemiek; Ellendorff, Ursula; Pelgrom, Koen; Pel, Mathieu; Schut, Johan; Zonneveld, Olaf; Jeuken, Marieke J W; Van den Ackerveken, Guido

    2013-11-01

    Breeding lettuce (Lactuca sativa) for resistance to the downy mildew pathogen Bremia lactucae is mainly achieved by introgression of dominant downy mildew resistance (Dm) genes. New Bremia races quickly render Dm genes ineffective, possibly by mutation of recognized host-translocated effectors or by suppression of effector-triggered immunity. We have previously identified 34 potential RXLR(-like) effector proteins of B. lactucae that were here tested for specific recognition within a collection of 129 B. lactucae-resistant Lactuca lines. Two effectors triggered a hypersensitive response: BLG01 in 52 lines, predominantly L. saligna, and BLG03 in two L. sativa lines containing Dm2 resistance. The N-terminal sequences of BLG01 and BLG03, containing the signal peptide and GKLR variant of the RXLR translocation motif, are not required for in planta recognition but function in effector delivery. The locus responsible for BLG01 recognition maps to the bottom of lettuce chromosome 9, whereas recognition of BLG03 maps in the RGC2 cluster on chromosome 2. Lactuca lines that recognize the BLG effectors are not resistant to Bremia isolate Bl:24 that expresses both BLG genes, suggesting that Bl:24 can suppress the triggered immune responses. In contrast, lettuce segregants displaying Dm2-mediated resistance to Bremia isolate Bl:5 are responsive to BLG03, suggesting that BLG03 is a candidate Avr2 protein.

  2. Analyzing Lettuce Downy Mildew with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy%莴苣霜霉病的傅里叶变换红外光谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春艳; 刘飞; 梁云峰; 吉恒

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to obtain the spectra of leaf, edible stem, taproot and fibrous roots of normal and downy mildew lettuce plants at the adult stage. The results showed that for normal and downy mildew lettuce plants, the main components of leaves and edible stem were protein, carbohydrates and lipids. For fibrous roots, the main components were cellulose and lignin. For taproots of normal plants,the main components were cellulose, lignin and lipids, but cellulose, lignin and protein were the main components of downy mildew plants. Relative to normal plants,the structure of carbohydrates and protein in leaves was changed. The relative content of lipids and carbohydrates increased. Protein and lipids in edible stems was decreased while carbohydrates was increased. Cellulose and lignin in taproot and fibrous roots were decreased. The ratio of the relative content of lignin to that of cellulose in mildew plants was higher than that in normal plants. It is indicated that FTIR could be used to study effects of the downy mildew on different parts of the lettuce, providing spectroscopy information for studying lettuce downy mildew.%利用傅里叶变换红外光谱(Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,FTIR)技术测定了成株期莴苣(Lactuca sativa L.var.angustana Irish)正常植株和霜霉病植株的叶片、食用茎、主根和须根4个部位的红外光谱。结果表明,两种植株叶片和食用茎中的主要成分均为蛋白质、多糖和脂类物质,须根中的主要物质成分为纤维素和木质素,正常植株主根中的主要成分是纤维素、木质素和脂类物质,霜霉病主根中的主要成分是纤维素、木质素和蛋白质;与正常植株相比,霜霉病植株叶片中蛋白质和多糖的组成或结构发生了变化,且脂类和多糖类物质相对含量有所增加,食用茎中蛋白质和脂类物质的相对含量均低于正常植株,而多糖类物质相对

  3. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA in Woodpeckers (Aves, Piciformes): Implications for Karyotype and ZW Sex Chromosome Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Thays Duarte; Kretschmer, Rafael; Bertocchi, Natasha Avila; Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Garnero, Analía Del Valle; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2017-01-01

    Birds are characterized by a low proportion of repetitive DNA in their genome when compared to other vertebrates. Among birds, species belonging to Piciformes order, such as woodpeckers, show a relatively higher amount of these sequences. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of different classes of repetitive DNA-including microsatellites, telomere sequences and 18S rDNA-in the karyotype of three Picidae species (Aves, Piciformes)-Colaptes melanochloros (2n = 84), Colaptes campestris (2n = 84) and Melanerpes candidus (2n = 64)-by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clusters of 18S rDNA were found in one microchromosome pair in each of the three species, coinciding to a region of (CGG)10 sequence accumulation. Interstitial telomeric sequences were found in some macrochromosomes pairs, indicating possible regions of fusions, which can be related to variation of diploid number in the family. Only one, from the 11 different microsatellite sequences used, did not produce any signals. Both species of genus Colaptes showed a similar distribution of microsatellite sequences, with some difference when compared to M. candidus. Microsatellites were found preferentially in the centromeric and telomeric regions of micro and macrochromosomes. However, some sequences produced patterns of interstitial bands in the Z chromosome, which corresponds to the largest element of the karyotype in all three species. This was not observed in the W chromosome of Colaptes melanochloros, which is heterochromatic in most of its length, but was not hybridized by any of the sequences used. These results highlight the importance of microsatellite sequences in differentiation of sex chromosomes, and the accumulation of these sequences is probably responsible for the enlargement of the Z chromosome.

  4. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA in Woodpeckers (Aves, Piciformes): Implications for Karyotype and ZW Sex Chromosome Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Rafael; Bertocchi, Natasha Avila; Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Garnero, Analía del Valle; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2017-01-01

    Birds are characterized by a low proportion of repetitive DNA in their genome when compared to other vertebrates. Among birds, species belonging to Piciformes order, such as woodpeckers, show a relatively higher amount of these sequences. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of different classes of repetitive DNA—including microsatellites, telomere sequences and 18S rDNA—in the karyotype of three Picidae species (Aves, Piciformes)—Colaptes melanochloros (2n = 84), Colaptes campestris (2n = 84) and Melanerpes candidus (2n = 64)–by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clusters of 18S rDNA were found in one microchromosome pair in each of the three species, coinciding to a region of (CGG)10 sequence accumulation. Interstitial telomeric sequences were found in some macrochromosomes pairs, indicating possible regions of fusions, which can be related to variation of diploid number in the family. Only one, from the 11 different microsatellite sequences used, did not produce any signals. Both species of genus Colaptes showed a similar distribution of microsatellite sequences, with some difference when compared to M. candidus. Microsatellites were found preferentially in the centromeric and telomeric regions of micro and macrochromosomes. However, some sequences produced patterns of interstitial bands in the Z chromosome, which corresponds to the largest element of the karyotype in all three species. This was not observed in the W chromosome of Colaptes melanochloros, which is heterochromatic in most of its length, but was not hybridized by any of the sequences used. These results highlight the importance of microsatellite sequences in differentiation of sex chromosomes, and the accumulation of these sequences is probably responsible for the enlargement of the Z chromosome. PMID:28081238

  5. Black woodpecker Dryocopus martius (L., 1758 recent range expansion leads to the coalescence of the two former distribution areas in northern Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAINZARAIN, J.A., FERNÁNDEZ-GARCÍA, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Basque Country (N Spain the black woodpecker Dryocopus martius (L., 1758 was virtually unrecorded until the late 1990’s, but since then the number of observations has increased sharply. To determine the current distribution of the species, extensive, standardized field surveys of suitable forest patches in the province of Álava were performed during the 2011 early breeding season. The presence of the species was recorded in 16 UTM 100 km2 squares. Furthermore, reliable observations were collected during the 2003 to 2011 breeding seasons in another 23 UTM 100 km2 squares, adjacent to the study area, where the black woodpecker had gone undetected in the last published breeding atlas for the period 1998-2002. This range increase implies that the two, formerly separate populations in Spain (Pyrenees and Cantabrian Mountains have currently coalesced into a continuous distribution, highlighting the relevance of the study area in the expansion of forest species between the two great mountain ranges of northern Iberia. Forest biomass growth and ageing of stands due to a reduction in felling operations over the last few decades have probably allowed the colonization of previously vacant localities.

  6. Aerodynamic and Acoustic Tests of a 1/15 Scale Model Dry Cooled Jet Aircraft Runup Noise Suppression System,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    has. This required that the model utilize a fiberglass lin!ng (Owens Corning PF-105) having much finer fibers than the full-scale liner, so that the...shut downi in the exhaust room for nearly all runs and soinewhat lai er in the burner room for approximately every second ran. ’or all playback

  7. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS WOODPECKER in the Philippine Sea and South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 15 October 1960 to 05 November 1960 (NODC Accession 6000086)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS WOODPECKER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  8. Detection of Verticillium wilt of olive trees and downy mildew of opium poppy using hyperspectral and thermal UAV imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Madrid, Rocío; Navas Cortés, Juan Antonio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Landa del Castillo, Blanca Beatriz; Lucena León, Carlos; Jesús Zarco Tejada, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The present study explored the use of high-resolution thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery as indicators of the infections caused by Verticillium wilt (VW) in olive trees and downy mildew (DM) in opium poppy fields. VW, caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, and DM, caused by the biotrophic obligate oomycete Peronospora arborescens, are the most economically limiting diseases of olive trees and opium poppy, respectively, worldwide. V. dahliae infects the plant by the roots and colonizes its vascular system, blocking water flow and eventually inducing water stress. P. arborescens colonizes the mesophyll, appearing the first symptoms as small chlorotic leaf lesions, which can evolve to curled and thickened tissues and systemic infections that become deformed and necrotic as the disease develops. The work conducted to detect VW and DM infection consisted on the acquisition of time series of airborne thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery using 2-m and 5-m wingspan electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in spring and summer of three consecutive years (2009 to 2011) for VW detection and on three dates in spring of 2009 for DM detection. Two 7-ha commercial olive orchards naturally infected with V. dahliae and two opium poppy field plots artificially infected by P. arborescens were flown. Concurrently to the airborne campaigns, olive orchards and opium poppy fields were assessed "in situ" to assess actual VW severity and DM incidence. Furthermore, field measurements were conducted at leaf and crown level. The field results related to VW detection showed a significant increase in crown temperature (Tc) minus air temperature (Ta) and a decrease in leaf stomatal conductance (G) as VW severity increased. This reduction in G was associated with a significant increase in the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI570) and a decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence. DM asymptomatic leaves showed significantly higher NDVI and lower green/red index

  9. Susceptibility of Arabidopsis to the downy mildew pathogen Hyaloperonospora parasitica : A reverse genetics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was performed to gain insight into disease susceptibility in the model system Arabidopsis thaliana – Hyaloperonospora parasitica. The aim was to identify host genes that support the infection process. For this, global expression profiling using DNA microarrays w

  10. Proteome of Plasmopara viticola-infected Vitis vinifera provides insights into grapevine Rpv1/Rpv3 pyramided resistance to downy mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento-Gavioli, Maria Carolina Andrade; Agapito-Tenfen, Sarah Zanon; Nodari, Rubens Onofre; Welter, Leocir José; Sanchez Mora, Fernando David; Saifert, Luciano; da Silva, Aparecido Lima; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2017-01-16

    Grapevine is one of the major fruit crops worldwide and requires phytochemical use due to susceptibility to numerous pests, including downy mildew. The pyramiding of previous identified QTL resistance regions allows selection of genotypes with combined resistance loci in order to build up sustainable resistance. This study investigates resistance response of pyramided plants containing Rpv1 and Rpv3 loci to Plasmopara viticola infection process. Phenotypic characterization showed complete resistance and lack of necrotic hypersensitive response spots. Principal Component Analysis revealed infected 96hpi (hours post-inoculation) samples with the most distant proteomes of the entire dataset, followed by the proteome of infected 48hpi samples. Quantitative and qualitative protein differences observed using 2-DE gels coupled to nanoHPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed a lack of transient breakdown in defense responses (biphasic modulation) accompanying the onset of disease. Forty-one proteins were identified, which were mainly included into functional categories of redox and energy metabolism. l-ascorbate degradation pathway was the major altered pathway and suggests up-regulation of anti-oxidant metabolism in response to apoplastic oxidative burst after infection. Overall, these data provide new insights into molecular basis of this incompatible interaction and suggests several targets that could potentially be exploited to develop new protection strategies against this pathogen. This study provide new insights into the molecular basis of incompatible interaction between Plasmopara viticola and pyramided Rpv1/Rpv3 grapevine and suggests several targets that could potentially be exploited to develop new protection strategies against this pathogen. This is the first proteomic characterization of resistant grapevine available in the literature and it presents contrasting proteomic profiles of that of susceptible plants. The resistance against downy mildew in grapevine has been

  11. Study on Fungicide Screening for Un -pollutive Control of Grape Downy Mildew and Its Control Techniques%葡萄霜霉病无公害防治药剂筛选及控害技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周步海; 李红阳; 陈志谊; 周加春; 杨华; 张俊喜

    2011-01-01

    The control effects of 6 commonly - used effective fungicide varieties (Dimethomorph, Azoxystrobin and so on) against grape downy mildew in the field were tested. The results indicated that Dimethomorph, Azoxystrobin and Propineb had better prevention and control effects on the occurrence of grape downy mildew. The other 3 kinds of fungicides could be used as the alternative fungicides in order to delay the resistance of its pathogen to the fungicides. Simultaneously, according to the occurrence characteristics of grape downy mildew, the integrated prevention and control techniques of this disease were put forward.%选取烯酰吗啉、阿米西达等6种对葡萄霜霉病有效的常用杀菌剂品种进行田间试验,结果表明:阿米西达、丙森锌2种药剂对预防和控制霜霉病的发生有较好的效果,可推荐使用;另外4种药剂可在控害过程中作为轮换药剂,与其他农药搭配使用,以延缓病原菌抗药性的产生.同时针对病害发生特点对其综合防控技术进行了研究集成.

  12. Efeito de indutores no controle de míldio em Vitis labrusca Effect of elicitors in the control of downy mildew in Vitis labrusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Ceres Torres da Rosa

    2007-03-01

    to resource with the fungicide use aiming at its control. Aiming at to substitute the agrotóxico use it was evaluated in the cities of Are Vicente Férrer - PE (area 1, Natuba - PB (area 2 and Macaparana - PE (area 3 the effect of the induction of resistance promoted for DL- beta - aminobutyric acid (BABA, Agro-Mos (AM + Crop-set (Cs, Codavit (Cd and Ecolife (Ec was evaluated on grape variety 'Isabel'. Results have showed that AM + Cs was superior to the others treatments in reducing disease severity. In relation to efficiency control the AM + Cs treatment reduced disease severity in 37,46%, 35,97% and 18, 57% in the area 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The disease severity in the areas 1, 2, and 3, fitted the Y= e-3,36 . e-0,019t- (R= 0,66**, Y= 1/1 + 14,63 .e-0,037t (R= 0,84** and Y= e-4,13 . e- -0,034t (R= 0,62**, respectively. The severity of downy mildew in function of the time in the area 1, fit the gompertz model, except in the BABA treatment that was described by the equation logstic. In the area 2, a predominant model did not fit data from all treatments. The monomolecular model was described more frequently than others, in the treatments of area 3.

  13. 山西芦芽山国家级自然保护区黑啄木鸟的生态习性观察%Observation of Ecological Habit of the Black Woodpecker in Luyashan Nature Reserve of Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建荣

    2011-01-01

    2008 ~2010年在山西芦芽山国家级自然保护区对黑啄木鸟的生态习性进行了观察.结果表明,该鸟在当地为留鸟,主要栖息于山区针阔混交林中,种群密度为0.261只/km,繁殖期为4~6月,窝卵数为4~5枚,孵化期为13~15 d,雏鸟晚成性,24~26 d离巢,孵化率为86.36%,繁殖成功率为84.21%.其主要以农林害虫为食,为森林益鸟.%The ecological habits of the Black Woodpecker (Dryocopus martins)in Luyashan Nature Reserve during 2008 -2010 were observed. The results indicated that the Black Woodpecker is a resident bird in the reserve, mainly for inhabit in mountainous coniferous and broad leaved mixed forest, population density is 0.261 woodpeckers/km for4 -6 months breeding, and clutch size is 4 -5 pieces, incubation period is 13 - 15 days; chicks, 24-26 days reconfigured from the nest, hatch rates is 86. 36% , reproductive success is 84. 21%. They mainly live on farming and forestry pests, thus belong to useful forest birds.

  14. Developing Dynamic Reference Models and a Decision Support Framework for Southeastern Ecosystems: An Integrated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    rates (e.g., see Section 3.5). This is important to note, however, because this assumption could automatically reduce the accuracy of ST-SIM model...polyglottos Orchard Oriole Icterus spurius Pine Warbler Setophaga pinus Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus Purple Martin Progne subis Red-bellied...DSS. In addition to facilitating the processing of the field data, the DSS automatically generates standardized and accessible reports that allow

  15. Disentangling Peronospora on Papaver: phylogenetics, taxonomy, nomenclature and host range of downy mildew of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum and related species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Voglmayr

    Full Text Available Based on sequence data from ITS rDNA, cox1 and cox2, six Peronospora species are recognised as phylogenetically distinct on various Papaver species. The host ranges of the four already described species P. arborescens, P. argemones, P. cristata and P. meconopsidis are clarified. Based on sequence data and morphology, two new species, P. apula and P. somniferi, are described from Papaver apulum and P. somniferum, respectively. The second Peronospora species parasitizing Papaver somniferum, that was only recently recorded as Peronospora cristata from Tasmania, is shown to represent a distinct taxon, P. meconopsidis, originally described from Meconopsis cambrica. It is shown that P. meconopsidis on Papaver somniferum is also present and widespread in Europe and Asia, but has been overlooked due to confusion with P. somniferi and due to less prominent, localized disease symptoms. Oospores are reported for the first time for P. meconopsidis from Asian collections on Papaver somniferum. Morphological descriptions, illustrations and a key are provided for all described Peronospora species on Papaver. cox1 and cox2 sequence data are confirmed as equally good barcoding loci for reliable Peronospora species identification, whereas ITS rDNA does sometimes not resolve species boundaries. Molecular phylogenetic data reveal high host specificity of Peronospora on Papaver, which has the important phytopathological implication that wild Papaver spp. cannot play any role as primary inoculum source for downy mildew epidemics in cultivated opium poppy crops.

  16. [Chromosomal structure of the hybrids between Allium cepa L. and Allium fistulosum L. with relative resistance to downy mildew based on in situ hybridization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budylin, M V; Kan, L Iu; Romanov, V S; Khrustaleva, L I

    2014-04-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used for a chromosomal composition study of the later generations of interspecific hybrids between A. cepa L. and A. fistulosum L., which are relatively resistant to downy mildew (peronosporosis). GISH revealed that F2 hybrids, which did not produce seeds, were triploids (2n = 3x = 24) with 24 chromosomes and possessed in their compliments 16 chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and eight chromosomes of A. cepa L. or eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L. The advanced F5 hybrid, which produced few seeds, was amphidiploid with 32 chromosomes. BC1F5 hybrid was triploid with eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L., which did not produce seeds. BC2 (BC1F5) plant was amphidiploid that possessed 4 recombinant chromosomes and produced few seeds. GISH results point to 2n-gametes formation in macro- and microsporogenesis of the hybrids. The mechanism of 2n-gametes formation and the possibility of apomixes events in the backcrossing progeny are discussed.

  17. The Novel Oomycide Oxathiapiprolin Inhibits All Stages in the Asexual Life Cycle of Pseudoperonospora cubensis - Causal Agent of Cucurbit Downy Mildew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigal Cohen

    Full Text Available Oxathiapiprolin is a new oomycide (piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline class discovered by DuPont which controls diseases caused by oomycete plant pathogens. It binds in the oxysterol-binding protein domain of Oomycetes. Growth chambers studies with detached leaves and potted plants showed remarkable activity of oxathiapiprolin against Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucurbits. The compound affected all stages in the asexual life cycle of the pathogen. It inhibited zoospore release, cystospore germination, lesion formation, lesion expansion, sporangiophore development and sporangial production. When applied to the foliage as a preventive spray no lesions developed due to inhibition of zoospore release and cystospore germination, and when applied curatively, at one or two days after inoculation, small restricted lesions developed but no sporulation occurred. When applied later to mature lesions, sporulation was strongly inhibited. Oxathiapiprolin suppressed sporulation of P. cubensis in naturally-infected leaves. It exhibited trans-laminar activity, translocated acropetaly from older to younger leaves, and moved from the root system to the foliage. Seed coating was highly effective in protecting the developed cucumber plants against downy mildew. UV microscopy observations made with cucumber leaves infected with P. cubensis revealed that inhibition of mycelium growth and sporulation induced by oxathiapiprolin was associated with callose encasement of the haustoria.

  18. A Puf RNA-binding protein encoding gene PlM90 regulates the sexual and asexual life stages of the litchi downy blight pathogen Peronophythora litchii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liqun; Ye, Wenwu; Situ, Junjian; Chen, Yubin; Yang, Xinyu; Kong, Guanghui; Liu, Yaya; Tinashe, Runyanga J; Xi, Pinggen; Wang, Yuanchao; Jiang, Zide

    2017-01-01

    Sexual and asexual reproduction are two key processes in the pathogenic cycle of many filamentous pathogens. However in Peronophythora litchii, the causal pathogen for the litchi downy blight disease, critical regulator(s) of sexual or asexual differentiation has not been elucidated. In this study, we cloned a gene named PlM90 from P. litchii, which encodes a putative Puf RNA-binding protein. We found that PlM90 was highly expressed during asexual development, and much higher than that during sexual development, while relatively lower during cyst germination and plant infection. By polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated protoplast transformation, we generated three PlM90-silenced transformants and found a severely impaired ability in sexual spore production and a delay in stages of zoospore release and encystment. However, the pathogenicity of P. litchii was not affected by PlM90-silencing. Therefore we conclude that PlM90 specifically regulates the sexual and asexual differentiation of P. litchii.

  19. Nest site characteristics of the Great-spotted Woodpecker in a bottomland riparian forest in the presence of invasive tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ónodi Gábor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in Hungary, in an old unmanaged riparian poplar-willow forest during the breeding seasons of 2014 and 2015. The occurrence of two invasive tree species, the green ash and boxelder, is significant in the study area, which influences negatively the populations of native riparian tree species in Central Europe. We studied Great-spotted Woodpecker nest sites in the presence of these invasive species. Throughout the study period, eight and twelve nesting cavity trees were mapped. Trees were recorded in 20-20 circular plots of 0.05 ha both for each mapped nest trees and random plots as well. Species, diameter at breast height and condition were recorded for each tree. Composition and diversity of nest site and random plots were compared. Distributions and preferences were calculated for nest tree use. Most of the recorded trees were invasive. Nest site plots had more native trees compared to random plots. Nest site showed higher diversity in terms of all three variables. Decayed and dead willow and white poplar hybrid trees were preferred for nesting. Diameter at breast height of nest trees was between 30-90 cm. Studies about cavity excavators in transformed habitats have high importance for nature conservation of riparian forests.

  20. The Control Effect Comparison of Six Kinds of Fungicides on the Downy Mildew of Tangshan Autumn Cucumber%6种药剂对唐山秋瓜霜霉病的防治效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志会; 韩晓清; 张尚卿; 彭学文

    2014-01-01

    为确定防治唐山秋瓜霜霉病的最佳药剂,以清水作对照,对6种供试药剂进行了防治效果比较试验。结果表明:6种药剂均对唐山秋瓜生长安全,且均对唐山秋瓜霜霉病具有一定的防治效果,其中,阿米西达(120 g/hm2)对唐山秋瓜霜霉病的防治效果始终在90%以上,防效最好,且药效持续时间最长;72%克露WP (540 g/hm2)和大生M-4580%WP (900 g/hm2)防效次之,对霜霉病的防治效果始终维持在80%以上。建议在生产上各供试药剂轮换交替使用,以延缓唐山秋瓜霜霉病抗药性的产生。%Taking clean water as the contrast, the control effects of six kinds of fungicides was tested to determine the best medicament to control downy mildew of Tangshan autumn cucumber.The results showed that six kinds of tested fungicides were safety to the growth of Tangshan autumn cucumber , and they all had a certain control effect on the Tangshan autumn cucumber downy mildew.Azoxystrobin (120 g/hm2) had the best control effect on the Tangshan autumn cucumber downy mildew , its control effect always above 90%, followed by 64% mancozeb 8%cymoxanil WP ( 540 g/hm2 ) and 80% mancozeb WP ( 900 g/hm2 ) , their control effect were always above 80%.It was suggested that all of the tested fungicides should be used altermately to delay the drug resistance of Tangshan autumn cucumber downy mildew in production.

  1. General and species-specific transcriptional responses to downy mildew infection in a susceptible (Vitis vinifera and a resistant (V. riparia grapevine species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovato Arianna

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Downy mildew is a destructive grapevine disease caused by Plasmopara viticola (Berk. and Curt. Berl. and de Toni, which can only be controlled by intensive fungicide treatments. Natural sources of resistance from wild grapevine (Vitis species are used in conventional breeding approaches, but the signals and effectors involved in resistance in this important crop species are not well understood. Results Early transcriptional changes associated with P. viticola infection in susceptible V. vinifera and resistant V. riparia plants were analyzed using the Combimatrix microarray platform. Transcript levels were measured 12 and 24 h post-inoculation, reflecting the time points immediately preceding the onset of resistance in V. riparia, as determined by microscopic analysis. Our data indicate that resistance in V. riparia is induced after infection, and is not based on differences in basal gene expression between the two species. The strong and rapid transcriptional reprogramming involves the induction of pathogenesis-related proteins and enzymes required for the synthesis of phenylpropanoid-derived compounds, many of which are also induced, albeit to a lesser extent, in V. vinifera. More interestingly, resistance in V. riparia also involves the specific modulation of numerous transcripts encoding components of signal transduction cascades, hypersensitive reaction markers and genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis. The limited transcriptional modulation in V. vinifera represents a weak attempted defense response rather than the activation of compatibility-specific pathways. Conclusions Several candidate resistance genes were identified that could be exploited in future biotechnological approaches to increase disease resistance in susceptible grapevine species. Measurements of jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in infected leaves suggest that this hormone may also be involved in V. riparia resistance to P. viticola.

  2. General and species-specific transcriptional responses to downy mildew infection in a susceptible (Vitis vinifera) and a resistant (V. riparia) grapevine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Downy mildew is a destructive grapevine disease caused by Plasmopara viticola (Berk. and Curt.) Berl. and de Toni, which can only be controlled by intensive fungicide treatments. Natural sources of resistance from wild grapevine (Vitis) species are used in conventional breeding approaches, but the signals and effectors involved in resistance in this important crop species are not well understood. Results Early transcriptional changes associated with P. viticola infection in susceptible V. vinifera and resistant V. riparia plants were analyzed using the Combimatrix microarray platform. Transcript levels were measured 12 and 24 h post-inoculation, reflecting the time points immediately preceding the onset of resistance in V. riparia, as determined by microscopic analysis. Our data indicate that resistance in V. riparia is induced after infection, and is not based on differences in basal gene expression between the two species. The strong and rapid transcriptional reprogramming involves the induction of pathogenesis-related proteins and enzymes required for the synthesis of phenylpropanoid-derived compounds, many of which are also induced, albeit to a lesser extent, in V. vinifera. More interestingly, resistance in V. riparia also involves the specific modulation of numerous transcripts encoding components of signal transduction cascades, hypersensitive reaction markers and genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis. The limited transcriptional modulation in V. vinifera represents a weak attempted defense response rather than the activation of compatibility-specific pathways. Conclusions Several candidate resistance genes were identified that could be exploited in future biotechnological approaches to increase disease resistance in susceptible grapevine species. Measurements of jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in infected leaves suggest that this hormone may also be involved in V. riparia resistance to P. viticola. PMID:20167053

  3. Identification of Molecular Genetic Markers Tightly Linked to Downy Mildew Resistant Genes in Grape%与葡萄抗霜霉病基因紧密连锁的 分子遗传标记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗素兰; 贺普超; 周鹏; 郑学勤

    2001-01-01

    Bulk segregant analysis (BSA), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD) and sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) methods were used to tag the downy mildew-resistant genes of grape with molecular markers. Parents and their 60 individuals of an F1 progeny resulting from a cross 88-110 between 83-4-96 (Vitis quinquangularis, downy mildew-resistant) and Muscat Rose (V. vinifera, downy mildew-susceptible), three F2 progenies resulting from three crosses of self-cross and inter-cross of 88-110 F1 seedlings, as well as another interspecific F1 hybrids of 88-84 cross [Xun-3 (V. quinquangularis, downy mildew-resistant)×Ugni Blanc (V. vinifera, downy mildew-susceptible)] and the wild grapes native to China were used for the study. Among 280 Operon primers, 160 gave distinct band patterns. One RAPD marker OPO06-1500 was tightly linked to a major gene resistant to Plasmopara viticola (RPv-1). Based on Mapmaker software analysis, the map distance between RPv-1 and OPO06-1500 was 1.7cM. Marker OPO06-1500 was cloned and sequenced. According to the sequence, two specific primers were designed to amplify all plant materials. RAPD marker was converted into SCAR marker (SCO06-1500). One distinct single band only in resistant plants was amplified, whose size was the same as that of the RAPD marker. The SCAR marker’s popularity was confirmed, and it could be used for the identification of hybrid resistant to P. viticola and will be potentially useful in the development of new resistant grape cultivars.%以种间杂交组合88-110[83-4-96(毛葡萄,抗霜霉病)×粉红玫瑰(欧洲葡萄,感霜霉病)]的F1代(60个单株)及其自交或互交所得的3个F2代为试材,应用BSA、RAPD和SCAR方法研究了葡萄抗霜霉病基因的分子标记。共筛选了280个Operon引物,其中160个引物扩增出了清晰的DNA条带,发现了RAPD标记OPO06-1500与葡萄抗霜霉病主效基因(RPv-1)紧密连锁,经Mapmarker软件连锁分析,OPO06

  4. Environmental Assessment: Construction Projects at the 189th Airlift Wing, Arkansas Air National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-12

    bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus), Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pudescens), Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata), Carolina Chickadee (Parus...were the Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus), Carolina Wren, and Blue Jay. Twenty-four species were recorded in grassland habitats on Little...WILCOX GROUP MIDWAY GROUP ANNONA CHALK OZAN FORli.ATION BROWNSTOWN KARL TOKIO FORMATION WOODBINE FORMA’rlON KIAMICHI F’ORMATJON AND GOODLAND

  5. Relationship of coarse woody debris to arthropod Availability for Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers and other bark-foraging birds on loblolly pine boles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2008-04-01

    Abstract This study determined if short-term removal of coarse woody debris would reduce prey available to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis Vieillot) and other bark-foraging birds at the Savannah River Site in Aiken and Barnwell counties, SC. All coarse woody debris was removed from four 9-ha plots of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in 1997 and again in 1998. We sampled arthropods in coarse woody debris removal and control stands using crawl traps that captured arthropods crawling up tree boles, burlap bands wrapped around trees, and cardboard panels placed on the ground. We captured 27 orders and 172 families of arthropods in crawl traps whereas 20 arthropod orders were observed under burlap bands and cardboard panels. The most abundant insects collected from crawl traps were aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Forrnicidae). The greatest biomass was in the wood cockroaches (Blattaria: Blattellidae), caterpillars (Lepidoptera) in the Family Noctuidae, and adult weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The most common group observed underneath cardboard panels was lsoptera (termites), and the most common taxon under burlap bands was wood cockroaches. Overall, arthropod abundance and biomass captured in crawl traps was similar in control and removal plots. In contrast, we observed more arthropods under burlap bands (mean & SE; 3,021.5 k 348.6, P= 0.03) and cardboard panels (3,537.25 k 432.4, P= 0.04) in plots with coarse woody debris compared with burlap bands (2325 + 171.3) and cardboard panels (2439.75 + 288.9) in plots where coarse woody debris was removed. Regression analyses showed that abundance beneath cardboard panels was positively correlated with abundance beneath burlap bands demonstrating the link between abundance on the ground with that on trees. Our results demonstrate that short-term removal of coarse woody debris from pine forests reduced overall arthropod availability to bark-foraging birds.

  6. The features of silver birch Betula verrucosa Ehrh. and downy birch Betula pubescens Ehrh. seed regeneration in subtaiga and forest-steppe of Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Chizhov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Article considers results of long-term studies of birch undergrowth in subtaiga subzone and forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia, the features of silver and downy birch seed regeneration under the canopy of parent stands, on logging, burned and abandoned arable lands, and hayfields. The distance of seed dispersal by wind, dynamics of accumulation of self-sown birch after continuous tillage and plough furrows is specified. It was found that seed regeneration under the birch stand canopy is hindered by drying of litter and root competition of the parent stand. A necessary condition for the germination of small seeds and the survival of weak shoots of birches is sufficient rainfall during the period of seed production and careful soil treatment, which provides removal of litter, total removal of herbaceous vegetation and soil reserve of weed seeds: continuous repeated plowing, bulldozing strips or shallow plow furrow with 0.7−1.0 m in width, with their additional cultivation. The most effective way of preparing land for seed regeneration of birch trees in arid steppe conditions is to transfer it under temporary cultivation of grain-crops, providing suppression of permanent weeds. Autumn plowing after harvest will provide annual readiness of the site for seed colonization of the birches. When there is an optimum combination of good seed harvest, rainy weather conditions, and appearance of mass self-sown birch, the land is excluded from the agricultural use. Prerequisites: the presence of seed productive walls of birch with preliminary removal of aspen and undesirable forms of birch. In spring of the next year an inventory is done of wintered self-sown birches, at least on 100 evenly spaced accounting plots. If the self-seeding dies, the site continues to be used by agriculture. Less reliable but acceptable is tillage by bulldozer stripes and furrows with 0.7−1.0 m in width, in a year of abundant seed production, before the start of mass seed

  7. Development and dissection of diagnostic SNP markers for the downy mildew resistance genes Pl Arg and Pl 8 and maker-assisted gene pyramiding in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Talukder, Z I; Hulke, B S; Foley, M E

    2017-02-03

    Diagnostic DNA markers are an invaluable resource in breeding programs for successful introgression and pyramiding of disease resistance genes. Resistance to downy mildew (DM) disease in sunflower is mediated by Pl genes which are known to be effective against the causal fungus, Plasmopara halstedii. Two DM resistance genes, Pl Arg and Pl 8 , are highly effective against P. halstedii races in the USA, and have been previously mapped to the sunflower linkage groups (LGs) 1 and 13, respectively, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In this study, we developed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps encompassing the Pl arg and Pl 8 genes and identified diagnostic SNP markers closely linked to these genes. The specificity of the diagnostic markers was validated in a highly diverse panel of 548 sunflower lines. Dissection of a large marker cluster co-segregated with Pl Arg revealed that the closest SNP markers NSA_007595 and NSA_001835 delimited Pl Arg to an interval of 2.83 Mb on the LG1 physical map. The SNP markers SFW01497 and SFW06597 delimited Pl 8 to an interval of 2.85 Mb on the LG13 physical map. We also developed sunflower lines with homozygous, three gene pyramids carrying Pl Arg , Pl 8 , and the sunflower rust resistance gene R 12 using the linked SNP markers from a segregating F2 population of RHA 340 (carrying Pl 8 )/RHA 464 (carrying Pl Arg and R 12 ). The high-throughput diagnostic SNP markers developed in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection breeding, and the pyramided sunflower lines will provide durable resistance to downy mildew and rust diseases.

  8. Civil Engineer Contingency Training Moody Air Force Base, Georgia Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    hillsides. Stilson soils occur on low uplands. Most of the cultivated land in Lowndes County is on Tifton and Fuquay soils. Corn , tobacco, soybeans...americanus), ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris), woodpeckers ( downy (Picoides pubescens), red-bellied (Melanerpes carolinus), flicker

  9. Reaction of melon genotypes to the gummy stem blight and the downy mildew Reação de genótipos de melão ao crestamento gomoso e ao míldio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil R dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae and the downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis are two foremost melon (Cucumis melo diseases, considering their effects on yield and fruit quality. Despite the importance of such diseases, relatively few studies have been done so far on the identification of resistance sources to D. bryoniae and P. cubensis in Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the resistance of commercial melon genotypes to the gummy stem blight and the downy mildew. Firstly, the most aggressive and representative D. bryoniae isolate was selected. Subsequently, the resistance of 86 melon genotypes to stem infection was studied upon greenhouse conditions by inoculating with the previously selected isolate. Afterwards, the resistance to mildew and leaf infection by D. bryoniae of 28 melon genotypes was evaluated in the field, under natural infection. In the greenhouse, all 86 melon genotypes were infected and showed stem infection symptoms caused by D. bryoniae four days after inoculation. Nevertheless, a significant variation on the resistance levels of the melon genotypes was found. Under field conditions and natural inoculation, genotypes Taslaki and Sary Juliabi were the most susceptible to leaf infection by D. bryoniae, significantly differing from the other genotypes. The lowest levels of susceptibility were identified in genotypes Perlita Busle S1, Valenciano Elíptico, Glaver, MR1, and 2526. All genotypes were susceptible to the downy mildew, albeit differing in susceptibility levels.O crestamento gomoso do caule (Didymella bryoniae e o míldio (Pseudoperonospora cubensis estão entre as principais doenças do meloeiro (Cucumis melo ocasionando redução da produtividade e da qualidade dos frutos. Apesar da importância dessas doenças, são poucos os trabalhos envolvendo a identificação de fontes de resistência a D. bryoniae e a P. cubensis no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de gen

  10. Using SSH Technology to Identify Relevant Genes Resistant to Cucumber Downy Mildew%利用SSH技术鉴定黄瓜抗霜霉病相关基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大军; 秦智伟; 周秀艳; 辛明; 武涛

    2014-01-01

    Adopting SSH technology,this paper studied on the difference expressive genes of downy mildew resistant cucumber inbred line ‘M801-3-1’ before and after the infection of downy mildew.Disease-resistant cucumber material vaccinated downy mildew and unvaccinated cDNA library was constructed using SSH technology.Forty-eight positive clones were obtained by reverse Northern blot hybridization detection, and 14 UniESTs were obtained including 8 singletons and 6 contigs via molecular biology software.The SSH-EST genes function analysis indicated that oxidative stress resistance and chloroplast reconstruction and protection mechanisms had very important role on disease resistance.At the same time,the paper put forward that Clpb,HSP70,HSP22 and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase might be involved in the R gene-mediated defense reaction,and smHSP might be the ‘defending target’ of R protein,responsible for monitoring intracellular exception.This study has provided a key evidence for revealing the relations between active oxygen mechanism and R gene mediate protection mechanism.%采用SSH技术对黄瓜抗霜霉病自交系M801-3-1侵染霜霉病菌前后的差异表达基因进行了研究。利用 SSH 技术构建抗病黄瓜材料接种霜霉病菌和未接种差异表达的差减cDNA文库。经反向Northern blot杂交检测,共得到48个阳性克隆。利用分子生物学软件对测序后的序列进行质量检测和聚类、拼接,共得到14个UniESTs,其中包括8个singletons和6个contigs。通过SSH-EST代表基因功能的分析,说明抗氧化胁迫能力和叶绿体的重建和保护机制对抗病品种抗病有重要作用。同时,提出SSH-EST代表的clpb、HSP70、HSP22和肽脯氨酰顺反异构酶还可能参与了R基因介导的防御反应,smHSP有可能就是R蛋白的“保卫靶”,负责监测细胞内的异常,这一发现为揭示活性氧机制和R基因介导的防卫机制之间的关系提供了关键证据。

  11. Influence of Food Patch Quality on the Foraging Behavior of Great Spotted Woodpecker in Winter%斑块质量对大斑啄木鸟冬季觅食行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢茂卓; 付林巨; 温俊宝

    2012-01-01

    为了解大斑啄木鸟(Dendrocoposmajor)冬季对食物斑块的利用对策,2011年1月和2012年2~3月,在内蒙古乌拉特前旗的农田防护林中,采用目标动物取样法和全事件记录法,观察了大斑啄木鸟在食物斑块的觅食行为,利用主成分分析方法对斑块质量进行评价,通过比较不同质量斑块中大斑啄木鸟的觅食频次、停留时间、觅食成功频次及觅食成功率等指标,分析斑块质量对其觅食行为的影响.结果显示,在不同质量斑块中大斑啄木鸟的觅食频次、停留时间、觅食成功频次差异都极显著,但觅食成功率差异不显著;除停留时间外,不同性别间觅食差异不显著.大斑啄木鸟的觅食频次、停留时间、觅食成功频次与斑块质量呈显著正相关,觅食成功率与斑块质量相关性不显著.大斑啄木鸟倾向于在质量水平高的斑块觅食,表现为在这些斑块停留时间更长、往返次数更频繁;但觅食成功率不受斑块质量影响,这可能是大斑啄木鸟适应不同觅食环境的一种生存本能.%In order to investigate how the Great Spotted Woodpecker ( Dendrocopos major) utilizing feeding patches in winter, we carried out field survey on the farmland shelterbelt in Wulateqianqi County, Inner Mongolia, in January 2011 and from February to March in 2012. Focal sampling and all-occurrences recording methods were undertaken to determine the foraging behaviors of Great Spotted Woodpecker in foraging patches. Principal component analysis was used to evaluate the patch quality. Correlation analysis between the patch quality and foraging behavior items, such as foraging times, residence time, successful foraging times and successful foraging rate was undertaken to reveal the affection of patch quality on the foraging behaviors of the birds. The results showed that there were significant differences in the birds' foraging times, residence time, successful foraging times among different

  12. Use of Occupancy Models to Evaluate Expert Knowledge-based Species-Habitat Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica N. Iglecia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships are used extensively to guide conservation planning, particularly when data are scarce. Purported relationships describe the initial state of knowledge, but are rarely tested. We assessed support in the data for suitability rankings of vegetation types based on expert knowledge for three terrestrial avian species in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States. Experts used published studies, natural history, survey data, and field experience to rank vegetation types as optimal, suitable, and marginal. We used single-season occupancy models, coupled with land cover and Breeding Bird Survey data, to examine the hypothesis that patterns of occupancy conformed to species-habitat suitability rankings purported by experts. Purported habitat suitability was validated for two of three species. As predicted for the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens and Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla, occupancy was strongly influenced by vegetation types classified as "optimal habitat" by the species suitability rankings for nuthatches and wood-pewees. Contrary to predictions, Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus models that included vegetation types as covariates received similar support by the data as models without vegetation types. For all three species, occupancy was also related to sampling latitude. Our results suggest that covariates representing other habitat requirements might be necessary to model occurrence of generalist species like the woodpecker. The modeling approach described herein provides a means to test expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships, and hence, help guide conservation planning.

  13. 基于半监督模糊聚类的黄瓜霜霉病受害程度识别研究%Research on Disease Level of Cucumber Downy Mildew Based on Partial Fuzzy C-means Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施伟民; 杨昔阳; 李志伟

    2012-01-01

    通过定义一种新的半监督模糊聚类算法,提高聚类算法的运行效率和可解释性,结合Fisher线性判别分析,对黄瓜霜霉病的受害程度进行识别研究.针对7个关于叶片色调信息的统计特征,利用判别分析提取出2个主分量.结合一部分叶片的类别属性,对所有叶片的这2个主分量,进行半监督聚类分析.结果表明,对于类别属性已知的叶片,聚类结果与已知类别的一致率达100%,而对于类别未知的数据,一致率也达到95%以上.%A novel fuzzy C-means algorithm is proposed to improve the intelligibility and computing efficiency of semi-supervised cluster algorithm. Based on Fisher linear discriminant and the proposed algorithm, the disease level of cucumber leaves infected by cucumber downy mildew are studied. 7 hue statistics of cucumber leaves are measured,and 2 feature parameters are founded based on linear discriminant analysis. The result of the partial Fuzzy Gmeuns alyorithm shows that the correct recognition rata is 100% on sample data,and above 95% on test data.

  14. Application and validation of a warning system for grapevine downy mildew controlusing fungicides Aplicação e validação de um sistema de aviso para o controle do míldio da videira, com fungicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most warning systems for plant disease control are based on Vinho, in Bento Gonçalves - RS, during the growing seasons 2000/ weather models dependent on the relationships between leaf wetness 01, 2002/03 and 2003/2004, using the grape cultivar Isabel. The duration and mean air temperature in this period considering the conventional system used by local growers was compared with the target disease intensity. For the development of a warning system to new warning system by using different cumulative daily disease severity control grapevine downy mildew, the equation generated by Lalancette values (CDDSV as the criterion to schedule fungicide application and et al. (7 was used. This equation was employed to elaborate a critical reapplication. In experiments conducted in 2003/04, CDDSV of 12 - period table and program a computerized device, which records, though 14 showed promising to schedule the first spraying and the interval electronic sensors, leaf wetness duration, mean temperature in this between fungicide applications, reducing by 37.5% the number of period and automatically calculates the daily value of probability of applications and maintaining the same control efficiency in leaves infection occurrence. The system was validated at Embrapa Uva e and bunches, similarly to the conventional system.A maioria dos sistemas de aviso para o controle de doenças de O sistema foi validado na Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Bento Gonçalves plantas utilizam como fundamento o modelo climático baseado - RS, conduzido nas safras agrícolas de 2000/01, 2002/03 e 2003/ nas interações entre a duração do molhamento foliar e a 2004 utilizando-se o cultivar Isabel. O sistema convencional utilizado temperatura média nesse período sobre a intensidade da doença pelos produtores foi comparado com o modelo de aviso utilizando alvo. No desenvolvimento de um modelo de aviso para o controle como critério indicador do momento para a aplicação e reaplicação do m

  15. 萝卜霜霉病、黑斑病、白斑病、白锈病、炭疽病和黑根病的识别与防治技术%ldentification and Control Method of Radish Downy Mildew, Melasma, Leuko-derma, White Rust, An-thracnose and Black Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金苹

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduced the damage characteristics and occurrence regularity of radish downy mildew, melasma, leukoderma, white rust, an-thracnose and black root. Then it pro-posed the corresponding control methods from two aspects including agricultural control and chemical control.%介绍了萝卜霜霉病、黑斑病、白斑病、白锈病、炭疽病及黑根病的危害症状、发病特点,指出各种病害的识别特点,并从农业措施、化学防治等方面提出了相应的防治方法。

  16. 笼养大斑啄木鸟行为时间分配和活动节律%Time Budget and Activity Rhythm of Captive Great Spotted Woodpecker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢茂卓; 张志明; 田恒玖; 温俊宝

    2013-01-01

    2011年6~8月,在北京市野生动物救护中心露天笼舍内,采用瞬时扫描法对笼养条件下的4只大斑啄木鸟(Dendrocopos major)行为时间分配和活动节律进行了研究,利用单因素方差分析来说明不同性别大斑啄木鸟间行为时间分配差异以及研究对象在日间不同时间段行为节律差异.结果显示,笼养条件下大斑啄木鸟的各种行为活动具有一定的时间分配特点和日行为节律.大斑啄木鸟的行为主要表现为休息和飞行走动,占全部行为的36.24%和26.96%,其次为觅食行为,占17.69%.除觅食、理羽和其他行为外,雌雄间行为时间分配差异不显著(P>0.05).大斑啄木鸟昼间活动的高峰期出现在上午,中午有午休现象,日间行为节律明显.飞行走动、休息、理羽、跳跃行为的发生频次在雌雄间无显著差异(P>0.05),而雄性觅食的发生频次显著地大于雌性的(P<0.05).%The instantaneous scan method was used to study time budget and activity rhythm of four captive Great Spotted Woodpeckers (Dendrocopos major) in Beijing Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center from June to August in 2011. One-way ANOVA were used to analyze the differences in activity rhythm between hours and diurnal time budget between male and female. The birds spent their time mainly in resting, flying & walking, and foraging at frequency of 36.24% , 26.96% , and 17.69% respectively. Except for foraging, preening and other behavior, the time budget of each behavior were not difference significantly between male and female (P > 0. 05 ). The diurnal activity of the four birds had a significant rhythm with an activity peak in the morning and rest peak at midday. No significant difference was detected in frequency of flying and walking, preening, resting and jumping between male and female (P > 0. 05) , however, male foraged with a higher frequency than the female did ( P < 0. 05).

  17. Influência das condições climáticas sobre a eficácia de fungicidas empregados para o controle do míldio em Vitis vinifera Effect of environmental conditions on efficacy of fungicides to downy mildew control in Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Costa Czermainski

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Um dos fatores a serem manejados para a máxima produtividade de um vinhedo é o míldio, doença causada por Plasmopara viticola, que afeta regiões produtoras de uva do mundo inteiro. No Brasil, são necessárias diversas aplicações de fungicida para seu controle. Diferentes princípios ativos são encontrados no mercado. Com base em resultados de ensaios de fungicidas para controle do míldio em Vitis vinifera conduzidos em 1995 e 1996, foi analisada a influência dos fatores climáticos temperatura do ar, precipitação e umidade relativa do ar sobre a eficácia dos produtos disponíveis. Os experimentos foram instalados na Embrapa Uva e Vinho, sobre a cv. Tannat, conduzida no sistema espaldeira. A análise dos fatores ambientais apontou períodos de infecções primárias e secundárias. A maior ocorrência de chuvas e alta umidade relativa do ar foram determinantes da maior severidade do míldio no ano de 1996. A análise da incidência e do índice de intensidade de doença em folhas e em cachos, indicou maior eficácia dos fungicidas cymoxanil + mancozeb, metalaxil + mancozeb e dithianona, nos dois anos. Os princípios ativos cúpricos - oxicloreto de cobre, isolado ou combinado com mancozeb, e sulfato de cobre - não foram eficazes para controlar o míldio nos cachos sob condições climáticas favoráveis à doença.One of the factors to be managed for maximum vineyard productivity is the downy mildew, disease caused by Plasmopara viticola that affects grape production in many parts of the world. In Brazil, several fungicide applications for its control are necessary. Different active ingredients are available on the market. The influence of climatic factors (air temperature, rainfall and relative humidity on fungicide efficacy in Vitis vinifera was analyzed using results of fungicide trials for downy mildew control as a base. The experiments were carried out at Embrapa Uva e Vinho with the cv. Tannat conducted on vertical trellis

  18. Modeling the Effects of Land Use on the Quality of Water, Air, Noise, and Habitat for a Five-County Region in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia H. Dale

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A computer simulation model, the Regional Simulator (RSim, was constructed to project how land-use changes affect the quality of water, air, noise, and habitat of species of special concern. RSim was designed to simulate these environmental impacts for five counties in Georgia that surround and include Fort Benning. The model combines existing data and modeling approaches to simulate the effects of land-cover changes on: nutrient export by hydrological unit; peak 8-h average ozone concentrations; noise caused by small arms and blasts; and habitat changes for the rare Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis and gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus. The model also includes submodules for urban growth, new urbanization influenced by existing roads, nonurban land cover transitions, and a new military training area under development at Fort Benning. The model was run under scenarios of business as usual (BAU and greatly increased urban growth for the region. The projections show that the effects of high urban growth will likely differ from those of BAU for noise and nitrogen and phosphorus loadings to surface water, but not for peak airborne ozone concentrations, at least in the absence of associated increases in industry and transportation use or technology changes. In both scenarios, no effects of urban growth are anticipated for existing populations of the federally endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker. In contrast, habitat for gopher tortoise in the five-county region is projected to decline by 5 and 40% in the BAU and high urban growth scenarios, respectively. RSim is designed to assess the relative environmental impacts of planned activities both inside and outside military installations and to address concerns related to encroachment and transboundary influences.

  19. Using Field Data and GIS-Derived Variables to Model Occurrence of Williamson's Sapsucker Nesting Habitat at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C Drever

    Full Text Available Williamson's sapsucker (Sphyrapicus thyroideus is a migratory woodpecker that breeds in mixed coniferous forests in western North America. In Canada, the range of this woodpecker is restricted to three small populations in southern British Columbia, precipitating a national listing as 'Endangered' in 2005, and the need to characterize critical habitat for its survival and recovery. We compared habitat attributes between Williamson's sapsucker nest territories and random points without nests or detections of this sapsucker as part of a resource selection analysis to identify the habitat features that best explain the probability of nest occurrence in two separate geographic regions in British Columbia. We compared the relative explanatory power of generalized linear models based on field-derived and Geographic Information System (GIS data within both a 225 m and 800 m radius of a nest or random point. The model based on field-derived variables explained the most variation in nest occurrence in the Okanagan-East Kootenay Region, whereas nest occurrence was best explained by GIS information at the 800 m scale in the Western Region. Probability of nest occurrence was strongly tied to densities of potential nest trees, which included open forests with very large (diameter at breast height, DBH, ≥57.5 cm western larch (Larix occidentalis trees in the Okanagan-East Kootenay Region, and very large ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa and large (DBH 17.5-57.5 cm trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides trees in the Western Region. Our results have the potential to guide identification and protection of critical habitat as required by the Species at Risk Act in Canada, and to better manage Williamson's sapsucker habitat overall in North America. In particular, management should focus on the maintenance and recruitment of very large western larch and ponderosa pine trees.

  20. Comparison of statistical and theoretical habitat models for conservation planning: the benefit of ensemble prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Fearer, Todd M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Thompson, Frank R.; Nelson, Mark D.; Tirpak, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Selection of a modeling approach is an important step in the conservation planning process, but little guidance is available. We compared two statistical and three theoretical habitat modeling approaches representing those currently being used for avian conservation planning at landscape and regional scales: hierarchical spatial count (HSC), classification and regression tree (CRT), habitat suitability index (HSI), forest structure database (FS), and habitat association database (HA). We focused our comparison on models for five priority forest-breeding species in the Central Hardwoods Bird Conservation Region: Acadian Flycatcher, Cerulean Warbler, Prairie Warbler, Red-headed Woodpecker, and Worm-eating Warbler. Lacking complete knowledge on the distribution and abundance of each species with which we could illuminate differences between approaches and provide strong grounds for recommending one approach over another, we used two approaches to compare models: rank correlations among model outputs and comparison of spatial correspondence. In general, rank correlations were significantly positive among models for each species, indicating general agreement among the models. Worm-eating Warblers had the highest pairwise correlations, all of which were significant (P , 0.05). Red-headed Woodpeckers had the lowest agreement among models, suggesting greater uncertainty in the relative conservation value of areas within the region. We assessed model uncertainty by mapping the spatial congruence in priorities (i.e., top ranks) resulting from each model for each species and calculating the coefficient of variation across model ranks for each location. This allowed identification of areas more likely to be good targets of conservation effort for a species, those areas that were least likely, and those in between where uncertainty is higher and thus conservation action incorporates more risk. Based on our results, models developed independently for the same purpose

  1. 壳聚糖与水杨酸复配对小白菜霜霉病与盐胁迫复合逆境的诱抗作用%Role of chitosan and salicylic acid application in induction of Brassica chinensis resistance to dual stress of downy mildew and salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芬芬; 李坚; 罗晓燕

    2011-01-01

    为探明壳聚糖(CTS)和水杨酸(SA)复配处理对小白菜(Brassica chinensis L.)复合逆境的诱抗作用和效果,采用根际施用结合叶面喷洒的方法,研究了CTS与SA复配对小白菜盐和霜霉病胁迫复合逆境的诱抗作用.结果表明:SA、CTS单一与复配施用均能显著降低复合逆境下小白菜的盐害指数和病情指数,提高复合逆境下小白菜的株高、展开叶数、最大叶片面积和单株干质量等形态指标,促进小白菜在复合逆境下的正常生长,降低小白菜叶片的丙二醛(MDA)含量,增强过氧化物酶(POD)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)等保护酶的活性.在复合逆境下,SA、CTS复配施用对小白菜的诱导抗病和抗盐效果显著,盐害指数和病情指数均低于SA、CTS单一处理,且抗病和抗盐的共效系数均分别为-14.76和1.72,均表现为相加作用.%The role of chitosan (CTS) and salicylic acid (SA) compound application in induction of pakchoi (Bras-sica chinensis L. ) resistance to dual stress of downy mildew and salt stress was studied by the method of rhizosphere application with foliar spray. The results showed that both separate and joint application of SA and CTS significantly reduced salt injury index and disease index of pakchoi under the dual stress, increased the plant height, the number of expanding leaves, maximum leaf area, plant dry weight and other morphological indicators, and promoted the normal growth of pakchoi under dual stress, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content of leaves, and enhanced peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities. The effects of CTS and SA joint application on the induction of resistance against downy mildew or salt stress in pakchoi were significant under the dual stress, with the salt injury index and disease index lower than those of single CTS or SA application. In the treatment of CTS and SA joint application, the coefficients of disease resistance and salt tolerance were -14.76 and 1

  2. Using Field Data and GIS-Derived Variables to Model Occurrence of Williamson’s Sapsucker Nesting Habitat at Multiple Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Williamson's sapsucker (Sphyrapicus thyroideus) is a migratory woodpecker that breeds in mixed coniferous forests in western North America. In Canada, the range of this woodpecker is restricted to three small populations in southern British Columbia, precipitating a national listing as ‘Endangered’ in 2005, and the need to characterize critical habitat for its survival and recovery. We compared habitat attributes between Williamson’s sapsucker nest territories and random points without nests or detections of this sapsucker as part of a resource selection analysis to identify the habitat features that best explain the probability of nest occurrence in two separate geographic regions in British Columbia. We compared the relative explanatory power of generalized linear models based on field-derived and Geographic Information System (GIS) data within both a 225 m and 800 m radius of a nest or random point. The model based on field-derived variables explained the most variation in nest occurrence in the Okanagan-East Kootenay Region, whereas nest occurrence was best explained by GIS information at the 800 m scale in the Western Region. Probability of nest occurrence was strongly tied to densities of potential nest trees, which included open forests with very large (diameter at breast height, DBH, ≥57.5 cm) western larch (Larix occidentalis) trees in the Okanagan-East Kootenay Region, and very large ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and large (DBH 17.5–57.5 cm) trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees in the Western Region. Our results have the potential to guide identification and protection of critical habitat as required by the Species at Risk Act in Canada, and to better manage Williamson’s sapsucker habitat overall in North America. In particular, management should focus on the maintenance and recruitment of very large western larch and ponderosa pine trees. PMID:26177286

  3. Novas raças de Bremia lactucae, agente causador do míldio da alface, identificadas no estado de São Paulo New races of Bremia lactucae, causal agent of lettuce downy mildew, identified in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean de O Souza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar o surgimento de raças de Bremia lactucae, agente causal do míldio nas principais regiões produtoras de alface do estado de São Paulo. O estudo foi realizado no Laboratório de Melhoramento Genético de Hortaliças do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal. No período de 2006 e 2007, foram coletados 36 isolados de B. lactucae de diferentes regiões produtoras de alface no estado. Para identificação das raças foram utilizadas as cultivares diferenciadoras conforme o código "Sextet". Foram identificadas três novas raças, SPBl:02, SPBl:03 e SPBl:04 com os referidos comportamentos do fungo: (63/31/19/00, (63/63/19/00 e (63/63/03/00. Os genes Dm-14, Dm-17, Dm-18, Dm-37 e Dm-38 conferem resistência a essas novas raças identificadas.The objective of this paper was to report new races of lettuce downy mildew causal agent Bremia lactucae in São Paulo State. The study was carried out in the laboratory of Crop Genetics in the Department of Crop Science at the college of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, Jaboticabal campus. A total of 36 isolates of B. lactucae was collected in different regions. The identification of races was based on compatibility reaction on the differential cultivars of the "Sextet". Three new races of B. lactucae, SPBl:02 (63/31/19/00, SPBl:03 (63/63/19/00 and SPBl:04 (63/63/03/00 were identified according to "Sextet" code. Genes Dm-14, Dm-17, Dm-18, Dm-37 and Dm-38 confer resistance to these new races identified.

  4. Aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio e da podridão-de-escamas de bulbos de cebola Foliar spray of treatments in the control of downy mildew and bulb rot in onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Américo Wordell Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento de campo, avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio (Peronospora destructor e da podridão de bulbos (Burkholderia cepacia de cebola: testemunha, clorotalonil/metalaxyl + clorotalonil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, N-P-K, calda bordalesa, calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio, acibenzolar-S-methyl, pulverizados semanalmente; extrato de alga (Ulva fasciata e ulvana, aplicados a cada 7, 14 e 21 dias. Somente a pulverização semanal com fungicidas sintéticos ou com o fertilizante (03-00-16; 400 mL de p.c./100 L foi capaz de reduzir significativamente a severidade do míldio, em 60 ou 23%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha não pulverizada, sem aumentar o rendimento de bulbos. O tratamento com fertilizantes ricos em potássio resultou em maior incidência da podridão de bulbos armazenados por cinco meses. O conteúdo de açúcares solúveis e incidência da podridão de bulbos de cebola foram correlacionados significativamente (-0,629, p A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of foliar sprays with the following treatments on the downy mildew (Peronospora destructor and bulb rot (Burkholderia cepacia in onions: non-treated control, fungicide chlorotalonil/metalaxyl + chlorotalonil, potassium phosphite, foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, N-P-K, bordeaux mixture, bordeaux mixture/potassium phosphite, acibenzolar-S-methyl weekly applied; extract of alga Ulva fasciata and ulvan sprayed every 7, 14 and 21 days. Only the weekly spraying of fungicides and fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L significantly reduced the mildew severity by 60 and 23%, respectively, but did not increase the bulb yield. The foliar application of potassium rich fertilizers resulted in a higher incidence of rotten bulbs after 5 months in storage. Soluble sugar content and rot incidence of onion bulbs were significantly correlated (-0,629, p < 0,05.

  5. New species of parasitic quill mites of the genus Picobia (Acari: Syringophilidae: Picobiinae) from North American birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Hendricks, Sarah A; Spicer, Greg S

    2010-09-01

    Five new species of the genus Picobia are described and illustrated: (1) P. leucophaeus sp. nov. from the Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla L. (Charadriiformes: Laridae) from Texas; (2) P. troglodytes sp. nov. from the House Wren Troglodytes aedon Vieillot (Passeriformes: Troglodytidae) from California; (3) P. cardinalis sp. nov. from the Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis (L.) (Passeriformes: Cardinalidae) from Texas; (4) P. carpodacus sp. nov. from the Purple Finch Carpodacus purpureus (Gmelin) (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) from California; and (5) P. psaltriparus sp. nov. from the Bushtit Psaltriparus minimus (Townsend) (Passeriformes: Aegithalidae) from Texas. Two avian species from the family Picidae (Piciformes) are recorded as new hosts for P. dryobatis (Fritsch, 1958): the Downy Woodpecker Picoides pubescens (L.) from Texas and the Ladder-backed Woodpecker Picoides scalaris (Wagler) from California. Additionally, all named species of the genus Picobia with their host associations and distributions are summarized in tabular form.

  6. The effects of biological control of Bacillus subtilis strains on downy mildew and anthracnose diseases of harvested litchi fruits%枯草芽胞杆菌对离体荔枝果实霜疫霉病、炭疽病的防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄庶识; 黄曦; 张荣灿; 许兰兰; 雷富; 黄荣韶

    2011-01-01

    Four antagonistic bacteria strains, OR-1, OR-2, OR-3 and ON-6, which were isolated and screened from soil under litchi trees and identified as Bacillus subtilis morphologically and molecularly, were used to evaluate the control effect on downy mildew and anthracnose diseases of harvested litchi fruits. The results showed that all 4 strains had obvious inhibiting action on mycelial growth of Peronophy-thora litchii and Colletrichum gloeosporiodes, among them, ON-6 strain had the highest inhibitory rate to mycelial growth of two litchi pathogenic fungi, the ratio were 92.34% and 70. 36% respectively; the next best was ON-1, its ratio were 82. 93% and 54. 61% severally. The browning index of the four strains treatment groups was lower than that of the control group and fungicide groups significantly ( P <0.05 ) , in which OR-1 strain had the best impact. Metabolites of four B. subtilis strains had a better effect in pre-venting P. litchii and C. gloeosporiodes on the surface of fresh fruits than those of CK group and fungicide groups at room temperature for 3 -4 d or at 4 X. for 40 d significantly (P < 0. 05 ) , which ON-6 strain showed best at room temperature, likewise, ON-6 and ON-3 strains showed best at 4 °C , indicated that the four B. subtilis strains could inhibit litchi pathogenic fungi on the surface of fruits determinately, and extend the period of storage and delay the fresh fruits to brown stain at room temperature or at 4 t.%为了进一步明确从土壤中筛选得到的拮抗细菌OR-1、OR-2、OR-3、ON-6的分类地位和生防效果,采用形态学观察、理化特性结合分子生物学方法,鉴定这4株细菌皆为枯草芽胞杆菌Bacillussubitilis.拮抗菌对荔枝霜疫霉菌、炭疽菌菌丝生长均具有明显抑制作用,ON-6菌株的发酵液对菌丝生长的抑制率最高,分别为92.34%和70.36%,其次是OR-1菌株.拮抗菌处理组褐变指数均小于对照组以及杀菌剂处理组,且差异达显著水平(P<0.05),OR

  7. Detecção e variabilidade de Plasmopara halstedii no Brasil e avaliação da resistência de genótipos de girassol ao míldio Detection and variability of Plasmopara halstedii in Brazil and resistance of sunflower genotypes to downy mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria Villas Bôas de Campos Leite

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de identificar a raça fisiológica de Plasmopara halstedii que ocorreu em plantas de girassol coletadas no campo experimental da Embrapa Soja, Londrina, PR, em 1998, 2001 e 2002 e avaliar a reação de genótipos de girassol ao míldio. Plântulas de girassol das diferenciadoras de raças e das cultivares foram inoculadas com suspensão de zoosporângios do patógeno e foram plantadas em caixas contendo areia autoclavada. As plântulas foram mantidas em câmara climatizada, com temperatura controlada em 21ºC, por 11 dias. Em seguida, as plantas foram aspergidas intensamente com água destilada, cobertas com saco plástico e mantidas no escuro, a 18ºC. No dia seguinte, foi observada a presença de esporulação nos cotilédones. As plantas que apresentaram esporulação foram consideradas suscetíveis e as sem esporulação foram resistentes. O resultado indicou tratar-se da raça 330 (antiga raça 7 americana, nas três ocasiões. Os genótipos de girassol Embrapa 122, BRS 191 e as cultivares de girassol ornamental BRS Capri M, BRS Encanto M, BRS Oásis, BRS Paixão M, BRS Pesqueiro M, BRS Refúgio M, BRS Saudade M e BRS Saudade U e seus respectivos parentais foram suscetíveis a P. halstedii raça 330. Os genótipos AGROBEL 910, AGROBEL 920, AGROBEL 960, AGROBEL 965, C11, EXP38, M734, M742 e RUMBOSOL 91 foram resistentes à raça 330 do patógeno e podem ser indicados aos agricultores para uso em regiões de risco de ocorrência da doença.This research was carried out for identifying the physiological race of Plasmopara halstedii occurring in sunflower at the experimental field of Embrapa Soybean, Londrina, PR, Brazil, in 1998, 2001 and 2002 by evaluating the reaction of sunflower genotypes inoculated with downy mildew pathogen. Sunflower seedlings of the differentials set to identify races and of the cultivars were inoculated by immersion in zoosporangia suspension and were grown in autoclaved

  8. Effects of leaf area of downy oak (Quercus pubescens Willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... gravity meter with sensitivity of 0.01 g and by means of formula 1. The 1st and 2nd age ... multiplying these values the area of a leaf (l.a, mm2) is calculated. 4. ..... Considering obtained data from this study of effects of leaf area ...

  9. Susceptibility level of cucumber downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis to metalaxyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagi Ferenc F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Level of susceptibility of Pseudoperonospora cubensis isolate from Ratkovo to metalaxyl in concentrations 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 μg/ml was investigated. The trials were conducted on cotyledon and fully developed young leaves using cucumber cultivar Haroš. Reduced level of susceptibility was detected in metalaxyl concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml because the intensity of sporulation in these treatments was on the same level as in control. Sporulation was also observed on developed leaves treated with metalaxyl in concentrations of 400 and 800 μg/ml.

  10. Atahualpa’s Revenge: The Spread of Quinoa Downy Mildew

    OpenAIRE

    Testen, Anna L.; Backman, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record The Andean crop quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa, has gained popularity in recent years due to its nutritious seed and desirable agricultural traits, such as its tolerance to drought and high saline soils. Prized by the Inca, quinoa is now highly desirable to health conscious consumers in North America and Europe. Quinoa also has interesting applications to plant pathology, including being a “universal” virus host as well as its production of antimicrobial compounds. Quinoa ...

  11. Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel-Christiansen, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen fremhæver den visuelle rotation - billeder, tegninger, modeller, værker - som det privilligerede medium i kommunikationen af ideer imellem skabende arkitekter......Artiklen fremhæver den visuelle rotation - billeder, tegninger, modeller, værker - som det privilligerede medium i kommunikationen af ideer imellem skabende arkitekter...

  12. Modeling the effects of environmental disturbance on wildlife communities: avian responses to prescribed fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E; Royle, J Andrew; Saab, Victoria A; Lehmkuhl, John F; Block, William M; Sauer, John R

    2009-07-01

    Prescribed fire is a management tool used to reduce fuel loads on public lands in forested areas in the western United States. Identifying the impacts of prescribed fire on bird communities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests is necessary for providing land management agencies with information regarding the effects of fuel reduction on sensitive, threatened, and migratory bird species. Recent developments in occupancy modeling have established a framework for quantifying the impacts of management practices on wildlife community dynamics. We describe a Bayesian hierarchical model of multi-species occupancy accounting for detection probability, and we demonstrate the model's usefulness for identifying effects of habitat disturbances on wildlife communities. Advantages to using the model include the ability to estimate the effects of environmental impacts on rare or elusive species, the intuitive nature of the modeling, the incorporation of detection probability, the estimation of parameter uncertainty, the flexibility of the model to suit a variety of experimental designs, and the composite estimate of the response that applies to the collection of observed species as opposed to merely a small subset of common species. Our modeling of the impacts of prescribed fire on avian communities in a ponderosa pine forest in Washington indicate that prescribed fire treatments result in increased occupancy rates for several bark-insectivore, cavity-nesting species including a management species of interest, Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus). Three aerial insectivore species, and the ground insectivore, American Robin (Turdus migratorius), also responded positively to prescribed fire, whereas three foliage insectivores and two seed specialists, Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) and the Pine Siskin (Carduelis pinus), declined following treatments. Land management agencies interested in determining the effects of habitat manipulations on wildlife

  13. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Hellsgate Project, 1999-2000 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Matthew

    2000-05-01

    A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was conducted on lands acquired and/or managed (4,568 acres total) by the Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Hellsgate project) to mitigate some of the losses associated with the original construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam and inundation of habitats behind the dams. Three separate properties, totaling 2,224 acres were purchased in 1998. One property composed of two separate parcels, mostly grassland lies southeast of the town of Nespelem in Okanogan County (770 acres) and was formerly called the Hinman property. The former Hinman property lies within an area the Tribes have set aside for the protection and preservation of the sharp-tailed grouse (Agency Butte unit). This special management area minus the Hinman acquisition contains 2,388 acres in a long-term lease with the Tribes. The second property lies just south of the Silver Creek turnoff (Ferry County) and is bisected by the Hellsgate Road (part of the Friedlander unit). This parcel contains 60 acres of riparian and conifer forest cover. The third property (now named the Sand Hills unit) acquired for mitigation (1,394 acres) lies within the Hellsgate Reserve in Ferry County. This new acquisition links two existing mitigation parcels (the old Sand Hills parcels and the Lundstrum Flat parcel, all former Kuehne purchases) together forming one large unit. HEP team members included individuals from the Colville Confederated Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department (CTCR), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The HEP team conducted a baseline habitat survey using the following HEP species models: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), mink (Mustela vison), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), bobcat (Lynx rufus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus). HEP analysis and results are discussed within the body of the text. The cover types

  14. Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Spädtke, P

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of technical machines became a standard technique since computer became powerful enough to handle the amount of data relevant to the specific system. Simulation of an existing physical device requires the knowledge of all relevant quantities. Electric fields given by the surrounding boundary as well as magnetic fields caused by coils or permanent magnets have to be known. Internal sources for both fields are sometimes taken into account, such as space charge forces or the internal magnetic field of a moving bunch of charged particles. Used solver routines are briefly described and some bench-marking is shown to estimate necessary computing times for different problems. Different types of charged particle sources will be shown together with a suitable model to describe the physical model. Electron guns are covered as well as different ion sources (volume ion sources, laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron resonance ion sources, and H$^-$-sources) together with some remarks on beam transport.

  15. model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trie neural construction oí inoiviouo! unci communal identities in ... occurs, Including models based on Information processing,1 ... Applying the DSM descriptive approach to dissociation in the ... a personal, narrative path lhal connects personal lo ethnic ..... managed the problem in the context of the community, using a.

  16. Prediction of biological sensors appearance with ARIMA models as a tool for Integrated Pest Management protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernández-González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objectives.[/b] Powdery mildew caused by [i]Uncinula necator[/i] and Downy mildew produced by [i]Plasmopara viticola[/i] are the most common diseases in the North-West Spain vineyards. Knowledge of airborne spore concentrations could be a useful tool in the Integrated Pest Management protocols in order to reduce the number of pesticide treatments, applied only when there is a real risk of infection. [b]Material and methods. [/b]The study was carried out in a vineyard of the D. O. Ribeiro, in the North-West Spain, during the grapevine active period 2004–2012. A Hirts-type volumetric spore-trap was used for the aerobiological monitoring. [b]Results.[/b] During the study period the annual total [i]U. necator[/i] spores amount ranged from the 578 spores registered in 2007 to the 4,145 spores sampled during 2008. The highest annual total [i]P. viticola[/i] spores quantity was observed in 2010 (1,548 spores and the lowest in 2005 (210 spores. In order to forecast the concentration of fungal spores, ARIMA models were elaborated. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The most accurate models were an ARIMA (3.1.3 for [i]U. necator[/i] and (1.0.3 for [i]P. viticola[/i]. The possibility to forecast the spore presence 72 hours in advance open an important horizon for optimizing the organization of the harvest processes in the vineyard.

  17. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Iskuulpa Wildlife Mitigation and Watershed Project, Technical Report 1998-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaempts, Eric

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to evaluate lands acquired and leased in Eskuulpa Watershed, a Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation watershed and wildlife mitigation project. The project is designed to partially credit habitat losses incurred by BPA for the construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grasslands cover types were included in the evaluation. Indicator species included downy woodpecker (Picuides puhescens), black-capped chickadee (Pams atricopillus), blue grouse (Beadragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petschia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnello neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 55,500 feet of transects, 678 m2 plots, and 243 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 123.9 and f 0,794.4 acres were evaluated for each indicator species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total habitat units credited to BPA for the Iskuulpa Watershed Project and its seven indicator species is 4,567.8 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest, which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing or implementation of restoration grazing schemes, road de-commissioning, reforestation, large woody debris additions to floodplains, control of competing and unwanted vegetation, reestablishing displaced or reduced native vegetation species

  18. OUTBREAK OF MAIZE DOWNY MILDEW (Sclerophthora macrospora IN SLOVENIA IN 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Trdan

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1999 a pronounced infection of maize with fungus Sclerophthora macrospora occurred in Slovenia, especially in its north-eastern and eastern regions. Symptoms, typical for infection with this fungus, were found on app. 1800 ha, which means on about 2.5 % of the acreage on which maize is grown. The infected plants were found only on those fields, or parts of those fields, which were flooded for some time soon after sowing or emergence of the crop. The percentage of the plants infected by the fungus was between 5 and 90 %, depending on the type of soil. This article presents different disease causing fungi, their taxonomy, and deals in detail with the species Sclerophthora macrospora, the only disease causing organism under our growing conditions. The article deals with hosts of the fungus, typical symptoms of the disease on maize (“crazy top”, pathogen biology, the mode of infection, its survival under unfavorable conditions, and possible protection against the infection. The article also describes the actual situation in Slovenia, and adds a comment on possible regular occurrences of this disease in future.

  19. Photosynthetic responses of lettuce to downy mildew infection and cytokinin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopová, Jitka; Spundová, Martina; Sedlárová, Michaela; Husicková, Alexandra; Novotný, Radko; Dolezal, Karel; Naus, Jan; Lebeda, Ales

    2010-08-01

    Changes in primary metabolism of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. (cv. Cobham Green), induced by compatible interaction with the biotrophic oomycete pathogen Bremia lactucae Regel (race BL 16), under two intensities of illumination in the presence and absence of exogenous cytokinins were studied by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Thirteen days post-inoculation leaf discs infected by B. lactucae exhibited impairments of photosynthesis associated with biotrophic infections, including: reductions in photosynthetic pigment contents and the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry (F(V)/F(M)), inhibition of electron transport (Phi(PSII)) and increased non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (NPQ). Detected changes in photosynthetic parameters correlated with the leaf area colonized by the pathogen's intercellular hyphae. Applications of two cytokinins, benzylaminopurine and meta-topolin, previously shown to suppress B. lactucae sporulation if applied 24 h prior to inoculation at a concentration of 200 microM, retarded the pathogen's asexual reproduction with no apparent negative effects on the host's photosynthetic apparatus. However, long-lasting treatment of healthy tissues with this high concentration of exogenous cytokinin led to effects parallel to pathogenesis: reductions in photosynthetic pigment contents accompanied by inhibition of photosystem II photochemistry and electron transport. These effects of both prolonged exposure to cytokinins and the pathogenesis were weaker in discs exposed to the lower photosynthetic photon flux density. The role of cytokinins in plant-biotrophic pathogen interactions and their potential as disease control agents are discussed.

  20. Linkage analysis of genes for resistance to downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, S H; Michelmore, R W

    1985-08-01

    The genetics of specific resistance was studied in F2 populations which segregated for either one or two resistance genes. The resistance factors 1, 11 and 14 which had not previously been characterized genetically segregated as single dominant genes (Dm). Resistance was determined by three linkage groups; R 1/14, 2, 3, and 6 in the first, R 5/8, and 10 in the second and R 4, 7 and 11 in the third. Cultivars of lettuce commonly used in the differential series to detect virulence to R3 and R10, were demonstrated to carry two tightly linked resistance genes. Implications of this linkage arrangement to the manipulation and characterization of these resistance genes are discussed.

  1. Plasmopara halstedii virus causes hypovirulence in Plasmopara halstedii, the downy mildew pathogen of the sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasse, Wolfgang; Zipper, Reinhard; Totska, Maria; Spring, Otmar

    2013-08-01

    Plasmopara halstedii virus (PhV) is an isometric virus recently found in the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii. The fully sequenced virus genome consists of two ss(+)RNA strands encoding for the virus polymerase and the coat protein, respectively. Most of previously screened field isolates of P. halstedii were found to harbor PhV, but effects of PhV on the pathogenicity and aggressiveness of the oomycete have not been investigated yet. To assess the influence of PhV on the infectivity of P. halstedii, virus-free isolates of the oomycete were searched for, cultivated on sunflower and used for single zoospore infection. Four genetically homogenous strains belonging to three different pathotypes (710, 730, 750) were established. Subcultures of each strain were successfully infected with PhV. This afforded pairs of isogenic strains with and without virus and allowed assessment of the pathogenicity (susceptibility to specific sunflower genotypes) and aggressiveness (intensity of infection, time scale and density of sporulation) in cultivation of sunflower. While no significant difference was found in the pathogenicity of P. halstedii strains with and without virus towards sunflower seedlings of different resistance (pathotype differentials), the aggressiveness of the oomycete was diminished by PhV. Compared to the virus-free strains, the time required for the first sporulation (latent period) increased by about 1 day post inoculation. Progression of the pathogen from the hypocotyl into the epicotyl of sunflower (systemic infection) was reduced by about one third in the presence of virus. In the virus containing strains, the average density of sporangia produced per cm² cotyledon reached only 75% of the virus-free controls. In summary, the presence of PhV leads to hypovirulence effects by weakening the aggressiveness of P. halstedii.

  2. Identification and functional analysis of downy mildew effectors in lettuce and Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stassen, J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314004416

    2012-01-01

    Oomycete pathogens cause large losses in many crop plants. Chemical control measures are undesirable and are becoming less effective. Resistance breeding has traditionally made use of dominant resistance genes to which oomycete pathogens have often been quick to adapt. Novel approaches towards

  3. Risk assessment: progress of quarantine biocontrol research on Chinese Tallow, Melaleuca, and Downy Rose Myrtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk assessments of two biocontrol candidates for Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphoriales: Euphorbiaceae), and one for Melaleuca, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), were conducted during 2009 and continuing into 2010 by USDA scientists located at the Florida Department of Agricul...

  4. First report of downy mildew caused by Peronospora sp. on Agastache in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyssops (Agastache spp. and cultivars) are fragrant perennial plants in the mint family (Lamiaceae), primarily native to North America. Hybrid Agastache are bred as ornamental plants, valued for their showy flowers and aromatic scents that attract pollinators to the landscape. In May 2015, a commerc...

  5. Suppression of downy brome by red clover as a cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds are one of the primary obstacles to successful organic farming. Organic producers till to control weeds, but soil health is being damaged by the extensive tillage. Therefore, organic producers are interested in reducing the amount of tillage in their production systems. This study examined t...

  6. Ecophysiological characteristics and cadmium accumulation in Downy Oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocozza C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals provoke environmental pollution with potentially toxic effects on human and plants systems. Recently, investigations are conducted on plants that may play a relevant role on pollutants absorption or stabilization, focusing on fast growing tree species in agronomic conditions; little is known on the effects of contaminants on tree species colonizing abandoned fields to be used in restoration ecology. The effects of Cd on photosynthetic performance and metal accumulation were investigated in Quercus pubescens Willd. seedlings grown in pots containing a mixture of sand, clay, turf and Cd-treatments (0, 25 and 75 mg kg-1 dry soil. The studied photosynthetic parameters (Asat= net phytosynthesis; Rday= day respiration; Γcomp= CO2 compensation point; Vcmax= maximum carboxylation rate; Jmax = electron transport rate; TPU = triose phosphate use; Ci/Ca = ratio of intercellular (Ci to ambient (Ca [CO2] (Ci/Ca; Jmax/Vcmax = ratio; (gsmax = maximum stomatal conductance; (lg = stomatal conductance estimated relative to the photosynthetic rate; (Fv/Fm = maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry; (ΔF/F’m = effective photochemical efficiency varied progressively with increasing Cd concentration in the soil, highlighting a negative impact on photosynthetic potential and PSII functioning. Approximately 10% of added Cd was found to be extractable from the substrate, at the maximum concentration applied, with about 12 and 0.75 as bioaccumulation and translocation factors, respectively. Analogously, Cd accumulated up to 34, 30 and 46 mg kg−1 in leaves, stem and roots, respectively. While it is not possible to extrapolate from the present study with seedlings to effects on mature pine trees, there are clear implications for regeneration in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may lead to ecosystem deterioration.

  7. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-DM1 resistant to sunflower downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    HA-DM1 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 674793) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm was developed and released cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. HA-DM1 is a BC2F4 derived oilseed maintainer line from the cros...

  8. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area, Technical Report 2000-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozusko, Shana

    2003-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) currently manages a 15,325 acre parcel of land known as the Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area that was purchased as mitigation for losses incurred by construction of the four lower Snake River dams. The Management Area is located in northern Wallowa County, Oregon and southern Asotin County, Washington (Figure 1). It is divided into three management parcels--the Buford parcel is located on Buford Creek and straddles the WA-OR state line, and the Tamarack and Basin parcels are contiguous to each other and located between the Joseph Creek and Cottonwood Creek drainages in Wallowa County, OR. The project was developed under the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-501), with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The acreage protected under this contract will be credited to BPA as habitat permanently dedicated to wildlife and wildlife mitigation. A modeling strategy known as Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and adopted by BPA as a habitat equivalency accounting system. Nine wildlife species models were used to evaluate distinct cover type features and provide a measure of habitat quality. Models measure a wide range of life requisite variables for each species and monitor overall trends in vegetation community health and diversity. One product of HEP is an evaluation of habitat quality expressed in Habitat Units (HUs). This HU accounting system is used to determine the amount of credit BPA receives for mitigation lands. After construction of the four lower Snake River dams, a HEP loss assessment was conducted to determine how many Habitat Units were inundated behind the dams. Twelve target species were used in that evaluation: Canada goose, mallard, river otter, downy woodpecker, song sparrow, yellow warbler, marsh wren, western meadowlark, chukar, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, and mule deer. The U.S. Army Corp of

  9. Focus expansion and stability of the spread parameter estimate of the power law model for dispersal gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Ojiambo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Empirical and mechanistic modeling indicate that pathogens transmitted via aerially dispersed inoculum follow a power law, resulting in dispersive epidemic waves. The spread parameter (b of the power law model, which is an indicator of the distance of the epidemic wave front from an initial focus per unit time, has been found to be approximately 2 for several animal and plant diseases over a wide range of spatial scales under conditions favorable for disease spread. Although disease spread and epidemic expansion can be influenced by several factors, the stability of the parameter b over multiple epidemic years has not been determined. Additionally, the size of the initial epidemic area is expected to be strongly related to the final epidemic extent for epidemics, but the stability of this relationship is also not well established. Here, empirical data of cucurbit downy mildew epidemics collected from 2008 to 2014 were analyzed using a spatio-temporal model of disease spread that incorporates logistic growth in time with a power law function for dispersal. Final epidemic extent ranged from 4.16 ×108 km2 in 2012 to 6.44 ×108 km2 in 2009. Current epidemic extent became significantly associated (P < 0.0332; 0.56 < R2 < 0.99 with final epidemic area beginning near the end of April, with the association increasing monotonically to 1.0 by the end of the epidemic season in July. The position of the epidemic wave-front became exponentially more distant with time, and epidemic velocity increased linearly with distance. Slopes from the temporal and spatial regression models varied with about a 2.5-fold range across epidemic years. Estimates of b varied substantially ranging from 1.51 to 4.16 across epidemic years. We observed a significant b ×time (or distance interaction (P < 0.05 for epidemic years where data were well described by the power law model. These results suggest that the spread parameter b may not be stable over multiple epidemic

  10. Range-Wide Meta-Analysis of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Foraging Habitat Suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    34o V* • " 0"""° K* „ 0 (d) (h) O O O D >° fee 7 -i 1 r— o m omo so 20 40 60 80 100 120 140...TWo—H •oo,AA6u«B»5 I 8—8- vomKt » omo --nmm ODOO mo mooo oa> ( D00«BOOO^ £ 0 oo 0 O ^O ° O » oT>eo ooo o ^ o O O 000...o oo o o o < o o o o o • mm o m omo a>o 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Acres with Rscore >=4 Figure S3. Relationship

  11. Evaluation of Military Range Berm Effectiveness in Protecting Red-cockaded Woodpecker Foraging and Nesting Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    longleaf pine (P. palustris; Table 2). This contrasted with Fort Stewart, where the dominant tree species was longleaf pine , followed by loblolly...of all trees surveyed on Fort Benning, compared with only 6.4% to 16.2% across plots on Fort Stewart. In contrast, longleaf pine accounted for...surveyed on Fort Stewart (Tables 2–4). The dominant tree species identified for each installation (i.e., loblolly pine for Fort Benning and longleaf

  12. Mapping Habitat Connectivity for Multiple Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species on and Around Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Circuitscape, CONNECT, decision-support system, Dispersal, Eastern Tiger Salamander, Fort Bragg, graph theory, Habitat Management, Individual-based...cockaded woodpecker, St. Francis’ satyr butterfly, Carolina gopher frog, and eastern tiger salamander). Our objectives were to model habitat-mediated...population sizes, reduced flow of individuals and genes between populations, and greater risk of extinction of native species (Fisher and Lindenmayer 2007

  13. Behavioral evidence for fruit odor discrimination and sympatric host races of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent shift of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) from its native host downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis, to introduced domesticated apple, Malus domestica, in the eastern U.S. is a model for sympatric host race formation. However, the fly is also present in the western U.S. where it ma...

  14. Leadership Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Thomas J.

    This paper discusses six different models of organizational structure and leadership, including the scalar chain or pyramid model, the continuum model, the grid model, the linking pin model, the contingency model, and the circle or democratic model. Each model is examined in a separate section that describes the model and its development, lists…

  15. Isoprene emissions from downy oak under water limitation during an entire growing season: what cost for growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Cyrielle Genard-Zielinski

    Full Text Available Increases in the production of terpene- and phenolic-like compounds in plant species under abiotic stress conditions have been interpreted in physiological studies as a supplementary defense system due to their capacity to limit cell oxidation. From an ecological perspective however, these increases are only expected to confer competitive advantages if they do not imply a significant cost for the plant, that is, growth reduction. We investigated shifts of isoprene emissions, and to a lesser extent phenolic compound concentration, of Quercus pubescens Willd. from early leaf development to leaf senescence under optimal watering (control: C, mild and severe water stress (MS, SS. The impact of water stress was concomitantly assessed on plant physiological (chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis, water potential functional (relative leaf water content, leaf mass per area ratio and growth (aerial and root biomass traits. Growth changes allowed to estimate the eventual costs related to the production of isoprene and phenolics. The total phenolic content was not modified under water stress whereas isoprene emissions were promoted under MS over the entire growing cycle despite the decline of Pn by 35%. Under SS, isoprene emissions remained similar to C all over the study despite the decline of Pn by 47% and were thereby clearly uncoupled to Pn leading to an overestimation of the isoprene emission factor by 44%. Under SS, maintenance of isoprene emissions and phenolic compound concentration resulted in very significant costs for the plants as growth rates were very significantly reduced. Under MS, increases of isoprene emission and maintenance of phenolic compound concentration resulted in moderate growth reduction. Hence, it is likely that investment in isoprene emissions confers Q. pubescens an important competitive advantage during moderate but not severe periods of water scarcity. Consequences of this response for air quality in North Mediterranean areas are also discussed.

  16. Isoprene emissions from downy oak under water limitation during an entire growing season: what cost for growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genard-Zielinski, Anne-Cyrielle; Ormeño, Elena; Boissard, Christophe; Fernandez, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Increases in the production of terpene- and phenolic-like compounds in plant species under abiotic stress conditions have been interpreted in physiological studies as a supplementary defense system due to their capacity to limit cell oxidation. From an ecological perspective however, these increases are only expected to confer competitive advantages if they do not imply a significant cost for the plant, that is, growth reduction. We investigated shifts of isoprene emissions, and to a lesser extent phenolic compound concentration, of Quercus pubescens Willd. from early leaf development to leaf senescence under optimal watering (control: C), mild and severe water stress (MS, SS). The impact of water stress was concomitantly assessed on plant physiological (chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis, water potential) functional (relative leaf water content, leaf mass per area ratio) and growth (aerial and root biomass) traits. Growth changes allowed to estimate the eventual costs related to the production of isoprene and phenolics. The total phenolic content was not modified under water stress whereas isoprene emissions were promoted under MS over the entire growing cycle despite the decline of Pn by 35%. Under SS, isoprene emissions remained similar to C all over the study despite the decline of Pn by 47% and were thereby clearly uncoupled to Pn leading to an overestimation of the isoprene emission factor by 44%. Under SS, maintenance of isoprene emissions and phenolic compound concentration resulted in very significant costs for the plants as growth rates were very significantly reduced. Under MS, increases of isoprene emission and maintenance of phenolic compound concentration resulted in moderate growth reduction. Hence, it is likely that investment in isoprene emissions confers Q. pubescens an important competitive advantage during moderate but not severe periods of water scarcity. Consequences of this response for air quality in North Mediterranean areas are also discussed.

  17. Distribution of downy mildew (Bremia Lactucae Regel) resistances in a genebank collection of lettuce and its wild relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Arend, van der A.J.M.; Schut, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Genebanks serve as a rich source of diversity that can be exploited for crop improvement. However, large numbers of accessions usually have to be evaluated to find material with the characters of interest, and therefore, enhanced trait information can facilitate the more efficient selection of acces

  18. QTL identification in an interspecific grapevine cross segregating for resistance to Powdery Mildew, Downy Mildew, Black Rot, and Phylloxera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevine is a highly heterozygous plant with a complex genetic background. Here, we report the use of an F1 family (N = 125) from a cross of MN1264 × MN1246 made in 2010. The cross contains at least six Vitis species in its ancestry and segregates for resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator)...

  19. Computing Integrated Ratings from Heterogeneous Phenotypic Assessments: A Case Study of Lettuce Postharvest Quality and Downy Mildew Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparing performance of a large number of accessions simultaneously is not always possible. Typically, only subsets of all accessions are tested in separate trials with only some (or none) of the accessions overlapping between subsets. Using standard statistical approaches to combine data from such...

  20. Preliminary Trial of 11 New Hybrid Maize Genotype to The Resistance on Java Downy Mildew (Peronosclerospora maydis)

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Setyawan; Irfan Suliansyah; Aswaldi Anwar; Etti Swasti

    2016-01-01

    Maize or corn (Zea mays L.) belongs to the family of grasses (Poaceae).  Maize is grown globally and one of the most important cereal crop in the world.  In many countries, corn is the main agricultural crop, and are used as food, feed and industrial raw materials. Together with rice and wheat, corn included in the cereals that provide about 65% carbohydrates and 50% protein that humans need. For this purpose, many developing countries, especially in Asia and Africa are in a strong effort to ...

  1. Model Transformations? Transformation Models!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bézivin, J.; Büttner, F.; Gogolla, M.; Jouault, F.; Kurtev, I.; Lindow, A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the current work on model transformations seems essentially operational and executable in nature. Executable descriptions are necessary from the point of view of implementation. But from a conceptual point of view, transformations can also be viewed as descriptive models by stating only the

  2. Modelling business models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonse, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Business model design does not always produce a “design” or “model” as the expected result. However, when designers are involved, a visual model or artifact is produced. To assist strategic managers in thinking about how they can act, the designers’ challenge is to combine both strategy and design n

  3. Conforth Ranch Wildlife Mitigation Feasibility Study, McNary, Oregon : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Larry; Wright, Patrick; Giger, Richard

    1991-03-01

    The 2,860-acre Conforth Ranch near Umatilla, Oregon is being considered for acquisition and management to partially mitigate wildlife losses associated with McNary Hydroelectric Project. The Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) estimated that management for wildlife would result in habitat unit gains of 519 for meadowlark, 420 for quail, 431 for mallard, 466 for Canada goose, 405 for mink, 49 for downy woodpecker, 172 for yellow warbler, and 34 for spotted sandpiper. This amounts to a total combined gain of 2,495 habitat units -- a 110 percent increase over the existing values for these species combined of 2,274 habitat units. Current water delivery costs, estimated at $50,000 per year, are expected to increase to $125,000 per year. A survey of local interest indicated a majority of respondents favored the concept with a minority opposed. No contaminants that would preclude the Fish and Wildlife Service from agreeing to accept the property were identified. 21 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Modelling SDL, Modelling Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Piefel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Today's software systems are too complex to implement them and model them using only one language. As a result, modern software engineering uses different languages for different levels of abstraction and different system aspects. Thus to handle an increasing number of related or integrated languages is the most challenging task in the development of tools. We use object oriented metamodelling to describe languages. Object orientation allows us to derive abstract reusable concept definitions (concept classes from existing languages. This language definition technique concentrates on semantic abstractions rather than syntactical peculiarities. We present a set of common concept classes that describe structure, behaviour, and data aspects of high-level modelling languages. Our models contain syntax modelling using the OMG MOF as well as static semantic constraints written in OMG OCL. We derive metamodels for subsets of SDL and UML from these common concepts, and we show for parts of these languages that they can be modelled and related to each other through the same abstract concepts.

  5. Trading Habitat Patches for the Red Cockaded Woodpecker: Incorporating the Role of Landscape Structure and Uncertainty in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-11

    2001. The importance of control populations for the identification and management of genetic diversity. Genetica 110: 109-115. Bruggeman, D. J., M. L...structure in a free-living ungulate population. Molecular Ecology 12: 733-742. Conner, R.N., and D.C. Rudolph. 1991. Forest habitat loss...Total Environment 183: 151-166. Guillot G., Mortimer F., Estoup A. 2005. Geneland: a computer package for landscape genetics. Molecular Ecology

  6. A multi-locus phylogeny suggests an ancient hybridization event between Campephilus and melanerpine woodpeckers (Aves: Picidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc; Liu, Liang; Ericson, Per G P; Couloux, Arnaud; Pasquet, Eric

    2013-06-01

    The ever increasing number of analysed loci in phylogenetics has not only allowed resolution of some parts of the Tree of Life but has also highlighted parts of the tree where incongruent signals among loci were detected. Previous molecular studies suggested conflicting relationships for the New World genus Campephilus, being either associated to the Megapicini or Dendropocini. Yet, the limited number of analysed loci and the use of the concatenation approach to reconstruct the phylogeny prevented the disentanglement of lineage sorting and introgression as causal explanation of this topological conflict. We sequenced four mitochondrial, nine autosomal and three Z-linked loci and used a method that incorporates population level processes into the phylogenetic framework to understand which process (lineage sorting of genetic polymorphism or hybridization/introgression) best explains this conflict. Our analyses revealed that the autosomal FGB intron-7 and to a lesser extent the Z-linked loci have a different phylogenetic history from the mitochondrial loci and some other nuclear loci we analysed. We suggest that this conflicting pattern is the result of introgression consecutive to a hybridization event at the time when members of the Campephilus and melanerpine (Melanerpes and Sphyrapicus) lineages colonized the New World. The case of Campephilus highlights that the mitochondrial genome does not always carry the 'wrong' phylogenetic signal after a past hybridization event. Indeed, we here emphasise that the signature of such event can also be detected in the nuclear genome. With the ongoing increase in the number of loci analysed in phylogenetic studies, it is very likely that further cases will be discovered. Our current results indicate that (1) the genus Campephilus is related to the Asian genera Blythipicus, Chrysocolaptes and Reinwardtipicus, in accordance with morphological data and (2) that the nuclear genome of Campephilus is likely the mixture of two unrelated lineages. Yet, further work with a denser sampling of loci is necessary to evaluate the extant of the Sphyrapicus/Melanerpes lineage nuclear genome that introgressed into the Campephilus genome.

  7. Ecological Risk Assessment of the Effects of Military Fog Oil Obscurant Smoke on the Red-cockaded Woodpecker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    in surrogate avian species, and (3) acute effects on behavior, reproductive success, and observable physiological processes (e.g., thermoregulation ... reptiles , and birds at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Report submitted to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City, MO. Aiken, J.L., and C.L

  8. Managing Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Stands for the Restoration of Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    field hairsedge graminoid/herb Carex glaucescens southern waxy sedge graminoid/herb Cyperus grayi Gray’s flatsedge graminoid/herb Cyperus...scandens 41.7 0.0018 Bignonia capreolata 34.0 0.0198 Carex glaucescens 34.7 0.0116

  9. Black woodpecker Dryocopus martius (L., 1758 distribution, abundance, habitatuse and breeding performance in a recentlycolonized region in SW Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olano, M., Aierbe, T., Beñaran, H., Hurtado, R., Ugarte, Urruzola, A., Vázquez, J., Ansorregi, F., Galdos, A. ... [et al.

    2015-01-01

    localidades potenciales utilizando inventarios forestales, y cada localidad fue visitada durante el periodo enero-marzo. Las localidades ocupadas se consideraron “dominios vitales reproductivos” cuando se pudo comprobar el emparejamiento o la nidificación, o cuando se registró presencia de individuos en un mínimo de tres visitas consecutivas. Se vigiló el desarrollo de la reproducción en nidos activos durante mayo y junio. Se detectaron y cartografiaron 21 "dominios vitales reproductivos", distribuidos fundamentalmente a lo largo de las franjas oriental y meridional del área de estudio. Las determinantes ambientales relacionadas positivamente con la presencia de "dominios vitales reproductivos" fueron elevada cobertura arbolada, estructura madura, superficies de haya Fagus sylvatica, bosque mixto caducifolio y pino laricio Pinus nigra, y parcelas forestales poco fragmentadas. Las plantaciones de pino de Monterrey P. radiata y las alturas bajas del arbolado se seleccionaron negativamente. Las parcelas de alimentación preferidas incluyeron proporciones de roble americano Quercus rubra y plantaciones de pino laricio. Se detectaron trece nidos activos. Todos los nidos salvo dos fueron excavados en hayas. El éxito de cría fue elevado (92% pero la tasa de vuelo (1.8 estuvo por debajo de los promedios descritos en Europa, lo que podría indicar limitaciones intrínsecas en esta población periférica.

  10. Actant Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Helle

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a functional modelling method called Actant Modelling rooted in linguistics and semiotics. Actant modelling can be integrated with Multilevel Flow Modelling (MFM) in order to give an interpretation of actants.......This paper presents a functional modelling method called Actant Modelling rooted in linguistics and semiotics. Actant modelling can be integrated with Multilevel Flow Modelling (MFM) in order to give an interpretation of actants....

  11. Modelling the models

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    By analysing the production of mesons in the forward region of LHC proton-proton collisions, the LHCf collaboration has provided key information needed to calibrate extremely high-energy cosmic ray models.   Average transverse momentum (pT) as a function of rapidity loss ∆y. Black dots represent LHCf data and the red diamonds represent SPS experiment UA7 results. The predictions of hadronic interaction models are shown by open boxes (sibyll 2.1), open circles (qgsjet II-03) and open triangles (epos 1.99). Among these models, epos 1.99 shows the best overall agreement with the LHCf data. LHCf is dedicated to the measurement of neutral particles emitted at extremely small angles in the very forward region of LHC collisions. Two imaging calorimeters – Arm1 and Arm2 – take data 140 m either side of the ATLAS interaction point. “The physics goal of this type of analysis is to provide data for calibrating the hadron interaction models – the well-known &...

  12. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Rainwater Wildlife Area, 1998-2001 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland rover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2} plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  13. Modelling Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the practicalities of building, testing, deploying and maintaining models. It gives specific advice for each phase of the modelling cycle. To do this, a modelling framework is introduced which covers: problem and model definition; model conceptualization; model data...... requirements; model construction; model solution; model verification; model validation and finally model deployment and maintenance. Within the adopted methodology, each step is discussedthrough the consideration of key issues and questions relevant to the modelling activity. Practical advice, based on many...... years of experience is providing in directing the reader in their activities.Traps and pitfalls are discussed and strategies also given to improve model development towards “fit-for-purpose” models. The emphasis in this chapter is the adoption and exercise of a modelling methodology that has proven very...

  14. Promoting Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Zhao, Yongxin; Wu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Si

    There can be multitudinous models specifying aspects of the same system. Each model has a bias towards one aspect. These models often override in specific aspects though they have different expressions. A specification written in one model can be refined by introducing additional information from other models. The paper proposes a concept of promoting models which is a methodology to obtain refinements with support from cooperating models. It refines a primary model by integrating the information from a secondary model. The promotion principle is not merely an academic point, but also a reliable and robust engineering technique which can be used to develop software and hardware systems. It can also check the consistency between two specifications from different models. A case of modeling a simple online shopping system with the cooperation of the guarded design model and CSP model illustrates the practicability of the promotion principle.

  15. Cadastral Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Modeling is a term that refers to a variety of efforts, including data and process modeling. The domain to be modeled may be a department, an organization, or even an industrial sector. E-business presupposes the modeling of an industrial sector, a substantial task. Cadastral modeling compares to...

  16. A Decision Support System for Identifying and Ranking Critical Habitat Parcels on and in the Vicinity of Department of Defense Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    DOD Department of Defense DBH Diameter at Breast Height DEM Digital Elevation Model DSS Decision Support System DTM Digital Terrain...Typically a 200 foot buffer is marked around the set of cavity trees belonging to a woodpecker group (termed a cavity tree cluster), and within...girdling trees with wire, burying cable, firing artillery within 600 feet and using anything that produces excessive disturbance (e.g., noise

  17. Model Warehouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper puts forward a new conception:model warehouse,analyzes the reason why model warehouse appears and introduces the characteristics and architecture of model warehouse.Last,this paper points out that model warehouse is an important part of WebGIS.

  18. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    procedure is introduced for the analysis and solution of property models. Models that capture and represent the temperature dependent behaviour of physical properties are introduced, as well as equation of state models (EOS) such as the SRK EOS. Modelling of liquid phase activity coefficients are also......This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic...... covered, illustrating several models such as the Wilson equation and NRTL equation, along with their solution strategies. A section shows how to use experimental data to regress the property model parameters using a least squares approach. A full model analysis is applied in each example that discusses...

  19. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, M.

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  20. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, CC

    2012-01-01

    Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko

  1. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics. We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  2. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  3. Numerical models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A; Manoj, N.T.

    Various numerical models used to study the dynamics and horizontal distribution of salinity in Mandovi-Zuari estuaries, Goa, India is discussed in this chapter. Earlier, a one-dimensional network model was developed for representing the complex...

  4. Computable models

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Computational models can be found everywhere in present day science and engineering. In providing a logical framework and foundation for the specification and design of specification languages, Raymond Turner uses this framework to introduce and study computable models. In doing so he presents the first systematic attempt to provide computational models with a logical foundation. Computable models have wide-ranging applications from programming language semantics and specification languages, through to knowledge representation languages and formalism for natural language semantics. They are al

  5. MODELING CONSCIOUSNESS

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J G

    2009-01-01

    We present tentative answers to three questions: firstly, what is to be assumed about the structure of the brain in attacking the problem of modeling consciousness; secondly, what is it about consciousness that is attempting to be modeled; and finally, what is taken on board the modeling enterprise, if anything, from the vast works by philosophers about the nature of mind.

  6. Zeebrugge Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sclütter, Flemming; Frigaard, Peter; Liu, Zhou

    This report presents the model test results on wave run-up on the Zeebrugge breakwater under the simulated prototype storms. The model test was performed in January 2000 at the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The detailed description of the model is given...

  7. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  8. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic...

  9. Model Experiments and Model Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra; Scott, Courtney J.; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose; Sze, N. D.; Vohralik, Peter; Randeniya, Lakshman; Plumb, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The Second Workshop on Stratospheric Models and Measurements Workshop (M&M II) is the continuation of the effort previously started in the first Workshop (M&M I, Prather and Remsberg [1993]) held in 1992. As originally stated, the aim of M&M is to provide a foundation for establishing the credibility of stratospheric models used in environmental assessments of the ozone response to chlorofluorocarbons, aircraft emissions, and other climate-chemistry interactions. To accomplish this, a set of measurements of the present day atmosphere was selected. The intent was that successful simulations of the set of measurements should become the prerequisite for the acceptance of these models as having a reliable prediction for future ozone behavior. This section is divided into two: model experiment and model descriptions. In the model experiment, participant were given the charge to design a number of experiments that would use observations to test whether models are using the correct mechanisms to simulate the distributions of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. The purpose is closely tied to the needs to reduce the uncertainties in the model predicted responses of stratospheric ozone to perturbations. The specifications for the experiments were sent out to the modeling community in June 1997. Twenty eight modeling groups responded to the requests for input. The first part of this section discusses the different modeling group, along with the experiments performed. Part two of this section, gives brief descriptions of each model as provided by the individual modeling groups.

  10. Sustaining Biodiversity in the Oregon Coast Range: Potential effects of Forest Policies in a Multi-ownership Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda C. McComb

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand the potential effects of forest policies on sustaining biological diversity at broad scales, we used spatial simulation models to evaluate current and potential future habitat availability over 100 yr for three focal species: Pacific Fisher (Martes pennanti, Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus, and Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus. The habitats of these species represent a broad range of spatial scales and forest types. Area of habitat for fishers and Pileated Woodpeckers is predicted to increase over time under current forest land management policies. Habitat for Warbling Vireos is predicted to decline. These patterns are consistent with past analyses that predicted declines in diverse early successional forests and hardwood forests and increases in late-successional forests under current and two alternative policies. Land ownership influenced the spatial arrangement of habitat for all three focal species. Public lands subsidized habitat for wide-ranging species on adjacent private lands. A land use policy that required greater green tree retention on private lands seemed to result in modest increases in habitat quality over 100 yr for Pileated Woodpeckers. Thinning of plantations on federal lands had little effect on these focal species. Policy analyses such as these highlight incongruities between historic habitat patterns and contemporary spatial and temporal scales of habitat in managed landscapes. This information can be used to assess risks and inform the policy debates surrounding biodiversity conservation.

  11. Scalable Models Using Model Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-13

    and the following companies: Agilent, Bosch, HSBC , Lockheed-Martin, National Instruments, and Toyota. Scalable Models Using Model Transformation...parametrization, and workflow automation. (AFRL), the State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agi- lent, Bosch, HSBC , Lockheed

  12. Cadastral Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2005-01-01

    to the modeling of an industrial sector, as it aims at rendering the basic concepts that relate to the domain of real estate and the pertinent human activities. The palpable objects are pieces of land and buildings, documents, data stores and archives, as well as persons in their diverse roles as owners, holders...... to land. The paper advances the position that cadastral modeling has to include not only the physical objects, agents, and information sets of the domain, but also the objectives or requirements of cadastral systems.......Modeling is a term that refers to a variety of efforts, including data and process modeling. The domain to be modeled may be a department, an organization, or even an industrial sector. E-business presupposes the modeling of an industrial sector, a substantial task. Cadastral modeling compares...

  13. Modelling in Business Model design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonse, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    It appears that business model design might not always produce a design or model as the expected result. However when designers are involved, a visual model or artefact is produced. To assist strategic managers in thinking about how they can act, the designers challenge is to combine strategy and

  14. Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models is a very broad topic, so a single volume can only offer a small sampling of relevant research activities. This volume of 14 chapters includes descriptions of a variety of modeling studies for a variety of geographic regions by an international roster of authors. The climate research community generally uses the rubric climate models to refer to organized sets of computer instructions that produce simulations of climate evolution. The code is based on physical relationships that describe the shared variability of meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, precipitation rate, circulation, radiation fluxes, etc. Three-dimensional climate models are integrated over time in order to compute the temporal and spatial variations of these parameters. Model domains can be global or regional and the horizontal and vertical resolutions of the computational grid vary from model to model. Considering the entire climate system requires accounting for interactions between solar insolation, atmospheric, oceanic and continental processes, the latter including land hydrology and vegetation. Model simulations may concentrate on one or more of these components, but the most sophisticated models will estimate the mutual interactions of all of these environments. Advances in computer technology have prompted investments in more complex model configurations that consider more phenomena interactions than were possible with yesterday s computers. However, not every attempt to add to the computational layers is rewarded by better model performance. Extensive research is required to test and document any advantages gained by greater sophistication in model formulation. One purpose for publishing climate model research results is to present purported advances for evaluation by the scientific community.

  15. Winter Responses of Forest Birds to Habitat Corridors and Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Cassady St. Clair

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss may disrupt the movement or dispersal of forest-dwelling birds. Despite much interest in the severity of these effects and ways of mitigating them, little is known about actual movement patterns in different habitat types. We studied the movement of wintering resident birds, lured by playbacks of mobbing calls, to compare the willingness of forest birds to travel various distances in continuous forest, along narrow corridors (fencerows, and across gaps in forest cover. We also quantified the willingness of Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus to cross gaps when alternative forested detour routes were available. All species were less likely to respond to the calls as distance increased to 200 m, although White-breasted Nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis and Hairy Woodpeckers (Picoides villosus were generally less likely to respond than chickadees and Downy Woodpeckers (P. pubescens. Chickadees were as likely to travel in corridors as in continuous forest, but were less likely to cross gaps as the gap distance increased. The other species were less willing to travel in corridors and gaps relative to forest, and the differences among habitats also increased with distance. For chickadees, gap-crossing decisions in the presence of forested detours varied over the range of distances that we tested, and were primarily influenced by detour efficiency (the length of the shortcut relative to the available detour. Over short distances, birds used forested detours, regardless of their efficiency. As absolute distances increased, birds tended to employ larger shortcuts in the open when detour efficiency was low or initial distance in the open was high, but they limited their distance from the nearest forest edge to 25 m. Thus, chickadees were unwilling to cross gaps of > 50 m when they had forested alternatives, yet they sometimes crossed gaps as large as 200 m when no such choice existed. Our results suggest that

  16. Mathematical modelling

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a thorough introduction to the challenge of applying mathematics in real-world scenarios. Modelling tasks rarely involve well-defined categories, and they often require multidisciplinary input from mathematics, physics, computer sciences, or engineering. In keeping with this spirit of modelling, the book includes a wealth of cross-references between the chapters and frequently points to the real-world context. The book combines classical approaches to modelling with novel areas such as soft computing methods, inverse problems, and model uncertainty. Attention is also paid to the interaction between models, data and the use of mathematical software. The reader will find a broad selection of theoretical tools for practicing industrial mathematics, including the analysis of continuum models, probabilistic and discrete phenomena, and asymptotic and sensitivity analysis.

  17. Turbulence Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens

    2011-01-01

    In this report a new turbulence model is presented.In contrast to the bulk of modern work, the model is a classical continuum model with a relatively simple constitutive equation. The constitutive equation is, as usual in continuum mechanics, entirely empirical. It has the usual Newton or Stokes...... term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence....... The model is in a virgin state, but a number of numerical tests have been carried out with good results. It is published to encourage other researchers to study the model in order to find its merits and possible limitations....

  18. Mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Developing competences for setting up, analysing and criticising mathematical models are normally seen as relevant only from and above upper secondary level. The general belief among teachers is that modelling activities presuppose conceptual understanding of the mathematics involved. Mathematical...... modelling, however, can be seen as a practice of teaching that place the relation between real life and mathematics into the centre of teaching and learning mathematics, and this is relevant at all levels. Modelling activities may motivate the learning process and help the learner to establish cognitive...... roots for the construction of important mathematical concepts. In addition competences for setting up, analysing and criticising modelling processes and the possible use of models is a formative aim in this own right for mathematics teaching in general education. The paper presents a theoretical...

  19. Spherical models

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, Magnus J

    2012-01-01

    Well-illustrated, practical approach to creating star-faced spherical forms that can serve as basic structures for geodesic domes. Complete instructions for making models from circular bands of paper with just a ruler and compass. Discusses tessellation, or tiling, and how to make spherical models of the semiregular solids and concludes with a discussion of the relationship of polyhedra to geodesic domes and directions for building models of domes. "". . . very pleasant reading."" - Science. 1979 edition.

  20. Zeebrugge Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Frigaard, Peter

    This report presents the model on wave run-up and run-down on the Zeebrugge breakwater under short-crested oblique wave attacks. The model test was performed in March-April 2000 at the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University.......This report presents the model on wave run-up and run-down on the Zeebrugge breakwater under short-crested oblique wave attacks. The model test was performed in March-April 2000 at the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University....

  1. Stream Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Kristian

    the engineers, but as the scale and the complexity of the hydraulic works increased, the mathematical models became so complex that a mathematical solution could not be obtained. This created a demand for new methods and again the experimental investigation became popular, but this time as measurements on small......-scale models. But still the scale and complexity of hydraulic works were increasing, and soon even small-scale models reached a natural limit for some applications. In the mean time the modern computer was developed, and it became possible to solve complex mathematical models by use of computer-based numerical...

  2. Ventilation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Chipman

    2002-10-05

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. The purposes of Revision 01 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to

  3. Modeling Documents with Event Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhui Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently deep learning has made great breakthroughs in visual and speech processing, mainly because it draws lessons from the hierarchical mode that brain deals with images and speech. In the field of NLP, a topic model is one of the important ways for modeling documents. Topic models are built on a generative model that clearly does not match the way humans write. In this paper, we propose Event Model, which is unsupervised and based on the language processing mechanism of neurolinguistics, to model documents. In Event Model, documents are descriptions of concrete or abstract events seen, heard, or sensed by people and words are objects in the events. Event Model has two stages: word learning and dimensionality reduction. Word learning is to learn semantics of words based on deep learning. Dimensionality reduction is the process that representing a document as a low dimensional vector by a linear mode that is completely different from topic models. Event Model achieves state-of-the-art results on document retrieval tasks.

  4. Model Selection for Geostatistical Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Davis, Richard A.; Merton, Andrew A.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2006-02-01

    We consider the problem of model selection for geospatial data. Spatial correlation is typically ignored in the selection of explanatory variables and this can influence model selection results. For example, the inclusion or exclusion of particular explanatory variables may not be apparent when spatial correlation is ignored. To address this problem, we consider the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) as applied to a geostatistical model. We offer a heuristic derivation of the AIC in this context and provide simulation results that show that using AIC for a geostatistical model is superior to the often used approach of ignoring spatial correlation in the selection of explanatory variables. These ideas are further demonstrated via a model for lizard abundance. We also employ the principle of minimum description length (MDL) to variable selection for the geostatistical model. The effect of sampling design on the selection of explanatory covariates is also explored.

  5. Didactical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Tomas; Hansen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce Didactical Modelling as a research methodology in mathematics education. We compare the methodology with other approaches and argue that Didactical Modelling has its own specificity. We discuss the methodological “why” and explain why we find it useful to...

  6. Didactical modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Højgaard, Tomas; Hansen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce Didactical Modelling as a research methodology in mathematics education. We compare the methodology with other approaches and argue that Didactical Modelling has its own specificity. We discuss the methodological “why” and explain why we find it useful to construct this approach in mathematics education research.

  7. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  8. Martingale Model

    OpenAIRE

    Giandomenico, Rossano

    2006-01-01

    The model determines a stochastic continuous process as continuous limit of a stochastic discrete process so to show that the stochastic continuous process converges to the stochastic discrete process such that we can integrate it. Furthermore, the model determines the expected volatility and the expected mean so to show that the volatility and the mean are increasing function of the time.

  9. Dispersion Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiansky, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses the need for more accurate and complete input data and field verification of the various models of air pollutant dispension. Consideration should be given to changing the form of air quality standards based on enhanced dispersion modeling techniques. (Author/RE)

  10. Education models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Sybilla; Sloep, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Educational models describes a case study on a complex learning object. Possibilities are investigated for using this learning object, which is based on a particular educational model, outside of its original context. Furthermore, this study provides advice that might lead to an increase in

  11. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  12. Linguistic models and linguistic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedryez, W; Vasilakos, A V

    1999-01-01

    The study is concerned with a linguistic approach to the design of a new category of fuzzy (granular) models. In contrast to numerically driven identification techniques, we concentrate on budding meaningful linguistic labels (granules) in the space of experimental data and forming the ensuing model as a web of associations between such granules. As such models are designed at the level of information granules and generate results in the same granular rather than pure numeric format, we refer to them as linguistic models. Furthermore, as there are no detailed numeric estimation procedures involved in the construction of the linguistic models carried out in this way, their design mode can be viewed as that of a rapid prototyping. The underlying algorithm used in the development of the models utilizes an augmented version of the clustering technique (context-based clustering) that is centered around a notion of linguistic contexts-a collection of fuzzy sets or fuzzy relations defined in the data space (more precisely a space of input variables). The detailed design algorithm is provided and contrasted with the standard modeling approaches commonly encountered in the literature. The usefulness of the linguistic mode of system modeling is discussed and illustrated with the aid of numeric studies including both synthetic data as well as some time series dealing with modeling traffic intensity over a broadband telecommunication network.

  13. OSPREY Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2013-01-01

    The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of off-gas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data is obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data and parameters were input into the adsorption model to develop models specific for krypton adsorption. The same can be done for iodine, xenon, and tritium. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Customers will be given access to

  14. Model hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W.D.

    1972-01-01

    Model hydrographs are composed of pairs of dimensionless ratios, arrayed in tabular form, which, when modified by the appropriate values of rainfall exceed and by the time and areal characteristics of the drainage basin, satisfactorily represent the flood hydrograph for the basin. Model bydrographs are developed from a dimensionless translation hydrograph, having a time base of T hours and appropriately modified for storm duration by routing through reservoir storage, S=kOx. Models fall into two distinct classes: (1) those for which the value of x is unity and which have all the characteristics of true unit hydrographs and (2) those for which the value of x is other than unity and to which the unit-hydrograph principles of proportionality and superposition do not apply. Twenty-six families of linear models and eight families of nonlinear models in tabular form from the principal subject of this report. Supplemental discussions describe the development of the models and illustrate their application. Other sections of the report, supplemental to the tables, describe methods of determining the hydrograph characteristics, T, k, and x, both from observed hydrograph and from the physical characteristics of the drainage basin. Five illustrative examples of use show that the models, when properly converted to incorporate actual rainfall excess and the time and areal characteristics of the drainage basins, do indeed satisfactorily represent the observed flood hydrographs for the basins.

  15. Stereometric Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, P.

    2012-07-01

    These mandatory guidelines are provided for preparation of papers accepted for publication in the series of Volumes of The The stereometric modelling means modelling achieved with : - the use of a pair of virtual cameras, with parallel axes and positioned at a mutual distance average of 1/10 of the distance camera-object (in practice the realization and use of a stereometric camera in the modeling program); - the shot visualization in two distinct windows - the stereoscopic viewing of the shot while modelling. Since the definition of "3D vision" is inaccurately referred to as the simple perspective of an object, it is required to add the word stereo so that "3D stereo vision " shall stand for "three-dimensional view" and ,therefore, measure the width, height and depth of the surveyed image. Thanks to the development of a stereo metric model , either real or virtual, through the "materialization", either real or virtual, of the optical-stereo metric model made visible with a stereoscope. It is feasible a continuous on line updating of the cultural heritage with the help of photogrammetry and stereometric modelling. The catalogue of the Architectonic Photogrammetry Laboratory of Politecnico di Bari is available on line at: http://rappresentazione.stereofot.it:591/StereoFot/FMPro?-db=StereoFot.fp5&-lay=Scheda&-format=cerca.htm&-view

  16. Modeling complexes of modeled proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A

    2017-03-01

    Structural characterization of proteins is essential for understanding life processes at the molecular level. However, only a fraction of known proteins have experimentally determined structures. This fraction is even smaller for protein-protein complexes. Thus, structural modeling of protein-protein interactions (docking) primarily has to rely on modeled structures of the individual proteins, which typically are less accurate than the experimentally determined ones. Such "double" modeling is the Grand Challenge of structural reconstruction of the interactome. Yet it remains so far largely untested in a systematic way. We present a comprehensive validation of template-based and free docking on a set of 165 complexes, where each protein model has six levels of structural accuracy, from 1 to 6 Å C(α) RMSD. Many template-based docking predictions fall into acceptable quality category, according to the CAPRI criteria, even for highly inaccurate proteins (5-6 Å RMSD), although the number of such models (and, consequently, the docking success rate) drops significantly for models with RMSD > 4 Å. The results show that the existing docking methodologies can be successfully applied to protein models with a broad range of structural accuracy, and the template-based docking is much less sensitive to inaccuracies of protein models than the free docking. Proteins 2017; 85:470-478. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A Model for Math Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tony; Erfan, Sasan

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an open-ended research subject where no definite answers exist for any problem. Math modeling enables thinking outside the box to connect different fields of studies together including statistics, algebra, calculus, matrices, programming and scientific writing. As an integral part of society, it is the foundation for many…

  18. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test...... the ability of GUTS to predict survival of aquatic organisms across different pesticide exposure patterns, time scales and species. Firstly, using synthetic data, we identified experimental data requirements which allow for the estimation of all parameters of the GUTS proper model. Secondly, we assessed how...

  19. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts, these no...

  20. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  1. Modeling Arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Insepov, Zeke; Veitzer, Seth; Mahalingam, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    Although vacuum arcs were first identified over 110 years ago, they are not yet well understood. We have since developed a model of breakdown and gradient limits that tries to explain, in a self-consistent way: arc triggering, plasma initiation, plasma evolution, surface damage and gra- dient limits. We use simple PIC codes for modeling plasmas, molecular dynamics for modeling surface breakdown, and surface damage, and mesoscale surface thermodynamics and finite element electrostatic codes for to evaluate surface properties. Since any given experiment seems to have more variables than data points, we have tried to consider a wide variety of arcing (rf structures, e beam welding, laser ablation, etc.) to help constrain the problem, and concentrate on common mechanisms. While the mechanisms can be comparatively simple, modeling can be challenging.

  2. Paleoclimate Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Computer simulations of past climate. Variables provided as model output are described by parameter keyword. In some cases the parameter keywords are a subset of all...

  3. Anchor Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regardt, Olle; Rönnbäck, Lars; Bergholtz, Maria; Johannesson, Paul; Wohed, Petia

    Maintaining and evolving data warehouses is a complex, error prone, and time consuming activity. The main reason for this state of affairs is that the environment of a data warehouse is in constant change, while the warehouse itself needs to provide a stable and consistent interface to information spanning extended periods of time. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique for data warehousing, called anchor modeling, that offers non-destructive extensibility mechanisms, thereby enabling robust and flexible management of changes in source systems. A key benefit of anchor modeling is that changes in a data warehouse environment only require extensions, not modifications, to the data warehouse. This ensures that existing data warehouse applications will remain unaffected by the evolution of the data warehouse, i.e. existing views and functions will not have to be modified as a result of changes in the warehouse model.

  4. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges, Wilfrid

    1993-01-01

    An up-to-date and integrated introduction to model theory, designed to be used for graduate courses (for students who are familiar with first-order logic), and as a reference for more experienced logicians and mathematicians.

  5. Accelerated life models modeling and statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bagdonavicius, Vilijandas

    2001-01-01

    Failure Time DistributionsIntroductionParametric Classes of Failure Time DistributionsAccelerated Life ModelsIntroductionGeneralized Sedyakin's ModelAccelerated Failure Time ModelProportional Hazards ModelGeneralized Proportional Hazards ModelsGeneralized Additive and Additive-Multiplicative Hazards ModelsChanging Shape and Scale ModelsGeneralizationsModels Including Switch-Up and Cycling EffectsHeredity HypothesisSummaryAccelerated Degradation ModelsIntroductionDegradation ModelsModeling the Influence of Explanatory Varia

  6. Do stroke models model stroke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mergenthaler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and the biggest reason for long-term disability. Basic research has formed the modern understanding of stroke pathophysiology, and has revealed important molecular, cellular and systemic mechanisms. However, despite decades of research, most translational stroke trials that aim to introduce basic research findings into clinical treatment strategies – most notably in the field of neuroprotection – have failed. Among other obstacles, poor methodological and statistical standards, negative publication bias, and incomplete preclinical testing have been proposed as ‘translational roadblocks’. In this article, we introduce the models commonly used in preclinical stroke research, discuss some of the causes of failed translational success and review potential remedies. We further introduce the concept of modeling ‘care’ of stroke patients, because current preclinical research models the disorder but does not model care or state-of-the-art clinical testing. Stringent statistical methods and controlled preclinical trials have been suggested to counteract weaknesses in preclinical research. We conclude that preclinical stroke research requires (1 appropriate modeling of the disorder, (2 appropriate modeling of the care of stroke patients and (3 an approach to preclinical testing that is similar to clinical testing, including Phase 3 randomized controlled preclinical trials as necessary additional steps before new therapies enter clinical testing.

  7. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and spirochetes (spirochaetaceae: spirochaetales) recovered from birds on a Georgia Barrier Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, L A; Oliver, J H; Kinsey, A A

    2001-03-01

    From September 1997 through July 1999, 300 individuals and 46 species of birds were mist-netted and screened for ticks and spirochetes on St. Catherine's Island, Liberty County, GA. Seventy-six (25%) of the birds were parasitized by a meal intensity of 4.6 ticks. Seasonally, more birds were infested with ticks during the summer (50% in 1998, 34% in 1999) than in spring (15% in 1998, 11% in 1999) or fall (21% in 1997, 20% in 1998), mainly because of severe infestations on some birds by immature stages of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), during this season. Eight species ofticks were recovered from 14 species of birds during this study: A. americanum (74 nymphs, 168 larvae); the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say (11 nymphs, 28 larvae), the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum Koch (two nymphs, 29 larvae); Ixodes minor Neumann (16 larvae); the rabbit tick. Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard) (one nymph, 14 larvae); the bird tick Ixodes brunneus Koch (two larvae); the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (one nymph); and Ixodes affinis Neumann (one larva). The Carolina wren was parasitized by more species of ticks (seven) than any other bird species, followed by the northern cardinal (five), white-throated sparrow (four) and painted bunting (three). Spirochetes were isolated in BSK II medium from one tick (a nymphal A. americanum) and from skin biopsies of 12 (4%) of the individual birds (three downy woodpeckers, three northern waterthrushes, two Carolina wrens, one American redstart, one pine warbler, one Swainson's thrush, and one white-eyed vireo) all in fall 1997. This concentrated phenology of spirochete isolations might reflect periodic amplification or recrudescence of spirochetes in reservoir avian hosts.

  8. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident...... characteristic of architectural practice. But the persistence in persistent modelling can also be understood to apply in other ways, reflecting and anticipating extended roles for representation. This book identifies three principle areas in which these extensions are becoming apparent within contemporary....... It also provides critical insight into the use of contemporary modelling tools and methods, together with an examination of the implications their use has within the territories of architectural design, realisation and experience....

  9. Mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Eck, Christof; Knabner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models are the decisive tool to explain and predict phenomena in the natural and engineering sciences. With this book readers will learn to derive mathematical models which help to understand real world phenomena. At the same time a wealth of important examples for the abstract concepts treated in the curriculum of mathematics degrees are given. An essential feature of this book is that mathematical structures are used as an ordering principle and not the fields of application. Methods from linear algebra, analysis and the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations are thoroughly introduced and applied in the modeling process. Examples of applications in the fields electrical networks, chemical reaction dynamics, population dynamics, fluid dynamics, elasticity theory and crystal growth are treated comprehensively.

  10. Inflatable Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Li; Vasily Volkov

    2006-01-01

    A physically-based model is presented for the simulation of a new type of deformable objects-inflatable objects, such as shaped balloons, which consist of pressurized air enclosed by an elastic surface. These objects have properties inherent in both 3D and 2D elastic bodies, as they demonstrate the behaviour of 3D shapes using 2D formulations. As there is no internal structure in them, their behaviour is substantially different from the behaviour of deformable solid objects. We use one of the few available models for deformable surfaces, and enhance it to include the forces of internal and external pressure. These pressure forces may also incorporate buoyancy forces, to allow objects filled with a low density gas to float in denser media. The obtained models demonstrate rich dynamic behaviour, such as bouncing, floating, deflation and inflation.

  11. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabil......Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory...... of probabilistic functionalism, and concerns the environment and the mind, and adaptation by the latter to the former. This entry is about the lens model, and probabilistic functionalism more broadly. Focus will mostly be on firms and their employees, but, to fully appreciate the scope, we have to keep in mind...

  12. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabil......Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory...

  13. Molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to be tailored to decrease the harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modeling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported by the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  14. Smashnova Model

    CERN Document Server

    Sivaram, C

    2007-01-01

    An alternate model for gamma ray bursts is suggested. For a white dwarf (WD) and neutron star (NS) very close binary system, the WD (close to Mch) can detonate due to tidal heating, leading to a SN. Material falling on to the NS at relativistic velocities can cause its collapse to a magnetar or quark star or black hole leading to a GRB. As the material smashes on to the NS, it is dubbed the Smashnova model. Here the SN is followed by a GRB. NS impacting a RG (or RSG) (like in Thorne-Zytkow objects) can also cause a SN outburst followed by a GRB. Other variations are explored.

  15. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  16. Building Models and Building Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Skauge, Jørn

    I rapportens indledende kapitel beskrives de primære begreber vedrørende bygningsmodeller og nogle fundamentale forhold vedrørende computerbaseret modulering bliver opstillet. Desuden bliver forskellen mellem tegneprogrammer og bygnings­model­lerings­programmer beskrevet. Vigtige aspekter om......­lering og bygningsmodeller. Det bliver understreget at modellering bør udføres på flere abstraktions­niveauer og i to dimensioner i den såkaldte modelleringsmatrix. Ud fra dette identificeres de primære faser af bygningsmodel­lering. Dernæst beskrives de basale karakteristika for bygningsmodeller. Heri...... inkluderes en præcisering af begreberne objektorienteret software og objektorienteret modeller. Det bliver fremhævet at begrebet objektbaseret modellering giver en tilstrækkelig og bedre forståelse. Endelig beskrives forestillingen om den ideale bygningsmodel som værende én samlet model, der anvendes gennem...

  17. Zeebrugge Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten S.; Frigaard, Peter

    In the following, results from model tests with Zeebrugge breakwater are presented. The objective with these tests is partly to investigate the influence on wave run-up due to a changing waterlevel during a storm. Finally, the influence on wave run-up due to an introduced longshore current...

  18. Why Model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eWolkenhauer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing technologies are bringing about a renaissance of mining approaches. A comprehensive picture of the genetic landscape of an individual patient will be useful, for example, to identify groups of patients that do or do not respond to certain therapies. The high expectations may however not be satisfied if the number of patient groups with similar characteristics is going to be very large. I therefore doubt that mining sequence data will give us an understanding of why and when therapies work. For understanding the mechanisms underlying diseases, an alternative approach is to model small networks in quantitative mechanistic detail, to elucidate the role of gene and proteins in dynamically changing the functioning of cells. Here an obvious critique is that these models consider too few components, compared to what might be relevant for any particular cell function. I show here that mining approaches and dynamical systems theory are two ends of a spectrum of methodologies to choose from. Drawing upon personal experience in numerous interdisciplinary collaborations, I provide guidance on how to model by discussing the question Why model?

  19. Why model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies are bringing about a renaissance of mining approaches. A comprehensive picture of the genetic landscape of an individual patient will be useful, for example, to identify groups of patients that do or do not respond to certain therapies. The high expectations may however not be satisfied if the number of patient groups with similar characteristics is going to be very large. I therefore doubt that mining sequence data will give us an understanding of why and when therapies work. For understanding the mechanisms underlying diseases, an alternative approach is to model small networks in quantitative mechanistic detail, to elucidate the role of gene and proteins in dynamically changing the functioning of cells. Here an obvious critique is that these models consider too few components, compared to what might be relevant for any particular cell function. I show here that mining approaches and dynamical systems theory are two ends of a spectrum of methodologies to choose from. Drawing upon personal experience in numerous interdisciplinary collaborations, I provide guidance on how to model by discussing the question "Why model?"

  20. Model CAPM

    OpenAIRE

    Burianová, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Cílem první části této bakalářské práce je - pomocí analýzy výchozích textů - teoretické shrnutí ekonomických modelů a teorií, na kterých model CAPM stojí: Markowitzův model teorie portfolia (analýza maximalizace očekávaného užitku a na něm založený model výběru optimálního portfolia), Tobina (rozšíření Markowitzova modelu ? rozdělení výběru optimálního portfolia do dvou fází; nejprve určení optimální kombinace rizikových instrumentů a následná alokace dostupného kapitálu mezi tuto optimální ...

  1. Transport modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.E. Waltz

    2007-01-01

    @@ There has been remarkable progress during the past decade in understanding and modeling turbulent transport in tokamaks. With some exceptions the progress is derived from the huge increases in computational power and the ability to simulate tokamak turbulence with ever more fundamental and physically realistic dynamical equations, e.g.

  2. Painting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .

  3. Modeling Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  4. Entrepreneurship Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger Lakes Regional Education Center for Economic Development, Mount Morris, NY.

    This guide describes seven model programs that were developed by the Finger Lakes Regional Center for Economic Development (New York) to meet the training needs of female and minority entrepreneurs to help their businesses survive and grow and to assist disabled and dislocated workers and youth in beginning small businesses. The first three models…

  5. Quality modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    For modelling product behaviour, with respect to quality for users and consumers, its essential to have at least a fundamental notion what quality really is, and which product properties determine the quality assigned by the consumer to a product. In other words: what is allowed and what is to be

  6. Criticality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alsaed

    2004-09-14

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of

  7. Information Model for Product Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦国方; 刘慎权

    1992-01-01

    The Key problems in product modeling for integrated CAD ∥CAM systems are the information structures and representations of products.They are taking more and more important roles in engineering applications.With the investigation on engineering product information and from the viewpoint of industrial process,in this paper,the information models are proposed and the definitions of the framework of product information are given.And then,the integration and the consistence of product information are discussed by introucing the entity and its instance.As a summary,the information structures described in this paper have many advantage and natures helpful in engineering design.

  8. Selection pressure exerted by host resistance genes shapes the population genetic structure of the lettuce downy mildew, Bremia lactucae, in France

    OpenAIRE

    Valade, Romain; Ducasse, Aurélie; Maisonneuve, Brigitte; Neema, Claire,

    2012-01-01

    Most pathogens are submitted to high selection pressure which can be induced by several variables (climatic, biotic, anthropogenicoe) according to their life traits. In the case of plant pathogens, host resistance may be considered as the main driving force of pathogen evolution, with pathogens evolving to overcome host resistance. In the interaction between Bremia lactucae and Lactuca sativa, several specific resistance genes are used to counter this pathogen in crops. In turn, pathogens sho...

  9. A comparison of Peronospora parasitica (Downy mildew) isolates from Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea using amplified fragment length polymorphism and internal transcribed spacer 1 sequence analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmany, A P; Lynn, J R; Tör, M; Holub, E B; Beynon, J L

    2000-07-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences from 27 Peronospora parasitica isolates (collected from Arabidopsis thaliana or Brassica oleracea), 5 Albugo candida isolates (from the same hosts and from Capsella bursa-pastoris), and 1 Bremia lactucae isolate (from Lactuca sativa) were compared. The AFLP analysis divided the isolates into five groups that correlated with taxonomic species and, in most cases, with host origin. The only exception was a group consisting of A. candida isolates from both B. oleracea and C. bursa-pastoris. ITS1 sequence analysis divided the isolates into the same five groups, demonstrated the divergence between P. parasitica isolates from A. thaliana and B. oleracea, and, using previously published ITS1 sequences, clearly showed the relationship between A. candida isolates from different hosts.

  10. Use of chitosan against downy mildew of rose%几丁聚糖控制月季霜霉病的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彤

    2002-01-01

    几丁聚糖是几丁质脱乙酰基后得到的一种氨基多糖.其产品0.5%OS-施特灵可控制月季霜霉病Peronospora sparsa,每隔10天以500倍液连续施药3次,控制效果达80%左右.

  11. Efeito de indutores no controle de míldio em Vitis labrusca Effect of elicitors in the control of downy mildew in Vitis labrusca

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Ceres Torres da Rosa; Rildo Sartori Barbosa Coelho; Selma Cavalcante Cruz de Holanda Tavares; Vanildo Alberto Leal Bezerra Cavalcanti

    2007-01-01

    A cultura da uva, Vitis labrusca, é de grande importância econômica para a região do vale do Siriji - PE. No entanto, nos últimos anos, o míldio da videira vem pondo em risco essa atividade, fazendo com que os produtores invistam bastante recurso com o uso de fungicida visando o seu controle. Visando substituir o uso de agrotóxico foi avaliado nos municípios de São Vicente Férrer - PE (área 1), Natuba - PB (área 2) e Macaparana - PE (área 3) o efeito da indução de resistência promovida por ác...

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis stimulates key genes of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and stilbenoid production in grapevine leaves in response to downy mildew and grey mould infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruisson, Sébastien; Maillot, Pascale; Schellenbaum, Paul; Walter, Bernard; Gindro, Katia; Deglène-Benbrahim, Laurence

    2016-11-01

    Grapevine (Vitis spp) is susceptible to serious fungal diseases usually controlled by chemical treatments. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate plant symbionts which can stimulate plant defences. We investigated the effect of mycorrhization on grapevine stilbenoid defences. Vitis vinifera cvs Chasselas, Pinot noir and the interspecific hybrid Divico, on the rootstock 41B, were mycorrhized with Rhizophagus irregularis before leaf infection by Plasmopara viticola or Botrytis cinerea. Gene expression analysis showed an up-regulation of PAL, STS, and ROMT, involved in the stilbenoid biosynthesis pathway, in plant leaves, 48 h after pathogen inoculation. This defense response could be potentiated under AMF colonization, with an intensity level depending on the gene, the plant cultivar and/or the pathogen. We also showed that higher amounts of active forms of stilbenoids (i.e trans-form of resveratrol, ε- and δ-viniferins and pterostilbene) were produced in mycorrhized plants of the three genotypes in comparison with non-mycorrhized ones, 10 days post-inoculation with either pathogen. These results support the hypothesis that AMF root colonization enhances defence reactions against a biotrophic and a necrotrophic pathogen, in the aerial parts of grapevine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein in pearl millet and its differential expression in response to the downy mildew pathogen Sclerospora graminicola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sujeeth, Neerakkal; Kini, Ramachandra K.; Shailasree, Sekhar; Wallaart, Eelco; Shetty, Shekar H.; Hille, Jacques; Barna, B.

    2012-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, JIM 20, derived against an extensin type of hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) from pea, showed high affinity for HRGP in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.]. Electrophoretic separation of Tris-SDS extracted proteins from suspension cells of pearl millet reveale

  14. Downy mildew (Peronospora parasitica) resistance genes in Arabidopsis vary in functional requirements for NDR1, EDS1, NPR1 and salicylic acid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J M; Cuzick, A; Can, C; Beynon, J; Dangl, J L; Holub, E B

    2000-06-01

    To better understand the genetic requirements for R gene-dependent defense activation in Arabidopsis, we tested the effect of several defense response mutants on resistance specified by eight RPP genes (for resistance to Peronospora parasitica) expressed in the Col-0 background. In most cases, resistance was not suppressed by a mutation in the SAR regulatory gene NPR1 or by expression of the NahG transgene. Thus, salicylic acid accumulation and NPR1 function are not necessary for resistance mediated by these RPP genes. In addition, resistance conferred by two of these genes, RPP7 and RPP8, was not significantly suppressed by mutations in either EDS1 or NDR1. RPP7 resistance was also not compromised by mutations in EIN2, JAR1 or COI1 which affect ethylene or jasmonic acid signaling. Double mutants were therefore tested. RPP7 and RPP8 were weakly suppressed in an eds1-2/ndr1-1 background, suggesting that these RPP genes operate additively through EDS1, NDR1 and as-yet-undefined signaling components. RPP7 was not compromised in coi1/npr1 or coi1/NahG backgrounds. These observations suggest that RPP7 initiates resistance through a novel signaling pathway that functions independently of salicylic acid accumulation or jasmonic acid response components.

  15. The Arabidopsis downy mildew resistance gene, RPP13-Nd, functions independently of NDR1 and EDS1 and does not require the accumulation of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner-Eddy, P D; Beynon, J L

    2001-03-01

    RPP13-Nd-mediated resistance prevents parasitism by five isolates of Peronospora parasitica (At) in a transgenic Arabidopsis. Columbia background. We tested the effect of a number of known disease resistance mutations on the RPP13-Nd function and found that resistance remained unaltered in plants carrying mutations in either EDS1 or NDR1 and in double ndr1-1/eds1-2 mutant lines. Furthermore, we found that pbs2, pad4-1, npr1-1, and rps5-1, which compromise resistance to a number of P. parasitica (At) isolates, had no affect on RPP13-Nd function. In addition, RPP13-Nd-mediated resistance remained unchanged in a background of salicylic acid depletion (nahG). We conclude that RPP13-Nd is the first Arabidopsis R gene product reported to act via a novel signaling pathway that is independent of salicylic acid-mediated responses and is completely independent of NDR1 and EDS1.

  16. Implications of Farmers' Propensity to Discontinue Adoption of Downy-Mildew Resistant Maize and Improved Cowpea Varieties for Extension Education in Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladele, O. I.; Adekoya, A. E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of farmers' propensity to discontinue the adoption of agricultural technologies in southwestern Nigeria. This is predicated on the fact that extension education process should be proactive in addressing farmers in order to sustain the adoption process. Empirical studies looking at diffusion processes from an…

  17. Building Models and Building Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Skauge, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    I rapportens indledende kapitel beskrives de primære begreber vedrørende bygningsmodeller og nogle fundamentale forhold vedrørende computerbaseret modulering bliver opstillet. Desuden bliver forskellen mellem tegneprogrammer og bygnings­model­lerings­programmer beskrevet. Vigtige aspekter om comp...

  18. Molecular Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important
    tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and
    the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to tailored to
    decrease harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques
    employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modelling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported from
    the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  19. Cheating models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob

    The article discusses the use of algorithmic models for so-called High Frequency Trading (HFT) in finance. HFT is controversial yet widespread in modern financial markets. It is a form of automated trading technology which critics among other things claim can lead to market manipulation. Drawing...... on two cases, this article shows that manipulation more likely happens in the reverse way, meaning that human traders attempt to make algorithms ‘make mistakes’ or ‘mislead’ algos. Thus, it is algorithmic models, not humans, that are manipulated. Such manipulation poses challenges for security exchanges....... The article analyses these challenges and argues that we witness a new post-social form of human-technology interaction that will lead to a reconfiguration of professional codes for financial trading....

  20. Acyclic models

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Acyclic models is a method heavily used to analyze and compare various homology and cohomology theories appearing in topology and algebra. This book is the first attempt to put together in a concise form this important technique and to include all the necessary background. It presents a brief introduction to category theory and homological algebra. The author then gives the background of the theory of differential modules and chain complexes over an abelian category to state the main acyclic models theorem, generalizing and systemizing the earlier material. This is then applied to various cohomology theories in algebra and topology. The volume could be used as a text for a course that combines homological algebra and algebraic topology. Required background includes a standard course in abstract algebra and some knowledge of topology. The volume contains many exercises. It is also suitable as a reference work for researchers.

  1. Nuclear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossión, Rubén

    2010-09-01

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  2. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....

  3. Modeling Minds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John

    others' minds. Then (2), in order to bring to light some possible justifications, as well as hazards and criticisms of the methodology of looking time tests, I will take a closer look at the concept of folk psychology and will focus on the idea that folk psychology involves using oneself as a model...... of other people in order to predict and understand their behavior. Finally (3), I will discuss the historical location and significance of the emergence of looking time tests...

  4. Modeling biomembranes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimpton, Steven James; Heffernan, Julieanne; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Stevens, Mark Jackson; Frink, Laura J. Douglas

    2005-11-01

    Understanding the properties and behavior of biomembranes is fundamental to many biological processes and technologies. Microdomains in biomembranes or ''lipid rafts'' are now known to be an integral part of cell signaling, vesicle formation, fusion processes, protein trafficking, and viral and toxin infection processes. Understanding how microdomains form, how they depend on membrane constituents, and how they act not only has biological implications, but also will impact Sandia's effort in development of membranes that structurally adapt to their environment in a controlled manner. To provide such understanding, we created physically-based models of biomembranes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and classical density functional theory (DFT) calculations using these models were applied to phenomena such as microdomain formation, membrane fusion, pattern formation, and protein insertion. Because lipid dynamics and self-organization in membranes occur on length and time scales beyond atomistic MD, we used coarse-grained models of double tail lipid molecules that spontaneously self-assemble into bilayers. DFT provided equilibrium information on membrane structure. Experimental work was performed to further help elucidate the fundamental membrane organization principles.

  5. Model Construct Based Enterprise Model Architecture and Its Modeling Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to support enterprise integration, a kind of model construct based enterprise model architecture and its modeling approach are studied in this paper. First, the structural makeup and internal relationships of enterprise model architecture are discussed. Then, the concept of reusable model construct (MC) which belongs to the control view and can help to derive other views is proposed. The modeling approach based on model construct consists of three steps, reference model architecture synthesis, enterprise model customization, system design and implementation. According to MC based modeling approach a case study with the background of one-kind-product machinery manufacturing enterprises is illustrated. It is shown that proposal model construct based enterprise model architecture and modeling approach are practical and efficient.

  6. DTN Modeling in OPNET Modeler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAPAJ Jan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional wireless networks use the concept of the point-to-point forwarding inherited from reliable wired networks which seems to be not ideal for wireless environment. New emerging applications and networks operate mostly disconnected. So-called Delay-Tolerant networks (DTNs are receiving increasing attentions from both academia and industry. DTNs introduced a store-carry-and-forward concept solving the problem of intermittent connectivity. Behavior of such networks is verified by real models, computer simulation or combination of the both approaches. Computer simulation has become the primary and cost effective tool for evaluating the performance of the DTNs. OPNET modeler is our target simulation tool and we wanted to spread OPNET’s simulation opportunity towards DTN. We implemented bundle protocol to OPNET modeler allowing simulate cases based on bundle concept as epidemic forwarding which relies on flooding the network with messages and the forwarding algorithm based on the history of past encounters (PRoPHET. The implementation details will be provided in article.

  7. A Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhiyang

    2011-01-01

    Similar to ISO Technical Committees,SAC Technical Committees undertake the management and coordination of standard's development and amendments in various sectors in industry,playing the role as a bridge among enterprises,research institutions and the governmental standardization administration.How to fully play the essential role is the vital issue SAC has been committing to resolve.Among hundreds of SAC TCs,one stands out in knitting together those isolated,scattered,but highly competitive enterprises in the same industry with the "Standards" thread,and achieving remarkable results in promoting industry development with standardization.It sets a role model for other TCs.

  8. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....... posing new challenges in all areas of the industry from material and structural to the urban scale. Contributions from invited experts, papers and case studies provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field, as well as perspectives from related disciplines, such as computer science...

  9. Econometric modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alguacil Marí

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment, together with the low scores obtained by our students in recent years, makes it necessary to incorporate new teaching methods. In this sense, econometric modelling provides a unique opportunity offering to the student with the basic tools to address the study of Econometrics in a deeper and novel way. In this article, this teaching method is described, presenting also an example based on a recent study carried out by two students of the Degree of Economics. Likewise, the success of this method is evaluated quantitatively in terms of academic performance. The results confirm our initial idea that the greater involvement of the student, as well as the need for a more complete knowledge of the subject, suppose a stimulus for the study of this subject. As evidence of this, we show how those students who opted for the method we propose here obtained higher qualifications than those that chose the traditional method.

  10. Modelling Defiguration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork Petersen, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    For the presentation of his autumn/winter 2012 collection in Paris and subsequently in Copenhagen, Danish designer Henrik Vibskov installed a mobile catwalk. The article investigates the choreographic impact of this scenography on those who move through it. Drawing on Dance Studies, the analytical...... advantageous manner. Stepping on the catwalk’s sloping, moving surfaces decelerates the models’ walk and makes it cautious, hesitant and shaky: suddenly the models lack exactly the affirmative, staccato, striving quality of motion, and the condescending expression that they perform on most contemporary...... catwalks. Vibskov’s catwalk induces what the dance scholar Gabriele Brandstetter has labelled a ‘defigurative choregoraphy’: a straying from definitions, which exist in ballet as in other movement-based genres, of how a figure should move and appear (1998). The catwalk scenography in this instance...

  11. A Quantitative Dynamic Simulation of Bremia lactucae Airborne Conidia Concentration above a Lettuce Canopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamadou Lamine Fall

    Full Text Available Lettuce downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Bremia lactucae Regel, is a major threat to lettuce production worldwide. Lettuce downy mildew is a polycyclic disease driven by airborne spores. A weather-based dynamic simulation model for B. lactucae airborne spores was developed to simulate the aerobiological characteristics of the pathogen. The model was built using the STELLA platform by following the system dynamics methodology. The model was developed using published equations describing disease subprocesses (e.g., sporulation and assembled knowledge of the interactions among pathogen, host, and weather. The model was evaluated with four years of independent data by comparing model simulations with observations of hourly and daily airborne spore concentrations. The results show an accurate simulation of the trend and shape of B. lactucae temporal dynamics of airborne spore concentration. The model simulated hourly and daily peaks in airborne spore concentrations. More than 95% of the simulation runs, the daily-simulated airborne conidia concentration was 0 when airborne conidia were not observed. Also, the relationship between the simulated and the observed airborne spores was linear. In more than 94% of the simulation runs, the proportion of the linear variation in the hourly-observed values explained by the variation in the hourly-simulated values was greater than 0.7 in all years except one. Most of the errors came from the deviation from the 1:1 line, and the proportion of errors due to the model bias was low. This model is the only dynamic model developed to mimic the dynamics of airborne inoculum and represents an initial step towards improved lettuce downy mildew understanding, forecasting and management.

  12. Not all forests are disturbed equally: Population dynamics and resource selection of black-backed woodpeckers in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Thomas Rota

    2013-01-01

    Western North American forests are shaped by natural disturbances, which are an important driver of habitat heterogeneity and species diversity. Wildfire and bark beetle infestations are of particular interest to resource managers because of their widespread occurrence and potential economic impacts. These naturally occurring disturbances create habitat for numerous...

  13. Biological Assessment of the Effects of the Proposed Revision of the 1996 Management Guidelines for the Red-cockaded Woodpecker on Army Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    silty or loamy soils distinguish bottomland areas. Naturally regenerated forests and plantations of longleaf, slash, and lob- lolly pine dominate the...indigo snake T Gopherus polyphemus Gopher tortoise T Amphibians Ambystoma cingulatum Flatwoods Salamander T Insects Neonympha mitchellii

  14. Landscape Scale Assessment of Predominant Pine Canopy Height for Red-cockaded Woodpecker Habitat Assessment Using Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-26

    forest patches extracted from GAP landcover for Fort Bragg study area...7 7 Individual pine forest patches extracted from GAP landcover for Fort Bragg...University for their assis- tance in acquiring Gap Analysis Program (GAP) landcover maps for the study regions. Natalie Myers and James Westervelt of U.S

  15. On Activity modelling in process modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Aiordachioaie

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is looking to the dynamic feature of the meta-models of the process modelling process, the time. Some principles are considered and discussed as main dimensions of any modelling activity: the compatibility of the substances, the equipresence of phenomena and the solvability of the model. The activity models are considered and represented at meta-level.

  16. Towards a Multi Business Model Innovation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Jørgensen, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of business model (BM) innovations related to a multi business model framework. The paper tries to answer the research questions: • What are the requirements for a multi business model innovation model (BMIM)? • How should a multi business model innovation model...... look like? Different generations of BMIMs are initially studied in the context of laying the baseline for how next generation multi BM Innovation model (BMIM) should look like. All generations of models are analyzed with the purpose of comparing the characteristics and challenges of previous...

  17. Better Language Models with Model Merging

    CERN Document Server

    Brants, T

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates model merging, a technique for deriving Markov models from text or speech corpora. Models are derived by starting with a large and specific model and by successively combining states to build smaller and more general models. We present methods to reduce the time complexity of the algorithm and report on experiments on deriving language models for a speech recognition task. The experiments show the advantage of model merging over the standard bigram approach. The merged model assigns a lower perplexity to the test set and uses considerably fewer states.

  18. Model Selection Principles in Misspecified Models

    CERN Document Server

    Lv, Jinchi

    2010-01-01

    Model selection is of fundamental importance to high dimensional modeling featured in many contemporary applications. Classical principles of model selection include the Kullback-Leibler divergence principle and the Bayesian principle, which lead to the Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion when models are correctly specified. Yet model misspecification is unavoidable when we have no knowledge of the true model or when we have the correct family of distributions but miss some true predictor. In this paper, we propose a family of semi-Bayesian principles for model selection in misspecified models, which combine the strengths of the two well-known principles. We derive asymptotic expansions of the semi-Bayesian principles in misspecified generalized linear models, which give the new semi-Bayesian information criteria (SIC). A specific form of SIC admits a natural decomposition into the negative maximum quasi-log-likelihood, a penalty on model dimensionality, and a penalty on model miss...

  19. The IMACLIM model; Le modele IMACLIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document provides annexes to the IMACLIM model which propose an actualized description of IMACLIM, model allowing the design of an evaluation tool of the greenhouse gases reduction policies. The model is described in a version coupled with the POLES, technical and economical model of the energy industry. Notations, equations, sources, processing and specifications are proposed and detailed. (A.L.B.)

  20. Building Mental Models by Dissecting Physical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anveshna

    2016-01-01

    When students build physical models from prefabricated components to learn about model systems, there is an implicit trade-off between the physical degrees of freedom in building the model and the intensity of instructor supervision needed. Models that are too flexible, permitting multiple possible constructions require greater supervision to…

  1. The IMACLIM model; Le modele IMACLIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document provides annexes to the IMACLIM model which propose an actualized description of IMACLIM, model allowing the design of an evaluation tool of the greenhouse gases reduction policies. The model is described in a version coupled with the POLES, technical and economical model of the energy industry. Notations, equations, sources, processing and specifications are proposed and detailed. (A.L.B.)

  2. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  3. Continuous Time Model Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Chiarella; Shenhuai Gao

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an easy to follow method for continuous time model estimation. It serves as an introduction on how to convert a state space model from continuous time to discrete time, how to decompose a hybrid stochastic model into a trend model plus a noise model, how to estimate the trend model by simulation, and how to calculate standard errors from estimation of the noise model. It also discusses the numerical difficulties involved in discrete time models that bring about the unit ...

  4. Comparative Protein Structure Modeling Using MODELLER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Benjamin; Sali, Andrej

    2016-06-20

    Comparative protein structure modeling predicts the three-dimensional structure of a given protein sequence (target) based primarily on its alignment to one or more proteins of known structure (templates). The prediction process consists of fold assignment, target-template alignment, model building, and model evaluation. This unit describes how to calculate comparative models using the program MODELLER and how to use the ModBase database of such models, and discusses all four steps of comparative modeling, frequently observed errors, and some applications. Modeling lactate dehydrogenase from Trichomonas vaginalis (TvLDH) is described as an example. The download and installation of the MODELLER software is also described. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Concept Modeling vs. Data modeling in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    account of the inheritance of characteristics and allows us to introduce a number of principles and constraints which render concept modeling more coherent than earlier approaches. Second, we explain how terminological ontologies can be used as the basis for developing conceptual and logical data models......This chapter shows the usefulness of terminological concept modeling as a first step in data modeling. First, we introduce terminological concept modeling with terminological ontologies, i.e. concept systems enriched with characteristics modeled as feature specifications. This enables a formal...

  6. Forest management under uncertainty for multiple bird population objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C.T.; Plummer, W.T.; Conroy, M.J.; Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D.

    2005-01-01

    We advocate adaptive programs of decision making and monitoring for the management of forest birds when responses by populations to management, and particularly management trade-offs among populations, are uncertain. Models are necessary components of adaptive management. Under this approach, uncertainty about the behavior of a managed system is explicitly captured in a set of alternative models. The models generate testable predictions about the response of populations to management, and monitoring data provide the basis for assessing these predictions and informing future management decisions. To illustrate these principles, we examine forest management at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, where management attention is focused on the recovery of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population. However, managers are also sensitive to the habitat needs of many non-target organisms, including Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) and other forest interior Neotropical migratory birds. By simulating several management policies on a set of-alternative forest and bird models, we found a decision policy that maximized a composite response by woodpeckers and Wood Thrushes despite our complete uncertainty regarding system behavior. Furthermore, we used monitoring data to update our measure of belief in each alternative model following one cycle of forest management. This reduction of uncertainty translates into a reallocation of model influence on the choice of optimal decision action at the next decision opportunity.

  7. Business Model Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Dodgson, Mark; Gann, David; Phillips, Nelson; Massa, Lorenzo; Tucci, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The chapter offers a broad review of the literature at the nexus between Business Models and innovation studies, and examines the notion of Business Model Innovation in three different situations: Business Model Design in newly formed organizations, Business Model Reconfiguration in incumbent firms, and Business Model Innovation in the broad context of sustainability. Tools and perspectives to make sense of Business Models and support managers and entrepreneurs in dealing with Business Model ...

  8. Modeling cholera outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dennis L; Longini, Ira M; Morris, J Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios.

  9. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios. PMID:23412687

  10. Model Manipulation for End-User Modelers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acretoaie, Vlad

    of these proposals. To achieve its first goal, the thesis presents the findings of a Systematic Mapping Study showing that human factors topics are scarcely and relatively poorly addressed in model transformation research. Motivated by these findings, the thesis explores the requirements of end-user modelers......End-user modelers are domain experts who create and use models as part of their work. They are typically not Software Engineers, and have little or no programming and meta-modeling experience. However, using model manipulation languages developed in the context of Model-Driven Engineering often...... requires such experience. These languages are therefore only used by a small subset of the modelers that could, in theory, benefit from them. The goals of this thesis are to substantiate this observation, introduce the concepts and tools required to overcome it, and provide empirical evidence in support...

  11. Air Quality Dispersion Modeling - Alternative Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models, not listed in Appendix W, that can be used in regulatory applications with case-by-case justification to the Reviewing Authority as noted in Section 3.2, Use of Alternative Models, in Appendix W.

  12. From Product Models to Product State Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    A well-known technology designed to handle product data is Product Models. Product Models are in their current form not able to handle all types of product state information. Hence, the concept of a Product State Model (PSM) is proposed. The PSM and in particular how to model a PSM is the Research...... Object for this project. In the presentation, benefits and challenges of the PSM will be presented as a basis for the discussion....

  13. Measurement and Modeling: Infectious Disease Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretzschmar, MEE

    2016-01-01

    After some historical remarks about the development of mathematical theory for infectious disease dynamics we introduce a basic mathematical model for the spread of an infection with immunity. The concepts of the model are explained and the model equations are derived from first principles. Using th

  14. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...... of the laws of physics on the system. The unknown (or uncertain) parameters are estimated with Maximum Likelihood (ML) parameter estimation. The identified model has been evaluated by comparing the measurements with simulation of the model. The identified model was much more capable of describing the dynamics...... of the system than the deterministic model....

  15. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models. These ...

  16. "Bohr's Atomic Model."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    "Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…

  17. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...

  18. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  19. Solicited abstract: Global hydrological modeling and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chong-Yu

    2010-05-01

    The origins of rainfall-runoff modeling in the broad sense can be found in the middle of the 19th century arising in response to three types of engineering problems: (1) urban sewer design, (2) land reclamation drainage systems design, and (3) reservoir spillway design. Since then numerous empirical, conceptual and physically-based models are developed including event based models using unit hydrograph concept, Nash's linear reservoir models, HBV model, TOPMODEL, SHE model, etc. From the late 1980s, the evolution of global and continental-scale hydrology has placed new demands on hydrologic modellers. The macro-scale hydrological (global and regional scale) models were developed on the basis of the following motivations (Arenll, 1999). First, for a variety of operational and planning purposes, water resource managers responsible for large regions need to estimate the spatial variability of resources over large areas, at a spatial resolution finer than can be provided by observed data alone. Second, hydrologists and water managers are interested in the effects of land-use and climate variability and change over a large geographic domain. Third, there is an increasing need of using hydrologic models as a base to estimate point and non-point sources of pollution loading to streams. Fourth, hydrologists and atmospheric modellers have perceived weaknesses in the representation of hydrological processes in regional and global climate models, and developed global hydrological models to overcome the weaknesses of global climate models. Considerable progress in the development and application of global hydrological models has been achieved to date, however, large uncertainties still exist considering the model structure including large scale flow routing, parameterization, input data, etc. This presentation will focus on the global hydrological models, and the discussion includes (1) types of global hydrological models, (2) procedure of global hydrological model development

  20. Bayesian Model Selection and Statistical Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian model selection is a fundamental part of the Bayesian statistical modeling process. The quality of these solutions usually depends on the goodness of the constructed Bayesian model. Realizing how crucial this issue is, many researchers and practitioners have been extensively investigating the Bayesian model selection problem. This book provides comprehensive explanations of the concepts and derivations of the Bayesian approach for model selection and related criteria, including the Bayes factor, the Bayesian information criterion (BIC), the generalized BIC, and the pseudo marginal lik

  1. From Numeric Models to Granular System Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Pedrycz

    2015-03-01

    To make this study self-contained, we briefly recall the key concepts of granular computing and demonstrate how this conceptual framework and its algorithmic fundamentals give rise to granular models. We discuss several representative formal setups used in describing and processing information granules including fuzzy sets, rough sets, and interval calculus. Key architectures of models dwell upon relationships among information granules. We demonstrate how information granularity and its optimization can be regarded as an important design asset to be exploited in system modeling and giving rise to granular models. With this regard, an important category of rule-based models along with their granular enrichments is studied in detail.

  2. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  3. Model Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mangani, P

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: Lectures - G.E. Sacks - Model theory and applications, and H.J. Keisler - Constructions in model theory; and, Seminars - M. Servi - SH formulas and generalized exponential, and J.A. Makowski - Topological model theory.

  4. Wildfire Risk Main Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The model combines three modeled fire behavior parameters (rate of spread, flame length, crown fire potential) and one modeled ecological health measure (fire regime...

  5. Energy modelling software

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has turned to energy modelling in order to assist them in reducing the amount of energy consumed by buildings. However, while the energy loads of buildings can be accurately modelled, energy models often under...

  6. Computational neurogenetic modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Benuskova, Lubica

    2010-01-01

    Computational Neurogenetic Modeling is a student text, introducing the scope and problems of a new scientific discipline - Computational Neurogenetic Modeling (CNGM). CNGM is concerned with the study and development of dynamic neuronal models for modeling brain functions with respect to genes and dynamic interactions between genes. These include neural network models and their integration with gene network models. This new area brings together knowledge from various scientific disciplines, such as computer and information science, neuroscience and cognitive science, genetics and molecular biol

  7. Predictive Models for Music

    OpenAIRE

    Paiement, Jean-François; Grandvalet, Yves; Bengio, Samy

    2008-01-01

    Modeling long-term dependencies in time series has proved very difficult to achieve with traditional machine learning methods. This problem occurs when considering music data. In this paper, we introduce generative models for melodies. We decompose melodic modeling into two subtasks. We first propose a rhythm model based on the distributions of distances between subsequences. Then, we define a generative model for melodies given chords and rhythms based on modeling sequences of Narmour featur...

  8. TRACKING CLIMATE MODELS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CLAIRE MONTELEONI*, GAVIN SCHMIDT, AND SHAILESH SAROHA* Climate models are complex mathematical models designed by meteorologists, geophysicists, and climate...

  9. Environmental Modeling Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Modeling Center provides the computational tools to perform geostatistical analysis, to model ground water and atmospheric releases for comparison...

  10. Multilevel modeling using R

    CERN Document Server

    Finch, W Holmes; Kelley, Ken

    2014-01-01

    A powerful tool for analyzing nested designs in a variety of fields, multilevel/hierarchical modeling allows researchers to account for data collected at multiple levels. Multilevel Modeling Using R provides you with a helpful guide to conducting multilevel data modeling using the R software environment.After reviewing standard linear models, the authors present the basics of multilevel models and explain how to fit these models using R. They then show how to employ multilevel modeling with longitudinal data and demonstrate the valuable graphical options in R. The book also describes models fo

  11. Global Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    insight from the literature about business models, international product policy, international entry modes and globalization into a conceptual model of relevant design elements of global business models, enabling global business model innovation to deal with differences in a downstream perspective...... regarding the customer interface and in an upstream perspective regarding the supply infrastructure. The paper offers a coherent conceptual dynamic meta-model of global business model innovation. Students, scholars and managers within the field of international business can use this conceptualization...... to understand, to study, and to create global business model innovation. Managerial and research implications draw on the developed ideal type of global business model innovation....

  12. Continuous system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, Francois E.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic introduction is presented for the concepts associated with 'modeling', involving the transition from a physical system down to an abstract description of that system in the form of a set of differential and/or difference equations, and basing its treatment of modeling on the mathematics of dynamical systems. Attention is given to the principles of passive electrical circuit modeling, planar mechanical systems modeling, hierarchical modular modeling of continuous systems, and bond-graph modeling. Also discussed are modeling in equilibrium thermodynamics, population dynamics, and system dynamics, inductive reasoning, artificial neural networks, and automated model synthesis.

  13. Understandings of 'Modelling'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette

    2007-01-01

    This paper meets the common critique of the teaching of non-authentic modelling in school mathematics. In the paper, non-authentic modelling is related to a change of view on the intentions of modelling from knowledge about applications of mathematical models to modelling for concept formation. Non......-authentic modelling is also linked with the potentials of exploration of ready-made models as a forerunner for more authentic modelling processes. The discussion includes analysis of an episode of students? work in the classroom, which serves to illustrate how concept formation may be linked to explorations of a non...

  14. Interfacing materials models with fire field models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolette, V.F.; Tieszen, S.R.; Moya, J.L.

    1995-12-01

    For flame spread over solid materials, there has traditionally been a large technology gap between fundamental combustion research and the somewhat simplistic approaches used for practical, real-world applications. Recent advances in computational hardware and computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based software have led to the development of fire field models. These models, when used in conjunction with material burning models, have the potential to bridge the gap between research and application by implementing physics-based engineering models in a transient, multi-dimensional tool. This paper discusses the coupling that is necessary between fire field models and burning material models for the simulation of solid material fires. Fire field models are capable of providing detailed information about the local fire environment. This information serves as an input to the solid material combustion submodel, which subsequently calculates the impact of the fire environment on the material. The response of the solid material (in terms of thermal response, decomposition, charring, and off-gassing) is then fed back into the field model as a source of mass, momentum and energy. The critical parameters which must be passed between the field model and the material burning model have been identified. Many computational issues must be addressed when developing such an interface. Some examples include the ability to track multiple fuels and species, local ignition criteria, and the need to use local grid refinement over the burning material of interest.

  15. Combustion modeling in a model combustor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Y.Jiang; I.Campbell; K.Su

    2007-01-01

    The flow-field of a propane-air diffusion flame combustor with interior and exterior conjugate heat transfers was numerically studied.Results obtained from four combustion models,combined with the re-normalization group (RNG) k-ε turbulence model,discrete ordinates radiation model and enhanced wall treatment are presented and discussed.The results are compared with a comprehensive database obtained from a series of experimental measurements.The flow patterns and the recirculation zone length in the combustion chamber are accurately predicted,and the mean axial velocities are in fairly good agreement with the experimental data,particularly at downstream sections for all four combustion models.The mean temperature profiles are captured fairly well by the eddy dissipation (EDS),probability density function (PDF),and laminar flamelet combustion models.However,the EDS-finite-rate combustion model fails to provide an acceptable temperature field.In general,the flamelet model illustrates little superiority over the PDF model,and to some extent the PDF model shows better performance than the EDS model.

  16. Regularized Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobucci, Ross; Grimm, Kevin J; McArdle, John J

    A new method is proposed that extends the use of regularization in both lasso and ridge regression to structural equation models. The method is termed regularized structural equation modeling (RegSEM). RegSEM penalizes specific parameters in structural equation models, with the goal of creating easier to understand and simpler models. Although regularization has gained wide adoption in regression, very little has transferred to models with latent variables. By adding penalties to specific parameters in a structural equation model, researchers have a high level of flexibility in reducing model complexity, overcoming poor fitting models, and the creation of models that are more likely to generalize to new samples. The proposed method was evaluated through a simulation study, two illustrative examples involving a measurement model, and one empirical example involving the structural part of the model to demonstrate RegSEM's utility.

  17. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise....... Efficient and good modeling practice therefore requires the use of a proper set of guidelines, thus grounding the modeling studies on a general and systematic framework. Last but not least, general limitations of WWTP models – more specifically activated sludge models – are introduced since these define...

  18. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise....... Efficient and good modeling practice therefore requires the use of a proper set of guidelines, thus grounding the modeling studies on a general and systematic framework. Last but not least, general limitations of WWTP models – more specifically, activated sludge models – are introduced since these define...

  19. ROCK PROPERTIES MODEL ANALYSIS MODEL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton Lum

    2002-02-04

    The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) is to document Rock Properties Model (RPM) 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties models are intended principally for use as input to numerical physical-process modeling, such as of ground-water flow and/or radionuclide transport. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. This work was conducted in accordance with the following planning documents: WA-0344, ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1998'' (SNL 1997, WA-0358), ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1999'' (SNL 1999), and the technical development plan, Rock Properties Model Version 3.1, (CRWMS M&O 1999c). The Interim Change Notice (ICNs), ICN 02 and ICN 03, of this AMR were prepared as part of activities being conducted under the Technical Work Plan, TWP-NBS-GS-000003, ''Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model, Process Model Report, Revision 01'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The purpose of ICN 03 is to record changes in data input status due to data qualification and verification activities. These work plans describe the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and implementing procedures for model construction. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The work scope for this activity consists of the following: (1) Conversion of the input data (laboratory measured porosity data, x-ray diffraction mineralogy, petrophysical calculations of bound water, and petrophysical calculations of porosity) for each borehole into stratigraphic coordinates; (2) Re-sampling and merging of data sets; (3

  20. Model Reduction of Nonlinear Fire Dynamics Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lattimer, Alan Martin

    2016-01-01

    Due to the complexity, multi-scale, and multi-physics nature of the mathematical models for fires, current numerical models require too much computational effort to be useful in design and real-time decision making, especially when dealing with fires over large domains. To reduce the computational time while retaining the complexity of the domain and physics, our research has focused on several reduced-order modeling techniques. Our contributions are improving wildland fire reduced-order mod...

  1. Better models are more effectively connected models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bielders, Charles; Darboux, Frederic; Fiener, Peter; Finger, David; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Wainwright, John

    2016-04-01

    The concept of hydrologic and geomorphologic connectivity describes the processes and pathways which link sources (e.g. rainfall, snow and ice melt, springs, eroded areas and barren lands) to accumulation areas (e.g. foot slopes, streams, aquifers, reservoirs), and the spatial variations thereof. There are many examples of hydrological and sediment connectivity on a watershed scale; in consequence, a process-based understanding of connectivity is crucial to help managers understand their systems and adopt adequate measures for flood prevention, pollution mitigation and soil protection, among others. Modelling is often used as a tool to understand and predict fluxes within a catchment by complementing observations with model results. Catchment models should therefore be able to reproduce the linkages, and thus the connectivity of water and sediment fluxes within the systems under simulation. In modelling, a high level of spatial and temporal detail is desirable to ensure taking into account a maximum number of components, which then enables connectivity to emerge from the simulated structures and functions. However, computational constraints and, in many cases, lack of data prevent the representation of all relevant processes and spatial/temporal variability in most models. In most cases, therefore, the level of detail selected for modelling is too coarse to represent the system in a way in which connectivity can emerge; a problem which can be circumvented by representing fine-scale structures and processes within coarser scale models using a variety of approaches. This poster focuses on the results of ongoing discussions on modelling connectivity held during several workshops within COST Action Connecteur. It assesses the current state of the art of incorporating the concept of connectivity in hydrological and sediment models, as well as the attitudes of modellers towards this issue. The discussion will focus on the different approaches through which connectivity

  2. Multiple Model Approaches to Modelling and Control,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the ease with which prior knowledge can be incorporated. It is interesting to note that researchers in Control Theory, Neural Networks,Statistics, Artificial Intelligence and Fuzzy Logic have more or less independently developed very similar modelling methods, calling them Local ModelNetworks, Operating...... of introduction of existing knowledge, as well as the ease of model interpretation. This book attempts to outlinemuch of the common ground between the various approaches, encouraging the transfer of ideas.Recent progress in algorithms and analysis is presented, with constructive algorithms for automated model...

  3. Integrity modelling of tropospheric delay models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózsa, Szabolcs; Bastiaan Ober, Pieter; Mile, Máté; Ambrus, Bence; Juni, Ildikó

    2017-04-01

    The effect of the neutral atmosphere on signal propagation is routinely estimated by various tropospheric delay models in satellite navigation. Although numerous studies can be found in the literature investigating the accuracy of these models, for safety-of-life applications it is crucial to study and model the worst case performance of these models using very low recurrence frequencies. The main objective of the INTegrity of TROpospheric models (INTRO) project funded by the ESA PECS programme is to establish a model (or models) of the residual error of existing tropospheric delay models for safety-of-life applications. Such models are required to overbound rare tropospheric delays and should thus include the tails of the error distributions. Their use should lead to safe error bounds on the user position and should allow computation of protection levels for the horizontal and vertical position errors. The current tropospheric model from the RTCA SBAS Minimal Operational Standards has an associated residual error that equals 0.12 meters in the vertical direction. This value is derived by simply extrapolating the observed distribution of the residuals into the tail (where no data is present) and then taking the point where the cumulative distribution has an exceedance level would be 10-7.While the resulting standard deviation is much higher than the estimated standard variance that best fits the data (0.05 meters), it surely is conservative for most applications. In the context of the INTRO project some widely used and newly developed tropospheric delay models (e.g. RTCA MOPS, ESA GALTROPO and GPT2W) were tested using 16 years of daily ERA-INTERIM Reanalysis numerical weather model data and the raytracing technique. The results showed that the performance of some of the widely applied models have a clear seasonal dependency and it is also affected by a geographical position. In order to provide a more realistic, but still conservative estimation of the residual

  4. Numerical Modelling of Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Kristian

    In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the use of numerical water quality models. Numeric water quality modeling can be divided into three steps: Hydrodynamic modeling for the determination of stream flow and water levels. Modelling of transport and dispersion of a conservative...

  5. Graphical Models with R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsgaard, Søren; Edwards, David; Lauritzen, Steffen

    , the book provides examples of how more advanced aspects of graphical modeling can be represented and handled within R. Topics covered in the seven chapters include graphical models for contingency tables, Gaussian and mixed graphical models, Bayesian networks and modeling high dimensional data...

  6. Dynamic Latent Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Shengtong; Martínez, Ana M.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    as possible. Motivated by this problem setting, we propose a generative model for dynamic classification in continuous domains. At each time point the model can be seen as combining a naive Bayes model with a mixture of factor analyzers (FA). The latent variables of the FA are used to capture the dynamics...... in the process as well as modeling dependences between attributes....

  7. HRM: HII Region Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Kepley, Amanda K.; Balser, Dana S.

    2017-07-01

    HII Region Models fits HII region models to observed radio recombination line and radio continuum data. The algorithm includes the calculations of departure coefficients to correct for non-LTE effects. HII Region Models has been used to model star formation in the nucleus of IC 342.

  8. Multilevel IRT Model Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Jean-Paul; Ark, L. Andries; Croon, Marcel A.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling complex cognitive and psychological outcomes in, for example, educational assessment led to the development of generalized item response theory (IRT) models. A class of models was developed to solve practical and challenging educational problems by generalizing the basic IRT models. An IRT

  9. Models for Dynamic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    be applied to formulate, analyse and solve these dynamic problems and how in the case of the fuel cell problem the model consists of coupledmeso and micro scale models. It is shown how data flows are handled between the models and how the solution is obtained within the modelling environment....

  10. Multivariate GARCH models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    This article contains a review of multivariate GARCH models. Most common GARCH models are presented and their properties considered. This also includes nonparametric and semiparametric models. Existing specification and misspecification tests are discussed. Finally, there is an empirical example...... in which several multivariate GARCH models are fitted to the same data set and the results compared....

  11. The Model Confidence Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Nason, James M.

    The paper introduces the model confidence set (MCS) and applies it to the selection of models. A MCS is a set of models that is constructed such that it will contain the best model with a given level of confidence. The MCS is in this sense analogous to a confidence interval for a parameter. The M...

  12. Modelling Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Morten Peter; Viuf, P.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    In this report we present a model of interlocking systems, and describe how the model may be validated by simulation. Station topologies are modelled by graphs in which the nodes denote track segments, and the edges denote connectivity for train traÆc. Points and signals are modelled by annotatio...

  13. AIDS Epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  14. Multivariate GARCH models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    This article contains a review of multivariate GARCH models. Most common GARCH models are presented and their properties considered. This also includes nonparametric and semiparametric models. Existing specification and misspecification tests are discussed. Finally, there is an empirical example...... in which several multivariate GARCH models are fitted to the same data set and the results compared....

  15. Multilevel IRT Model Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Ark, L. Andries; Croon, Marcel A.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling complex cognitive and psychological outcomes in, for example, educational assessment led to the development of generalized item response theory (IRT) models. A class of models was developed to solve practical and challenging educational problems by generalizing the basic IRT models. An IRT

  16. Biomass Scenario Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique, carefully validated, state-of-the-art dynamic model of the domestic biofuels supply chain which explicitly focuses on policy issues, their feasibility, and potential side effects. It integrates resource availability, physical/technological/economic constraints, behavior, and policy. The model uses a system dynamics simulation (not optimization) to model dynamic interactions across the supply chain.

  17. Lumped-parameter models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    A lumped-parameter model represents the frequency dependent soil-structure interaction of a massless foundation placed on or embedded into an unbounded soil domain. In this technical report the steps of establishing a lumped-parameter model are presented. Following sections are included in this report: Static and dynamic formulation, Simple lumped-parameter models and Advanced lumped-parameter models. (au)

  18. Plant development models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuine, I.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Kramer, K.; Hänninen, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we provide a brief overview of plant phenology modeling, focusing on mechanistic phenological models. After a brief history of plant phenology modeling, we present the different models which have been described in the literature so far and highlight the main differences between them,

  19. Generic Market Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pietersz (Raoul); M. van Regenmortel

    2005-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, there are two market models for valuation and risk management of interest rate derivatives, the LIBOR and swap market models. In this paper, we introduce arbitrage-free constant maturity swap (CMS) market models and generic market models featuring forward rates that span perio

  20. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...... of design. Three distinctions are drawn through which to develop this discussion of models in an architectural context. An examination of these distinctions serves to nuance particular characteristics and roles of models, the modelling activity itself and those engaged in it....

  1. Talk about toy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Joshua

    2017-02-01

    Scientific models are frequently discussed in philosophy of science. A great deal of the discussion is centred on approximation, idealisation, and on how these models achieve their representational function. Despite the importance, distinct nature, and high presence of toy models, they have received little attention from philosophers. This paper hopes to remedy this situation. It aims to elevate the status of toy models: by distinguishing them from approximations and idealisations, by highlighting and elaborating on several ways the Kac ring, a simple statistical mechanical model, is used as a toy model, and by explaining why toy models can be used to successfully carry out important work without performing a representational function.

  2. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2005-01-01

    One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing setof classifiers is the \\NB models. These models rely on twoassumptions: $(i)$ All the attributes used to describe an instanceare conditionally independent given the class of that instance,and $(ii)$ all attributes follow a specific...... parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions...... classification model, and wedemonstrate empirically that the accuracy of the proposed model issignificantly higher than the accuracy of other probabilisticclassifiers....

  3. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise...

  4. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise...

  5. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  6. Protein Models Comparator

    CERN Document Server

    Widera, Paweł

    2011-01-01

    The process of comparison of computer generated protein structural models is an important element of protein structure prediction. It has many uses including model quality evaluation, selection of the final models from a large set of candidates or optimisation of parameters of energy functions used in template free modelling and refinement. Although many protein comparison methods are available online on numerous web servers, their ability to handle a large scale model comparison is often very limited. Most of the servers offer only a single pairwise structural comparison, and they usually do not provide a model-specific comparison with a fixed alignment between the models. To bridge the gap between the protein and model structure comparison we have developed the Protein Models Comparator (pm-cmp). To be able to deliver the scalability on demand and handle large comparison experiments the pm-cmp was implemented "in the cloud". Protein Models Comparator is a scalable web application for a fast distributed comp...

  7. Nonuniform Markov models

    CERN Document Server

    Ristad, E S; Ristad, Eric Sven; Thomas, Robert G.

    1996-01-01

    A statistical language model assigns probability to strings of arbitrary length. Unfortunately, it is not possible to gather reliable statistics on strings of arbitrary length from a finite corpus. Therefore, a statistical language model must decide that each symbol in a string depends on at most a small, finite number of other symbols in the string. In this report we propose a new way to model conditional independence in Markov models. The central feature of our nonuniform Markov model is that it makes predictions of varying lengths using contexts of varying lengths. Experiments on the Wall Street Journal reveal that the nonuniform model performs slightly better than the classic interpolated Markov model. This result is somewhat remarkable because both models contain identical numbers of parameters whose values are estimated in a similar manner. The only difference between the two models is how they combine the statistics of longer and shorter strings. Keywords: nonuniform Markov model, interpolated Markov m...

  8. Lumped Thermal Household Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    a lumped model approach as an alternative to the individual models. In the lumped model, the portfolio is seen as baseline consumption superimposed with an ideal storage of limited power and energy capacity. The benefit of such a lumped model is that the computational effort of flexibility optimization......In this paper we discuss two different approaches to model the flexible power consumption of heat pump heated households: individual household modeling and lumped modeling. We illustrate that a benefit of individual modeling is that we can overview and optimize the complete flexibility of a heat...... pump portfolio. Following, we illustrate two disadvantages of individual models, namely that it requires much computational effort to optimize over a large portfolio, and second that it is difficult to accurately model the houses in certain time periods due to local disturbances. Finally, we propose...

  9. Calibrated Properties Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Ahlers; H. Liu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00. These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions.

  10. Introduction to Adjoint Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    In this lecture, some fundamentals of adjoint models will be described. This includes a basic derivation of tangent linear and corresponding adjoint models from a parent nonlinear model, the interpretation of adjoint-derived sensitivity fields, a description of methods of automatic differentiation, and the use of adjoint models to solve various optimization problems, including singular vectors. Concluding remarks will attempt to correct common misconceptions about adjoint models and their utilization.

  11. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Dennis L.; Ira M Longini; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating mo...

  12. Business Model Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Zagorsek, Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Business model describes the company’s most important activities, proposed value, and the compensation for the value. Business model visualization enables to simply and systematically capture and describe the most important components of the business model while the standardization of the concept allows the comparison between companies. There are several possibilities how to visualize the model. The aim of this paper is to describe the options for business model visualization and business mod...

  13. Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al. Th...... with ground truth in form of manual expert annotations, and compared to Cootes's model. We anticipate applications in unconstrained diffeomorphic synthesis of images, e.g. for tracking, segmentation, registration or classification purposes....

  14. Dimension of linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....

  15. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis L Chao; Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating mo...

  16. Multiple Model Approaches to Modelling and Control,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Why Multiple Models?This book presents a variety of approaches which produce complex models or controllers by piecing together a number of simpler subsystems. Thisdivide-and-conquer strategy is a long-standing and general way of copingwith complexity in engineering systems, nature and human probl...

  17. Model Checking of Boolean Process Models

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    In the field of Business Process Management formal models for the control flow of business processes have been designed since more than 15 years. Which methods are best suited to verify the bulk of these models? The first step is to select a formal language which fixes the semantics of the models. We adopt the language of Boolean systems as reference language for Boolean process models. Boolean systems form a simple subclass of coloured Petri nets. Their characteristics are low tokens to model explicitly states with a subsequent skipping of activations and arbitrary logical rules of type AND, XOR, OR etc. to model the split and join of the control flow. We apply model checking as a verification method for the safeness and liveness of Boolean systems. Model checking of Boolean systems uses the elementary theory of propositional logic, no modal operators are needed. Our verification builds on a finite complete prefix of a certain T-system attached to the Boolean system. It splits the processes of the Boolean sy...

  18. Pavement Aging Model by Response Surface Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzano-Ramírez A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, surface course aging was modeled by Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The Marshall specimens were placed in a conventional oven for time and temperature conditions established on the basis of the environment factors of the region where the surface course is constructed by AC-20 from the Ing. Antonio M. Amor refinery. Volatilized material (VM, load resistance increment (ΔL and flow resistance increment (ΔF models were developed by the RSM. Cylindrical specimens with real aging were extracted from the surface course pilot to evaluate the error of the models. The VM model was adequate, in contrast (ΔL and (ΔF models were almost adequate with an error of 20 %, that was associated with the other environmental factors, which were not considered at the beginning of the research.

  19. Model Validation Status Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  20. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models....... These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern product and process modelling theory and practice followed by a series of case studies drawn from a variety...... to biotechnology applications, food, polymer and human health application areas. The book highlights to important nature of modern product and process modelling in the decision making processes across the life cycle. As such it provides an important resource for students, researchers and industrial practitioners....

  1. Practical Marginalized Multilevel Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Michael E; Swihart, Bruce J; Caffo, Brian S; Zeger, Scott L

    2013-01-01

    Clustered data analysis is characterized by the need to describe both systematic variation in a mean model and cluster-dependent random variation in an association model. Marginalized multilevel models embrace the robustness and interpretations of a marginal mean model, while retaining the likelihood inference capabilities and flexible dependence structures of a conditional association model. Although there has been increasing recognition of the attractiveness of marginalized multilevel models, there has been a gap in their practical application arising from a lack of readily available estimation procedures. We extend the marginalized multilevel model to allow for nonlinear functions in both the mean and association aspects. We then formulate marginal models through conditional specifications to facilitate estimation with mixed model computational solutions already in place. We illustrate the MMM and approximate MMM approaches on a cerebrovascular deficiency crossover trial using SAS and an epidemiological study on race and visual impairment using R. Datasets, SAS and R code are included as supplemental materials.

  2. Modelling Foundations and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Modelling Foundations and Applications, held in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark, in July 2012. The 20 revised full foundations track papers and 10 revised full applications track papers presented were carefully reviewed...... and selected from 81 submissions. Papers on all aspects of MDE were received, including topics such as architectural modelling and product lines, code generation, domain-specic modeling, metamodeling, model analysis and verication, model management, model transformation and simulation. The breadth of topics...

  3. On Communication Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋娜; 谢有琪

    2012-01-01

    With the development of human society, the social hub enlarges beyond one community to the extent that the world is deemed as a community as a whole. Communication, therefore, plays an increasingly important role in our daily life. As a consequence, communication model or the definition of which is not so much a definition as a guide in communication. However, some existed communication models are not as practical as it was. This paper tries to make an overall contrast among three communication models Coded Model, Gable Communication Model and Ostensive Inferential Model, to see how they assist people to comprehend verbal and non -verbal communication.

  4. Modeling worldwide highway networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Boas, Paulino R.; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; da F. Costa, Luciano

    2009-12-01

    This Letter addresses the problem of modeling the highway systems of different countries by using complex networks formalism. More specifically, we compare two traditional geographical models with a modified geometrical network model where paths, rather than edges, are incorporated at each step between the origin and the destination vertices. Optimal configurations of parameters are obtained for each model and used for the comparison. The highway networks of Australia, Brazil, India, and Romania are considered and shown to be properly modeled by the modified geographical model.

  5. THE IMPROVED XINANJIANG MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-jia; YAO Cheng; KONG Xiang-guang

    2005-01-01

    To improve the Xinanjiang model, the runoff generating from infiltration-excess is added to the model.The another 6 parameters are added to Xinanjiang model.In principle, the improved Xinanjiang model can be used to simulate runoff in the humid, semi-humid and also semi-arid regions.The application in Yi River shows the improved Xinanjiang model could forecast discharge with higher accuracy and can satisfy the practical requirements.It also shows that the improved model is reasonable.

  6. Microsoft tabular modeling cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Braak, Paul te

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style with recipes explaining the steps for developing analytic data using Business Intelligence Semantic Models.This book is designed for developers who wish to develop powerful and dynamic models for users as well as those who are responsible for the administration of models in corporate environments. It is also targeted at analysts and users of Excel who wish to advance their knowledge of Excel through the development of tabular models or who wish to analyze data through tabular modeling techniques. We assume no prior knowledge of tabular modeling

  7. Five models of capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides analyzing capitalist societies historically and thinking of them in terms of phases or stages, we may compare different models or varieties of capitalism. In this paper I survey the literature on this subject, and distinguish the classification that has a production or business approach from those that use a mainly political criterion. I identify five forms of capitalism: among the rich countries, the liberal democratic or Anglo-Saxon model, the social or European model, and the endogenous social integration or Japanese model; among developing countries, I distinguish the Asian developmental model from the liberal-dependent model that characterizes most other developing countries, including Brazil.

  8. Holographic twin Higgs model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-15

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at m_{KK}, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider.

  9. Energy-consumption modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  10. Empirical Model Building Data, Models, and Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, James R

    2011-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "This...novel and highly stimulating book, which emphasizes solving real problems...should be widely read. It will have a positive and lasting effect on the teaching of modeling and statistics in general." - Short Book Reviews This new edition features developments and real-world examples that showcase essential empirical modeling techniques Successful empirical model building is founded on the relationship between data and approximate representations of the real systems that generated that data. As a result, it is essential for researchers who construct these m

  11. Develop a Model Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensey, Tyler S.

    2013-01-01

    During my internship at NASA, I was a model developer for Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The purpose of a model developer is to develop and unit test model component libraries (fluid, electrical, gas, etc.). The models are designed to simulate software for GSE (Ground Special Power, Crew Access Arm, Cryo, Fire and Leak Detection System, Environmental Control System (ECS), etc. .) before they are implemented into hardware. These models support verifying local control and remote software for End-Item Software Under Test (SUT). The model simulates the physical behavior (function, state, limits and 110) of each end-item and it's dependencies as defined in the Subsystem Interface Table, Software Requirements & Design Specification (SRDS), Ground Integrated Schematic (GIS), and System Mechanical Schematic.(SMS). The software of each specific model component is simulated through MATLAB's Simulink program. The intensiv model development life cycle is a.s follows: Identify source documents; identify model scope; update schedule; preliminary design review; develop model requirements; update model.. scope; update schedule; detailed design review; create/modify library component; implement library components reference; implement subsystem components; develop a test script; run the test script; develop users guide; send model out for peer review; the model is sent out for verifictionlvalidation; if there is empirical data, a validation data package is generated; if there is not empirical data, a verification package is generated; the test results are then reviewed; and finally, the user. requests accreditation, and a statement of accreditation is prepared. Once each component model is reviewed and approved, they are intertwined together into one integrated model. This integrated model is then tested itself, through a test script and autotest, so that it can be concluded that all models work conjointly, for a single purpose. The component I was assigned, specifically, was a

  12. Biosphere Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Wu; A.J. Smith

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), TSPA-LA. The ERMYN provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs) (Section 6.2), the reference biosphere (Section 6.1.1), the human receptor (Section 6.1.2), and approximations (Sections 6.3.1.4 and 6.3.2.4); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model (Section 6.3) and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); (8) Validating the ERMYN by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).

  13. Major Differences between the Jerome Model and the Horace Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱艳

    2014-01-01

    There are three famous translation models in the field of translation: the Jerome model, the Horace model and the Schleiermacher model. The production and development of the three models have significant influence on the translation. To find the major differences between the two western classical translation theoretical models, we discuss the Jerome model and the Hor-ace model deeply in this paper.

  14. Modelling cointegration in the vector autoregressive model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2000-01-01

    A survey is given of some results obtained for the cointegrated VAR. The Granger representation theorem is discussed and the notions of cointegration and common trends are defined. The statistical model for cointegrated I(1) variables is defined, and it is shown how hypotheses on the cointegrating...... relations can be estimated under suitable identification conditions. The asymptotic theory is briefly mentioned and a few economic applications of the cointegration model are indicated....

  15. Emissions Modeling Clearinghouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Emissions Modeling Clearinghouse (EMCH) supports and promotes emissions modeling activities both internal and external to the EPA. Through this site, the EPA...

  16. ASC Champ Orbit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Jørgensen, John Leif

    1999-01-01

    This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite.......This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite....

  17. World Magnetic Model 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Magnetic Model is the standard model used by the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.K. Ministry of Defence, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  18. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to...

  19. Model comparison in ANOVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Engelhardt, Christopher R; McCabe, Simon; Morey, Richard D

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA), the workhorse analysis of experimental designs, consists of F-tests of main effects and interactions. Yet, testing, including traditional ANOVA, has been recently critiqued on a number of theoretical and practical grounds. In light of these critiques, model comparison and model selection serve as an attractive alternative. Model comparison differs from testing in that one can support a null or nested model vis-a-vis a more general alternative by penalizing more flexible models. We argue this ability to support more simple models allows for more nuanced theoretical conclusions than provided by traditional ANOVA F-tests. We provide a model comparison strategy and show how ANOVA models may be reparameterized to better address substantive questions in data analysis.

  20. Graphical Models with R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsgaard, Søren; Edwards, David; Lauritzen, Steffen

    Graphical models in their modern form have been around since the late 1970s and appear today in many areas of the sciences. Along with the ongoing developments of graphical models, a number of different graphical modeling software programs have been written over the years. In recent years many...... of these software developments have taken place within the R community, either in the form of new packages or by providing an R ingerface to existing software. This book attempts to give the reader a gentle introduction to graphical modeling using R and the main features of some of these packages. In addition......, the book provides examples of how more advanced aspects of graphical modeling can be represented and handled within R. Topics covered in the seven chapters include graphical models for contingency tables, Gaussian and mixed graphical models, Bayesian networks and modeling high dimensional data...