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Sample records for models developed based

  1. Model based development of engine control algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.J.; Sturm, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    Model based development of engine control systems has several advantages. The development time and costs are strongly reduced because much of the development and optimization work is carried out by simulating both engine and control system. After optimizing the control algorithm it can be executed

  2. Development of Ensemble Model Based Water Demand Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyun-Han; So, Byung-Jin; Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Kim, Byung-Seop

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, Smart Water Grid (SWG) concept has globally emerged over the last decade and also gained significant recognition in South Korea. Especially, there has been growing interest in water demand forecast and optimal pump operation and this has led to various studies regarding energy saving and improvement of water supply reliability. Existing water demand forecasting models are categorized into two groups in view of modeling and predicting their behavior in time series. One is to consider embedded patterns such as seasonality, periodicity and trends, and the other one is an autoregressive model that is using short memory Markovian processes (Emmanuel et al., 2012). The main disadvantage of the abovementioned model is that there is a limit to predictability of water demands of about sub-daily scale because the system is nonlinear. In this regard, this study aims to develop a nonlinear ensemble model for hourly water demand forecasting which allow us to estimate uncertainties across different model classes. The proposed model is consist of two parts. One is a multi-model scheme that is based on combination of independent prediction model. The other one is a cross validation scheme named Bagging approach introduced by Brieman (1996) to derive weighting factors corresponding to individual models. Individual forecasting models that used in this study are linear regression analysis model, polynomial regression, multivariate adaptive regression splines(MARS), SVM(support vector machine). The concepts are demonstrated through application to observed from water plant at several locations in the South Korea. Keywords: water demand, non-linear model, the ensemble forecasting model, uncertainty. Acknowledgements This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Projects for Developing Eco-Innovation Technologies (GT-11-G-02-001-6)

  3. Cognitive components underpinning the development of model-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Tracey C S; Bryce, Nessa V; Hartley, Catherine A

    2017-06-01

    Reinforcement learning theory distinguishes "model-free" learning, which fosters reflexive repetition of previously rewarded actions, from "model-based" learning, which recruits a mental model of the environment to flexibly select goal-directed actions. Whereas model-free learning is evident across development, recruitment of model-based learning appears to increase with age. However, the cognitive processes underlying the development of model-based learning remain poorly characterized. Here, we examined whether age-related differences in cognitive processes underlying the construction and flexible recruitment of mental models predict developmental increases in model-based choice. In a cohort of participants aged 9-25, we examined whether the abilities to infer sequential regularities in the environment ("statistical learning"), maintain information in an active state ("working memory") and integrate distant concepts to solve problems ("fluid reasoning") predicted age-related improvements in model-based choice. We found that age-related improvements in statistical learning performance did not mediate the relationship between age and model-based choice. Ceiling performance on our working memory assay prevented examination of its contribution to model-based learning. However, age-related improvements in fluid reasoning statistically mediated the developmental increase in the recruitment of a model-based strategy. These findings suggest that gradual development of fluid reasoning may be a critical component process underlying the emergence of model-based learning. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. IDEF method-based simulation model design and development framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Young Jeong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an IDEF method-based integrated framework for a business process simulation model to reduce the model development time by increasing the communication and knowledge reusability during a simulation project. In this framework, simulation requirements are collected by a function modeling method (IDEF0 and a process modeling method (IDEF3. Based on these requirements, a common data model is constructed using the IDEF1X method. From this reusable data model, multiple simulation models are automatically generated using a database-driven simulation model development approach. The framework is claimed to help both requirement collection and experimentation phases during a simulation project by improving system knowledge, model reusability, and maintainability through the systematic use of three descriptive IDEF methods and the features of the relational database technologies. A complex semiconductor fabrication case study was used as a testbed to evaluate and illustrate the concepts and the framework. Two different simulation software products were used to develop and control the semiconductor model from the same knowledge base. The case study empirically showed that this framework could help improve the simulation project processes by using IDEF-based descriptive models and the relational database technology. Authors also concluded that this framework could be easily applied to other analytical model generation by separating the logic from the data.

  5. A Competency-Based Model for Youth Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemiller, Corey

    2018-01-01

    Whether they are in a leadership program, participate in an organization, or engage in school-based extra-curricular activities, there does not appear to be a shortage of leadership development opportunities for youth. Despite the prominence of these experiences, the lack of youth leadership development models available for educators can pose a…

  6. An Evidence-Based Practitioner's Model for Adolescent Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for youth leadership education based on adolescent development and leadership research in an effort to provide practitioners with a practical blueprint to aid their creation and implementation of high school leadership programs. By focusing on student leader development areas which school level educators can affect,…

  7. Integrating Design Decision Management with Model-based Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    Design decisions are continuously made during the development of software systems and are important artifacts for design documentation. Dedicated decision management systems are often used to capture such design knowledge. Most such systems are, however, separated from the design artifacts...... of the system. In model-based software development, where design models are used to develop a software system, outcomes of many design decisions have big impact on design models. The realization of design decisions is often manual and tedious work on design models. Moreover, keeping design models consistent......, or by ignoring the causes. This substitutes manual reviews to some extent. The concepts, implemented in a tool, have been validated with design patterns, refactorings, and domain level tests that comprise a replay of a real project. This proves the applicability of the solution to realistic examples...

  8. Dependability modeling and assessment in UML-based software development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Simona; Merseguer, José; Petriu, Dorina C

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of software nonfunctional properties (NFP) is an important problem in software development. In the context of model-driven development, an emerging approach for the analysis of different NFPs consists of the following steps: (a) to extend the software models with annotations describing the NFP of interest; (b) to transform automatically the annotated software model to the formalism chosen for NFP analysis; (c) to analyze the formal model using existing solvers; (d) to assess the software based on the results and give feedback to designers. Such a modeling→analysis→assessment approach can be applied to any software modeling language, be it general purpose or domain specific. In this paper, we focus on UML-based development and on the dependability NFP, which encompasses reliability, availability, safety, integrity, and maintainability. The paper presents the profile used to extend UML with dependability information, the model transformation to generate a DSPN formal model, and the assessment of the system properties based on the DSPN results.

  9. Model-Based Development of Control Systems for Forestry Cranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro La Hera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Model-based methods are used in industry for prototyping concepts based on mathematical models. With our forest industry partners, we have established a model-based workflow for rapid development of motion control systems for forestry cranes. Applying this working method, we can verify control algorithms, both theoretically and practically. This paper is an example of this workflow and presents four topics related to the application of nonlinear control theory. The first topic presents the system of differential equations describing the motion dynamics. The second topic presents nonlinear control laws formulated according to sliding mode control theory. The third topic presents a procedure for model calibration and control tuning that are a prerequisite to realize experimental tests. The fourth topic presents the results of tests performed on an experimental crane specifically equipped for these tasks. Results of these studies show the advantages and disadvantages of these control algorithms, and they highlight their performance in terms of robustness and smoothness.

  10. Development of a robust model-based reactivity control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovere, L.A.; Otaduy, P.J.; Brittain, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a digital model-based reactivity control system that incorporates a knowledge of the plant physics into the control algorithm to improve system performance. This controller is composed of a model-based module and modified proportional-integral-derivative (PID) module. The model-based module has an estimation component to synthesize unmeasurable process variables that are necessary for the control action computation. These estimated variables, besides being used within the control algorithm, will be used for diagnostic purposes by a supervisory control system under development. The PID module compensates for inaccuracies in model coefficients by supplementing the model-based output with a correction term that eliminates any demand tracking or steady state errors. This control algorithm has been applied to develop controllers for a simulation of liquid metal reactors in a multimodular plant. It has shown its capability to track demands in neutron power much more accurately than conventional controllers, reducing overshoots to almost negligible value while providing a good degree of robustness to unmodeled dynamics. 10 refs., 4 figs

  11. Case-Based Modeling for Learning: Socially Constructed Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul; Bandura, Randall P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Grounded on components of experiential learning theory (ELT) and self-regulation of learning (SRL) theory, augmented by elements of action theory and script development, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the case-based modeling (CBM) instructional approach that stimulates learning in groups or teams. CBM is related to individual…

  12. An Approach to Quality Estimation in Model-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Jens Peter; Koch, Peter; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2004-01-01

    We present an approach to estimation of parameters for design space exploration in Model-Based Development, where synthesis of a system is done in two stages. Component qualities like space, execution time or power consumption are defined in a repository by platform dependent values. Connectors...

  13. Analysis of an algae-based CELSS. I - Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Little, Frank E.; Makela, Merry E.; Patterson, C. O.

    1989-01-01

    A steady state chemical model and computer program have been developed for a life support system and applied to trade-off studies. The model is based on human demand for food and oxygen determined from crew metabolic needs. The model includes modules for water recycle, waste treatment, CO2 removal and treatment, and food production. The computer program calculates rates of use and material balance for food, O2, the recycle of human waste and trash, H2O, N2, and food production/supply. A simple noniterative solution for the model has been developed using the steady state rate equations for the chemical reactions. The model and program have been used in system sizing and subsystem trade-off studies of a partially closed life support system.

  14. Development of a GCR Event-based Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Plante, Ianik; Carra, Claudio; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    A goal at NASA is to develop event-based systems biology models of space radiation risks that will replace the current dose-based empirical models. Complex and varied biochemical signaling processes transmit the initial DNA and oxidative damage from space radiation into cellular and tissue responses. Mis-repaired damage or aberrant signals can lead to genomic instability, persistent oxidative stress or inflammation, which are causative of cancer and CNS risks. Protective signaling through adaptive responses or cell repopulation is also possible. We are developing a computational simulation approach to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) effects that is based on biological events rather than average quantities such as dose, fluence, or dose equivalent. The goal of the GCR Event-based Risk Model (GERMcode) is to provide a simulation tool to describe and integrate physical and biological events into stochastic models of space radiation risks. We used the quantum multiple scattering model of heavy ion fragmentation (QMSFRG) and well known energy loss processes to develop a stochastic Monte-Carlo based model of GCR transport in spacecraft shielding and tissue. We validated the accuracy of the model by comparing to physical data from the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Our simulation approach allows us to time-tag each GCR proton or heavy ion interaction in tissue including correlated secondary ions often of high multiplicity. Conventional space radiation risk assessment employs average quantities, and assumes linearity and additivity of responses over the complete range of GCR charge and energies. To investigate possible deviations from these assumptions, we studied several biological response pathway models of varying induction and relaxation times including the ATM, TGF -Smad, and WNT signaling pathways. We then considered small volumes of interacting cells and the time-dependent biophysical events that the GCR would produce within these tissue volumes to estimate how

  15. A Developed Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Based on Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Jin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is a bionic intelligent optimization method. The cloud model is a kind of uncertainty conversion model between a qualitative concept T ˜ that is presented by nature language and its quantitative expression, which integrates probability theory and the fuzzy mathematics. A developed ABC algorithm based on cloud model is proposed to enhance accuracy of the basic ABC algorithm and avoid getting trapped into local optima by introducing a new select mechanism, replacing the onlooker bees’ search formula and changing the scout bees’ updating formula. Experiments on CEC15 show that the new algorithm has a faster convergence speed and higher accuracy than the basic ABC and some cloud model based ABC variants.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUAL TREE GROWTH MODELS BASED ON DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Rodrigues Mendes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study generate individual tree non-linear models from differential equation and evaluated the adjustment quality to express the basal area growth. The data base is from continuous forest inventory of clonal Eucalyptus spp. plantations, given by Aracruz Cellulose Company, located in the Brazilian costal region, Bahia and Espirito Santo states. The model precision was verified by ratio likelihood test, by mean square error (MSE and by graphical residual analysis. The results showed that the complete model with 3 parameters, developed from the original model with one regressor, was superior to the other models, due to the inclusion of stand based variables, such as: clone, total height (HT, dominant height (HD, quadratic diameter (Dg, Basal Area (G, site index (IS and Density (N, generating a new model, called Complete Model III. The improvement of the precision was highly significant when compared to another models. Consequently, this model provides information with a high degree of precision and accuracy for the forest companies planning.

  17. Using Agent Based Modeling (ABM) to Develop Cultural Interaction Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Nick; Jones, Phillip N.

    2012-01-01

    Today, most cultural training is based on or built around "cultural engagements" or discrete interactions between the individual learner and one or more cultural "others". Often, success in the engagement is the end or the objective. In reality, these interactions usually involve secondary and tertiary effects with potentially wide ranging consequences. The concern is that learning culture within a strict engagement context might lead to "checklist" cultural thinking that will not empower learners to understand the full consequence of their actions. We propose the use of agent based modeling (ABM) to collect, store, and, simulating the effects of social networks, promulgate engagement effects over time, distance, and consequence. The ABM development allows for rapid modification to re-create any number of population types, extending the applicability of the model to any requirement for social modeling.

  18. A MULTISCALE, CELL-BASED FRAMEWORK FOR MODELING CANCER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JIANG, YI [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-16

    Cancer remains to be one of the leading causes of death due to diseases. We use a systems approach that combines mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, in vivo and in vitro experiments, to develop a predictive model that medical researchers can use to study and treat cancerous tumors. The multiscale, cell-based model includes intracellular regulations, cellular level dynamics and intercellular interactions, and extracellular level chemical dynamics. The intracellular level protein regulations and signaling pathways are described by Boolean networks. The cellular level growth and division dynamics, cellular adhesion and interaction with the extracellular matrix is described by a lattice Monte Carlo model (the Cellular Potts Model). The extracellular dynamics of the signaling molecules and metabolites are described by a system of reaction-diffusion equations. All three levels of the model are integrated through a hybrid parallel scheme into a high-performance simulation tool. The simulation results reproduce experimental data in both avasular tumors and tumor angiogenesis. By combining the model with experimental data to construct biologically accurate simulations of tumors and their vascular systems, this model will enable medical researchers to gain a deeper understanding of the cellular and molecular interactions associated with cancer progression and treatment.

  19. Development of a research-based hospital model in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ganglip

    2012-05-01

    Noting the increasing public attention on healthcare, Korean society has shown greater attention to the significance of the health technology (HT) development. In order to promote HT competitiveness, the role of research-based hospitals (RBHs), in producing new ideas as well as utilizing final outcomes, has grown increasingly significant. Despite high quality healthcare professionals, state-of-the-art equipment, and well-developed information technology, few hospitals in Korea are successful leaders in HT development. In order to understand HT research and development (R&D) programs in Korea as well as hospital-based R&D investment performance, this paper has analyzed a recent three-year R&D investment of the Korean government. In addition, a survey on how to promote RBHs in Korea has been proceeded through adopting the Delphi method. Several model cases of RBHs abroad have also been studied to understand key success factors in formulating a development model of RBHs in Korea. This paper proposes suggestions for the promotion of RBHs in Korea: systematic reform related to the hospitals, reinforcement of the infrastructure of the hospitals, empowering human resources and policy framework to support the hospitals.

  20. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of deltamethrin: Development of a rat and human diffusion-limited model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfazaelian et al. (2006) developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin in the rat. This model describes gastrointestinal tract absorption as a saturable process mediated by phase III efflux transporters which pump delta...

  1. Place-Based Investment Model of Talent Development: A Proposed Model for Developing and Reinvesting Talents within the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kristina Ayers; Seward, Kristen K.

    2016-01-01

    The place-based investment model (PBIM) of talent development is a programming model for developing talents of high-potential youth in ways that could serve as an investment in the community. In this article, we discuss the PBIM within rural contexts. The model is grounded in three theories--Moon's personal talent development theory, Sternberg's…

  2. Development of an empirically based dynamic biomechanical strength model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, A.; Maida, J.; Aldridge, A.; Hasson, S.; Woolford, B.

    1992-01-01

    The focus here is on the development of a dynamic strength model for humans. Our model is based on empirical data. The shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints are characterized in terms of maximum isolated torque, position, and velocity in all rotational planes. This information is reduced by a least squares regression technique into a table of single variable second degree polynomial equations determining the torque as a function of position and velocity. The isolated joint torque equations are then used to compute forces resulting from a composite motion, which in this case is a ratchet wrench push and pull operation. What is presented here is a comparison of the computed or predicted results of the model with the actual measured values for the composite motion.

  3. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, R.A.; Mendrala, A.L.; Smith, F.A.; Staats, D.A.; Gargas, M.L.; Conolly, R.B.; Andersen, M.E.; Reitz, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model describing the disposition of chloroform in mice, rats, and humans was developed. This model was designed to facilitate extrapolations from high doses, such as those used in chronic rodent studies, to low doses that humans may be exposed to in the workplace or the environment. Kinetic constants for mice and rats were derived from in vivo experiments. Enzymatic studies conducted with samples of rodent and human tissues provided a rational basis for estimating human in vivo metabolic rate constants. Incorporation of physiological descriptions of the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion allowed extrapolation between different routes of exposure as well. The model was validated by comparing model predictions with experimental data gathered in mice, rats, and humans after inhalation, oral, or intraperitoneal administration of chloroform. Consistent with previous reports, the metabolic activation of chloroform to toxic intermediates was shown to occur most rapidly in the mouse, less rapidly in the rat, and most slowly in humans. Estimates of the delivered dose of chloroform metabolites to internal organs sensitive to chloroform toxicity were calculated. This model may be used to develop refined dose estimates for human populations exposed to low levels of chloroform in the environment

  4. Development of hydrogeological modelling tools based on NAMMU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsic, N.; Hartley, L.; Jackson, P.; Poole, M.; Morvik, A.

    2001-09-01

    A number of relatively sophisticated hydrogeological models were developed within the SR 97 project to handle issues such as nesting of scales and the effects of salinity. However, these issues and others are considered of significant importance and generality to warrant further development of the hydrogeological methodology. Several such developments based on the NAMMU package are reported here: - Embedded grid: nesting of the regional- and site-scale models within the same numerical model has given greater consistency in the structural model representation and in the flow between scales. Since there is a continuous representation of the regional- and site-scales the modelling of pathways from the repository no longer has to be contained wholly by the site-scale region. This allows greater choice in the size of the site-scale. - Implicit Fracture Zones (IFZ): this method of incorporating the structural model is very efficient and allows changes to either the mesh or fracture zones to be implemented quickly. It also supports great flexibility in the properties of the structures and rock mass. - Stochastic fractures: new functionality has been added to IFZ to allow arbitrary combinations of stochastic or deterministic fracture zones with the rock-mass. Whether a fracture zone is modelled deterministically or stochastically its statistical properties can be defined independently. - Stochastic modelling: efficient methods for Monte-Carlo simulation of stochastic permeability fields have been implemented and tested on SKB's computers. - Visualisation: the visualisation tool Avizier for NAMMU has been enhanced such that it is efficient for checking models and presentation. - PROPER interface: NAMMU outputs pathlines in PROPER format so that it can be included in PA workflow. The developed methods are illustrated by application to stochastic nested modelling of the Beberg site using data from SR 97. The model properties were in accordance with the regional- and site

  5. Development of apprenticeship model for vocational school based on entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyoto, Widodo, Joko; Samsudi

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an apprenticeship model that focuses on the preparation of graduates of Vocational School to become entrepreneurs (entrepreneurs). The study was conducted by using Research and Development (R & D) method. The subjects were five Vocational Schools (State and Private) in Central Java. Data were collected through interview method and questionnaire. There were 26 teachers of Vocational School involved as respondent. In this research has produced an entrepreneurship-based model that is ready to be implemented at Vocational School. All respondents (100%) support the implementation of the offered model. There is only a small difference in the determination apprentice place whether at the business or industry sector. Most respondents (92.7%) agreed that apprenticeship place is in the small industry where the students can learn entrepreneurship from the entrepreneur. The rest of 7.7% of respondents prefer conduct the apprenticeship in the middle to upper industry where they would experience a modern and complete facility. It can be concluded that this model can be implemented with partners in small, medium, and large industries with a record of students can learn directly aspects of management with business owners instead of learning the technical aspects to employees only.

  6. Professional development model for science teachers based on scientific literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, B.; Ardianto, D.; Pursitasari, I. D.; Permana, I.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific literacy is considered as a benchmark of high and low quality of science education in a country. Teachers as a major component of learning at the forefront of building science literacy skills of students in the class. The primary purpose this study is development science teacher coaching model based on scientific literacy. In this article we describe about teacher science literacy and profile coaching model for science’ teachers based on scientific literacy which a part of study conducted in first year. The instrument used in this study consisted of tests, observation sheet, interview guides. The finding showed that problem of low scientific literacy is not only happen the students, but science’ teachers which is a major component in the learning process is still not satisfactory. Understanding science teacher is strongly associated with the background disciplinary. Science teacher was still weak when explaining scientific phenomena, mainly related to the material that relates to the concept of environmental. Coaching model generated from this study consisted of 8 stages by assuming the teacher is an independent learner, so the coaching is done with methods on and off, with time off for activities designed more.

  7. Model-based scenarios for rural electrification in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijven, B. van; Schers, J.; Vuuren, D.P. van

    2012-01-01

    Promoting access to modern energy forms in developing countries to replace traditional fuels is high on the political agenda. This paper describes the development and application of a global model for rural electrification. The model is used to assess future trends in electrification, and the

  8. Development of a Structure-Based Turbulence Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, W

    2000-01-01

    Work in the current period was aimed at the construction of extensions of the structure-based Particle Representation and one-point models to flows with slow or moderate mean deformations and wall proximity effects...

  9. DEVELOPMENT MODEL OF PATISSERIE PROJECT-BASED LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ana; Lutfhiyah Nurlaela

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to find a model of patisserie project-based learning with production approach that can improve effectiveness of patisserie learning. Delphi Technique, Cohen's Kappa and percentages of agreements were used to assess model of patisserie project based learning. Data collection techniques employed in the study were questionnaire, check list worksheet, observation, and interview sheets. Subjects were 13 lectures of expertise food and nutrition and 91 students of Food and Nutrition ...

  10. Developing seismogenic source models based on geologic fault data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Kathleen M.; Basili, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Calculating seismic hazard usually requires input that includes seismicity associated with known faults, historical earthquake catalogs, geodesy, and models of ground shaking. This paper will address the input generally derived from geologic studies that augment the short historical catalog to predict ground shaking at time scales of tens, hundreds, or thousands of years (e.g., SSHAC 1997). A seismogenic source model, terminology we adopt here for a fault source model, includes explicit three-dimensional faults deemed capable of generating ground motions of engineering significance within a specified time frame of interest. In tectonically active regions of the world, such as near plate boundaries, multiple seismic cycles span a few hundred to a few thousand years. In contrast, in less active regions hundreds of kilometers from the nearest plate boundary, seismic cycles generally are thousands to tens of thousands of years long. Therefore, one should include sources having both longer recurrence intervals and possibly older times of most recent rupture in less active regions of the world rather than restricting the model to include only Holocene faults (i.e., those with evidence of large-magnitude earthquakes in the past 11,500 years) as is the practice in tectonically active regions with high deformation rates. During the past 15 years, our institutions independently developed databases to characterize seismogenic sources based on geologic data at a national scale. Our goal here is to compare the content of these two publicly available seismogenic source models compiled for the primary purpose of supporting seismic hazard calculations by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); hereinafter we refer to the two seismogenic source models as INGV and USGS, respectively. This comparison is timely because new initiatives are emerging to characterize seismogenic sources at the continental scale (e.g., SHARE in the

  11. Development of a materials data base for modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, S.; Ashino, T.; Ishino, S.

    1988-01-01

    Materials selection for fusion reactors requires a materials data base and a set of methods to estimate material properties in a ''virtual'' fusion reactor. This estimation process, namely, modeling, is analyzed as compromising of design requirements, available data bases and methods of estimation, and a concept of an ideal computer system to support this modeling process is proposed. The limitations of a commercial DBMS (Data Base Management System) to handle sophisticated materials data are described in accordance with our experiences. Secondly, ways to manipulate analytical expressions are discussed as the next step for computer assisted modeling. Finally, an advanced method is presented which is able to manage models and data in the same manner without paying attention to annoying rules compelled by constraints of using computers. (orig.)

  12. Development and Application of a Low Impact Development (LID-Based District Unit Planning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Hee Son

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a low impact development-based district unit planning (LID-DP model and to verify the model by applying it to a test site. To develop the model, we identified various barriers to the urban planning process and examined the advantages of various LID-related techniques to determine where in the urban development process LID would provide the greatest benefit. The resulting model provides (1 a set of district unit planning processes that consider LID standards and (2 a set of evaluation methods that measure the benefits of the LID-DP model over standard urban development practices. The developed LID-DP process is composed of status analysis, comprehensive analysis, basic plan, and sectoral plans. To determine whether the LID-DP model met the proposed LID targets, we applied the model to a test site in Cheongju City, Chungcheongbuk-do Province, Republic of Korea. The test simulation showed that the LID-DP plan reduced nonpoint source pollutants (total nitrogen, 113%; total phosphorous, 193%; and biological oxygen demand, 199%; reduced rainfall runoff (infiltration volume, 102%; surface runoff, 101%; and improved the conservation rate of the natural environment area (132%. The successful application of this model also lent support for the greater importance of non-structural techniques over structural techniques in urban planning when taking ecological factors into account.

  13. SIMULATION MODEL BASED ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND VIRTUAL CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dlask

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on change as an indicator that can be provide more focused goals in studies of development. The paper offers an answer to the question: How might management gain information from a simulation model and thus influence reality through pragmatic changes. We focus on where and when to influence, manage, and control basic technical-economic proposals. These proposals are mostly formed as simulation models. Unfortunately, however, they do not always provide an explanation of formation changes. A wide variety of simulation tools have become available, e.g. Simulink, Wolfram SystemModeler, VisSim, SystemBuild, STELLA, Adams, SIMSCRIPT, COMSOL Multiphysics, etc. However, there is only limited support for the construction of simulation models of a technical-economic nature. Mathematics has developed the concept of differentiation. Economics has developed the concept of marginality. Technical-economic design has yet to develop an equivalent methodology. This paper discusses an,alternative approach that uses the phenomenon of change, and provides a way from professional knowledge, which can be seen as a purer kind of information, to a more dynamic computing model (a simulation model that interprets changes as method. The validation of changes, as a result for use in managerial decision making, and condition for managerial decision making, can thus be improved.

  14. Model development based on a landscape oriented catchment unit concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Gaudry, María.; Gutknecht, Dieter

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a companion paper to our project proposal "Hydrologic model framework for river basins with a range of hydroclimatic and bioclimatic conditions" (HS4.1). It intends to present a few ideas of how to bridge available concepts of landscape classification (as an example the Holdridge Life Zones classification scheme will be used) and hydrological approaches related to the Dominant Process Concept. The focus is on the development of landscape related indices that consider water balance characteristics (e.g.: the relationship ET/P), seasonality measures, and/or runoff generation process signatures at the landscape scale. Methods applied to consider runoff generation in hydrological modelling are commonly based on concepts such as the Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) concept (e.g. Flügel, 1995), the "hydrotop" concept (e.g. Reszler et al., 2006) and the Dominant Runoff Processes concept (DRP, e.g. Schmocker-Fackel and Scherrer, 2007). They are best suited to smaller scale catchment description. It is hypothesized here that additional/new concepts are necessary if the mechanismus that control runoff generation on a larger, i.e. regional scale should be captured. Hydrological reasoning and first results from regional studies indicate that appropiately chosen "signatures" can be found to characterise differences in the control of the runoff processes in different catchments situations. Examples might be "indicators" which include the soil moisture state of a basin or the event runoff coefficient derived from hydrological model simulatons or from runoff observations, respectly (e.g. Samuel et al. 2008; Merz & Blöschl, 2009a). The presentation will demostrate a few results from first studies on the above outlined concept. The study uses data from a set of Austrian catchments prepared for the studies reported in Merz & Blöschl (2009a). References: Flügel, W.-A. (1995): Delineating hydrological response units by geographical information system analyses for

  15. Semantic Model Driven Architecture Based Method for Enterprise Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghui; Ying, Jing; Yan, Hui

    Enterprise applications have the requirements of meeting dynamic businesses processes and adopting lasted technologies flexibly, with to solve the problems caused by the nature of heterogeneous characteristic. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is becoming a leading paradigm for business process integration. This research work focuses on business process modeling, proposes a semantic model-driven development method named SMDA combined with the Ontology and Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) technologies. The architecture of SMDA is presented in three orthogonal perspectives. (1) Vertical axis is the MDA 4 layers, the focus is UML profiles in M2 (meta-model layer) for ontology modeling, and three abstract levels: CIM, PIM and PSM modeling respectively. (2) Horizontal axis is different concerns involved in the development: Process, Application, Information, Organization, and Technology. (3) Traversal Axis is referred to aspects that have influence on other models of the cross-cutting axis: Architecture, Semantics, Aspect, and Pattern. The paper also introduces the modeling and transformation process in SMDA, and describes dynamic service composition supports briefly.

  16. Experimental development based on mapping rule between requirements analysis model and web framework specific design model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Hirotaka; Ogata, Shinpei; Matsuura, Saeko

    2013-12-01

    Model Driven Development is a promising approach to develop high quality software systems. We have proposed a method of model-driven requirements analysis using Unified Modeling Language (UML). The main feature of our method is to automatically generate a Web user interface prototype from UML requirements analysis model so that we can confirm validity of input/output data for each page and page transition on the system by directly operating the prototype. We proposes a mapping rule in which design information independent of each web application framework implementation is defined based on the requirements analysis model, so as to improve the traceability to the final product from the valid requirements analysis model. This paper discusses the result of applying our method to the development of a Group Work Support System that is currently running in our department.

  17. Development of a Prototype Model-Form Uncertainty Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainties are generally classified as either aleatory or epistemic. Aleatory uncertainties are those attributed to random variation, either naturally or through manufacturing processes. Epistemic uncertainties are generally attributed to a lack of knowledge. One type of epistemic uncertainty is called model-form uncertainty. The term model-form means that among the choices to be made during a design process within an analysis, there are different forms of the analysis process, which each give different results for the same configuration at the same flight conditions. Examples of model-form uncertainties include the grid density, grid type, and solver type used within a computational fluid dynamics code, or the choice of the number and type of model elements within a structures analysis. The objectives of this work are to identify and quantify a representative set of model-form uncertainties and to make this information available to designers through an interactive knowledge base (KB). The KB can then be used during probabilistic design sessions, so as to enable the possible reduction of uncertainties in the design process through resource investment. An extensive literature search has been conducted to identify and quantify typical model-form uncertainties present within aerospace design. An initial attempt has been made to assemble the results of this literature search into a searchable KB, usable in real time during probabilistic design sessions. A concept of operations and the basic structure of a model-form uncertainty KB are described. Key operations within the KB are illustrated. Current limitations in the KB, and possible workarounds are explained.

  18. Avian Information Systems: Developing Web-Based Bird Avoidance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Shamoun-Baranes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between aircraft and birds, so-called "bird strikes," can result in serious damage to aircraft and even in the loss of lives. Information about the distribution of birds in the air and on the ground can be used to reduce the risk of bird strikes and their impact on operations en route and in and around air fields. Although a wealth of bird distribution and density data is collected by numerous organizations, these data are not readily available nor interpretable by aviation. This paper presents two national efforts, one in the Netherlands and one in the United States, to develop bird avoidance nodels for aviation. These models integrate data and expert knowledge on bird distributions and migratory behavior to provide hazard maps in the form of GIS-enabled Web services. Both models are in operational use for flight planning and flight alteration and for airfield and airfield vicinity management. These models and their presentation on the Internet are examples of the type of service that would be very useful in other fields interested in species distribution and movement information, such as conservation, disease transmission and prevention, or assessment and mitigation of anthropogenic risks to nature. We expect that developments in cyber-technology, a transition toward an open source philosophy, and higher demand for accessible biological data will result in an increase in the number of biological information systems available on the Internet.

  19. A continuum based fem model for friction stir welding-model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffa, G.; Hua, J.; Shivpuri, R.; Fratini, L.

    2006-01-01

    Although friction stir welding (FSW) has been successfully used to join materials that are difficult-to-weld or unweldeable by fusion welding methods, it is still in its early development stage and, therefore, a scientific knowledge based predictive model is of significant help for thorough understanding of FSW process. In this paper, a continuum based FEM model for friction stir welding process is proposed, that is 3D Lagrangian implicit, coupled, rigid-viscoplastic. This model is calibrated by comparing with experimental results of force and temperature distribution, then is used to investigate the distribution of temperature and strain in heat affect zone and the weld nugget. The model correctly predicts the non-symmetric nature of FSW process, and the relationships between the tool forces and the variation in the process parameters. It is found that the effective strain distribution is non-symmetric about the weld line while the temperature profile is almost symmetric in the weld zone

  20. Energy saving behaviours: Development of a practice-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, Jillian C.; Kresling, Johannes; Webb, Dave; Soutar, Geoffrey N.; Mazzarol, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Financial pressure and concern for the environment has meant many consumers are aware of the need to reduce their consumption of many resources, including energy, which is the focus of the present study. While potential energy use deterrents in the form of access constraints and price increases are forms of extrinsic control, it is not clear how effective these are at reducing consumption and, indeed, it is not clear if such measures are consistent with people's underlying energy saving motivations. Beyond behavioural motivations, people's desires to reduce energy can be thwarted (barriers) and/or supported by a variety of factors, some within their control, while others are perhaps less so. Using a practice-based framework and a qualitative focus group approach, this study presents an exploratory study of these issues. Policy suggestions for overcoming barriers, as well suggestions as to how energy saving behaviours can be supported are offered. - Highlights: • We obtained consumers views about energy saving motivations, barriers and support. • Attitudes towards energy saving are not sufficient to change behaviours. • A practice-based approach to understanding energy saving behaviours is applied. • A practice-based energy-cultures framework (PBECF) is developed. • Barriers and support factors are identified that can be conceptualised within a PBECF

  1. Development and validation of deterioration models for concrete bridge decks - phase 2 : mechanics-based degradation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes a research project aimed at developing degradation models for bridge decks in the state of Michigan based on durability mechanics. A probabilistic framework to implement local-level mechanistic-based models for predicting the c...

  2. A CBR-Based and MAHP-Based Customer Value Prediction Model for New Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Jie; Luo, Xin-xing; Deng, Li

    2014-01-01

    In the fierce market environment, the enterprise which wants to meet customer needs and boost its market profit and share must focus on the new product development. To overcome the limitations of previous research, Chan et al. proposed a dynamic decision support system to predict the customer lifetime value (CLV) for new product development. However, to better meet the customer needs, there are still some deficiencies in their model, so this study proposes a CBR-based and MAHP-based customer value prediction model for a new product (C&M-CVPM). CBR (case based reasoning) can reduce experts' workload and evaluation time, while MAHP (multiplicative analytic hierarchy process) can use actual but average influencing factor's effectiveness in stimulation, and at same time C&M-CVPM uses dynamic customers' transition probability which is more close to reality. This study not only introduces the realization of CBR and MAHP, but also elaborates C&M-CVPM's three main modules. The application of the proposed model is illustrated and confirmed to be sensible and convincing through a stimulation experiment. PMID:25162050

  3. A CBR-based and MAHP-based customer value prediction model for new product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Jie; Luo, Xin-xing; Deng, Li

    2014-01-01

    In the fierce market environment, the enterprise which wants to meet customer needs and boost its market profit and share must focus on the new product development. To overcome the limitations of previous research, Chan et al. proposed a dynamic decision support system to predict the customer lifetime value (CLV) for new product development. However, to better meet the customer needs, there are still some deficiencies in their model, so this study proposes a CBR-based and MAHP-based customer value prediction model for a new product (C&M-CVPM). CBR (case based reasoning) can reduce experts' workload and evaluation time, while MAHP (multiplicative analytic hierarchy process) can use actual but average influencing factor's effectiveness in stimulation, and at same time C&M-CVPM uses dynamic customers' transition probability which is more close to reality. This study not only introduces the realization of CBR and MAHP, but also elaborates C&M-CVPM's three main modules. The application of the proposed model is illustrated and confirmed to be sensible and convincing through a stimulation experiment.

  4. A computer-aided framework for development, identification andmanagement of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitzig, Martina; Linninger, Andreas; Sin, Gürkan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is the development of a generic computer-aided modelling framework to support the development of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models thereby increasing the efficiency and quality of the modelling process. In particular, the framework systematizes the modelling......-based pharmacokinetic modelling of the distribution of the drug cyclosporin A in rats and humans. Four alternative candidate models for rats are derived and discriminated based on experimental data. The model candidate that is best represented by the experimental data is scaled-up to a human being applying...

  5. Combining Bayesian Networks and Agent Based Modeling to develop a decision-support model in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Bao Anh; Ertsen, Maurits; Schoups, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    Complexity and uncertainty in natural resources management have been focus themes in recent years. Within these debates, with the aim to define an approach feasible for water management practice, we are developing an integrated conceptual modeling framework for simulating decision-making processes of citizens, in our case in the Day river area, Vietnam. The model combines Bayesian Networks (BNs) and Agent-Based Modeling (ABM). BNs are able to combine both qualitative data from consultants / experts / stakeholders, and quantitative data from observations on different phenomena or outcomes from other models. Further strengths of BNs are that the relationship between variables in the system is presented in a graphical interface, and that components of uncertainty are explicitly related to their probabilistic dependencies. A disadvantage is that BNs cannot easily identify the feedback of agents in the system once changes appear. Hence, ABM was adopted to represent the reaction among stakeholders under changes. The modeling framework is developed as an attempt to gain better understanding about citizen's behavior and factors influencing their decisions in order to reduce uncertainty in the implementation of water management policy.

  6. Developing model-making and model-breaking skills using direct measurement video-based activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Matthew; Bohacek, Peter; Militello, Cheryl; Iverson, Ellen

    2017-12-01

    This study focuses on student development of two important laboratory skills in the context of introductory college-level physics. The first skill, which we call model making, is the ability to analyze a phenomenon in a way that produces a quantitative multimodal model. The second skill, which we call model breaking, is the ability to critically evaluate if the behavior of a system is consistent with a given model. This study involved 116 introductory physics students in four different sections, each taught by a different instructor. All of the students within a given class section participated in the same instruction (including labs) with the exception of five activities performed throughout the semester. For those five activities, each class section was split into two groups; one group was scaffolded to focus on model-making skills and the other was scaffolded to focus on model-breaking skills. Both conditions involved direct measurement videos. In some cases, students could vary important experimental parameters within the video like mass, frequency, and tension. Data collected at the end of the semester indicate that students in the model-making treatment group significantly outperformed the other group on the model-making skill despite the fact that both groups shared a common physical lab experience. Likewise, the model-breaking treatment group significantly outperformed the other group on the model-breaking skill. This is important because it shows that direct measurement video-based instruction can help students acquire science-process skills, which are critical for scientists, and which are a key part of current science education approaches such as the Next Generation Science Standards and the Advanced Placement Physics 1 course.

  7. Developing model-making and model-breaking skills using direct measurement video-based activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Vonk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on student development of two important laboratory skills in the context of introductory college-level physics. The first skill, which we call model making, is the ability to analyze a phenomenon in a way that produces a quantitative multimodal model. The second skill, which we call model breaking, is the ability to critically evaluate if the behavior of a system is consistent with a given model. This study involved 116 introductory physics students in four different sections, each taught by a different instructor. All of the students within a given class section participated in the same instruction (including labs with the exception of five activities performed throughout the semester. For those five activities, each class section was split into two groups; one group was scaffolded to focus on model-making skills and the other was scaffolded to focus on model-breaking skills. Both conditions involved direct measurement videos. In some cases, students could vary important experimental parameters within the video like mass, frequency, and tension. Data collected at the end of the semester indicate that students in the model-making treatment group significantly outperformed the other group on the model-making skill despite the fact that both groups shared a common physical lab experience. Likewise, the model-breaking treatment group significantly outperformed the other group on the model-breaking skill. This is important because it shows that direct measurement video-based instruction can help students acquire science-process skills, which are critical for scientists, and which are a key part of current science education approaches such as the Next Generation Science Standards and the Advanced Placement Physics 1 course.

  8. From Family Based to Industrial Based Production: Local Economic Development Initiatives and the HELIX Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartjan W Pennink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To build a strong local economy, good practice tells us that each community should undertake a collaborative, strategically planned process to understand and then act upon its own strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. From this perspective we start with the local communities but how is this related to the perspective from the Helix model in which three actors are explicitly introduced: the Government, the Industry and the Universities? The purpose of local economic development (LED is to build up the economic capacity of a local area to improve its economic future and the quality of life for all. To support  the Local Economic Development in remote areas,   a program  has been developed based on the LED frame work of the world bank. This approach and  the experiences over  the past years with this program are  described in the first part.  In the second part of the paper, We analyse work done with that program with the help of the social capital concept and the triple helix model.  In all cases it is important to pay attention to who is taken the initiative after the first move (and it is not always the governance as actor and for the triple helix we suggest  that the concepts of (national Government, Industry and University need a translation to Local Governance Agency, Cooperation or other ways of cooperation of local communities and Local Universities. Although a push from outside might help  a local region in development the endogenous factors are  also needed. Keywords: Triple Helix model, Local Economic Development, Local Actors, Double Triangle within the Helix Model

  9. Development of a reactive burn model based on an explicit viscoplastic pore collapse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, E.; Lefrançois, A.; Belmas, R.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a reactive burn model based upon a microscopic hot spot model to compute the shock-initiation of pressed TATB high explosives. Such a model has been implemented in a lagrangian hydrodynamic code. In our calculations, 8 pore radii, ranging from 40 nm to 0.63 μm, have been taken into account and the porosity fraction associated to each void radius has been deduced from the Ultra-Small-Angle X-ray Scattering measurements (USAXS) for PBX-9502. The last parameter of our model is a burn rate that depends on three variables. The first two are the reaction progress variable and the lead shock pressure, the last one is the chemical reaction site number produced in the flow and calculated by the microscopic model. This burn rate has been calibrated by fitting pressure, velocity profiles and run distances to detonation. As the computed results are in close agreement with the measured ones, this model is able to perform a wide variety of numerical simulations including single, double shock waves and the desensitization phenomenon.

  10. Developing computational model-based diagnostics to analyse clinical chemistry data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Bochove, K. van; Ommen, B. van; Freidig, A.P.; Someren, E.P. van; Greef, J. van der; Graaf, A.A. de

    2010-01-01

    This article provides methodological and technical considerations to researchers starting to develop computational model-based diagnostics using clinical chemistry data.These models are of increasing importance, since novel metabolomics and proteomics measuring technologies are able to produce large

  11. Model-based development and testing of advertising messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2000-01-01

    The implementation of valid and comprehensible guidelines for message development potentially enhances the effects of advertising messages and improves the possibility of measuring such effects. Moreover, such guidelines also have potential implications for the managerial communication processes...... (client-agency and intra-agency) involved in the development of advertising messages. The purpose of the study described in this paper is to compare the development and effects of two campaign proposals, with the common aim of increasing the consumption of apples among young Danes (18 to 35 years of age......-test with the target group (n=500), as well as interviews with the involved advertising agency and client2 staff....

  12. Model-based wear measurements in total knee arthroplasty : development and validation of novel radiographic techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsseldijk, van E.A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this work was to develop novel model-based mJSW measurement methods using a 3D reconstruction and compare the accuracy and precision of these methods to conventional mJSW measurement. This thesis contributed to the development, validation and clinical application of model-based

  13. Model-Based Application Development for Massively Parallel Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The development of embedded systems in information-rich contexts is governed by some intertwined trends. The increase of both volume of data to be processed and the related processing functionality feeds the growing complexity of applications. Independently, the processing hardware that is needed to

  14. Highly Relevant Mentoring (HRM) as a Faculty Development Model for Web-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lorraine; Salyers, Vincent; Page, Aroha; Williams, Lynda; Albl, Liz; Hofsink, Clarence

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a faculty development model called the highly relevant mentoring (HRM) model; the model includes a framework as well as some practical strategies for meeting the professional development needs of faculty who teach web-based courses. The paper further emphasizes the need for faculty and administrative buy-in for HRM and…

  15. Model-based administration of inhalation anaesthesia. 1. Developing a system model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerou, J.G.C.; Booij, L.H.D.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is the first of a series of reports on a system model for the administration of inhalation anaesthesia. We present the development and basic testing of the model. It is a multiple-gas model; it covers fresh-gas flow rates from basal to more than total ventilation and includes an actual,

  16. A Model for Ubiquitous Serious Games Development Focused on Problem Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneles, Sandro Oliveira; da Costa, Cristiano André; Rigo, Sandro José

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of using serious games with problem-based learning opens up huge opportunities to connect the experiences of daily life of students with learning. In this context, this article presents a model for serious and ubiquitous games development, focusing on problem based learning methodology. The model allows teachers to create games…

  17. Toward Agent-Based Models of the Development And Evolution of Business Relations and Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ian F.; Marks, Robert E.; Young, Louise

    Firms achieve competitive advantage in part through the development of cooperative relations with other firms and organisations. We describe a program of research designed to map and model the development of cooperative inter-firm relations, including the processes and paths by which firms may evolve from adversarial to more cooperative relations. Narrative-event-history methods will be used to develop stylised histories of the emergence of business relations in various contexts and to identify relevant causal mechanisms to be included in the agent-based models of relationship and network evolution. The relationship histories will provide the means of assuring the agent-based models developed.

  18. Development of Artificial Neural-Network-Based Models for the Simulation of Spring Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohan Raju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs in predicting the weekly spring discharge. The study was based on the weekly spring discharge from a spring located near Ranichauri in Tehri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand, India. Five models were developed for predicting the spring discharge based on a weekly interval using rainfall, evaporation, temperature with a specified lag time. All models were developed both with one and two hidden layers. Each model was developed with many trials by selecting different network architectures and different number of hidden neurons; finally a best predicting model presented against each developed model. The models were trained with three different algorithms, that is, quick-propagation algorithm, batch backpropagation algorithm, and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm using weekly data from 1999 to 2005. A best model for the simulation was selected from the three presented algorithms using the statistical criteria such as correlation coefficient (, determination coefficient, or Nash Sutcliff's efficiency (DC. Finally, optimized number of neurons were considered for the best model. Training and testing results revealed that the models were predicting the weekly spring discharge satisfactorily. Based on these criteria, ANN-based model results in better agreement for the computation of spring discharge. LMR models were also developed in the study, and they also gave good results, but, when compared with the ANN methodology, ANN resulted in better optimized values.

  19. Reliability Modeling Development and Its Applications for Ceramic Capacitors with Base-Metal Electrodes (BMEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Donhang

    2014-01-01

    This presentation includes a summary of NEPP-funded deliverables for the Base-Metal Electrodes (BMEs) capacitor task, development of a general reliability model for BME capacitors, and a summary and future work.

  20. A common framework for the development and analysis of process-based hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Martyn; Kavetski, Dmitri; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Gupta, Hoshin

    2013-04-01

    Building an environmental model requires making a series of decisions regarding the appropriate representation of natural processes. While some of these decisions can already be based on well-established physical understanding, gaps in our current understanding of environmental dynamics, combined with incomplete knowledge of properties and boundary conditions of most environmental systems, make many important modeling decisions far more ambiguous. There is consequently little agreement regarding what a "correct" model structure is, especially at relatively larger spatial scales such as catchments and beyond. In current practice, faced with such a range of decisions, different modelers will generally make different modeling decisions, often on an ad hoc basis, based on their balancing of process understanding, the data available to evaluate the model, the purpose of the modeling exercise, and other considerations. This presentation describes the application of the multiple-hypothesis methodology for developing and evaluating process-based hydrological models. Multiple-hypothesis methods provide a flexible (and extensible) approach to model development, including capabilities to 1) support multiple alternative decisions regarding process selection and representation; 2) accommodate different options for the model architecture, representing the connectivity between different model components; and 3) separate the hypothesized model equations from their solutions. Such flexibility in the selection of model architecture and components can be exploited to design various strategies for a controlled and thorough exploration of the hypothesis space, increasing the explanatory power of stringent model diagnostics that challenge both individual constituent hypotheses and the overall model architecture. Moreover, the availability of multiple modeling options improves representation of model uncertainty. In our application of multiple hypothesis methods in hydrology we seek to

  1. DIRECTED–PROJECT BASED LEARNING AS LANGUAGE LEARNING MODEL: DESIGNING, DEVELOPING AND FIELD TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Pratiwi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is developing English learning model to increase students’ language skills in English subject for VIII graders of SMP N 1 Uram Jaya through Directed-Project Based Learning (DPjBL implementation. This study is designed in Research and Development (R & D using ADDIE model development. The researcher collected the data through the test, questionnaire, observation, and interview which were then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The study revealed that Directed-Project Based Learning (DPjBL implementation is significantly able to be one learning model allowing to increase student’s language skills.

  2. Development Of Entrepreneur Learning Model Based On Problem Based Learning To Increase Competency Independence And Creativity Students Of Industrial Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leola Dewiyani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently it is undeniable that the competition to get a job is very tight and of course universities have an important role in printing human resources that can compete globally not least with the Department of Industrial Engineering Faculty of Engineering Muhammadiyah University of Jakarta FT UMJ. Problems that occur is based on the analysis obtained from the track record of graduates researchers found that 60 percent of students of Industrial Engineering FT UMJ work not in accordance with the level of education owned so financially their income is still below the standard. This study aims to improve the competence of students of Industrial Engineering Department FT UMJ in entrepreneurship courses especially through the development of Problem Based Learning based learning model. Specific targets of this research were conducted with the aim to identify and analyze the need to implement learning model based on Problem Based Learning Entrepreneurship and to design and develop the model of entrepreneurship based on Problem Based Learning to improve the competence independence and creativity of Industrial Engineering students of FT UMJ in Entrepreneurship course. To achieve the above objectives this research uses research and development R amp D method. The product produced in this research is the detail of learning model of entrepreneurial model based on Problem Based Learning entrepreneurship model based on Problem Based Learning and international journals

  3. Development and performance analysis of model-based fault detection and diagnosis algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jung Woon; Kim, Kyung Youn; Lee, In Soo; Kim, Bong Seok; Kang, Sook In

    2002-05-01

    It is important to note that an effective means to assure the reliability and security for the nuclear power plant is to detect and diagnose the faults (failures) as soon and as accurately as possible. The objective of the project is to develop model-based fault detection and diagnosis algorithm for the pressurized water reactor and evaluate the performance of the developed algorithm. The scope of the work can be classified into two categories. The one is state-space model-based FDD algorithm based on the interacting multiple model (IMM) algorithm. The other is input-output model-based FDD algorithm based on the ART neural network. Extensive computer simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance in terms of speed and accuracy

  4. Power-based electric vehicle energy consumption model: Model development and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiori, Chiara; Ahn, Kyoungho; Rakha, Hesham A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The study developed an instantaneous energy consumption model (VT-CPEM) for EVs. • The model captures instantaneous braking energy regeneration. • The model can be used for transportation modeling and vehicle applications (e.g. eco-routing). • The proposed model can be easily calibrated using publically available EV data. • Usages of air conditioning and heating systems reduce EV energy consumption by up to 10% and 24%, respectively. - Abstract: The limited drive range (The maximum distance that an EV can travel.) of Electric Vehicles (EVs) is one of the major challenges that EV manufacturers are attempting to overcome. To this end, a simple, accurate, and efficient energy consumption model is needed to develop real-time eco-driving and eco-routing systems that can enhance the energy efficiency of EVs and thus extend their travel range. Although numerous publications have focused on the modeling of EV energy consumption levels, these studies are limited to measuring energy consumption of an EV’s control algorithm, macro-project evaluations, or simplified well-to-wheels analyses. Consequently, this paper addresses this need by developing a simple EV energy model that computes an EV’s instantaneous energy consumption using second-by-second vehicle speed, acceleration and roadway grade data as input variables. In doing so, the model estimates the instantaneous braking energy regeneration. The proposed model can be easily implemented in the following applications: in-vehicle, Smartphone eco-driving, eco-routing and transportation simulation software to quantify the network-wide energy consumption levels for a fleet of EVs. One of the main advantages of EVs is their ability to recover energy while braking using a regenerative braking system. State-of-the-art vehicle energy consumption models consider an average constant regenerative braking energy efficiency or regenerative braking factors that are mainly dependent on the vehicle’s average

  5. A Hypothesis-based Approach to Hydrological Model Development: The Case for Flexible Model Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. P.; Kavetski, D.; Fenicia, F.

    2010-12-01

    Ambiguities in the appropriate representation of environmental processes have manifested themselves in a plethora of hydrological models, differing in almost every aspect of their conceptualization and implementation. This current overabundance of models is symptomatic of insufficient scientific understanding of environmental dynamics at the catchment scale, which can be attributed to difficulties in quantifying the impact of sub-catchment heterogeneities on the catchment’s hydrological response. In this presentation we advocate the use of flexible modeling frameworks during the development and subsequent refinement of catchment-scale hydrological models. We argue that the ability of flexible modeling frameworks to decompose a model into its constituent hypotheses, necessarily combined with incisive diagnostics to scrutinize these individual hypotheses against observed data, provides hydrologists with a very powerful and systematic approach for improving process representation in models. Flexible models also support a broader coverage of the model hypothesis space and hence facilitate a more comprehensive quantification of the predictive uncertainty associated with system and component non-identifiabilities that plague many model analyses. As part of our discussion of the advantages and limitations of flexible model frameworks, we critically review major contemporary challenges in hydrological hypothesis-testing, including exploiting data to investigate the fidelity of alternative process representations, accounting for model structure ambiguities arising from uncertainty in environmental data, and the challenge of understanding regional differences in dominant hydrological processes. We assess recent progress in these research directions, and how such progress can be exploited within flexible model applications to advance the community’s quest for more scientifically defensible catchment-scale hydrological models.

  6. Towards a model for research-based exhibition development using design-based research as a framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Zachariassen, Maria; Thiel Sandholdt, Cathrina

    2018-01-01

    that facilitates an iterative research-based development process and that emphasises focusing on learning elements. We present a new model for developing research-based exhibitions and provide an accompanying analysis based on PULSE, a four-year project involving the development of a health promotion exhibition......This paper argues that a higher level of research activity is necessary at all levels in the creation of science centre exhibitions. Science centres focus greatly on their role as an informal learning space but rarely integrate learning theories or develop documented knowledge in their exhibition...... practices. A research-based approach can expand understanding of exhibitions as a media, encouraging a more systematised, theory-based and documented practice. This premise forms the basis for creating a model for collaboration between research and exhibition development in a science centre context...

  7. Improved Characters and Student Learning Outcomes through Development of Character Education Based General Physics Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlina; Sabani; Mihardi, Satria

    2015-01-01

    Education Research in Indonesia has begun to lead to the development of character education and is no longer fixated on the outcomes of cognitive learning. This study purposed to produce character education based general physics learning model (CEBGP Learning Model) and with valid, effective and practical peripheral devices to improve character…

  8. Development of Simulink-Based SiC MOSFET Modeling Platform for Series Connected Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsolaridis, Georgios; Ilves, Kalle; Reigosa, Paula Diaz

    2016-01-01

    A new MATLAB/Simulink-based modeling platform has been developed for SiC MOSFET power modules. The modeling platform describes the electrical behavior f a single 1.2 kV/ 350 A SiC MOSFET power module, as well as the series connection of two of them. A fast parameter initialization is followed...

  9. Innovation in Integrated Chemical Product-Process Design - Development through a Model-based Systems Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa

    in which experiments are planned and a third stage in which experiments are performed to validate the final product formula. The main focus of the project is on the development of the computer-aided stage of the methodology described above. The methodology considers two different scenarios: the design...... appropriate model-based screening techniques are employed. In the verification scenario, a shortlist of candidate ingredients is provided, therefore the problem size is much smaller and rigorous property models can be employed/developed. When using computer-aided tools for product design, several issues need...... to be addressed: new property models may need to be developed and/or the application range of existing property models may need to be extended (that is, new model parameters are needed), new and more efficient methods and tools for the application of the models may need to be developed, together with a flexible...

  10. THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH-BASED PHYSICS LEARNING MODEL WITH SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO DEVELOP STUDENTS’ SCIENTIFIC PROCESSING SKILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmeldi Usmeldi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Physics learning in SMA N 2 Padang was implemented through theory and practicum for verifying the theories. The results of the initial survey showed that the physics teachers had not yet applied the research-based learning. Supporting facilities such as physics lab and its equipment has been already available, but it has not been utilized optimally. Research-based learning is a model that can improve scientific processing skills and learning outcomes of students. The research aimed to produce a valid, practical, and effective research-based physics learning model and devices. This research was a research and development using the 4D model of Thiagarajan. The instrument of this research are interview guides, observation sheets, sheet of validation of model and learning tools, questionnaire for both teachers’ and learners’ responses, assessment sheets for scientific processing skills, and achievement test. The results showed that the developed model and the learning devices according to the assessment of experts were declared valid. Model and learning devices were practical based on the observation and the questionnaires. The application of research-based physics learning could effectively improve scientific skills and learning outcomes of students. This model is suggested to physics teachers in high school in regard with implementing research-based learning.

  11. Development and verification of an agent-based model of opinion leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christine A; Titler, Marita G

    2014-09-27

    The use of opinion leaders is a strategy used to speed the process of translating research into practice. Much is still unknown about opinion leader attributes and activities and the context in which they are most effective. Agent-based modeling is a methodological tool that enables demonstration of the interactive and dynamic effects of individuals and their behaviors on other individuals in the environment. The purpose of this study was to develop and test an agent-based model of opinion leadership. The details of the design and verification of the model are presented. The agent-based model was developed by using a software development platform to translate an underlying conceptual model of opinion leadership into a computer model. Individual agent attributes (for example, motives and credibility) and behaviors (seeking or providing an opinion) were specified as variables in the model in the context of a fictitious patient care unit. The verification process was designed to test whether or not the agent-based model was capable of reproducing the conditions of the preliminary conceptual model. The verification methods included iterative programmatic testing ('debugging') and exploratory analysis of simulated data obtained from execution of the model. The simulation tests included a parameter sweep, in which the model input variables were adjusted systematically followed by an individual time series experiment. Statistical analysis of model output for the 288 possible simulation scenarios in the parameter sweep revealed that the agent-based model was performing, consistent with the posited relationships in the underlying model. Nurse opinion leaders act on the strength of their beliefs and as a result, become an opinion resource for their uncertain colleagues, depending on their perceived credibility. Over time, some nurses consistently act as this type of resource and have the potential to emerge as opinion leaders in a context where uncertainty exists. The

  12. New Challenges for the Management of the Development of Information Systems Based on Complex Mathematical Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    has been initiated with the scope of investigating the questions that mathematical modelling technology poses to traditional information systems development projects. Based on the past body of research, this study proposes a framework to guide decision making for managing projects of information...... systems development. In a presented case the indications of the model are compared with the decisions taken during the development. The results highlight discrepancies between the structure and predictions of the model and the case observations, especially with regard to the importance given to the users......’ skills in the development process. Further observations also indicate that flexibility and adaptability, based on grounded theory, are valuable tools when information systems development involves a new technology....

  13. Model-Based GN and C Simulation and Flight Software Development for Orion Missions beyond LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Ryan; Milenkovic, Zoran; Henry, Joel; Buttacoli, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For Orion missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system is being developed using a model-based approach for simulation and flight software. Lessons learned from the development of GN&C algorithms and flight software for the Orion Exploration Flight Test One (EFT-1) vehicle have been applied to the development of further capabilities for Orion GN&C beyond EFT-1. Continuing the use of a Model-Based Development (MBD) approach with the Matlab®/Simulink® tool suite, the process for GN&C development and analysis has been largely improved. Furthermore, a model-based simulation environment in Simulink, rather than an external C-based simulation, greatly eases the process for development of flight algorithms. The benefits seen by employing lessons learned from EFT-1 are described, as well as the approach for implementing additional MBD techniques. Also detailed are the key enablers for improvements to the MBD process, including enhanced configuration management techniques for model-based software systems, automated code and artifact generation, and automated testing and integration.

  14. Model-based testing in powertrain development; Modellgestuetzte Erprobungsmethodik in der Antriebsstrangentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, A.; Schyr, C. [Inst. fuer Produktentwicklung der Univ. Karlsruhe (T.H.) (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes a new methodical approach for a model-based testing of powertrain components in vehicle development. The presented methodology is based on a holistic model environment which covers the major dynamic effects of the vehicle in an early development phase and refines the models during the testing phase on the different test bed configurations. This allows a realistic loading of the mechanical components and their electronic control units in parallel to a simulation based analysis of design and application variants in the mechanics and software and their influence onto the complete vehicle. In the first application example the development of a pre-adjustable transmission for passenger cars is presented. In the second example the testing concept for tracked vehicles with hydrostatic drivetrain is described. (orig.)

  15. A Petri Net-Based Software Process Model for Developing Process-Oriented Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Oberweis, Andreas

    Aiming at increasing flexibility, efficiency, effectiveness, and transparency of information processing and resource deployment in organizations to ensure customer satisfaction and high quality of products and services, process-oriented information systems (POIS) represent a promising realization form of computerized business information systems. Due to the complexity of POIS, explicit and specialized software process models are required to guide POIS development. In this chapter we characterize POIS with an architecture framework and present a Petri net-based software process model tailored for POIS development with consideration of organizational roles. As integrated parts of the software process model, we also introduce XML nets, a variant of high-level Petri nets as basic methodology for business processes modeling, and an XML net-based software toolset providing comprehensive functionalities for POIS development.

  16. Model-based development of a course of action scheduling tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Mechlenborg, Peter; Zhang, Lin

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows how a formal method in the form of Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs) and the supporting CPN Tools have been used in the development of the Course of Action Scheduling Tool (COAST). The aim of COAST is to support human planners in the specification and scheduling of tasks in a Course...... of Action. CPNs have been used to develop a formal model of the task execution framework underlying COAST. The CPN model has been extracted in executable form from CPN Tools and embedded directly into COAST, thereby automatically bridging the gap between the formal specification and its implementation....... The scheduling capabilities of COAST are based on state space exploration of the embedded CPN model. Planners interact with COAST using a domain-specific graphical user interface (GUI) that hides the embedded CPN model and analysis algorithms. This means that COAST is based on a rigorous semantical model...

  17. An Agent-Based Dynamic Model of Politics, Fertility and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Zining Yang

    2016-01-01

    In the political economy of development, government policy choices at a single point in time can dramatically affect a country's development path by impacting fertility, economic and political decisions across generations. Combining system dynamics and agent-based modeling approaches in a complex adaptive system, a simulation framework of the Politics of Fertility and Economic Development (POFED) is formalized to understand the relationship between politics, economic, and demography change at...

  18. Model-Based Development and Evaluation of Control for Complex Multi-Domain Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grujic, Ivan; Nilsson, Rene

    of such systems, caused by technological advances in all domains, new ways of approaching multi- domain system development are needed. One methodology, which excels in complexity management, is model-based development. Multidomain systems require collaborative modeling, where the physical system dynamics...... Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been constructed and used to develop an attitude controller based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). The MPC controller has been compared to an existing open source Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) attitude controller. This thesis contributes to the discipline......A Cyber-Physical System (CPS) incorporates sensing, actuating, computing and communicative capabilities, which are often combined to control the system. The development of CPSs poses a challenge, since the complexity of the physical system dynamics must be taken into account when designing...

  19. Development of a Base Model for the New Fire PSA Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kilyoo; Kang, Daeil; Kim, Wee Kyong; Do, Kyu Sik

    2013-01-01

    US NRC/EPRI issued a new fire PSA method represented by NUREG/CR 6850, and have been training many operators and inspectors to widely spread the new method. However, there is a limitation in time and efficiency for many foreigners, who generally have communication problem, to participate in the EPRI/NRC training to learn the new method. Since it is about time to introduce the new fire PSA method as a regulatory requirement for the fire protection in Korea, a simple and easy-understandable base model for the fire PSA training is required, and KAERI-KINS is jointly preparing the base model for the new fire PSA training. This paper describes how the base model is developed. Using an imaginary simple NPP, a base model of fire PSA following the new fire PSA method was developed in two ways from the internal PSA model. Since we have the base model and know the process of making the fire PSA model, the training for the new fire PSA method can be in detail performed in Korea

  20. Development of syntax of intuition-based learning model in solving mathematics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeni Heryaningsih, Nok; Khusna, Hikmatul

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the research was to produce syntax of Intuition Based Learning (IBL) model in solving mathematics problem for improving mathematics students’ achievement that valid, practical and effective. The subject of the research were 2 classes in grade XI students of SMAN 2 Sragen, Central Java. The type of the research was a Research and Development (R&D). Development process adopted Plomp and Borg & Gall development model, they were preliminary investigation step, design step, realization step, evaluation and revision step. Development steps were as follow: (1) Collected the information and studied of theories in Preliminary Investigation step, studied about intuition, learning model development, students condition, and topic analysis, (2) Designed syntax that could bring up intuition in solving mathematics problem and then designed research instruments. They were several phases that could bring up intuition, Preparation phase, Incubation phase, Illumination phase and Verification phase, (3) Realized syntax of Intuition Based Learning model that has been designed to be the first draft, (4) Did validation of the first draft to the validator, (5) Tested the syntax of Intuition Based Learning model in the classrooms to know the effectiveness of the syntax, (6) Conducted Focus Group Discussion (FGD) to evaluate the result of syntax model testing in the classrooms, and then did the revision on syntax IBL model. The results of the research were produced syntax of IBL model in solving mathematics problems that valid, practical and effective. The syntax of IBL model in the classroom were, (1) Opening with apperception, motivations and build students’ positive perceptions, (2) Teacher explains the material generally, (3) Group discussion about the material, (4) Teacher gives students mathematics problems, (5) Doing exercises individually to solve mathematics problems with steps that could bring up students’ intuition: Preparations, Incubation, Illumination, and

  1. Developing Learning Model Based on Local Culture and Instrument for Mathematical Higher Order Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, E. Elvis; Fauzi, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to develop a student-centered learning model based on local culture and instrument of mathematical higher order thinking of junior high school students in the frame of the 2013-Curriculum in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The subjects of the research are seventh graders which are taken proportionally random consisted of three public…

  2. Prototype Development of an ICT System to Support Construction Management Based on Virtual Models and RFID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristian Birch; Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld

    2009-01-01

    early example) of an ICT system was carried out to identify and formalise user needs in relation to construction management based on virtual models and radio frequency identification (RFID). The prototype was developed to support working processes in real-time project progress management, quality...

  3. AUTOMATIZATION OF DECISION MAKING SUPPORT OF EDUCATIONAL ONTOLOGY’ DEVELOPMENT BASED ON INTERMEDIATE MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina O. Artemova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about an algorithm of educational ontology’s development based on intermediate models – mind maps and concept maps. It is offered to use different metrics such as subjective metrics and graph topology’s metrics for automated optimization of mind maps. 

  4. Development of an Adolescent Alcohol Misuse Intervention Based on the Prototype Willingness Model: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emma; Martin, Jilly; Foxcroft, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of the Delphi method to gain expert feedback on the identification of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and development of a novel intervention to reduce adolescent alcohol misuse, based on the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) of health risk behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: Four…

  5. Modeling the sustainable development of innovation in transport construction based on the communication approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revunova, Svetlana; Vlasenko, Vyacheslav; Bukreev, Anatoly

    2017-10-01

    The article proposes the models of innovative activity development, which is driven by the formation of “points of innovation-driven growth”. The models are based on the analysis of the current state and dynamics of innovative development of construction enterprises in the transport sector and take into account a number of essential organizational and economic changes in management. The authors substantiate implementing such development models as an organizational innovation that has a communication genesis. The use of the communication approach to the formation of “points of innovation-driven growth” allowed the authors to apply the mathematical tools of the graph theory in order to activate the innovative activity of the transport industry in the region. As a result, the authors have proposed models that allow constructing an optimal mechanism for the formation of “points of innovation-driven growth”.

  6. Developing a model for application of electronic banking based on electronic trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hooshang Nazarpoori

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model for application of electronic banking based on electronic trust among costumers of Day bank in KhoramAbad city. A sample of 150 people was selected based on stratified random sampling. Questionnaires were used for the investigation. Results indicate that technology-based factors, user-based factors, and trust had negative relationships with perceived risk types including financial, functional, personal, and private. Moreover, trust including trust in system and trust in bank had a positive relationship with tendency to use and real application of electronic banking.

  7. PHOTON2: A web-based professional development model for photonics technology education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Nicholas M.; Washburn, Barbara A.; Kehrhahn, Marijke; Donnelly, Judith F.; Hanes, Fenna D.

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, we present a web-based teacher professional development model for photonics technology education funded by the National Science Foundation Advanced Technology Education (ATE) program. In response to the rapidly growing demand for skilled photonics technicians, the PHOTON2 project will increase the number of high school teachers and community college faculty across the US proficient in teaching photonics technology at their own institutions. The project will also focus on building the capacity of educators to engage in lifelong learning through web-based professional development. Unlike the traditional professional development model whereby educators receive training through intensive short-term workshops, the PHOTON2 project team has developed a pedagogical framework designed specifically for adult learners in which technical content, curriculum development, and learner self-regulatory development are integrated into an active, collaborative, and sustained online learning environment. In Spring 2004, two cohorts of science and technology educators, career/guidance counselors, and industry mentors from eleven states including California, Pennsylvania, Texas, Arizona, Hawaii, and the six New England states commenced participation in the three-year project. Qualitative and quantitative research, focused on individual and environmental factors related to web-based learning, will examine the viability of web-based teacher/faculty professional development in engineering technology education.

  8. Analysis of an algae-based CELSS. Part 1: model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, M. T.; Little, F. E.; Makela, M. E.; Patterson, C. O.

    1989-01-01

    A steady state chemical model and computer program have been developed for a life support system and applied to trade-off studies. The model is based on human demand for food and oxygen determined from crew metabolic needs. The model includes modules for water recycle, waste treatment, CO2 removal and treatment, and food production. The computer program calculates rates of use and material balance for food. O2, the recycle of human waste and trash, H2O, N2, and food production supply. A simple non-iterative solution for the model has been developed using the steady state rate equations for the chemical reactions. The model and program have been used in system sizing and subsystem trade-off studies of a partially closed life support system.

  9. Development of diagnostic model of lung cancer based on multiple tumor markers and data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoxian; Feng, Feifei; Zhou, Xiaoshan; Duan, Liju; Wang, Jing; Wu, Yongjun; Wang, Na

    2017-11-07

    To develop early intelligent discriminative model of lung cancer and evaluate the efficiency of diagnosis value. Based on the genetic polymorphism profile of CYP1A1-rs1048943, GSTM1, mEH-rs1051740, XRCC1-rs1799782 and XRCC1-rs25489 and the methylations of p16 and RASSF1A gene, and the length of telomere in the peripheral blood from 200 lung cancer patients and 200 health persons, the discriminative model was established through decision tree and ANN technique. ACU of the discriminative model based on multiple tumour markers increased by about 10%; The accuracy rate of decision tree model and ANN model for testing set were 93.00% and 89.62% respectively. The ROC analysis showed the decision tree model's AUC is 0.929 (0.894∼0.964), the ANN model's AUC is 0.894 (0.853∼0.935). However, the classify accuracy rate and AUC of Fisher discriminatory analysis model are all about 0.7. The early intelligent discriminative model of lung cancer based on multiple tumor markers and data mining techniques has a higher accuracy rate and might be useful for early diagnosis of lung cancer.

  10. A real option-based model for promoting sustainable energy projects under the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyounkyu; Park, Taeil; Kim, Byungil; Kim, Kyeongseok; Kim, Hyoungkwan

    2013-01-01

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) provides a way of assisting sustainable development in developing countries for developed countries to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Despite its intended benefits, the primary CDM market decreased from US$5.8 billion in 2006 to US$1.5 billion in 2010. One of the primary reasons for the reduction of market size is that developed countries as investors have a high level of risks caused by the volatility of the market price for certified emission reductions (CERs). Another issue to be resolved is that developing countries as host countries cannot claim any right to the CERs produced on their own land. This paper presents a real option-based model for both parties (developed and developing countries) to have their fair share of profits and risks by controlling the uncertainty associated with the future value of CERs. A case study illustrated that the proposed model can effectively attract investors to CDM projects leading to mitigation of climate change. - Highlights: ► This study focused on the risks associated with the uncertainty of future CER value in CDM projects. ► A real option-based model was developed for both parties in CDM to have fair share of profit and risk. ► Key variables and boundary conditions were identified for application of real option to CDM. ► The model allowed both parties to own options, which have an identical value. ► Hydropower plant projects in Indonesia were used to illustrate the implementation of the model

  11. Development of a three dimensional circulation model based on fractional step method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Abualtayef

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model was developed for simulating a three-dimensional multilayer hydrodynamic and thermodynamic model in domains with irregular bottom topography. The model was designed for examining the interactions between flow and topography. The model was based on the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and was solved using the fractional step method, which combines the finite difference method in the horizontal plane and the finite element method in the vertical plane. The numerical techniques were described and the model test and application were presented. For the model application to the northern part of Ariake Sea, the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic results were predicted. The numerically predicted amplitudes and phase angles were well consistent with the field observations.

  12. Simulation of Land-Use Development, Using a Risk-Regarding Agent-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hosseinali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the spatial consequences of applying different Attitude Utility Functions (AUFs, which reflect peoples’ simplified psychological frames, to investment plans in land-use decision making. For this purpose, we considered and implemented an agent-based model with new methods for searching landscapes, for selecting parcels to develop, and for allowing competitions among agents. Besides this, GIS (Geographic Information Systems as a versatile and powerful medium of analyzing and representing spatial data is used. Our model is implemented on an artificial landscape in which land is being developed by agents. The agents are assumed to be mobile developers that are equipped with several land-related objectives. In this paper, agents mimic various risk-bearing attitudes and sometimes compete for developing the same parcel. The results reveal that patterns of land-use development are different in the two cases of regarding and disregarding AUFs. Therefore, it is considered here that using the attitudes of people towards risk helps the model to better simulate the decision making of land-use developers. The different attitudes toward risk used in this study can be attributed to different categories of developers based on sets of characteristics such as income, age, or education.

  13. Development of risk-based computer models for deriving criteria on residual radioactivity and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing multimedia environmental pathway and health risk computer models to assess radiological risks to human health and to derive cleanup guidelines for environmental restoration, decommissioning, and recycling activities. These models are based on the existing RESRAD code, although each has a separate design and serves different objectives. Two such codes are RESRAD-BUILD and RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC. The RESRAD code was originally developed to implement the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) residual radioactive materials guidelines for contaminated soils. RESRAD has been successfully used by DOE and its contractors to assess health risks and develop cleanup criteria for several sites selected for cleanup or restoration programs. RESRAD-BUILD analyzes human health risks from radioactive releases during decommissioning or rehabilitation of contaminated buildings. Risks to workers are assessed for dismantling activities; risks to the public are assessed for occupancy. RESRAD-BUILD is based on a room compartmental model analyzing the effects on room air quality of contaminant emission and resuspension (as well as radon emanation), the external radiation pathway, and other exposure pathways. RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC, currently under development, is intended to perform uncertainty analysis for RESRAD by using the Monte Carlo approach based on the Latin-Hypercube sampling scheme. The codes being developed at ANL are tailored to meet a specific objective of human health risk assessment and require specific parameter definition and data gathering. The combined capabilities of these codes satisfy various risk assessment requirements in environmental restoration and remediation activities

  14. Development of risk-based computer models for deriving criteria on residual radioactivity and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shih-Yew

    1995-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing multimedia environmental pathway and health risk computer models to assess radiological risks to human health and to derive cleanup guidelines for environmental restoration, decommissioning, and recycling activities. These models are based on the existing RESRAD code, although each has a separate design and serves different objectives. Two such codes are RESRAD-BUILD and RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC. The RESRAD code was originally developed to implement the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) residual radioactive materials guidelines for contaminated soils. RESRAD has been successfully used by DOE and its contractors to assess health risks and develop cleanup criteria for several sites selected for cleanup or restoration programs. RESRAD-BUILD analyzes human health risks from radioactive releases during decommissioning or rehabilitation of contaminated buildings. Risks to workers are assessed for dismantling activities; risks to the public are assessed for occupancy. RESRAD-BUILD is based on a room compartmental model analyzing the effects on room air quality of contaminant emission and resuspension (as well as radon emanation), the external radiation pathway, and other exposure pathways. RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC, currently under development, is intended to perform uncertainty analysis for RESRAD by using the Monte Carlo approach based on the Latin-Hypercube sampling scheme. The codes being developed at ANL are tailored to meet a specific objective of human health risk assessment and require specific parameter definition and data gathering. The combined capabilities of these codes satisfy various risk assessment requirements in environmental restoration and remediation activities. (author)

  15. Developments in model-based optimization and control distributed control and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grancharova, Alexandra; Pereira, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with optimization methods as tools for decision making and control in the presence of model uncertainty. It is oriented to the use of these tools in engineering, specifically in automatic control design with all its components: analysis of dynamical systems, identification problems, and feedback control design. Developments in Model-Based Optimization and Control takes advantage of optimization-based formulations for such classical feedback design objectives as stability, performance and feasibility, afforded by the established body of results and methodologies constituting optimal control theory. It makes particular use of the popular formulation known as predictive control or receding-horizon optimization. The individual contributions in this volume are wide-ranging in subject matter but coordinated within a five-part structure covering material on: · complexity and structure in model predictive control (MPC); · collaborative MPC; · distributed MPC; · optimization-based analysis and desi...

  16. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for bisphenol A in pregnant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Yuko; Matsuyama, Wakoto; Wada, Masahiro; Hishikawa, Junko; Chan, Melissa Pui Ling; Nakayama, Aki; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2007-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weakly estrogenic monomer used to produce polymers for food contact and other applications, so there is potential for oral exposure of humans to trace amounts via ingestion. To date, no physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model has been located for BPA in pregnant mice with or without fetuses. An estimate by a mathematical model is essential since information on humans is difficult to obtain experimentally. The PBPK model was constructed based on the pharmacokinetic data of our experiment following single oral administration of BPA to pregnant mice. The risk assessment of bisphenol A (BPA) on the development of human offspring is an important issue. There have been limited data on the exposure level of human fetuses to BPA (e.g. BPA concentration in cord blood) and no information is available on the pharmacokinetics of BPA in humans with or without fetuses. In the present study, we developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model describing the pharmacokinetics of BPA in a pregnant mouse with the prospect of future extrapolation to humans. The PBPK model was constructed based on the pharmacokinetic data of an experiment we executed on pregnant mice following single oral administration of BPA. The model could describe the rapid transfer of BPA through the placenta to the fetus and the slow disappearance from fetuses. The simulated time courses after three-time repeated oral administrations of BPA by the constructed model fitted well with the experimental data, and the simulation for the 10 times lower dose was also consistent with the experiment. This suggested that the PBPK model for BPA in pregnant mice was successfully verified and is highly promising for extrapolation to humans who are expected to be exposed more chronically to lower doses

  17. Developing an agent-based model on how different individuals solve complex problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipek Bozkurt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Research that focuses on the emotional, mental, behavioral and cognitive capabilities of individuals has been abundant within disciplines such as psychology, sociology, and anthropology, among others. However, when facing complex problems, a new perspective to understand individuals is necessary. The main purpose of this paper is to develop an agent-based model and simulation to gain understanding on the decision-making and problem-solving abilities of individuals. Design/Methodology/approach: The micro-level analysis modeling and simulation paradigm Agent-Based Modeling Through the use of Agent-Based Modeling, insight is gained on how different individuals with different profiles deal with complex problems. Using previous literature from different bodies of knowledge, established theories and certain assumptions as input parameters, a model is built and executed through a computer simulation. Findings: The results indicate that individuals with certain profiles have better capabilities to deal with complex problems. Moderate profiles could solve the entire complex problem, whereas profiles within extreme conditions could not. This indicates that having a strong predisposition is not the ideal way when approaching complex problems, and there should always be a component from the other perspective. The probability that an individual may use these capabilities provided by the opposite predisposition provides to be a useful option. Originality/value: The originality of the present research stems from how individuals are profiled, and the model and simulation that is built to understand how they solve complex problems. The development of the agent-based model adds value to the existing body of knowledge within both social sciences, and modeling and simulation.

  18. Development and Application of Back-Propagation-Based Artificial Neural Network Models in Solving Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohammed Al-Alawi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs are computer software programs that mimic the human brain's ability to classify patterns or to make forecasts or decisions based on past experience.  The development of this research area can be attributed to two factors, sufficient computer power to begin practical ANN-based research in the late 1970s and the development of back-propagation in 1986 that enabled ANN models to solve everyday business, scientific, and industrial problems.  Since then, significant applications have been implemented in several fields of study, and many useful intelligent applications and systems have been developed.  The objective of this paper is to generate awareness and to encourage applications development using artificial intelligence-based systems.  Therefore, this paper provides basic ANN concepts, outlines steps used for ANN model development, and lists examples of engineering applications based on the use of the back-propagation paradigm conducted in Oman.  The paper is intended to provide guidelines and necessary references and resources for novice individuals interested in conducting research in engineering or other fields of study using back-propagation artificial neural networks.

  19. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for Fentanyl in support of the development of Provisional Advisory Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankaran, Harish; Adeshina, Femi; Teeguarden, Justin G.

    2013-01-01

    Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) are tiered exposure limits for toxic chemicals in air and drinking water that are developed to assist in emergency responses. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can support this process by enabling extrapolations across doses, and exposure routes, thereby addressing gaps in the available toxicity data. Here, we describe the development of a PBPK model for Fentanyl – a synthetic opioid used clinically for pain management – to support the establishment of PALs. Starting from an existing model for intravenous Fentanyl, we first optimized distribution and clearance parameters using several additional IV datasets. We then calibrated the model using pharmacokinetic data for various formulations, and determined the absorbed fraction, F, and time taken for the absorbed amount to reach 90% of its final value, t90. For aerosolized pulmonary Fentanyl, F = 1 and t90 50 human datasets. • Model predictions are in good agreement with the available pharmacokinetic data. • The model can be used for extrapolating across routes, doses and exposure durations. • We illustrate how the model can be used for developing Provisional Advisory Levels

  20. Development of an Algorithm for Automatic Analysis of the Impedance Spectrum Based on a Measurement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Tohru S.

    2018-03-01

    A new algorithm for the automatic estimation of an equivalent circuit and the subsequent parameter optimization is developed by combining the data-mining concept and complex least-squares method. In this algorithm, the program generates an initial equivalent-circuit model based on the sampling data and then attempts to optimize the parameters. The basic hypothesis is that the measured impedance spectrum can be reproduced by the sum of the partial-impedance spectra presented by the resistor, inductor, resistor connected in parallel to a capacitor, and resistor connected in parallel to an inductor. The adequacy of the model is determined by using a simple artificial-intelligence function, which is applied to the output function of the Levenberg-Marquardt module. From the iteration of model modifications, the program finds an adequate equivalent-circuit model without any user input to the equivalent-circuit model.

  1. Development of Web-Based Formative Assessment Model to Enhance Physics Concepts of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediyanto Ediyanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan Model Penilaian Formatif Berbasis Web untuk Meningkatkan Pemahaman Konsep Fisika Siswa   Abstract: There are two approaches of learning assessment, called formative and summative. The formative assessment is applicable because it involves students directly during the process, may im-prove these students perceptive. The limited time in class makes this process difficult, then the de-velopment of both online and offline formative assessment, provide responsive feedback for teachers and students, is definitely needed. This research goal is to produce a model of web-based formative assessment for physics. This study used research design and development of the formative assess-ment-model. Questionnaire is used for product validation, consist of validation of textbook,  instrument of pre and post-learning quizzes and web product.The result of quantitative analysis shows that the developed product is valid without any revision. Based on qualitative data, the product revision follows comments and suggestions from expert’s validation, teachers and students. The product testing shows that the formative assessment-model may improve students’ conceptual comprehension. Key Words: formatice assessment-model, students’ conceptual comprehension of physics, web-based   Abstrak: Penilaian terbagi menjadi dua macam yaitu penilaian formatif dan penilaian sumatif. Penilaian formatif tepat digunakan karena prosesnya melibatkan siswa secara langsung di dalam proses pembelajaran dan mampu meningkatkan pemahaman konsep siswa. Keterbatasan waktu di kelas menyebabkan proses ini sulit dilakukan, maka perlu dikembangkan model penilaian formatif secara online dan off-line yang dapat memberikan umpan balik yang cepat bagi siswa dan guru. Tujuan dari penelitian adalah menghasilkan model web-based penilaian formatif untuk pembelajaran fisika. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan penelitian dan pengembangan model penilaian formatif. Instrumen yang digunakan

  2. Research on development model of nuclear component based on life cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Shiyi; Zhou Yu; He Shuyan

    2005-01-01

    At present the development process of nuclear component, even nuclear component itself, is more and more supported by computer technology. This increasing utilization of the computer and software has led to the faster development of nuclear technology on one hand and also brought new problems on the other hand. Especially, the combination of hardware, software and humans has increased nuclear component system complexities to an unprecedented level. To solve this problem, Life Cycle Management technology is adopted in nuclear component system. Hence, an intensive discussion on the development process of a nuclear component is proposed. According to the characteristics of the nuclear component development, such as the complexities and strict safety requirements of the nuclear components, long-term design period, changeable design specifications and requirements, high capital investment, and satisfaction for engineering codes/standards, the development life-cycle model of nuclear component is presented. The development life-cycle model is classified at three levels, namely, component level development life-cycle, sub-component development life-cycle and component level verification/certification life-cycle. The purposes and outcomes of development processes are stated in detailed. A process framework for nuclear component based on system engineering and development environment of nuclear component is discussed for future research work. (authors)

  3. Molecular structure based property modeling: Development/ improvement of property models through a systematic property-data-model analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol Shivajirao; Sarup, Bent; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a method for performing property-data-model analysis so that efficient use of knowledge of properties could be made in the development/improvement of property prediction models. The method includes: (i) analysis of property data and its consistency check; ......, a method for selecting a minimum data-set for the parameter regression is also discussed for the cases where it is preferred to retain some data-points from the total data-set to test the reliability of predictions for validation purposes.......; (ii) selection of the most appropriate form of the property model; (iii) selection of the data-set for performing parameter regression and uncertainty analysis; and (iv) analysis of model prediction errors to take necessary corrective steps to improve the accuracy and the reliability of property...

  4. Development of a problem-based learning model via a virtual learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojana Phungsuk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research was the development of a problem-based learning model using a virtual learning environment (VLE for undergraduate students in the Photography for Communication Arts course. The model supports and enhances students' learning, achievements and problem-solving skills. An efficiency test for the model revealed an above average set of criteria at 80/83.93, which conformed to the research hypothesis. The principles of instructional systems design (ISD and systems approach were integrated into the design and assessment phases of model development, which resulted in more effective management of relevant instructional courses and materials. Based on its efficiency and potential application to real-life situations, the model has been deemed suitable by experts. The selected student group in the problem-based learning model via VLE achieved higher test scores compared to a group of students in a normal classroom with a statistical significance of .05. Because students learn using models that promote self-awareness and make it possible to choose their own topic of study employing resources provided by VLE, an assessment of their work quality found that they gained more knowledge of information technology as well as access to up-to-date information. Students are able to choose the most comfortable time to study. The model encourages students to learn through participation, practice problem-solving skills on an individual basis, and exchange ideas with other members of a group. The virtual environment involves many forms of media and materials that stimulate students' interest in learning and results in higher satisfaction. The gap in the communication channel between students and teachers is reduced due to easier and more informal communication.

  5. Developing scenarios to assess future landslide risks: a model-based approach applied to mountainous regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacquie, Laure; Houet, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In the last century, European mountain landscapes have experienced significant transformations. Natural and anthropogenic changes, climate changes, touristic and industrial development, socio-economic interactions, and their implications in terms of LUCC (land use and land cover changes) have directly influenced the spatial organization and vulnerability of mountain landscapes. This study is conducted as part of the SAMCO project founded by the French National Science Agency (ANR). It aims at developing a methodological approach, combining various tools, modelling platforms and methods, to identify vulnerable regions to landslide hazards accounting for futures LUCC. It presents an integrated approach combining participative scenarios and a LULC changes simulation models to assess the combined effects of LUCC and climate change on landslide risks in the Cauterets valley (French Pyrenees Mountains) up to 2100. Through vulnerability and risk mapping, the objective is to gather information to support landscape planning and implement land use strategies with local stakeholders for risk management. Four contrasting scenarios are developed and exhibit contrasting trajectories of socio-economic development. Prospective scenarios are based on national and international socio-economic contexts relying on existing assessment reports. The methodological approach integrates knowledge from local stakeholders to refine each scenario during their construction and to reinforce their plausibility and relevance by accounting for local specificities, e.g. logging and pastoral activities, touristic development, urban planning, etc. A process-based model, the Forecasting Scenarios for Mountains (ForeSceM) model, developed on the Dinamica Ego modelling platform is used to spatially allocate futures LUCC for each prospective scenario. Concurrently, a spatial decision support tool, i.e. the SYLVACCESS model, is used to identify accessible areas for forestry in scenario projecting logging

  6. Development Model of Basic Technique Skills Training Shot-Put Obrien Style Based Biomechanics Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    danang rohmat hidayanto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The background of this research is the unavailability of learning model of basic technique technique of O'Brien style force that integrated in skill program based on biomechanics study which is used as a reference to build the basic technique skill of the O'Brien style force among students. The purpose of this study is to develop a model of basic-style technique of rejecting the O'Brien-style shot put based on biomechanical studies for beginner levels, including basic prefix technique, glide, final stage, repulsion, further motion and repulsion performance of O'Brien style, all of which arranged in a medium that is easily accessible whenever, by anyone and anywhere, especially in SMK Negeri 1 Kalijambe Sragen . The research method used is "Reasearch and Developement" approach. "Preliminary studies show that 43.0% of respondents considered that the O'Brien style was very important to be developed with a model of skill-based exercise based on biomechanics, as many as 40.0% ressponden stated that it is important to be developed with biomechanics based learning media. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to develop the learning media of the O'Brien style-based training skills based on biomechanical studies. Development of media starts from the design of the storyboard and script form that will be used as media. The design of this model is called the draft model. Draft models that have been prepared are reviewed by the multimedia expert and the O'Brien style expert to get the product's validity. A total of 78.24% of experts declare a viable product with some input. In small groups with n = 6, earned value 72.2% was obtained or valid enough to be tested in large groups. In the large group test with n = 12,values obtained 70.83% or quite feasible to be tested in the field. In the field test, experimental group was prepared with treatment according to media and control group with free treatment. From result of counting of significance test can be

  7. Development of an Integrated Education/Training based Nuclear Outreach Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyongwon; Nam, Youngmi; Hwang, Ina; Lee, Jisuk; Ko, Hansuk; Lee, Taejoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The Korean nuclear community also recognizes the importance of outreach from its experience with rad waste and nuclear power programs. Accordingly, nationwide programs dealing with public information, support for local community development, and HRD are implemented continuously involving a number of organizations concerned. The Nuclear Training and Education Center (NTC) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), with its unique function and capability as a national research organization, has needs for the enhancement of public acceptance for KAERI programs, a better contribution to the national effort, and addressing the emerging needs for international education/training on nuclear outreach. This paper presents an integrated education/training based nuclear outreach model with a set of reference program, which is developed for NTC. An integrated education/training based nuclear outreach model for NTC is developed addressing the increasing needs for public acceptance on the peaceful use of nuclear energy, in terms of supporting KAERI activities, contributing to the national nuclear outreach efforts, and promoting international education and training on nuclear outreach. The model, harmonized with the national nuclear outreach system, consists of objectives, target audiences, a set of reference program supported by infrastructure and networking, and an evaluation system. The program is further specified into sub-programs with detailed design for the respective audiences. The developed model with a reference program is characterized by its integrity in terms of encompassing the whole outreach process cycle, and setting up of a target audience based total program structure with existing and new sub-programs. Also, it intends to be sustainable by addressing future generations' needs as well as innovative in the program delivery. The model will be continuously upgraded and applied addressing respective needs of the audiences.

  8. Development of an Integrated Education/Training based Nuclear Outreach Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kyongwon; Nam, Youngmi; Hwang, Ina; Lee, Jisuk; Ko, Hansuk; Lee, Taejoon

    2013-01-01

    The Korean nuclear community also recognizes the importance of outreach from its experience with rad waste and nuclear power programs. Accordingly, nationwide programs dealing with public information, support for local community development, and HRD are implemented continuously involving a number of organizations concerned. The Nuclear Training and Education Center (NTC) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), with its unique function and capability as a national research organization, has needs for the enhancement of public acceptance for KAERI programs, a better contribution to the national effort, and addressing the emerging needs for international education/training on nuclear outreach. This paper presents an integrated education/training based nuclear outreach model with a set of reference program, which is developed for NTC. An integrated education/training based nuclear outreach model for NTC is developed addressing the increasing needs for public acceptance on the peaceful use of nuclear energy, in terms of supporting KAERI activities, contributing to the national nuclear outreach efforts, and promoting international education and training on nuclear outreach. The model, harmonized with the national nuclear outreach system, consists of objectives, target audiences, a set of reference program supported by infrastructure and networking, and an evaluation system. The program is further specified into sub-programs with detailed design for the respective audiences. The developed model with a reference program is characterized by its integrity in terms of encompassing the whole outreach process cycle, and setting up of a target audience based total program structure with existing and new sub-programs. Also, it intends to be sustainable by addressing future generations' needs as well as innovative in the program delivery. The model will be continuously upgraded and applied addressing respective needs of the audiences

  9. The Design and Engineering of Mobile Data Services: Developing an Ontology Based on Business Model Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Debei, Mutaz M.; Fitzgerald, Guy

    This paper addresses the design and engineering problem related to mobile data services. The aim of the research is to inform and advise mobile service design and engineering by looking at this issue from a rigorous and holistic perspective. To this aim, this paper develops an ontology based on business model thinking. The developed ontology identifies four primary dimensions in designing business models of mobile data services: value proposition, value network, value architecture, and value finance. Within these dimensions, 15 key design concepts are identified along with their interrelationships and rules in the telecommunication service business model domain and unambiguous semantics are produced. The developed ontology is of value to academics and practitioners alike, particularly those interested in strategic-oriented IS/IT and business developments in telecommunications. Employing the developed ontology would systemize mobile service engineering functions and make them more manageable, effective, and creative. The research approach to building the mobile service business model ontology essentially follows the design science paradigm. Within this paradigm, we incorporate a number of different research methods, so the employed methodology might be better characterized as a pluralist approach.

  10. Organizing intelligence: development of behavioral science and the research based model of business education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom, William P

    2009-01-01

    Conventional history of the predominant, research-based model of business education (RBM) traces its origins to programs initiated by the Ford Foundation after World War II. This paper maps the elite network responsible for developing behavioral science and the Ford Foundation agenda. Archival records of the actions taken by central nodes in the network permit identification of the original vision statement for the model. Analysis also permits tracking progress toward realizing that vision over several decades. Behavioral science was married to business education from the earliest stages of development. The RBM was a fundamental promise made by advocates for social science funding. Appraisals of the model and recommendations for reform must address its full history, not the partial, distorted view that is the conventional account. Implications of this more complete history for business education and for behavioral theory are considered.

  11. Using A Model-Based Systems Engineering Approach For Exploration Medical System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A.; Mindock, J.; McGuire, K.; Reilly, J.; Cerro, J.; Othon, W.; Rubin, D.; Urbina, M.; Canga, M.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program's Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) element is defining the medical system needs for exploration class missions. ExMC's Systems Engineering (SE) team will play a critical role in successful design and implementation of the medical system into exploration vehicles. The team's mission is to "Define, develop, validate, and manage the technical system design needed to implement exploration medical capabilities for Mars and test the design in a progression of proving grounds." Development of the medical system is being conducted in parallel with exploration mission architecture and vehicle design development. Successful implementation of the medical system in this environment will require a robust systems engineering approach to enable technical communication across communities to create a common mental model of the emergent engineering and medical systems. Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) improves shared understanding of system needs and constraints between stakeholders and offers a common language for analysis. The ExMC SE team is using MBSE techniques to define operational needs, decompose requirements and architecture, and identify medical capabilities needed to support human exploration. Systems Modeling Language (SysML) is the specific language the SE team is utilizing, within an MBSE approach, to model the medical system functional needs, requirements, and architecture. Modeling methods are being developed through the practice of MBSE within the team, and tools are being selected to support meta-data exchange as integration points to other system models are identified. Use of MBSE is supporting the development of relationships across disciplines and NASA Centers to build trust and enable teamwork, enhance visibility of team goals, foster a culture of unbiased learning and serving, and be responsive to customer needs. The MBSE approach to medical system design offers a paradigm shift toward greater integration between

  12. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for Fentanyl in support of the development of Provisional Advisory Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankaran, Harish, E-mail: harish.shankaran@pnnl.gov [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Adeshina, Femi [National Homeland Security Research Center, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Teeguarden, Justin G. [Systems Toxicology Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) are tiered exposure limits for toxic chemicals in air and drinking water that are developed to assist in emergency responses. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can support this process by enabling extrapolations across doses, and exposure routes, thereby addressing gaps in the available toxicity data. Here, we describe the development of a PBPK model for Fentanyl – a synthetic opioid used clinically for pain management – to support the establishment of PALs. Starting from an existing model for intravenous Fentanyl, we first optimized distribution and clearance parameters using several additional IV datasets. We then calibrated the model using pharmacokinetic data for various formulations, and determined the absorbed fraction, F, and time taken for the absorbed amount to reach 90% of its final value, t90. For aerosolized pulmonary Fentanyl, F = 1 and t90 < 1 min indicating complete and rapid absorption. The F value ranged from 0.35 to 0.74 for oral and various transmucosal routes. Oral Fentanyl was absorbed the slowest (t90 ∼ 300 min); the absorption of intranasal Fentanyl was relatively rapid (t90 ∼ 20–40 min); and the various oral transmucosal routes had intermediate absorption rates (t90 ∼ 160–300 min). Based on these results, for inhalation exposures, we assumed that all of the Fentanyl inhaled from the air during each breath directly, and instantaneously enters the arterial circulation. We present model predictions of Fentanyl blood concentrations in oral and inhalation scenarios relevant for PAL development, and provide an analytical expression that can be used to extrapolate between oral and inhalation routes for the derivation of PALs. - Highlights: • We develop a Fentanyl PBPK model for relating external dose to internal levels. • We calibrate the model to oral and inhalation exposures using > 50 human datasets. • Model predictions are in good agreement with the available

  13. Simulink based behavioural modelling of a pulse oximeter for deployment in rapid development, prototyping and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhian, M; Morling, R C S; Kale, I

    2012-01-01

    The pulse oximeter is a well-known device for measuring the level of oxygen in blood. Since their invention, pulse oximeters have been under constant development in both aspects of hardware and software; however there are still unsolved problems that limit their performance [6], [7]. Many fresh algorithms and new design techniques are being suggested every year by industry and academic researchers which claim that they can improve accuracy of measurements [8], [9]. With the lack of an accurate computer-based behavioural model for pulse oximeters, the only way for evaluation of these newly developed systems and algorithms is through hardware implementation which can be both expensive and time consuming. This paper presents an accurate Simulink based behavioural model for a pulse oximeter that can be used by industry and academia alike working in this area, as an exploration as well as productivity enhancement tool during their research and development process. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new computer-based behavioural model which provides a simulation environment from which new ideas can be rapidly evaluated long before the real implementation.

  14. Development of a Transient Model of a Stirling-Based CHP System

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Ulloa; José Luis Míguez; Jacobo Porteiro; Pablo Eguía; Antón Cacabelos

    2013-01-01

    Although the Stirling engine was invented in 1816, this heat engine still continues to be investigated due to the variety of energy sources that can be used to power it (e.g., solar energy, fossil fuels, biomass, and geothermal energy). To study the performance of these machines, it is necessary to develop and simulate models under different operating conditions. In this paper, we present a one-dimensional dynamic model based on components from Trnsys: principally, a lumped mass and a heat ex...

  15. Decision-based model development for nuclear material theft, smuggling, and illicit use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear material is vulnerable to a range of theft, sabotage, smuggling and illicit use scenarios. These scenarios are dependent on the choices of individuals and organizations involved in these activities. These choices, in turn; are dependent on the perceived payoff vectors of the involved players. These payoff vectors can include monetary gain, ability to avoid detection, penalties for detection, difficulty of accomplishment, resource constraints, infrastructure support, etc. Threat scenarios can be developed from these individual choices, and the set of worst-case threat scenarios can be compiled into a threat definition. The implementation of physical protection controls is dependent on the developed threat scenarios. The analysis of the composition of the postulated threat can be based on the analysis of the postulated decisions of the individuals and organizations involved on theft, smuggling, and illicit use. This paper proposes a model to systematically analyze the significant decision points that an individual or organization addresses as result of its goals. The model's dependence on assumptions is discussed. Using these assumptions, a model is developed that assigns probabilities to a set of decisions performed by the individuals involved in theft/smuggling. The individual and organisation's decisions are based on the perceived cost/benefit of the decisions and the resource constraints. Methods for functionally obtaining decision probabilities from perceived cost/benefit are proposed. The treatment of high-consequence/low-probability events is discussed in terms of analysis of precursor events, and the use of sensitivity analysis is discussed. An example of a simplified model for nuclear material theft, smuggling, and illicit use is presented, and the results of this simplified model are evaluated. By attempting to model the potential distribution of nuclear material theft/smuggling events, this model increases the analytical tools available

  16. Development, implementation and evaluation of an information model for archetype based user responsive medical data visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanitsa, Georgy; Veseli, Hasan; Yampolsky, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    When medical data have been successfully recorded or exchanged between systems there appear a need to present the data consistently to ensure that it is clearly understood and interpreted. A standard based user interface can provide interoperability on the visual level. The goal of this research was to develop, implement and evaluate an information model for building user interfaces for archetype based medical data. The following types of knowledge were identified as important elements and were included in the information model: medical content related attributes, data type related attributes, user-related attributes, device-related attributes. In order to support flexible and efficient user interfaces an approach that represents different types of knowledge with different models separating the medical concept from a visual concept and interface realization was chosen. We evaluated the developed approach using Guideline for Good Evaluation Practice in Health Informatics (GEP-HI). We developed a higher level information model to complement the ISO 13606 archetype model. This enabled the specification of the presentation properties at the moment of the archetypes' definition. The model allows realizing different users' perspectives on the data. The approach was implemented and evaluated within a functioning EHR system. The evaluation involved 30 patients of different age and IT experience and 5 doctors. One month of testing showed that the time required reading electronic health records decreased for both doctors (from average 310 to 220s) and patients (from average 95 to 39s). Users reported a high level of satisfaction and motivation to use the presented data visualization approach especially in comparison with their previous experience. The introduced information model allows separating medical knowledge and presentation knowledge. The additional presentation layer will enrich the graphical user interface's flexibility and will allow an optimal presentation of

  17. Cytokine-based Predictive Models to Estimate the Probability of Chronic Periodontitis: Development of Diagnostic Nomograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, I; Arias-Bujanda, N; Alonso-Sampedro, M; Casares-de-Cal, M A; Sánchez-Sellero, C; Suárez-Quintanilla, D; Balsa-Castro, C

    2017-09-14

    Although a distinct cytokine profile has been described in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic periodontitis, there is no evidence of GCF cytokine-based predictive models being used to diagnose the disease. Our objectives were: to obtain GCF cytokine-based predictive models; and develop nomograms derived from them. A sample of 150 participants was recruited: 75 periodontally healthy controls and 75 subjects affected by chronic periodontitis. Sixteen mediators were measured in GCF using the Luminex 100™ instrument: GMCSF, IFNgamma, IL1alpha, IL1beta, IL2, IL3, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12p40, IL12p70, IL13, IL17A, IL17F and TNFalpha. Cytokine-based models were obtained using multivariate binary logistic regression. Models were selected for their ability to predict chronic periodontitis, considering the different role of the cytokines involved in the inflammatory process. The outstanding predictive accuracy of the resulting smoking-adjusted models showed that IL1alpha, IL1beta and IL17A in GCF are very good biomarkers for distinguishing patients with chronic periodontitis from periodontally healthy individuals. The predictive ability of these pro-inflammatory cytokines was increased by incorporating IFN gamma and IL10. The nomograms revealed the amount of periodontitis-associated imbalances between these cytokines with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects in terms of a particular probability of having chronic periodontitis.

  18. Developing a multiscale, multi-resolution agent-based brain tumor model by graphics processing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Le

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiscale agent-based modeling (MABM has been widely used to simulate Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM and its progression. At the intracellular level, the MABM approach employs a system of ordinary differential equations to describe quantitatively specific intracellular molecular pathways that determine phenotypic switches among cells (e.g. from migration to proliferation and vice versa. At the intercellular level, MABM describes cell-cell interactions by a discrete module. At the tissue level, partial differential equations are employed to model the diffusion of chemoattractants, which are the input factors of the intracellular molecular pathway. Moreover, multiscale analysis makes it possible to explore the molecules that play important roles in determining the cellular phenotypic switches that in turn drive the whole GBM expansion. However, owing to limited computational resources, MABM is currently a theoretical biological model that uses relatively coarse grids to simulate a few cancer cells in a small slice of brain cancer tissue. In order to improve this theoretical model to simulate and predict actual GBM cancer progression in real time, a graphics processing unit (GPU-based parallel computing algorithm was developed and combined with the multi-resolution design to speed up the MABM. The simulated results demonstrated that the GPU-based, multi-resolution and multiscale approach can accelerate the previous MABM around 30-fold with relatively fine grids in a large extracellular matrix. Therefore, the new model has great potential for simulating and predicting real-time GBM progression, if real experimental data are incorporated.

  19. Recent developments of the projected shell model based on many-body techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments of the projected shell model (PSM are summarized. Firstly, by using the Pfaffian algorithm, the multi-quasiparticle configuration space is expanded to include 6-quasiparticle states. The yrast band of 166Hf at very high spins is studied as an example, where the observed third back-bending in the moment of inertia is well reproduced and explained. Secondly, an angular-momentum projected generate coordinate method is developed based on PSM. The evolution of the low-lying states, including the second 0+ state, of the soft Gd, Dy, and Er isotopes to the well-deformed ones is calculated, and compared with experimental data.

  20. Using neuro-fuzzy based method to develop nuclear turbine cycle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Yeakuang; Chang Chinjang

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a hybrid soft-computing modeling technique used to develop the steam turbine cycle model for nuclear power plants. The technique uses neuro-fuzzy model to predict the generator output. Firstly, the plant past three fuel cycles operating data above 95% load were collected and validated as the baseline performance data set. Then the signal errors for new operating data were detected by comparison with the baseline data set and their allowable range of variations. Finally, the most important parameters were selected as an input of the neuro-fuzzy based steam turbine cycle model. After training and testing with key parameters (i.e. throttle pressure, condenser backpressure, feedwater flow rate, and final feedwater temperature), the proposed model can be used to predict the generator output. The analysis results show this neuro-fuzzy based turbine cycle model can be used to predict the generator output with a good agreement. Moreover, the achievement of this study provides an alternative approach in thermal performance evaluation for nuclear power plants. (author)

  1. Development of a Community-Based Care System Model for Senior Citizens in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Norouzi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a variety of system models for providing community based health care services for the elderly has been envisioned and implemented in the developed countries which meet the special care needs of different groups of elders. In Iran as a developing country, a considerable percentage of old people live in the society need to receive specialized care and health services. In order to respond to these care needs, developing and implementing health and social care systems with consideration of relevant factors such as: existing and available resources and facilities (financial and human resources; social and cultural issues and characteristics of each groups of elders(healthy elders, frails,home bounds, …  seem to be necessary. At the development phase of the care model in this study Ellowing methodological triangulation must be considered: 1 Comprehensive review of current and related literature, 2 Conduction of an ethnographic study on a number of Tehranian elders and their families, 3 Seeking opinions of a group of experts on this issue using nominal group technique, and analysis as well as synthesis of the collected data were employed to develop a community based care system for elders. The preliminary results of employing this care system and examination of expected outcomes such as promoting quality of life and expectancy in elders reflects the efficiency of this system, although further complementary studies and particularly cost benefit analysis are strongly recommended.

  2. [A physiological development time-based simulation model for cotton development stages and square- and boll formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuyu; Cao, Weixing; Zhang, Lizhen; Zhu, Yan; Li, Shaokun; Zhou, Zhiguo; Li, Cundong; Xu, Lihua

    2005-04-01

    In this study, three cotton varieties (CRI 36, CRI 35 and CRI 41) were planted in Nanjing, Anyang, Baoding and Shihezi, respectively, in 2002, and the dynamic relationships between their development and environmental factors were analyzed. Based on this, a simulation model for cotton development stages and square-and boll development was built in terms of physiological development time (PDT). In calculating relative thermal effectiveness, the effect of diurnal temperature differences in different regions on cotton development was incorporated, and the enhancement of plastic mulching on air temperature was quantified. To simulate development stages, the initial fruiting node index (IFIN), sunlight duration factor (FSH), and solar radiation index on fruiting branch (IFBR) were introduced, besides earliness factor of a given genotype. The validation of the model with the data obtained from different years, ecological zones, genotypes, and cultivation practices indicated a high goodness of fitness between the simulated results and observed values. The root mean square error (RMSE) between simulated and observed days from sowing to emergence, emergence to squaring, anthesis to boll opening, and sowing to boll opening was 0.9, 2.2, 1.7, and 2.1 d, respectively, with a mean of 2.1 d, and in all plant sites, the RMSE between simulated and observed days from squaring to boll opening was 1.8-3.7 d, and that from squaring to opening was 4.6-5.8 d.

  3. Evolutionary-Hierarchical Bases of the Formation of Cluster Model of Innovation Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Vladimirovna Dubrovskaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of a modern economic system is based on the interaction of objects of different hierarchical levels. Thus, the problem of the study of innovation processes taking into account the mutual influence of the activities of these economic actors becomes important. The paper dwells evolutionary basis for the formation of models of innovation development on the basis of micro and macroeconomic analysis. Most of the concepts recognized that despite a big number of diverse models, the coordination of the relations between economic agents is of crucial importance for the successful innovation development. According to the results of the evolutionary-hierarchical analysis, the authors reveal key phases of the development of forms of business cooperation, science and government in the domestic economy. It has become the starting point of the conception of the characteristics of the interaction in the cluster models of innovation development of the economy. Considerable expectancies on improvement of the national innovative system are connected with the development of cluster and network structures. The main objective of government authorities is the formation of mechanisms and institutions that will foster cooperation between members of the clusters. The article explains that the clusters cannot become the factors in the growth of the national economy, not being an effective tool for interaction between the actors of the regional innovative systems.

  4. Using model based systems engineering for the development of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope's operational plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvy, Brian M.; Claver, Charles; Willman, Beth; Petravick, Don; Johnson, Margaret; Reil, Kevin; Marshall, Stuart; Thomas, Sandrine; Lotz, Paul; Schumacher, German; Lim, Kian-Tat; Jenness, Tim; Jacoby, Suzanne; Emmons, Ben; Axelrod, Tim

    2016-08-01

    We† provide an overview of the Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) language, tool, and methodology being used in our development of the Operational Plan for Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) operations. LSST's Systems Engineering (SE) team is using a model-based approach to operational plan development to: 1) capture the topdown stakeholders' needs and functional allocations defining the scope, required tasks, and personnel needed for operations, and 2) capture the bottom-up operations and maintenance activities required to conduct the LSST survey across its distributed operations sites for the full ten year survey duration. To accomplish these complimentary goals and ensure that they result in self-consistent results, we have developed a holistic approach using the Sparx Enterprise Architect modeling tool and Systems Modeling Language (SysML). This approach utilizes SysML Use Cases, Actors, associated relationships, and Activity Diagrams to document and refine all of the major operations and maintenance activities that will be required to successfully operate the observatory and meet stakeholder expectations. We have developed several customized extensions of the SysML language including the creation of a custom stereotyped Use Case element with unique tagged values, as well as unique association connectors and Actor stereotypes. We demonstrate this customized MBSE methodology enables us to define: 1) the rolls each human Actor must take on to successfully carry out the activities associated with the Use Cases; 2) the skills each Actor must possess; 3) the functional allocation of all required stakeholder activities and Use Cases to organizational entities tasked with carrying them out; and 4) the organization structure required to successfully execute the operational survey. Our approach allows for continual refinement utilizing the systems engineering spiral method to expose finer levels of detail as necessary. For example, the bottom-up, Use Case

  5. Model-based nonlinear control of hydraulic servo systems: Challenges, developments and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianyong

    2017-11-01

    Hydraulic servo system plays a significant role in industries, and usually acts as a core point in control and power transmission. Although linear theory-based control methods have been well established, advanced controller design methods for hydraulic servo system to achieve high performance is still an unending pursuit along with the development of modern industry. Essential nonlinearity is a unique feature and makes model-based nonlinear control more attractive, due to benefit from prior knowledge of the servo valve controlled hydraulic system. In this paper, a discussion for challenges in model-based nonlinear control, latest developments and brief perspectives of hydraulic servo systems are presented: Modelling uncertainty in hydraulic system is a major challenge, which includes parametric uncertainty and time-varying disturbance; some specific requirements also arise ad hoc difficulties such as nonlinear friction during low velocity tracking, severe disturbance, periodic disturbance, etc.; to handle various challenges, nonlinear solutions including parameter adaptation, nonlinear robust control, state and disturbance observation, backstepping design and so on, are proposed and integrated, theoretical analysis and lots of applications reveal their powerful capability to solve pertinent problems; and at the end, some perspectives and associated research topics (measurement noise, constraints, inner valve dynamics, input nonlinearity, etc.) in nonlinear hydraulic servo control are briefly explored and discussed.

  6. Developing evaluation instrument based on CIPP models on the implementation of portfolio assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnia, Feni; Rosana, Dadan; Supahar

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to develop an evaluation instrument constructed by CIPP model on the implementation of portfolio assessment in science learning. This study used research and development (R & D) method; adapting 4-D by the development of non-test instrument, and the evaluation instrument constructed by CIPP model. CIPP is the abbreviation of Context, Input, Process, and Product. The techniques of data collection were interviews, questionnaires, and observations. Data collection instruments were: 1) the interview guidelines for the analysis of the problems and the needs, 2) questionnaire to see level of accomplishment of portfolio assessment instrument, and 3) observation sheets for teacher and student to dig up responses to the portfolio assessment instrument. The data obtained was quantitative data obtained from several validators. The validators consist of two lecturers as the evaluation experts, two practitioners (science teachers), and three colleagues. This paper shows the results of content validity obtained from the validators and the analysis result of the data obtained by using Aikens' V formula. The results of this study shows that the evaluation instrument based on CIPP models is proper to evaluate the implementation of portfolio assessment instruments. Based on the experts' judgments, practitioners, and colleagues, the Aikens' V coefficient was between 0.86-1,00 which means that it is valid and can be used in the limited trial and operational field trial.

  7. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for assessment of human exposure to bisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Doerge, Daniel R.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    A previously developed physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for bisphenol A (BPA) in adult rhesus monkeys was modified to characterize the pharmacokinetics of BPA and its phase II conjugates in adult humans following oral ingestion. Coupled with in vitro studies on BPA metabolism in the liver and the small intestine, the PBPK model was parameterized using oral pharmacokinetic data with deuterated-BPA (d 6 -BPA) delivered in cookies to adult humans after overnight fasting. The availability of the serum concentration time course of unconjugated d 6 -BPA offered direct empirical evidence for the calibration of BPA model parameters. The recalibrated PBPK adult human model for BPA was then evaluated against published human pharmacokinetic studies with BPA. A hypothesis of decreased oral uptake was needed to account for the reduced peak levels observed in adult humans, where d 6 -BPA was delivered in soup and food was provided prior to BPA ingestion, suggesting the potential impact of dosing vehicles and/or fasting on BPA disposition. With the incorporation of Monte Carlo analysis, the recalibrated adult human model was used to address the inter-individual variability in the internal dose metrics of BPA for the U.S. general population. Model-predicted peak BPA serum levels were in the range of pM, with 95% of human variability falling within an order of magnitude. This recalibrated PBPK model for BPA in adult humans provides a scientific basis for assessing human exposure to BPA that can serve to minimize uncertainties incurred during extrapolations across doses and species. - Highlights: • A PBPK model predicts the kinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) in adult humans. • Serum concentrations of aglycone BPA are available for model calibration. • Model predicted peak BPA serum levels for adult humans were in the range of pM. • Model predicted 95% of human variability fell within an order of magnitude.

  8. Development of a remote sensing-based rice yield forecasting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosleh, M.K.; Hassan, Q.K.; Chowdhury, E.H.

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to develop a remote sensing-based method for forecasting rice yield by considering vegetation greenness conditions during initial and peak greenness stages of the crop; and implemented for “boro” rice in Bangladeshi context. In this research, we used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived two 16-day composite of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images at 250 m spatial resolution acquired during the initial (January 1 to January 16) and peak greenness (March 23/24 to April 6/7 depending on leap year) stages in conjunction with secondary datasets (i.e., boro suitability map, and ground-based information) during 2007-2012 period. The method consisted of two components: (i) developing a model for delineating area under rice cultivation before harvesting; and (ii) forecasting rice yield as a function of NDVI. Our results demonstrated strong agreements between the model (i.e., MODIS-based) and ground-based area estimates during 2010-2012 period, i.e., coefficient of determination (R2); root mean square error (RMSE); and relative error (RE) in between 0.93 to 0.95; 30,519 to 37,451 ha; and ±10% respectively at the 23 district-levels. We also found good agreements between forecasted (i.e., MODIS-based) and ground-based yields during 2010-2012 period (R2 between 0.76 and 0.86; RMSE between 0.21 and 0.29 Mton/ha, and RE between -5.45% and 6.65%) at the 23 district-levels. We believe that our developments of forecasting the boro rice yield would be useful for the decision makers in addressing food security in Bangladesh. (Author)

  9. Problem-Based Learning Model Used to Scientific Approach Based Worksheet for Physics to Develop Senior High School Students Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, D.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the application of Problem Based Learning(PBL) model aided withscientific approach and character integrated physics worksheets (LKS). Another purpose is to investigate the increase in cognitive and psychomotor learning outcomes and to know the character development of students. The method used in this study was the quasi-experiment. The instruments were observation and cognitive test. Worksheets can improve students’ cognitive, psychomotor learning outcomes. Improvements in cognitive learning results of students who have learned using worksheets are higher than students who received learning without worksheets. LKS can also develop the students’ character.

  10. A spatial web/agent-based model to support stakeholders' negotiation regarding land development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooyandeh, Majeed; Marceau, Danielle J

    2013-11-15

    Decision making in land management can be greatly enhanced if the perspectives of concerned stakeholders are taken into consideration. This often implies negotiation in order to reach an agreement based on the examination of multiple alternatives. This paper describes a spatial web/agent-based modeling system that was developed to support the negotiation process of stakeholders regarding land development in southern Alberta, Canada. This system integrates a fuzzy analytic hierarchy procedure within an agent-based model in an interactive visualization environment provided through a web interface to facilitate the learning and negotiation of the stakeholders. In the pre-negotiation phase, the stakeholders compare their evaluation criteria using linguistic expressions. Due to the uncertainty and fuzzy nature of such comparisons, a fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process is then used to prioritize the criteria. The negotiation starts by a development plan being submitted by a user (stakeholder) through the web interface. An agent called the proposer, which represents the proposer of the plan, receives this plan and starts negotiating with all other agents. The negotiation is conducted in a step-wise manner where the agents change their attitudes by assigning a new set of weights to their criteria. If an agreement is not achieved, a new location for development is proposed by the proposer agent. This process is repeated until a location is found that satisfies all agents to a certain predefined degree. To evaluate the performance of the model, the negotiation was simulated with four agents, one of which being the proposer agent, using two hypothetical development plans. The first plan was selected randomly; the other one was chosen in an area that is of high importance to one of the agents. While the agents managed to achieve an agreement about the location of the land development after three rounds of negotiation in the first scenario, seven rounds were required in the second

  11. Developing a fuzzy ANP model for performance appraisal based on firm strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seid Mohammad Reza Mirahmadi

    2018-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a fuzzy Analytic Network Process (ANP model that has the ability to evaluate employee performance in different strategies. A team of experts in the field of strategic human resource management and senior management of an organization engaged in steel production were involved in the study. The data collection tool was a questionnaire that was designed based on the criteria of organization's performance appraisal system. The results showed that in cost leadership strategy, compliance of work hierarchy, quantity of work and the ability to make important decisions constituted the highest coefficients, while in the focus strategy, participate in group work, power of supervision and administration and decision making ability had the highest importance. In differentiation strategy, innovation and creativity, quality and offering constructive suggestions received higher ratings than other criteria. Finally, the developed model was used to evaluate the performance of a sample employee

  12. The development and evaluation of a community based model for cervical cancer screening based on self-sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinson, Jerome L; Wang, Guixiang; Qu, Xinfeng; Du, Hui; Shen, Jingjing; Xu, Jiajia; Zhong, Liqun; Yi, Ji; Yi, Xin; Wu, Ruifang

    2014-03-01

    To develop and implement a community based model for cervical cancer prevention that allows the communities to manage the screening and the healthcare system to focus resources on evaluation and management of the positives. Using self-sampling and the concepts founded in Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR), we progressively developed a model to efficiently reach the women, especially rural communities; and collect the volume of samples needed to support high throughput centralized low cost per case processing. 8382 eligible women, ages 35 to 59, in 130 rural communities participated. The screening was organized by the local government administration and conducted by the community leaders (CLs). The model used was progressively designed through detailed assessment of key elements at 6 decision points in 26 workshops that were used to train the CLs and the local promoters. The communities were able to accurately conduct the screening; in the final model a local medical worker conducted a 50-minute workshop featuring instructional posters and structured role-play. A manual and a workshop DVD were created for distribution to and implementation by local governments. The average callback rate was 84.3%, without involvement of the local doctors in the management of the positives. An efficient community based model capable of massive screening events was developed. We believe that the callback rate will be further improved when local doctors are trained in the management of the positives. Many elements impact coverage and further research is needed to define the influence of the identified key variables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of Load Duration Curve System in Data Scarce Watersheds Based on a Distributed Hydrological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, J.

    2017-12-01

    In stream water quality control, the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program is very effective. However, the load duration curves (LDC) of TMDL are difficult to be established because no sufficient observed flow and pollutant data can be provided in data-scarce watersheds in which no hydrological stations or consecutively long-term hydrological data are available. Although the point sources or a non-point sources of pollutants can be clarified easily with the aid of LDC, where does the pollutant come from and to where it will be transported in the watershed cannot be traced by LDC. To seek out the best management practices (BMPs) of pollutants in a watershed, and to overcome the limitation of LDC, we proposed to develop LDC based on a distributed hydrological model of SWAT for the water quality management in data scarce river basins. In this study, firstly, the distributed hydrological model of SWAT was established with the scarce-hydrological data. Then, the long-term daily flows were generated with the established SWAT model and rainfall data from the adjacent weather station. Flow duration curves (FDC) was then developed with the aid of generated daily flows by SWAT model. Considering the goal of water quality management, LDC curves of different pollutants can be obtained based on the FDC. With the monitored water quality data and the LDC curves, the water quality problems caused by the point or non-point source pollutants in different seasons can be ascertained. Finally, the distributed hydrological model of SWAT was employed again to tracing the spatial distribution and the origination of the pollutants of coming from what kind of agricultural practices and/or other human activities. A case study was conducted in the Jian-jiang river, a tributary of Yangtze river, of Duyun city, Guizhou province. Results indicate that this kind of method can realize the water quality management based on TMDL and find out the suitable BMPs for reducing pollutant in a watershed.

  14. Developing a leadership laboratory for nurse managers based on lived experiences: a participatory action research model for leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackoff, Barbara L; Glassman, Kimberly; Budin, Wendy

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the pilot study was to design an innovative model of leadership development, Leadership Laboratory (LL), grounded in the lived experiences and peer best practices of 43 cross-disciplinary nurse managers. The Institute of Medicine/Robert Wood Johnson Foundation study, The Future of Nursing, reinforces the need to prepare nurses for leadership positions. A 1-year participatory action research study was designed to develop 3 LLs involving nurse managers as participants, co-creators, and evaluators of the unique learning format. Analysis of qualitative and quantitative data revealed consistent and significantly positive results in leadership skill areas in all 3 LLs. Participants identified elements that distinguished LLs from traditional seminars and trainings sessions, including opportunities to gain from peer-to peer consultation, strategies, and support. Participants in the 1-year pilot demonstrated significant learning based on postsession and postproject assessments of the LLs. Data also described the unique attributes of a peer-driven approach to leadership development.

  15. Modeling the Secondary Drying Stage of Freeze Drying: Development and Validation of an Excel-Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Ekneet K; Pikal, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Although several mathematical models of primary drying have been developed over the years, with significant impact on the efficiency of process design, models of secondary drying have been confined to highly complex models. The simple-to-use Excel-based model developed here is, in essence, a series of steady state calculations of heat and mass transfer in the 2 halves of the dry layer where drying time is divided into a large number of time steps, where in each time step steady state conditions prevail. Water desorption isotherm and mass transfer coefficient data are required. We use the Excel "Solver" to estimate the parameters that define the mass transfer coefficient by minimizing the deviations in water content between calculation and a calibration drying experiment. This tool allows the user to input the parameters specific to the product, process, container, and equipment. Temporal variations in average moisture contents and product temperatures are outputs and are compared with experiment. We observe good agreement between experiments and calculations, generally well within experimental error, for sucrose at various concentrations, temperatures, and ice nucleation temperatures. We conclude that this model can serve as an important process development tool for process design and manufacturing problem-solving. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a flash flood warning system based on real-time radar data and process-based erosion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Kaiser, Andreas; Buchholtz, Arno; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Extreme rainfall events and resulting flash floods led to massive devastations in Germany during spring 2016. The study presented aims on the development of a early warning system, which allows the simulation and assessment of negative effects on infrastructure by radar-based heavy rainfall predictions, serving as input data for the process-based soil loss and deposition model EROSION 3D. Our approach enables a detailed identification of runoff and sediment fluxes in agricultural used landscapes. In a first step, documented historical events were analyzed concerning the accordance of measured radar rainfall and large scale erosion risk maps. A second step focused on a small scale erosion monitoring via UAV of source areas of heavy flooding events and a model reconstruction of the processes involved. In all examples damages were caused to local infrastructure. Both analyses are promising in order to detect runoff and sediment delivering areas even in a high temporal and spatial resolution. Results prove the important role of late-covering crops such as maize, sugar beet or potatoes in runoff generation. While e.g. winter wheat positively affects extensive runoff generation on undulating landscapes, massive soil loss and thus muddy flows are observed and depicted in model results. Future research aims on large scale model parameterization and application in real time, uncertainty estimation of precipitation forecast and interface developments.

  17. The Development of Web-Based Collaborative Training Model for Enhancing Human Performances on ICT for Students in Banditpattanasilpa Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumipuntu, Natawut; Kidrakarn, Pachoen; Chetakarn, Somchock

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to develop the model of Web-based Collaborative (WBC) Training model for enhancing human performances on ICT for students in Banditpattanasilpa Institute. The research is divided into three phases: 1) investigating students and teachers' training needs on ICT web-based contents and performance, 2) developing a web-based…

  18. A Human Life-Stage Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Model for Chlorpyrifos: Development and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Timchalk, Charles; Bartels, M. J.; Poet, Torka S.

    2014-08-01

    Sensitivity to chemicals in animals and humans are known to vary with age. Age-related changes in sensitivity to chlorpyrifos have been reported in animal models. A life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed to computationally predict disposition of CPF and its metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon (the ultimate toxicant) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), as well as B-esterase inhibition by chlorpyrifos-oxon in humans. In this model, age-dependent body weight was calculated from a generalized Gompertz function, and compartments (liver, brain, fat, blood, diaphragm, rapid, and slow) were scaled based on body weight from polynomial functions on a fractional body weight basis. Blood flows among compartments were calculated as a constant flow per compartment volume. The life-stage PBPK/PD model was calibrated and tested against controlled adult human exposure studies. Model simulations suggest age-dependent pharmacokinetics and response may exist. At oral doses ≥ 0.55 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (significantly higher than environmental exposure levels), 6 mo old children are predicted to have higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and higher levels of red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition compared to adults from equivalent oral doses of chlorpyrifos. At lower doses that are more relevant to environmental exposures, the model predicts that adults will have slightly higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and greater cholinesterase inhibition. This model provides a computational framework for age-comparative simulations that can be utilized to predict CPF disposition and biological response over various postnatal life-stages.

  19. Transportation Network Role for Central Italy Macroregion Development in a Territorial Frames Model Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ludovico, Donato; D’Ovidio, Gino

    2017-10-01

    This paper refers to an interdisciplinary planning research approach that aims to combine urban aspects related to a territorial spatial development with transport requirements connected to an efficiency and sustainable mobility. The proposed research method is based on “Territorial Frames” (TFs) model that derived from an original interpretation of the local context divided into a summation of territorial settlement fabrics characterized in terms of spatial tile, morphology and mobility axes. The TFs, with their own autonomous, different size and structure, are used as the main plot, able to assemble the settlement systems and their posturbane forms. With a view to polycentric and spatial development, the research method allows us to analyse the completeness of the TFs and their connective potential, in order to locate the missing/inefficient elements of the transportation network and planning other TFs essential to support economic and social development processes of the most isolated and disadvantaged inland areas. Finally, a case study of the Italian Median Macroregion configuration based on TFs model approach is proposed, analysed and discussed.

  20. Benchmarking in pathology: development of an activity-based costing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Leslie; Wilson, Roger; Pfeffer, Sally; Lowry, John

    2012-12-01

    Benchmarking in Pathology (BiP) allows pathology laboratories to determine the unit cost of all laboratory tests and procedures, and also provides organisational productivity indices allowing comparisons of performance with other BiP participants. We describe 14 years of progressive enhancement to a BiP program, including the implementation of 'avoidable costs' as the accounting basis for allocation of costs rather than previous approaches using 'total costs'. A hierarchical tree-structured activity-based costing model distributes 'avoidable costs' attributable to the pathology activities component of a pathology laboratory operation. The hierarchical tree model permits costs to be allocated across multiple laboratory sites and organisational structures. This has enabled benchmarking on a number of levels, including test profiles and non-testing related workload activities. The development of methods for dealing with variable cost inputs, allocation of indirect costs using imputation techniques, panels of tests, and blood-bank record keeping, have been successfully integrated into the costing model. A variety of laboratory management reports are produced, including the 'cost per test' of each pathology 'test' output. Benchmarking comparisons may be undertaken at any and all of the 'cost per test' and 'cost per Benchmarking Complexity Unit' level, 'discipline/department' (sub-specialty) level, or overall laboratory/site and organisational levels. We have completed development of a national BiP program. An activity-based costing methodology based on avoidable costs overcomes many problems of previous benchmarking studies based on total costs. The use of benchmarking complexity adjustment permits correction for varying test-mix and diagnostic complexity between laboratories. Use of iterative communication strategies with program participants can overcome many obstacles and lead to innovations.

  1. Developing and Implementing a Community-Based Model of Care for Fibromyalgia: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Teo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fibromyalgia (FM is a complex disease posing challenges for primary care providers and specialists in its management. Aim. To evaluate the development and implementation of a comprehensive, integrated, community-based model of care for FM. Methods. A mixed methods feasibility study was completed in a small urban centre in southern British Columbia, Canada. Eleven adults with FM and a team of seven health care providers (HCPs participated in a 10-week intervention involving education, exercise, and sleep management. Monthly “team-huddle” sessions with HCPs facilitated the integration of care. Data included health questionnaires, patient interviews, provider focus group/interviews, and provider surveys. Results. Both patients and HCPs valued the interprofessional team approach to care. Other key aspects included the benefits of the group, exercise, and the positive focus of the program. Effectiveness of the model showed promising results: quality of care for chronic illness, quality of life, and sleep showed significant (P<0.05 differences from baseline to follow-up. Conclusions. Our community-based model of care for FM was successfully implemented. Further testing of the model will be required with a larger sample to determine its effectiveness, although promising results were apparent in our feasibility study.

  2. A rigorous methodology for development and uncertainty analysis of group contribution based property models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    ) assessment of property model prediction errors, (iii) effect of outliers and data pre-treatment, (iv) formulation of parameter estimation problem (e.g. weighted least squares, ordinary least squares, robust regression, etc.) In this study a comprehensive methodology is developed to perform a rigorous......) weighted-least-square regression. 3) Initialization of estimation by use of linear algebra providing a first guess. 4) Sequential parameter and simultaneous GC parameter by using of 4 different minimization algorithms. 5) Thorough uncertainty analysis: a) based on asymptotic approximation of parameter...

  3. MATSIM -The Development and Validation of a Numerical Voxel Model based on the MATROSHKA Phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Peter; Rollet, Sofia; Berger, Thomas; Bergmann, Robert; Hajek, Michael; Latocha, Marcin; Vana, Norbert; Zechner, Andrea; Reitz, Guenther

    The AIT Austrian Institute of Technology coordinates the project MATSIM (MATROSHKA Simulation) in collaboration with the Vienna University of Technology and the German Aerospace Center. The aim of the project is to develop a voxel-based model of the MATROSHKA anthro-pomorphic torso used at the International Space Station (ISS) as foundation to perform Monte Carlo high-energy particle transport simulations for different irradiation conditions. Funded by the Austrian Space Applications Programme (ASAP), MATSIM is a co-investigation with the European Space Agency (ESA) ELIPS project MATROSHKA, an international collaboration of more than 18 research institutes and space agencies from all over the world, under the science and project lead of the German Aerospace Center. The MATROSHKA facility is designed to determine the radiation exposure of an astronaut onboard ISS and especially during an ex-travehicular activity. The numerical model developed in the frame of MATSIM is validated by reference measurements. In this report we give on overview of the model development and compare photon and neutron irradiations of the detector-equipped phantom torso with Monte Carlo simulations using FLUKA. Exposure to Co-60 photons was realized in the standard ir-radiation laboratory at Seibersdorf, while investigations with neutrons were performed at the thermal column of the Vienna TRIGA Mark-II reactor. The phantom was loaded with passive thermoluminescence dosimeters. In addition, first results of the calculated dose distribution within the torso are presented for a simulated exposure in low-Earth orbit.

  4. Development of web-based reliability data analysis algorithm model and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seok-Won; Oh, Ji-Yong; Moosung-Jae

    2010-01-01

    For this study, a database model of plant reliability was developed for the effective acquisition and management of plant-specific data that can be used in various applications of plant programs as well as in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Through the development of a web-based reliability data analysis algorithm, this approach systematically gathers specific plant data such as component failure history, maintenance history, and shift diary. First, for the application of the developed algorithm, this study reestablished the raw data types, data deposition procedures and features of the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system process. The component codes and system codes were standardized to make statistical analysis between different types of plants possible. This standardization contributes to the establishment of a flexible database model that allows the customization of reliability data for the various applications depending on component types and systems. In addition, this approach makes it possible for users to perform trend analyses and data comparisons for the significant plant components and systems. The validation of the algorithm is performed through a comparison of the importance measure value (Fussel-Vesely) of the mathematical calculation and that of the algorithm application. The development of a reliability database algorithm is one of the best approaches for providing systemic management of plant-specific reliability data with transparency and continuity. This proposed algorithm reinforces the relationships between raw data and application results so that it can provide a comprehensive database that offers everything from basic plant-related data to final customized data.

  5. Enhancing the Lasso Approach for Developing a Survival Prediction Model Based on Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Kaneko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, researchers in oncology have sought to develop survival prediction models using gene expression data. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso has been widely used to select genes that truly correlated with a patient’s survival. The lasso selects genes for prediction by shrinking a large number of coefficients of the candidate genes towards zero based on a tuning parameter that is often determined by a cross-validation (CV. However, this method can pass over (or fail to identify true positive genes (i.e., it identifies false negatives in certain instances, because the lasso tends to favor the development of a simple prediction model. Here, we attempt to monitor the identification of false negatives by developing a method for estimating the number of true positive (TP genes for a series of values of a tuning parameter that assumes a mixture distribution for the lasso estimates. Using our developed method, we performed a simulation study to examine its precision in estimating the number of TP genes. Additionally, we applied our method to a real gene expression dataset and found that it was able to identify genes correlated with survival that a CV method was unable to detect.

  6. Development of a compartment model based on CFD simulations for description of mixing in bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crine, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and modeling the complex interactions between biological reaction and hydrodynamics are a key problem when dealing with bioprocesses. It is fundamental to be able to accurately predict the hydrodynamics behavior of bioreactors of different size and its interaction with the biological reaction. CFD can provide detailed modeling about hydrodynamics and mixing. However, it is computationally intensive, especially when reactions are taken into account. Another way to predict hydrodynamics is the use of "Compartment" or "Multi-zone" models which are much less demanding in computation time than CFD. However, compartments and fluxes between them are often defined by considering global quantities not representative of the flow. To overcome the limitations of these two methods, a solution is to combine compartment modeling and CFD simulations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a methodology in order to propose a compartment model based on CFD simulations of a bioreactor. The flow rate between two compartments can be easily computed from the velocity fields obtained by CFD. The difficulty lies in the definition of the zones in such a way they can be considered as perfectly mixed. The creation of the model compartments from CFD cells can be achieved manually or automatically. The manual zoning consists in aggregating CFD cells according to the user's wish. The automatic zoning defines compartments as regions within which the value of one or several properties are uniform with respect to a given tolerance. Both manual and automatic zoning methods have been developed and compared by simulating the mixing of an inert scalar. For the automatic zoning, several algorithms and different flow properties have been tested as criteria for the compartment creation.

  7. Enhancing Teachers' Application of Inquiry-Based Strategies Using a Constructivist Sociocultural Professional Development Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Brenda R.; Moore, Sandra J.

    2011-05-01

    This two-year school-wide initiative to improve teachers' pedagogical skills in inquiry-based science instruction using a constructivist sociocultural professional development model involved 30 elementary teachers from one school, three university faculty, and two central office content supervisors. Research was conducted for investigating the impact of the professional development activities on teachers' practices, documenting changes in their philosophies, instruction, and the learning environment. This report includes teachers' accounts of philosophical as well as instructional changes and how these changes shaped the learning environment. For the teachers in this study, examining their teaching practices in learner-centered collaborative group settings encouraged them to critically analyze their instructional practices, challenging their preconceived ideas on inquiry-based strategies. Additionally, other factors affecting teachers' understanding and use of inquiry-based strategies were highlighted, such as self-efficacy beliefs, prior experiences as students in science classrooms, teacher preparation programs, and expectations due to federal, state, and local mandates. These factors were discussed and reconciled, as they constructed new understandings and adapted their strategies to become more student-centered and inquiry-based.

  8. The development of performance-based practical assessment model at civil engineering workshop in state polytechnic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinayanti, W. S.; Mas Pertiwi, I. G. A. I.; Evin Yudhi, S.; Lokantara, W. D.

    2018-01-01

    Assessment is an important element in education that shall oversees students’ competence not only in terms of cognitive aspect, but alsothe students’ psychomotorin a comprehensive way. Civil Engineering Department at Bali State Polytechnic,as a vocational education institution, emphasizes on not only the theoretical foundation of the study, but also the application throughpracticum in workshop-based learning. We are aware of a need for performance-based assessment for these students, which would be essential for the student’s all-round performance in their studies.We try to develop a performance-based practicum assessment model that is needed to assess student’s ability in workshop-based learning. This research was conducted in three stages, 1) learning needs analysis, 2) instruments development, and 3) testing of instruments. The study uses rubrics set-up to test students’ competence in the workshop and test the validity. We obtained 34-point valid statement out of 35, and resulted in value of Cronbach’s alpha equal to 0.977. In expert test we obtained a value of CVI = 0.75 which means that the drafted assessment is empirically valid within thetrial group.

  9. Developing an Agent-Based Drug Model to Investigate the Synergistic Effects of Drug Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongjie; Yin, Zuojing; Cao, Zhiwei; Zhang, Le

    2017-12-14

    The growth and survival of cancer cells are greatly related to their surrounding microenvironment. To understand the regulation under the impact of anti-cancer drugs and their synergistic effects, we have developed a multiscale agent-based model that can investigate the synergistic effects of drug combinations with three innovations. First, it explores the synergistic effects of drug combinations in a huge dose combinational space at the cell line level. Second, it can simulate the interaction between cells and their microenvironment. Third, it employs both local and global optimization algorithms to train the key parameters and validate the predictive power of the model by using experimental data. The research results indicate that our multicellular system can not only describe the interactions between the microenvironment and cells in detail, but also predict the synergistic effects of drug combinations.

  10. Development and application of 3-D fractal reservoir model based on collage theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.K.; Kim, K.S.; Sung, W.M. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-30

    Reservoir characterization is the essential process to accurately evaluate the reservoir and has been conducted by geostatistical method, SRA algorithm, and etc. The characterized distribution of heterogeneous property by these methods shows randomly distributed phenomena, and does not present anomalous shape of property variation at discontinued space as compared with the observed shape in nature. This study proposed a new algorithm of fractal concept based on collage theorem, which can virtually present not only geometric shape of irregular and anomalous pore structures or coastlines, but also property variation for discontinuously observed data. With a basis of fractal concept, three dimensional fractal reservoir model was developed to more accurately characterize the heterogeneous reservoir. We performed analysis of pre-predictable hypothetically observed permeability data by using the fractal reservoir model. From the results, we can recognize that permeability distributions in the areal view or the cross-sectional view were consistent with the observed data. (author). 8 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  11. Organization-based self-development prescriptive model for the promotion of professional development of Iranian clinical nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Rahimaghaee

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Through this model, clinical nurses′ professional development can transform the profession from an individual, randomized activity into more planned and systematized services. This model can lead to a better quality of care.

  12. Grid-based water quality simulation at catchment scale: Nitrogen model development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqiang; Jomaa, Seifeddine; Rode, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Stream water quality has been changed significantly during last few decades due to changes in human impacts. Accurate and flexible water quality models, which can properly reflect the heterogeneity and long term temporal dynamic of catchment functioning, are still needed. To this end, a new grid-based catchment water quality model was developed based on the mesoscale Hydrological Model (mHM) and the HYdrological Prediction of Environment (HYPE) model. The model structure and parameterization scheme were flexibly designed depending on the spatial heterogeneity of study sites and their specific requirements. Based on that, more detailed spatial information can be provided. Moreover, three main improvements on Nitrate sub-model were implemented: i) nitrate transport processes were conducted in physically connected river networks, allowing time-series point-source inputs added in the exact location of sewage treatment plants; ii) additional retention storage of deep groundwater was included for long term nitrate-N simulation; iii) special design for better taking into account crop rotation was implemented. Those new features can extend the model capability and facilitate the understanding of catchment mechanisms and analysis of future scenarios and measures. The newly developed model was fully verified in the Selke catchment (456 km2), central Germany. Long term discharge and water quality data have been collected at three nested gauging stations (1997-2015). The station Meisdorf, above where 72% of area is occupied by forest, represents the discharge and nutrient exports from forest area. Agricultural land dominates the lower part of the catchment (almost 96% of in-between area of the Meisdorf and the outlet station Hausneindorf) with considerable urban areas. Due to the relatively large number of model parameters, sensitivity analysis was firstly conducted. Subsequently, sensitive parameters were calibrated using stepwise and multi-variable approaches, respectively

  13. Multiple flood vulnerability assessment approach based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and coordinated development degree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weichao; Xu, Kui; Lian, Jijian; Bin, Lingling; Ma, Chao

    2018-05-01

    Flood is a serious challenge that increasingly affects the residents as well as policymakers. Flood vulnerability assessment is becoming gradually relevant in the world. The purpose of this study is to develop an approach to reveal the relationship between exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity for better flood vulnerability assessment, based on the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method (FCEM) and coordinated development degree model (CDDM). The approach is organized into three parts: establishment of index system, assessment of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity, and multiple flood vulnerability assessment. Hydrodynamic model and statistical data are employed for the establishment of index system; FCEM is used to evaluate exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity; and CDDM is applied to express the relationship of the three components of vulnerability. Six multiple flood vulnerability types and four levels are proposed to assess flood vulnerability from multiple perspectives. Then the approach is applied to assess the spatiality of flood vulnerability in Hainan's eastern area, China. Based on the results of multiple flood vulnerability, a decision-making process for rational allocation of limited resources is proposed and applied to the study area. The study shows that multiple flood vulnerability assessment can evaluate vulnerability more completely, and help decision makers learn more information about making decisions in a more comprehensive way. In summary, this study provides a new way for flood vulnerability assessment and disaster prevention decision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Development of an Interactive Health Education Model Based on the Djuwita Application for Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuwitaningsih, Sri; Setyowati

    Alarming incidents of maternal deaths in Indonesia are due to three major causes: bleeding, sepsis, and hypertension, in addition to other non-obstetric causes and unsafe abortions. Adolescent girls contributed to maternal mortality based on early marriage, unwanted pregnancy, and childbirth. Prevention efforts have been taken through government programs and non-governmental organizations, but in practice those were considered ineffective. Thus, a preventative effort in the form of health education should be made, preferably embedded in a popular mobile application that most teenagers would be apt to use. This study aimed to develop an interactive health education model based on adolescent-friendly applications, according to their needs. The design of this research was mixed-method. A quantitative approach was used by conducting a survey of 188 teenagers aged 15-19 years in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia through questionnaires. This research also contained a qualitative component via in-depth interviews with students, parents, and counseling teachers. The quantitative results showed that respondents' knowledge was low about male and female reproductive organs, prevention of pregnancy, and the use of condoms. Respondents' attitudes toward risky behaviors indicate a positive attitude about smoking, drinking, and illegal drugs, as well as premarital sex, while respondents have a negative attitude toward unwanted pregnancies. Respondents' attitudes toward application-based health education shows a high interest. Respondents desired that the application have privacy, up-to-date information, interesting features, can be discussed with peer groups and health workers, include a game, animation, and simulation, and can identify reproductive health independently. Qualitative results indicate the need for reliable, accessible, and personal sources of information. The next research recommendation is to develop an interactive health education model based on the application of

  15. Numerical analysis of liquid metal MHD flows through circular pipes based on a fully developed modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiujie; Pan, Chuanjie; Xu, Zengyu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► 2D MHD code based on a fully developed modeling is developed and validated by Samad analytical results. ► The results of MHD effect of liquid metal through circular pipes at high Hartmann numbers are given. ► M type velocity profile is observed for MHD circular pipe flow at high wall conductance ratio condition. ► Non-uniform wall electrical conductivity leads to high jet velocity in Robert layers. -- Abstract: Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) laminar flows through circular pipes are studied in this paper by numerical simulation under the conditions of Hartmann numbers from 18 to 10000. The code is developed based on a fully developed modeling and validated by Samad's analytical solution and Chang's asymptotic results. After the code validation, numerical simulation is extended to high Hartmann number for MHD circular pipe flows with conducting walls, and numerical results such as velocity distribution and MHD pressure gradient are obtained. Typical M-type velocity is observed but there is not such a big velocity jet as that of MHD rectangular duct flows even under the conditions of high Hartmann numbers and big wall conductance ratio. The over speed region in Robert layers becomes smaller when Hartmann numbers increase. When Hartmann number is fixed and wall conductance ratios change, the dimensionless velocity is through one point which is in agreement with Samad's results, the locus of maximum value of velocity jet is same and effects of wall conductance ratio only on the maximum value of velocity jet. In case of Robert walls are treated as insulating and Hartmann walls as conducting for circular pipe MHD flows, there is big velocity jet like as MHD rectangular duct flows of Hunt's case 2

  16. Secondary Neutron Production from Space Radiation Interactions: Advances in Model and Experimental Data Base Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Braley, G. Scott; Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2003-01-01

    For humans engaged in long-duration missions in deep space or near-Earth orbit, the risk from exposure to galactic and solar cosmic rays is an important factor in the design of spacecraft, spacesuits, and planetary bases. As cosmic rays are transported through shielding materials and human tissue components, a secondary radiation field is produced. Neutrons are an important component of that secondary field, especially in thickly-shielded environments. Calculations predict that 50% of the dose-equivalent in a lunar or Martian base comes from neutrons, and a recent workshop held at the Johnson Space Center concluded that as much as 30% of the dose in the International Space Station may come from secondary neutrons. Accelerator facilities provide a means for measuring the effectiveness of various materials in their ability to limit neutron production, using beams and energies that are present in cosmic radiation. The nearly limitless range of beams, energies, and target materials that are present in space, however, means that accelerator-based experiments will not provide a complete database of cross sections and thick-target yields that are necessary to plan and design long-duration missions. As such, accurate nuclear models of neutron production are needed, as well as data sets that can be used to compare with, and verify, the predictions from such models. Improvements in a model of secondary neutron production from heavy-ion interactions are presented here, along with the results from recent accelerator-based measurements of neutron-production cross sections. An analytical knockout-ablation model capable of predicting neutron production from high-energy hadron-hadron interactions (both nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions) has been previously developed. In the knockout stage, the collision between two nuclei result in the emission of one or more nucleons from the projectile and/or target. The resulting projectile and target remnants, referred to as

  17. Development of the Computerized Model of Performance-Based Measurement System to Measure Nurses' Clinical Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Liu, Hsiu-Chen; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Yu, Wei-Chieh; Chu, Tsui-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Critical thinking skills and clinical competence are for providing quality patient care. The purpose of this study is to develop the Computerized Model of Performance-Based Measurement system based on the Clinical Reasoning Model. The system can evaluate and identify learning needs for clinical competency and be used as a learning tool to increase clinical competency by using computers. The system includes 10 high-risk, high-volume clinical case scenarios coupled with questions testing clinical reasoning, interpersonal, and technical skills. Questions were sequenced to reflect patients' changing condition and arranged by following the process of collecting and managing information, diagnosing and differentiating urgency of problems, and solving problems. The content validity and known-groups validity was established. The Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 was 0.90 and test-retest reliability was supported (r = 0.78). Nursing educators can use the system to understand students' needs for achieving clinical competence, and therefore, educational plans can be made to better prepare students and facilitate their smooth transition to a future clinical environment. Clinical nurses can use the system to evaluate their performance-based abilities and weakness in clinical reasoning. Appropriate training programs can be designed and implemented to practically promote nurses' clinical competence and quality of patient care.

  18. Development and evaluation of a biomedical search engine using a predicate-based vector space model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Myungjae; Leroy, Gondy; Martinez, Jesse D; Harwell, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    Although biomedical information available in articles and patents is increasing exponentially, we continue to rely on the same information retrieval methods and use very few keywords to search millions of documents. We are developing a fundamentally different approach for finding much more precise and complete information with a single query using predicates instead of keywords for both query and document representation. Predicates are triples that are more complex datastructures than keywords and contain more structured information. To make optimal use of them, we developed a new predicate-based vector space model and query-document similarity function with adjusted tf-idf and boost function. Using a test bed of 107,367 PubMed abstracts, we evaluated the first essential function: retrieving information. Cancer researchers provided 20 realistic queries, for which the top 15 abstracts were retrieved using a predicate-based (new) and keyword-based (baseline) approach. Each abstract was evaluated, double-blind, by cancer researchers on a 0-5 point scale to calculate precision (0 versus higher) and relevance (0-5 score). Precision was significantly higher (psearching than keywords, laying the foundation for rich and sophisticated information search. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Trigo, Isabel F.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo

    2017-04-01

    The land surface forms an essential part of the climate system. It interacts with the atmosphere through the exchange of water and energy and hence influences weather and climate, as well as their predictability. Correspondingly, the land surface model (LSM) is an essential part of any weather forecasting system. LSMs rely on partly poorly constrained parameters, due to sparse land surface observations. With the use of newly available land surface temperature observations, we show in this study that novel satellite-derived datasets help to improve LSM configuration, and hence can contribute to improved weather predictability. We use the Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme of Surface Exchanges over Land (HTESSEL) and validate it comprehensively against an array of Earth observation reference datasets, including the new land surface temperature product. This reveals satisfactory model performance in terms of hydrology, but poor performance in terms of land surface temperature. This is due to inconsistencies of process representations in the model as identified from an analysis of perturbed parameter simulations. We show that HTESSEL can be more robustly calibrated with multiple instead of single reference datasets as this mitigates the impact of the structural inconsistencies. Finally, performing coupled global weather forecasts we find that a more robust calibration of HTESSEL also contributes to improved weather forecast skills. In summary, new satellite-based Earth observations are shown to enhance the multi-dataset calibration of LSMs, thereby improving the representation of insufficiently captured processes, advancing weather predictability and understanding of climate system feedbacks. Orth, R., E. Dutra, I. F. Trigo, and G. Balsamo (2016): Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/hess-2016-628

  20. Infant bone age estimation based on fibular shaft length: model development and clinical validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Andy; Stamoulis, Catherine; Bixby, Sarah D.; Breen, Micheal A.; Connolly, Susan A.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Bone age in infants (<1 year old) is generally estimated using hand/wrist or knee radiographs, or by counting ossification centers. The accuracy and reproducibility of these techniques are largely unknown. To develop and validate an infant bone age estimation technique using fibular shaft length and compare it to conventional methods. We retrospectively reviewed negative skeletal surveys of 247 term-born low-risk-of-abuse infants (no persistent child protection team concerns) from July 2005 to February 2013, and randomized them into two datasets: (1) model development (n = 123) and (2) model testing (n = 124). Three pediatric radiologists measured all fibular shaft lengths. An ordinary linear regression model was fitted to dataset 1, and the model was evaluated using dataset 2. Readers also estimated infant bone ages in dataset 2 using (1) the hemiskeleton method of Sontag, (2) the hemiskeleton method of Elgenmark, (3) the hand/wrist atlas of Greulich and Pyle, and (4) the knee atlas of Pyle and Hoerr. For validation, we selected lower-extremity radiographs of 114 normal infants with no suspicion of abuse. Readers measured the fibulas and also estimated bone ages using the knee atlas. Bone age estimates from the proposed method were compared to the other methods. The proposed method outperformed all other methods in accuracy and reproducibility. Its accuracy was similar for the testing and validating datasets, with root-mean-square error of 36 days and 37 days; mean absolute error of 28 days and 31 days; and error variability of 22 days and 20 days, respectively. This study provides strong support for an infant bone age estimation technique based on fibular shaft length as a more accurate alternative to conventional methods. (orig.)

  1. Development of a tripolar model of technology acceptance: Hospital-based physicians' perspective on EHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglaryan, Mher; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Bunker, Edward

    2017-06-01

    In health care, information technologies (IT) hold a promise to harness an ever-increasing flow of health related information and bring significant benefits including improved quality of care, efficiency, and cost containment. One of the main tools for collecting and utilizing health data is the Electronic Health Record (EHR). EHRs implementation can face numerous barriers to acceptance including attitudes and perceptions of potential users, required effort attributed to their implementation and usage, and resistance to change. Various theories explicate different aspects of technology deployment, implementation, and acceptance. One of the common theories is the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), which helps to study the implementation of different healthcare IT applications. The objectives of this study are: to understand the barriers of EHR implementation from the perspective of physicians; to identify major determinants of physicians' acceptance of technology; and develop a model that explains better how EHRs (and technologies in general) are accepted by physicians. The proposed model derives from a cross-sectional survey of physicians selected through multi-stage cluster sampling from the hospitals of Yerevan, Armenia. The study team designed the survey instrument based on a literature review on barriers of EHR implementation. The analysis employed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) with a robust weighted least squares (WLSMV) estimator for categorical indicators. The analysis progressed in two steps: appraisal of the measurement model and testing of the structural model. The derived model identifies the following factors as direct determinants of behavioral intention to use a novel technology: projected collective usefulness; personal innovativeness; patient influence; and resistance to change. Other factors (e.g., organizational change, professional relationships, administrative monitoring, organizational support and computer anxiety) exert their

  2. Developing An Explanatory Prediction Model Based On Rainfall Patterns For Cholera Outbreaks In Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, M. R.; Du Preez, M.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera has become endemic in coastal and inland areas within the tropics as well as areas outside of the tropics in Africa. Climate conditions and weather patterns differ between areas reporting cholera cases in Africa. Some areas experience two rainfall seasons compared to areas with only one rainfall season in a year. Further, climate variability or ENSO events affect local weather conditions differently. La Niña, i.e. cold events lead to higher than normal rainfall in areas in southern Africa compared to areas close to the equator in eastern Africa which report less than normal rainfall. Time series analysis of cholera cases and rainfall data at different spatial resolutions highlight the overlap of the rainfall season with the reporting of cholera cases. Cholera cases are also reported in between rainy seasons in different areas but the incidence is significantly less compared to the rainy season. An increase in the intensity of outbreaks is also noted during the rainy season following a drier than normal 'dry' season. This necessitates the understanding of the reasons for the observed correlation between rainfall season and cholera outbreaks in order to develop a prediction model which can accurately predict the likelihood of an outbreak. Due to the complexities associated with accurately predicting weather data more than seven days ahead of time it is necessary to identify global drivers with a lagged effect on local rainfall patterns. Climate variability, i.e. ENSO is investigated at different temporal scales; spatial locations and time lags. Sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTa) measured closed to the equator and in the southern parts of the Indian Ocean are more closely associated with rainfall anomalies at specific time lags in equatorial, East African, south East African and central African areas compared to SSTa measured in different regions in the Pacific Ocean. An explanatory prediction model is developed for conditions in Mozambique (coastal

  3. Development of an Adult Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model of Solithromycin in Plasma and Epithelial Lining Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Sara N; Edginton, Andrea; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Hornik, Christoph P; Watt, Kevin M; Jamieson, Brian D; Gonzalez, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Solithromycin is a fluoroketolide antibiotic under investigation for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). We developed a whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for solithromycin in adults using PK-Sim and MoBi version 6.2, which incorporated time-dependent CYP3A4 auto-inhibition. The model was developed and evaluated using plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) concentration data from 100 healthy subjects and 22 patients with CABP (1,966 plasma, 30 ELF samples). We performed population simulations and calculated the number of observations falling outside the 90% prediction interval. For the oral regimen (800 mg on day 1 and 400 mg daily on days 2-5) that was evaluated in phase III studies, 11% and 23% of observations from healthy adults fell outside the 90% prediction interval for plasma and ELF, respectively. This regimen should be effective because ≥97% of simulated adults achieved area under the concentration vs. time curve (AUC) to minimum inhibitory concentration ratios associated with a log 10 colony forming unit reduction in ELF. © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  4. Urban Optimum Population Size and Development Pattern Based on Ecological Footprint Model: Case of Zhoushan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan LU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The agglomeration of population in the city can reflect the prosperity in the economy, society and culture. However, it has also brought a series of problems like environmental pollution, traffic congestion, housing shortage and jobs crisis. The results can be shown as the failure of urban comprehensive function, the decline of city benefits, and the contradiction between socioeconomic circumstance and ecosystem. Therefore, a reasonable population capacity, which is influenced by ecological resources, urban environment, geographical elements, social and economic factors, etc., is objectively needed. How to deal with the relationship between the utilization of natural capital and development of the city is extremely essential. This paper takes Zhoushan Island as an example, which is the fourth largest island off the coast of China. Firstly, the interactively influencing factors of urban optimal population are illustrated. And method is chosen to study the optimal population size. Secondly, based on the model of ecological footprint (EP, the paper calculates and analyzes the ecological footprint and ecological capacity of the Zhoushan Island, in order to explore the optimal population size of the city. Thirdly, analysis and evaluation of the resources and urban environment carrying capacity is made. Finally, the solution of the existing population problems and the suggestion for the future development pattern of the city are proposed in the urban eco-planning of Zhoushan Island. The main strategies can be summarized in two aspects: one is to reduce the ecological footprint, the other is to increase the ecological supply. The conclusion is that the current population of Zhoushan Island is far beyond the optimum population size calculated by the ecological footprint model. Therefore, sustainable development should be the guidance for urban planning in Zhoushan Island, and a low-carbon development pattern for the city is advocated.

  5. Current State and Model for Development of Technology-Based Care for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyakorn, Songpoom; Riley, Steven J; Calub, Catrina A; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2016-09-01

    Care (i.e., evaluation and intervention) delivered through technology is used in many areas of mental health services, including for persons with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Technology can facilitate care for individuals with ADHD, their parents, and their care providers. The adoption of technological tools for ADHD care requires evidence-based studies to support the transition from development to integration into use in the home, school, or work for persons with the disorder. The initial phase, which is development of technological tools, has begun in earnest; however, the evidence base for many of these tools is lacking. In some instances, the uptake of a piece of technology into home use or clinical practice may be further along than the research to support its use. In this study, we review the current evidence regarding technology for ADHD and also propose a model to evaluate the support for other tools that have yet to be tested. We propose using the Research Domain Criteria as a framework for evaluating the tools' relationships to dimensions related to ADHD. This article concludes with recommendations for testing new tools that may have promise in improving the evaluation or treatment of persons with ADHD.

  6. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Chang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The American Society for Microbiology (ASM established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation Biology Scholars Program (BSP to promote undergraduate education reform by 1 supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2 engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists’ leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3 participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL to more than 270 participants (“scholars” from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER. To identify the BSP’s long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program’s 2010­–2014 scholars (n = 127 and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life

  7. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Amy L; Pribbenow, Christine M

    2016-05-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists' leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants ("scholars") from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP's long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program's 2010-2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and helps

  8. A dynamic population-based model for the development of work-related respiratory health effects among bakery workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Tielemans, E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper presents a dynamic population-based model for the development of sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in bakery workers. The model simulates a population of individual workers longitudinally and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in

  9. A dynamic population-based model for the development of work-related respiratory health effects among bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Tielemans, E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This paper presents a dynamic population-based model for the development of sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in bakery workers. The model simulates a population of individual workers longitudinally and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in

  10. Status of the phenomena representation, 3D modeling, and cloud-based software architecture development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Curtis L.; Prescott, Steven; Kvarfordt, Kellie; Sampath, Ram; Larson, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Early in 2013, researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory outlined a technical framework to support the implementation of state-of-the-art probabilistic risk assessment to predict the safety performance of advanced small modular reactors. From that vision of the advanced framework for risk analysis, specific tasks have been underway in order to implement the framework. This report discusses the current development of a several tasks related to the framework implementation, including a discussion of a 3D physics engine that represents the motion of objects (including collision and debris modeling), cloud-based analysis tools such as a Bayesian-inference engine, and scenario simulations. These tasks were performed during 2015 as part of the technical work associated with the Advanced Reactor Technologies Program.

  11. Status of the phenomena representation, 3D modeling, and cloud-based software architecture development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kvarfordt, Kellie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sampath, Ram [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Larson, Katie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Early in 2013, researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory outlined a technical framework to support the implementation of state-of-the-art probabilistic risk assessment to predict the safety performance of advanced small modular reactors. From that vision of the advanced framework for risk analysis, specific tasks have been underway in order to implement the framework. This report discusses the current development of a several tasks related to the framework implementation, including a discussion of a 3D physics engine that represents the motion of objects (including collision and debris modeling), cloud-based analysis tools such as a Bayesian-inference engine, and scenario simulations. These tasks were performed during 2015 as part of the technical work associated with the Advanced Reactor Technologies Program.

  12. Developing MODIS-based cloud climatologies to aid species distribution modeling and conservation activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael William Douglas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available WorldClim (Hijmans et al. 2005 has been the de-facto source of basic climatological analyses for most species distribution modeling research and conservation science applications because of its global coverage and fine (<1 km spatial resolution.  However, it has been recognized since its development that there are limitations in data-poor regions, especially with regard to the precipitation analyses.  Here we describe procedures to develop a satellite-based daytime cloudiness climatology that better reflects the variations in vegetation cover in many regions of the globe than do the WorldClim precipitation products.  Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS imagery from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Terra and Aqua sun-synchronous satellites have recently been used to develop multi-year climatologies of cloudiness.  Several procedures exist for developing such climatologies.  We first discuss a simple procedure that uses brightness thresholds to identify clouds.  We compare these results with those from a more complex procedure: the MODIS Cloud Mask product, recently averaged into climatological products by Wilson and Jetz (2016.  We discuss advantages and limitations of both approaches.  We also speculate on further work that will be needed to improve the usefulness of these MODIS-based climatologies of cloudiness. Despite limitations of current MODIS-based climatology products, they have the potential to greatly improve our understanding of the distribution of biota across the globe.  We show examples from oceanic islands and arid coastlines in the subtropics and tropics where the MODIS products should be of special value in predicting the observed vegetation cover.  Some important applications of reliable climatologies based on MODIS imagery products will include 1 helping to restore long-degraded cloud-impacted environments; 2 improving estimations of the spatial distribution of cloud

  13. Model-based development and testing of advertising messages: A comparative study of two campaign proposals based on the MECCAS model and a conventional approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2001-01-01

    model, i.e. means-ends based data collection employing the laddering method and subsequent use of the guidelines for message development formulated in MECCAS. The project was a joint venture of the Association of Danish Fruit Growers, Odense, Denmark, and the MAPP Centre, and was financed by EU funds......Traditionally, the development of advertising messages has been based on "creative independence", sometimes catalysed by inductively generated empirical data. Due to the recent intensified focus on advertising effectiveness, this state of affairs is beginning to change. The purpose of the study....... The comparison involved the efficiency of the managerial communication taking place in the message development process as well as target group communication effects. The managerial communication was studied by interviews with the involved advertising agency (Midtmarketing, Ikast, Denmark) and client staff...

  14. Model-based development and testing of advertising messages: A comparative study of two campaign proposals based on the MECCAS model and a conventional approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    . The managerial communication was studied by interviews with the advertising agency and client staff involved. The project is a joint venture of the Association of Danish Fruit Growers, Odense, Denmark, and the MAPP Centre, and is financed by EU funds. The advertising agency involved is Midtmarketing, Ikast......-agency and intra-agency) involved in the development of advertising messages. 3. The purpose of the study described in this paper is to compare the development and effects of two campaign proposals, with the common aim of increasing the consumption of apples among young Danes (18 to 35 years of age). One...... of the proposals is the result of an inductive-creative process, while the other is based on the MECCAS model, ie, means-end based data collection employing the laddering method and subsequent use of the guidelines for message development formulated in MECCAS. 4. The comparison involved target group communication...

  15. Effectiveness and Utility of a Case-Based Model for Delivering Engineering Ethics Professional Development Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Ann Hahn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an action research project conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL to resolve a problem with the ability of licensed and/or certified engineers to obtain the ethics-related professional development units or hours (PDUs or PDHs needed to maintain their credentials. Because of the recurring requirement and the static nature of the information, an initial, in-depth training followed by annually updated refresher training was proposed. A case model approach, with online delivery, was selected as the optimal pedagogical model for the refresher training. In the first two years, the only data that was collected was throughput and information retention. Response rates indicated that the approach was effective in helping licensed professional engineers obtain the needed PDUs. The rates of correct responses suggested that knowledge transfer regarding ethical reasoning had occurred in the initial training and had been retained in the refresher. In FY13, after completing the refresher, learners received a survey asking their opinion of the effectiveness and utility of the course, as well as their impressions of the case study format vs. the typical presentation format. Results indicate that the courses have been favorably received and that the case study method supports most of the pedagogical needs of adult learners as well as, if not better than, presentation-based instruction. Future plans for improvement are focused on identifying and evaluating methods for enriching online delivery of the engineering ethics cases.

  16. Effectiveness and Utility of a Case-Based Model for Delivering Engineering Ethics Professional Development Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Ann Hahn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an action research project conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL to resolve a problem with the ability of licensed and/or certified engineers to obtain the ethics-related professional development units or hours (PDUs or PDHs needed to maintain their credentials. Because of the recurring requirement and the static nature of the information, an initial, in-depth training followed by annually updated refresher training was proposed. A case model approach, with online delivery, was selected as the optimal pedagogical model for the refresher training. In the first two years, the only data that was collected was throughput and information retention. Response rates indicated that the approach was effective in helping licensed professional engineers obtain the needed PDUs. The rates of correct responses suggested that knowledge transfer regarding ethical reasoning had occurred in the initial training and had been retained in the refresher. In FY13, after completing the refresher, learners received a survey asking their opinion of the effectiveness and utility of the course, as well as their impressions of the case study format vs. the typical presentation format. Results indicate that the courses have been favorably received and that the case study method supports most of the pedagogical needs of adult learners as well as, if not better than, presentation-based instruction. Future plans for improvement are focused on identifying and evaluating methods for enriching online delivery of the engineering ethics cases.

  17. Learning Outcomes in Vocational Education: A Business Plan Development by Production-Based Learning Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningrum, Indrati; Hidayat, Hendra; Ganefri; Anori, Sartika; Dewy, Mega Silfia

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development of a business plan by using production-based learning approach. In addition, this development also aims to maximize learning outcomes in vocational education. Preliminary analysis of curriculum and learning and the needs of the market and society become the basic for business plan development. To produce a…

  18. Towards a model-based development approach for wireless sensor-actuator network protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar S., A. Ajith; Simonsen, Kent Inge

    2014-01-01

    Model-Driven Software Engineering (MDSE) is a promising approach for the development of applications, and has been well adopted in the embedded applications domain in recent years. Wireless Sensor Actuator Networks consisting of resource constrained hardware and platformspecific operating system...... induced due to manual translations. With the use of formal semantics in the modeling approach, we can further ensure the correctness of the source model by means of verification. Also, with the use of network simulators and formal modeling tools, we obtain a verified and validated model to be used...

  19. Development of prospective memory: tasks based on the prefrontal-lobe model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Heather; Shum, David; McKinlay, Lynne; Baker-Tweney, Simone; Wallace, Geoff

    2005-12-01

    This study investigated the development of prospective memory using tasks based on the prefrontal-lobe model. Three groups each of 30 children, adolescents, and young adults were compared on prospective-memory performance using ongoing tasks with two levels of cognitive demand (low and high), and two levels of importance (unstressed and stressed) of remembering prospective cues. The Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT), Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and Tower of London were also used to assess relationships between prospective memory and prefrontal-lobe functions. The children remembered fewer prospective cues than either the adolescents or adults, but the adolescents and adults remembered equally well. This trend increased significantly as the cognitive demand of the ongoing tasks increased. However, stressing or not stressing the importance of remembering made no difference to prospective-memory performance. Performance on the SOPT and Stroop Colour Word Interference predicted performance on the high- but not on the low-demand condition. These findings implicate the maturation of the brain's prefrontal region in the development of prospective memory.

  20. An Evaluation of High School Curricula Employing Using the Element-Based Curriculum Development Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Dolgun; Günay, Rafet

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the curricula that constitute the basis of education provision at high schools in Turkey from the perspective of the teachers involved. A descriptive survey model, a quantitative research method was employed in this study. An item-based curriculum evaluation model was employed as part of the…

  1. Development and Validation of a Rule-Based Strength Scaling Method for Musculoskeletal Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oomen, Pieter; Annegarn, Janneke; Rasmussen, John

    2015-01-01

    Rule based strength scaling is an easy, cheap and relatively accurate technique to personalize musculoskeletal (MS) models. This paper presents a new strength scaling approach for MS models and validates it by maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). A heterogeneous group of 63 healthy subjects...

  2. A New Rat Model of Epileptic Spasms Based on Methylazoxymethanol-Induced Malformations of Cortical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hee Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Malformations of cortical development (MCDs can cause medically intractable epilepsies and cognitive disabilities in children. We developed a new model of MCD-associated epileptic spasms by treating rats prenatally with methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM to induce cortical malformations and postnatally with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA to induce spasms. To produce cortical malformations to infant rats, two dosages of MAM (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally were injected to pregnant rats at gestational day 15. In prenatally MAM-exposed rats and the controls, spasms were triggered by single (6 mg/kg on postnatal day 12 (P12 or 10 mg/kg on P13 or 15 mg/kg on P15 or multiple doses (P12, P13, and P15 of NMDA. In prenatally MAM-exposed rats with single NMDA-provoked spasms at P15, we obtain the intracranial electroencephalography and examine the pretreatment response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or vigabatrin. Rat pups prenatally exposed to MAM exhibited a significantly greater number of spasms in response to single and multiple postnatal NMDA doses than vehicle-exposed controls. Vigabatrin treatment prior to a single NMDA dose on P15 significantly suppressed spasms in MAM group rats (p < 0.05, while ACTH did not. The MAM group also showed significantly higher fast oscillation (25–100 Hz power during NMDA-induced spasms than controls (p = 0.047. This new model of MCD-based epileptic spasms with corresponding features of human spasms will be valuable for future research of the developmental epilepsy.

  3. Development of an Instructional Model for Online Task-Based Interactive Listening for EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xingbin; Suppasetseree, Suksan

    2013-01-01

    College English in China has shifted from cultivating reading ability to comprehensive communicative abilities with an emphasis on listening and speaking. For this reason, new teaching models should be built on modern information technology. However, little research on developing models for the online teaching of listening skills has been…

  4. Process-Based Development of Competence Models to Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendler, Andreas; Seitz, Cornelia; Klaudt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    A process model ("cpm.4.CSE") is introduced that allows the development of competence models in computer science education related to curricular requirements. It includes eight subprocesses: (a) determine competence concept, (b) determine competence areas, (c) identify computer science concepts, (d) assign competence dimensions to…

  5. Developing a blended learning based model for teaching foreign languages in engineering institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryashova Alexandra V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with studying theoretical and methodical background of the concept of blended learning, which is the major didactic tool of the modern methods of foreign languages teaching. It also considers the principles of integrating blended learning in teaching foreign languages in engineering institutions. The basics of pedagogical modelling used for developing a model of integrating blended learning in the foreign language teaching are defined. The schematic model representation is given and the way of implementing the described model into the educational process is shown via the example of the lesson on “Cohesive devices”.

  6. Application of recently developed elliptic blending based models to separated flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, F.; Revell, A.; Craft, T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The study focuses on elliptic blending near-wall models. ► Models are compared on 2- and 3-dimensional separating flows. ► Conclusions are ambiguous on 2-d flows. ► Predictive superiority of Reynolds stress models over eddy viscosity model appear on 3-d flows. - Abstract: This paper considers the application of four Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models to a range of progressively complex test cases, exhibiting both 2-d and 3-d flow separation. Two Eddy Viscosity Models (EVM) and two Reynolds Stress Transport Models (RSM) are employed, of which two (one in each category) are based on elliptic blending formulations. By both reviewing the conclusions of previous studies, and from the present calculations, this study aims at gaining more insight into the importance of two modelling features for these flows: the usage of turbulence anisotropy resolving schemes, and the near-wall limiting behaviour. In general the anisotropy and near wall treatment offered by both elliptic blending models is observed to offer some improvement over other models tested, although this is not always the case for the 2-d flows, where (as ever) a single “best candidate” model does not emerge.

  7. An Agent-Based Model for the Development of Intelligent Mobile Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, F.L.

    2009-01-01

    The next generation of mobile services must invisible, convenient, and useful. It requires new techniques to design and develop mobile computing applications, based on user-centred, environment-aware, adaptive behaviour. I propose an alternative technology for the development of intelligent mobile

  8. Approach and development strategy for an agent-based model of economic confidence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprigg, James A.; Pryor, Richard J.; Jorgensen, Craig Reed

    2004-08-01

    We are extending the existing features of Aspen, a powerful economic modeling tool, and introducing new features to simulate the role of confidence in economic activity. The new model is built from a collection of autonomous agents that represent households, firms, and other relevant entities like financial exchanges and governmental authorities. We simultaneously model several interrelated markets, including those for labor, products, stocks, and bonds. We also model economic tradeoffs, such as decisions of households and firms regarding spending, savings, and investment. In this paper, we review some of the basic principles and model components and describe our approach and development strategy for emulating consumer, investor, and business confidence. The model of confidence is explored within the context of economic disruptions, such as those resulting from disasters or terrorist events.

  9. A Collaboration Model for Community-Based Software Development with Social Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Murray-Rust

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Crowdsourcing is generally used for tasks with minimal coordination, providing limited support for dynamic reconfiguration. Modern systems, exemplified by social ma chines, are subject to continual flux in both the client and development communities and their needs. To support crowdsourcing of open-ended development, systems must dynamically integrate human creativity with machine support. While workflows can be u sed to handle structured, predictable processes, they are less suitable for social machine development and its attendant uncertainty. We present models and techniques for coordination of human workers in crowdsourced software development environments. We combine the Social Compute Unit—a model of ad-hoc human worker teams—with versatile coordination protocols expressed in the Lightweight Social Calculus. This allows us to combine coordination and quality constraints with dynamic assessments of end-user desires, dynamically discovering and applying development protocols.

  10. Development and evaluation of a physics-based windblown dust emission scheme implemented in the CMAQ modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new windblown dust emission treatment was incorporated in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. This new model treatment has been built upon previously developed physics-based parameterization schemes from the literature. A distinct and novel feature of t...

  11. Biological control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, with baculoviruses in greenhouses : development of a comprehensive process-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Vlak, J.M.; Rabbinge, R.; Werf, van der W.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the development of a comprehensive process-based model simulating the epizootiology and agronomic efficacy of baculoviruses used for biological control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, in greenhouse chrysanthemum. The model is built to help understand, evaluate, and predict the

  12. Development of Acoustic Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction Technique for Thick-Concrete Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almansouri, Hani [Purdue University; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Bouman, Charlie [Purdue University; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound signals have been used extensively for non-destructive evaluation (NDE). However, typical reconstruction techniques, such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), are limited to quasi-homogenous thin media. New ultrasonic systems and reconstruction algorithms are in need for one-sided NDE of non-homogenous thick objects. An application example space is imaging of reinforced concrete structures for commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). These structures provide important foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. Identification and management of aging and degradation of concrete structures is fundamental to the proposed long-term operation of NPPs. Another example is geothermal and oil/gas production wells. These multi-layered structures are composed of steel, cement, and several types of soil and rocks. Ultrasound systems with greater penetration range and image quality will allow for better monitoring of the well's health and prediction of high-pressure hydraulic fracturing of the rock. These application challenges need to be addressed with an integrated imaging approach, where the application, hardware, and reconstruction software are highly integrated and optimized. Therefore, we are developing an ultrasonic system with Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) as the image reconstruction backbone. As the first implementation of MBIR for ultrasonic signals, this paper document the first implementation of the algorithm and show reconstruction results for synthetically generated data.

  13. Development of Acoustic Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction Technique for Thick-Concrete Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almansouri, Hani [Purdue University; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Bouman, Charlie [Purdue University; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound signals have been used extensively for non-destructive evaluation (NDE). However, typical reconstruction techniques, such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), are limited to quasi-homogenous thin media. New ultrasonic systems and reconstruction algorithms are in need for one-sided NDE of non-homogenous thick objects. An application example space is imaging of reinforced concrete structures for commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). These structures provide important foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. Identification and management of aging and degradation of concrete structures is fundamental to the proposed long-term operation of NPPs. Another example is geothermal and oil/gas production wells. These multi-layered structures are composed of steel, cement, and several types of soil and rocks. Ultrasound systems with greater penetration range and image quality will allow for better monitoring of the well s health and prediction of high-pressure hydraulic fracturing of the rock. These application challenges need to be addressed with an integrated imaging approach, where the application, hardware, and reconstruction software are highly integrated and optimized. Therefore, we are developing an ultrasonic system with Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) as the image reconstruction backbone. As the first implementation of MBIR for ultrasonic signals, this paper document the first implementation of the algorithm and show reconstruction results for synthetically generated data.

  14. Development of a target-site based regional frequency model using historical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Yasser; Bardet, Lise; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear power facilities in France were designed to withstand extreme environmental conditions with a very low probability of failure. Nevertheless, some exceptional surges considered as outliers are not properly addressed by classical frequency analysis models. If available data at the site of interest (target-site) is sufficiently complete on a long period and not characterized by the presence of an outlier, at-site frequency analysis can be used to estimate quantiles with acceptable uncertainties. Otherwise, regional and historical information (HI) may be used to mitigate the lack of data and the influence of the outlier by increasing its representativeness in the sample. several models have been proposed over the last years for regional extreme surges frequency analysis in France to take into account these outliers in the frequency analysis. However, these models do not give a specific weight to the target site and cannot take into account HI. The objective of the present work is to develop a regional frequency model (RFM) centered on a target-site and using HI. The neighborhood between sites is measured by a degree of physical and statistical dependence between observations (with a prior confidence level). Unlike existing models, the obtained region around the target site (and constituting the neighboring sites) is sliding from a target-site to another. In other words, the developed model assigns a region for each target site. The idea behind the construction of a frequency model favoring target sites and the principle of moving regions around these target-sites is the original key point of the developed model. A related issue regards the estimation of missed and/or ungauged surges at target-sites from those of gauged potential neighboring sites, a multiple linear regression (MLR) is used and it can be extended to other reconstitutions models. MLR analysis can be considered conclusive only if available observations at neighboring sites are informative enough

  15. Development-based Trust: Proposing and Validating a New Trust Measurement Model for Buyer-Seller Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauro da Costa Hernandez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes and validates a trust measurement model for buyer-seller relationships. Baptized as development-based trust, the model encompasses three dimensions of trust: calculus-based, knowledge-based and identification-based. In addition to recognizing that trust is a multidimensional construct, the model also assumes that trust can evolve to take on a different character depending on the stage of the relationship. In order to test the proposed model and compare it to the characteristic-based trust measurement model, the measure most frequently used in the buyer-seller relationship literature, data were collected from 238 clients of an IT product wholesaler. The results show that the scales are valid and reliable and the proposed development-based trust measurement model is superior to the characteristic-based trust measurement model in terms of its ability to explain certain variables of interest in buyer-seller relationships (long-term relationship orientation, information sharing, behavioral loyalty and future intentions. Implications for practice, limitations and suggestions for future studies are discussed.

  16. Development of an Organizational Effectiveness Model for Base Level Civil Engineering Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    known as content analysis ( Kohlhaas & Williams, 1980) to create a functional model to define organizational effec- tiveness within base level civil...fresearcher) reliability of this technique is quite respectable. ( Kohlhaas & Williams, 1980, p. 34) For the purposes of this research effort, the grouping...ing management graduate students of the School of Systems and Logistics, AFIT, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Oh., November 5, 198 2. Kohlhaas

  17. Predictions on the Development Dimensions of Provincial Tourism Discipline Based on the Artificial Neural Network BP Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Hu, Jun; Lv, Yingchun; Zhang, Mu

    2013-01-01

    As the tourism industry has gradually become the strategic mainstay industry of the national economy, the scope of the tourism discipline has developed rigorously. This paper makes a predictive study on the development of the scope of Guangdong provincial tourism discipline based on the artificial neural network BP model in order to find out how…

  18. Developing and Evaluating Creativity Gamification Rehabilitation System: The Application of PCA-ANFIS Based Emotions Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chung-Ho; Cheng, Ching-Hsue

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the factors in a patient's rehabilitation achievement after a total knee replacement (TKR) patient exercises, using a PCA-ANFIS emotion model-based game rehabilitation system, which combines virtual reality (VR) and motion capture technology. The researchers combine a principal component analysis (PCA) and an adaptive…

  19. Central Puget Sound Ecopath/Ecosim model outputs - Developing food web models for ecosystem-based management applications in Puget Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is developing food web models for ecosystem-based management applications in Puget Sound. It is primarily being done by NMFS FTEs and contractors, in...

  20. Central Puget Sound Ecopath/Ecosim model biological parameters - Developing food web models for ecosystem-based management applications in Puget Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is developing food web models for ecosystem-based management applications in Puget Sound. It is primarily being done by NMFS FTEs and contractors, in...

  1. Development of a Sampling-Based Global Sensitivity Analysis Workflow for Multiscale Computational Cancer Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Deisboeck, Thomas S.; Cristini, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    There are two challenges that researchers face when performing global sensitivity analysis (GSA) on multiscale in silico cancer models. The first is increased computational intensity, since a multiscale cancer model generally takes longer to run than does a scale-specific model. The second problem is the lack of a best GSA method that fits all types of models, which implies that multiple methods and their sequence need to be taken into account. In this article, we therefore propose a sampling-based GSA workflow consisting of three phases – pre-analysis, analysis, and post-analysis – by integrating Monte Carlo and resampling methods with the repeated use of analysis of variance (ANOVA); we then exemplify this workflow using a two-dimensional multiscale lung cancer model. By accounting for all parameter rankings produced by multiple GSA methods, a summarized ranking is created at the end of the workflow based on the weighted mean of the rankings for each input parameter. For the cancer model investigated here, this analysis reveals that ERK, a downstream molecule of the EGFR signaling pathway, has the most important impact on regulating both the tumor volume and expansion rate in the algorithm used. PMID:25257020

  2. Development and practice for a PACS-based interactive teaching model for CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Junzhang; Jiang Guihua; Zheng Liyin; Wang Ling; Wenhua; Liang Lianbao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the interactive teaching model for CT imaging based on PACS, and provide the clinician and young radiologist with continued medical education. Methods: 100 M trunk net was adopted in PACS and 10 M was exchanged on desktop. Teaching model was installed in browse and diagnosis workstation. Teaching contents were classified according to region and managed according to branch model. Text data derived from authoritative textbooks, monograph, and periodicals. Imaging data derived from cases proved by pathology and clinic. The data were obtained through digital camera and scanner or from PACS. After edited and transformed into standard digital image through DICOM server, they were saved in HD of PACS image server with file form. Results: Teaching model for CT imaging provided kinds of cases of CT sign, clinic characteristics, pathology and distinguishing diagnosis. Normal section anatomy, typical image, and its notation could be browsed real time. Teaching model for CT imaging could provide reference to teaching, diagnosis and report. Conclusion: PACS-based teaching model for CT imaging could provide interactive teaching and scientific research tool and improve work quality and efficiency

  3. Evaluation of oxime efficacy in nerve agent poisoning: Development of a kinetic-based dynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worek, Franz; Szinicz, Ladislaus; Eyer, Peter; Thiermann, Horst

    2005-01-01

    The widespread use of organophosphorus compounds (OP) as pesticides and the repeated misuse of highly toxic OP as chemical warfare agents (nerve agents) emphasize the necessity for the development of effective medical countermeasures. Standard treatment with atropine and the established acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators, obidoxime and pralidoxime, is considered to be ineffective with certain nerve agents due to low oxime effectiveness. From obvious ethical reasons only animal experiments can be used to evaluate new oximes as nerve agent antidotes. However, the extrapolation of data from animal to humans is hampered by marked species differences. Since reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE is considered to be the main mechanism of action of oximes, human erythrocyte AChE can be exploited to test the efficacy of new oximes. By combining enzyme kinetics (inhibition, reactivation, aging) with OP toxicokinetics and oxime pharmacokinetics a dynamic in vitro model was developed which allows the calculation of AChE activities at different scenarios. This model was validated with data from pesticide-poisoned patients and simulations were performed for intravenous and percutaneous nerve agent exposure and intramuscular oxime treatment using published data. The model presented may serve as a tool for defining effective oxime concentrations and for optimizing oxime treatment. In addition, this model can be useful for the development of meaningful therapeutic animal models

  4. Model-Based Experimental Development of Passive Compliant Robot Legs from Fiberglass Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shang-Chang; Hu, Chia-Jui; Shih, Wen-Pin; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    We report on the methodology of developing compliant, half-circular, and composite robot legs with designable stiffness. First, force-displacement experiments on flat cantilever composites made by one or multifiberglass cloths are executed. By mapping the cantilever mechanics to the virtual spring model, the equivalent elastic ...

  5. JSTOR: The Development of a Cost-Driven, Value-Based Pricing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Kevin M.

    JSTOR (Journal STORage project) began as a project of The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation designed to help libraries address growing persistent space problems. JSTOR was established as an independent not-for-profit organization with its own Board of Trustees in August 1995. This paper summarizes how JSTOR's economic model was developed, lessons…

  6. Development of a system dynamics model based on Six Sigma methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jovani Cardiel Ortega

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model to analyze the complexity associated with the manufacturing systems and to improve the performance of the process through the Six Sigma philosophy is proposed. The research focuses on the implementation of the system dynamics tool to comply with each of the phases of the DMAIC methodology. In the first phase, define, the problem is articulated, collecting data, selecting the variables, and representing them in a mental map that helps build the dynamic hypothesis. In the second phase, measure, model is formulated, equations are developed, and Forrester diagram is developed to carry out the simulation. In the third phase, analyze, the simulation results are studied. For the fourth phase, improving, the model is validated through a sensitivity analysis. Finally, in control phase, operation policies are proposed. This paper presents the development of a dynamic model of the system of knitted textile production knitted developed; the implementation was done in a textile company in southern Guanajuato. The results show an improvement in the process performance by increasing the level of sigma allowing the validation of the proposed approach.

  7. Development of predictive models for estimating warfarin maintenance dose based on genetic and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Linder, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we use calculation of estimated warfarin maintenance dosage as an example to illustrate how to develop a multiple linear regression model to quantify the relationship between several independent variables (e.g., patients' genotype information) and a dependent variable (e.g., measureable clinical outcome).

  8. Multiple Perspective Approach for the Development of Information Systems Based on Advanced Mathematical Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    to observe and analyze the workings of a development project. I have been working as part of the team assembled for the development of the information system based on AMM for a period of three years. My active participation in the development project granted me access to all the actors involved. In my role I...... through negotiation and democratic decision making will it be possible for the team members to have their current weltanschauung represented in decision making. Thirdly, geographical distribution and loose coupling foster individualist rather than group behavior. The more the social tissue is disconnected...... of the technology, the development team was formed by individuals from both universities and the private sector. The organization of the development team was geographically distributed and loosely coupled. The development of information systems has always been a difficult activity and the records show a remarkable...

  9. A Model for the Development of a CDIO Based Curriculum in Electrical Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Kjærgaard, Claus

    2011-01-01

    at the Technical University of Denmark and this gives a strong direct impact of the university environment on the resulting curriculum in electrical engineering. The resulting Bachelor of Engineering curriculum is presented and it is discussed how it complies with the model for curriculum development. The main......This paper deals with a model providing a structured method for engineering curriculum design. The model is developed to show the major influencers on the curriculum design and the relations between the influencers. These influencers are identified as the engineering science, the business...... environment, the university environment, and the teachers and students. Each of them and their influence on the curriculum is described and the sources of information about the influencers are discussed. The CDIO syllabus has been defined as part of the basis for the Bachelor of Engineering programs...

  10. Development of a model for spray evaporation based on droplet analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Q.

    2016-08-20

    Extreme flash evaporation occurs when superheated liquid is sprayed into a low pressure zone. This method has high potential to improve the performance of thermally-driven desalination plants. To enable a more in-depth understanding on flash evaporation of a superheated feed water spray, a theoretical model has been developed with key considerations given to droplet motion and droplet size distribution. The model has been validated against 14 experimental data sets from literature sources to within 12% discrepancy. This model is capable of accurately predicting the water productivity and thermal efficiency of existing spray evaporator under specific operating conditions. Employing this model, the effect of several design parameters on system performance was investigated. Key results revealed that smaller droplet enabled faster evaporation process while higher initial droplet velocity promoted water productivity. Thermal utilization marginally changes with the degree of superheat, which renders a quick design calculation of the brine temperature without the need for iterations. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Expert-based versus habitat-suitability models to develop resistance surfaces in landscape genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Pietro; Holderegger, R; Caniglia, R; Fabbri, E; Galaverni, M; Randi, E

    2017-01-01

    Landscape genetics aims to investigate functional connectivity among wild populations by evaluating the impact of landscape features on gene flow. Genetic distances among populations or individuals are generally better explained by least-cost path (LCP) distances derived from resistance surfaces than by simple Euclidean distances. Resistance surfaces reflect the cost for an organism to move through particular landscape elements. However, determining the effects of landscape types on movements is challenging. Because of a general lack of empirical data on movements, resistance surfaces mostly rely on expert knowledge. Habitat-suitability models potentially provide a more objective method to estimate resistance surfaces than expert opinions, but they have rarely been applied in landscape genetics so far. We compared LCP distances based on expert knowledge with LCP distances derived from habitat-suitability models to evaluate their performance in landscape genetics. We related all LCP distances to genetic distances in linear mixed effect models on an empirical data set of wolves (Canis lupus) from Italy. All LCP distances showed highly significant (P ≤ 0.0001) standardized β coefficients and R 2 values, but LCPs from habitat-suitability models generally showed higher values than those resulting from expert knowledge. Moreover, all LCP distances better explained genetic distances than Euclidean distances, irrespective of the approaches used. Considering our results, we encourage researchers in landscape genetics to use resistance surfaces based on habitat suitability which performed better than expert-based LCPs in explaining patterns of gene flow and functional connectivity.

  12. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling: Methodology, Applications, and Limitations with a Focus on Its Role in Pediatric Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras Khalil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK modeling was introduced years ago, but it has not been practiced significantly. However, interest in and implementation of this modeling technique have grown, as evidenced by the increased number of publications in this field. This paper demonstrates briefly the methodology, applications, and limitations of PBPK modeling with special attention given to discuss the use of PBPK models in pediatric drug development and some examples described in detail. Although PBPK models do have some limitations, the potential benefit from PBPK modeling technique is huge. PBPK models can be applied to investigate drug pharmacokinetics under different physiological and pathological conditions or in different age groups, to support decision-making during drug discovery, to provide, perhaps most important, data that can save time and resources, especially in early drug development phases and in pediatric clinical trials, and potentially to help clinical trials become more “confirmatory” rather than “exploratory”.

  13. The development of a segment-based musculoskeletal model of the lower limb: introducing FreeBody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleather, Daniel J; Bull, Anthony M J

    2015-06-01

    Traditional approaches to the biomechanical analysis of movement are joint-based; that is the mechanics of the body are described in terms of the forces and moments acting at the joints, and that muscular forces are considered to create moments about the joints. We have recently shown that segment-based approaches, where the mechanics of the body are described by considering the effect of the muscle, ligament and joint contact forces on the segments themselves, can also prove insightful. We have also previously described a simultaneous, optimization-based, musculoskeletal model of the lower limb. However, this prior model incorporates both joint- and segment-based assumptions. The purpose of this study was therefore to develop an entirely segment-based model of the lower limb and to compare its performance to our previous work. The segment-based model was used to estimate the muscle forces found during vertical jumping, which were in turn compared with the muscular activations that have been found in vertical jumping, by using a Geers' metric to quantify the magnitude and phase errors. The segment-based model was shown to have a similar ability to estimate muscle forces as a model based upon our previous work. In the future, we will evaluate the ability of the segment-based model to be used to provide results with clinical relevance, and compare its performance to joint-based approaches. The segment-based model described in this article is publicly available as a GUI-based Matlab® application and in the original source code (at www.msksoftware.org.uk).

  14. Development and validation of a prediction model for long-term sickness absence based on occupational health survey variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelen, Corné; Thorsen, Sannie; Heymans, Martijn

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a prediction model for identifying employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), by using variables commonly measured in occupational health surveys. Materials and methods: Based on the literature, 15 predictor...... = 0.68; 95% CI 0.61–0.76), but not practically useful. Conclusions: A prediction model based on occupational health survey variables identified employees with an increased LTSA risk, but should be further developed into a practically useful tool to predict the risk of LTSA in the general working...... LTSA during follow-up. Results: The 15-predictor model was reduced to a 9-predictor model including age, gender, education, self-rated health, mental health, prior LTSA, work ability, emotional job demands, and recognition by the management. Discrimination by the 9-predictor model was significant (AUC...

  15. A Delphi Study of Effective Practices for Developing Competency-Based Learning Models in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre-Hite, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is an increase in competency-based education programs in higher education institutions in response to student and employer needs. However, research is lacking on effective practices for developing competencies, assessments, and learning resources for these programs. The purpose of this qualitative Delphi study was to gather expert…

  16. Development of a model for marburgvirus based on severe-combined immunodeficiency mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Warren V

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The filoviruses, Ebola (EBOV and Marburg (MARV, cause a lethal hemorrhagic fever. Human isolates of MARV are not lethal to immmunocompetent adult mice and, to date, there are no reports of a mouse-adapted MARV model. Previously, a uniformly lethal EBOV-Zaire mouse-adapted virus was developed by performing 9 sequential passages in progressively older mice (suckling to adult. Evaluation of this model identified many similarities between infection in mice and nonhuman primates, including viral tropism for antigen-presenting cells, high viral titers in the spleen and liver, and an equivalent mean time to death. Existence of the EBOV mouse model has increased our understanding of host responses to filovirus infections and likely has accelerated the development of countermeasures, as it is one of the only hemorrhagic fever viruses that has multiple candidate vaccines and therapeutics. Here, we demonstrate that serially passaging liver homogenates from MARV-infected severe combined immunodeficient (scid mice was highly successful in reducing the time to death in scid mice from 50–70 days to 7–10 days after MARV-Ci67, -Musoke, or -Ravn challenge. We performed serial sampling studies to characterize the pathology of these scid mouse-adapted MARV strains. These scid mouse-adapted MARV models appear to have many similar properties as the MARV models previously developed in guinea pigs and nonhuman primates. Also, as shown here, the scid-adapted MARV mouse models can be used to evaluate the efficacy of candidate antiviral therapeutic molecules, such as phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers or antibodies.

  17. Trait-based representation of biological nitrification: Model development, testing, and predicted community composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick eBouskill

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Trait-based microbial models show clear promise as tools to represent the diversity and activity of microorganisms across ecosystem gradients. These models parameterize specific traits that determine the relative fitness of an ‘organism’ in a given environment, and represent the complexity of biological systems across temporal and spatial scales. In this study we introduce a microbial community trait-based modeling framework (MicroTrait focused on nitrification (MicroTrait-N that represents the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB using traits related to enzyme kinetics and physiological properties. We used this model to predict nitrifier diversity, ammonia (NH3 oxidation rates and nitrous oxide (N2O production across pH, temperature and substrate gradients. Predicted nitrifier diversity was predominantly determined by temperature and substrate availability, the latter was strongly influenced by pH. The model predicted that transient N2O production rates are maximized by a decoupling of the AOB and NOB communities, resulting in an accumulation and detoxification of nitrite to N2O by AOB. However, cumulative N2O production (over six month simulations is maximized in a system where the relationship between AOB and NOB is maintained. When the reactions uncouple, the AOB become unstable and biomass declines rapidly, resulting in decreased NH3 oxidation and N2O production. We evaluated this model against site level chemical datasets from the interior of Alaska and accurately simulated NH3 oxidation rates and the relative ratio of AOA:AOB biomass. The predicted community structure and activity indicate (a parameterization of a small number of traits may be sufficient to broadly characterize nitrifying community structure and (b changing decadal trends in climate and edaphic conditions could impact nitrification rates in ways that are not captured by extant biogeochemical models.

  18. A software development and evolution model based on decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, J. Christian; Dong, Jinghuan; Maly, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    Design is a complex activity whose purpose is to construct an artifact which satisfies a set of constraints and requirements. However the design process is not well understood. The software design and evolution process is the focus of interest, and a three dimensional software development space organized around a decision-making paradigm is presented. An initial instantiation of this model called 3DPM(sub p) which was partly implemented, is presented. Discussion of the use of this model in software reuse and process management is given.

  19. Research based teaching as a model for developing complex pre-cast concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the potentials of utilising research-based teaching as a method for developing advanced concrete structures in an architectural context. A novel technique for casting concrete elements in PETG plastic is described as a body of research that formed the basis of a case in which...... master students assisted in the development and realisation of an amorphous, catenary grid-shell. Development in many areas simultaneously was essential for the success of the case studies, which made them suitable for a research-based teaching setup, where didactic considerations on a general...... and specific level were important: On a general level, three didactic tools were used: the first being the presentation of knowledge generation as something that happens between researcher and student. The second involved presenting students with a narrow focus before presenting a wide one, and the third...

  20. Private development-based forest conservation in Patagonia: comparing mental models and revealing cultural truths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Serenari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Private protected area (PPA conservation agents (CA engaging in development-based conservation in southern Chile have generated conflict with locals. Poor fit of dominant development-based conservation ideology in rural areas is commonly to blame. We developed and administered a cultural consensus survey near the Valdivian Coastal Reserve (RCV and Huilo Huilo Reserve (HH to examine fit of CA cultural truths with local residents. Cultural consensus analysis (CCA of 23 propositions reflecting CA cultural truths confirmed: (1 a single CA culture exists, and (2 RCV communities were more aligned with this culture than HH communities. Inadequate communication, inequitable decision making, divergent opinions about livelihood impacts and trajectories, and PPA purpose may explain differences between CAs and communities. Meanwhile, variability in response between and within communities may reflect differing environmental histories. Private protected area administrations might use CCA to confront cultural differences and thereby improve their community interactions.

  1. Prediction of power ramp defects - development of a physically based model and evaluation of existing criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notley, M.J.F.; Kohn, E.

    2001-01-01

    Power-ramp induced fuel failure is not a problem in the present CANDU reactors. The current empirical correlations that define probability of failure do not agree one-with-another and do not allow extrapolation outside the database. A new methodology, based on physical processes, is presented and compared to data. The methodology calculates the pre-ramp sheath stress and the incremental stress during the ramp, and whether or not there is a defect is predicted based on a failure threshold stress. The proposed model confirms the deductions made by daSilva from an empirical 'fit' to data from the 1988 PNGS power ramp failure incident. It is recommended that daSilvas' correlation be used as reference for OPG (Ontario Power Generation) power reactor fuel, and that extrapolation be performed using the new model. (author)

  2. L-Py: An L-System Simulation Framework for Modeling Plant Architecture Development Based on a Dynamic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Frédéric; Pradal, Christophe; Cokelaer, Thomas; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The study of plant development requires increasingly powerful modeling tools to help understand and simulate the growth and functioning of plants. In the last decade, the formalism of L-systems has emerged as a major paradigm for modeling plant development. Previous implementations of this formalism were made based on static languages, i.e., languages that require explicit definition of variable types before using them. These languages are often efficient but involve quite a lot of syntactic overhead, thus restricting the flexibility of use for modelers. In this work, we present an adaptation of L-systems to the Python language, a popular and powerful open-license dynamic language. We show that the use of dynamic language properties makes it possible to enhance the development of plant growth models: (i) by keeping a simple syntax while allowing for high-level programming constructs, (ii) by making code execution easy and avoiding compilation overhead, (iii) by allowing a high-level of model reusability and the building of complex modular models, and (iv) by providing powerful solutions to integrate MTG data-structures (that are a common way to represent plants at several scales) into L-systems and thus enabling to use a wide spectrum of computer tools based on MTGs developed for plant architecture. We then illustrate the use of L-Py in real applications to build complex models or to teach plant modeling in the classroom. PMID:22670147

  3. L-Py: an L-System simulation framework for modeling plant development based on a dynamic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eBoudon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of plant development requires increasingly powerful modeling tools to help understand and simulate the growth and functioning of plants. In the last decade, the formalism of L-systems has emerged as a major paradigm for modeling plant development. Previous implementations of this formalism were made based on static languages, i.e. languages that require explicit definition of variable types before using them. These languages are often efficient but involve quite a lot of syntactic overhead, thus restricting the flexibility of use for modelers. In this work, we present an adaptation of L-systems to the Python language, a popular and powerful open-license dynamic language. We show that the use of dynamic language properties makes it possible to enhance the development of plant growth models: i by keeping a simple syntax while allowing for high-level programming constructs, ii by making code execution easy and avoiding compilation overhead iii allowing a high level of model reusability and the building of complex modular models iv and by providing powerful solutions to integrate MTG data-structures (that are a common way to represent plants at several scales into L-systems and thus enabling to use a wide spectrum of computer tools based on MTGs developed for plant architecture. We then illustrate the use of L-Py in real applications to build complex models or to teach plant modeling in the classroom.

  4. Thyroid hormone role on cerebellar development and maintenance: a perspective based on transgenic mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Costa Faustino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellum development is sensitive to thyroid hormone (TH levels, as THs regulate neuronal migration, differentiation and myelination. Most effects of THs are mediated by the TH receptor (TR isoforms TRb1, TRb2 and TRa1. Studies aimed at identifying TH target genes during cerebellum development have only achieved partial success, as some of these genes do not possess classical TH-responsive elements, and those that do are likely to be temporally and spatially regulated by THs. THs may also affect neurodevelopment by regulating transcription factors that control particular groups of genes. Furthermore, TH action can also be affected by TH transport, which is mediated mainly by monocarboxylate transporter family members. Studies involving transgenic animal models and genome-wide expression analyses have helped to address the unanswered questions regarding the role of TH in cerebellar development. Recently, a growing body of evidence has begun to clarify the molecular, cellular and functional aspects of THs in the developing cerebellum. This review describes the current findings concerning the effects of THs on cerebellar development and maintenance as well as advances in the genetic animal models used in this field.

  5. The Development and Empirical Validation of an E-based Supply Chain Strategy Optimization Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Skjoldager, Niels; Vinum, Thorkil

    2003-01-01

    Examines the formulation of supply chain strategies in complex environments. Argues that current state‐of‐the‐art e‐business and supply chain management, combined into the concept of e‐SCM, as well as the use of transaction cost theory, network theory and resource‐based theory, altogether can...... be used to form a model for analyzing supply chains with the purpose of reducing the uncertainty of formulating supply chain strategies. Presents e‐supply chain strategy optimization model (e‐SOM) as a way to analyze supply chains in a structured manner as regards strategic preferences for supply chain...... design, relations and resources in the chains with the ultimate purpose of enabling the formulation of optimal, executable strategies for specific supply chains. Uses research results for a specific supply chain to validate the usefulness of the model....

  6. A development process meta-model for Web based expert systems: The Web engineering point of view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokas, I.M.; Alapetite, Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    Similar to many legacy computer systems, expert systems can be accessed via the Web, forming a set of Web applications known as Web based expert systems. The tough Web competition, the way people and organizations rely on Web applications and theincreasing user requirements for better services have...... raised their complexity. Unfortunately, there is so far no clear answer to the question: How may the methods and experience of Web engineering and expert systems be combined and applied in order todevelop effective and successful Web based expert systems? In an attempt to answer this question......, a development process meta-model for Web based expert systems will be presented. Based on this meta-model, a publicly available Web based expert systemcalled Landfill Operation Management Advisor (LOMA) was developed. In addition, the results of an accessibility evaluation on LOMA – the first ever reported...

  7. Development of a pressure based room acoustic model using impedance descriptions of surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    and acoustic radiosity will account for the diffuse reflections. This paper presents the motivation for the new model in the form of results in literature, which show the importance of retaining the angle dependence and phase information in reflections along with simple examples of angle dependent reflection......If a simulation tool is to be used for the optimization of absorbent ceilings, it is important that the simulation tool includes a good description of the surface. This study therefore aims at developing a model which can describe surfaces by their impedance values and not just by their statistical...... absorption coefficient, thus retaining the phase and the angle dependence. The approach of the proposed model will be to calculate the pressure impulse response using a combination of the image source method and acoustic radiosity. The image source method will account for the specular reflections...

  8. Advancing hydrometeorological prediction capabilities through standards-based cyberinfrastructure development: The community WRF-Hydro modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    gochis, David; Parodi, Antonio; Hooper, Rick; Jha, Shantenu; Zaslavsky, Ilya

    2013-04-01

    The need for improved assessments and predictions of many key environmental variables is driving a multitude of model development efforts in the geosciences. The proliferation of weather and climate impacts research is driving a host of new environmental prediction model development efforts as society seeks to understand how climate does and will impact key societal activities and resources and, in turn, how human activities influence climate and the environment. This surge in model development has highlighted the role of model coupling as a fundamental activity itself and, at times, a significant bottleneck in weather and climate impacts research. This talk explores some of the recent activities and progress that has been made in assessing the attributes of various approaches to the coupling of physics-based process models for hydrometeorology. One example modeling system that is emerging from these efforts is the community 'WRF-Hydro' modeling system which is based on the modeling architecture of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). An overview of the structural components of WRF-Hydro will be presented as will results from several recent applications which include the prediction of flash flooding events in the Rocky Mountain Front Range region of the U.S. and along the Ligurian coastline in the northern Mediterranean. Efficient integration of the coupled modeling system with distributed infrastructure for collecting and sharing hydrometeorological observations is one of core themes of the work. Specifically, we aim to demonstrate how data management infrastructures used in the US and Europe, in particular data sharing technologies developed within the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and UNIDATA, can interoperate based on international standards for data discovery and exchange, such as standards developed by the Open Geospatial Consortium and adopted by GEOSS. The data system we envision will help manage WRF-Hydro prediction model data flows, enabling

  9. Developing predictive models for toxicity of organic chemicals to green algae based on mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakire, Serge; Yang, Xinya; Ma, Guangcai; Wei, Xiaoxuan; Yu, Haiying; Chen, Jianrong; Lin, Hongjun

    2018-01-01

    Organic chemicals in the aquatic ecosystem may inhibit algae growth and subsequently lead to the decline of primary productivity. Growth inhibition tests are required for ecotoxicological assessments for regulatory purposes. In silico study is playing an important role in replacing or reducing animal tests and decreasing experimental expense due to its efficiency. In this work, a series of theoretical models was developed for predicting algal growth inhibition (log EC 50 ) after 72 h exposure to diverse chemicals. In total 348 organic compounds were classified into five modes of toxic action using the Verhaar Scheme. Each model was established by using molecular descriptors that characterize electronic and structural properties. The external validation and leave-one-out cross validation proved the statistical robustness of the derived models. Thus they can be used to predict log EC 50 values of chemicals that lack authorized algal growth inhibition values (72 h). This work systematically studied algal growth inhibition according to toxic modes and the developed model suite covers all five toxic modes. The outcome of this research will promote toxic mechanism analysis and be made applicable to structural diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a 3D modeling algorithm for tunnel deformation monitoring based on terrestrial laser scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongyao Xie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deformation monitoring is vital for tunnel engineering. Traditional monitoring techniques measure only a few data points, which is insufficient to understand the deformation of the entire tunnel. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is a newly developed technique that can collect thousands of data points in a few minutes, with promising applications to tunnel deformation monitoring. The raw point cloud collected from TLS cannot display tunnel deformation; therefore, a new 3D modeling algorithm was developed for this purpose. The 3D modeling algorithm includes modules for preprocessing the point cloud, extracting the tunnel axis, performing coordinate transformations, performing noise reduction and generating the 3D model. Measurement results from TLS were compared to the results of total station and numerical simulation, confirming the reliability of TLS for tunnel deformation monitoring. Finally, a case study of the Shanghai West Changjiang Road tunnel is introduced, where TLS was applied to measure shield tunnel deformation over multiple sections. Settlement, segment dislocation and cross section convergence were measured and visualized using the proposed 3D modeling algorithm.

  11. Scenario Based Municipal Wastewater Estimation: Development and Application of a Dynamic Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops causal loop diagrams and a system dynamics model for estimation of wastewater quantity changes as a function of future socioeconomic development and the municipal water environment of the city under the influence of several key factors. Using Wuhan (a city with population more than 10 million in China as a case study, the variability of Wuhan’s wastewater quantity and water environment is modeled under different development patterns by year 2030. Nine future scenarios are designed by assigning different values to those key factors, including GDP growth rate, water consumption of annual ten thousand GDP, and wastewater treatment fee. The results show that (1 GDP growth leads to an increase in municipal wastewater quantity, but an increase in wastewater treatment fee can be in favor of reducing urban water pollution, and (2 the impact of per ten thousand yuan GDP water consumption on the amount of municipal wastewater is larger in the near future, while the impact of GDP growth rate is much larger in the long term. The dynamic model has proven to be reliable for simulating the municipal wastewater changes, and it could help decision makers to make the scientific and reasonable decisions.

  12. Development of reliability-based safety enhancement technology; development of organization concept model in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang; Lee, Yong Sik; Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The influences of organizational factors on safety of nuclear power plants are mentioned in the early 1970s and noticed after being focused on in the accident report of TMI in 1979. These needs let us implement this research and the purposes of this research are to assess the organizational influences and to develop the organizational conceptual model to establish the basis of identifying the organizational factors, using this model to contribute to enhance safety and economics in nuclear power plants. Eventually research on the organizational influences is expected to have two effects, which are to improve safety through identifying potential causes of accidents and to elevate economics as a new approach to more efficient operation of nuclear power plants. In this study, recent studies were surveyed on the organizational conceptual model, the identification of organizational factors, assessment of organizational influences and evaluation methods of organizational factors and organizational influences among the overseas and domestic researches. In addition specific characteristics of domestic nuclear power plants were tried to identify through plant visit and an evaluation method of organizational influences on component maintenance and human performance were developed and presented. 71 refs., 40 figs., 18 tabs. (Author)

  13. Structural development and web service based sensitivity analysis of the Biome-BGC MuSo model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidy, Dóra; Balogh, János; Churkina, Galina; Haszpra, László; Horváth, Ferenc; Ittzés, Péter; Ittzés, Dóra; Ma, Shaoxiu; Nagy, Zoltán; Pintér, Krisztina; Barcza, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Studying the greenhouse gas exchange, mainly the carbon dioxide sink and source character of ecosystems is still a highly relevant research topic in biogeochemistry. During the past few years research focused on managed ecosystems, because human intervention has an important role in the formation of the land surface through agricultural management, land use change, and other practices. In spite of considerable developments current biogeochemical models still have uncertainties to adequately quantify greenhouse gas exchange processes of managed ecosystem. Therefore, it is an important task to develop and test process-based biogeochemical models. Biome-BGC is a widely used, popular biogeochemical model that simulates the storage and flux of water, carbon, and nitrogen between the ecosystem and the atmosphere, and within the components of the terrestrial ecosystems. Biome-BGC was originally developed by the Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group (NTSG) of University of Montana (http://www.ntsg.umt.edu/project/biome-bgc), and several other researchers used and modified it in the past. Our research group developed Biome-BGC version 4.1.1 to improve essentially the ability of the model to simulate carbon and water cycle in real managed ecosystems. The modifications included structural improvements of the model (e.g., implementation of multilayer soil module and drought related plant senescence; improved model phenology). Beside these improvements management modules and annually varying options were introduced and implemented (simulate mowing, grazing, planting, harvest, ploughing, application of fertilizers, forest thinning). Dynamic (annually varying) whole plant mortality was also enabled in the model to support more realistic simulation of forest stand development and natural disturbances. In the most recent model version separate pools have been defined for fruit. The model version which contains every former and new development is referred as Biome-BGC MuSo (Biome

  14. The Development of a National Curriculum Guide for Persian: Themes, Genres, Standards-based Goals, and Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Mills

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wang (2009 has challenged foreign language scholars to “engage in rigorous discussions to develop language-specific examples and performance indicators to guide program development and decision-making for less commonly taught language (LCTL instructors” (p. 284. The 2011-2012 STARTALK programs in Persian aimed to encourage such rigorous discussion through the development of a National Curriculum Guide in Persian. Persian professionals explored current theories in second language acquisition, examined curricular resources and models, and shared successful teaching materials. This article describes the rationale, procedures, and outcomes of a series of faculty development events that aimed to create a model for curriculum development for the LCTLs and, perhaps, also for other language programs in the context of higher education. The final curriculum guide produced by the program participants includes overarching themes and genres, Standards-based goals, strategies for authentic assessment, and model unit plans.

  15. Development of advanced mathematical predictive models for assessing damage avoided accidents on potentially-dangerous sea-based energy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanov, Aleksandr; Gumenyuk, Vasily; Tumanov, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the development of mathematical model for assessing the harm accidents on potentially-dangerous sea-based energy object. Made choice of regression mathematical model that best represents the relationship of the integral indicator with a set of risk factors of emergency situations their probabilities. Shows the main parameters of the model and result indicators. A mathematical model in which risk assessment in addition to the probability of the adverse events, risk factors and possible consequences taken into account the vulnerability of the object.

  16. Current State and Model for Development of Technology-Based Care for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Benyakorn, Songpoom; Riley, Steven J.; Calub, Catrina A.; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Care (i.e., evaluation and intervention) delivered through technology is used in many areas of mental health services, including for persons with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Technology can facilitate care for individuals with ADHD, their parents, and their care providers. The adoption of technological tools for ADHD care requires evidence-based studies to support the transition from development to integration into use in the home, school, or work for pers...

  17. Risk assessment of butyltins based on a fugacity-based food web bioaccumulation model in the Jincheng Bay mariculture area: I. Model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanbing; Gong, Xianghong; Xu, Yingjiang; Song, Xiukai; Liu, Huihui; Deng, Xuxiu; Ru, Shaoguo

    2014-08-01

    A fugacity-based model was developed to simulate the bioaccumulation of butyltins in the food web of the Jincheng Bay mariculture area. The predicted biological tissue residues of tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) were 0.04-17.09, 0.14-53.54, and 0.27-108.77 ng-Sn g(-1), respectively, and the predicted values in six mollusca agreed well with the measured ones. The lipid-normalized concentrations did not significantly increase across trophic levels, indicating no biomagnification across aquatic food webs. These results were highly consistent with those observed both in the laboratory and field, which had been reported in numerous references. The explanation, from calculating their flux equilibrium in the food web, was that butyltins were primarily taken in via respiration from the water column by marine organisms. The sensitivities of the model parameters were analyzed, revealing that the hydrophobicity of butyltins played the dominant role in their bioaccumulation phenomena. The verified model predictions of the biotic tissue concentrations of the butyltins could be readily applied to perform internal ecological risk and human health risk assessments in this area.

  18. Development of the quality assessment model of EHR software in family medicine practices: research based on user satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralj, Damir; Kern, Josipa; Tonkovic, Stanko; Koncar, Miroslav

    2015-09-09

    Family medicine practices (FMPs) make the basis for the Croatian health care system. Use of electronic health record (EHR) software is mandatory and it plays an important role in running these practices, but important functional features still remain uneven and largely left to the will of the software developers. The objective of this study was to develop a novel and comprehensive model for functional evaluation of the EHR software in FMPs, based on current world standards, models and projects, as well as on actual user satisfaction and requirements. Based on previous theoretical and experimental research in this area, we made the initial framework model consisting of six basic categories as a base for online survey questionnaire. Family doctors assessed perceived software quality by using a five-point Likert-type scale. Using exploratory factor analysis and appropriate statistical methods over the collected data, the final optimal structure of the novel model was formed. Special attention was focused on the validity and quality of the novel model. The online survey collected a total of 384 cases. The obtained results indicate both the quality of the assessed software and the quality in use of the novel model. The intense ergonomic orientation of the novel measurement model was particularly emphasised. The resulting novel model is multiple validated, comprehensive and universal. It could be used to assess the user-perceived quality of almost all forms of the ambulatory EHR software and therefore useful to all stakeholders in this area of the health care informatisation.

  19. Modelica-based Modeling and Simulation to Support Research and Development in Building Energy and Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-02-12

    Traditional building simulation programs possess attributes that make them difficult to use for the design and analysis of building energy and control systems and for the support of model-based research and development of systems that may not already be implemented in these programs. This article presents characteristic features of such applications, and it shows how equation-based object-oriented modelling can meet requirements that arise in such applications. Next, the implementation of an open-source component model library for building energy systems is presented. The library has been developed using the equation-based object-oriented Modelica modelling language. Technical challenges of modelling and simulating such systems are discussed. Research needs are presented to make this technology accessible to user groups that have more stringent requirements with respect to the numerical robustness of simulation than a research community may have. Two examples are presented in which models from the here described library were used. The first example describes the design of a controller for a nonlinear model of a heating coil using model reduction and frequency domain analysis. The second example describes the tuning of control parameters for a static pressure reset controller of a variable air volume flow system. The tuning has been done by solving a non-convex optimization problem that minimizes fan energy subject to state constraints.

  20. Contact in the Classroom: Developing a Program Model for Youth Mental Health Contact-Based Anti-stigma Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Ping; Koller, Michelle; Krupa, Terry; Stuart, Heather

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated eighteen Canadian anti-stigma programs targeting high-school students. The purpose was to identify critical domains and develop a program model of contact-based interventions. Three steps were implemented. The first step involved collecting program information through twenty in-depth interviews with stakeholders and field observations of seven programs. The second step involved constructing critical ingredients into domains for conceptual clarity and component modeling. The third step involved validating the program model by stakeholders review and initial fidelity testing with program outcomes. A program model with an overarching theme "engaging contact reduces stigma" and three underlying constructs (speakers, message, and interaction) were developed. Within each construct three specific domains were identified to explain the concepts. Connection, engagement, and empowerment are critical domains of anti-stigma programs for the youth population. Findings from this study have built on the scientific knowledge about the change theory underpinning youth contact-based intervention.

  1. Development of a tropical ecological forecasting strategy for ENSO based on the ACME modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, F. M.; Xu, M.; Collier, N.; Xu, C.; Christoffersen, B. O.; Luo, Y.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Levine, P. A.; Randerson, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregular periodic climate fluctuation, occurring every eight to 12 years, that is driven by variations in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean and extending westward across the equatorial Pacific. El Niño, the warming phase of ENSO, has strong effects on the global carbon cycle. Strong drying conditions in the Asia-Pacific region and western South America during El Niño lead to reduced ecosystem productivity and increased mortality and fire risk. The intensity of the 2015-2016 ENSO event rivaled or exceeded that of the 1997-1998 event, which was the strongest well-observed El Niño on record. We performed a set of simulations using the U.S. Department of Energy's Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACMEv0.3) model, forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures, to study the responses and feedbacks of drought effects on terrestrial ecosystems induced by both of these events. The ACME model was configured to run with active atmosphere and land models alongside the "data" ocean and thermodynamic sea ice models. The Community Atmosphere Model used the Spectral Element dynamical core (CAM-SE) operating on the ne30 ( 1°) grid, and the ACME Land Model (ALM) was equivalent to the Community Land Model with prognostic biogeochemistry (CLM4.5-BGC). Using Optimal Interpolation SSTs (OISSTv2) and predicted SST anomalies from NCEP's Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) as forcing, we conducted a transient simulation from 1995 to 2020, following a spin up simulation, and analyzed the ENSO impacts on tropical terrestrial ecosystems for the 5-year periods centered on these two strong ENSO events. During the transient simulation, we saved the resulting atmospheric forcing, which included prognostic biosphere-atmosphere interactions, every three hours for use in future offline simulation for model development and testing. We will present simulation results, focusing on hydroclimatic anomalies as

  2. Mechanistic Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Model of the Heart Accounting for Inter-Individual Variability: Development and Performance Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylutki, Zofia; Mendyk, Aleksander; Polak, Sebastian

    2018-04-01

    Modern model-based approaches to cardiac safety and efficacy assessment require accurate drug concentration-effect relationship establishment. Thus, knowledge of the active concentration of drugs in heart tissue is desirable along with inter-subject variability influence estimation. To that end, we developed a mechanistic physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of the heart. The models were described with literature-derived parameters and written in R, v.3.4.0. Five parameters were estimated. The model was fitted to amitriptyline and nortriptyline concentrations after an intravenous infusion of amitriptyline. The cardiac model consisted of 5 compartments representing the pericardial fluid, heart extracellular water, and epicardial intracellular, midmyocardial intracellular, and endocardial intracellular fluids. Drug cardiac metabolism, passive diffusion, active efflux, and uptake were included in the model as mechanisms involved in the drug disposition within the heart. The model accounted for inter-individual variability. The estimates of optimized parameters were within physiological ranges. The model performance was verified by simulating 5 clinical studies of amitriptyline intravenous infusion, and the simulated pharmacokinetic profiles agreed with clinical data. The results support the model feasibility. The proposed structure can be tested with the goal of improving the patient-specific model-based cardiac safety assessment and offers a framework for predicting cardiac concentrations of various xenobiotics. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Librarian-Teacher Partnerships for Inquiry Learning: Measures of Effectiveness for a Practice-Based Model of Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Yukawa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study analyzed the effects of a practice-based model of professional development on the teaching and collaborative practices of 9 teams of librarians and teachers, who created and implemented units of inquiry-focused study with K-12 students during a yearlong course. The authors describe how the collection and analysis of evidence guided the development team in the formative and summative evaluations of the outcomes of the professional development, as well as the long-term results of participation in this initiative.Methods – The authors used an interpretive, participative approach. The first author was the external reviewer for the project; the second author headed the development team and served as a participant-observer. Triangulated data were collected from participants in the form of learning logs, discussion board postings, interviews, questionnaires, and learning portfolios consisting of unit and lesson plans and student work samples with critiques. Data were also collected from the professional development designers in the form of meeting notes, responses to participants, interviews, and course documents. For two years following the end of the formal course, the authors also conducted follow-up email correspondence with all teams and site visits with six teams to determine sustained or expanded implementation of inquiry-focused, collaborative curriculum development. Results – The practice-based approach to professional development required continual modification of the course design and timely, individualized mentoring and feedback, based on analysis and co-reflection by the developers on the evidence gathered through participant logs, reports, and school site visits. Modeling the inquiry process in their own course development work and making this process transparent to the participating community were essential to improvement. Course participants reported beneficial results in both immediate and long-term changes

  4. Development of an Innovation Model Based on a Service-Oriented Product Service System (PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungkyum Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been many attempts to cope with increasingly-diversified and ever-changing customer needs by combining products and services that are critical components of innovation models. Although not only manufacturers, but also service providers, try to integrate products and services, most of the previous studies on Product Service System (PSS development deal with how to effectively integrate services into products from the product-centric point of view. Services provided by manufacturers’ PSSes, such as delivery services, training services, disposal services, and so on, offer customers ancillary value, whereas products of service providers’ PSSes enrich core value by enhancing the functionality and quality of the service. Thus, designing an effective PSS development process from the service-centric point of view is an important research topic. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to propose a service-oriented PSS development process, which consists of four stages: (1 strategic planning; (2 idea generation and selection; (3 service design; and (4 product development. In the proposed approach, the PSS development project is initiated and led by a service provider from a service-centric point of view. From the perspective of methodology, customer needs are converted into product functions according to Quality Function Deployment (QFD, while Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is employed to prioritize the functions. Additionally, this paper illustrates a service-oriented PSS development that demonstrates the application of the proposed process. The proposed process and illustration are expected to serve as a foundation for research on service-oriented PSS development and as a useful guideline for service providers who are considering the development of a service-oriented PSS.

  5. Triple Helix Model in Developing Technological Innovation: The Case of Computer Based Interlocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erry Ricardo Nurzal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer Based Interlocking (CBI is the most important part of the electric railway signalingsystem which serves as the “brain” that controls the operation of electrical signaling system thatreplaces the role of the electromagnetic relay which has gradually been abandoned. Developmentof CBI is based on the fact that until recently the signaling system in Indonesia is still reliedheavily on the CBI products from foreign vendors. Therefore, the development of domestic CBIproducts is really necessary in order to decrease the dependence on technology from foreignvendors that at the same time is also be able to support the accelerated development of railwayinfrastructure in Indonesia.The CBI development is conducted in the form of a collaboration involving the government,universities, and industry. This paper explores and analyzes the roles and interactions betweendifferent actors in the triple helix perspective, and identifies how the innovation ecosystemfunctioning with support from the government.Based on the data collected through in-depth interview with the actors involved in the CBI casestudy, this paper gives some key findings. First, government role is very important in establishingan innovation ecosystem for CBI development. Second, the leader in the development of CBItechnological innovation should be the industry supported by governmental R & D institutionsand universities. Third, R & D consortium is an effective vehicle for creating an interactionamong industry, academia, and government.Such findings may provide conceptual direction which is important for the development oftechnological innovation in Indonesia. In addition, in providing support for R&D activities, thegovernment needs to direct its R & D incentives to the industry as a business practitioner with itsown technology roadmap. The possible further research may include some research issues. First,is the pattern occurred in the CBI case also applied in the other cases of

  6. Exploring C-water-temperature interactions and non-linearities in soils through developments in process-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban Moyano, Fernando; Vasilyeva, Nadezda; Menichetti, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Soil carbon models developed over the last couple of decades are limited in their capacity to accurately predict the magnitudes and temporal variations in observed carbon fluxes and stocks. New process-based models are now emerging that attempt to address the shortcomings of their more simple, empirical counterparts. While a spectrum of ideas and hypothetical mechanisms are finding their way into new models, the addition of only a few processes known to significantly affect soil carbon (e.g. enzymatic decomposition, adsorption, Michaelis-Menten kinetics) has shown the potential to resolve a number of previous model-data discrepancies (e.g. priming, Birch effects). Through model-data validation, such models are a means of testing hypothetical mechanisms. In addition, they can lead to new insights into what soil carbon pools are and how they respond to external drivers. In this study we develop a model of soil carbon dynamics based on enzymatic decomposition and other key features of process based models, i.e. simulation of carbon in particulate, soluble and adsorbed states, as well as enzyme and microbial components. Here we focus on understanding how moisture affects C decomposition at different levels, both directly (e.g. by limiting diffusion) or through interactions with other components. As the medium where most reactions and transport take place, water is central en every aspect of soil C dynamics. We compare results from a number of alternative models with experimental data in order to test different processes and parameterizations. Among other observations, we try to understand: 1. typical moisture response curves and associated temporal changes, 2. moisture-temperature interactions, and 3. diffusion effects under changing C concentrations. While the model aims at being a process based approach and at simulating fluxes at short time scales, it remains a simplified representation using the same inputs as classical soil C models, and is thus potentially

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF AHP BASED MODEL FOR DECISION MAKING ON E-LEARNING IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Begičević

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning of e-learning implementation includes decision making about the most suitable form of implementing e-learning on different levels. Decision making about e-learning implementation has been covered as consisting of four phases: (1 intelligence, (2 design, (3 choice and (4 implementation. During the Intelligence phase we have precisely identified our central decision problem and have conducted situation analysis. In the Design phase we have developed alternatives and established criteria and subcriteria. Then, we have created the questionnaire about the importance of the advantages and goals of e-learning implementation and about criteria and subcriteria essential for decision making. The survey has been conducted on the sample of 90 elearning experts in Croatia. Further, we connected these findings with the results of the factor analysis which was performed on the complete survey. The results of the factor analysis have served as input in the multicriteria decision model (AHP that we have developed in the Choice phase. The AHP model will be presented in the article and qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the model will be indicated.

  8. Formal model-based development for safety-critical embedded software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Choi, Jin Young

    2005-01-01

    Safety-critical embedded software for nuclear I and C system is developed under the safety and reliability regulation. Programmable logic controller(PLC) is a computer system for instrumentation and control (I and C) system of nuclear power plants. PLC consists of various I and C logics in software, including real-time operating system (RTOS). Hence, errors related with RTOS should be detected and eliminated in development processes. Practically, the verification and validation for errors in RTOS is performed in test procedure, in which a lot of tasks for testing are embedded in RTOS and are running under a test environments. But the test process can not be enough to guarantee the safety and reliability of RTOS. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce to applying formal methods with the development of software for the PLC. We particularity apply formal methods to a development of RTOS for PLC, which is a safety critical level. In this development, we use the state charts of I-Logix to specify and verification and model checking to verify the specification

  9. Development and validation of a prediction model for long-term sickness absence based on occupational health survey variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne; Thorsen, Sannie; Heymans, Martijn; Twisk, Jos; Bultmann, Ute; Bjorner, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a prediction model for identifying employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), by using variables commonly measured in occupational health surveys. Materials and methods: Based on the literature, 15 predictor

  10. Challenges in Mentoring Software Development Projects in the High School: Analysis According to Shulman's Teacher Knowledge Base Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Hazzan, Orit

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on challenges in mentoring software development projects in the high school and analyzes difficulties encountered by Computer Science teachers in the mentoring process according to Shulman's Teacher Knowledge Base Model. The main difficulties that emerged from the data analysis belong to the following knowledge sources of…

  11. Collaborative data model and data base development for paleoenvironmental and archaeological domain using Semantic MediaWiki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmes, C.

    2017-12-01

    In the frame of the Collaborative Research Centre 806 (CRC 806) an interdisciplinary research project, that needs to manage data, information and knowledge from heterogeneous domains, such as archeology, cultural sciences, and the geosciences, a collaborative internal knowledge base system was developed. The system is based on the open source MediaWiki software, that is well known as the software that enables Wikipedia, for its facilitation of a web based collaborative knowledge and information management platform. This software is additionally enhanced with the Semantic MediaWiki (SMW) extension, that allows to store and manage structural data within the Wiki platform, as well as it facilitates complex query and API interfaces to the structured data stored in the SMW data base. Using an additional open source software called mobo, it is possible to improve the data model development process, as well as automated data imports, from small spreadsheets to large relational databases. Mobo is a command line tool that helps building and deploying SMW structure in an agile, Schema-Driven Development way, and allows to manage and collaboratively develop the data model formalizations, that are formalized in JSON-Schema format, using version control systems like git. The combination of a well equipped collaborative web platform facilitated by Mediawiki, the possibility to store and query structured data in this collaborative database provided by SMW, as well as the possibility for automated data import and data model development enabled by mobo, result in a powerful but flexible system to build and develop a collaborative knowledge base system. Furthermore, SMW allows the application of Semantic Web technology, the structured data can be exported into RDF, thus it is possible to set a triple-store including a SPARQL endpoint on top of the database. The JSON-Schema based data models, can be enhanced into JSON-LD, to facilitate and profit from the possibilities of Linked Data

  12. Research on Scenic Spot’s Sustainable Development Based on a SD Model: A Case Study of the Jiuzhai Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixue Liao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the field of tourism, the development of tourist attractions is playing an increasingly crucial role in tourism economy, regional economy and national economy. However, the eco-environment has been damaged while tourism industry develops rapidly. Thus, to solve the contradiction between tourism development and eco-environment protection is the key to achieving sustainable development of tourism. This paper builds a SD model, which is based on the analysis of the economic subsystem and environment subsystem, to promote sustainable development. In order to show the effectiveness of the model, Jiuzhai Valley is taken as the research object and a decisive basis is provided for the path adjustment of sustainable development in tourist scenic.

  13. Model-Based Experimental Development of Passive Compliant Robot Legs from Fiberglass Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Chang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the methodology of developing compliant, half-circular, and composite robot legs with designable stiffness. First, force-displacement experiments on flat cantilever composites made by one or multifiberglass cloths are executed. By mapping the cantilever mechanics to the virtual spring model, the equivalent elastic moduli of the composites can be derived. Next, by using the model that links the curved beam mechanics back to the virtual spring, the resultant stiffness of the composite in a half-circular shape can be estimated without going through intensive experimental tryouts. The overall methodology has been experimentally validated, and the fabricated composites were used on a hexapod robot to perform walking and leaping behaviors.

  14. Development and tests of a mouse voxel model dor MCNPX based on Digimouse images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo M, B.; Ferreira F, C.; Garcia de A, I.; Machado T, B.; Passos Ribeiro de C, T.

    2015-10-01

    Mice have been widely used in experimental protocols involving ionizing radiation. Biological effects (Be) induced by radiation can compromise studies results. Good estimates of mouse whole body and organs absorbed dose could provide valuable information to researchers. The aim of this study was to create and test a new voxel phantom for mice dosimetry from -Digimouse- project images. Micro CT images from Digimouse project were used in this work. Corel PHOTOPAINT software was utilized in segmentation process. The three-dimensional (3-D) model assembly and its voxel size manipulation were performed by Image J. SISCODES was used to adapt the model to run in MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The resulting model was called DM B RA. The volume and mass of segmented organs were compared with data available in literature. For the preliminary tests the heart was considered the source organ. Photons of diverse energies were simulated and Saf values obtained through F6:p and + F6 MCNPX tallies. The results were compared with reference data. 3-D picturing of absorbed doses patterns and relative errors distribution were generated by a C++ -in house- made program and visualized through Amide software. The organ masses of DM B RA correlated well with two models that were based on same set of images. However some organs, like eyes and adrenals, skeleton and brain showed large discrepancies. Segmentation of an identical image set by different persons and/or methods can result significant organ masses variations. We believe that the main causes of these differences were: i) operator dependent subjectivity in the definition of organ limits during the segmentation processes; and i i) distinct voxel dimensions between evaluated models. Lack of reference data for mice models construction and dosimetry was detected. Comparison with other models originated from different mice strains also demonstrated that the anatomical and size variability can be significant. Use of + F6 tally for mouse phantoms

  15. Development and tests of a mouse voxel model dor MCNPX based on Digimouse images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo M, B.; Ferreira F, C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos No. 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Garcia de A, I.; Machado T, B.; Passos Ribeiro de C, T., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Mice have been widely used in experimental protocols involving ionizing radiation. Biological effects (Be) induced by radiation can compromise studies results. Good estimates of mouse whole body and organs absorbed dose could provide valuable information to researchers. The aim of this study was to create and test a new voxel phantom for mice dosimetry from -Digimouse- project images. Micro CT images from Digimouse project were used in this work. Corel PHOTOPAINT software was utilized in segmentation process. The three-dimensional (3-D) model assembly and its voxel size manipulation were performed by Image J. SISCODES was used to adapt the model to run in MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The resulting model was called DM{sub B}RA. The volume and mass of segmented organs were compared with data available in literature. For the preliminary tests the heart was considered the source organ. Photons of diverse energies were simulated and Saf values obtained through F6:p and + F6 MCNPX tallies. The results were compared with reference data. 3-D picturing of absorbed doses patterns and relative errors distribution were generated by a C++ -in house- made program and visualized through Amide software. The organ masses of DM{sub B}RA correlated well with two models that were based on same set of images. However some organs, like eyes and adrenals, skeleton and brain showed large discrepancies. Segmentation of an identical image set by different persons and/or methods can result significant organ masses variations. We believe that the main causes of these differences were: i) operator dependent subjectivity in the definition of organ limits during the segmentation processes; and i i) distinct voxel dimensions between evaluated models. Lack of reference data for mice models construction and dosimetry was detected. Comparison with other models originated from different mice strains also demonstrated that the anatomical and size variability can be significant. Use of + F6 tally for mouse

  16. Development of a Community-Based Palliative Care Model for Advance Cancer Patients in Public Health Centers in Busan, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook-Nam; Choi, Soon-Ock; Shin, Seong Hoon; Ryu, Ji-Sun; Baik, Jeong-Won

    2017-07-01

    A feasible palliative care model for advance cancer patients is needed in Korea with its rapidly aging population and corresponding increase in cancer prevalence. This study describes the process involved in the development of a community-based palliative care (CBPC) model implemented originally in a Busan pilot project. The model development included steps I and II of the pilot project, identification of the service types, a survey exploring the community demand for palliative care, construction of an operational infrastructure, and the establishment of a service delivery system. Public health centers (including Busan regional cancer centers, palliative care centers, and social welfare centers) served as the regional hubs in the development of a palliative care model. The palliative care project included the provision of palliative care, establishment of a support system for the operations, improvement of personnel capacity, development of an educational and promotional program, and the establishment of an assessment system to improve quality. The operational infrastructure included a service management team, provision teams, and a support team. The Busan Metropolitan City CBPC model was based on the principles of palliative care as well as the characteristics of public health centers that implemented the community health projects. The potential use of the Busan CBPC model in Korea should be explored further through service evaluations.

  17. Development of a mechanics-based model of brain deformations during intracerebral hemorrhage evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Saramati; Weis, Jared A.; Godage, Isuru S.; Webster, Robert; Weaver, Kyle; Miga, Michael I.

    2017-03-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) occur in 24 out of 100,000 people annually and have high morbidity and mortality rates. The standard treatment is conservative. We hypothesize that a patient-specific, mechanical model coupled with a robotic steerable needle, used to aspirate a hematoma, would result in a minimally invasive approach to ICH management that will improve outcomes. As a preliminary study, three realizations of a tissue aspiration framework are explored within the context of a biphasic finite element model based on Biot's consolidation theory. Short-term transient effects were neglected in favor of steady state formulation. The Galerkin Method of Weighted Residuals was used to solve coupled partial differential equations using linear basis functions, and assumptions of plane strain and homogeneous isotropic properties. All aspiration models began with the application of aspiration pressure sink(s), calculated pressures and displacements, and the use of von Mises stresses within a tissue failure criterion. With respect to aspiration strategies, one model employs an element-deletion strategy followed by aspiration redeployment on the remaining grid, while the other approaches use principles of superposition on a fixed grid. While the element-deletion approach had some intuitive appeal, without incorporating a dynamic grid strategy, it evolved into a less realistic result. The superposition strategy overcame this, but would require empirical investigations to determine the optimum distribution of aspiration sinks to match material removal. While each modeling framework demonstrated some promise, the superposition method's ease of computation, ability to incorporate the surgical plan, and better similarity to existing empirical observational data, makes it favorable.

  18. The miracle of peer review and development in science: an agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Simone; Takács, Károly

    2017-01-01

    It is not easy to rationalize how peer review, as the current grassroots of science, can work based on voluntary contributions of reviewers. There is no rationale to write impartial and thorough evaluations. If reviewers are unmotivated to carefully select high quality contributions, there is no risk in submitting low-quality work by authors. As a result, scientists face a social dilemma: if everyone acts according to his or her own self-interest, the outcome is low scientific quality. We examine how the increased relevance of public good benefits (journal impact factor), the editorial policy of handling incoming reviews, and the acceptance decisions that take into account reputational information, can help the evolution of high-quality contributions from authors. High effort from the side of reviewers is problematic even if authors cooperate: reviewers are still best off by producing low-quality reviews, which does not hinder scientific development, just adds random noise and unnecessary costs to it. We show with agent-based simulations why certain self-emerged current practices, such as the increased reliance on journal metrics and the reputation bias in acceptance, work efficiently for scientific development. Our results find no proper guidelines, however, how the system of voluntary peer review with impartial and thorough evaluations could be sustainable jointly with rapid scientific development.

  19. A sample theory-based logic model to improve program development, implementation, and sustainability of Farm to School programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Michelle M

    2012-08-01

    Farm to School programs hold promise to address childhood obesity. These programs may increase students’ access to healthier foods, increase students’ knowledge of and desire to eat these foods, and increase their consumption of them. Implementing Farm to School programs requires the involvement of multiple people, including nutrition services, educators, and food producers. Because these groups have not traditionally worked together and each has different goals, it is important to demonstrate how Farm to School programs that are designed to decrease childhood obesity may also address others’ objectives, such as academic achievement and economic development. A logic model is an effective tool to help articulate a shared vision for how Farm to School programs may work to accomplish multiple goals. Furthermore, there is evidence that programs based on theory are more likely to be effective at changing individuals’ behaviors. Logic models based on theory may help to explain how a program works, aid in efficient and sustained implementation, and support the development of a coherent evaluation plan. This article presents a sample theory-based logic model for Farm to School programs. The presented logic model is informed by the polytheoretical model for food and garden-based education in school settings (PMFGBE). The logic model has been applied to multiple settings, including Farm to School program development and evaluation in urban and rural school districts. This article also includes a brief discussion on the development of the PMFGBE, a detailed explanation of how Farm to School programs may enhance the curricular, physical, and social learning environments of schools, and suggestions for the applicability of the logic model for practitioners, researchers, and policy makers.

  20. Ottawa Model of Implementation Leadership and Implementation Leadership Scale: mapping concepts for developing and evaluating theory-based leadership interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Wendy; Graham, Ian D; Ehrhart, Mark G; Davies, Barbara L; Aarons, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    Leadership in health care is instrumental to creating a supportive organizational environment and positive staff attitudes for implementing evidence-based practices to improve patient care and outcomes. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the alignment of the Ottawa Model of Implementation Leadership (O-MILe), a theoretical model for developing implementation leadership, with the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS), an empirically validated tool for measuring implementation leadership. A secondary objective is to describe the methodological process for aligning concepts of a theoretical model with an independently established measurement tool for evaluating theory-based interventions. Modified template analysis was conducted to deductively map items of the ILS onto concepts of the O-MILe. An iterative process was used in which the model and scale developers (n=5) appraised the relevance, conceptual clarity, and fit of each ILS items with the O-MILe concepts through individual feedback and group discussions until consensus was reached. All 12 items of the ILS correspond to at least one O-MILe concept, demonstrating compatibility of the ILS as a measurement tool for the O-MILe theoretical constructs. The O-MILe provides a theoretical basis for developing implementation leadership, and the ILS is a compatible tool for measuring leadership based on the O-MILe. Used together, the O-MILe and ILS provide an evidence- and theory-based approach for developing and measuring leadership for implementing evidence-based practices in health care. Template analysis offers a convenient approach for determining the compatibility of independently developed evaluation tools to test theoretical models.

  1. Development and validation of a prediction model for long-term sickness absence based on occupational health survey variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné; Thorsen, Sannie; Heymans, Martijn; Twisk, Jos; Bültmann, Ute; Bjørner, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a prediction model for identifying employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), by using variables commonly measured in occupational health surveys. Based on the literature, 15 predictor variables were retrieved from the DAnish National working Environment Survey (DANES) and included in a model predicting incident LTSA (≥4 consecutive weeks) during 1-year follow-up in a sample of 4000 DANES participants. The 15-predictor model was reduced by backward stepwise statistical techniques and then validated in a sample of 2524 DANES participants, not included in the development sample. Identification of employees at increased LTSA risk was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis; the area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC) reflected discrimination between employees with and without LTSA during follow-up. The 15-predictor model was reduced to a 9-predictor model including age, gender, education, self-rated health, mental health, prior LTSA, work ability, emotional job demands, and recognition by the management. Discrimination by the 9-predictor model was significant (AUC = 0.68; 95% CI 0.61-0.76), but not practically useful. A prediction model based on occupational health survey variables identified employees with an increased LTSA risk, but should be further developed into a practically useful tool to predict the risk of LTSA in the general working population. Implications for rehabilitation Long-term sickness absence risk predictions would enable healthcare providers to refer high-risk employees to rehabilitation programs aimed at preventing or reducing work disability. A prediction model based on health survey variables discriminates between employees at high and low risk of long-term sickness absence, but discrimination was not practically useful. Health survey variables provide insufficient information to determine long-term sickness absence risk profiles. There is a need for

  2. Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Trigo, Isabel F.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo

    2017-05-01

    The land surface forms an essential part of the climate system. It interacts with the atmosphere through the exchange of water and energy and hence influences weather and climate, as well as their predictability. Correspondingly, the land surface model (LSM) is an essential part of any weather forecasting system. LSMs rely on partly poorly constrained parameters, due to sparse land surface observations. With the use of newly available land surface temperature observations, we show in this study that novel satellite-derived datasets help improve LSM configuration, and hence can contribute to improved weather predictability. We use the Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme of Surface Exchanges over Land (HTESSEL) and validate it comprehensively against an array of Earth observation reference datasets, including the new land surface temperature product. This reveals satisfactory model performance in terms of hydrology but poor performance in terms of land surface temperature. This is due to inconsistencies of process representations in the model as identified from an analysis of perturbed parameter simulations. We show that HTESSEL can be more robustly calibrated with multiple instead of single reference datasets as this mitigates the impact of the structural inconsistencies. Finally, performing coupled global weather forecasts, we find that a more robust calibration of HTESSEL also contributes to improved weather forecast skills. In summary, new satellite-based Earth observations are shown to enhance the multi-dataset calibration of LSMs, thereby improving the representation of insufficiently captured processes, advancing weather predictability, and understanding of climate system feedbacks.

  3. The research-based learning development model as a foundation in generating research ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Poppy; Dika, Johan Wayan; Permanasari, Avita Ayu

    2017-09-01

    Research Based Learning is learning that requires students to have exploration skills related to their field. By doing so, students are encouraged to create skills in managing the higherorder of abstraction in order to resolve any problems encountered. The study was done to make the schemes and sequences of learning needed by the students in order to help them to explore first ideas for their upcoming thesis. The scheme development resulted in five stages consisting of 1) identifying research journals; 2) track the development of research topics; 3) reviewing research journals; 4) discussing the results of the reviews; and 5) formulating the research topic. Furthermore, the application of 5 the stage receives percentage agreement of students was 85.9%. Therefore, it can be noted that the application of the scheme is definitely a help for students to find research ideas.

  4. The Development of a Canine Anorectal Autotransplantation Model Based on Blood Supply: A Preliminary Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsuo; Sato, Tomoyuki; Naito, Munekazu; Fujii, Satoshi; Mihara, Makoto; Koshima, Isao

    2012-01-01

    Colostomy is conventionally the only treatment for anal dysfunction. Recently, a few trials of anorectal transplantation in animals have been published; however, further development of this technique is required. Moreover, it is crucial to perform this research in dogs, which resemble humans in anorectal anatomy and biology. We designed a canine anorectal transplantation model, wherein anorectal autotransplantation was performed by anastomoses of the rectum, inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and vein, and pudendal nerves. Resting pressure in the anal canal and anal canal pressure fluctuation were measured before and after surgery. Graft pathology was examined three days after surgery. The anal blood supply was compared with that in three beagles using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence angiography. The anorectal graft had sufficient arterial blood supply from the IMA; however, the graft’s distal end was congested and necrotized. Functional examination demonstrated reduced resting pressure and the appearance of an irregular anal canal pressure wave after surgery. ICG angiography showed that the pudendal arteries provided more blood flow than the IMA to the anal segment. This is the first canine model of preliminary anorectal autotransplantation, and it demonstrates the possibility of establishing a transplantation model in dogs using appropriate vascular anastomoses, thus contributing to the progress of anorectal transplantation. PMID:22970198

  5. Developing a framework to model the primary drying step of a continuous freeze-drying process based on infrared radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Corver, Jos; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.

    2018-01-01

    The continuous freeze-drying concept based on spinning the vials during freezing and on non-contact energy transfer via infrared (IR) radiation during drying, improves process efficiency and product quality (uniformity) compared to conventional batch freeze-drying. Automated control of this process....... These results assist in the selection of proper materials which could serve as IR window in the continuous freeze-drying prototype. The modelling framework presented in this paper fits the model-based design approach used for the development of this prototype and shows the potential benefits of this design...

  6. Final Report for NFE-07-00912: Development of Model Fuels Experimental Engine Data Base & Kinetic Modeling Parameter Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2012-10-01

    The automotive and engine industries are in a period of very rapid change being driven by new emission standards, new types of after treatment, new combustion strategies, the introduction of new fuels, and drive for increased fuel economy and efficiency. The rapid pace of these changes has put more pressure on the need for modeling of engine combustion and performance, in order to shorten product design and introduction cycles. New combustion strategies include homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), partial-premixed combustion compression ignition (PCCI), and dilute low temperature combustion which are being developed for lower emissions and improved fuel economy. New fuels include bio-fuels such as ethanol or bio-diesel, drop-in bio-derived fuels and those derived from new crude oil sources such as gas-to-liquids, coal-to-liquids, oil sands, oil shale, and wet natural gas. Kinetic modeling of the combustion process for these new combustion regimes and fuels is necessary in order to allow modeling and performance assessment for engine design purposes. In this research covered by this CRADA, ORNL developed and supplied experimental data related to engine performance with new fuels and new combustion strategies along with interpretation and analysis of such data and consulting to Reaction Design, Inc. (RD). RD performed additional analysis of this data in order to extract important parameters and to confirm engine and kinetic models. The data generated was generally published to make it available to the engine and automotive design communities and also to the Reaction Design Model Fuels Consortium (MFC).

  7. A Cost-Effectiveness Model for Frail Older Persons: Development and Application to a Physiotherapy-Based Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnon, Jonathan; Afzali, Hossein Haji Ali; Putro, Gregorius Virgianto Arpuji Anggoro; Thant, Phyu Win; Dompok, Ameline; Cox, Ingrid; Chikhwaza, Owen Henry; Wang, Xian; Mwangangi, Mercy Mukui; Farransahat, Matahari; Cameron, Ian

    2017-10-01

    The clinical importance of frailty is increasing. Existing economic evaluations of interventions to manage frailty have limited time horizons, but even in older populations there may be important longer-term differences in costs and outcomes. This paper reports on the development of a cost-effectiveness model to predict publicly funded health and aged care costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) over the remaining lifetime of frail Australians and a model-based cost-utility analysis of a physiotherapy-based intervention for frail individuals. A cohort-based state transition (Markov) model was developed to predict costs and QALYs over the remaining lifetime of a frail population. Frailty is defined using the phenotypic definition of frailty, and the model comprises health states that describe frailty status, residential status, the experience of bone fractures and depression, and death. Model input parameters were estimated and calibrated using the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing dataset, supplemented with data from the published literature. The cost-effectiveness model was subject to a range of validation approaches, which did not negate the validity of the model. The evaluated physiotherapy-based frailty intervention has an expected incremental cost per QALY gained of Australian $8129 compared to usual care, but there is a probability of 0.3 that usual care is more effective and less costly than the intervention. Frailty reduces quality of life, is costly to manage and it's prevalence is increasing, but new approaches to managing frailty need to demonstrate value for money. The value of the reported cost-effectiveness model is illustrated through the estimation of all important costs and effects of a physiotherapy-based frailty intervention, which facilitates comparisons with funding decisions for other new technologies in Australia.

  8. Developing a support vector machine based QSPR model for prediction of half-life of some herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samghani, Kobra; HosseinFatemi, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    The half-life (t1/2) of 58 herbicides were modeled by quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) based molecular structure descriptors. After calculation and the screening of a large number of molecular descriptors, the most relevant those ones selected by stepwise multiple linear regression were used for developing linear and nonlinear models which developed by using multiple linear regression and support vector machine, respectively. Comparison between statistical parameters of linear and nonlinear models indicates the suitability of SVM over MLR model for predicting the half-life of herbicides. The statistical parameters of R(2) and standard error for training set of SVM model were; 0.96 and 0.087, respectively, and were 0.93 and 0.092 for the test set. The SVM model was evaluated by leave one out cross validation test, which its result indicates the robustness and predictability of the model. The established SVM model was used for predicting the half-life of other herbicides that are located in the applicability domain of model that were determined via leverage approach. The results of this study indicate that the relationship among selected molecular descriptors and herbicide's half-life is non-linear. These results emphases that the process of degradation of herbicides in the environment is very complex and can be affected by various environmental and structural features, therefore simple linear model cannot be able to successfully predict it. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Developing and testing transferability and feasibility of a model for educators using simulation-based learning - A European collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Rikke Buus; Bland, Andrew; Sutton, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    of the study were to develop a model to educate the educators who deliver simulation-based learning and to test to which extent this model could be transferred to education providers in different national settings. METHODS: This model, its transferability and feasibility, was tested across three European...... of the participants. The testing also demonstrated that the model is transferable across-countries. Additionally, the participants' preferences regarding amount of time and pre-reading for the different sessions vary depending on the background and level of seniority of the individual participant. CONCLUSION......: The testing of the NESTLED model demonstrated that participants gained confidence and knowledge from undertaking the programme. Delivering the NESTLED model across-countries was found to be feasible, but flexibility is required in terms of logistical delivery of the programme....

  10. Development of a physically-based planar inductors VHDL-AMS model for integrated power converter design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammouri, Aymen; Ben Salah, Walid; Khachroumi, Sofiane; Ben Salah, Tarek; Kourda, Ferid; Morel, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    Design of integrated power converters needs prototype-less approaches. Specific simulations are required for investigation and validation process. Simulation relies on active and passive device models. Models of planar devices, for instance, are still not available in power simulator tools. There is, thus, a specific limitation during the simulation process of integrated power systems. The paper focuses on the development of a physically-based planar inductor model and its validation inside a power converter during transient switching. The planar inductor model remains a complex device to model, particularly when the skin, the proximity and the parasitic capacitances effects are taken into account. Heterogeneous simulation scheme, including circuit and device models, is successfully implemented in VHDL-AMS language and simulated in Simplorer platform. The mixed simulation results has been favorably tested and compared with practical measurements. It is found that the multi-domain simulation results and measurements data are in close agreement.

  11. Development of safety assessment model based on TRU-2 report using GoldSim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebina, Takanori; Inagaki, Manabu; Kato, Tomoko

    2011-03-01

    The safety assessment model at 'Second Progress Report on Research and Development for TRU Waste Disposal in Japan'(TRU-2 report) was designed using the numerical code TIGER, that allows the physical and chemical properties within the system to vary with time. In the future, at the examination to optimize nuclear fuel cycle for geological disposal, it is expected that the analysis that has many cases like sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis are in demand. The numerical code TIGER is a calculation code that analyze engineered barrier system and geological barrier system, and its numerical model is verified with nuclide migration code for engineered barrier system MESHNOTE, and nuclide migration code for geosphere MATRICS. At the analysis using TIGER, the migration (i.e. Engineered barrier system, Host rock and Fault) have to be analysed independently at each region, consequently the huge number of complicated parameter setting have been required. On the other hand, by using numerical code GoldSim, all regions are analyzed synchronously and parameters can be defined at same model. So it makes quality control of parameters easier. Furthermore, analysis time by GoldSim is shorter than TIGER and GoldSim can calculate many number of Monte Carlo simulations among multiple computers. In future, Safety Analyses of TRU waste package disposal will be carried out according as study of an optimization of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefor, safety assessment model for TRU waste disposal using GoldSim was designed, and calculation results were verified by comparing with the result of TRU-2 report. (author)

  12. The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) family: Development, achievements, and current challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Relano-Iborra, Helia; Chabot-Leclerc, Alexandre; Scheidiger, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    have extended the predictive power of the original model to a broad range of conditions. This contribution presents the most recent developments within the sEPSM “family:” (i) A binaural extension, the B-sEPSM [Chabot-Leclerc et al. (2016). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 140(1), 192-205] which combines better......Intelligibility models provide insights regarding the effects of target speech characteristics, transmission channels and/or auditory processing on the speech perception performance of listeners. In 2011, Jørgensen and Dau proposed the speech-based envelope power spectrum model [sEPSM, Jørgensen...

  13. Development, implementation, and evaluation of a community pharmacy-based asthma care model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Bandana; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol

    2004-11-01

    Pharmacists are uniquely placed in the healthcare system to address critical issues in asthma management in the community. Various programs have shown the benefits of a pharmacist-led asthma care program; however, no such programs have previously been evaluated in Australia. To measure the impact of a specialized asthma service provided through community pharmacies in terms of objective patient clinical, humanistic, and economic outcomes. A parallel controlled design, where 52 intervention patients and 50 control patients with asthma were recruited in 2 distinct locations, was used. In the intervention area, pharmacists were trained and delivered an asthma care model, with 3 follow-up visits over 6 months. This model was evaluated based on clinical, humanistic, and economic outcomes compared between and within groups. There was a significant reduction in asthma severity in the intervention group, 2.6 +/- 0.5 to 1.6 +/- 0.7 (mean +/- SD; p < 0.001) versus the control group, 2.3 +/- 0.7 to 2.4 +/- 0.5. In the intervention group, peak flow indices improved from 82.7% +/- 8.2% at baseline to 87.4% +/- 8.9% (p < 0.001) at the final visit, and there was a significant reduction in the defined daily dose of albuterol used by patients, from 374.8 +/- 314.8 microg at baseline to 198.4 +/- 196.9 microg at the final visit (p < 0.015). There was also a statistically significant improvement in perceived control of asthma and asthma-related knowledge scores in the intervention group compared with the control group between baseline and the final visit. Annual savings of $132.84(AU) in medication costs per patient and $100,801.20 for the whole group, based on overall severity reduction, were demonstrated. Based on the results of this study, it appears that a specialized asthma care model offers community pharmacists an opportunity to contribute toward improving asthma management in the Australian community.

  14. The Virtual Family-development of surface-based anatomical models of two adults and two children for dosimetric simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Andreas; Honegger, Katharina; Zefferer, Marcel; Neufeld, Esra; Oberle, Michael; Szczerba, Dominik; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland); Kainz, Wolfgang; Guag, Joshua W [US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), Silver Spring, MD 20993 (United States); Hahn, Eckhart G; Rascher, Wolfgang; Janka, Rolf; Bautz, Werner [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Chen, Ji; Shen, Jianxiang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Kiefer, Berthold; Schmitt, Peter; Hollenbach, Hans-Peter [Siemens Healthcare, MR-Application Development, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Kam, Anthony [Department of Imaging, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States)], E-mail: christ@itis.ethz.ch

    2010-01-21

    The objective of this study was to develop anatomically correct whole body human models of an adult male (34 years old), an adult female (26 years old) and two children (an 11-year-old girl and a six-year-old boy) for the optimized evaluation of electromagnetic exposure. These four models are referred to as the Virtual Family. They are based on high resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images of healthy volunteers. More than 80 different tissue types were distinguished during the segmentation. To improve the accuracy and the effectiveness of the segmentation, a novel semi-automated tool was used to analyze and segment the data. All tissues and organs were reconstructed as three-dimensional (3D) unstructured triangulated surface objects, yielding high precision images of individual features of the body. This greatly enhances the meshing flexibility and the accuracy with respect to thin tissue layers and small organs in comparison with the traditional voxel-based representation of anatomical models. Conformal computational techniques were also applied. The techniques and tools developed in this study can be used to more effectively develop future models and further improve the accuracy of the models for various applications. For research purposes, the four models are provided for free to the scientific community. (note)

  15. The Virtual Family-development of surface-based anatomical models of two adults and two children for dosimetric simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, Andreas; Honegger, Katharina; Zefferer, Marcel; Neufeld, Esra; Oberle, Michael; Szczerba, Dominik; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang; Guag, Joshua W; Hahn, Eckhart G; Rascher, Wolfgang; Janka, Rolf; Bautz, Werner; Chen, Ji; Shen, Jianxiang; Kiefer, Berthold; Schmitt, Peter; Hollenbach, Hans-Peter; Kam, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop anatomically correct whole body human models of an adult male (34 years old), an adult female (26 years old) and two children (an 11-year-old girl and a six-year-old boy) for the optimized evaluation of electromagnetic exposure. These four models are referred to as the Virtual Family. They are based on high resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images of healthy volunteers. More than 80 different tissue types were distinguished during the segmentation. To improve the accuracy and the effectiveness of the segmentation, a novel semi-automated tool was used to analyze and segment the data. All tissues and organs were reconstructed as three-dimensional (3D) unstructured triangulated surface objects, yielding high precision images of individual features of the body. This greatly enhances the meshing flexibility and the accuracy with respect to thin tissue layers and small organs in comparison with the traditional voxel-based representation of anatomical models. Conformal computational techniques were also applied. The techniques and tools developed in this study can be used to more effectively develop future models and further improve the accuracy of the models for various applications. For research purposes, the four models are provided for free to the scientific community. (note)

  16. On the Development of a Java-Based Tool for Multifidelity Modeling of Coupled Systems LDRD Final Report

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, D R; Gonzáles, M A; Hennigan, G L; Young, M

    2002-01-01

    This report describes research and development of methods to couple vastly different subsystems and physical models and to encapsulate these methods in a Java(trademark)-based framework. The work described here focused on developing a capability to enable design engineers and safety analysts to perform multifidelity, multiphysics analyses more simply. In particular this report describes a multifidelity algorithm for thermal radiative heat transfer and illustrates its performance. Additionally, it describes a module-based computer software architecture that facilitates multifidelity, multiphysics simulations. The architecture is currently being used to develop an environment for modeling the effects of radiation on electronic circuits in support of the FY 2003 Hostile Environments Milestone for the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF WEB-BASED EXAMINATION SYSTEM USING OPEN SOURCE PROGRAMMING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalere A. ABASS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional method of assessment (examination is often characterized by examination questions leakages, human errors during marking of scripts and recording of scores. The technological advancement in the field of computer science has necessitated the need for computer usage in majorly all areas of human life and endeavors, education sector not excluded. This work, Web-based Examination System (WES was, therefore, born out of the will to stymie the problems plaguing the conventional (paper-based examination system by providing a campus-wide service for e-assessment devoid of irregularities and generally fair to examinees and equally enhances instant feedback. This system developed using combination of CSS, HTML, PHP SQL MySQL and Dreamweaver is capable of reducing proportion of workload on examination, grading and reviewing on the part of examiners. Thus, the system enables the release of examination results in record time and without error. WES can serve as an effective solution for mass education evaluation and offers many novel features that cannot be implemented in paper-based systems, such as real time data collection, management and analysis, distributed and interactive assessment towards promoting distance education.

  18. Model and code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in model and code development for reactor physics calculations is summarized. The codes included CINDER-10, PHROG, RAFFLE GAPP, DCFMR, RELAP/4, PARET, and KENO. Kinetics models for the PBF were developed

  19. Development and design of a late-model fitness test instrument based on LabView

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Wu, Feiqing

    2010-12-01

    Undergraduates are pioneers of China's modernization program and undertake the historic mission of rejuvenating our nation in the 21st century, whose physical fitness is vital. A smart fitness test system can well help them understand their fitness and health conditions, thus they can choose more suitable approaches and make practical plans for exercising according to their own situation. following the future trends, a Late-model fitness test Instrument based on LabView has been designed to remedy defects of today's instruments. The system hardware consists of fives types of sensors with their peripheral circuits, an acquisition card of NI USB-6251 and a computer, while the system software, on the basis of LabView, includes modules of user register, data acquisition, data process and display, and data storage. The system, featured by modularization and an open structure, is able to be revised according to actual needs. Tests results have verified the system's stability and reliability.

  20. Bayesian model-based approach for developing a river water quality index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zalina Mohd; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Mengersen, Kerrie; Shitan, Mahendran; Juahir, Hafizan

    2014-09-01

    Six main pollutants have been previously identified by expert opinion to determine river condition in Malaysia. The pollutants were Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Suspended Solid (SS), potential of Hydrogen (pH) and Ammonia (AN). The selected variables together with the respective weights have been applied to calculate the water quality index of all rivers in Malaysia. However, the relative weights established in DOE-WQI formula are subjective in nature and not unanimously agreed upon, as indicated by different weight being proposed for the same variables by various panels of experts. Focusing on the Langat River, a Bayesian model-based approach was introduced for the first time in this study to obtain new objective relative weights. The new weights used in WQI calculation are shown to be capable of capturing similar distributions in water quality compared with the existing DOE-WQI.

  1. Development of a GPU-based high-performance radiative transfer model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Bormin; Mielikainen, Jarno; Oh, Hyunjong; Allen Huang, Hung-Lung

    2011-01-01

    Satellite-observed radiance is a nonlinear functional of surface properties and atmospheric temperature and absorbing gas profiles as described by the radiative transfer equation (RTE). In the era of hyperspectral sounders with thousands of high-resolution channels, the computation of the radiative transfer model becomes more time-consuming. The radiative transfer model performance in operational numerical weather prediction systems still limits the number of channels we can use in hyperspectral sounders to only a few hundreds. To take the full advantage of such high-resolution infrared observations, a computationally efficient radiative transfer model is needed to facilitate satellite data assimilation. In recent years the programmable commodity graphics processing unit (GPU) has evolved into a highly parallel, multi-threaded, many-core processor with tremendous computational speed and very high memory bandwidth. The radiative transfer model is very suitable for the GPU implementation to take advantage of the hardware's efficiency and parallelism where radiances of many channels can be calculated in parallel in GPUs. In this paper, we develop a GPU-based high-performance radiative transfer model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) launched in 2006 onboard the first European meteorological polar-orbiting satellites, METOP-A. Each IASI spectrum has 8461 spectral channels. The IASI radiative transfer model consists of three modules. The first module for computing the regression predictors takes less than 0.004% of CPU time, while the second module for transmittance computation and the third module for radiance computation take approximately 92.5% and 7.5%, respectively. Our GPU-based IASI radiative transfer model is developed to run on a low-cost personal supercomputer with four GPUs with total 960 compute cores, delivering near 4 TFlops theoretical peak performance. By massively parallelizing the second and third modules, we reached 364x

  2. Competency-based training model for human resource management and development in public sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabawati, I.; Meirinawati; AOktariyanda, T.

    2018-01-01

    Human Resources (HR) is a very important factor in an organization so that human resources are required to have the ability, skill or competence in order to be able to carry out the vision and mission of the organization. Competence includes a number of attributes attached to the individual which is a combination of knowledge, skills, and behaviors that can be used as a mean to improve performance. Concerned to the demands of human resources that should have the knowledge, skills or abilities, it is necessary to the development of human resources in public organizations. One form of human resource development is Competency-Based Training (CBT). CBT focuses on three issues, namely skills, competencies, and competency standard. There are 5 (five) strategies in the implementation of CBT, namely: organizational scanning, strategic planning, competency profiling, competency gap analysis, and competency development. Finally, through CBT the employees within the organization can reduce or eliminate the differences between existing performance with a potential performance that can improve the knowledge, expertise, and skills that are very supportive in achieving the vision and mission of the organization.

  3. Underground gas storage Lobodice geological model development based on 3D seismic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopal, L.

    2015-01-01

    Aquifer type underground gas storage (UGS) Lobodice was developed in the Central Moravian part of Carpathian foredeep in Czech Republic 50 years ago. In order to improve knowledge about UGS geological structure 3D seismic survey was performed in 2009. Reservoir is rather shallow (400 - 500 m below surface) it is located in complicated locality so limitations for field acquisition phase were abundant. This article describes process work flow from 3D seismic field data acquisition to geological model creation. The outcomes of this work flow define geometry of UGS reservoir, its tectonics, structure spill point, cap rock and sealing features of the structure. Improving of geological knowledge about the reservoir enables less risky new well localization for UGS withdrawal rate increasing. (authors)

  4. POLARIS: Agent-based modeling framework development and implementation for integrated travel demand and network and operations simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auld, Joshua; Hope, Michael; Ley, Hubert; Sokolov, Vadim; Xu, Bo; Zhang, Kuilin

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of an agent-based modelling software development kit, and the implementation and validation of a model using it that integrates dynamic simulation of travel demand, network supply and network operations. A description is given of the core utilities in the kit: a parallel discrete event engine, interprocess exchange engine, and memory allocator, as well as a number of ancillary utilities: visualization library, database IO library, and scenario manager. The overall framework emphasizes the design goals of: generality, code agility, and high performance. This framework allows the modeling of several aspects of transportation system that are typically done with separate stand-alone software applications, in a high-performance and extensible manner. The issue of integrating such models as dynamic traffic assignment and disaggregate demand models has been a long standing issue for transportation modelers. The integrated approach shows a possible way to resolve this difficulty. The simulation model built from the POLARIS framework is a single, shared-memory process for handling all aspects of the integrated urban simulation. The resulting gains in computational efficiency and performance allow planning models to be extended to include previously separate aspects of the urban system, enhancing the utility of such models from the planning perspective. Initial tests with case studies involving traffic management center impacts on various network events such as accidents, congestion and weather events, show the potential of the system.

  5. Development of a Corrosion Potential Measuring System Based on the Generalization of DACS Physical Scale Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Dalei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A feasible method in evaluating the protection effect and corrosion state of marine cathodic protection (CP systems is collecting sufficient electric potential data around a submarine pipeline and then establishing the mapping relations between these data and corrosion states of pipelines. However, it is difficult for scientists and researchers to obtain those data accurately due to the harsh marine environments and absence of dedicated potential measurement device. In this paper, to alleviate these two problems, firstly, the theory of dimension and conductivity scaling (DACS physical scale modeling of marine impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP systems is generalized to marine CP systems, secondly, a potential measurement device is developed specially and analogue experiment is designed according to DACS physical scale modeling to verify the feasibility of the measuring system. The experimental results show that 92 percent of the measurement errors are less than 0.25mv, thereby providing an economical and feasible measuring system to get electric potential data around an actual submarine pipeline under CP.

  6. gPKPDSim: a SimBiology®-based GUI application for PKPD modeling in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Iraj; Gajjala, Anita; Bumbaca Yadav, Daniela; Sukumaran, Siddharth; Ramanujan, Saroja; Paxson, Ricardo; Gadkar, Kapil

    2018-01-04

    Modeling and simulation (M&S) is increasingly used in drug development to characterize pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) relationships and support various efforts such as target feasibility assessment, molecule selection, human PK projection, and preclinical and clinical dose and schedule determination. While model development typically require mathematical modeling expertise, model exploration and simulations could in many cases be performed by scientists in various disciplines to support the design, analysis and interpretation of experimental studies. To this end, we have developed a versatile graphical user interface (GUI) application to enable easy use of any model constructed in SimBiology ® to execute various common PKPD analyses. The MATLAB ® -based GUI application, called gPKPDSim, has a single screen interface and provides functionalities including simulation, data fitting (parameter estimation), population simulation (exploring the impact of parameter variability on the outputs of interest), and non-compartmental PK analysis. Further, gPKPDSim is a user-friendly tool with capabilities including interactive visualization, exporting of results and generation of presentation-ready figures. gPKPDSim was designed primarily for use in preclinical and translational drug development, although broader applications exist. gPKPDSim is a MATLAB ® -based open-source application and is publicly available to download from MATLAB ® Central™. We illustrate the use and features of gPKPDSim using multiple PKPD models to demonstrate the wide applications of this tool in pharmaceutical sciences. Overall, gPKPDSim provides an integrated, multi-purpose user-friendly GUI application to enable efficient use of PKPD models by scientists from various disciplines, regardless of their modeling expertise.

  7. Ottawa Model of Implementation Leadership and Implementation Leadership Scale: mapping concepts for developing and evaluating theory-based leadership interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gifford W

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wendy Gifford,1 Ian D Graham,2,3 Mark G Ehrhart,4 Barbara L Davies,5,6 Gregory A Aarons7 1School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Centre for Practice-Changing Research, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 3School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Facility of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 4Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 5Nursing Best Practice Research Center, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 6Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; 7Child and Adolescent Services Research Center, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA Purpose: Leadership in health care is instrumental to creating a supportive organizational environment and positive staff attitudes for implementing evidence-based practices to improve patient care and outcomes. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the alignment of the Ottawa Model of Implementation Leadership (O-MILe, a theoretical model for developing implementation leadership, with the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS, an empirically validated tool for measuring implementation leadership. A secondary objective is to describe the methodological process for aligning concepts of a theoretical model with an independently established measurement tool for evaluating theory-based interventions.Methods: Modified template analysis was conducted to deductively map items of the ILS onto concepts of the O-MILe. An iterative process was used in which the model and scale developers (n=5 appraised the relevance, conceptual clarity, and fit of each ILS items with the O-MILe concepts through individual feedback and group discussions until consensus was reached.Results: All 12 items of the ILS correspond to at least one O-MILe concept, demonstrating compatibility of the ILS as a measurement tool for the O-MILe theoretical constructs.Conclusion: The O

  8. Teaching evidence-based practice: developing a curriculum model to foster evidence-based practice in undergraduate student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finotto, Stefano; Carpanoni, Marika; Turroni, Elena Casadei; Camellini, Riccarda; Mecugni, Daniela

    2013-09-01

    For the nature of the Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) and its relevance to nursing, the skills that it requires should be a component in the basic Nursing degree courses. For this reason, the EBP process should be introduced early on in nursing education to develop students' independence and ability to self-learning. the aim of this study is to describe the perception that newly graduated nurses have relative to the benefits of the skills learned during the laboratory's three-year EBP in consideration of the construction of the thesis, the research of evidence and usefulness of the EBP process for the development of their professional career. A descriptive study with a sample of 300 newly graduated nurses from the Degree Course in Nursing of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, venue of Reggio Emilia. The data collection instrument was an anonymous questionnaire. It was possible to answer through a 10 Likert scale. The sample considers effective the research of evidence carried out (mean 6, SD 2), related to the problems of patients (mean 7, SD 2); the sample considered the skills acquired during the laboratory's three-year EBP to be useful for career development (mean 7, SD 2). the decision to include the laboratory's three-year EBP in the curriculum of the Nursing degree promotes the development of skills relating to the use of the EBP process, competence that in the literature is indicated as one of the core competencies that all health professionals should develop and maintain throughout their professional career. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and validation of an MRI-based model to predict response to chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulens, Philippe; Couwenberg, Alice; Haustermans, Karin; Debucquoy, Annelies; Vandecaveye, Vincent; Philippens, Marielle; Zhou, Mu; Gevaert, Olivier; Intven, Martijn

    2018-03-01

    To safely implement organ preserving treatment strategies for patients with rectal cancer, well-considered selection of patients with favourable response is needed. In this study, we develop and validate an MRI-based response predicting model. A multivariate model using T2-volumetric and DWI parameters before and 6 weeks after chemoradiation (CRT) was developed using a cohort of 85 rectal cancer patients and validated in an external cohort of 55 patients that underwent preoperative CRT. Twenty-two patients (26%) achieved ypT0-1N0 response in the development cohort versus 13 patients (24%) in the validation cohort. Two T2-volumetric parameters (ΔVolume% and Sphere_post) and two DWI parameters (ADC_avg_post and ADCratio_avg) were retained in a model predicting (near-)complete response (ypT0-1N0). In the development cohort, this model had a good predictive performance (AUC = 0.89; 95% CI 0.80-0.98). Validation of the model in an external cohort resulted in a similar performance (AUC = 0.88 95% CI 0.79-0.98). An MRI-based prediction model of (near-)complete pathological response following CRT in rectal cancer patients, shows a high predictive performance in an external validation cohort. The clinically relevant features in the model make it an interesting tool for implementation of organ-preserving strategies in rectal cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a Consistent GIS Based Method for Estimating the Groundwater Runoff Parameter for Regional Scale Precipitation-Runoff Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerklie, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    As part of a U. S. Geological Survey effort to (1) estimate river discharge in ungaged basins, (2) understand runoff quantity and timing for watersheds between gaging stations, and (3) estimate potential future streamflow, a national scale precipitation runoff model is in development. The effort uses the USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model. The model development strategy includes methods to assign hydrologic routing coefficients a priori from national scale GIS data bases. Once developed, the model can serve as an initial baseline for more detailed and locally/regionally calibrated models designed for specific projects and purposes. One of the key hydrologic routing coefficients is the groundwater coefficient (gw_coef). This study estimates the gw_coef from continental US GIS data, including geology, drainage density, aquifer type, vegetation type, and baseflow index information. The gw_coef is applied in regional PRMS models and is estimated using two methods. The first method uses a statistical model to predict the gw_coef from weighted average values of surficial geologic materials, dominant aquifer type, baseflow index, vegetation type, and the drainage density. The second method computes the gw_coef directly from the physical conditions in the watershed including the percentage geologic material and the drainage density. The two methods are compared against the gw_coef derived from streamflow records, and tested for selected rivers in different regions of the country. To address the often weak correlation between geology and baseflow, the existence of groundwater sinks, and complexities of groundwater flow paths, the spatial characteristics of the gw_coef prediction error were evaluated, and a correction factor developed from the spatial error distribution. This provides a consistent and improved method to estimate the gw_coef for regional PRMS models that is derived from available GIS data and physical information for watersheds.

  11. Development of the quality assessment model of EHR software in family medicine practices: research based on user satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kralj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Family medicine practices (FMPs make the basis for the Croatian health care system. Use of electronic health record (EHR software is mandatory and it plays an important role in running these practices, but important functional features still remain uneven and largely left to the will of the software developers.Objective The objective of this study was to develop a novel and comprehensive model for functional evaluation of the EHR software in FMPs, based on current world standards, models and projects, as well as on actual user satisfaction and requirements.Methods Based on previous theoretical and experimental research in this area, we made the initial framework model consisting of six basic categories as a base for online survey questionnaire. Family doctors assessed perceived software quality by using a five-point Likert-type scale. Using exploratory factor analysis and appropriate statistical methods over the collected data, the final optimal structure of the novel model was formed. Special attention was focused on the validity and quality of the novel model.Results The online survey collected a total of 384 cases. The obtained results indicate both the quality of the assessed software and the quality in use of the novel model. The intense ergonomic orientation of the novel measurement model was particularly emphasised.Conclusions The resulting novel model is multiple validated, comprehensive and universal. It could be used to assess the user-perceived quality of almost all forms of the ambulatory EHR software and therefore useful to all stakeholders in this area of the health care informatisation. 

  12. Model-based development of robotic systems and services in construction robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlette, Christian; Roßmann, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    More and more of our indoor/outdoor environments are available as 3D digital models. In particular, digital models such as the CityGML (City Geography Markup Language) format for cities and the BIM (Building Information Modeling) methodology for buildings are becoming important standards for proj......More and more of our indoor/outdoor environments are available as 3D digital models. In particular, digital models such as the CityGML (City Geography Markup Language) format for cities and the BIM (Building Information Modeling) methodology for buildings are becoming important standards...

  13. Methane emissions from floodplains in the Amazon Basin: challenges in developing a process-based model for global applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ringeval, B.; Houweling, S.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Spahni, R.; van Beek, R.; Joos, F.; Röckmann, T.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical wetlands are estimated to represent about 50% of the natural wetland methane (CH4) emissions and explain a large fraction of the observed CH4 variability on timescales ranging from glacial–interglacial cycles to the currently observed year-to-year variability. Despite their importance, however, tropical wetlands are poorly represented in global models aiming to predict global CH4 emissions. This publication documents a first step in the development of a process-base...

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Simple, Multifactorial Model Based on Landing Performance to Indicate Injury Risk in Surfing Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Raymond, Ellen; Secomb, Josh L; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Steele, Julie R; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-11-01

    To develop and evaluate a multifactorial model based on landing performance to estimate injury risk for surfing athletes. Five measures were collected from 78 competitive surfing athletes and used to create a model to serve as a screening tool for landing tasks and potential injury risk. In the second part of the study, the model was evaluated using junior surfing athletes (n = 32) with a longitudinal follow-up of their injuries over 26 wk. Two models were compared based on the collected data, and magnitude-based inferences were applied to determine the likelihood of differences between injured and noninjured groups. The study resulted in a model based on 5 measures--ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion, isometric midthigh-pull lower-body strength, time to stabilization during a drop-and-stick (DS) landing, relative peak force during a DS landing, and frontal-plane DS-landing video analysis--for male and female professional surfers and male and female junior surfers. Evaluation of the model showed that a scaled probability score was more likely to detect injuries in junior surfing athletes and reported a correlation of r = .66, P = .001, with a model of equal variable importance. The injured (n = 7) surfers had a lower probability score (0.18 ± 0.16) than the noninjured group (n = 25, 0.36 ± 0.15), with 98% likelihood, Cohen d = 1.04. The proposed model seems sensitive and easy to implement and interpret. Further research is recommended to show full validity for potential adaptations for other sports.

  15. Junior high school students' cognitive process in solving the developed algebraic problems based on information processing taxonomy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwoko, Saad, Noor Shah; Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to: i) develop problem solving questions of Linear Equations System of Two Variables (LESTV) based on levels of IPT Model, ii) explain the level of students' skill of information processing in solving LESTV problems; iii) explain students' skill in information processing in solving LESTV problems; and iv) explain students' cognitive process in solving LESTV problems. This study involves three phases: i) development of LESTV problem questions based on Tessmer Model; ii) quantitative survey method on analyzing students' skill level of information processing; and iii) qualitative case study method on analyzing students' cognitive process. The population of the study was 545 eighth grade students represented by a sample of 170 students of five Junior High Schools in Hilir Barat Zone, Palembang (Indonesia) that were chosen using cluster sampling. Fifteen students among them were drawn as a sample for the interview session with saturated information obtained. The data were collected using the LESTV problem solving test and the interview protocol. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, while the qualitative data were analyzed using the content analysis. The finding of this study indicated that students' cognitive process was just at the step of indentifying external source and doing algorithm in short-term memory fluently. Only 15.29% students could retrieve type A information and 5.88% students could retrieve type B information from long-term memory. The implication was the development problems of LESTV had validated IPT Model in modelling students' assessment by different level of hierarchy.

  16. Towards the development of an environmental rule-based model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of modelling was (1) to test the optimal environmental window hypothesis (characterised by 'dome-shape' formats) for the variables studied and (2) to evaluate the application of the model as a tool for recruitment prediction. The model was run under different conditions and the following results were obtained: ...

  17. My Corporis Fabrica Embryo: An ontology-based 3D spatio-temporal modeling of human embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabattu, Pierre-Yves; Massé, Benoit; Ulliana, Federico; Rousset, Marie-Christine; Rohmer, Damien; Léon, Jean-Claude; Palombi, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Embryology is a complex morphologic discipline involving a set of entangled mechanisms, sometime difficult to understand and to visualize. Recent computer based techniques ranging from geometrical to physically based modeling are used to assist the visualization and the simulation of virtual humans for numerous domains such as surgical simulation and learning. On the other side, the ontology-based approach applied to knowledge representation is more and more successfully adopted in the life-science domains to formalize biological entities and phenomena, thanks to a declarative approach for expressing and reasoning over symbolic information. 3D models and ontologies are two complementary ways to describe biological entities that remain largely separated. Indeed, while many ontologies providing a unified formalization of anatomy and embryology exist, they remain only descriptive and make the access to anatomical content of complex 3D embryology models and simulations difficult. In this work, we present a novel ontology describing the development of the human embryology deforming 3D models. Beyond describing how organs and structures are composed, our ontology integrates a procedural description of their 3D representations, temporal deformation and relations with respect to their developments. We also created inferences rules to express complex connections between entities. It results in a unified description of both the knowledge of the organs deformation and their 3D representations enabling to visualize dynamically the embryo deformation during the Carnegie stages. Through a simplified ontology, containing representative entities which are linked to spatial position and temporal process information, we illustrate the added-value of such a declarative approach for interactive simulation and visualization of 3D embryos. Combining ontologies and 3D models enables a declarative description of different embryological models that capture the complexity of human

  18. Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Kroll, Charles N.; Nowak, David J. 2011. Component-based development and sensitivity analyses of an air pollutant dry deposition model. Environmental Modelling & Software. 26(6): 804-816.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoshi Hirabayashi; Chuck Kroll; David Nowak

    2011-01-01

    The Urban Forest Effects-Deposition model (UFORE-D) was developed with a component-based modeling approach. Functions of the model were separated into components that are responsible for user interface, data input/output, and core model functions. Taking advantage of the component-based approach, three UFORE-D applications were developed: a base application to estimate...

  19. Development of a socio-ecological environmental justice model for watershed-based management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Georgina M.; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Zhang, Zhen; Woznicki, Sean A.; Habron, Geoffrey; Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra; Shortridge, Ashton

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics and relationships between society and nature are complex and difficult to predict. Anthropogenic activities affect the ecological integrity of our natural resources, specifically our streams. Further, it is well-established that the costs of these activities are born unequally by different human communities. This study considered the utility of integrating stream health metrics, based on stream health indicators, with socio-economic measures of communities, to better characterize these effects. This study used a spatial multi-factor model and bivariate mapping to produce a novel assessment for watershed management, identification of vulnerable areas, and allocation of resources. The study area is the Saginaw River watershed located in Michigan. In-stream hydrological and water quality data were used to predict fish and macroinvertebrate measures of stream health. These measures include the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), Family IBI, and total number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa. Stream health indicators were then compared to spatially coincident socio-economic data, obtained from the United States Census Bureau (2010), including race, income, education, housing, and population size. Statistical analysis including spatial regression and cluster analysis were used to examine the correlation between vulnerable human populations and environmental conditions. Overall, limited correlation was observed between the socio-economic data and ecological measures of stream health, with the highest being a negative correlation of 0.18 between HBI and the social parameter household size. Clustering was observed in the datasets with urban areas representing a second order clustering effect over the watershed. Regions with the worst stream health and most vulnerable social populations were most commonly located nearby or down-stream to highly populated areas and agricultural lands.

  20. Novel intrinsic-based submodel for char particle gasification in entrained-flow gasifiers: Model development, validation and illustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, S.; Richter, A.; Vascellari, M.; Gupta, A.; Meyer, B.; Nikrityuk, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Model resolving intra-particle species transport for char conversion was formulated. • TGA experiments of char particle conversion in gas flow were conducted. • The experimental results for char conversion validated the model. • CFD simulations of endothermic reactor with developed model were carried out. - Abstract: The final carbon conversion rate is of critical importance in the efficiency of gasifiers. Therefore, comprehensive modeling of char particle conversion is of primary interest for designing new gasifiers. This work presents a novel intrinsic-based submodel for the gasification of a char particle moving in a hot flue gas environment considering CO 2 and H 2 O as inlet species. The first part of the manuscript describes the model and its derivation. Validations against experiments carried out in this work for German lignite char are reported in the second part. The comparison between submodel predictions and experimental data shows good agreement. The importance of char porosity change during gasification is demonstrated. The third part presents the results of CFD simulations using the new submodel and a surface-based submodel for a generic endothermic gasifier. The focus of CFD simulations is to demonstrate the crucial role of intrinsic based heterogeneous reactions in the adequate prediction of carbon conversion rates.

  1. Theory-Based Cartographic Risk Model Development and Application for Home Fire Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmanek, Stephen; Lehna, Carlee; Hanchette, Carol

    There is a gap in the use of predictive risk models to identify areas at risk for home fires and burn injury. The purpose of this study was to describe the creation, validation, and application of such a model using a sample from an intervention study with parents of newborns in Jefferson County, KY, as an example. Performed was a literature search to identify risk factors for home fires and burn injury in the target population. Obtained from the American Community Survey at the census tract level and synthesized to create a predictive cartographic risk model was risk factor data. Model validation was performed through correlation, regression, and Moran's I with fire incidence data from open records. Independent samples t-tests were used to examine the model in relation to geocoded participant addresses. Participant risk level for fire rate was determined and proximity to fire station service areas and hospitals. The model showed high and severe risk clustering in the northwest section of the county. Strongly correlated with fire rate was modeled risk; the best predictive model for fire risk contained home value (low), race (black), and non high school graduates. Applying the model to the intervention sample, the majority of participants were at lower risk and mostly within service areas closest to a fire department and hospital. Cartographic risk models were useful in identifying areas at risk and analyzing participant risk level. The methods outlined in this study are generalizable to other public health issues.

  2. A stepwise model for simulation-based curriculum development for clinical skills, a modification of the six-step approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Nehal N; Satava, Richard M; Alnassar, Sami A; Kern, David E

    2016-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth in the use of simulation in health professions education, courses vary considerably in quality. Many do not integrate efficiently into an overall school/program curriculum or conform to academic accreditation requirements. Moreover, some of the guidelines for simulation design are specialty specific. We designed a model that integrates best practices for effective simulation-based training and a modification of Kern et al.'s 6-step approach for curriculum development. We invited international simulation and health professions education experts to complete a questionnaire evaluating the model. We reviewed comments and suggested modifications from respondents and reached consensus on a revised version of the model. We recruited 17 simulation and education experts. They expressed a consensus on the seven proposed curricular steps: problem identification and general needs assessment, targeted needs assessment, goals and objectives, educational strategies, individual assessment/feedback, program evaluation, and implementation. We received several suggestions for descriptors that applied the steps to simulation, leading to some revisions in the model. We have developed a model that integrates principles of curriculum development and simulation design that is applicable across specialties. Its use could lead to high-quality simulation courses that integrate efficiently into an overall curriculum.

  3. Physiologically Based Absorption Modeling to Impact Biopharmaceutics and Formulation Strategies in Drug Development-Industry Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesisoglou, Filippos; Chung, John; van Asperen, Judith; Heimbach, Tycho

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models in drug development and regulatory applications. Although most of the published examples have focused on aspects such as first-in-human (FIH) dose predictions or drug-drug interactions, several publications have highlighted the application of these models in the biopharmaceutics field and their use to inform formulation development. In this report, we present 5 case studies of use of such models in this biopharmaceutics/formulation space across different pharmaceutical companies. The case studies cover different aspects of biopharmaceutics or formulation questions including (1) prediction of absorption prior to FIH studies; (2) optimization of formulation and dissolution method post-FIH data; (3) early exploration of a modified-release formulation; (4) addressing bridging questions for late-stage formulation changes; and (5) prediction of pharmacokinetics in the fed state for a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class I drug with fasted state data. The discussion of the case studies focuses on how such models can facilitate decisions and biopharmaceutic understanding of drug candidates and the opportunities for increased use and acceptance of such models in drug development and regulatory interactions. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of thermodynamically-based models for simulation of hydrogeochemical processes coupled to channel flow processes in abandoned underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, N.A., E-mail: natalie.kruse@ncl.ac.uk [Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Younger, P.L. [Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    Accurate modeling of changing geochemistry in mine water can be an important tool in post-mining site management. The Pollutant Sources and Sinks in Underground Mines (POSSUM) model and Pollutant Loadings Above Average Pyrite Influenced Geochemistry POSSUM (PLAYING POSSUM) model were developed using object-oriented programming techniques to simulate changing geochemistry in abandoned underground mines over time. The conceptual model was created to avoid significant simplifying assumptions that decrease the accuracy and defensibility of model solutions. POSSUM and PLAYING POSSUM solve for changes in flow rate and depth of flow using a finite difference hydrodynamics model then, subsequently, solve for geochemical changes at distinct points along the flow path. Geochemical changes are modeled based on a suite of 28 kinetically controlled mineral weathering reactions. Additional geochemical transformations due to reversible sorption, dissolution and precipitation of acid generating salts and mineral precipitation are also simulated using simplified expressions. Contaminant transport is simulated using a novel application of the Random-Walk method. By simulating hydrogeochemical changes with a physically and thermodynamically controlled model, the 'state of the art' in post-mining management can be advanced.

  5. Integration of a constraint-based metabolic model of Brassica napus developing seeds with 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan eHay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of large-scale or genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for modeling and simulation of plant metabolism and integration of those models with large-scale omics and experimental flux data is becoming increasingly important in plant metabolic research. Here we report an updated version of bna572, a bottom-up reconstruction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.; Brassicaceae developing seeds with emphasis on representation of biomass-component biosynthesis. New features include additional seed-relevant pathways for isoprenoid, sterol, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and choline biosynthesis. Being now based on standardized data formats and procedures for model reconstruction, bna572+ is available as a COBRA-compliant Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML model and conforms to the Minimum Information Requested in the Annotation of Biochemical Models (MIRIAM standards for annotation of external data resources. Bna572+ contains 966 genes, 671 reactions, and 666 metabolites distributed among 11 subcellular compartments. It is referenced to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, with gene-protein-reaction associations resolving subcellular localization. Detailed mass and charge balancing and confidence scoring were applied to all reactions. Using Brassica napus seed specific transcriptome data, expression was verified for 78% of bna572+ genes and 97% of reactions. Alongside bna572+ we also present a revised carbon centric model for 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C-MFA with all its reactions being referenced to bna572+ based on linear projections. By integration of flux ratio constraints obtained from 13C-MFA and by elimination of infinite flux bounds around thermodynamically infeasible loops based on COBRA loopless methods, we demonstrate improvements in predictive power of Flux Variability Analysis (FVA. Using this combined approach we characterize the difference in metabolic flux of developing seeds of two Brassica napus genotypes contrasting in starch and

  6. Burnout Study of Clinical Nurses in Vietnam: Development of Job Burnout Model Based on Leiter and Maslach's Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Thu; Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Sukigara, Masune; Thai, Anh Lan

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to create a Vietnamese version of both the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS) to assess the burnout state of Vietnamese clinical nurses and to develop a causal model of burnout of clinical nurses. We conducted a descriptive design using a cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire was hand divided directly by nursing departments to 500 clinical nurses in three hospitals. Vietnamese MBI-GS and AWS were then examined for reliability and validity. We used the revised exhaustion +1 burnout classification to access burnout state. We performed path analysis to develop a Vietnamese causal model based on the original model by Leiter and Maslach's theory. We found that both scales were reliable and valid for assessing burnout. Among nurse participants, the percentage of severe burnout was 0.7% and burnout was 15.8%, and 17.2% of nurses were exhausted. The best predictor of burnout was "on-duty work schedule" that clinical nurses have to work for 24 hours. In the causal model, we also found similarity and difference pathways in comparison with the original model. Vietnamese MBI-GS and AWS were applicable to research on occupational stress. Nearly one-fifth of Vietnamese clinical nurses were working in burnout state. The causal model suggested a range of factors resulting in burnout, and it is necessary to consider the specific solution to prevent burnout problem. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Development of a risk-based mine closure cost calculation model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The study summarised in this paper focused on expanding existing South African mine closure cost calculation models to provide a new model that incorporates risks, which could have an effect on the closure costs during the life cycle of the mine...

  8. Operator models for delivering municipal solid waste management services in developing countries. Part A: The evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David C; Kanjogera, Jennifer Bangirana; Soós, Reka; Briciu, Cosmin; Smith, Stephen R; Whiteman, Andrew D; Spies, Sandra; Oelz, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    This article presents the evidence base for 'operator models' - that is, how to deliver a sustainable service through the interaction of the 'client', 'revenue collector' and 'operator' functions - for municipal solid waste management in emerging and developing countries. The companion article addresses a selection of locally appropriate operator models. The evidence shows that no 'standard' operator model is effective in all developing countries and circumstances. Each city uses a mix of different operator models; 134 cases showed on average 2.5 models per city, each applying to different elements of municipal solid waste management - that is, street sweeping, primary collection, secondary collection, transfer, recycling, resource recovery and disposal or a combination. Operator models were analysed in detail for 28 case studies; the article summarises evidence across all elements and in more detail for waste collection. Operators fall into three main groups: The public sector, formal private sector, and micro-service providers including micro-, community-based and informal enterprises. Micro-service providers emerge as a common group; they are effective in expanding primary collection service coverage into poor- or peri-urban neighbourhoods and in delivering recycling. Both public and private sector operators can deliver effective services in the appropriate situation; what matters more is a strong client organisation responsible for municipal solid waste management within the municipality, with stable political and financial backing and capacity to manage service delivery. Revenue collection is also integral to operator models: Generally the municipality pays the operator from direct charges and/or indirect taxes, rather than the operator collecting fees directly from the service user.

  9. Development and application of compact models of packages based on DELPHI methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Parry, J; Shidore, S

    1997-01-01

    The accurate prediction of the temperatures of critical electronic parts at the package- board- and system-level is seriously hampered by the lack of reliable, standardised input data for the characterisation of the thermal $9 behaviour of these parts. The recently completed collaborative European project, DELPHI has been concerned with the creation and experimental validation of thermal models (both detailed and compact) of a range of electronic parts, $9 including mono-chip packages. This paper demonstrates the reliable performance of thermal compact models in a range of applications, by comparison with the detailed models from which they were derived. (31 refs).

  10. Development of a Novel, Parsimonious, Model-based Approach for Representing High-resolution Gravel Facies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, N.; Entwistle, N. S.; Heritage, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    A precise, time-efficient, cost-effective method for quantifying riverbed roughness and sediment size distribution has hitherto eluded river scientists. Traditional techniques (e.g., Wolman counts) have high potential for error brought about by operator bias and subjectivity when presented with complex facies assemblages, poor spatial coverage, insufficient sample sizes, and misrepresentation of bedforms. The application of LiDAR facilitated accurate observation of micro-scale habitats, and has been successfully employed in quantifying sediment grain size at the local level. However, despite considerable success of LiDAR instruments in remotely sensing riverine landscapes, and the obvious benefits they offer - very high spatial and temporal resolution, rapid data acquisition, and minimal disturbance in the field - procurement of these apparatus and their respective computer software comes at high financial cost, and extensive user training is generally necessary in order to operate such devices. Recent developments in computer software have led to advancements in digital photogrammetry over a broad range of scales, with Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques enabling production of precise DEMs based on point-clouds analogous to, and even denser than, those produced by LiDAR, at significantly reduced cost and complexity during post-processing. This study has employed both an SfM-photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) approach in a comparative analysis of sediment grain size, where LiDAR-derived data has previously provided a reliable reference of grain size. Total Station EDM theodolite provided the parent coordinate system for both SfM and meshing of TLS point-clouds. For each data set, a 0.19 m moving window (consistent with the largest sediment clast b axis) was applied to the resulting point-clouds. Two times standard deviation of elevation was calculated in order to provide a surrogate measure of grain protrusion, from which sediment frequency

  11. Development of a Model for Marburgvirus Based on Severe-Combined Immunodeficiency Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warfield, Kelly L; Alves, Derron A; Bradfute, Steven B; Reed, Daniel K; Kalina, Warren V; Olinger, Gene G; Bavari, Sina; VanTongeren, Sean

    2007-01-01

    ...). Evaluation of this model identified many similarities between infection in mice and nonhuman primates, including viral tropism for antigen-presenting cells, high viral titers in the spleen and liver...

  12. Development of a computer-based training (CBT) course for the FSUTMS comprehensive modeling workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    FSUTMS training is a major activity of the Systems Planning Office of the Florida Department of : Transportation (FDOT). The training aims to establish and maintain quality assurance for consistent : statewide modeling standards and provide up-to-dat...

  13. Role-based typology of information technology : Model development and assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zand, F.; Solaimani, H. (Sam); Beers, van C.

    2015-01-01

    Managers aim to explain how and why IT creates business value, recognize their IT-based capabilities, and select the appropriate IT to enhance and leverage those capabilities. This article synthesizes the Organizational Information Processing Theory and Resource-Based View into a descriptive

  14. “Pushing the Envelope” a modeling-based approach to the development of organic, responsive architectural form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Yearley

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests design procedures for the development of complex, organic architectural forms. It illustrates a postgraduate student design process, implementing a development sequence based on the intelligent manipulation of architectural envelopes using a variety of existing modeling tools and emerging digital techniques. These stages of development respond to imposed spatial and environmental constraints. The tests began with full-scale modeling of small segments. The major constraints at this stage were spatial requirements and the physical characteristics of materials. The forms derived from the bending properties of prestressed green timber and the dimensions of shingle cladding. This was followed by digital 3D modeling using common commercial applications. At this stage initial models were derived from a traditional space requirement brief. The envelopes for these activities were then manipulated to respond to the spatial limitations imposed by surrounding buildings. This digital modeling process metaphorically “pushed the limits” as vertices of the envelope model were stretched and shifted to achieve a perceived “fit” between the two sets of spatial dimensions. The spatially manipulated geometry was then imported into Ecotect, an environmental analysis package. As an example, the envelope’s morphology and cladding material options on the acoustic qualities of the surrounding space were tested. The improved geometry was then imported into a Virtual Reality room, in which the spatial experience was simulated in presentations to the design team and potential occupants. This room utilized six projectors to create an immersive experience to users wearing stereoscopic goggles, and moving in a space surrounded by three large screens, creating a CAVE-like presentation space. Finally there was an attempt to complete the circle by returning from the simulated world to the physical worlds, by creating full-scale models from the digital

  15. Pathways from parental AIDS to child psychological, educational and sexual risk: developing an empirically-based interactive theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Sherr, Lorraine; Makasi, Daphne; Nikelo, Joy

    2013-06-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates negative psychological, health, and developmental outcomes for children associated with parental HIV/AIDS illness and death. However, little is known about how parental AIDS leads to negative child outcomes. This study used a structural equation modelling approach to develop an empirically-based theoretical model of interactive relationships between parental or primary caregiver AIDS-illness, AIDS-orphanhood and predicted intervening factors associated with children's psychological distress, educational access and sexual health. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2009-2011, from 6002 children aged 10-17 years in three provinces of South Africa using stratified random sampling. Comparison groups included children orphaned by AIDS, orphaned by other causes and non-orphans, and children whose parents or primary caregivers were unwell with AIDS, unwell with other causes or healthy. Participants reported on psychological symptoms, educational access, and sexual health risks, as well as hypothesized sociodemographic and intervening factors. In order to build an interactive theoretical model of multiple child outcomes, multivariate regression and structural equation models were developed for each individual outcome, and then combined into an overall model. Neither AIDS-orphanhood nor parental AIDS-illness were directly associated with psychological distress, educational access, or sexual health. Instead, significant indirect effects of AIDS-orphanhood and parental AIDS-illness were obtained on all measured outcomes. Child psychological, educational and sexual health risks share a common set of intervening variables including parental disability, poverty, community violence, stigma, and child abuse that together comprise chain effects. In all models, parental AIDS-illness had stronger effects and more risk pathways than AIDS-orphanhood, especially via poverty and parental disability. AIDS-orphanhood and parental AIDS-illness impact

  16. Model-based development and testing of advertising messages: A comparative study of two campaign proposals based on the MECCAS model and a conventional approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, the development of advertising messages has been based on "creative independence", sometimes catalysed by inductively generated empirical data. Due to the recent intensified focus on advertising effectiveness, this state of affairs is beginning to change. The purpose of the study....... The comparison involved the efficiency of the managerial communication taking place in the message development process as well as target group communication effects. The managerial communication was studied by interviews with the involved advertising agency (Midtmarketing, Ikast, Denmark) and client staff...... described in this article is to compare the development and effects of two campaign proposals, with the sommon aim of increasing the consumption of apples among young Danes (18 to 35 years of age). One of the proposals is the result of an inductive-creative process, while the other is base on the MECCAS...

  17. Is Model-Based Development a Favorable Approach for Complex and Safety-Critical Computer Systems on Commercial Aircraft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2014-01-01

    A system is safety-critical if its failure can endanger human life or cause significant damage to property or the environment. State-of-the-art computer systems on commercial aircraft are highly complex, software-intensive, functionally integrated, and network-centric systems of systems. Ensuring that such systems are safe and comply with existing safety regulations is costly and time-consuming as the level of rigor in the development process, especially the validation and verification activities, is determined by considerations of system complexity and safety criticality. A significant degree of care and deep insight into the operational principles of these systems is required to ensure adequate coverage of all design implications relevant to system safety. Model-based development methodologies, methods, tools, and techniques facilitate collaboration and enable the use of common design artifacts among groups dealing with different aspects of the development of a system. This paper examines the application of model-based development to complex and safety-critical aircraft computer systems. Benefits and detriments are identified and an overall assessment of the approach is given.

  18. Development of a technology-based behavioral vaccine to prevent adolescent depression: A health system integration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Van Voorhees

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to prevent depression have become a key health system priority. Currently, there is a high prevalence of depression among adolescents, and treatment has become costly due to the recurrence patterns of the illness, impairment among patients, and the complex factors needed for a treatment to be effective. Primary care may be the optimal location to identify those at risk by offering an Internet-based preventive intervention to reduce costs and improve outcomes. Few practical interventions have been developed. The models for Internet intervention development that have been put forward focus primarily on the Internet component rather than how the program fits within a broader context. This paper describes the conceptualization for developing technology based preventive models for primary care by integrating the components within a behavioral vaccine framework. CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive-behavioral, Humanistic and Interpersonal Training has been developed and successfully implemented within various health systems over a period of 14 years among adolescents and young adults aged 13–24.

  19. A person based formula for allocating commissioning funds to general practices in England: development of a statistical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter; Gravelle, Hugh; Martin, Steve; Bardsley, Martin; Rice, Nigel; Georghiou, Theo; Dusheiko, Mark; Billings, John; Lorenzo, Michael De; Sanderson, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To develop a formula for allocating resources for commissioning hospital care to all general practices in England based on the health needs of the people registered in each practice Design Multivariate prospective statistical models were developed in which routinely collected electronic information from 2005-6 and 2006-7 on individuals and the areas in which they lived was used to predict their costs of hospital care in the next year, 2007-8. Data on individuals included all diagnoses recorded at any inpatient admission. Models were developed on a random sample of 5 million people and validated on a second random sample of 5 million people and a third sample of 5 million people drawn from a random sample of practices. Setting All general practices in England as of 1 April 2007. All NHS inpatient admissions and outpatient attendances for individuals registered with a general practice on that date. Subjects All individuals registered with a general practice in England at 1 April 2007. Main outcome measures Power of the statistical models to predict the costs of the individual patient or each practice’s registered population for 2007-8 tested with a range of metrics (R2 reported here). Comparisons of predicted costs in 2007-8 with actual costs incurred in the same year were calculated by individual and by practice. Results Models including person level information (age, sex, and ICD-10 codes diagnostic recorded) and a range of area level information (such as socioeconomic deprivation and supply of health facilities) were most predictive of costs. After accounting for person level variables, area level variables added little explanatory power. The best models for resource allocation could predict upwards of 77% of the variation in costs at practice level, and about 12% at the person level. With these models, the predicted costs of about a third of practices would exceed or undershoot the actual costs by 10% or more. Smaller practices were more likely to be

  20. Development of a physiologically-based computational kidney model to describe the renal excretion of hydrophilic agents in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eNiederalt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A physiologically-based kidney model was developed to analyze the renal excretion and kidney exposure of hydrophilic agents, in particular contrast media, in rats. In order to study the influence of osmolality and viscosity changes, the model mechanistically represents urine concentration by water re-absorption in different segments of kidney tubules and viscosity dependent tubular fluid flow.The model was established using experimental data on the physiological steady state without administration of any contrast media or drugs. These data included the sodium and urea concentration gradient along the cortico-medullary axis, water reabsorption, urine flow and sodium as well as urea urine concentrations for a normal hydration state. The model was evaluated by predicting the effects of mannitol and contrast media administration and comparing to experimental data on cortico-medullary concentration gradients, urine flow, urine viscosity, hydrostatic tubular pressures and single nephron glomerular filtration rate. Finally the model was used to analyze and compare typical examples of ionic and non-ionic monomeric as well as non-ionic dimeric contrast media with respect to their osmolality and viscosity. With the computational kidney model, urine flow depended mainly on osmolality, while osmolality and viscosity were important determinants for tubular hydrostatic pressure and kidney exposure. The low diuretic effect of dimeric contrast media in combination with their high intrinsic viscosity resulted in a high viscosity within the tubular fluid. In comparison to monomeric contrast media, this led to a higher increase in tubular pressure, to a reduction in glomerular filtration rate and tubular flow and to an increase in kidney exposure.The presented kidney model can be implemented into whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models and extended in order to simulate the renal excretion of lipophilic drugs which may also undergo active secretion

  1. Strategic system development toward biofuel, desertification, and crop production monitoring in continental scales using satellite-based photosynthesis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Daijiro

    2013-10-01

    The author regards fundamental root functions as underpinning photosynthesis activities by vegetation and as affecting environmental issues, grain production, and desertification. This paper describes the present development of monitoring and near real-time forecasting of environmental projects and crop production by approaching established operational monitoring step-by-step. The author has been developing a thematic monitoring structure (named RSEM system) which stands on satellite-based photosynthesis models over several continents for operational supports in environmental fields mentioned above. Validation methods stand not on FLUXNET but on carbon partitioning validation (CPV). The models demand continuing parameterization. The entire frame system has been built using Reanalysis meteorological data, but model accuracy remains insufficient except for that of paddy rice. The author shall accomplish the system that incorporates global environmental forces. Regarding crop production applications, industrialization in developing countries achieved through direct investment by economically developed nations raises their income, resulting in increased food demand. Last year, China began to import rice as it had in the past with grains of maize, wheat, and soybeans. Important agro-potential countries make efforts to cultivate new crop lands in South America, Africa, and Eastern Europe. Trends toward less food sustainability and stability are continuing, with exacerbation by rapid social and climate changes. Operational monitoring of carbon sequestration by herbaceous and bore plants converges with efforts at bio-energy, crop production monitoring, and socio-environmental projects such as CDM A/R, combating desertification, and bio-diversity.

  2. Development of a computer-generated model for the coronary arterial tree based on multislice CT and morphometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, George S. K.; Segars, W. Paul; Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Fishman, Elliot K.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2006-03-01

    A detailed four-dimensional model of the coronary artery tree has great potential in a wide variety of applications especially in biomedical imaging. We developed a computer generated three-dimensional model for the coronary arterial tree based on two datasets: (1) gated multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) angiographic data obtained from a normal human subject and (2) statistical morphometric data obtained from porcine hearts. The main coronary arteries and heart structures were segmented from the MSCT data to define the initial segments of the vasculature and geometrical details of the boundaries. An iterative rule-based computer generation algorithm was then developed to extend the coronary artery tree beyond the initial segmented branches. The algorithm was governed by the following factors: (1) the statistical morphometric measurements of the connectivities, lengths, and diameters of the arterial segments, (2) repelling forces from other segments and boundaries, and (3) optimality principles to minimize the drag force at each bifurcation in the generated tree. Using this algorithm, the segmented coronary artery tree from the MSCT data was optimally extended to create a 3D computational model of the largest six orders of the coronary arterial tree. The new method for generating the 3D model is effective in imposing the constraints of anatomical and physiological characteristics of coronary vasculature. When combined with the 4D NCAT phantom, a computer model for the human anatomy and cardiac and respiratory motions, the new model will provide a unique tool to study cardiovascular characteristics and diseases through direct and medical imaging simulation studies.

  3. Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological-coupled model for lakes to assess lake restoration effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengjia; Zou, Changxin; Zhao, Yanwei

    2017-04-01

    Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models, a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e., considering the lake to be one well-mixed box), which was appropriate for small-scale lakes and was not sufficient to capture spatial variations within middle-scale or large-scale lakes. This paper seeks to establish a zoning-based environmental-ecological-coupled model for a lake. The Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in Northern China, was adopted as the study case. The coupled lake models including a hydrodynamics and water quality model established by MIKE21 and a compartmental ecological model used STELLA software have been established for middle-sized Baiyangdian Lake to realize the simulation of spatial variations of ecological conditions. On the basis of the flow field distribution results generated by MIKE21 hydrodynamics model, four water area zones were used as an example for compartmental ecological model calibration and validation. The results revealed that the developed coupled lake models can reasonably reflected the changes of the key state variables although there remain some state variables that are not well represented by the model due to the low quality of field monitoring data. Monitoring sites in a compartment may not be representative of the water quality and ecological conditions in the entire compartment even though that is the intention of compartment-based model design. There was only one ecological observation from a single monitoring site for some periods. This single-measurement issue may cause large discrepancies particularly when sampled site is not representative of the whole compartment. The

  4. Modeling Tourism Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbina, O. A.; Shembeleva, E. A.

    The basic approaches to decision making and modeling tourism sustainable development are reviewed. Dynamics of a sustainable development is considered in the Forrester's system dynamics. Multidimensionality of tourism sustainable development and multicriteria issues of sustainable development are analyzed. Decision Support Systems (DSS) and Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS) as an effective technique in examining and visualizing impacts of policies, sustainable tourism development strategies within an integrated and dynamic framework are discussed. Main modules that may be utilized for integrated modeling sustainable tourism development are proposed.

  5. Development and application of EEAST: a life cycle based model for use of harvested rainwater and composting toilets in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, J; Schlachter, H; Anand, C; Phillips, R; Apul, Defne

    2013-11-30

    Harvested rainwater systems and composting toilets are expected to be an important part of sustainable solutions in buildings. Yet, to this date, a model evaluating their economic and environmental impact has been missing. To address this need, a life cycle based model, EEAST was developed. EEAST was designed to compare the business as usual (BAU) case of using potable water for toilet flushing and irrigation to alternative scenarios of rainwater harvesting and composting toilet based technologies. In EEAST, building characteristics, occupancy, and precipitation are used to size the harvested rainwater and composting toilet systems. Then, life cycle costing and life cycle assessment methods are used to estimate cost, energy, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission payback periods (PPs) for five alternative scenarios. The scenarios modeled include use of harvested rainwater for toilet flushing, for irrigation, or both; and use of composting toilets with or without harvested rainwater use for irrigation. A sample simulation using EEAST showed that for the office building modeled, the cost PPs were greater than energy PPs which in turn were greater than GHG emission PPs. This was primarily due to energy and emission intensive nature of the centralized water and wastewater infrastructure. The sample simulation also suggested that the composting toilets may have the best performance in all criteria. However, EEAST does not explicitly model solids management and as such may give composting toilets an unfair advantage compared to flush based toilets. EEAST results were found to be very sensitive to cost values used in the model. With the availability of EEAST, life cycle cost, energy, and GHG emissions can now be performed fairly easily by building designers and researchers. Future work is recommended to further improve EEAST and evaluate it for different types of buildings and climates so as to better understand when composting toilets and harvested rainwater systems

  6. Research-Based Program Development: Refining the Service Model for a Geographic Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, David J.; Lovorn, Carley

    2018-01-01

    Research conducted in 2013 identified the perceptions that K-12 teachers and administrators hold with respect to: (1) the perceived needs in education, (2) the professional audiences that are most important to reach, and (3) the service models that are most effective. The specific purpose of the research was to refine and improve the services that…

  7. Development and validation of a CFD-based steam reformer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Dahlqvist, Mathis; Saksager, Anders

    2006-01-01

    a detailed mechanism for the reforming reactions. Heat exchange between the flue gas and reformate streams through the reformer reactor walls was also included as a conjugate heat transfer process.  From a review of published models for the catalytic steam reforming of ethanol and preliminary predictions...

  8. A Novel Approach to Predict 24-Hour Energy Expenditure Based on Hematologic Volumes: Development and Validation of Models Comparable to Mifflin-St Jeor and Body Composition Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Douglas C; Piaggi, Paolo; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2017-08-01

    Accurate prediction of 24-hour energy expenditure (24EE) relies on knowing body composition, in particular fat-free mass (FFM), the largest determinant of 24EE. FFM is closely correlated with hematologic volumes: blood volume (BV), red cell mass (RCM), and plasma volume (PV). However, it is unknown whether predicted hematologic volumes, based on easily collected variables, can improve 24EE prediction. The aim was to develop and validate equations to predict 24EE based on predicted BV, RCM, and PV and to compare the accuracy and agreement with models developed from FFM and with the Mifflin-St Jeor equation, which is recommended for clinical use by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Participants had body composition measured by underwater weighing and 24EE by respiratory chamber. BV, RCM, and PV were calculated from five published equations. Native American and white men and women were studied (n=351). Participants were healthy adults aged 18 to 49 years from the Phoenix, AZ, metropolitan area. Accuracy to within ±10% of measured 24EE and agreement by Bland-Altman analysis. Regression models to predict 24EE from hematologic and body composition variables were developed in half the dataset and validated in the other half. Hematologic volumes were all strongly correlated with FFM in both men and women (r≥0.94). Whereas the accuracy of FFM alone was 69%, four hematologic volumes were individually more accurate (75% to 78%) in predicting 24EE. Equations based on hematologic volumes plus demographics had mean prediction errors comparable to those based on body composition plus demographics; although the Mifflin-St Jeor had modestly better mean prediction error, body composition, hematologic, and Mifflin-St Jeor models all had similar accuracy (approximately 80%). Prediction equations based on hematologic volumes were developed, validated, and found to be comparable to Mifflin-St Jeor and body composition models in this population of healthy adults. Published by

  9. Heat Modeling and Material Development of Mg-Based Nanomaterials Combined with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Stationary Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiyu Shao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mg-based materials have been investigated as hydrogen storage materials, especially for possible onboard storage in fuel cell vehicles for decades. Recently, with the development of large-scale fuel cell technologies, the development of Mg-based materials as stationary storage to supply hydrogen to fuel-cell components and provide electricity and heat is becoming increasingly promising. In this work, numerical analysis of heat balance management for stationary solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC systems combined with MgH2 materials based on a carbon-neutral design concept was performed. Waste heat from the SOFC is supplied to hydrogen desorption as endothermic heat for the MgH2 materials. The net efficiency of this model achieves 82% lower heating value (LHV, and the efficiency of electrical power output becomes 68.6% in minimizing heat output per total energy output when all available heat of waste gas and system is supplied to warm up the storage. For the development of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials, various nano-processing techniques have been widely applied to synthesize Mg-based materials with small particle and crystallite sizes, resulting in good hydrogen storage kinetics, but poor thermal conductivity. Here, three kinds of Mg-based materials were investigated and compared: 325 mesh Mg powers, 300 nm Mg nanoparticles synthesized by hydrogen plasma metal reaction, and Mg50Co50 metastable alloy with body-centered cubic structure. Based on the overall performances of hydrogen capacity, absorption kinetics and thermal conductivity of the materials, the Mg nanoparticle sample by plasma synthesis is the most promising material for this potential application. The findings in this paper may shed light on a new energy conversion and utilization technology on MgH2-SOFC combined concept.

  10. Trait-based model development to support breeding programs. A case study for salt tolerance and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, Livia; Movedi, Ermes; Confalonieri, Roberto

    2017-06-28

    Eco-physiological models are increasingly used to analyze G × E × M interactions to support breeding programs via the design of ideotypes for specific contexts. However, available crop models are only partly suitable for this purpose, since they often lack clear relationships between parameters and traits breeders are working on. Taking salt stress tolerance and rice as a case study, we propose a paradigm shift towards the building of ideotyping-specific models explicitly around traits involved in breeding programs. Salt tolerance is a complex trait relying on different physiological processes that can be alternatively selected to improve the overall crop tolerance. We developed a new model explicitly accounting for these traits and we evaluated its performance using data from growth chamber experiments (e.g., R 2 ranged from 0.74 to 0.94 for the biomass of different plant organs). Using the model, we were able to show how an increase in the overall tolerance can derive from completely different physiological mechanisms according to soil/water salinity dynamics. The study demonstrated that a trait-based approach can increase the usefulness of mathematical models for supporting breeding programs.

  11. Evidence-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Systems development is replete with projects that represent substantial resource investments but result in systems that fail to meet users’ needs. Evidence-based development is an emerging idea intended to provide means for managing customer-vendor relationships and working systematically toward...... and electronic patient records for diabetes patients, this paper reports research in progress regarding the prospects and pitfalls of evidence-based development....

  12. Principles of models based engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolin, R.M.; Hefele, J.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes a Models Based Engineering (MBE) philosophy and implementation strategy that has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Center for Advanced Engineering Technology. A major theme in this discussion is that models based engineering is an information management technology enabling the development of information driven engineering. Unlike other information management technologies, models based engineering encompasses the breadth of engineering information, from design intent through product definition to consumer application.

  13. A QFD-Based Mathematical Model for New Product Development Considering the Target Market Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Hsuan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Responding to customer needs is important for business success. Quality function deployment provides systematic procedures for converting customer needs into technical requirements to ensure maximum customer satisfaction. The existing literature mainly focuses on the achievement of maximum customer satisfaction under a budgetary limit via mathematical models. The market goal of the new product for the target market segment is usually ignored. In this study, the proposed approach thus considers the target customer satisfaction degree for the target market segment in the model by formulating the overall customer satisfaction as a function of the quality level. In addition, the proposed approach emphasizes the cost-effectiveness concept in the design stage via the achievement of the target customer satisfaction degree using the minimal total cost. A numerical example is used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach and its characteristics are discussed.

  14. A Model for Developing and Assessing Youth-Based Environmental Engagement Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Manuel; Lynes, Jennifer; Hickman, Gina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that a fundamental cultural shift is needed to effectively address anthropogenic causes of climate change. Evidence suggests that youth are well positioned to create such transformation. While various studies have contributed empirical evidence to numerous youth-based non-formal environmental engagement programmes, what is…

  15. Nanostructured titanium-based materials for medical implants: Modeling and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny; Valiev, Ruslan Z.

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructuring of titanium-based implantable devices can provide them with superior mechanical properties and enhanced biocompatibity. An overview of advanced fabrication technologies of nanostructured, high strength, biocompatible Ti and shape memory Ni-Ti alloy for medical implants is given...

  16. Development of Demonstrably Predictive Models for Emissions from Alternative Fuels Based Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    requires detailed models from the small scales (chemical reactions, soot evolution) to the largest scales (energy containing turbulence features). The...was a mixture of 75% n- dodecane and 25% m-xylene by volume. Table 2 and 3 contain relevant information for all fuels considered in this investigation...beam, and h the height above the burner. By measuring the integral extinction and utilizing the Lambert- Beer formula IhLaser = I0Laser;hexpZ0 L

  17. Development of a QTL-environment-based predictive model for node addition rate in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Gezan, Salvador A; Eduardo Vallejos, C; Jones, James W; Boote, Kenneth J; Clavijo-Michelangeli, Jose A; Bhakta, Mehul; Osorno, Juan M; Rao, Idupulapati; Beebe, Stephen; Roman-Paoli, Elvin; Gonzalez, Abiezer; Beaver, James; Ricaurte, Jaumer; Colbert, Raphael; Correll, Melanie J

    2017-05-01

    This work reports the effects of the genetic makeup, the environment and the genotype by environment interactions for node addition rate in an RIL population of common bean. This information was used to build a predictive model for node addition rate. To select a plant genotype that will thrive in targeted environments it is critical to understand the genotype by environment interaction (GEI). In this study, multi-environment QTL analysis was used to characterize node addition rate (NAR, node day - 1 ) on the main stem of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). This analysis was carried out with field data of 171 recombinant inbred lines that were grown at five sites (Florida, Puerto Rico, 2 sites in Colombia, and North Dakota). Four QTLs (Nar1, Nar2, Nar3 and Nar4) were identified, one of which had significant QTL by environment interactions (QEI), that is, Nar2 with temperature. Temperature was identified as the main environmental factor affecting NAR while day length and solar radiation played a minor role. Integration of sites as covariates into a QTL mixed site-effect model, and further replacing the site component with explanatory environmental covariates (i.e., temperature, day length and solar radiation) yielded a model that explained 73% of the phenotypic variation for NAR with root mean square error of 16.25% of the mean. The QTL consistency and stability was examined through a tenfold cross validation with different sets of genotypes and these four QTLs were always detected with 50-90% probability. The final model was evaluated using leave-one-site-out method to assess the influence of site on node addition rate. These analyses provided a quantitative measure of the effects on NAR of common beans exerted by the genetic makeup, the environment and their interactions.

  18. A QFD-Based Mathematical Model for New Product Development Considering the Target Market Segment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liang-Hsuan; Chen, Cheng-Nien

    2014-01-01

    Responding to customer needs is important for business success. Quality function deployment provides systematic procedures for converting customer needs into technical requirements to ensure maximum customer satisfaction. The existing literature mainly focuses on the achievement of maximum customer satisfaction under a budgetary limit via mathematical models. The market goal of the new product for the target market segment is usually ignored. In this study, the proposed approach thus consider...

  19. Kinetics of heavy metal adsorption and desorption in soil: Developing a unified model based on chemical speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lanfang; Liu, Paiyu; Feng, Xionghan; Wang, Zimeng; Cheng, Tao; Liang, Yuzhen; Lin, Zhang; Shi, Zhenqing

    2018-03-01

    Predicting the kinetics of heavy metal adsorption and desorption in soil requires consideration of multiple heterogeneous soil binding sites and variations of reaction chemistry conditions. Although chemical speciation models have been developed for predicting the equilibrium of metal adsorption on soil organic matter (SOM) and important mineral phases (e.g. Fe and Al (hydr)oxides), there is still a lack of modeling tools for predicting the kinetics of metal adsorption and desorption reactions in soil. In this study, we developed a unified model for the kinetics of heavy metal adsorption and desorption in soil based on the equilibrium models WHAM 7 and CD-MUSIC, which specifically consider metal kinetic reactions with multiple binding sites of SOM and soil minerals simultaneously. For each specific binding site, metal adsorption and desorption rate coefficients were constrained by the local equilibrium partition coefficients predicted by WHAM 7 or CD-MUSIC, and, for each metal, the desorption rate coefficients of various binding sites were constrained by their metal binding constants with those sites. The model had only one fitting parameter for each soil binding phase, and all other parameters were derived from WHAM 7 and CD-MUSIC. A stirred-flow method was used to study the kinetics of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn adsorption and desorption in multiple soils under various pH and metal concentrations, and the model successfully reproduced most of the kinetic data. We quantitatively elucidated the significance of different soil components and important soil binding sites during the adsorption and desorption kinetic processes. Our model has provided a theoretical framework to predict metal adsorption and desorption kinetics, which can be further used to predict the dynamic behavior of heavy metals in soil under various natural conditions by coupling other important soil processes.

  20. Development and External Validation of a Melanoma Risk Prediction Model Based on Self-assessed Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Kylie; Armstrong, Bruce K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Adami, Hans-Olov; Veierod, Marit B; Barrett, Jennifer H; Davies, John R; Bishop, D Timothy; Whiteman, David C; Olsen, Catherine M; Hopper, John L; Mann, Graham J; Cust, Anne E; McGeechan, Kevin

    2016-08-01

    Identifying individuals at high risk of melanoma can optimize primary and secondary prevention strategies. To develop and externally validate a risk prediction model for incident first-primary cutaneous melanoma using self-assessed risk factors. We used unconditional logistic regression to develop a multivariable risk prediction model. Relative risk estimates from the model were combined with Australian melanoma incidence and competing mortality rates to obtain absolute risk estimates. A risk prediction model was developed using the Australian Melanoma Family Study (629 cases and 535 controls) and externally validated using 4 independent population-based studies: the Western Australia Melanoma Study (511 case-control pairs), Leeds Melanoma Case-Control Study (960 cases and 513 controls), Epigene-QSkin Study (44 544, of which 766 with melanoma), and Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health Cohort Study (49 259 women, of which 273 had melanoma). We validated model performance internally and externally by assessing discrimination using the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Additionally, using the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health Cohort Study, we assessed model calibration and clinical usefulness. The risk prediction model included hair color, nevus density, first-degree family history of melanoma, previous nonmelanoma skin cancer, and lifetime sunbed use. On internal validation, the AUC was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.67-0.73). On external validation, the AUC was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.63-0.69) in the Western Australia Melanoma Study, 0.67 (95% CI, 0.65-0.70) in the Leeds Melanoma Case-Control Study, 0.64 (95% CI, 0.62-0.66) in the Epigene-QSkin Study, and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.60-0.67) in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health Cohort Study. Model calibration showed close agreement between predicted and observed numbers of incident melanomas across all deciles of predicted risk. In the external validation setting, there was higher net benefit when using the risk prediction

  1. Gis-Based Method in Developing Wildfire Risk Model (Case Study in Sasamba, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarunton Boonyanuphap

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisis pemetaan lengkap (Cemplete Mapping Analysis yang berbasis sistem informasi geografis (SIG digunakan untuk melakukan pembobotan terhadap nilai “vulnerability” dari faktor-faktor resiko dalam rangka membangun suatu model dan memetakan kelas-kelas resiko kebakaran liar. Ada dua faktor utama, yaitu faktor lingkungan fisik dan aktifitas manusia yang sangat mempengaruhi terjadinya kebakaran hutan. Model yang ditemukan pada saat ini memperlihatkan bahwa kelembaban relatif adalah faktor terpenting diantara faktor lingkungan fisik, sementara jarak terhadap pusat-pusat pemukiman merupakan faktor terpenting diantara faktor aktifitas manusia. Diketahui juga bahwa, terjadinya kebakaran liar lebih banyak dipengaruhi oleh faktor aktifitas manusia daripada faktor lingkungan fisik. Pada studi ini, wilayah resiko kebakaran liar dibagi atas 3 kelas, dimana ditemukan bahwa kelas resiko kebakaran tertinggi mendominasi lokasi penelitian, selanjutnya diikuti dengan kelas resiko sedang dan rendah. Berdasarkan hasil verifikasi, model hanya berhasil menduga kelas resiko tinggi yaitu sebesar 76,05%, sementara gagal dalam menduga resiko kebakaran sedang dan rendah (lebih rendah dari 40%.

  2. Model Based Temporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Marla J.; Spinrad, Paul R.; Fall, Thomas C.

    1988-03-01

    Systems that assess the real world must cope with evidence that is uncertain, ambiguous, and spread over time. Typically, the most important function of an assessment system is to identify when activities are occurring that are unusual or unanticipated. Model based temporal reasoning addresses both of these requirements. The differences among temporal reasoning schemes lies in the methods used to avoid computational intractability. If we had n pieces of data and we wanted to examine how they were related, the worst case would be where we had to examine every subset of these points to see if that subset satisfied the relations. This would be 2n, which is intractable. Models compress this; if several data points are all compatible with a model, then that model represents all those data points. Data points are then considered related if they lie within the same model or if they lie in models that are related. Models thus address the intractability problem. They also address the problem of determining unusual activities if the data do not agree with models that are indicated by earlier data then something out of the norm is taking place. The models can summarize what we know up to that time, so when they are not predicting correctly, either something unusual is happening or we need to revise our models. The model based reasoner developed at Advanced Decision Systems is thus both intuitive and powerful. It is currently being used on one operational system and several prototype systems. It has enough power to be used in domains spanning the spectrum from manufacturing engineering and project management to low-intensity conflict and strategic assessment.

  3. Model-based Development of Safety-critical Functions and ISO 26262 Work Products using modified EAST-ADL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Sari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Safety is becoming more and more important with the ever increasing level of safety related E/E Systems built into the cars. Increasing functionality of vehicle systems through electrification of power train, in future even more by autonomous driving, leads to complexity in designing system, software and safety architecture. ISO 26262 aims to reduce the complexity and to approve the traceability of the different safety activities. This paper presents an approach about model-based development of system, software and safety architecture using Electronics Architecture and Software Technology – Architecture Description Language (EAST-ADL, being in line with the relevant standard ISO 26262. In particular, we briefly discuss how the main safety related activities, such as hazard analysis and risk assessment, developing functional and technical safety concepts and performing safety analysis can be performed model-based and how the activities can be related with system and software development. The state-of-art is also provided and compared with the proposed approach.

  4. Developing an open data lifecycle model based on literature and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, A.F.E. van; Broek, T.A. van den; Bastiaans, M.; Plas, A. van der

    2013-01-01

    Government organizations around the world have developed open data strategies to increase transparency and enable re-use of their data. Semi-public organizations follow, aiming to use open data also for commercial purposes. However, in practice, many organizations find the process of opening up

  5. A Curriculum Development Model Based on Deforestation and the Work of Kafka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, David

    1991-01-01

    A tongue-in-cheek look at methods used for curriculum development by many colleges and universities compares the process to two others: destruction of trees and trial by ordeal. Forests are destroyed to produce large quantities of paper for printing of curricula in many versions, followed by Kafkaesque committee scrutiny. (MSE)

  6. Development of a model for organisation of and cooperation on home-based rehabilitation - an action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steihaug, Sissel; Lippestad, Jan-W; Isaksen, Hanne; Werner, Anne

    2014-01-01

    To use general policy guidelines and staff experience of rehabilitation work in two boroughs in Oslo to develop a model for organisation and cooperation in home-based rehabilitation. The project was conducted as a collaboration between researchers and employees in the two boroughs. It was a practice-oriented study designed as an action research project combining knowledge generation and improvement of practice. Data were collected at seven meetings, and individual, qualitative interviews with a total of 24 persons were conducted in the period February 2010 to June 2011. Home-based rehabilitation occurred rarely in the boroughs, and this field received little attention. However, this project provided a broad discussion of rehabilitation involving all parts of the organisation of both boroughs. In the course of the project, researchers and borough staff together developed a model for the organisation of and cooperation on rehabilitation including a coordinating unit assigned the paramount responsibility for the rehabilitation and an interdisciplinary team organising the collaboration on the practical level. When implementing a model like this in primary health services, we recommend involving several levels and service locations of the borough staff in order to legitimise the model in the organisation. An increasing number of older people with chronic diseases in the Western world have caused increasing emphasis on rehabilitation in primary health care in patients' homes. This study has elucidated challenging framework conditions for rehabilitation work in two Norwegian boroughs. To reduce municipal challenges we propose a rehabilitation model with a coordinating unit with the paramount responsibility for rehabilitation, and an interdisciplinary team constituting a suitable structure for collaboration.

  7. Development of interactive graphic user interfaces for modeling reaction-based biogeochemical processes in batch systems with BIOGEOCHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Li, M.; Yeh, G.

    2010-12-01

    The BIOGEOCHEM numerical model (Yeh and Fang, 2002; Fang et al., 2003) was developed with FORTRAN for simulating reaction-based geochemical and biochemical processes with mixed equilibrium and kinetic reactions in batch systems. A complete suite of reactions including aqueous complexation, adsorption/desorption, ion-exchange, redox, precipitation/dissolution, acid-base reactions, and microbial mediated reactions were embodied in this unique modeling tool. Any reaction can be treated as fast/equilibrium or slow/kinetic reaction. An equilibrium reaction is modeled with an implicit finite rate governed by a mass action equilibrium equation or by a user-specified algebraic equation. A kinetic reaction is modeled with an explicit finite rate with an elementary rate, microbial mediated enzymatic kinetics, or a user-specified rate equation. None of the existing models has encompassed this wide array of scopes. To ease the input/output learning curve using the unique feature of BIOGEOCHEM, an interactive graphic user interface was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio and .Net tools. Several user-friendly features, such as pop-up help windows, typo warning messages, and on-screen input hints, were implemented, which are robust. All input data can be real-time viewed and automated to conform with the input file format of BIOGEOCHEM. A post-processor for graphic visualizations of simulated results was also embedded for immediate demonstrations. By following data input windows step by step, errorless BIOGEOCHEM input files can be created even if users have little prior experiences in FORTRAN. With this user-friendly interface, the time effort to conduct simulations with BIOGEOCHEM can be greatly reduced.

  8. Development of a model for particulate matter pollution in Australia with implications for other satellite-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gavin; Lee, Hyung Joo; Bell, Michelle; Regan, Annette; Malacova, Eva; Mullins, Ben; Knibbs, Luke D

    2017-11-01

    Estimating exposure to particulate matter (PM 10 ) air pollution concentrations in Australia is challenging due to relatively few monitoring sites relative to the geographic distribution of the population. We modelled daily ground-level PM 10 concentrations for the period 2006-2011 for Australia using linear mixed models with satellite remote-sensed AOD, land-use and geographical variables as predictors. The variation in daily PM 10 explained by the model was 51% for Australia overall, and ranged from 51% for Tasmania to 78% for South Australia. Cross-validation indicated that the models were most suitable for prediction in New South Wales and Victoria and least suitable for prediction in Western Australia, the Australian Capital Territory and Tasmania. Most of the variation in PM 10 concentrations was explained by temporal rather than spatial variation. The inclusion of AOD and other predictors did not substantially improve model performance. Temporal models were sufficient to account for daily PM 10 variation recorded by statutory monitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of an interactive model of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant based on the RELAP/SCDAP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar C, J.H.; Ramos P, J.C.; Salazar S, E.; Chavez M, C.

    2003-01-01

    The present work describes the development of an interactive model of the Nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (CNLV) based on the RELAP/SCDAP nuclear code, and it incorporation to a classroom simulator. The functional prototype it allows to make evaluations for operational transients and postulates accidents, with capacitation purposes, training, analysis and design. It emphasizes on the methodology used to establish the inter activity. Such methodology, is based on a modular structure in the one that multiple processes can be executed in an independent way and where the generated information is stored in segments of shared memory (characteristic that allows the UNIX operating system) and sent to the different processes by means of communication routines developed in C programming language. The utility of the system is demonstrated by means of the use of interactive display graphics (mimic diagrams, pictorials and tendency graphics) for the simultaneous dynamic visualization of the variables more significant that involve to the pattern of a transitory event type (for example failure of the controller of feeding water in a BWR reactor). Near with the interactive module, it was developed a model of the reactor of the CNLV for the code of better estimation RELAP/SCDAP. Finally the evaluation of the model is described, where it is interpreted in general form the behavior of those main variables that describe the stationary state, corroborating that follow the same tendency that those reported in the FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report) of the Laguna Verde plant. The obtained results allow to conclude that the made development was satisfactory and that it presents enormous advantages regarding the capacity and time of analysis when using tools of visualization in real time of execution. (Author)

  10. Evaluation of an Educational Model Based on the Development of Sustainable Competencies in Basic Teacher Training in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vega-Marcote

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental deterioration of the planet, caused by unsustainable development and an unfair model, requires global change on a political, social and environmental level. To boost this change, it is necessary to redirect education and, specifically, environmental education, to educate citizens so that they are capable of making responsible decisions and behaving sustainably. The purpose of this study is to evaluate an educational teacher training model based on the development of sustainable competencies and on the solving of environmental problems. Its final aim is to search for a model that enables students to participate, individually and collectively, in the solution of socio-environmental problems in their surroundings, but without losing the global perspective, and that fosters sustainable life styles. To do so, a quasi-experimental quantitative research was performed with two pretest-posttest phases to compare the results of an active and participative methodology with another more expository one. The results show significant differences in the knowledge, attitudes and intention of the behavior of the aspiring teachers. Thus, this first analysis shows that the experiential educational model promotes and favors sustainable actions in higher education (the faculty of educational science, responsible for basic teacher training more efficiently and could be the basis for future proposals in this field.

  11. A Model of e-Learning by Constructivism Approach Using Problem-Based Learning to Develop Thinking Skills for Students in Rajaghat University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutimarrungson, Werayut; Pumipuntu, Sangkom; Noirid, Surachet

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to develop a model of e-learning by using Problem-Based Learning--PBL to develop thinking skills for students in Rajabhat University. The research is divided into three phases through the e-learning model via PBL with Constructivism approach as follows: Phase 1 was to study characteristics and factors through the model to…

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF WEB-BASED EXAMINATION SYSTEM USING OPEN SOURCE PROGRAMMING MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    ABASS, Olalere A.; OLAJIDE, Samuel A.; SAMUEL, Babafemi O.

    2017-01-01

    The traditional method of assessment (examination) is often characterized by examination questions leakages, human errors during marking of scripts and recording of scores. The technological advancement in the field of computer science has necessitated the need for computer usage in majorly all areas of human life and endeavors, education sector not excluded. This work, Web-based Examination System (WES) was, therefore, born out of the will to stymie the problems plaguing the conventional (pa...

  13. Development and implementation of pharmaceutical care planning software for nursing homes based on the Fleetwood Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapane, Kate L; Hiris, Jeffrey; Hughes, Carmel M; Feinberg, Janice

    2006-12-15

    The effectiveness of pharmaceutical care planning software for nursing homes and the extent to which the software assisted in the implementation of the Fleetwood Model are described. During the study, one long-term-care pharmacy identified 13 nursing homes to participate in the intervention group of a study evaluating the effectiveness of the Fleetwood Model. To successfully implement the Fleetwood Model, which demands prospective drug regimen review and collaborative practices between dispensing and consultant pharmacists, a software system that exchanged information between these pharmacists was deemed necessary. Pharmacists' self-reported assessments of the use of the software and the technical difficulties reported with its use were collected. The number of interventions performed by pharmacist type, the proportion of residents receiving interventions by multiple pharmacists, and the extent to which the interventions were prospective and performed before the mandated 30-day review were estimated from data documented in the software. The consistency of software use by the pharmacists was also estimated. Seventy-one percent of dispensing pharmacists and 40% of consultant pharmacists reported using the software most or all of the time. Fourteen percent of dispensing pharmacists and 40% of consultant pharmacists reported technical difficulties with the software. Over half of newly admitted or readmitted residents received a Fleetwood intervention within 3 days of admittance into the nursing home-71.2% occurred in less than 30 days of admission. The use of information technology to increase communication among health care professionals and assist in providing prospective drug regimen review in long-term-care facilities is feasible. Collaboration and extensive field testing with end users, realistic expectations, appropriate training, and technical support are necessary when implementing new technology.

  14. Developing mathematical modelling competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten; Jensen, Tomas Højgaard

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of mathematical modelling competence, by which we mean being able to carry through a whole mathematical modelling process in a certain context. Analysing the structure of this process, six sub-competences are identified. Mathematical modelling competence...... cannot be reduced to these six sub-competences, but they are necessary elements in the development of mathematical modelling competence. Experience from the development of a modelling course is used to illustrate how the different nature of the sub-competences can be used as a tool for finding...... the balance between different kinds of activities in a particular educational setting. Obstacles of social, cognitive and affective nature for the students' development of mathematical modelling competence are reported and discussed in relation to the sub-competences....

  15. Developing dynamic conflict resolution models based on the interpretation of personal conflict styles

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Davide Rua; Gomes, Marco; Novais, Paulo; Neves, José

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings of the 15th Portuguese conference on Artificial Intelligence - (EPIA 2011), Lisboa, Portugal, 2011. Conflict resolution is a classic field of Social Science research. However, with conflicts now also emerging in virtual environments, a new field of research has been developing in which Artificial Intelligence and particularly Ambient Intelligence are interesting. As result, the field of Online Dispute Resolution emerged as the use (in part or entirely) of technological tools to...

  16. Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearney, Sean Patrick; Jilek, Brook Anton; Kohl, Ian Thomas; Farrow, Darcie; Urayama, Junji

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of an LDRD project to develop diagnostics to perform fundamental measurements of material properties during shock compression of condensed phase materials at micron spatial scales and picosecond time scales. The report is structured into three main chapters, which each focus on a different diagnostic devel opment effort. Direct picosecond laser drive is used to introduce shock waves into thin films of energetic and inert materials. The resulting laser - driven shock properties are probed via Ultrafast Time Domain Interferometry (UTDI), which can additionally be used to generate shock Hugoniot data in tabletop experiments. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is developed as a temperature diagnostic. A transient absorption spectroscopy setup has been developed to probe shock - induced changes during shock compressio n. UTDI results are presented under dynamic, direct - laser - drive conditions and shock Hugoniots are estimated for inert polystyrene samples and for the explosive hexanitroazobenzene, with results from both Sandia and Lawrence Livermore presented here. SRS a nd transient absorption diagnostics are demonstrated on static thin - film samples, and paths forward to dynamic experiments are presented.

  17. Autogenerator-based modelling framework for development of strategic games simulations: rational pigs game extended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabac, Robert; Radošević, Danijel; Magdalenić, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    When considering strategic games from the conceptual perspective that focuses on the questions of participants' decision-making rationality, the very issues of modelling and simulation are rarely discussed. The well-known Rational Pigs matrix game has been relatively intensively analyzed in terms of reassessment of the logic of two players involved in asymmetric situations as gluttons that differ significantly by their attributes. This paper presents a successful attempt of using autogenerator for creating the framework of the game, including the predefined scenarios and corresponding payoffs. Autogenerator offers flexibility concerning the specification of game parameters, which consist of variations in the number of simultaneous players and their features and game objects and their attributes as well as some general game characteristics. In the proposed approach the model of autogenerator was upgraded so as to enable program specification updates. For the purpose of treatment of more complex strategic scenarios, we created the Rational Pigs Game Extended (RPGE), in which the introduction of a third glutton entails significant structural changes. In addition, due to the existence of particular attributes of the new player, "the tramp," one equilibrium point from the original game is destabilized which has an influence on the decision-making of rational players.

  18. Development of a Model-Based Systems Engineering Application for the Ground Vehicle Robotics Sustainment Industrial Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    symbols, human perceptual processing, human eye properties, visual attention, the Gestalt laws of pattern perception, visual objects perception...visual grammars like Systems Modeling Language (SysML), are considered to be applications of Gestalt laws. Specialized software available in the market... psychological inertia (PI) associated with engineers stepping outside their background to observe useful patterns. The authors deemed that aligning the 39

  19. Facilitating superior chronic disease management through a knowledge-based systems development model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nilmini S; Goldberg, Steve

    2008-01-01

    To date, the adoption and diffusion of technology-enabled solutions to deliver better healthcare has been slow. There are many reasons for this. One of the most significant is that the existing methodologies that are normally used in general for Information and Communications Technology (ICT) implementations tend to be less successful in a healthcare context. This paper describes a knowledge-based adaptive mapping to realisation methodology to traverse successfully from idea to realisation rapidly and without compromising rigour so that success ensues. It is discussed in connection with trying to implement superior ICT-enabled approaches to facilitate superior Chronic Disease Management (CDM).

  20. Development and validation of a CFD-based steam reformer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Dahlqvist, Mathis; Saksager, Anders

    2006-01-01

    a detailed mechanism for the reforming reactions. Heat exchange between the flue gas and reformate streams through the reformer reactor walls was also included as a conjugate heat transfer process.  From a review of published models for the catalytic steam reforming of ethanol and preliminary predictions...... in a commercial ethanol steam reformer. The illustrations below show the measurements locations and predicted and measured temperature profiles. From detailed comparison with the measurements it was concluded that a mechanism for catalytic steam reforming of methane gives a reasonably accurate representation......Steam reforming of liquid biofuels (ethanol, bio-diesel etc.) represents a sustainable source of hydrogen for micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production as well as Auxiliary Power Units (APUs). In relation to the design of the steam reforming reactor several parameter are important including...

  1. Development and Sensitivity Analysis of a Frost Risk model based primarily on freely distributed Earth Observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louka, Panagiota; Petropoulos, George; Papanikolaou, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    The ability to map the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme climatic conditions, such as frost, is a significant tool in successful agricultural management and decision making. Nowadays, with the development of Earth Observation (EO) technology, it is possible to obtain accurately, timely and in a cost-effective way information on the spatiotemporal distribution of frost conditions, particularly over large and otherwise inaccessible areas. The present study aimed at developing and evaluating a frost risk prediction model, exploiting primarily EO data from MODIS and ASTER sensors and ancillary ground observation data. For the evaluation of our model, a region in north-western Greece was selected as test site and a detailed sensitivity analysis was implemented. The agreement between the model predictions and the observed (remotely sensed) frost frequency obtained by MODIS sensor was evaluated thoroughly. Also, detailed comparisons of the model predictions were performed against reference frost ground observations acquired from the Greek Agricultural Insurance Organization (ELGA) over a period of 10-years (2000-2010). Overall, results evidenced the ability of the model to produce reasonably well the frost conditions, following largely explainable patterns in respect to the study site and local weather conditions characteristics. Implementation of our proposed frost risk model is based primarily on satellite imagery analysis provided nowadays globally at no cost. It is also straightforward and computationally inexpensive, requiring much less effort in comparison for example to field surveying. Finally, the method is adjustable to be potentially integrated with other high resolution data available from both commercial and non-commercial vendors. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, frost risk mapping, GIS, remote sensing, MODIS, Greece

  2. Developing CORE model-based worksheet with recitation task to facilitate students’ mathematical communication skills in linear algebra course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risnawati; Khairinnisa, S.; Darwis, A. H.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a CORE model-based worksheet with recitation task that were valid and practical and could facilitate students’ communication skills in Linear Algebra course. This study was conducted in mathematics education department of one public university in Riau, Indonesia. Participants of the study were media and subject matter experts as validators as well as students from mathematics education department. The objects of this study are students’ worksheet and students’ mathematical communication skills. The results of study showed that: (1) based on validation of the experts, the developed students’ worksheet was valid and could be applied for students in Linear Algebra courses; (2) based on the group trial, the practicality percentage was 92.14% in small group and 90.19% in large group, so the worksheet was very practical and could attract students to learn; and (3) based on the post test, the average percentage of ideals was 87.83%. In addition, the results showed that the students’ worksheet was able to facilitate students’ mathematical communication skills in linear algebra course.

  3. Development of 4D mathematical observer models for the task-based evaluation of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taek-Soo; Frey, Eric C.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents two 4D mathematical observer models for the detection of motion defects in 4D gated medical images. Their performance was compared with results from human observers in detecting a regional motion abnormality in simulated 4D gated myocardial perfusion (MP) SPECT images. The first 4D mathematical observer model extends the conventional channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) based on a set of 2D spatial channels and the second is a proposed model that uses a set of 4D space-time channels. Simulated projection data were generated using the 4D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom with 16 gates/cardiac cycle. The activity distribution modelled uptake of 99mTc MIBI with normal perfusion and a regional wall motion defect. An analytical projector was used in the simulation and the filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm was used in image reconstruction followed by spatial and temporal low-pass filtering with various cut-off frequencies. Then, we extracted 2D image slices from each time frame and reorganized them into a set of cine images. For the first model, we applied 2D spatial channels to the cine images and generated a set of feature vectors that were stacked for the images from different slices of the heart. The process was repeated for each of the 1,024 noise realizations, and CHO and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis methodologies were applied to the ensemble of the feature vectors to compute areas under the ROC curves (AUCs). For the second model, a set of 4D space-time channels was developed and applied to the sets of cine images to produce space-time feature vectors to which the CHO methodology was applied. The AUC values of the second model showed better agreement (Spearman’s rank correlation (SRC) coefficient = 0.8) to human observer results than those from the first model (SRC coefficient = 0.4). The agreement with human observers indicates the proposed 4D mathematical observer model provides a good predictor of the

  4. Development of 4D mathematical observer models for the task-based evaluation of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Taek-Soo; Frey, Eric C; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two 4D mathematical observer models for the detection of motion defects in 4D gated medical images. Their performance was compared with results from human observers in detecting a regional motion abnormality in simulated 4D gated myocardial perfusion (MP) SPECT images. The first 4D mathematical observer model extends the conventional channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) based on a set of 2D spatial channels and the second is a proposed model that uses a set of 4D space-time channels. Simulated projection data were generated using the 4D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom with 16 gates/cardiac cycle. The activity distribution modelled uptake of 99m Tc MIBI with normal perfusion and a regional wall motion defect. An analytical projector was used in the simulation and the filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm was used in image reconstruction followed by spatial and temporal low-pass filtering with various cut-off frequencies. Then, we extracted 2D image slices from each time frame and reorganized them into a set of cine images. For the first model, we applied 2D spatial channels to the cine images and generated a set of feature vectors that were stacked for the images from different slices of the heart. The process was repeated for each of the 1,024 noise realizations, and CHO and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis methodologies were applied to the ensemble of the feature vectors to compute areas under the ROC curves (AUCs). For the second model, a set of 4D space-time channels was developed and applied to the sets of cine images to produce space-time feature vectors to which the CHO methodology was applied. The AUC values of the second model showed better agreement (Spearman’s rank correlation (SRC) coefficient = 0.8) to human observer results than those from the first model (SRC coefficient = 0.4). The agreement with human observers indicates the proposed 4D mathematical observer model provides a good predictor of the

  5. Development of an Agent-based Model to Analyze Contemporary Helium Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Matthew E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Uckun, Canan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Conzelmann, Guenter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Macal, Charles M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Although U.S. helium demand has remained relatively flat since 2009, exports of helium have increased significantly since then, driven primarily by demand for electronic and semiconductor manufacturing in Asia. In the midst of this global demand shift, the Helium Act dictates a new procedure for pricing and distributing the gas through a reserve that historically functioned as a loose “oligarchy.” The new procedure requires prices to be determined by the open market through auctions and a survey of market prices, as opposed to increasing prices according to the consumer price index. Response to these changes has caused temporary shortages, price increases, and a significant increase in the development of the helium extraction technologies used to produce helium from formerly marginal sources. Technologies are being developed and refined to extract helium from formerly low-yielding natural gas fields containing much lower amounts of helium than the previously considered economic threshold of 0.3%. Combining these transformative policies with the potential for new and significant global supplies from Qatar, Algeria, and Russia could lead to new and unforeseen market behaviors and reactions from global helium markets. The objective of the project is to analyze the global helium markets.

  6. Evidence-Based IT Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Evidence-based IT development aims at developing a new commercial contract model for IT projects where the cus-tomers payment is dependent on measurable effects of using the vendors system. The idea is to establish a strategic part-nership in which customer and IT vendor share the responsi-bility...

  7. Challenges of Biomass in a Development Model Based on Renewable Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, F.; González-González, A.; Ruiz-Celma, A.; López-Rodríguez, F.; García-Sanz-Calcedo, J.; García, J. A.; Mena, A.

    Although fire has been known to mankind for about 500,000 years, the implementation of biomass energy in the world has barely changed since then, having been used mainly for heat production. To this end, an estimated global consumption of biomass accounts for 10.6% of total world consumption of primary energy. However, the use of biomass as transportation fuel or for generation of electricity is not displayed in the annual world, European, or national statistics, as if its contribution to primary energy consumption was insignificant. What is the reason behind this? Why is the development of biomass only limited to its thermal use? Why is the production of biomass for electricity and transportation purposes not increasing? And what is then happening to biomass? The present article addresses issues that, in our view, limit the incursion of biomass in current energy systems and provides some answers to solve them.

  8. 3D Product Development for Loose-Fitting Garments Based on Parametric Human Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywinski, S.; Siegmund, J.

    2017-10-01

    Researchers and commercial suppliers worldwide pursue the objective of achieving a more transparent garment construction process that is computationally linked to a virtual body, in order to save development costs over the long term. The current aim is not to transfer the complete pattern making step to a 3D design environment but to work out basic constructions in 3D that provide excellent fit due to their accurate construction and morphological pattern grading (automatic change of sizes in 3D) in respect of sizes and body types. After a computer-aided derivation of 2D pattern parts, these can be made available to the industry as a basis on which to create more fashionable variations.

  9. Schizophrenia and reelin: a model based on prenatal stress to study epigenetics, brain development and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Negrón-Oyarzo

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder that results in a significant disability for the patient. The disorder is characterized by impairment of the adaptive orchestration of actions, a cognitive function that is mainly dependent on the prefrontal cortex. This behavioral deficit, together with cellular and neurophysiological alterations in the prefrontal cortex, as well as reduced density of GABAergic cells and aberrant oscillatory activity, all indicate structural and functional deficits of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Among the several risk factors for the development of schizophrenia, stress during the prenatal period has been identified as crucial. Thus, it is proposed that prenatal stress induces neurodevelopmental alterations in the prefrontal cortex that are expressed as cognitive impairment observed in schizophrenia. However, the precise mechanisms that link prenatal stress with the impairment of prefrontal cortex function is largely unknown. Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein involved in the development of cortical neural connectivity at embryonic stages, and in synaptic plasticity at postnatal stages. Interestingly, down-regulation of reelin expression has been associated with epigenetic changes in the reelin gene of the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. We recently showed that, similar to schizophrenic patients, prenatal stress induces down-expression of reelin associated with the methylation of its promoter in the rodent prefrontal cortex. These alterations were paralleled with altered prefrontal cortex functional connectivity and impairment in prefrontal cortex-dependent behavioral tasks. Therefore, considering molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral evidence, we propose a unifying framework that links prenatal stress and prefrontal malfunction through epigenetic alterations of the reelin gene.

  10. Modelling the future development of renewable energy technologies in the European electricity sector using agent-based simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Anne Mirjam [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Increasing the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in final energy consumption forms an important part of the EU's energy and climate strategy due to the potential contribution of RES to climate protection and security of supply and to the economic competitiveness of the energy system. Several factors substantially influence the future prospects for the use of renewable energy technologies (RET); these include the combination of regionally heterogeneous resource availability and electricity generation costs, referred to as cost-resource curves. Most of the existing RET are not yet economically competitive with conventional conversion technologies. To try and make renewable energy technologies (RET) economically viable for investors, various policy support schemes, such as feed-in tariffs or quota obligations, have been applied for over a decade. This raises the questions how the use of RES will develop in the future under different policy regimes and what the involved economic implications are. A quantitative modelling tool is developed in this thesis to assess the potential long-term contribution of RET in the European power sector. Since the future market development of RET is judged to depend in particular on individual investors' decisions, an agent-based simulation (ABS) approach is chosen. ABS is an approach which analyses global complexities based on interactions on the microlevel. This thesis pursues a novel approach to assessing RET diffusion processes and policies from an agent-based perspective based on spatially explicit cost-resource curves. The cost-resource curves derived in this analysis are adapted to the requirements of a multi-agent model. Owing to the detailed techno-economic characterisation of RET and the potential to depict various policy options, the developed simulation model could help to design policies suited to the relevant agents in the renewable energy sector, or point out existing investment opportunities for interested

  11. iPSC-Based Models to Unravel Key Pathogenetic Processes Underlying Motor Neuron Disease Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Faravelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron diseases (MNDs are neuromuscular disorders affecting rather exclusively upper motor neurons (UMNs and/or lower motor neurons (LMNs. The clinical phenotype is characterized by muscular weakness and atrophy leading to paralysis and almost invariably death due to respiratory failure. Adult MNDs include sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS-fALS, while the most common infantile MND is represented by spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. No effective treatment is ccurrently available for MNDs, as for the vast majority of neurodegenerative disorders, and cures are limited to supportive care and symptom relief. The lack of a deep understanding of MND pathogenesis accounts for the difficulties in finding a cure, together with the scarcity of reliable in vitro models. Recent progresses in stem cell field, in particular in the generation of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs has made possible for the first time obtaining substantial amounts of human cells to recapitulate in vitro some of the key pathogenetic processes underlying MNDs. In the present review, recently published studies involving the use of iPSCs to unravel aspects of ALS and SMA pathogenesis are discussed with an overview of their implications in the process of finding a cure for these still orphan disorders.

  12. Designing Citizen Business Loan Model to Reduce Non-Performing Loan: An Agent-based Modeling and Simulation Approach in Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses L Singgih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Citizen Business Loan (CBL constitutes a program poverty alleviation based on economic empowerment of small and medium enterprise. This study focuses on implementation of CBL at Regional Development Bank branch X. The problem is the existing of interdependencies between CBL’s implements (Bank and the uncertainty of debtor’s capability in returning the credit. The impact of this circumstance is non-performing loan (NPL becomes relatively high (22%. The ultimate objective is to minimize NPL by designing the model based on the agent that can represent the problem through a simulation using agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS. The model is considered by managing the probability of the debtor to pay or not based on 5 C categories, they are: character, capacity, capital, condition, and collateral that inherent to each debtor. There are two improvement scenarios proposed in this model. The first scenario only involves the first category of debtor in simulation. The result of this scenario is NPL value as 0%. The second scenario includes the first and second of debtor’s category in simulation and resulting NPL value between 4.6% and 11.4%.

  13. Developing a thermodynamic a conceptual model for the Itumbiara hydroelectric reservoir based on satellite and telemetric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enner Herenio de Alcântara

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic systems continually respond to climatic conditions that vary over broad scales of space and time. The response of each water body to external conditions (hydro-meteorological processes is revealed in the first place by the thermal structures present in water body. Most lacustrine chemical, physical and biological processes are affected directly by lake hydrological (e.g. lake depth and thermal changes (e.g. seasonal stratification, and are thus, indirectly affected by climate variation. Understanding lake-climate system interactions is therefore of fundamental importance to evaluate the effects of climate change on limnological processes. Based on this, the objective of this work was to develop a thermodynamic conceptual model for the Itumbiara hydroelectric reservoir (Goiás State, Brazil. The developed methodology was based on the use of satellite imagery of moderate resolution that allow the computation of the water surface temperature from 2003 to 2008 (six years during the daytime and nighttime. The results showed the potential of the use of moderate resolution satellite data to study water surface temperature variability and to explain the main causes of this variability. The use of hydro-meteorological and bulk temperature collected by station and autonomous buoy, respectively, contributed to better understand the physical processes in the mixed depth of the reservoir. Also the results allow the elaboration of conceptual models for the thermodynamics of the Itumbiara reservoir.

  14. Use of Unified Modeling Language (UML) in Model-Based Development (MBD) For Safety-Critical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    UML_AADL_Comparison.pdf. 49. Grady Booch, “Software Architecture, Software Engineering, and Renaissance Jazz, Microsoft and Domain Specific Languages,” December 2004...Software-Based Medical Devices Considering Medical Guidelines,” International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery , Engineering in Medicine

  15. Development of the ARISTOTLE webware for cloud-based rarefied gas flow modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Timothy R.; Grot, Jonathan; Cline, Jason A.

    2016-11-01

    Rarefied gas dynamics are important for a wide variety of applications. An improvement in the ability of general users to predict these gas flows will enable optimization of current, and discovery of future processes. Despite this potential, most rarefied simulation software is designed by and for experts in the community. This has resulted in low adoption of the methods outside of the immediate RGD community. This paper outlines an ongoing effort to create a rarefied gas dynamics simulation tool that can be used by a general audience. The tool leverages a direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) library that is available to the entire community and a web-based simulation process that will enable all users to take advantage of high performance computing capabilities. First, the DSMC library and simulation architecture are described. Then the DSMC library is used to predict a number of representative transient gas flows that are applicable to the rarefied gas dynamics community. The paper closes with a summary and future direction.

  16. Developing a suitable model for supplier selection based on supply chain risks: an empirical study from Iranian pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Rajabzadeh Gatari, Ali; Morakabati, Mohadese; Vatanpour, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The supply chain represents the critical link between the development of new product and the market in pharmaceutical industry. Over the years, improvements made in supply chain operations have focused largely on ways to reduce cost and gain efficiencies in scale. In addition, powerful regulatory and market forces have provided new incentives for pharmaceutical firms to basically rethink the way they produce and distribute products, and also to re-imagine the role of the supply chain in driving strategic growth, brand differentiation and economic value in the health continuum. The purpose of this paper is to formulate basic factors involved in risk analysis of pharmaceutical industry, and also determine the effective factors involved in suppliers selection and their priorities. This paper is based on the results of literature review, experts' opinion acquisition, statistical analysis and also using MADM models on data gathered from distributed questionnaires. The model consists of the following steps and components: first factors involved in to supply chain risks are determined. Based on them a framework is considered. According the result of statistical analysis and MADM models the risk factors are formulated. The paper determines the main components and influenceial factors involving in the supply chain risks. Results showed that delivery risk can make an important contribution to mitigate the risk of pharmaceutical industry.

  17. Developing a Suitable Model for Supplier Selection Based on Supply Chain Risks: An Empirical Study from Iranian Pharmaceutical Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Rajabzadeh Gatari, Ali; Morakabati, Mohadese; Vatanpour, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The supply chain represents the critical link between the development of new product and the market in pharmaceutical industry. Over the years, improvements made in supply chain operations have focused largely on ways to reduce cost and gain efficiencies in scale. In addition, powerful regulatory and market forces have provided new incentives for pharmaceutical firms to basically rethink the way they produce and distribute products, and also to re-imagine the role of the supply chain in driving strategic growth, brand differentiation and economic value in the health continuum. The purpose of this paper is to formulate basic factors involved in risk analysis of pharmaceutical industry, and also determine the effective factors involved in suppliers selection and their priorities. This paper is based on the results of literature review, experts’ opinion acquisition, statistical analysis and also using MADM models on data gathered from distributed questionnaires. The model consists of the following steps and components: first factors involved in to supply chain risks are determined. Based on them a framework is considered. According the result of statistical analysis and MADM models the risk factors are formulated. The paper determines the main components and influenceial factors involving in the supply chain risks. Results showed that delivery risk can make an important contribution to mitigate the risk of pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24250442

  18. Model-based Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2010-01-01

    The vision of model-based software engineering is to make models the main focus of software development and to automatically generate software from these models. Part of that idea works already today. But, there are still difficulties when it comes to behaviour. Actually, there is no lack in models...

  19. Development of a mobile application based on RUSLE model to predict erosion in olive groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Moreno, Víctor Javier; Redel, María Dolores; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2017-04-01

    Environmental impact of agriculture in fragile areas such as the Mediterranean Basin due to its scarcity and/or variability of water resources or to their susceptibility to soil erosion may be extremely damaging. Over 96% of the world's olive oil is produced in Mediterranean countries (FAOSTAT, 2014). Suitable managements and environmental evaluations of the conditions in olive cultivation farms is of major relevance for countries such as Spain, particularly in Andalusia (in Southern Spain) with an olive orchard area of 1.5 Mha (CAP, 2016). The average erosion rates in olive orchard in Southern Spain are approximately 19 tons.ha-1.year-1. It is worth noting how 23% of this surface presents high or very high erosion rates with values over 50 tons.ha-1.year-1 (Areal, 2014). Most of farmers implement soil conservation practices only when have they perceived high erosion risk (Franco, 2011: Taguas and Gómez, 2015). On the other hand, technicians also require proper technological tools to evaluate in a straightforward way, soil loss risk in the field. Simple tools integrated into smartphones may enable us to evaluate soil erosion rates through minimum information; which would be a great help in raising farmer awareness as well as in environmental control. In this work, the preliminary version of RIESGO (Risk Index for Erosion Soil in Olive Groves) , -an APP mobile based in SECO (Soil Erosion Calculator in Olives; Marín-Moreno et al. 2013) that promises broad functionality to identify soil loss risk in the field,- is presented. Features such as simple screens, a reduced group of input data, calculations for R and K factors based on environmental information of Andalusia which are identified from geographical coordinates and a new method of obtaining factor C from empirical data have been integrated to fit its use in the field. RIESGO is and hybrid application which was programmed by using web technologies HTML, CSS and JavaScript, and built with Visual Studio Tools for

  20. Development and assessment of a lysophospholipid-based deep learning model to discriminate geographical origins of white rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Lim, Dong Kyu; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Giyoung; Kwon, Sung Won

    2017-08-17

    Geographical origin determination of white rice has become the major issue of food industry. However, there is still lack of a high-throughput method for rapidly and reproducibly differentiating the geographical origins of commercial white rice. In this study, we developed a method that employed lipidomics and deep learning to discriminate white rice from Korea to China. A total of 126 white rice of 30 cultivars from different regions were utilized for the method development and validation. By using direct infusion-mass spectrometry-based targeted lipidomics, 17 lysoglycerophospholipids were simultaneously characterized within minutes per sample. Unsupervised data exploration showed a noticeable overlap of white rice between two countries. In addition, lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs) were prominent in white rice from Korea while lysophosphatidylethanolamines (lysoPEs) were enriched in white rice from China. A deep learning prediction model was built using 2014 white rice and validated using two different batches of 2015 white rice. The model accurately discriminated white rice from two countries. Among 10 selected predictors, lysoPC(18:2), lysoPC(14:0), and lysoPE(16:0) were the three most important features. Random forest and gradient boosting machine models also worked well in this circumstance. In conclusion, this study provides an architecture for high-throughput classification of white rice from different geographical origins.

  1. Rapid development of entity-based data models for bioinformatics with persistence object-oriented design and structured interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra Tsur, Elishai

    2017-01-01

    Databases are imperative for research in bioinformatics and computational biology. Current challenges in database design include data heterogeneity and context-dependent interconnections between data entities. These challenges drove the development of unified data interfaces and specialized databases. The curation of specialized databases is an ever-growing challenge due to the introduction of new data sources and the emergence of new relational connections between established datasets. Here, an open-source framework for the curation of specialized databases is proposed. The framework supports user-designed models of data encapsulation, objects persistency and structured interfaces to local and external data sources such as MalaCards, Biomodels and the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databases. The proposed framework was implemented using Java as the development environment, EclipseLink as the data persistency agent and Apache Derby as the database manager. Syntactic analysis was based on J3D, jsoup, Apache Commons and w3c.dom open libraries. Finally, a construction of a specialized database for aneurysms associated vascular diseases is demonstrated. This database contains 3-dimensional geometries of aneurysms, patient's clinical information, articles, biological models, related diseases and our recently published model of aneurysms' risk of rapture. Framework is available in: http://nbel-lab.com.

  2. Development of an activity-based costing model to evaluate physician office practice profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugel, Pravin U; Tong, Kuo Bianchini

    2011-01-01

    Newer treatment regimens for age-related macular degeneration have significantly affected traditional and non-traditional retinal services across all types of practice settings around the country as they seek to find a balance among delivering best patient care, keeping operating costs under control, and maintaining profitability. A systematic retrospective review of a multi-city, multi-physician retinal practice's accounting system to obtain data on revenues, expenses, and profit. Data reviewed were from practice management systems to obtain claims level data on clinical procedures across 7 primary activity centers: non-laser surgery, laser surgery, office visits, optical coherence tomography (OCT), non-OCT diagnostics, drugs and drug injections, and research. All treated patients from a retina practice from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2007. Retrospective claims data review from a multi-physician retina practice detailing Current Procedural Terminology and Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System procedures performed and billed, submitted charges, allowed charges, and net collections. Analyses were performed by an outside firm and verified by a risk advisory firm. Identifying practice efficiencies/inefficiencies as they relate to patient care. An elaborate analysis using activity-based costing (ABC) showed that increased office visits and OCT and non-OCT diagnostics had a significant negative impact on the practice's profit margins, whereas surgical procedures contributed to the majority of the practice's profit margins because of the lower operating costs associated with surgery. The practice was able to accommodate the demand in patient volume, medical retina services, and medical imaging with the advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy and realized a seismic shift in operating costs. The practice attempted to deliver state-of-the-art patient care in a cost-effective manner, yet underwent a significant decline in its financial health

  3. Development and Verification of a Pilot Code based on Two-fluid Three-field Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Bae, S. W.; Lee, Y. J.; Chung, B. D.; Jeong, J. J.; Ha, K. S.; Kang, D. H.

    2006-09-01

    In this study, a semi-implicit pilot code is developed for a one-dimensional channel flow as three-fields. The three fields are comprised of a gas, continuous liquid and entrained liquid fields. All the three fields are allowed to have their own velocities. The temperatures of the continuous liquid and the entrained liquid are, however, assumed to be equilibrium. The interphase phenomena include heat and mass transfer, as well as momentum transfer. The fluid/structure interaction, generally, include both heat and momentum transfer. Assuming adiabatic system, only momentum transfer is considered in this study, leaving the wall heat transfer for the future study. Using 10 conceptual problems, the basic pilot code has been verified. The results of the verification are summarized below: It was confirmed that the basic pilot code can simulate various flow conditions (such as single-phase liquid flow, bubbly flow, slug/churn turbulent flow, annular-mist flow, and single-phase vapor flow) and transitions of the flow conditions. The pilot code was programmed so that the source terms of the governing equations and numerical solution schemes can be easily tested. The mass and energy conservation was confirmed for single-phase liquid and single-phase vapor flows. It was confirmed that the inlet pressure and velocity boundary conditions work properly. It was confirmed that, for single- and two-phase flows, the velocity and temperature of non-existing phase are calculated as intended. Complete phase depletion which might occur during a phase change was found to adversely affect the code stability. A further study would be required to enhance code capability in this regard

  4. Development of a wide band radiative transfer model based on a fast correlated k-distributions generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croize, Laurence; Pierro, Jean; Huet, Thierry; Labarre, Luc

    2016-04-01

    MATISSE which acronym means Advanced Modeling of the Earth for Environment and Scenes Simulation is developed by ONERA since the mid 1990's. The code main functionality is to compute spectral or integrated natural background radiance images. Natural backgrounds include the atmosphere, low and high altitude clouds, sea and land. It can also provide specific radiative atmospheric terms as path transmission, path radiances, sky radiances or local illumination around a target point. Spectral bandwidth ranges from 700 to 25000 cm-1 wavenumber (i.e. from 0.4 to 14 μm). As far as molecular absorption is concerned, MATISSE v2.0 is based on a correlated K (CK) model and needs a pre-generation of the k-distributions. This method is very precise but is time consuming and is done as an offline calculation. In answer to the increasing need of rapid radiative transfer codes, the future version of the MATISSE v3.0 will include a fast radiative transfer model at low and at medium spectral resolution. This work aims to develop a fast wide band CK model for the acceleration of radiative transfer calculation. As a first step, a statistical k-distributions fast generator was developed. It allows generating k-distributions from 700 to 25000 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 1 cm-1 in less than 30 ms(*) for one altitude (that means about three orders of magnitude faster than before). Such speed allows generating k-distributions online. To validate the model, we have compared the obtained transmission spectra with reference spectra using a mix of 6 molecules (H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, CO, CH4) in homogenous atmosphere corresponding to different altitudes from 0 to 105 km. Reference spectra were calculated as the convolution of a spectrum obtained with a line by line model and a gate function of 1 cm-1 wide. An average difference of 3×10-3 % and a standard deviation of 3.3% were typically obtained. As a second step, this method of rapid k-distributions generation is now being coupled with a

  5. Development of a risk prediction model for lung cancer: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Hadrien; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Shimazu, Taichi; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Inoue, Manami; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2018-03-01

    Although the impact of tobacco consumption on the occurrence of lung cancer is well-established, risk estimation could be improved by risk prediction models that consider various smoking habits, such as quantity, duration, and time since quitting. We constructed a risk prediction model using a population of 59 161 individuals from the Japan Public Health Center (JPHC) Study Cohort II. A parametric survival model was used to assess the impact of age, gender, and smoking-related factors (cumulative smoking intensity measured in pack-years, age at initiation, and time since cessation). Ten-year cumulative probability of lung cancer occurrence estimates were calculated with consideration of the competing risk of death from other causes. Finally, the model was externally validated using 47 501 individuals from JPHC Study Cohort I. A total of 1210 cases of lung cancer occurred during 986 408 person-years of follow-up. We found a dose-dependent effect of tobacco consumption with hazard ratios for current smokers ranging from 3.78 (2.00-7.16) for cumulative consumption ≤15 pack-years to 15.80 (9.67-25.79) for >75 pack-years. Risk decreased with time since cessation. Ten-year cumulative probability of lung cancer occurrence estimates ranged from 0.04% to 11.14% in men and 0.07% to 6.55% in women. The model showed good predictive performance regarding discrimination (cross-validated c-index = 0.793) and calibration (cross-validated χ 2 = 6.60; P-value = .58). The model still showed good discrimination in the external validation population (c-index = 0.772). In conclusion, we developed a prediction model to estimate the probability of developing lung cancer based on age, gender, and tobacco consumption. This model appears useful in encouraging high-risk individuals to quit smoking and undergo increased surveillance. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Development of a mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to characterize the thermoregulatory effects of serotonergic drugs in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xi-Ling; Shen, Hong-Wu; Mager, Donald E; Schmidt, Stephan; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2016-09-01

    We have shown recently that concurrent harmaline, a monoamine oxidase-A inhibitor (MAOI), potentiates serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonist 5-methoxy- N,N -dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT)-induced hyperthermia. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model to characterize and predict the thermoregulatory effects of such serotonergic drugs in mice. Physiological thermoregulation was described by a mechanism-based indirect-response model with adaptive feedback control. Harmaline-induced hypothermia and 5-MeO-DMT-elicited hyperthermia were attributable to the loss of heat through the activation of 5-HT 1A receptor and thermogenesis via the stimulation of 5-HT 2A receptor, respectively. Thus serotonergic 5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia was readily distinguished from handling/injection stress-provoked hyperthermic effects. This PK/PD model was able to simultaneously describe all experimental data including the impact of drug-metabolizing enzyme status on 5-MeO-DMT and harmaline PK properties, and drug- and stress-induced simple hypo/hyperthermic and complex biphasic effects. Furthermore, the modeling results revealed a 4-fold decrease of apparent SC 50 value (1.88-0.496 µmol/L) for 5-MeO-DMT when harmaline was co-administered, providing a quantitative assessment for the impact of concurrent MAOI harmaline on 5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia. In addition, the hyperpyrexia caused by toxic dose combinations of harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT were linked to the increased systemic exposure to harmaline rather than 5-MeO-DMT, although the body temperature profiles were mispredicted by the model. The results indicate that current PK/PD model may be used as a new conceptual framework to define the impact of serotonergic agents and stress factors on thermoregulation.

  7. Development of a mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to characterize the thermoregulatory effects of serotonergic drugs in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Ling Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We have shown recently that concurrent harmaline, a monoamine oxidase-A inhibitor (MAOI, potentiates serotonin (5-HT receptor agonist 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD model to characterize and predict the thermoregulatory effects of such serotonergic drugs in mice. Physiological thermoregulation was described by a mechanism-based indirect-response model with adaptive feedback control. Harmaline-induced hypothermia and 5-MeO-DMT–elicited hyperthermia were attributable to the loss of heat through the activation of 5-HT1A receptor and thermogenesis via the stimulation of 5-HT2A receptor, respectively. Thus serotonergic 5-MeO-DMT–induced hyperthermia was readily distinguished from handling/injection stress-provoked hyperthermic effects. This PK/PD model was able to simultaneously describe all experimental data including the impact of drug-metabolizing enzyme status on 5-MeO-DMT and harmaline PK properties, and drug- and stress-induced simple hypo/hyperthermic and complex biphasic effects. Furthermore, the modeling results revealed a 4-fold decrease of apparent SC50 value (1.88–0.496 µmol/L for 5-MeO-DMT when harmaline was co-administered, providing a quantitative assessment for the impact of concurrent MAOI harmaline on 5-MeO-DMT–induced hyperthermia. In addition, the hyperpyrexia caused by toxic dose combinations of harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT were linked to the increased systemic exposure to harmaline rather than 5-MeO-DMT, although the body temperature profiles were mispredicted by the model. The results indicate that current PK/PD model may be used as a new conceptual framework to define the impact of serotonergic agents and stress factors on thermoregulation.

  8. Development of a methodology for electronic waste estimation: A material flow analysis-based SYE-Waste Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, Sudhakar

    2016-01-01

    Improved living standards and the share of services sector to the economy in Asia, and the use of electronic equipment is on the rise and results in increased electronic waste generation. A peculiarity of electronic waste is that it has a 'significant' value even after its life time, and to add complication, even after its extended life in its 'dump' stage. Thus, in Indian situations, after its life time is over, the e-material changes hands more than once and finally ends up either in the hands of informal recyclers or in the store rooms of urban dwellings. This character makes it extremely difficult to estimate electronic waste generation. The present study attempts to develop a functional model based on a material flow analysis approach by considering all possible end uses of the material, its transformed goods finally arriving at disposal. It considers various degrees of uses derived of the e-goods regarding their primary use (life time), secondary use (first degree extension of life), third-hand use (second degree extension of life), donation, retention at the respective places (without discarding), fraction shifted to scrap vendor, and the components reaching the final dump site from various end points of use. This 'generic functional model' named SYE-Waste Model, developed based on a material flow analysis approach, can be used to derive 'obsolescence factors' for various degrees of usage of e-goods and also to make a comprehensive estimation of electronic waste in any city/country. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. 0-6759 : developing a business process and logical model to support a tour-based travel demand model design for TxDOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation : (TxDOT) created a standardized trip-based : modeling approach for travel demand modeling : called the Texas Package Suite of Travel Demand : Models (referred to as the Texas Package) to : oversee the travel de...

  10. A Model-Based Systems Engineering Methodology for Employing Architecture In System Analysis: Developing Simulation Models Using Systems Modeling Language Products to Link Architecture and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Filling Designs for Complex System Simulations.” Ph.D. Dissertation, Naval Postgraduate School. MacCalman, Alex, Hyangshim Kwak, Mary McDonald, and...Michael, Peter Bryant, Mike Wilkinson, Paul King, Ady James, and Stuart Arnold. 2012. “Interpreting ‘Systems Architecting.’” Systems Engineering 15(4...Hyangshim Kwak, Mary McDonald, and Stephen Upton. 2015. “Capturing experimental design insights in support of the model-based systems engineering approach

  11. Development and validation of open-source software for DNA mixture interpretation based on a quantitative continuous model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Sho; Morimoto, Chie; Hamano, Yuya; Fujimoto, Shuntaro; Tamaki, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    In criminal investigations, forensic scientists need to evaluate DNA mixtures. The estimation of the number of contributors and evaluation of the contribution of a person of interest (POI) from these samples are challenging. In this study, we developed a new open-source software "Kongoh" for interpreting DNA mixture based on a quantitative continuous model. The model uses quantitative information of peak heights in the DNA profile and considers the effect of artifacts and allelic drop-out. By using this software, the likelihoods of 1-4 persons' contributions are calculated, and the most optimal number of contributors is automatically determined; this differs from other open-source software. Therefore, we can eliminate the need to manually determine the number of contributors before the analysis. Kongoh also considers allele- or locus-specific effects of biological parameters based on the experimental data. We then validated Kongoh by calculating the likelihood ratio (LR) of a POI's contribution in true contributors and non-contributors by using 2-4 person mixtures analyzed through a 15 short tandem repeat typing system. Most LR values obtained from Kongoh during true-contributor testing strongly supported the POI's contribution even for small amounts or degraded DNA samples. Kongoh correctly rejected a false hypothesis in the non-contributor testing, generated reproducible LR values, and demonstrated higher accuracy of the estimated number of contributors than another software based on the quantitative continuous model. Therefore, Kongoh is useful in accurately interpreting DNA evidence like mixtures and small amounts or degraded DNA samples.

  12. Preparatory selection of sterilization regime for canned Natural Atlantic Mackerel with oil based on developed mathematical models of the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslov A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Definition of preparatory parameters for sterilization regime of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" is the aim of current study. PRSC software developed at the department of automation and computer engineering is used for preparatory selection. To determine the parameters of process model, in laboratory autoclave AVK-30M the pre-trial process of sterilization and cooling in water with backpressure of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" in can N 3 has been performed. Gathering information about the temperature in the autoclave sterilization chamber and the can with product has been carried out using Ellab TrackSense PRO loggers. Due to the obtained information three transfer functions for the product model have been identified: in the least heated area of autoclave, the average heated and the most heated. In PRSC programme temporary temperature dependences in the sterilization chamber have been built using this information. The model of sterilization process of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" has been received after the pre-trial process. Then in the automatic mode the sterilization regime of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" has been selected using the value of actual effect close to normative sterilizing effect (5.9 conditional minutes. Furthermore, in this study step-mode sterilization of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" has been selected. Utilization of step-mode sterilization with the maximum temperature equal to 125 °C in the sterilization chamber allows reduce process duration by 10 %. However, the application of this regime in practice requires additional research. Using the described approach based on the developed mathematical models of the process allows receive optimal step and variable canned food sterilization regimes with high energy efficiency and product quality.

  13. Model Based Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sidney E.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2007, the Engineering Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) created the Design System Focus Team (DSFT). MSFC was responsible for the in-house design and development of the Ares 1 Upper Stage and the Engineering Directorate was preparing to deploy a new electronic Configuration Management and Data Management System with the Design Data Management System (DDMS) based upon a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Product Data Management (PDM) System. The DSFT was to establish standardized CAD practices and a new data life cycle for design data. Of special interest here, the design teams were to implement Model Based Definition (MBD) in support of the Upper Stage manufacturing contract. It is noted that this MBD does use partially dimensioned drawings for auxiliary information to the model. The design data lifecycle implemented several new release states to be used prior to formal release that allowed the models to move through a flow of progressive maturity. The DSFT identified some 17 Lessons Learned as outcomes of the standards development, pathfinder deployments and initial application to the Upper Stage design completion. Some of the high value examples are reviewed.

  14. Development of a model for predicting the dry matter production of mulberry [Morus alba] based on meteorological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, K.; Ito, D.

    1999-01-01

    It is necessary to predict mulberry growth and yield precisely at any time during the growing period, since mulberry trees are cut anytime along with the increase of the frequency of silkworm rearing per year. Therefore, in this study, attempts were made to develop a model to predict the dry matter production in mulberry fields with standard density with the cooperation of the prefectural experimental stations of Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, Saitama, Tokyo and Gifu. To construct the model, we conducted three experiments. In the first year, we estimated the dry weight of mulberry new shoots based on the length and base width. Logarithm of leaf dry weight of a new shoot was regressed linearly on the logarithm of the product of length and base width. Stem dry weight was estimated with a linear regression of the logarithm on the logarithm of the product of length and base square width. In the next year, we evaluated the maximal effective radiation (Smax) of mulberry, over which mulberry cannot use radiation to produce dry matter. This experiment included shaded and control (non-shaded) plots, and the difference between these plots was analyzed. Shading treatment decreased the dry matter production, but did not affect the radiation conversion efficiency. Shoot dry matter production increased almost proportionally with intercepted radiation except for the later growth periods. Therefore, no Smax was revealed in mulberry fields with standard density. The effect of temperature and growth stage on the radiation conversion efficiency was investigated last year. Relation of temperature and radiation conversion efficiency was not clear for shoot dry matter production. However, there was a positive relation for stem dry mater production. Although the efficiency decreased with mulberry growth for leaf dry matter production, it increased at the early growth stage and decreased at the late stage for stem dry matter production

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A SPREADSHEET BASED VENDOR MANAGED INVENTORY MODEL FOR A SINGLE ECHELON SUPPLY CHAIN: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanam Prahlada Rao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Vendor managed inventory (VMI is a supply chain initiative where the supplier assumes the responsibility for managing inventories using advanced communication means such as online messaging and data retrieval system. A well collaborated vendor manage inventory system can improve supply chain performance by decreasing the inventory level and increasing the fill rate. This paper investigates the implementation of vendor managed inventory systems in a consumer goods industry. We consider (r, Q policy for replenishing its inventory. The objective of work is to minimize the inventory across the supply chain and maximize the service level. The major contribution of this work is to develop a spreadsheet model for VMI system, Evaluation of Total inventory cost by using spreadsheet based method and Analytical method, Quantifying inventory reduction, Estimating service efficiency level, and validating the VMI spread sheet model with randomly generated demand. In the application, VMI as an inventory control system is able to reduce the inventory cost without sacrificing the service level. The results further more show that the inventory reduction obtained from analytical method is closer to the spread sheet based approach, which reveals the VMI success. However the VMI success is impacted by the quality of buyersupplier relationships, the quality of the IT system and the intensity of information sharing, but not by the quality of information shared.

  16. Developing a GIS-Based Model to Track Potential Point and Non-Point Sources of Urban Stream Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Urban streams are often characterized by diminished water quality resulting from an increase in polluted runoff from impervious surfaces. Storm activity further reduces urban stream water quality by temporarily increasing stormwater discharge from sewer overflows. This will often manifest itself in rapid declines of dissolved oxygen and peaks in specific conductivity in response to a rising biochemical oxygen demand which slowly recovers as the pollution load is washed through the stream system. This research developed a GIS-based model to track potential sources of pollution based on the dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity response of urban streams to a series of storm events, within the city of Louisville, Kentucky. Watershed outlet hydrographs were first obtained to determine the lag time of dissolved oxygen drops and specific conductivity peaks in response to set of storm events. Using a digital elevation model and the National Landcover Database, 10m resolution rasters were then created which calculated slope and flow direction/accumulation for both open channel and overland flow conditions across the watersheds. The rasters were merged and converted to flow velocities using a series of storms with different intensities. The final step utilized the Flow Length tool in ArcGIS which calculated the travel time to the watershed outlets from each pixel weighted by the open channel and overland flow conditions. Potential pollution sources could then be located by matching the dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity response lag times to the associated watershed travel times.

  17. Decision making for business model development : A process study of effectuation and causation in new technology-based ventures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reymen, Isabelle; Berends, Hans; Oudehand, Rob; Stultiëns, Rutger

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the decision-making logics used by new ventures to develop their business models. In particular, they focussed on the logics of effectuation and causation and how their dynamics shape the development of business models over time. They found that the effectual decision-making

  18. Evidence-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Systems development is replete with projects that represent substantial resource investments but result in systems that fail to meet users’ needs. Evidence-based development is an emerging idea intended to provide means for managing customer-vendor relationships and working systematically toward...... meeting customer needs. We are suggesting that the effects of the use of a system should play a prominent role in the contractual definition of IT projects and that contract fulfilment should be determined on the basis of evidence of these effects. Based on two ongoing studies of home-care management...

  19. Developing Critical Thinking of Middle School Students using Problem Based Learning 4 Core Areas (PBL4C) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridza, R.; E Irving, K.

    2017-02-01

    Traditional methods such as rote learning and memorization in teaching science create passive students in science classrooms. The impact of this continuous action for many decades is inactive learners who cannot develop higher order thinking skills. Based on the performance test, students’ critical thinking skill in Public Middle School 3 Pontianak was in low level although their achievement score were higher than school standards. The purpose of this study is to develop critical thinking skills of middle school students using Problem Based Learning 4 Core Areas (PBL4C). The design of this research is classroom action research with two cycles. Data has been collected using observation checklist, rating scale, self and peer assessment. Research findings reveal that students experience development from 11.11% to 88.45% in identifying the problem correctly, 37.03% to 76.92% for sub skills distinguish knowledge and opinion, 18.51% to 65.38% for sub skills providing possible solution, 22.22% to 69.23% for sub skills making decision, and 11.11% to 69.23% for sub skills identifying the impact of the implementation of their solution. In conclusion, the findings indicate that development of students’ critical thinking skills occurs when PBL4C model applied in science classroom. These findings suggest that teachers should act as facilitator in a classroom as well as should provide meaningful learning resources that can benefit students’ critical thinking skills. On the other hand, students should practice constantly to offer a sharp, accurate and appropriate solution.

  20. Skull base tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragnaniello, Cristian; Nader, Remi; van Doormaal, Tristan; Kamel, Mahmoud; Voormolen, Eduard H J; Lasio, Giovanni; Aboud, Emad; Regli, Luca; Tulleken, Cornelius A F; Al-Mefty, Ossama

    2010-11-01

    Resident duty-hours restrictions have now been instituted in many countries worldwide. Shortened training times and increased public scrutiny of surgical competency have led to a move away from the traditional apprenticeship model of training. The development of educational models for brain anatomy is a fascinating innovation allowing neurosurgeons to train without the need to practice on real patients and it may be a solution to achieve competency within a shortened training period. The authors describe the use of Stratathane resin ST-504 polymer (SRSP), which is inserted at different intracranial locations to closely mimic meningiomas and other pathological entities of the skull base, in a cadaveric model, for use in neurosurgical training. Silicone-injected and pressurized cadaveric heads were used for studying the SRSP model. The SRSP presents unique intrinsic metamorphic characteristics: liquid at first, it expands and foams when injected into the desired area of the brain, forming a solid tumorlike structure. The authors injected SRSP via different passages that did not influence routes used for the surgical approach for resection of the simulated lesion. For example, SRSP injection routes included endonasal transsphenoidal or transoral approaches if lesions were to be removed through standard skull base approach, or, alternatively, SRSP was injected via a cranial approach if the removal was planned to be via the transsphenoidal or transoral route. The model was set in place in 3 countries (US, Italy, and The Netherlands), and a pool of 13 physicians from 4 different institutions (all surgeons and surgeons in training) participated in evaluating it and provided feedback. All 13 evaluating physicians had overall positive impressions of the model. The overall score on 9 components evaluated--including comparison between the tumor model and real tumor cases, perioperative requirements, general impression, and applicability--was 88% (100% being the best possible

  1. New droplet model developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorso, C.O.; Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.; Moeller, P.; Treiner, J.; Weiss, M.S.

    1985-09-01

    A brief summary is given of three recent contributions to the development of the Droplet Model. The first concerns the electric dipole moment induced in octupole deformed nuclei by the Coulomb redistribution. The second concerns a study of squeezing in nuclei and the third is a study of the improved predictive power of the model when an empirical ''exponential'' term is included. 25 refs., 3 figs

  2. Domain Modeling and Application Development of an Archetype- and XML-based EHRS. Practical Experiences and Lessons Learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Stefan; Chalopin, Claire; Lindner, Dirk; Denecke, Kerstin

    2017-06-28

    Access to patient data within the hospital or between hospitals is still problematic since a variety of information systems is in use applying different vendor specific terminologies and underlying knowledge models. Beyond, the development of electronic health record systems (EHRSs) is time and resource consuming. Thus, there is a substantial need for a development strategy of standardized EHRSs. We are applying a reuse-oriented process model and demonstrate its feasibility and realization on a practical medical use case, which is an EHRS holding all relevant data arising in the context of treatment of tumors of the sella region. In this paper, we describe the development process and our practical experiences. Requirements towards the development of the EHRS were collected by interviews with a neurosurgeon and patient data analysis. For modelling of patient data, we selected openEHR as standard and exploited the software tools provided by the openEHR foundation. The patient information model forms the core of the development process, which comprises the EHR generation and the implementation of an EHRS architecture. Moreover, a reuse-oriented process model from the business domain was adapted to the development of the EHRS. The reuse-oriented process model is a model for a suitable abstraction of both, modeling and development of an EHR centralized EHRS. The information modeling process resulted in 18 archetypes that were aggregated in a template and built the boilerplate of the model driven development. The EHRs and the EHRS were developed by openEHR and W3C standards, tightly supported by well-established XML techniques. The GUI of the final EHRS integrates and visualizes information from various examinations, medical reports, findings and laboratory test results. We conclude that the development of a standardized overarching EHR and an EHRS is feasible using openEHR and W3C standards, enabling a high degree of semantic interoperability. The standardized

  3. Development of a model web-based system to support a statewide quality consortium in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jean M; Feng, Mary; Benedetti, Lisa A; Marsh, Robin; Griffith, Kent A; Matuszak, Martha M; Hess, Michael; McMullen, Matthew; Fisher, Jennifer H; Nurushev, Teamour; Grubb, Margaret; Gardner, Stephen; Nielsen, Daniel; Jagsi, Reshma; Hayman, James A; Pierce, Lori J

    A database in which patient data are compiled allows analytic opportunities for continuous improvements in treatment quality and comparative effectiveness research. We describe the development of a novel, web-based system that supports the collection of complex radiation treatment planning information from centers that use diverse techniques, software, and hardware for radiation oncology care in a statewide quality collaborative, the Michigan Radiation Oncology Quality Consortium (MROQC). The MROQC database seeks to enable assessment of physician- and patient-reported outcomes and quality improvement as a function of treatment planning and delivery techniques for breast and lung cancer patients. We created tools to collect anonymized data based on all plans. The MROQC system representing 24 institutions has been successfully deployed in the state of Michigan. Since 2012, dose-volume histogram and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine-radiation therapy plan data and information on simulation, planning, and delivery techniques have been collected. Audits indicated >90% accurate data submission and spurred refinements to data collection methodology. This model web-based system captures detailed, high-quality radiation therapy dosimetry data along with patient- and physician-reported outcomes and clinical data for a radiation therapy collaborative quality initiative. The collaborative nature of the project has been integral to its success. Our methodology can be applied to setting up analogous consortiums and databases. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Applied, theoretical modeling of space-based assembly, using expert system architecture for computer-aided engineering tool development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Steven Douglas

    1992-01-01

    The challenges associated with constructing interplanetary spacecraft and space platforms in low earth orbit are such that it is imperative that comprehensive, preliminary process planning analyses be completed before committing funds for Phase B design (detail design, development). Phase A and 'pre-Phase A' design activities will commonly address engineering questions such as mission-design structural integrity, attitude control, thermal control, etc. But the questions of constructability, maintainability and reliability during the assembly phase usually go unaddressed until the more mature stages of design (or very often production) are reached. This is an unacceptable strategy for future space missions whether they be government or commercial ventures. After interviews with expert Aerospace and Construction industry planners a new methodology was formulated and a Blackboard Metaphor Knowledge-based Expert System synthesis model has been successfully developed which can decompose interplanetary vehicles into deliverable orbital subassemblies. Constraint propagation, including launch vehicle payload shroud envelope, is accomplished with heuristic and numerical algorithms including a unique adaptation of a reasoning technique used by Stanford researchers in terrestrial automated process planning. The model is a hybrid combination of rule and frame-based representations, designed to integrate into a Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) environment. Emphasis is placed on the actual joining, rendezvous, and refueling of the orbiting, dynamic spacecraft. Significant results of this new methodology upon a large Mars interplanetary spacecraft (736,000 kg) designed by Boeing, show high correlation to manual decomposition and planning analysis studies, but at a fraction of the time, and with little user interaction. Such Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) tools would greatly leverage the designers ability to assess constructability.

  5. Comparison of representational spaces based on structural information in the development of QSAR models for benzylamino enaminone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, G Cerruela; Palacios-Bejarano, B; Ruiz, I Luque; Gómez-Nieto, M Á

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we study different representational spaces of molecule data sets based on 2D representation models for the building of QSAR models for the prediction of the activity of 37 benzylamino enaminone derivatives. Approximations based on classical similarity calculated from fingerprint representation of molecules and isomorphism obtained using sub-graph matching algorithms are compared to fragmentation-based approximations using partial least squares and genetic algorithms. The influence of the anchored position of a non-common moiety and the kind of substituents in the common core structure of the data set are analysed, demonstrating the anomalous behaviour of some molecules and therefore the difficulty in building prediction models. These problems are solved by considering approximate similarity models. These models tune the prediction equations based on the size of the substituent and the anchored position, by adjusting the contribution of each substituent in similarity measurements calculated between the molecule data sets.

  6. Implementation of a Web-Based Organ Donation Educational Intervention: Development and Use of a Refined Process Evaluation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Nakeva; Harker, Laura; Bamps, Yvan; Flemming, Shauna St Clair; Perryman, Jennie P; Thompson, Nancy J; Patzer, Rachel E; Williams, Nancy S DeSousa; Arriola, Kimberly R Jacob

    2017-11-30

    The lack of available organs is often considered to be the single greatest problem in transplantation today. Internet use is at an all-time high, creating an opportunity to increase public commitment to organ donation through the broad reach of Web-based behavioral interventions. Implementing Internet interventions, however, presents challenges including preventing fraudulent respondents and ensuring intervention uptake. Although Web-based organ donation interventions have increased in recent years, process evaluation models appropriate for Web-based interventions are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe a refined process evaluation model adapted for Web-based settings and used to assess the implementation of a Web-based intervention aimed to increase organ donation among African Americans. We used a randomized pretest-posttest control design to assess the effectiveness of the intervention website that addressed barriers to organ donation through corresponding videos. Eligible participants were African American adult residents of Georgia who were not registered on the state donor registry. Drawing from previously developed process evaluation constructs, we adapted reach (the extent to which individuals were found eligible, and participated in the study), recruitment (online recruitment mechanism), dose received (intervention uptake), and context (how the Web-based setting influenced study implementation) for Internet settings and used the adapted model to assess the implementation of our Web-based intervention. With regard to reach, 1415 individuals completed the eligibility screener; 948 (67.00%) were determined eligible, of whom 918 (96.8%) completed the study. After eliminating duplicate entries (n=17), those who did not initiate the posttest (n=21) and those with an invalid ZIP code (n=108), 772 valid entries remained. Per the Internet protocol (IP) address analysis, only 23 of the 772 valid entries (3.0%) were within Georgia, and only 17 of those

  7. Probabilistic Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, James H., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Develop a Probabilistic Model for the Solar Energetic Particle Environment. Develop a tool to provide a reference solar particle radiation environment that: 1) Will not be exceeded at a user-specified confidence level; 2) Will provide reference environments for: a) Peak flux; b) Event-integrated fluence; and c) Mission-integrated fluence. The reference environments will consist of: a) Elemental energy spectra; b) For protons, helium and heavier ions.

  8. Science Teacher Efficacy and Extrinsic Factors toward Professional Development Using Video Games in a Design-Based Research Model: The Next Generation of STEM Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annetta, Leonard A.; Frazier, Wendy M.; Folta, Elizabeth; Holmes, Shawn; Lamb, Richard; Cheng, Meng-Tzu

    2013-01-01

    Designed-based research principles guided the study of 51 secondary-science teachers in the second year of a 3-year professional development project. The project entailed the creation of student-centered, inquiry-based, science, video games. A professional development model appropriate for infusing innovative technologies into standards-based…

  9. RSMASS system model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.C.; Gallup, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    RSMASS system mass models have been used for more than a decade to make rapid estimates of space reactor power system masses. This paper reviews the evolution of the RSMASS models and summarizes present capabilities. RSMASS has evolved from a simple model used to make rough estimates of space reactor and shield masses to a versatile space reactor power system model. RSMASS uses unique reactor and shield models that permit rapid mass optimization calculations for a variety of space reactor power and propulsion systems. The RSMASS-D upgrade of the original model includes algorithms for the balance of the power system, a number of reactor and shield modeling improvements, and an automatic mass optimization scheme. The RSMASS-D suite of codes cover a very broad range of reactor and power conversion system options as well as propulsion and bimodal reactor systems. Reactor choices include in-core and ex-core thermionic reactors, liquid metal cooled reactors, particle bed reactors, and prismatic configuration reactors. Power conversion options include thermoelectric, thermionic, Stirling, Brayton, and Rankine approaches. Program output includes all major component masses and dimensions, efficiencies, and a description of the design parameters for a mass optimized system. In the past, RSMASS has been used as an aid to identify and select promising concepts for space power applications. The RSMASS modeling approach has been demonstrated to be a valuable tool for guiding optimization of the power system design; consequently, the model is useful during system design and development as well as during the selection process. An improved in-core thermionic reactor system model RSMASS-T is now under development. The current development of the RSMASS-T code represents the next evolutionary stage of the RSMASS models. RSMASS-T includes many modeling improvements and is planned to be more user-friendly. RSMASS-T will be released as a fully documented, certified code at the end of

  10. Activity-based DEVS modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alshareef, Abdurrahman; Sarjoughian, Hessam S.; Zarrin, Bahram

    2018-01-01

    architecture and the UML concepts. In this paper, we further this work by grounding Activity-based DEVS modeling and developing a fully-fledged modeling engine to demonstrate applicability. We also detail the relevant aspects of the created metamodel in terms of modeling and simulation. A significant number...

  11. Development of computer-based function to estimate radioactive source term by coupling atmospheric model with monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiko, Furuno; Hideyuki, Kitabata

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The importance of computer-based decision support systems for local and regional scale accidents has been recognized by many countries with the experiences of accidental atmospheric releases of radionuclides at Chernobyl in 1986 in the former Soviet Union. The recent increase of nuclear power plants in the Asian region also necessitates an emergency response system for Japan to predict the long-range atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides due to overseas accident. On the basis of these backgrounds, WSPEEDI (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is developed to forecast long-range atmospheric dispersions of radionuclides during nuclear emergency. Although the source condition is critical parameter for accurate prediction, it is rarely that the condition can be acquired in the early stage of overseas accident. Thus, we have been developing a computer-based function to estimate radioactive source term, e.g. the release point, time and amount, as a part of WSPEEDI. This function consists of atmospheric transport simulations and statistical analysis for the prediction and monitoring of air dose rates. Atmospheric transport simulations are carried out for the matrix of possible release points in Eastern Asia and possible release times. The simulation results of air dose rates are compared with monitoring data and the best fitted release condition is defined as source term. This paper describes the source term estimation method and the application to Eastern Asia. The latest version of WSPEEDI accommodates following two models: an atmospheric meteorological model MM5 and a particle random walk model GEARN. MM5 is a non-hydrostatic meteorological model developed by the Pennsylvania State University and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). MM5 physically calculates more than 40 meteorological parameters with high resolution in time and space based an

  12. Developing a Time Series Predictive Model for Dengue in Zhongshan, China Based on Weather and Guangzhou Dengue Surveillance Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingtao Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a re-emerging infectious disease of humans, rapidly growing from endemic areas to dengue-free regions due to favorable conditions. In recent decades, Guangzhou has again suffered from several big outbreaks of dengue; as have its neighboring cities. This study aims to examine the impact of dengue epidemics in Guangzhou, China, and to develop a predictive model for Zhongshan based on local weather conditions and Guangzhou dengue surveillance information.We obtained weekly dengue case data from 1st January, 2005 to 31st December, 2014 for Guangzhou and Zhongshan city from the Chinese National Disease Surveillance Reporting System. Meteorological data was collected from the Zhongshan Weather Bureau and demographic data was collected from the Zhongshan Statistical Bureau. A negative binomial regression model with a log link function was used to analyze the relationship between weekly dengue cases in Guangzhou and Zhongshan, controlling for meteorological factors. Cross-correlation functions were applied to identify the time lags of the effect of each weather factor on weekly dengue cases. Models were validated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and k-fold cross-validation.Our results showed that weekly dengue cases in Zhongshan were significantly associated with dengue cases in Guangzhou after the treatment of a 5 weeks prior moving average (Relative Risk (RR = 2.016, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.845-2.203, controlling for weather factors including minimum temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall. ROC curve analysis indicated our forecasting model performed well at different prediction thresholds, with 0.969 area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC for a threshold of 3 cases per week, 0.957 AUC for a threshold of 2 cases per week, and 0.938 AUC for a threshold of 1 case per week. Models established during k-fold cross-validation also had considerable AUC (average 0.938-0.967. The sensitivity and

  13. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  14. Development of a nursing practice based competency model for the Flemish master of nursing and obstetrics degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Gerlinde; Goelen, Guido; Danschutter, Dirk; Vermeulen, Joeri; Huyghens, Luc

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to identify a set of competences for the Flemish academic Master of Nursing and Obstetrics degree that answer perceived needs in health care. The competency model was to demonstrate a degree of consensus among key nurses. The study was conducted in all Flemish hospitals registered to have 400 beds or more. Head nurses of surgery, geriatrics and intensive care units were eligible to participate, as well as one nurse from administration per hospital. A two round Delphi process allowed participants to comment on items identified in an analysis of existing international competency profiles of master level nurses and adapted to the Flemish context. Competences agreed to by 90% of the respondents were considered to have consensus. Fifteen out of 19 eligible hospitals were recruited in the study, 45 nurses participated in the Delphi panel. Consensus was reached on 31 competences that can be assigned to 5 nurse's roles: nursing expert, innovator, researcher, educator and manager. The resulting competency profile is in accordance with published profiles for similar programs. The reported study demonstrates a practical method to develop a consensus competency model for an academic master program based on the input of key individuals in mainstream nursing. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a Model for Measuring Scientific Processing Skills Based on Brain-Imaging Technology: Focused on the Experimental Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il-Sun; Byeon, Jung-Ho; Kim, Young-shin; Kwon, Yong-Ju

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model for measuring experimental design ability based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during biological inquiry. More specifically, the researchers developed an experimental design task that measures experimental design ability. Using the developed experimental design task, they measured…

  16. Myocardial segmentation based on coronary anatomy using coronary computed tomography angiography: Development and validation in a pig model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Mi Sun [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong Hyun; Seo, Joon Beom; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Hak; Kang, Soo-Jin; Jung, Joonho [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Heart Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Namkug [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Convergence Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Seung-Ho [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan institute for Life Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seunghee [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byoung Wook [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    To validate a method for performing myocardial segmentation based on coronary anatomy using coronary CT angiography (CCTA). Coronary artery-based myocardial segmentation (CAMS) was developed for use with CCTA. To validate and compare this method with the conventional American Heart Association (AHA) classification, a single coronary occlusion model was prepared and validated using six pigs. The unstained occluded coronary territories of the specimens and corresponding arterial territories from CAMS and AHA segmentations were compared using slice-by-slice matching and 100 virtual myocardial columns. CAMS more precisely predicted ischaemic area than the AHA method, as indicated by 95% versus 76% (p < 0.001) of the percentage of matched columns (defined as percentage of matched columns of segmentation method divided by number of unstained columns in the specimen). According to the subgroup analyses, CAMS demonstrated a higher percentage of matched columns than the AHA method in the left anterior descending artery (100% vs. 77%; p < 0.001) and mid- (99% vs. 83%; p = 0.046) and apical-level territories of the left ventricle (90% vs. 52%; p = 0.011). CAMS is a feasible method for identifying the corresponding myocardial territories of the coronary arteries using CCTA. (orig.)

  17. [Analysis on sustainable development of marine economy in Jiangsu Province based on marine ecological footprint correction model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shan; Wang, Yu-ting

    2011-03-01

    Based on the theories and methods of ecological footprint, the concept of marine ecological footprint was proposed. According to the characteristics of marine environment in Jiangsu Province, five sub-models of marine ecological footprints, including fishery, transporation, marine engineering construction, marine energy, and tidal flat, were constructed. The equilibrium factors of the five marine types were determined by using improved entropy method, and the marine footprints and capacities in Jiangsu Province from 2000 to 2008 were calculated and analyzed. In 2000-2008, the marine ecology footprint per capita in Jiangsu Province increased nearly seven times, from 36.90 hm2 to 252.94 hm2, and the ecological capacity per capita grew steadily, from 105.01 hm2 to 185.49 hm2. In 2000, the marine environment in the Province was in a state of ecological surplus, and the marine economy was in a weak sustainable development state. Since 2004, the marine ecological environment deteriorated sharply, with ecological deficit up to 109660.5 hm2, and the sustainability of marine economy declined. The high ecological footprint of fishery was the main reason for the ecological deficit. Tidal flat was the important reserve resource for the sustainable development of marine economy in Jiangsu Province.

  18. Development and evaluation of multi-agent models of online social influence based on Cialdini’s principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Vecht, B. van der

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to better understand social influence in online social media. Therefore, we propose a method in which we implement, validate and improve individual behavior models. The behavior model is based on three fundamental behavioral principles of social influence from the literature

  19. Developing a decision-making model based on an interdisciplinary oncological care group for the management of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovesi, Domenico; Mazzilli, Lorenzo; Trignani, Marianna; DI Tommaso, Monica; Nuzzo, Antonio; Biondi, Edoardo; Tinari, Nicola; Martino, Maria Teresa; Innocenti, Paolo; DI Sebastiano, Pierluigi; Mazzola, Lorenzo; Lanci, Carmine; Neri, Matteo; Laterza, Francesco; Marino, Maria; Ferrini, Giovanni; Spadaccini, Antonio; Filippone, Antonella; DI Giandomenico, Enzo; Marulli, Antonio; Palombo, Giuseppe; Sparvieri, Antonio; Marchetti, Antonio; Pizzicannella, Giuseppe; Petrini, Flavia; DI Felice, Maria; Ottaviani, Floriana; Monteodorisio, Antonio; DI Nicola, Marta; Cefaro, Giampiero Ausili

    2014-05-01

    To report our experience on implementation and preliminary results of a decision-making model based on the recommendations of an Interdisciplinary Oncological Care Group developed for the management of colorectal cancer. The multidisciplinary team identified a reference guideline using appraisal of guidelines for research and evaluation (AGREE) tool based on a sequential assessment of the guideline quality. Thereafter, internal guidelines with diagnostic and therapeutic management for early, locally advanced and metastatic colonic and rectal cancer were drafted; organizational aspects, responsibility matrices, protocol actions for each area of specialty involved and indicators for performing audits were also defined. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) UK guideline was the reference for drafting the internal guideline document; from February to November 2013, 125 patients with colorectal cancer were discussed by and taken under the care of the Interdisciplinary Oncological Care Group. The first audit performed in December 2013 revealed optimal adherence to the internal guideline, mainly in terms of uniformity and accuracy of perioperative staging, coordination and timing of multi-modal therapies. To date, all patients under observation are within the diagnostic and therapeutic course, no patient came out from the multidisciplinary "path" and only in 14% of cases have the first recommendations proposed been changed. The selected indicators appear effective and reliable, while at the moment, it is not yet possible to assess the impact of the multidisciplinary team on clinical outcome. Although having a short observation period, our model seems capable of determining optimal uniformity of diagnostic and therapeutic management, to a high degree of patient satisfaction. A longer observation period is necessary in order to confirm these observations and for assessing the impact on clinical outcome.

  20. Methane emissions from floodplains in the Amazon Basin: challenges in developing a process-based model for global applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringeval, B.; Houweling, S.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Spahni, R.; van Beek, R.; Joos, F.; Röckmann, T.

    2014-03-01

    Tropical wetlands are estimated to represent about 50% of the natural wetland methane (CH4) emissions and explain a large fraction of the observed CH4 variability on timescales ranging from glacial-interglacial cycles to the currently observed year-to-year variability. Despite their importance, however, tropical wetlands are poorly represented in global models aiming to predict global CH4 emissions. This publication documents a first step in the development of a process-based model of CH4 emissions from tropical floodplains for global applications. For this purpose, the LPX-Bern Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPX hereafter) was slightly modified to represent floodplain hydrology, vegetation and associated CH4 emissions. The extent of tropical floodplains was prescribed using output from the spatially explicit hydrology model PCR-GLOBWB. We introduced new plant functional types (PFTs) that explicitly represent floodplain vegetation. The PFT parameterizations were evaluated against available remote-sensing data sets (GLC2000 land cover and MODIS Net Primary Productivity). Simulated CH4 flux densities were evaluated against field observations and regional flux inventories. Simulated CH4 emissions at Amazon Basin scale were compared to model simulations performed in the WETCHIMP intercomparison project. We found that LPX reproduces the average magnitude of observed net CH4 flux densities for the Amazon Basin. However, the model does not reproduce the variability between sites or between years within a site. Unfortunately, site information is too limited to attest or disprove some model features. At the Amazon Basin scale, our results underline the large uncertainty in the magnitude of wetland CH4 emissions. Sensitivity analyses gave insights into the main drivers of floodplain CH4 emission and their associated uncertainties. In particular, uncertainties in floodplain extent (i.e., difference between GLC2000 and PCR-GLOBWB output) modulate the simulated emissions by a

  1. A genetically engineered ovarian cancer mouse model based on fallopian tube transformation mimics human high-grade serous carcinoma development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman-Baust, Cheryl A; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Valle, Blanca L; Shih, Ie-Ming; Kurman, Robert J; Wang, Tian-Li; Amano, Tomokazu; Ko, Minoru S H; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Araki, Yoshihiko; Lehrmann, Elin; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Morin, Patrice J

    2014-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) originates from the epithelium of the fallopian tube. However, most mouse models are based on the previous prevailing view that ovarian cancer develops from the transformation of the ovarian surface epithelium. Here, we report the extensive histological and molecular characterization of the mogp-TAg transgenic mouse, which expresses the SV40 large T-antigen (TAg) under the control of the mouse müllerian-specific Ovgp-1 promoter. Histological analysis of the fallopian tubes of mogp-TAg mice identified a variety of neoplastic lesions analogous to those described as precursors to ovarian HGSC. We identified areas of normal-appearing p53-positive epithelium that are similar to 'p53 signatures' in the human fallopian tube. More advanced proliferative lesions with nuclear atypia and epithelial stratification were also identified that were morphologically and immunohistochemically reminiscent of human serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), a potential precursor of ovarian HGSC. Beside these non-invasive precursor lesions, we also identified invasive adenocarcinoma in the ovaries of 56% of the mice. Microarray analysis revealed several genes differentially expressed between the fallopian tube of mogp-TAg and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6. One of these genes, Top2a, which encodes topoisomerase IIα, was shown by immunohistochemistry to be concurrently expressed with elevated p53 and was specifically elevated in mouse STICs but not in the surrounding tissues. TOP2A protein was also found elevated in human STICs, low-grade and high-grade serous carcinoma. The mouse model reported here displays a progression from normal tubal epithelium to invasive HGSC in the ovary, and therefore closely simulates the current emerging model of human ovarian HGSC pathogenesis. This mouse therefore has the potential to be a very useful new model for elucidating the mechanisms of serous ovarian tumourigenesis, as well as

  2. Development of a Water and Enthalpy Budget-based Glacier mass balance Model (WEB-GM) and its preliminary validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Baohong; Yang, Kun; Yang, Wei; He, Xiaobo; Chen, Yingying; Lazhu; Guo, Xiaofeng; Wang, Lei; Wu, Hui; Yao, Tandong

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a new water and energy budget-based glacier mass balance model. Enthalpy, rather than temperature, is used in the energy balance equations to simplify the computation of the energy transfers through the water phase change and the movement of liquid water in the snow. A new parameterization for albedo estimation and state-of-the-art parameterization schemes for rainfall/snowfall type identification and surface turbulent heat flux calculations are implemented in the model. This model was driven with meteorological data and evaluated using mass balance and turbulent flux data collected during a field experiment implemented in the ablation zone of the Parlung No. 4 Glacier on the Southeast Tibetan Plateau during 2009 and 2015-2016. The evaluation shows that the model can reproduce the observed glacier ablation depth, surface albedo, surface temperature, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux with high accuracy. Comparing with a traditional energy budget-based glacier mass balance model, this enthalpy-based model shows a superior capacity in simulation accuracy. Therefore, this model can reasonably simulate the energy budget and mass balance of glacier melting in this region and be used as a component of land surface models and hydrological models.

  3. Development of algorithms for tsunami detection by High Frequency Radar based on modeling tsunami case studies in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Stéphan; Guérin, Charles-Antoine; Grosdidier, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    Where coastal tsunami hazard is governed by near-field sources, Submarine Mass Failures (SMFs) or earthquakes, tsunami propagation times may be too small for a detection based on deep or shallow water buoys. To offer sufficient warning time, it has been proposed by others to implement early warning systems relying on High Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR) remote sensing, that has a dense spatial coverage far offshore. A new HFSWR, referred to as STRADIVARIUS, has been recently deployed by Diginext Inc. to cover the "Golfe du Lion" (GDL) in the Western Mediterranean Sea. This radar, which operates at 4.5 MHz, uses a proprietary phase coding technology that allows detection up to 300 km in a bistatic configuration (with a baseline of about 100 km). Although the primary purpose of the radar is vessel detection in relation to homeland security, it can also be used for ocean current monitoring. The current caused by an arriving tsunami will shift the Bragg frequency by a value proportional to a component of its velocity, which can be easily obtained from the Doppler spectrum of the HFSWR signal. Using state of the art tsunami generation and propagation models, we modeled tsunami case studies in the western Mediterranean basin (both seismic and SMFs) and simulated the HFSWR backscattered signal that would be detected for the entire GDL and beyond. Based on simulated HFSWR signal, we developed two types of tsunami detection algorithms: (i) one based on standard Doppler spectra, for which we found that to be detectable within the environmental and background current noises, the Doppler shift requires tsunami currents to be at least 10-15 cm/s, which typically only occurs on the continental shelf in fairly shallow water; (ii) to allow earlier detection, a second algorithm computes correlations of the HFSWR signals at two distant locations, shifted in time by the tsunami propagation time between these locations (easily computed based on bathymetry). We found that this

  4. Enhancing Social Competence for Disadvantaged Youth in Pre-Vocational Education: Model Development through Design-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Ida Kristina

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the enhancement of social competence for disadvantaged young people based on the example of the "Werkschule Bremen" educational course. Theoretical approaches to social competence as a learning outcome are mainly based on the model of social information processing, although the meaning of both practical and…

  5. Using the Dynamic Model to develop an evidence-based and theory-driven approach to school improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, B.P.M.; Kyriakides, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper refers to a dynamic perspective of educational effectiveness and improvement stressing the importance of using an evidence-based and theory-driven approach. Specifically, an approach to school improvement based on the dynamic model of educational effectiveness is offered. The recommended

  6. Measuring client experiences in maternity care under change: development of a questionnaire based on the WHO Responsiveness model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisja Scheerhagen

    Full Text Available Maternity care is an integrated care process, which consists of different services, involves different professionals and covers different time windows. To measure performance of maternity care based on clients' experiences, we developed and validated a questionnaire.We used the 8-domain WHO Responsiveness model, and previous materials to develop a self-report questionnaire. A dual study design was used for development and validation. Content validity of the ReproQ-version-0 was determined through structured interviews with 11 pregnant women (≥28 weeks, 10 women who recently had given birth (≤12 weeks, and 19 maternity care professionals. Structured interviews established the domain relevance to the women; all items were separately commented on. All Responsiveness domains were judged relevant, with Dignity and Communication ranking highest. Main missing topic was the assigned expertise of the health professional. After first adaptation, construct validity of the ReproQ-version-1 was determined through a web-based survey. Respondents were approached by maternity care organizations with different levels of integration of services of midwives and obstetricians. We sent questionnaires to 605 third trimester pregnant women (response 65%, and 810 women 6 weeks after delivery (response 55%. Construct validity was based on: response patterns; exploratory factor analysis; association of the overall score with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, known group comparisons. Median overall ReproQ score was 3.70 (range 1-4 showing good responsiveness. The exploratory factor analysis supported the assumed domain structure and suggested several adaptations. Correlation of the VAS rating and overall ReproQ score (antepartum, postpartum supported validity (r = 0.56; 0.59, p<0.001 Spearman's correlation coefficient. Pre-stated group comparisons confirmed the expected difference following a good vs. adverse birth outcome. Fully integrated organizations performed

  7. Development and Performance of a Highly Sensitive Model Formulation Based on Torasemide to Enhance Hot-Melt Extrusion Process Understanding and Process Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rachel C; Kyeremateng, Samuel O; Asmus, Lutz; Degenhardt, Matthias; Rosenberg, Joerg; Wagner, Karl G

    2018-02-27

    The aim of this work was to investigate the use of torasemide as a highly sensitive indicator substance and to develop a formulation thereof for establishing quantitative relationships between hot-melt extrusion process conditions and critical quality attributes (CQAs). Using solid-state characterization techniques and a 10 mm lab-scale co-rotating twin-screw extruder, we studied torasemide in a Soluplus® (SOL)-polyethylene glycol 1500 (PEG 1500) matrix, and developed and characterized a formulation which was used as a process indicator to study thermal- and hydrolysis-induced degradation, as well as residual crystallinity. We found that torasemide first dissolved into the matrix and then degraded. Based on this mechanism, extrudates with measurable levels of degradation and residual crystallinity were produced, depending strongly on the main barrel and die temperature and residence time applied. In addition, we found that 10% w/w PEG 1500 as plasticizer resulted in the widest operating space with the widest range of measurable residual crystallinity and degradant levels. Torasemide as an indicator substance behaves like a challenging-to-process API, only with higher sensitivity and more pronounced effects, e.g., degradation and residual crystallinity. Application of a model formulation containing torasemide will enhance the understanding of the dynamic environment inside an extruder and elucidate the cumulative thermal and hydrolysis effects of the extrusion process. The use of such a formulation will also facilitate rational process development and scaling by establishing clear links between process conditions and CQAs.

  8. Developing a Model Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  9. Development and application of knowledge-based source-term models for radionuclide mobilisation from contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deissmann, G.; Thierfeldt, S.; Woerlen, S.; Bath, A.; Jefferis, S.

    2006-01-01

    Concrete materials in nuclear facilities may become activated or contaminated by various radionuclides through different mechanisms. Consequently, decommissioning and dismantling of these facilities produce considerable quantities of these materials (e.g. concrete structures, rubble), which are at least potentially contaminated with radionuclides and which must be managed safely and cost-effectively. In this paper, we present results from a research project that aims at the development of source-term models for the mobilization of radionuclides from contaminated concrete. The objective of this task was to clarify whether a more realistic source-term description could be beneficial for optimization of the management of decommissioning wastes by reducing the amount of material for disposal as radioactive waste as well as by saving natural resources due to the recycling of building materials. To identify important parameters and processes that affect the release rates of radionuclides, we evaluated the chemical behavior and the solid speciation of radionuclides in concrete materials and the influence of factors like concrete properties, source/pathway of contamination, and the scenario-specific chemical environment and hydraulic regime. Furthermore, concrete degradation processes and their influence on contaminant mobilization were addressed. On this basis, source-term models were developed to describe the radionuclide release by (i) the dissolution of radionuclide containing solid phases, (ii) the desorption of radionuclides from surfaces, and/or (iii) the leaching of radionuclides from a solid matrix without disrupting its structure. These source-term models were parameterized for probabilistic simulations of various release options, including the reuse of recycled building materials, the disposal of rubble in inert and municipal landfills as well as the on-site disposal of concrete materials (e.g. foundations remaining in the ground, in situ burial of rubble). For

  10. Late rectal bleeding after 3D-CRT for prostate cancer: development of a neural-network-based predictive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatis, S.; Rancati, T.; Fiorino, C.; Vavassori, V.; Fellin, G.; Cagna, E.; Mauro, F. A.; Girelli, G.; Monti, A.; Baccolini, M.; Naldi, G.; Bianchi, C.; Menegotti, L.; Pasquino, M.; Stasi, M.; Valdagni, R.

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a model exploiting artificial neural networks (ANNs) to correlate dosimetric and clinical variables with late rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients undergoing radical radiotherapy and to compare the ANN results with those of a standard logistic regression (LR) analysis. 718 men included in the AIROPROS 0102 trial were analyzed. This multicenter protocol was characterized by the prospective evaluation of rectal toxicity, with a minimum follow-up of 36 months. Radiotherapy doses were between 70 and 80 Gy. Information was recorded for comorbidity, previous abdominal surgery, use of drugs and hormonal therapy. For each patient, a rectal dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the whole treatment was recorded and the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) evaluated as an effective descriptor of the whole DVH. Late rectal bleeding of grade ≥ 2 was considered to define positive events in this study (52 of 718 patients). The overall population was split into training and verification sets, both of which were involved in model instruction, and a test set, used to evaluate the predictive power of the model with independent data. Fourfold cross-validation was also used to provide realistic results for the full dataset. The LR was performed on the same data. Five variables were selected to predict late rectal bleeding: EUD, abdominal surgery, presence of hemorrhoids, use of anticoagulants and androgen deprivation. Following a receiver operating characteristic analysis of the independent test set, the areas under the curves (AUCs) were 0.704 and 0.655 for ANN and LR, respectively. When evaluated with cross-validation, the AUC was 0.714 for ANN and 0.636 for LR, which differed at a significance level of p = 0.03. When a practical discrimination threshold was selected, ANN could classify data with sensitivity and specificity both equal to 68.0%, whereas these values were 61.5% for LR. These data provide reasonable evidence that results obtained with

  11. Web-based virtual patients in nursing education: development and validation of theory-anchored design and activity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg, Carina; Zary, Nabil

    2014-04-10

    Research has shown that nursing students find it difficult to translate and apply their theoretical knowledge in a clinical context. Virtual patients (VPs) have been proposed as a learning activity that can support nursing students in their learning of scientific knowledge and help them integrate theory and practice. Although VPs are increasingly used in health care education, they still lack a systematic consistency that would allow their reuse outside of their original context. There is therefore a need to develop a model for the development and implementation of VPs in nursing education. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a virtual patient model optimized to the learning and assessment needs in nursing education. The process of modeling started by reviewing theoretical frameworks reported in the literature and used by practitioners when designing learning and assessment activities. The Outcome-Present State Test (OPT) model was chosen as the theoretical framework. The model was then, in an iterative manner, developed and optimized to the affordances of virtual patients. Content validation was performed with faculty both in terms of the relevance of the chosen theories but also its applicability in nursing education. The virtual patient nursing model was then instantiated in two VPs. The students' perceived usefulness of the VPs was investigated using a questionnaire. The result was analyzed using descriptive statistics. A virtual patient Nursing Design Model (vpNDM) composed of three layers was developed. Layer 1 contains the patient story and ways of interacting with the data, Layer 2 includes aspects of the iterative process of clinical reasoning, and finally Layer 3 includes measurable outcomes. A virtual patient Nursing Activity Model (vpNAM) was also developed as a guide when creating VP-centric learning activities. The students perceived the global linear VPs as a relevant learning activity for the integration of theory and practice. Virtual

  12. Developments in modelling of thermohydro-geomechanical behaviour of Boom clay and clay-based buffer materials (volume 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, G.; Hueckel, T.; Peano, A.; Pellegrini, R.

    1991-01-01

    This study is composed of two parts: The first part (Volume 1) lays the foundations of a comprehensive theoretical treatment of the interaction between water and soil skeleton during thermal dilatation. The second part (volume 2) is devoted to the development and the application of advance constitutive modelling of mechanical behaviour of clays taking into account the extensive tests of Boom clay reported in the first volume. The development concentrated on the improvement of prediction of the volumetric response of clay skeleton: (a) improving the dilatancy prediction at low to high overconsolidation ratios (Section 2). An elasto-plastic constitutive model has been developed to account for this effect (Section 3.2.); (b) modelling of swelling effects (Section 2.5). A preliminary interpretative model for swelling prediction has been developed (Section 2.5). The application part consisted in interpreting the experimental results obtained for Boom clay to calibrate a set of constants (Section 3) for performing numerical analyses (Section 4) for the thermomechanical model already calibrated for Boom clay (Appendix). Interpretation of the tests required an assessment of influence of the strong anisotropy effects revealed by Boom clay on the basis of an interpretative model characterized by a kinematic hardening plasticity and coupled elasticity (section 3)

  13. Development of a minimal chemically defined medium for Ketogulonicigenium vulgare WSH001 based on its genome-scale metabolic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shicun; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zou, Wei; Huang, Zheng; Liu, Jie; Liu, Liming

    2014-01-01

    Commercial production of 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KLG), the immediate precursor of l-ascorbic acid, is by Ketogulonicigenium vulgare in co-culture with Bacillus megaterium. We used flux balance analysis (FBA) to study a genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) of K. vulgare, iWZ663, and found that K. vulgare is deficient in nutrient biosynthetic pathways. Individually omitting l-glycine, l-cysteine, l-methionine, l-tryptophan, adenine, thymine, thiamine and pantothenate from complete chemically defined medium (CDM), caused biomass formation of K. vulgare to decrease to 1%, 21%, 16%, 1%, 26%, 57%, 73% and 24%, respectively. Based on these results and FBA, a minimal chemically defined medium (MCDM) was developed that supported monoculture of K. vulgare (0.28OD600) and 2-KLG production (3.59g/L), which were similar to those in complete CDM or corn steep liquor powder (CSLP) medium. This study demonstrated the potential of using GSMM and FBA to characterize nutrient requirements, optimize CDM, and study interactions in co-culture. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Development of An Empirical Water Quality Model for Stormwater Based on Watershed Land Use in Puget Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullinan, Valerie I.; May, Christopher W.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Judd, Chaeli; Johnston, Robert K.

    2007-03-29

    The Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed is located on the west side of Puget Sound in Kitsap County, Washington, U.S.A. (Figure 1). The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS), U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA-DOE), Kitsap County, City of Bremerton, City of Bainbridge Island, City of Port Orchard, and the Suquamish Tribe have joined in a cooperative effort to evaluate water-quality conditions in the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed and correct identified problems. A major focus of this project, known as Project ENVVEST, is to develop Water Clean-up (TMDL) Plans for constituents listed on the 303(d) list within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed. Segments within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed were listed on the State of Washington’s 1998 303(d) because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue (WA-DOE 2003). Stormwater loading was identified by ENVVEST as one potential source of sediment contamination, which lacked sufficient data for a contaminant mass balance calculation for the watershed. This paper summarizes the development of an empirical model for estimating contaminant concentrations in all streams discharging into Sinclair and Dyes Inlets based on watershed land use, 18 storm events, and wet/dry season baseflow conditions between November 2002 and May 2005. Stream pollutant concentrations along with estimates for outfalls and surface runoff will be used in estimating the loading and ultimately in establishing a Water Cleanup Plan (TMDL) for the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed.

  15. Development of RBMK-1500 Relap5 model by employing main circulation pump trip events at Ignalina NPP date base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliatka, A.; Krivoshein, G.; Uspuras, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant is a twin-unit with two RBMK-1500, graphite moderated, boiling water, multichannel reactors. The state of the art code RELAP5 was originally designed for Pressurized Water Reactors. Because of unique RBMK design, the application of this code to RBMK-1500 encountered several problems. The paper deals with the development of proper Ignalina NPP RELAP5 model and investigation of MCPs trip events. A successful best estimate RELAP5 model of the Ignalina NPP has been developed. This model includes the reactor main circulation circuit, reactor control systems and plant safety systems required for transient analysis. There were few events when one MCP was inadvertently tripped at the Ignalina NPP. On May 14, 1996 one MCP at Ignalina Unit 2 was inadvertently tripped. The similar event took place on January 23, 1998. During this event, the MCP check valve failed to close, causing a re-circulation loop to develop by means of a reversed flow through the tripped pump. On July 31, 2000 three MCPs at Ignalina Unit 2 were tripped one after another, due to inadvertent activation of fire protection system. Calculations performed with Ignalina NPP RELAP5 model agree favorably with the plant data. The developed RELAP5 model is proper and may be employed for the plant analysis. (author)

  16. Development of an Agent Based Model to Estimate and Reduce Time to Restoration of Storm Induced Power Outages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T.; Layton, T.; Mellor, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Storm damage to the electric grid impacts 23 million electric utility customers and costs US consumers $119 billion annually. Current restoration techniques rely on the past experiences of emergency managers. There are few analytical simulation and prediction tools available for utility managers to optimize storm recovery and decrease consumer cost, lost revenue and restoration time. We developed an agent based model (ABM) for storm recovery in Connecticut. An ABM is a computer modeling technique comprised of agents who are given certain behavioral rules and operate in a given environment. It allows the user to simulate complex systems by varying user-defined parameters to study emergent, unpredicted behavior. The ABM incorporates the road network and electric utility grid for the state, is validated using actual storm event recoveries and utilizes the Dijkstra routing algorithm to determine the best path for repair crews to travel between outages. The ABM has benefits for both researchers and utility managers. It can simulate complex system dynamics, rank variable importance, find tipping points that could significantly reduce restoration time or costs and test a broad range of scenarios. It is a modular, scalable and adaptable technique that can simulate scenarios in silico to inform emergency managers before and during storm events to optimize restoration strategies and better manage expectations of when power will be restored. Results indicate that total restoration time is strongly dependent on the number of crews. However, there is a threshold whereby more crews will not decrease the restoration time, which depends on the total number of outages. The addition of outside crews is more beneficial for storms with a higher number of outages. The time to restoration increases linearly with increasing repair time, while the travel speed has little overall effect on total restoration time. Crews traveling to the nearest outage reduces the total restoration time

  17. Teacher Perceptions of Their Curricular and Pedagogical Shifts: Outcomes of a Project-Based Model of Teacher Professional Development in the Next Generation Science Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Shernoff, David J.; Sinha, Suparna; Bressler, Denise M.; Schultz, Dawna

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a model of teacher professional development (PD) on the alignment of middle and high school curricula and instruction to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSSs), and evaluated the impact of the PD on teacher participants’ development. The PD model included a 4-day summer academy emphasizing project-based learning (PBL) in the designing of NGSS-aligned curricula and instruction, as well as monthly follow-up Professional Learning Community meetings throughout t...

  18. Development of a Framework for Model-Based Analysis, Uncertainty Quantification, and Robust Control Design of Nonlinear Smart Composite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-04

    of hysteretic macro - fiber composite (MFC) and shape memory alloy (SMA) models. The goal was to develop a theoretical and numerical framework and...A major component of the program focused on the development of this framework in the context of hysteretic macro - fiber composite (MFC) and shape...employing macro - fiber composites (MFC) and shape memory alloys (SMA). As illustrated in Figure 1, MFC are comprised of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers

  19. Development and Psychometric of Assessment Tool of Students\\' Preventive Behaviors of Cutaneous Leishmaniosis Based on BASNEF Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musalreza Ghodsi

    2017-08-01

    The results showed that prevention behavior questionnaire of skin, cutaneous Based on BASNEF Model is valid and reliable with 36 items, and because of the strength of suitable factor structure and psychometric properties, researchers can use it in the  related studies.

  20. The Development of Character Education Model Based on Strengthening Social Capital for Students of State Islamic University (UIN) Sunan Kalijaga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarni, Sri M.; Dardiri, Achmad; Zuchdi, Darmiyati

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to find out the concept of character education model that is appropriate for students to build character of students of UIN Sunan Kalijaga and also to find out the teaching materials design of character education based on social capital to build character of students of UIN Sunan Kalijaga. This research is motivated by…

  1. Settings for Physical Activity – Developing a Site-specific Physical Activity Behavior Model based on Multi-level Intervention Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Jens; Klinker, Charlotte Demant; Breum, Lars

    specifies that factors at multiple levels can influence PA behavior, and emphasizes the importance of behavior-specific models. On this theoretical basis the three mentioned multi-level interventions were planned and implemented. Based on the empirical studies we argue that site-specific factors have......Settings for Physical Activity – Developing a Site-specific Physical Activity Behavior Model based on Multi-level Intervention Studies Introduction: Ecological models of health behavior have potential as theoretical framework to comprehend the multiple levels of factors influencing physical...... activity (PA). The potential is shown by the fact that there has been a dramatic increase in application of ecological models in research and practice. One proposed core principle is that an ecological model is most powerful if the model is behavior-specific. However, based on multi-level interventions...

  2. Developing an In Silico Model of the Modulation of Base Excision Repair using Methoxyamine for More Targeted Cancer Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkan-Cavusoglu, Evren; Avadhani, Sriya; Liu, Lili; Kinsella, Timothy J.; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Base Excision Repair (BER) is a major DNA repair pathway involved in the processing of exogenous nonbulky base damages from certain classes of cancer chemotherapy drugs as well as ionizing radiation. Methoxyamine (MX) is a small molecule chemical inhibitor of BER that is shown to enhance chemotherapy and/or ionizing radiation cytotoxicity in human cancers. In this paper, we have analysed the inhibitory effect of MX on the base excision repair pathway kinetics using a computational model of the repair pathway. The inhibitory effect of MX depends on the base excision repair efficiency. We have generated variable efficiency groups using different sets of protein concentrations generated by Latin hypercube sampling, and we have clustered simulation results into high, medium and low efficiency repair groups. From analysis of the inhibitory effect of MX on each of the three groups, it is found that the inhibition is most effective for high efficiency base excision repair, and least effective for low efficiency repair. PMID:23847811

  3. Web Based VRML Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.; Sarfraz, M.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a method to connect VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and Java components in a Web page using EAI (External Authoring Interface), which makes it possible to interactively generate and edit VRML meshes. The meshes used are based on regular grids, to provide an interaction and modeling

  4. Web Based VRML Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.; Banissi, E.; Khosrowshahi, F.; Sarfraz, M.; Ursyn, A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a method to connect VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and Java components in a Web page using EAI (External Authoring Interface), which makes it possible to interactively generate and edit VRML meshes. The meshes used are based on regular grids, to provide an interaction and modeling

  5. Learning-Goals-Driven Design Model: Developing Curriculum Materials that Align with National Standards and Incorporate Project-Based Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcik, Joseph; McNeill, Katherine L.; Reiser, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Reform efforts in science education emphasize the importance of rigorous treatment of science standards and use of innovative pedagogical approaches to make science more meaningful and successful. In this paper, we present a learning-goals-driven design model for developing curriculum materials, which combines national standards and a…

  6. The Development of an Instructional Design Model on Facebook Based Collaborative Learning to Enhance EFL Students' Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linh, Nguyen Duy; Suppasetseree, Suksan

    2016-01-01

    Writing is one of the essential skills that EFL students, specifically in Thailand, need to achieve while their learning English during tertiary education. However, Thai EFL students have few chances to practice writing skills while learning. This study was conducted to develop an instructional design model for assisting students in learning…

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A CHEMICAL PROCESS MODELING ENVIRONMENT BASED ON CAPE-OPEN INTERFACE STANDARDS AND THE MICROSOFT .NET FRAMEWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical process simulation has long been used as a design tool in the development of chemical plants, and has long been considered a means to evaluate different design options. With the advent of large scale computer networks and interface models for program components, it is po...

  8. The Development Model of Knowledge Management via Web-Based Learning to Enhance Pre-Service Teacher's Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampai, Nattaphon; Sopeerak, Saroch

    2011-01-01

    This research explores that the model of knowledge management and web technology for teachers' professional development as well as its impact in the classroom on learning and teaching, especially in pre-service teacher's competency and practices that refer to knowledge creating, analyzing, nurturing, disseminating, and optimizing process as part…

  9. Polytomous diagnosis of ovarian tumors as benign, borderline, primary invasive or metastatic: development and validation of standard and kernel-based risk prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Testa Antonia C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto, risk prediction models for preoperative ultrasound-based diagnosis of ovarian tumors were dichotomous (benign versus malignant. We develop and validate polytomous models (models that predict more than two events to diagnose ovarian tumors as benign, borderline, primary invasive or metastatic invasive. The main focus is on how different types of models perform and compare. Methods A multi-center dataset containing 1066 women was used for model development and internal validation, whilst another multi-center dataset of 1938 women was used for temporal and external validation. Models were based on standard logistic regression and on penalized kernel-based algorithms (least squares support vector machines and kernel logistic regression. We used true polytomous models as well as combinations of dichotomous models based on the 'pairwise coupling' technique to produce polytomous risk estimates. Careful variable selection was performed, based largely on cross-validated c-index estimates. Model performance was assessed with the dichotomous c-index (i.e. the area under the ROC curve and a polytomous extension, and with calibration graphs. Results For all models, between 9 and 11 predictors were selected. Internal validation was successful with polytomous c-indexes between 0.64 and 0.69. For the best model dichotomous c-indexes were between 0.73 (primary invasive vs metastatic and 0.96 (borderline vs metastatic. On temporal and external validation, overall discrimination performance was good with polytomous c-indexes between 0.57 and 0.64. However, discrimination between primary and metastatic invasive tumors decreased to near random levels. Standard logistic regression performed well in comparison with advanced algorithms, and combining dichotomous models performed well in comparison with true polytomous models. The best model was a combination of dichotomous logistic regression models. This model is available online

  10. AECL strategy for surface-based investigations of potential disposal sites and the development of a geosphere model for a site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, S.H.; Brown, A.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.; Lodha, G.S.; Stevenson, D.R.; Thorne, G.A.; Tomsons, D.

    1994-05-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize AECL's strategy for surface-based geotechnical site investigations used in screening and evaluating candidate areas and candidate sites for a nuclear fuel waste repository and for the development of geosphere models of sites. The report is one of several prepared by national nuclear fuel waste management programs for the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) to provide international background on site investigations for SKB's R and D programme on siting.The scope of the report is limited to surface-based investigations of the geosphere, those done at surface or in boreholes drilled from surface. The report discusses AECL's investigation strategy and the methods proposed for use in surface-based reconnaissance and detailed site investigations at potential repository sites. Site investigations done for AECL's Underground Research Laboratory are used to illustrate the approach. The report also discusses AECL's strategy for developing conceptual and mathematical models of geological conditions at sites and the use of these models in developing a model (Geosphere Model) for use in assessing the performance of the disposal system after a repository is closed. Models based on the site data obtained at the URL are used to illustrate the approach. Finally, the report summarizes the lessons learned from AECL's R and D program on site investigations and mentions some recent developments in the R and D program. 120 refs, 33 figs, 7 tabs

  11. Gade4all: Developing Multi-platform Videogames based on Domain Specific Languages and Model Driven Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Rolando Nuñez-Valdez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of applications for mobile devices is a constantly growing market which and more and more enterprises support the development of applications for this kind of devices. In that sense, videogames for mobile devices have become very popular worldwide and are now part of highly profitable and competitive industry. Due to the diversity of platforms and mobile devices and the complexity of this kind of applications, the development time and the number of errors within that development process have increased. The productivity of the developers has also decreased due to the necessity of using many programming languages in the development process. One of the most popular strategies is to employ specialized people to perform the development tasks more efficiently, but this involves an increase of the costs, which makes some applications economically unviable. In this article we present the Gade4all Project, consisting in a new platform that aims to facilitate the development of videogames and entertainment software through the use of Domain Specific Languages and Model Driven Engineering. This tool makes possible for users without previous knowledge in the field of software development to create 2D videogames for multiplatform mobile devices in a simple and innovative way.

  12. Risk-based technical specifications: Development and application of an approach to the generation of a plant specific real-time risk model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglia, B.; Gallagher, D.; Amico, P.; Atefi, B.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes a process developed to convert an existing PRA into a model amenable to real time, risk-based technical specification calculations. In earlier studies (culminating in NUREG/CR-5742), several risk-based approaches to technical specification were evaluated. A real-time approach using a plant specific PRA capable of modeling plant configurations as they change was identified as the most comprehensive approach to control plant risk. A master fault tree logic model representative of-all of the core damage sequences was developed. Portions of the system fault trees were modularized and supercomponents comprised of component failures with similar effects were developed to reduce the size of the model and, quantification times. Modifications to the master fault tree logic were made to properly model the effect of maintenance and recovery actions. Fault trees representing several actuation systems not modeled in detail in the existing PRA were added to the master fault tree logic. This process was applied to the Surry NUREG-1150 Level 1 PRA. The master logic mode was confirmed. The model was then used to evaluate frequency associated with several plant configurations using the IRRAS code. For all cases analyzed computational time was less than three minutes. This document Volume 2, contains appendices A, B, and C. These provide, respectively: Surry Technical Specifications Model Database, Surry Technical Specifications Model, and a list of supercomponents used in the Surry Technical Specifications Model

  13. Leadership Development of Rehabilitation Professionals in a Low-Resource Country: A Transformational Leadership, Project-Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Maureen Romanow; Mann, Monika; Dunleavy, Kim; Chevan, Julia; Kirenga, Liliane; Nuhu, Assuman

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities and outcomes of the Leadership Institute (LI), a short-term leadership development professional development course offered to physiotherapists in a low-resource country. Previous studies have provided examples of the benefits of such programs in medicine and nursing, but this has yet to be documented in the rehabilitation literature. The prototype of leadership development presented may provide guidance for similar trainings in other low-resource countries and offer the rehabilitation community an opportunity to build on the model to construct a research agenda around rehabilitation leadership development. The course used a constructivist approach to integrate participants' experiences, background, beliefs, and prior knowledge into the content. Transformational leadership development theory was emphasized with the generation of active learning projects, a key component of the training. Positive changes after the course included an increase in the number of community outreach activities completed by participants and increased involvement with their professional organization. Thirteen leadership projects were proposed and presented. The LI provided present and future leaders throughout Rwanda with exposure to transformative leadership concepts and offered them the opportunity to work together on projects that enhanced their profession and met the needs of underserved communities. Challenges included limited funding for physiotherapy positions allocated to hospitals in Rwanda, particularly in the rural areas. Participants experienced difficulties in carrying out leadership projects without additional funding to support them. While the emphasis on group projects to foster local advocacy and community education is highly recommended, the projects would benefit from a strong long-term mentorship program and further budgeting considerations. The LI can serve as a model to develop leadership skills and spur professional

  14. Developing and testing a measurement tool for assessing predictors of breakfast consumption based on a health promotion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehdari, Tahereh; Rahimi, Tahereh; Aryaeian, Naheed; Gohari, Mahmood Reza; Esfeh, Jabiz Modaresi

    2014-01-01

    To develop an instrument for measuring Health Promotion Model constructs in terms of breakfast consumption, and to identify the constructs that were predictors of breakfast consumption among Iranian female students. A questionnaire on Health Promotion Model variables was developed and potential predictors of breakfast consumption were assessed using this tool. One hundred female students, mean age 13 years (SD ± 1.2 years). Two middle schools from moderate-income areas in Qom, Iran. Health Promotion Model variables were assessed using a 58-item questionnaire. Breakfast consumption was also measured. Internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), content validity index, content validity ratio, multiple linear regression using stepwise method, and Pearson correlation. Content validity index and content validity ratio scores of the developed scale items were 0.89 and 0.93, respectively. Internal consistencies (range, .74-.91) of subscales were acceptable. Prior related behaviors, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and competing demand and preferences were 4 constructs that could predict 63% variance of breakfast frequency per week among subjects. The instrument developed in this study may be a useful tool for researchers to explore factors affecting breakfast consumption among students. Students with a high level of self-efficacy, more prior related behavior, fewer perceived barriers, and fewer competing demands were most likely to regularly consume breakfast. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of hybrid genetic-algorithm-based neural networks using regression trees for modeling air quality inside a public transportation bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Akhil; Kaur, Devinder; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-02-01

    The present study developed a novel approach to modeling indoor air quality (IAQ) of a public transportation bus by the development of hybrid genetic-algorithm-based neural networks (also known as evolutionary neural networks) with input variables optimized from using the regression trees, referred as the GART approach. This study validated the applicability of the GART modeling approach in solving complex nonlinear systems by accurately predicting the monitored contaminants of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), 0.3-0.4 microm sized particle numbers, 0.4-0.5 microm sized particle numbers, particulate matter (PM) concentrations less than 1.0 microm (PM10), and PM concentrations less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) inside a public transportation bus operating on 20% grade biodiesel in Toledo, OH. First, the important variables affecting each monitored in-bus contaminant were determined using regression trees. Second, the analysis of variance was used as a complimentary sensitivity analysis to the regression tree results to determine a subset of statistically significant variables affecting each monitored in-bus contaminant. Finally, the identified subsets of statistically significant variables were used as inputs to develop three artificial neural network (ANN) models. The models developed were regression tree-based back-propagation network (BPN-RT), regression tree-based radial basis function network (RBFN-RT), and GART models. Performance measures were used to validate the predictive capacity of the developed IAQ models. The results from this approach were compared with the results obtained from using a theoretical approach and a generalized practicable approach to modeling IAQ that included the consideration of additional independent variables when developing the aforementioned ANN models. The hybrid GART models were able to capture majority of the variance in the monitored in-bus contaminants. The genetic-algorithm-based

  16. China Changes the Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Rzeszotarska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades of the twentieth century fundamentally changed the situation in the global economy. China's spectacular economic success has increased an interest in this country. The short time in which China moved on from the a poor agricultural country into a global economic power is admirable. China's model combines conflicted elements of different economic systems: the bureaucratic planning, island-capitalism, simple goods production and natural economy. The current development and transformation of the economy have brought about spectacular achievements and successes. However, the "the world's manufacturer" produces goods designed in other countries. In contrast, the modern idea is to build a modern and independent Chinese industry. The possibilities of the current model of economic development based on simple reserves and large statedriven infrastructure projects, which no longer drive the economy to the extent they previously did, dried out. Thus, the "Middle Kingdom" will have to compete against the rest of the world on quality and innovation. Therefore the development of the new model is a prerequisite to ensure progress in the future. Discussion on further development has been expedited in 2011, when it became abundantly clear that the Chinese economy would share the experience of the effects of the global crisis. The Chinese look at the challenges that the economy is facing realistically in thinking about the modern technology which begins to dominate the country. China is determined to become the leading technological superpower of the world. Today, many developing countries are looking towards China watching the development model implemented there with the hope of its adaptation in their economies. However, China is a unique entity. Therefore, it may be that adaptation of the Chinese model of development in other countries is not possible.

  17. Investigating the experience: A case study of a science professional development program based on Kolb's experiential learning model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian L.

    Professional development for educators has been defined as the process or processes by which teachers achieve higher levels of professional competence and expand their understanding of self, role, context and career (Duke and Stiggins, 1990). Currently, there is limited research literature that examines the effect a professional development course, which uses David Kolb's experiential learning model, has on the professional growth and teaching practice of middle school science teachers. The purpose of this interpretive case study is to investigate how three science teachers who participated in the Rivers to Reef professional development course interpreted the learning experience and integrated the experience into their teaching practice. The questions guiding this research are (1) What is the relationship between a professional development course that uses an experiential learning model and science teaching practice? (2) How do the Rivers to Reef participants reflect on and describe the course as a professional growth experience? The creation of the professional development course and the framework for the study were established using David Kolb's (1975) experiential learning theory and the reflection process model designed by David Boud (1985). The participants in the study are three middle school science teachers from schools representing varied settings and socioeconomic levels in the southeastern United States. Data collected used the three-interview series interview format designed by Dolbere and Schuman (Seidman, 1998). Data was analyzed for the identification of common categories related to impact on science teaching practice and professional growth. The major finding of this study indicates the years of teaching experience of middle school science teachers significantly influences how they approach professional development, what and how they learn from the experience, and the ways in which the experience influences their teaching practices.

  18. Development of Education Support System for Numerical Electromagnetic Analysis Based on Server-Client Model using Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohchi, Masashi; Furukawa, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Shin-Ichiro

    Among several numerical methods, a Finite Element Method (FEM) has been adopted in various engineering problems. In such a background, it is necessary to instruct university students in the numerical analysis. The authors have designed and implemented the numerical analysis education support system for learning electromagnetic fields with Graphical User Interface (GUI) based on the server-client model using Java. In the paper, a feasibility study on the student laboratory class in the third year is described.

  19. Development of a Logic Model for a Physical Activity–Based Employee Wellness Program for Mass Transit Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Bhibha M.; Petruzzello, Steven J.; Ryan, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation workers, who constitute a large sector of the workforce, have worksite factors that harm their health. Worksite wellness programs must target this at-risk population. Although physical activity is often a component of worksite wellness logic models, we consider it the cornerstone for improving the health of mass transit employees. Program theory was based on in-person interviews and focus groups of employees. We identified 4 short-term outcome categories, which provided a chain...

  20. Model Driven Development of Data Sensitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Petur

    2014-01-01

    to the values of variables. This theses strives to improve model-driven development of such data-sensitive systems. This is done by addressing three research questions. In the first we combine state-based modeling and abstract interpretation, in order to ease modeling of data-sensitive systems, while allowing...... efficient model-checking and model-based testing. In the second we develop automatic abstraction learning used together with model learning, in order to allow fully automatic learning of data-sensitive systems to allow learning of larger systems. In the third we develop an approach for modeling and model-based...... detection and pushing error detection to earlier stages of development. The complexity of modeling and the size of systems which can be analyzed is severely limited when introducing data variables. The state space grows exponentially in the number of variable and the domain size of the variables...

  1. Study on the Development of Industry of Internet of Things Based on Competitive GEM Model in Fujian Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Jun An

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, the basic theories of internet of things, competitive GEM model and industrial development in Fujian Province were studied in this paper. Then, the factors influencing the cultivation of industrial competitiveness of the internet of things was observed and finally the suggestions on enhancing the competitiveness of internet of things and strengthening the cultivation of talents of internet of things were put forward.

  2. Development and application of a regional-scale atmospheric mercury model based on WRF/Chem: a Mediterranean area investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencarelli, Christian Natale; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian Michael; Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola

    2014-03-01

    The emission, transport, deposition and eventual fate of mercury (Hg) in the Mediterranean area has been studied using a modified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem). This model version has been developed specifically with the aim to simulate the atmospheric processes determining atmospheric Hg emissions, concentrations and deposition online at high spatial resolution. For this purpose, the gas phase chemistry of Hg and a parametrised representation of atmospheric Hg aqueous chemistry have been added to the regional acid deposition model version 2 chemical mechanism in WRF/Chem. Anthropogenic mercury emissions from the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme included in the emissions preprocessor, mercury evasion from the sea surface and Hg released from biomass burning have also been included. Dry and wet deposition processes for Hg have been implemented. The model has been tested for the whole of 2009 using measurements of total gaseous mercury from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme monitoring network. Speciated measurement data of atmospheric elemental Hg, gaseous oxidised Hg and Hg associated with particulate matter, from a Mediterranean oceanographic campaign (June 2009), has permitted the model's ability to simulate the atmospheric redox chemistry of Hg to be assessed. The model results highlight the importance of both the boundary conditions employed and the accuracy of the mercury speciation in the emission database. The model has permitted the reevaluation of the deposition to, and the emission from, the Mediterranean Sea. In light of the well-known high concentrations of methylmercury in a number of Mediterranean fish species, this information is important in establishing the mass balance of Hg for the Mediterranean Sea. The model results support the idea that the Mediterranean Sea is a net source of Hg to the atmosphere and suggest that the net flux is ≈30 Mg year(-1) of elemental Hg.

  3. Modelling central metabolic fluxes by constraint-based optimization reveals metabolic reprogramming of developing Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombié, Sophie; Nazaret, Christine; Bénard, Camille; Biais, Benoît; Mengin, Virginie; Solé, Marion; Fouillen, Laëtitia; Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Gibon, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of metabolic networks is a powerful tool to analyse the behaviour of developing plant organs, including fruits. Guided by our current understanding of heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells, a medium-scale stoichiometric model, including the balance of co-factors and energy, was constructed in order to describe metabolic shifts that occur through the nine sequential stages of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit development. The measured concentrations of the main biomass components and the accumulated metabolites in the pericarp, determined at each stage, were fitted in order to calculate, by derivation, the corresponding external fluxes. They were used as constraints to solve the model by minimizing the internal fluxes. The distribution of the calculated fluxes of central metabolism were then analysed and compared with known metabolic behaviours. For instance, the partition of the main metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, etc.) was relevant throughout fruit development. We also predicted a valid import of carbon and nitrogen by the fruit, as well as a consistent CO2 release. Interestingly, the energetic balance indicates that excess ATP is dissipated just before the onset of ripening, supporting the concept of the climacteric crisis. Finally, the apparent contradiction between calculated fluxes with low values compared with measured enzyme capacities suggest a complex reprogramming of the metabolic machinery during fruit development. With a powerful set of experimental data and an accurate definition of the metabolic system, this work provides important insight into the metabolic and physiological requirements of the developing tomato fruits. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Development of a three-dimensional unit cell to model the micromechanical response of a collagen-based extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Monica E; Roeder, Blayne A; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Kokini, Klod; Nauman, Eric A

    2010-04-01

    The three-dimensional microstructure and mechanical properties of the collagen fibrils within the extracellular matrix (ECM) is now being recognized as a primary factor in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, an appreciation of the mechanical aspects by which a cell interacts with its ECM is required for the