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Sample records for models cognitive outcome

  1. A Bayesian mathematical model of motor and cognitive outcomes in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayete, Boris; Wuest, Diane; Laramie, Jason; McDonagh, Paul; Church, Bruce; Eberly, Shirley; Lang, Anthony; Marek, Kenneth; Runge, Karl; Shoulson, Ira; Singleton, Andrew; Tanner, Caroline; Khalil, Iya; Verma, Ajay; Ravina, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    There are few established predictors of the clinical course of PD. Prognostic markers would be useful for clinical care and research. To identify predictors of long-term motor and cognitive outcomes and rate of progression in PD. Newly diagnosed PD participants were followed for 7 years in a prospective study, conducted at 55 centers in the United States and Canada. Analyses were conducted in 244 participants with complete demographic, clinical, genetic, and dopamine transporter imaging data. Machine learning dynamic Bayesian graphical models were used to identify and simulate predictors and outcomes. The outcomes rate of cognition changes are assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores, and rate of motor changes are assessed by UPDRS part-III. The most robust and consistent longitudinal predictors of cognitive function included older age, baseline Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) parts I and II, Schwab and England activities of daily living scale, striatal dopamine transporter binding, and SNP rs11724635 in the gene BST1. The most consistent predictor of UPDRS part III was baseline level of activities of daily living (part II). Key findings were replicated using long-term data from an independent cohort study. Baseline function near the time of Parkinson's disease diagnosis, as measured by activities of daily living, is a consistent predictor of long-term motor and cognitive outcomes. Additional predictors identified may further characterize the expected course of Parkinson's disease and suggest mechanisms underlying disease progression. The prognostic model developed in this study can be used to simulate the effects of the prognostic variables on motor and cognitive outcomes, and can be replicated and refined with data from independent longitudinal studies.

  2. A Bayesian mathematical model of motor and cognitive outcomes in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayete, Boris; Wuest, Diane; Laramie, Jason; McDonagh, Paul; Church, Bruce; Eberly, Shirley; Lang, Anthony; Marek, Kenneth; Runge, Karl; Shoulson, Ira; Singleton, Andrew; Tanner, Caroline; Khalil, Iya; Verma, Ajay; Ravina, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Background There are few established predictors of the clinical course of PD. Prognostic markers would be useful for clinical care and research. Objective To identify predictors of long-term motor and cognitive outcomes and rate of progression in PD. Methods Newly diagnosed PD participants were followed for 7 years in a prospective study, conducted at 55 centers in the United States and Canada. Analyses were conducted in 244 participants with complete demographic, clinical, genetic, and dopamine transporter imaging data. Machine learning dynamic Bayesian graphical models were used to identify and simulate predictors and outcomes. The outcomes rate of cognition changes are assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores, and rate of motor changes are assessed by UPDRS part-III. Results The most robust and consistent longitudinal predictors of cognitive function included older age, baseline Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) parts I and II, Schwab and England activities of daily living scale, striatal dopamine transporter binding, and SNP rs11724635 in the gene BST1. The most consistent predictor of UPDRS part III was baseline level of activities of daily living (part II). Key findings were replicated using long-term data from an independent cohort study. Conclusions Baseline function near the time of Parkinson’s disease diagnosis, as measured by activities of daily living, is a consistent predictor of long-term motor and cognitive outcomes. Additional predictors identified may further characterize the expected course of Parkinson’s disease and suggest mechanisms underlying disease progression. The prognostic model developed in this study can be used to simulate the effects of the prognostic variables on motor and cognitive outcomes, and can be replicated and refined with data from independent longitudinal studies. PMID:28604798

  3. School Factors Explaining Achievement on Cognitive and Affective Outcomes : Establishing a Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teach

  4. School Factors Explaining Achievement on Cognitive and Affective Outcomes: Establishing a Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teaching and b) school learning environment. Five…

  5. Cognitive outcome in adults after bacterial meningitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogman, M.; Beek, D. van de; Weisfelt, M.; Gans, J. de; Schmand, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cognitive outcome in adult survivors of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Data from three prospective multicentre studies were pooled and reanalysed, involving 155 adults surviving bacterial meningitis (79 after pneumococcal and 76 after meningococcal meningitis) and 72 healthy c

  6. [Cognitive remediation and work outcome in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, N

    2014-06-01

    Recovery is partly defined by the patients' capacity to work, since doing well in a job favors hope and responsibilities' taking. Diminished job placement or tenure is linked with cognitive disorders, which impact directly and indirectly (through negative symptoms) functional outcomes. Attention, executive functions and working memory disorders can result in an alteration of the ability to manage the tasks required in the workplace. Executive function, working memory and social cognition disorders may also have an impact on behavior in relationships. Cognitive disorders do not automatically directly contribute to vocational outcome, yet their effects may be mediated by other variables such as symptoms, metacognition, social skills and intrinsic motivation. Then, since all these dimensions have to be taken into account, reducing the impact of cognitive troubles becomes a major challenge for the care of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation is the more effective therapeutic tool to reduce cognitive dysfunctions. It rests in particular on the development of new strategies that allow taking concrete situations into account more efficiently. Cognitive remediation reduces the detrimental consequences of cognitive disorders and permits their compensation. It has emerged as an effective treatment, that improves not only cognitive abilities but also functioning, as it has been shown by numerous randomized controlled studies and several meta-analyses. The present article considers the effects on cognitive remediation on work function in schizophrenia. Several randomized controlled trials that compared supported employment alone versus supported employment associated with cognitive remediation showed significant improvement of employment rates in the latter condition. These results favor the use of cognitive remediation before job placement. The specific needs of the occupation that will be provided and the cognitive profile of the user should be taken into account.

  7. Knowledge Transfer in B-O-R-N Model to Enhance Computer Learners' Learning Outcomes in Knowledge and Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangchant, Shatchaya; Kiattikomol, Paiboon; Kaewkuekool, Sittichai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The process of knowledge transfer under the B-O-R-N Model is based on the concepts of knowledge transfer and change of knowledge patterns to create new knowledge. It stimulates learners to learn under the process of knowledge transfer during the learning with an aim to allow learners to achieve the learning outcomes.…

  8. Stroke Location Is an Independent Predictor of Cognitive Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsch, Fanny; Sagnier, Sharmila; Asselineau, Julien; Bigourdan, Antoine; Guttmann, Charles R; Debruxelles, Sabrina; Poli, Mathilde; Renou, Pauline; Perez, Paul; Dousset, Vincent; Sibon, Igor; Tourdias, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    On top of functional outcome, accurate prediction of cognitive outcome for stroke patients is an unmet need with major implications for clinical management. We investigated whether stroke location may contribute independent prognostic value to multifactorial predictive models of functional and cognitive outcomes. Four hundred twenty-eight consecutive patients with ischemic stroke were prospectively assessed with magnetic resonance imaging at 24 to 72 hours and at 3 months for functional outcome using the modified Rankin Scale and cognitive outcome using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Statistical maps of functional and cognitive eloquent regions were derived from the first 215 patients (development sample) using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. We used multivariate logistic regression models to study the influence of stroke location (number of eloquent voxels from voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping maps), age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and stroke volume on modified Rankin Scale and MoCA. The second part of our cohort was used as an independent replication sample. In univariate analyses, stroke location, age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and stroke volume were all predictive of poor modified Rankin Scale and MoCA. In multivariable analyses, stroke location remained the strongest independent predictor of MoCA and significantly improved the prediction compared with using only age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and stroke volume (area under the curve increased from 0.697-0.771; difference=0.073; 95% confidence interval, 0.008-0.155). In contrast, stroke location did not persist as independent predictor of modified Rankin Scale that was mainly driven by initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (area under the curve going from 0.840 to 0.835). Similar results were obtained in the replication sample. Stroke location is an independent predictor of cognitive outcome (MoCA) at 3

  9. Involvement among Resident Fathers and Links to Infant Cognitive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Carrano, Jennifer; Horowitz, Allison; Kinukawa, Akemi

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample of resident fathers in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (9-month Father Study), this study examined how father involvement is associated with infant cognitive outcomes in two domains (babbling and exploring objects with a purpose). Results from a series of logistic regression models indicate that varied aspects of…

  10. A cognitive model's view of animal cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney D'MELLO, Stan FRANKLIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although it is a relatively new field of study, the animal cognition literature is quite extensive and difficult to synthesize. This paper explores the contributions a comprehensive, computational, cognitive model can make toward organizing and assimilating this literature, as well as toward identifying important concepts and their interrelations. Using the LIDA model as an example, a framework is described within which to integrate the diverse research in animal cognition. Such a framework can provide both an ontology of concepts and their relations, and a working model of an animal’s cognitive processes that can compliment active empirical research. In addition to helping to account for a broad range of cognitive processes, such a model can help to comparatively assess the cognitive capabilities of different animal species. After deriving an ontology for animal cognition from the LIDA model, we apply it to develop the beginnings of a database that maps the cognitive facilities of a variety of animal species. We conclude by discussing future avenues of research, particularly the use of computational models of animal cognition as valuable tools for hypotheses generation and testing [Current Zoology 57 (4: 499–513, 2011].

  11. When to Use Cognitive Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Paul; Evans, Kay

    1984-01-01

    Cognitive modeling works best when teaching overt, observable activities. The basic structure of a good cognitive program includes modeling, case study exercises, social reinforcement, and transfer of training. (JB)

  12. Physical models of cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents and discusses physical models for simulating some aspects of neural intelligence, and, in particular, the process of cognition. The main departure from the classical approach here is in utilization of a terminal version of classical dynamics introduced by the author earlier. Based upon violations of the Lipschitz condition at equilibrium points, terminal dynamics attains two new fundamental properties: it is spontaneous and nondeterministic. Special attention is focused on terminal neurodynamics as a particular architecture of terminal dynamics which is suitable for modeling of information flows. Terminal neurodynamics possesses a well-organized probabilistic structure which can be analytically predicted, prescribed, and controlled, and therefore which presents a powerful tool for modeling real-life uncertainties. Two basic phenomena associated with random behavior of neurodynamic solutions are exploited. The first one is a stochastic attractor—a stable stationary stochastic process to which random solutions of a closed system converge. As a model of the cognition process, a stochastic attractor can be viewed as a universal tool for generalization and formation of classes of patterns. The concept of stochastic attractor is applied to model a collective brain paradigm explaining coordination between simple units of intelligence which perform a collective task without direct exchange of information. The second fundamental phenomenon discussed is terminal chaos which occurs in open systems. Applications of terminal chaos to information fusion as well as to explanation and modeling of coordination among neurons in biological systems are discussed. It should be emphasized that all the models of terminal neurodynamics are implementable in analog devices, which means that all the cognition processes discussed in the paper are reducible to the laws of Newtonian mechanics.

  13. Challenged by cognition : toward optimal measurement and greater understanding of youth cognition in school refusal and cognitive behavioural therapy outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maric, Marija

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this dissertation was to highlight and address seven challenges related to the measurement of youth cognition, understanding the role of cognitive constructs in anxiety and school refusal, and the examination of cognitive mediators of cognitive-behavioural treatment outcomes. The

  14. An Attributional (Cognitive) Model of Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Bernard; And Others

    A cognitive model of motivation is proposed which postulates four components as the determinants of the actual and anticipated outcome of an achievement-related event. The four determinants are ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck. These factors may be classified as either internal or external sources of control, and as either stable or…

  15. Cognitive Outcome of Status Epilepticus in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Sheppard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epileptic encephalopathy encompasses conditions in which cognitive, motor, or sensory deficits result as a consequence of epileptic activity defining certain syndromes. It therefore represents a more severe subset of epilepsy, which can be generally characterized as frequent or severe seizures leading to cerebral dysfunction. This disturbance in cerebral functioning can in turn hinder, somewhat dramatically, cognitive development and further impact the future lives of patients. In this paper, we describe the cognitive consequences of status epilepticus in children and in adults in the context of plasticity theories. Recent studies maintain that consequences of SE may be severe cognitive sequelae, especially in early life. Since the residual consequences of SE in adulthood seem less detrimental and long-lasting, we argue that early life insults, such as those created by SE, during a rapid period of development and functional specialization, result in specific cognitive deficits dependent on the sensitive period at which SE occurred.

  16. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model Script and Think-Pair-Share to Critical Thinking Skills, Social Attitude and Learning Outcomes Cognitive Biology of multiethnic High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didimus Tanah Boleng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Cooperative Script dan Think-Pair-Share terhadap Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis, Sikap Sosial, dan Hasil Belajar Kognitif Biologi Siswa SMA Multietnis   Abstract: Biological learning process with multiethnic students requires a learning models which allow students to work independently, to work together in small groups, and to share with other groups. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of learning models, ethnicity, and the interaction of learning model and ethnic on critical thinking skills, social attitudes, and cognitive achievement. This quasi experimental study was conducted in 11th grade of Natural Science Class Highschool students with six ethnicaly and Junior Highschool National score groups consisted of 132 samples. The results of Covarian Analysis showed that the learning models significantly affected the social attitudes and increased the critical thinking skills and cognitive achievement. Ethnicity significantly affected the social attitudes and cognitive achievement. Interaction of learning models and ethnicity significantly affected students social attitudes. Key Words: cooperative script, think-pair-share, critical thinking skills, social attitudes, biology cognitive achievement, multiethnic students Abstrak: Pengelolaan proses pembelajaran biologi pada siswa multietnis memerlukan model pembelajaran yang memungkinkan siswa bekerja mandiri, bekerja sama dalam kelompok kecil, dan berbagi dengan kelompok lain. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh model pembelajaran, etnis, serta interaksi model pembelajaran dan etnis terhadap keterampilan berpikir kritis, sikap sosial, dan hasil belajar kognitif biologi siswa. Penelitian eksperimen semu ini dilakukan di kelas XI IPA SMA dengan sampel sebanyak 132 orang siswa terbagi dalam enam kelas yang homogen berdasarkan etnis dan nilai ujian nasional SMP siswa. Hasil analisis data dengan menggunakan Analisis Kovarian menunjukkan bahwa model

  17. Diffusion changes predict cognitive and functional outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Ropele, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) abnormalities in normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) and in white matter hyperintensities (WMH) predict longitudinal cognitive decline and disability in older individuals independently of the concomitant magnetic...

  18. Cognitive predictors and moderators of winter depression treatment outcomes in cognitive-behavioral therapy vs. light therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikov, Lilya; Rohan, Kelly J; Evans, Maggie; Mahon, Jennifer N; Nillni, Yael I

    2013-12-01

    There is no empirical basis for determining which seasonal affective disorder (SAD) patients are best suited for what type of treatment. Using data from a parent clinical trial comparing light therapy (LT), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and their combination (CBT + LT) for SAD, we constructed hierarchical linear regression models to explore baseline cognitive vulnerability constructs (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, negative automatic thoughts, response styles) as prognostic and prescriptive factors of acute and next winter depression outcomes. Cognitive constructs did not predict or moderate acute treatment outcomes. Baseline dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts were prescriptive of next winter treatment outcomes. Participants with higher baseline levels of dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts had less severe depression the next winter if treated with CBT than if treated with LT. In addition, participants randomized to solo LT who scored at or above the sample mean on these cognitive measures at baseline had more severe depressive symptoms the next winter relative to those who scored below the mean. Baseline dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts did not predict treatment outcomes in participants assigned to solo CBT or CBT + LT. Therefore, SAD patients with extremely rigid cognitions did not fare as well in the subsequent winter if treated initially with solo LT. Such patients may be better suited for initial treatment with CBT, which directly targets cognitive vulnerability processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The development of cognitive abilities following the new outcomes of psychological theories

    OpenAIRE

    Blumen, Sheyla

    1997-01-01

    The most representative models of cognitive development following the new outcomes of psychological theories are presented. Then a brief analysis of the models in terms of six factors related to different areas in psychology and social sciences (importance of each stage, processes, knowledge, individual differences, context and limits in the cognitive development) is developed. Finally, an integration of the model developed by Sincoff and Sternberg (1989) is presented. Se presentan los mod...

  20. Pilot Cognitive Functioning and Training Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    reducing physical stress and damage to the airframe. In summary, there has been extensive research in the USAF on the use of cognitive ability tests...has amassed a body of knowledge about many topics Comprehension Measures “social acculturation ,” “social intelligence,” and the conventional

  1. Social cognition as a mediator of cognition and outcome among deaf and hearing people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Heather K; Silverstein, Steven M

    2008-10-01

    It has been suggested in the research literature that facial affect processing (FAP) and theory of mind (ToM) are both potential mediators of the well-established relationship between cognition and functional outcome among people with schizophrenia. The current project tests the mediating potency of these two domains of social cognition among deaf and hearing people with schizophrenia. Sixty-five people (34 deaf, 31 hearing) were assessed using measures of verbal and visual memory, attention, visual processing, FAP, and ToM. The results suggest that each domain of cognition, save vigilance, exerts an effect on functional outcome indirectly through its influence on social cognition. The patterns of mediation varied when the samples were broken down by hearing status and analyzed separately. Namely, the cognitive tasks directly involving linguistic ability (early visual processing [EVP] and word memory) were best mediated by social cognition for hearing subjects. For deaf subjects, the nonlinguistic cognitive tasks (e.g., visual-spatial memory-recall and copy [VSM-recall and VSM-copy]) were best mediated by social cognition. While FAP and ToM were equally effective as mediators for hearing subjects, FAP was a more potent mediator than ToM for deaf subjects. This study extends prior work in the area of social cognition and schizophrenia and indicates that the development of cognitive rehabilitation strategies should include not only interventions targeting specific cognitive abilities, such as attention and memory, but should include an emphasis on social-cognitive domains, including FAP and ToM. Further, deaf and hearing subjects may benefit from interventions addressing aspects of cognition that support linguistic ability, especially as they relate to social cognition.

  2. Inter-generational effects of the in vitro maturation technique on pregnancy outcomes, early development, and cognition of offspring in mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N; Ren, C E; Lou, Y Y; Le, F; Wang, L Y; Liu, X Z; Zhan, Q T; Mao, L N; Lou, H Y; Jin, F

    2016-11-18

    In vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes has been a highly successful method for avoiding the occurrence of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in some patients during in vitro fertilization. However, the safety of the protocol, especially the long-term effects, is still an issue of debate. The current study is to investigate the long-term effects of IVM on mice through two generations and reveal its inter-generational effects as well. The data indicate that the rates of embryo resorption and fetal death in the F1 generation were significantly increased while the newborn survival rate in the F1 and F2 generations were significantly decreased in the IVM group. Increased body weights in the F1 generation and mouse number per litter in the F2 generation were observed in both the IVM and VVM groups; however, no insulin resistance was detected. No significant differences were detected in birth defects, organ weights, testis histology and sperm motility, estrous cycle, and cognition among the IVM, VVM and N mice in either the F1 or F2 generations. Our results suggest that mouse IVM can affect pregnancy outcomes throughout two generations. IVM does not appear to influence the development and cognition of the offspring throughout two generations.

  3. Formal modelling of cognitive interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Rukšenas, R.; Curzon, P; Back, J.; Blandford, A.

    2007-01-01

    We formally specify the interpretation stage in a dual state space human-computer interaction cycle. This is done by extending/reorganising our previous cognitive architecture. In particular, we focus on shape related aspects of the interpretation process associated with device input prompts. A cash-point example illustrates our approach. Using the SAL model checking environment, we show how the extended cognitive architecture facilitates detection of prompt-shape induced human error. © Sprin...

  4. Cognitive Diagnostic Modeling Using R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravand, Hamdollah

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic models (CDM) have been around for more than a decade but their application is far from widespread for mainly two reasons: (1) CDMs are novel, as compared to traditional IRT models. Consequently, many researchers lack familiarity with them and their properties, and (2) Software programs doing CDMs have been expensive and not…

  5. Cognitive behavioral therapy for suicidal behaviors: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mewton L

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Louise Mewton,1 Gavin Andrews2 1National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Research Excellence in Mental Health and Substance Use, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, 2Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression (CRUfAD, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in reducing suicidal cognitions and behavior in the adult population. We identified 15 randomized controlled trials of CBT for adults (aged 18 years and older that included suicide-related cognitions or behaviors as an outcome measure. The studies were identified from PsycINFO searches, reference lists, and a publicly available database of psychosocial interventions for suicidal behaviors. This review identified some evidence of the use of CBT in the reduction of both suicidal cognitions and behaviors. There was not enough evidence from clinical trials to suggest that CBT focusing on mental illness reduces suicidal cognitions and behaviors. On the other hand, CBT focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors was found to be effective. Given the current evidence, clinicians should be trained in CBT techniques focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors that are independent of the treatment of mental illness. Keywords: suicidal behaviors, suicidal cognitions, CBT

  6. 基于多状态Markov模型的老年人认知损害转归研究%Outcome Predition of Mild Cognitive Impairment Based on Multi-state Markov Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨珊珊; 李新毅; 周立业; 梁瑞峰; 罗天娥; 曲成毅; 余红梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 将多状态Markov模型应用于轻度认知损害(mild cognitive impairment,MCI)转归研究,为慢性病转归研究提供方法学借鉴.方法 通过MCI患者IQ变化反映随访人群认知功能的变化趋势,构建一个四状态模型.根据多状态Markov模型分析原理,获得各状态转移影响因素、逗留时间、生存曲线,并进行模型拟合优度评价.结果 MCI病人处于认知功能稳定、认知轻度恶化和认知好转的时间大约分别为6.4年、3.6年和5.2年;生存曲线显示预后由好到差为认知功能好转、认知功能稳定、认知功能轻度恶化;多状态Markov模型拟合结果较好.结论 多状态Markov模型是多状态、多阶段慢性病转归研究的有效分析方法.%Objective The aim of this study was to make out-come prediction of mild cognitive impairment based on multi-state Markov model and to provide methodological reference for the chronic disease out-come research. Methods Based on IQ changes to reflect trends in cogni-, tive function among MCI subjects, a four states model was constructed. Ac-cording to multi-state Markov model theory, state transition realated factors, sojourn time,survival curve,and model fit were obtained. Results So-journ times of cognitive function stable, slight deteriorated, and improved were years of 6. 4,3. 6, and 5. 2, respectively. Survival curve showed that subjects of cognitive function improved, stable. And slight deteriorated had best to worst prognosis. Model fit can be accepted. Conclusion Multi-state Markov model is an effective analysis method for outcome prediction of multi-state or multi-stage chronic diseases.

  7. Gender Recognition Using Cognitive Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Andersen, Tobias; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we use cognitive modeling to estimate the ”gender strength” of frontal faces, a continuous class variable, superseding the traditional binary class labeling. To incorporate this continuous variable we suggest a novel linear gender classification algorithm, the Gender Strength Regres...

  8. Social cognitive predictors of treatment outcome in cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Matthew J; Matveeva, Marya; Feeney, Gerald F X; Young, Ross McD; Connor, Jason P

    2017-01-01

    Drug-related outcomes expectancies and refusal self-efficacy are core components of Social Cognitive Theory. Both predict treatment outcome in alcohol use disorders. Few studies have reported expectancies and refusal self-efficacy in cannabis dependence. None have examined both, although both constructs are key targets in Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT). This study tests the predictive role of expectancies and refusal self-efficacy in treatment outcome for cannabis dependence. Outpatients completed a comprehensive assessment when commencing cannabis treatment and predictors of treatment outcome were tested. A university hospital alcohol and drug outpatient clinic. 221 cannabis-dependent patients participated in a 6-week CBT program where the goal was abstinence. Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire and Cannabis Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, cannabis dependence severity [Severity of Dependence Scale], psychological distress [General Health Questionnaire] at baseline; the timeline follow-back procedure at baseline and each session. Patients reporting lower confidence in their ability to resist cannabis during high negative affect (emotional relief refusal self-efficacy) had a lower likelihood of abstinence (p=0.004), more days of use (pcannabis expectancies predicted greater likelihood of abstinence (p=0.024). Higher positive expectancies were associated with lower emotional relief self-efficacy, mediating its association with outcome (pcannabis dependence. Positive expectancies may indirectly predict poorer outcome because of a negative association with self-efficacy, but this conclusion remains tentative as directionality could not be established. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive reserve moderates long-term cognitive and functional outcome in cerebral small vessel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Melkas, Susanna; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana; Ferro, José M; Fazekas, Franz; Schmidt, Reinhold; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Inzitari, Domenico; Pantoni, Leonardo; Erkinjuntti, Timo

    2016-12-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is characterised by progressive white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cognitive decline and loss of functional independence. The correspondence between neuroimaging findings and the severity of clinical symptoms has been modest, however, and thus the outcome may be affected by various host factors. We investigated the predictive value of educational and occupational attainments as proxy measures of cognitive reserve on long-term cognitive and functional outcome in patients with different degrees of WMH. In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) study, 615 older individuals with WMH were evaluated with brain MRI and detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments at 3-year follow-up. A prolonged follow-up of functional and cognitive status was administered with a structured telephone interview after up to 7 years. Higher levels of educational and occupational attainment were strongly related to baseline cognitive scores and predicted a slower rate of decline at 3-year follow-up in measures of processing speed, executive functions and memory independently of WMH volume and other confounders. The deleterious effect of WMH on processing speed and memory was moderated by education and occupation. Education mitigated the relation of WMH volume on 7-year cognitive status. Moreover, higher education and occupational attainments were related to favourable outcome at 7-year follow-up as defined by sustained functional independence and lower mortality. The results support the presumption that cognitive reserve plays a significant role as a buffer against the clinical manifestations of SVD and may in part explain high individual variability in outcome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Expectancy-Value and Cognitive Process Outcomes in Mathematics Learning: A Structural Equation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.

    2014-01-01

    Existing research has yielded evidence to indicate that the expectancy-value theoretical model predicts students' learning in various achievement contexts. Achievement values and self-efficacy expectations, for example, have been found to exert positive effects on cognitive process and academic achievement outcomes. We tested a conceptual model…

  11. The impact of otitis media on cognitive and educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Corinne J; Jacobs, Ann M

    2009-11-01

    Otitis media is a common disease in childhood that can adversely affect cognitive and educational outcomes. The literature in this area is equivocal, and findings may be influenced by research design. The impact of otitis media on individual children's development appears to depend on the inter-relationship between several factors. Children who have early-onset otitis media (under 12 months) are at high risk of developing long-term speech and language problems. Otitis media has been found to interact negatively with pre-existing cognitive or language problems. For biological or environmental reasons, some populations have a pattern of early onset, higher prevalence and episodes of longer duration; this pattern leads to a higher risk of long-term speech and language problems. These factors suggest that Indigenous children may be at higher risk of cognitive and educational sequelae than non-Indigenous children.

  12. Social cognition, empathy and functional outcome in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Amy; McDonald, Skye; Lino, Bianca; O'Donnell, Maryanne; Green, Melissa J

    2010-09-01

    Social and occupational functioning difficulties are a characteristic feature of schizophrenia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that deficits in social cognition contribute significantly to these functional impairments. The present study sought to investigate whether the association between social cognition and social functioning in schizophrenia would be mediated by self-reported levels of empathy. Thirty outpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and twenty-five healthy controls completed a well-validated facial affect processing task (Ekman 60-faces facial task from the Facial Expressions of Emotion - Stimuli and Tests; FEEST), The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT; to assess emotion perception and complex social cognitive skills such as the detection of sarcasm and deceit, from realistic social exchanges), and measures of self-reported empathy and social functioning. Participants with schizophrenia performed more poorly than controls in identifying emotional states from both FEEST and TASIT stimuli, and were impaired in their ability to comprehend counterfactual information in social exchanges, including sarcasm and lies, on the TASIT. Impairment in the comprehension of sarcasm was associated with higher empathic personal distress, and lower recreational functioning. Impairment in the identification of the emotions of others was found to be associated with lower satisfaction and lower empathic fantasy. However, empathy could not be explored as a mediator of associations between social cognition and functional outcome, due to lack of common associations with functional outcome measures. These findings have implications for the remediation of specific social cognitive deficits with respect to improving functional outcomes in schizophrenia.

  13. Neurocognition, social cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosune Torio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A relationship has been found between cognition and functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Our objective was to study the relationship between the cognitive domains assessed by the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB, and functioning as evaluated using the functioning subscale of the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF-f. Methods: A sample of 83 clinically stable outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV criteria were assessed using the MCCB and the GAF-f. Pearson correlations and stepwise linear regression analyses were performed. Results: Correlation analysis between the GAF-f and the cognitive domains of the MCCB showed a significant relationship between functioning and all of the cognitive domains. Regression yielded a statistically significant model (F2,74 = 20.4, p < 0.001 in which functioning was related to Speed of processing (standardized β = 0.369, p = 0.001 and to Social cognition (standardized β = 0.325, p = 0.003. Together, these two variables explained 33.8% of the variance of functioning. Conclusions: Both speed of processing and social cognition have an important association with functioning in patients with schizophrenia.

  14. Preterm Infants Who Are Prone to Distress: Differential Effects of Parenting on 36-Month Behavioral and Cognitive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Hane, Amanda; Burnson, Cynthia; Maleck, Sarah; Hamburger, Elizabeth; Shah, Prachi E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The differential susceptibility (DS) model suggests that temperamentally prone-to-distress infants may exhibit adverse outcomes in negative environments but optimal outcomes in positive environments. This study explored temperament, parenting, and 36-month cognition and behavior in preterm infants using the DS model. We hypothesized…

  15. Preterm Infants Who Are Prone to Distress: Differential Effects of Parenting on 36-Month Behavioral and Cognitive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Hane, Amanda; Burnson, Cynthia; Maleck, Sarah; Hamburger, Elizabeth; Shah, Prachi E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The differential susceptibility (DS) model suggests that temperamentally prone-to-distress infants may exhibit adverse outcomes in negative environments but optimal outcomes in positive environments. This study explored temperament, parenting, and 36-month cognition and behavior in preterm infants using the DS model. We hypothesized…

  16. Network Models for Cognitive Development and Intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Han L J VanDer; Kees-Jan Kan; Maarten Marsman; Claire E Stevenson

    2017-01-01

    ... (dimensionality of individual differences). The welcome integration of the two fields requires the construction of mechanistic models of cognition and cognitive development that explain key phenomena in individual differences research...

  17. Cognitive Modeling of Social Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Damer. Bruce; Brodsky, Boris

    2004-01-01

    The driving theme of cognitive modeling for many decades has been that knowledge affects how and which goals are accomplished by an intelligent being (Newell 1991). But when one examines groups of people living and working together, one is forced to recognize that whose knowledge is called into play, at a particular time and location, directly affects what the group accomplishes. Indeed, constraints on participation, including roles, procedures, and norms, affect whether an individual is able to act at all (Lave & Wenger 1991; Jordan 1992; Scribner & Sachs 1991). To understand both individual cognition and collective activity, perhaps the greatest opportunity today is to integrate the cognitive modeling approach (which stresses how beliefs are formed and drive behavior) with social studies (which stress how relationships and informal practices drive behavior). The crucial insight is that norms are conceptualized in the individual &nd as ways of carrying out activities (Clancey 1997a, 2002b). This requires for the psychologist a shift from only modeling goals and tasks - why people do what they do - to modeling behavioral patterns-what people do-as they are engaged in purposeful activities. Instead of a model that exclusively deduces actions from goals, behaviors are also, if not primarily, driven by broader patterns of chronological and located activities (akin to scripts). This analysis is particular inspired by activity theory (Leont ev 1979). While acknowledging that knowledge (relating goals and operations) is fundamental for intelligent behavior, activity theory claims that a broader driver is the person s motives and conceptualization of activities. Such understanding of human interaction is normative (i.e., viewed with respect to social standards), affecting how knowledge is called into play and applied in practice. Put another way, how problems are discovered and framed, what methods are chosen, and indeed who even cares or has the authority to act, are all

  18. The cognitive life of mechanical molecular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Mathieu

    2013-12-01

    The use of physical models of molecular structures as research tools has been central to the development of biochemistry and molecular biology. Intriguingly, it has received little attention from scholars of science. In this paper, I argue that these physical models are not mere three-dimensional representations but that they are in fact very special research tools: they are cognitive augmentations. Despite the fact that they are external props, these models serve as cognitive tools that augment and extend the modeler's cognitive capacities and performance in molecular modeling tasks. This cognitive enhancement is obtained because of the way the modeler interacts with these models, the models' materiality contributing to the solving of the molecule's structure. Furthermore, I argue that these material models and their component parts were designed, built and used specifically to serve as cognitive facilitators and cognitive augmentations.

  19. Language and cognitive outcomes in internationally adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Weitzman, Carol; Schuh, Jillian; de Marchena, Ashley; Casey, B J

    2011-05-01

    This study focuses on the association between language skills and core cognitive processes relative to the duration of institutionalization in children adopted from orphanages abroad. Participants in the adoptive group (n = 46) had arrived in the United States between the ages of 2 and 84 months (mean = 24 months), and had been living in the United States for 1-9 years. Drawing on both experimental and standardized assessments, language skills of the international adoptees differed as a function of length of time spent in an institution and from those of 24 nonadopted controls. Top-down cognitive assessments including measures of explicit memory and cognitive control differed between adopted and nonadopted children, yet differences between groups in bottom-up implicit learning processes were unremarkable. Based on the present findings, we propose a speculative model linking language and cognitive changes to underlying neural circuitry alterations that reflect the impact of chronic stress, due to adoptees' experience of noncontingent, nonindividualized caregiving. Thus, the present study provides support for a relationship between domain-general cognitive processes and language acquisition, and describes a potential mechanism by which language skills are affected by institutionalization.

  20. A pilot randomized trial of two cognitive rehabilitation interventions for mild cognitive impairment: caregiver outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuc, Andrea V; Locke, Dona E C; Duncan, Noah; Fields, Julie A; Snyder, Charlene Hoffman; Hanna, Sherrie; Lunde, Angela; Smith, Glenn E; Chandler, Melanie

    2017-02-24

    This study aims to provide effect size estimates of the impact of two cognitive rehabilitation interventions provided to patients with mild cognitive impairment: computerized brain fitness exercise and memory support system on support partners' outcomes of depression, anxiety, quality of life, and partner burden. A randomized controlled pilot trial was performed. At 6 months, the partners from both treatment groups showed stable to improved depression scores, while partners in an untreated control group showed worsening depression over 6 months. There were no statistically significant differences on anxiety, quality of life, or burden outcomes in this small pilot trial; however, effect sizes were moderate, suggesting that the sample sizes in this pilot study were not adequate to detect statistical significance. Either form of cognitive rehabilitation may help partners' mood, compared with providing no treatment. However, effect size estimates related to other partner outcomes (i.e., burden, quality of life, and anxiety) suggest that follow-up efficacy trials will need sample sizes of at least 30-100 people per group to accurately determine significance. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Cognitive outcomes after sertaline treatment in patients with depression of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Cynthia A; Longmire, Crystal Flynn; Drye, Lea T; Martin, Barbara K; Frangakis, Constantine E; Meinert, Curtis L; Mintzer, Jacobo E; Porsteinsson, Anton P; Rabins, Peter V; Rosenberg, Paul B; Schneider, Lon S; Weintraub, Daniel; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2012-12-01

    Although many depressed patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) are treated with antidepressants, the effect of such treatment on cognitive performance in these patients is not known. The authors report cognitive outcomes in patients with depression of AD (dAD) after a 24-week trial of sertraline or placebo. Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial. Outpatient memory clinics at five academic medical centers in the United States. A total of 131 patients with dAD (60 men) and Mini-Mental State Examination scores of 10-26. Sertraline (n = 67), target dose of 100 mg daily or matching placebo (n = 64). Caregivers received standardized psychosocial intervention throughout the trial. Mini-Mental State Examination, cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, letter fluency, backward digit span, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and Finger Tapping Test, administered at baseline, and 8, 16, and 24 weeks following baseline. A series of linear models indicated no effect of treatment or of depression remission on cognitive test performance at 24 weeks. Regardless of treatment condition, very little change in cognitive test performance was noted in general. Treatment with sertraline in patients with dAD is not associated with greater improvement in cognition at week 24 than treatment with placebo.

  2. Modelling lymphoma therapy and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Katja; Hasenclever, Dirk; Scholz, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Dose and time intensifications of chemotherapy improved the outcome of lymphoma therapy. However, recent study results show that too intense therapies can result in inferior tumour control. We hypothesise that the immune system plays a key role in controlling residual tumour cells after treatment. More intense therapies result in a stronger depletion of immune cells allowing an early re-growth of the tumour.We propose a differential equations model of the dynamics and interactions of tumour and immune cells under chemotherapy. Major model features are an exponential tumour growth, a modulation of the production of effector cells by the presence of the tumour (immunogenicity), and mutual destruction of tumour and immune cells. Chemotherapy causes damage to both, immune and tumour cells. Growth rate, chemosensitivity, immunogenicity, and initial size of the tumour are assumed to be patient-specific, resulting in heterogeneity regarding therapy outcome. Maximum-entropy distributions of these parameters were estimated on the basis of clinical survival data. The resulting model can explain the outcome of five different chemotherapeutic regimens and corresponding hazard-ratios.We conclude that our model explains observed paradox effects in lymphoma therapy by the simple assumption of a relevant anti-tumour effect of the immune system. Heterogeneity of therapy outcomes can be explained by distributions of model parameters, which can be estimated on the basis of clinical survival data. We demonstrate how the model can be used to make predictions regarding yet untested therapy options.

  3. The cognitive outcome of hemispherectomy in 71 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsifer, Margaret B; Brandt, Jason; Salorio, Cynthia F; Vining, Eileen P G; Carson, Benjamin S; Freeman, John M

    2004-03-01

    Long-term neuropsychological outcome was studied in 71 patients who underwent hemispherectomy for severe and intractable seizures at The Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1968 and 1997 and who agreed to participate. Seizures were due to cortical dysplasias (n = 27), Rasmussen syndrome (n = 37), or vascular malformations or strokes (n = 7). Both presurgical and follow-up results are available and reported for 53 patients. Patients and caretakers were interviewed, and patients were administered standard measures of intelligence, receptive and expressive language, visual-motor skills, adaptive/developmental functioning, and behavior. Mean age at surgery was 7.2 years. At follow-up, on average 5.4 years after surgery, 65% are seizure free, 49% are medication free, and, of those responding, none rated quality of life as worse than before surgery. Mean IQ was in the 70s for Rasmussen and vascular patients and in the 30s for cortical dysplasia patients. Language and visual-motor skills were consistent with IQ. For Rasmussen patients only, language was significantly more impaired for left than for right hemispherectomy, both before surgery and at follow-up. Adaptive skills were mildly impaired, with greatest impairment in the physical domain. Cognitive measures typically changed little between surgery and follow-up, with IQ change social interactions and activities were limited. The most significant predictor of cognitive skills at follow-up was etiology, with dysplasia patients scoring lowest in intelligence and language but not in visual-motor skills. Regardless of etiology, most patients showed only moderate change in cognitive performance at follow-up.

  4. Postinstitutionalized children's development: growth, cognitive, and language outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Michelle M; Wiik, Kristen L; Frenn, Kristin A; Pollak, Seth D; Gunnar, Megan R

    2009-10-01

    Children adopted internationally from institutions are a growing population presenting to professional care providers. Although postinstitutionalized (PI) children are adopted from multiple world regions, current knowledge is predominantly based on those adopted from Romania and Eastern European countries. This study examines and compares developmental outcomes of PI children adopted from multiple world regions. Five to 11 years after adoption, 8- through 11-year-old PI children (N = 91), children internationally adopted early from foster care (N = 109), and nonadopted children (N = 69) completed screening measures assessing vision, hearing, growth, and cognitive and language abilities. Parents completed questionnaires on service utilization, school performance, preadoptive history, and postadoption environment. Forty-four percent of PI children's growth was stunted (height cognitive and language screens with increased time in institution related to lower performance. Notably, group means on these measures were within the average range. PI children were more likely to be falling behind academically and to use intervention services. Family environment did not differ between PI and nonadopted children. There were few differences for PI children by world region of adoption once accounting for duration of institutionalization. Despite currently living in similar environments, PI children have specific needs that differ from early-adopted and nonadopted children. Consideration of multiple factors, including length of institutionalization, is essential when providing care for these children.

  5. Sensory processing, neurocognition, and social cognition in schizophrenia: Towards a cohesive cognitive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, J.S. de; Gelder, B.B. de; Hodiamont, P.P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia research has identified deficits in neurocognition, social cognition, and sensory processing. Because a cohesive model of "disturbed cognitive machinery" is currently lacking, we built a conceptual model to integrate neurocognition, social cognition, and sensory processing. In a cross-

  6. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  7. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  8. The Influence of Education and Home Environment on the Cognitive Outcomes of Preschool Children in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Biedinger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational inequality is a well-established topic among the scientific community in Western countries. Major individual differences emerge well before children arrive at school. Therefore the following analysis deals with the explanation of early differences in cognitive outcomes. However, there is not much research done in Germany. The main question is if the strong effect of the educational background and the home environment on their outcomes and on the improvement exists as well. To test this, data of the project “Preschool Education and Educational Careers among Migrant Children” was used. The results of structural equation models confirm that the home environment and the education of the parents are important for children's outcomes at the age of 3 to 4. In addition both factors also play a major role for the explanation of the improvement of the cognitive abilities. The results show that in Germany the home environment and parental education are important predictors of cognitive abilities. As a main result the study shows that it is very important to control for earlier abilities of the children and to encourage low educated parents to be active with their children, since in that way they can compensate for their lower educational background.

  9. Inner rehearsal modeling for cognitive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jerome J.; Bergen, Karianne; Dasey, Timothy J.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a biomimetic approach involving cognitive process modeling, for use in intelligent robot decisionmaking. The principle of inner rehearsal, a process believed to occur in human and animal cognition, involves internal rehearsing of actions prior to deciding on and executing an overt action, such as a motor action. The inner-rehearsal algorithmic approach we developed is posed and investigated in the context of a relatively complex cognitive task, an under-rubble search and rescue. The paper presents the approach developed, a synthetic environment which was also developed to enable its studies, and the results to date. The work reported here is part of a Cognitive Robotics effort in which we are currently engaged, focused on exploring techniques inspired by cognitive science and neuroscience insights, towards artificial cognition for robotics and autonomous systems.

  10. The place of modeling in cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, James L

    2009-01-01

    I consider the role of cognitive modeling in cognitive science. Modeling, and the computers that enable it, are central to the field, but the role of modeling is often misunderstood. Models are not intended to capture fully the processes they attempt to elucidate. Rather, they are explorations of ideas about the nature of cognitive processes. In these explorations, simplification is essential-through simplification, the implications of the central ideas become more transparent. This is not to say that simplification has no downsides; it does, and these are discussed. I then consider several contemporary frameworks for cognitive modeling, stressing the idea that each framework is useful in its own particular ways. Increases in computer power (by a factor of about 4 million) since 1958 have enabled new modeling paradigms to emerge, but these also depend on new ways of thinking. Will new paradigms emerge again with the next 1,000-fold increase?

  11. Cognitive behavior therapy with Internet addicts: treatment outcomes and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly S

    2007-10-01

    Research over the last decade has identified Internet addiction as a new and often unrecognized clinical disorder that impact a user's ability to control online use to the extent that it can cause relational, occupational, and social problems. While much of the literature explores the psychological and social factors underlying Internet addiction, little if any empirical evidence exists that examines specific treatment outcomes to deal with this new client population. Researchers have suggested using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as the treatment of choice for Internet addiction, and addiction recovery in general has utilized CBT as part of treatment planning. To investigate the efficacy of using CBT with Internet addicts, this study investigated 114 clients who suffered from Internet addiction and received CBT at the Center for Online Addiction. This study employed a survey research design, and outcome variables such as client motivation, online time management, improved social relationships, improved sexual functioning, engagement in offline activities, and ability to abstain from problematic applications were evaluated on the 3rd, 8th, and 12th sessions and over a 6-month follow-up. Results suggested that Caucasian, middle-aged males with at least a 4-year degree were most likely to suffer from some form of Internet addiction. Preliminary analyses indicated that most clients were able to manage their presenting complaints by the eighth session, and symptom management was sustained upon a 6-month follow-up. As the field of Internet addiction continues to grow, such outcome data will be useful in treatment planning with evidenced-based protocols unique to this emergent client population.

  12. Influence of Cognitive Ability on Therapy Outcomes for Anomia in Adults with Chronic Poststroke Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Jade; Copland, David; O'Brien, Kate; Burfein, Penni; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Rodriguez, Amy D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between cognitive abilities and aphasia rehabilitation outcomes is complex and remains poorly understood. This study investigated the influence of language and cognitive abilities on anomia therapy outcomes in adults with aphasia. Method: Thirty-four adults with chronic aphasia participated in Aphasia Language Impairment…

  13. Social-cognitive predictors of vocational outcomes in transition youth with epilepsy: Application of social cognitive career theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Connie; Connor, Annemarie

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the utility of social-cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) as a framework to investigate career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goals, and contextual supports and barriers as predictors of choice actions among transition-age individuals with epilepsy. Moreover, these SCCT constructs are offered as an operational definition of work participation in this population. Using a quantitative descriptive research design and hierarchical regression analysis (HRA), 90 transition-age individuals with epilepsy, age 18-25, were recruited from affiliates of the Epilepsy Foundation and invited to complete an online survey comprised of a series of self-report social-cognitive measures. The HRA findings indicated that self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and environmental supports were significant predictors of work participation in youth and young adults with epilepsy. The final model accounted for 58% of the variance in work participation, which is considered a large effect size. The research findings provide support for the use of the SCCT framework to identify predictors of work participation and to provide guidance for designing customized vocational rehabilitation services and career development interventions for individuals with epilepsy in the transition from adolescence to adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Examining intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals: cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT), this study had two purposes: (a) examine the associations between intrinsic (relative to extrinsic) exercise goal content and cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes; and (b) test the mediating role of psychological need satisfaction in the Exercise Goal Content --> Outcomes relationship. Using a sample of 410 adults, hierarchical regression analysis showed relative intrinsic goal content to positively predict physical self-worth, self-reported exercise behavior, psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction and negatively predict exercise anxiety. Except for exercise behavior, the predictive utility of relative intrinsic goal content on the dependent variables of interest remained significant after controlling for participants' relative self-determined exercise motivation. Structural equation modeling analyses showed psychological need satisfaction to partially mediate the effect of relative intrinsic goal content on the outcome variables. Our findings support further investigation of exercise goals commensurate with the goal content perspective advanced in SDT.

  15. Processes models, environmental analyses, and cognitive architectures: quo vadis quantum probability theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marewski, Julian N; Hoffrage, Ulrich

    2013-06-01

    A lot of research in cognition and decision making suffers from a lack of formalism. The quantum probability program could help to improve this situation, but we wonder whether it would provide even more added value if its presumed focus on outcome models were complemented by process models that are, ideally, informed by ecological analyses and integrated into cognitive architectures.

  16. Using cognitive modeling for requirements engineering in anesthesiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, C; le Feber, J

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive modeling is a complexity reducing method to describe significant cognitive processes under a specified research focus. Here, a cognitive process model for decision making in anesthesiology is presented and applied in requirements engineering. Three decision making situations of

  17. Modeling cognitive dysfunction in neurofibromatosis-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs-Andrews, Kelly A; Gutmann, David H

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive dysfunction, including significant impairments in learning, behavior, and attention, is found in over 10% of children in the general population. However, in the common inherited cancer predisposition syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), the prevalence of these cognitive deficits approaches 70%. As a monogenic disorder, NF1 provides a unique genetic tool to identify and dissect mechanistically the molecular and cellular bases underlying cognitive dysfunction. In this review, we discuss Nf1 fly and mouse systems that mimic many of the cognitive abnormalities seen in children with NF1. Further, we describe discoveries from these models that have uncovered defects in the regulation of Ras activity, cAMP generation, and dopamine homeostasis as key mechanisms important for cognitive dysfunction in children with NF1.

  18. Cognitive Virtualization: Combining Cognitive Models and Virtual Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Q. Tran; David I. Gertman; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Ronald L. Boring; Alan R. Mecham

    2007-08-01

    3D manikins are often used in visualizations to model human activity in complex settings. Manikins assist in developing understanding of human actions, movements and routines in a variety of different environments representing new conceptual designs. One such environment is a nuclear power plant control room, here they have the potential to be used to simulate more precise ergonomic assessments of human work stations. Next generation control rooms will pose numerous challenges for system designers. The manikin modeling approach by itself, however, may be insufficient for dealing with the desired technical advancements and challenges of next generation automated systems. Uncertainty regarding effective staffing levels; and the potential for negative human performance consequences in the presence of advanced automated systems (e.g., reduced vigilance, poor situation awareness, mistrust or blind faith in automation, higher information load and increased complexity) call for further research. Baseline assessment of novel control room equipment(s) and configurations needs to be conducted. These design uncertainties can be reduced through complementary analysis that merges ergonomic manikin models with models of higher cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, decision-making, and problem-solving. This paper will discuss recent advancements in merging a theoretical-driven cognitive modeling framework within a 3D visualization modeling tool to evaluate of next generation control room human factors and ergonomic assessment. Though this discussion primary focuses on control room design, the application for such a merger between 3D visualization and cognitive modeling can be extended to various areas of focus such as training and scenario planning.

  19. Perspectives on modeling in cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffrin, Richard M

    2010-10-01

    This commentary gives a personal perspective on modeling and modeling developments in cognitive science, starting in the 1950s, but focusing on the author's personal views of modeling since training in the late 1960s, and particularly focusing on advances since the official founding of the Cognitive Science Society. The range and variety of modeling approaches in use today are remarkable, and for many, bewildering. Yet to come to anything approaching adequate insights into the infinitely complex fields of mind, brain, and intelligent systems, an extremely wide array of modeling approaches is vital and necessary.

  20. Pretherapy cognitive dispositions and treatment outcome in cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Jack D; Carney, Colleen E; Wohlgemuth, William K

    2008-12-01

    This study consisted of secondary analyses of data from 2 randomized clinical trials to test whether pretherapy cognitions predict CBT outcomes. The sample consisted of 155 primary insomnia patients with sleep maintenance complaints. Of these, 98 were randomized to CBT, 23 were assigned to progressive muscle relaxation training (PMR), and 34 were assigned to a control (sham therapy or wait-list) condition (CON). All patients completed the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale (DBAS), a sleep-related Self-Efficacy Scale (SES) and nightly sleep diaries for 2 weeks prior to receiving their assigned treatment. They then completed sleep diaries throughout an 8-week acute treatment period and during a 2-week period at a posttherapy follow-up. A subset of the sample (n=67) also completed polysomnography immediately before and after completing their assigned treatment. Preliminary regression analyses conducted with a small subset (n=15) of the patients receiving CBT showed those with relatively high levels of unhelpful sleep-related beliefs (Type 1 patients), as reflected by their pretherapy responses to the DBAS and SES questionnaires, showed markedly greater reductions in nocturnal wakefulness in response to CBT than did those (Type 2 patients) reporting less pronounced sleep-related beliefs. Given these findings, we used the regression equation derived from our initial analyses to dichotomize our entire sample into Type 1 (n=82; 52.9%) and Type 2 (n=73; 47.1%) subgroups. Subsequent comparisons showed CBT-treated Type 1 patients had significantly less wake time after sleep onset during most of the 8-week treatment phase than did the Type 1 and 2 individuals assigned to either PMR or CON. Relative to patients assigned to the PMR and CON conditions, CBT-treated Type 1 patients showed better performance across multiple subjective and objective benchmarks of clinically significant improvement, whereas the CBT-treated Type 2 patients did not. Results suggest

  1. Time models and cognitive processes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail eManiadakis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The sense of time is an essential capacity of humans, with a major role in many of the cognitive processes expressed in our daily lifes. So far, in cognitive science and robotics research, mental capacities have been investigated in a theoretical and modelling framework that largely neglects the flow of time. Only recently there has been a small but constantly increasing interest in the temporal aspects of cognition, integrating time into a range of different models of perceptuo-motor capacities. The current paper aims to review existing works in the field and suggest directions for fruitful future work. This is particularly important for the newly developed field of artificial temporal cognition that is expected to significantly contribute in the development of sophisticated artificial agents seamlessly integrated into human societies.

  2. Febrile Seizures and Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Preschool Children: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Annemarie M.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Moll, Henriette A.; Arts, Willem Frans M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: General developmental outcome is known to be good in school-aged children who experienced febrile seizures. We examined cognitive and behavioural outcomes in preschool children with febrile seizures, including language and executive functioning outcomes. Method: This work was performed in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort…

  3. Immigrant and Native Children's Cognitive Outcomes and the Effect of Ethnic Concentration in Danish Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Wurtz Rasmussen, Astrid

    This paper uses a unique and very rich PISA dataset from Denmark to investigate how the ethnic concentration in the school in.uences cognitive out-comes for both immigrant and native Danish children. We .nd that immigrant children from non-Western countries have lower reading test scores than...... are still important factors in determining the child.s cognitive outcome. However, the negative effect of ethnic concentration in the school is only significant for the native Danish children. Finally, there is a strong positive effect on the children.s cognitive outcome of speaking Danish at home....

  4. Patient recall of specific cognitive therapy contents predicts adherence and outcome in adults with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Ong, Stacie L; Harvey, Allison G

    2017-10-01

    The current study examined whether and which specific contents of patients' memory for cognitive therapy (CT) were associated with treatment adherence and outcome. Data were drawn from a pilot RCT of forty-eight depressed adults, who received either CT plus Memory Support Intervention (CT + Memory Support) or CT-as-usual. Patients' memory for treatment was measured using the Patient Recall Task and responses were coded into cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) codes, such as CBT Model and Cognitive Restructuring, and non-CBT codes, such as individual coping strategies and no code. Treatment adherence was measured using therapist and patient ratings during treatment. Depression outcomes included treatment response, remission, and recurrence. Total number of CBT codes recalled was not significantly different comparing CT + Memory Support to CT-as-usual. Total CBT codes recalled were positively associated with adherence, while non-CBT codes recalled were negatively associated with adherence. Treatment responders (vs. non-responders) exhibited a significant increase in their recall of Cognitive Restructuring from session 7 to posttreatment. Greater recall of Cognitive Restructuring was marginally significantly associated with remission. Greater total number of CBT codes recalled (particularly CBT Model) was associated with non-recurrence of depression. Results highlight the important relationships between patients' memory for treatment and treatment adherence and outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hierarchical Item Response Models for Cognitive Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mark Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnosis models (see, e.g., Rupp, Templin, & Henson, 2010) have received increasing attention within educational and psychological measurement. The popularity of these models may be largely due to their perceived ability to provide useful information concerning both examinees (classifying them according to their attribute profiles)…

  6. Corvid Caching : Insights From a Cognitive Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, Elske; Verbrugge, Rineke; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.

    2011-01-01

    Caching and recovery of food by corvids is well-studied, but some ambiguous results remain. To help clarify these, we built a computational cognitive model. It is inspired by similar models built for humans, and it assumes that memory strength depends on frequency and recency of use. We compared our

  7. Immigrant and Native Children's Cognitive Outcomes and the Effect of Ethnic Concentration in Danish Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Wurtz Rasmussen, Astrid

    This paper uses a unique and very rich PISA dataset from Denmark to investigate how the ethnic concentration in the school in.uences cognitive out-comes for both immigrant and native Danish children. We .nd that immigrant children from non-Western countries have lower reading test scores than...... native Danish children, and that children in schools with a high ethnic concentration score signi.cantly lower in the reading test than children in schools with a low ethnic concentration. These results are fairly robust across estimation methods. Immigrant children's lower cognitive outcome is related...... are still important factors in determining the child.s cognitive outcome. However, the negative effect of ethnic concentration in the school is only significant for the native Danish children. Finally, there is a strong positive effect on the children.s cognitive outcome of speaking Danish at home....

  8. Differences in cognitive and emotional outcomes between patients with perimesencephalic and aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Boerboom (Wendy); M.H. Heijenbrok-Kal (Majanka); L. Khajeh (Ladbon); F. van Kooten (Fop); G.M. Ribbers (Gerard)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To compare cognitive and emotional outcomes between patients with aneurysmal and perimesencephalic subarachnoid haemorrhage and norm scores. Design: First measurement in prospective cohort study. Patients: Sixty-seven patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage, were divided into

  9. The effects of affective and cognitive empathy on adolescents’ behavior and outcomes in conflicts with mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lissa, Caspar J.; Hawk, Skyler T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304354562; Meeus, Wim H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070442215

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated whether manipulations of affective and cognitive empathy have differential effects on observed behavior and self-reported outcomes in adolescent–mother conflict discussions. We further examined how these situational empathy inductions interact with preexisting empathic

  10. [Cognitive neuroscience of aging: explanatory models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Fabrissio; Tirapu Ustárroz, Javier

    2017-05-12

    The aim of the cognitive neuroscience of aging is the study of brain activity and the cognitive processes associated with age. In order to understand the dynamics of neurocognitive activity in older people, the present review highlights four explanatory models. The first one (HAROLD) highlights brain bilaterality, mainly in the pre-frontal cortex. The second paradigm (PASA) places special emphasis on neuronal polarisation (anterior-posterior). The third model (CRUNCH) relates the manifest activity of the brain to the level of complexity of the task. The last one (ELSA) emphasises the spatial and temporal distribution of brain activity in the different phases of recovery. Although different in their content, the four explanatory models are perfectly compatible with the findings reported by neuroimaging techniques, suggesting the use of compensation strategies and cognitive reserve for interventions that may help to optimise the performance of older people. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. A Comparison of Learning Outcomes in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Existential Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Dræby

    the lived experience of the learning outcomes of these approaches. The study also clarifies the differences between existential psychotherapy as an art of learning directed at existential learning of authenticity and cognitive- behavioural therapy as a learning-based medical treatment technology directed...... of the outcome of psychotherapy through qualitative research. The precise aim is to draw attention to the special characteristics of this outcome in terms of learning outcome. This regards both existential therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy and to clarify the possible differences and similarities between...

  12. Cognitive Load Imposed by Ultrasound-Facilitated Teaching Does Not Adversely Affect Gross Anatomy Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamniczky, Heather A.; Cotton, Darrel; Paget, Michael; Ramji, Qahir; Lenz, Ryan; McLaughlin, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Ma, Irene W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography is increasingly used in medical education, but its impact on learning outcomes is unclear. Adding ultrasound may facilitate learning, but may also potentially overwhelm novice learners. Based upon the framework of cognitive load theory, this study seeks to evaluate the relationship between cognitive load associated with using…

  13. Cognitive and Behavioral Impairment in Traumatic Brain Injury Related to Outcome and Return to Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedictus, Marieke R.; Spikman, Jacoba M.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2010-01-01

    Benedictus MR, Spikman JM, van der Naalt J. Cognitive and behavioral impairment in traumatic brain injury related to outcome and return to work. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:1436-41. Objective: To evaluate the cognitive and behavioral disturbances related to return to work (RTW) in patients with tr

  14. Long-Term Cognitive Outcomes of Infants Born Moderately and Late Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odd, David Edward; Emond, Alan; Whitelaw, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether infants born late preterm have poorer cognitive outcomes than term-born infants. Method: A cohort study based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Cognitive measures were assessed between the ages of 8 and 11 years. Exposure groups were defined as moderate/late preterm (32-36 weeks' gestation) or term…

  15. EEG Estimates of Cognitive Workload and Engagement Predict Math Problem Solving Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Carole R.; Galan, Federico Cirett

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors focused on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) data about cognitive workload and sustained attention to predict math problem solving outcomes. EEG data were recorded as students solved a series of easy and difficult math problems. Sequences of attention and cognitive workload estimates derived from the EEG…

  16. Long-Term Cognitive Outcomes of Infants Born Moderately and Late Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odd, David Edward; Emond, Alan; Whitelaw, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether infants born late preterm have poorer cognitive outcomes than term-born infants. Method: A cohort study based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Cognitive measures were assessed between the ages of 8 and 11 years. Exposure groups were defined as moderate/late preterm (32-36 weeks' gestation) or term…

  17. Understanding how family socioeconomic status mediates the maternal intelligence-child cognitive outcomes relationship: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2013-01-01

    In a model of moderated mediation using matched data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Children and Young Adults, I test (1) whether family socioeconomic status (SES) mediates the maternal intelligence-child cognitive outcomes relationship and (2) the extent to which this mediating impact is dependent on the level of maternal intelligence. Results reveal that the mediating impact of SES on the maternal intelligence-child cognitive outcomes relationship varies as a function of the level of maternal intelligence. The positive effect of higher SES on children's academic ability decreases as the cognitive ability of mothers increases, such that children in low IQ households benefit most from higher SES, while children in high IQ households benefit somewhat less.

  18. Social cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia: The moderating role of cardiac vagal tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Holly K; Sun, Jane C; Green, Michael F; Kee, Kimmy S; Lee, Junghee; Sergi, Mark; Sholty, Gretchen L; Mathis, Kristopher I; Jetton, Christopher; Williams, Terrance J; Kern, Robert; Horan, William; Fiske, Alan; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Ventura, Joseph; Hellemann, Gerhard; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Yee, Cindy M

    2014-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia face significant challenges in daily functioning, and although social cognition predicts how well patients respond to these challenges, associated physiological mechanisms remain unspecified. The present study draws from polyvagal theory and tested the hypothesis that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an established indicator of the capacity to self-regulate and adapt to environmental demands, combines with social cognition to predict functional outcome. Using data from 41 schizophrenia patients and 36 healthy comparison subjects, we replicated group differences in RSA and social cognition and also demonstrated that RSA and social cognition interact to predict how effectively patients manage work and independent living activities. Specifically, RSA did not enhance functional outcomes when social cognition was already strong, but higher levels of RSA enabled effective role functioning when social-cognitive performance was impaired. Jointly, RSA and social cognition accounted for 40% of the variance in outcome success, compared with 21% when evaluating social cognition alone. As polyvagal theory suggests, physiological flexibility and self-regulatory capacity may compensate for poorer social-cognitive skills among schizophrenia patients.

  19. Efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation therapies for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older adults: working toward a theoretical model and evidence-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckans, Marilyn; Hutson, Lee; Twamley, Elizabeth; Jak, Amy; Kaye, Jeffrey; Storzbach, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation therapies (CRTs) for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Our review revealed a need for evidence-based treatments for MCI and a lack of a theoretical rehabilitation model to guide the development and evaluation of these interventions. We have thus proposed a theoretical rehabilitation model of MCI that yields key intervention targets-cognitive compromise, functional compromise, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and modifiable risk and protective factors known to be associated with MCI and dementia. Our model additionally defines specific cognitive rehabilitation approaches that may directly or indirectly target key outcomes-restorative cognitive training, compensatory cognitive training, lifestyle interventions, and psychotherapeutic techniques. Fourteen randomized controlled trials met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Studies markedly varied in terms of intervention approaches and selected outcome measures and were frequently hampered by design limitations. The bulk of the evidence suggested that CRTs can change targeted behaviors in individuals with MCI and that CRTs are associated with improvements in objective cognitive performance, but the pattern of effects on specific cognitive domains was inconsistent across studies. Other important outcomes (i.e., daily functioning, quality of life, neuropsychiatric symptom severity) were infrequently assessed across studies. Few studies evaluated long-term outcomes or the impact of CRTs on conversion rates from MCI to dementia or normal cognition. Overall, results from trials are promising but inconclusive. Additional well-designed and adequately powered trials are warranted and required before CRTs for MCI can be considered evidence-based.

  20. Impact of Cognitive Impairment on Functional Outcome in Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Paker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cognitive impairment on functional status in patients with subacute stroke. Fifty-two patients with subacute stroke were included in the study. Mini mental state examination (MMSE test was used for the evaluation of cognitive status. Patients were separated into two groups according to their cognitive functions. Functional follow-up parameters were activities of daily living (ADL, global recovery and ambulation status. All patients were evaluated on admission to rehabilitation unit, at discharge and 6 months after discharge. Forty-four patients were completed the study. Mean age was 66 and 57 years; disease duration on admission was 4,8 and 3,5 months in the cognitively impaired and normal groups, respectively. Significant improvement was found in terms of functional follow-up parameters in both groups at discharge (<.05. Functional follow-up parameters did not show statistically significant difference between the groups. But community ambulation rate was higher in cognitively normal group at the sixth month visit. As a result of this study, inpatient rehabilitation was effective both cognitively normal and impaired subacute stroke patients.

  1. Psychiatric comorbidity and aspects of cognitive coping negatively predict outcome in cognitive behavioral treatment of psychophysiological insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, M. van de; Pevernagie, D.; Mierlo, P. van; Overeem, S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral treatment is the gold standard treatment for insomnia, although a substantial group does not respond. We examined possible predictors for treatment outcome in psychophysiological insomniacs, with a focus on the presence of clearly defined psychiatric comorbidity. This was a long

  2. Psychiatric comorbidity and aspects of cognitive coping negatively predict outcome in cognitive behavioral treatment of psychophysiological insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, M. van de; Pevernagie, D.; Mierlo, P. van; Overeem, S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral treatment is the gold standard treatment for insomnia, although a substantial group does not respond. We examined possible predictors for treatment outcome in psychophysiological insomniacs, with a focus on the presence of clearly defined psychiatric comorbidity. This was a long

  3. A Cognitive Model of College Mathematics Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    study focused on the precalculus -- calculus placement decision. The Cognitive model uses novel, or analysis level, placement test items in an attempt to...relative to the requirements of a precalculus course. Placement test scores may be partitioned to give analysis and non-analysis subtest scores which can...67 5.1.1 1989 Intercorrelations ....................................................................... 67 5.1.2 1989 Precalculus -Calculus

  4. Bayesian modeling of flexible cognitive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiefeng; Heller, Katherine; Egner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive control” describes endogenous guidance of behavior in situations where routine stimulus-response associations are suboptimal for achieving a desired goal. The computational and neural mechanisms underlying this capacity remain poorly understood. We examine recent advances stemming from the application of a Bayesian learner perspective that provides optimal prediction for control processes. In reviewing the application of Bayesian models to cognitive control, we note that an important limitation in current models is a lack of a plausible mechanism for the flexible adjustment of control over conflict levels changing at varying temporal scales. We then show that flexible cognitive control can be achieved by a Bayesian model with a volatility-driven learning mechanism that modulates dynamically the relative dependence on recent and remote experiences in its prediction of future control demand. We conclude that the emergent Bayesian perspective on computational mechanisms of cognitive control holds considerable promise, especially if future studies can identify neural substrates of the variables encoded by these models, and determine the nature (Bayesian or otherwise) of their neural implementation. PMID:24929218

  5. 3D gender recognition using cognitive modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Andersen, Tobias; Hansen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We use 3D scans of human faces and cognitive modeling to estimate the “gender strength”. The “gender strength” is a continuous class variable of the gender, superseding the traditional binary class labeling. To visualize some of the visual trends humans use when performing gender classification, ...

  6. Cognitive modelling of human temporal reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Meulen, AGB

    2003-01-01

    Modelling human reasoning characterizes the fundamental human cognitive capacity to describe our past experience and use it to form expectations as well as plan and direct our future actions. Natural language semantics analyzes dynamic forms of reasoning in which the real-time order determines the

  7. Bayesian modeling of flexible cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiefeng; Heller, Katherine; Egner, Tobias

    2014-10-01

    "Cognitive control" describes endogenous guidance of behavior in situations where routine stimulus-response associations are suboptimal for achieving a desired goal. The computational and neural mechanisms underlying this capacity remain poorly understood. We examine recent advances stemming from the application of a Bayesian learner perspective that provides optimal prediction for control processes. In reviewing the application of Bayesian models to cognitive control, we note that an important limitation in current models is a lack of a plausible mechanism for the flexible adjustment of control over conflict levels changing at varying temporal scales. We then show that flexible cognitive control can be achieved by a Bayesian model with a volatility-driven learning mechanism that modulates dynamically the relative dependence on recent and remote experiences in its prediction of future control demand. We conclude that the emergent Bayesian perspective on computational mechanisms of cognitive control holds considerable promise, especially if future studies can identify neural substrates of the variables encoded by these models, and determine the nature (Bayesian or otherwise) of their neural implementation.

  8. Near death experiences, cognitive function and psychological outcomes of surviving cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnia, S; Spearpoint, K; Fenwick, P B

    2007-08-01

    Cardiac arrest is associated with a number of cognitive processes as well as long term psychological outcomes. Recent studies have indicated that approximately 10-20% of cardiac arrest survivors report cognitive processes, including the ability to recall specific details of their resuscitation from the period of cardiac arrest. In addition it has been demonstrated that these cognitive processes are consistent with the previously described near death experience and that those who have these experiences are left with long term positive life enhancing effects. There have also been numerous studies that have indicated that although the quality of life for cardiac arrest survivors is generally good, some are left with long term cognitive impairments as well as psychological sequelae such as post-traumatic stress disorder. This paper will review near death experiences, cognitive function and psychological outcomes in survivors of cardiac arrest.

  9. Social cognition and its relationship to functional outcomes in patients with sustained acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubukata S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Shiho Ubukata,1,2 Rumi Tanemura,2 Miho Yoshizumi,1 Genichi Sugihara,1 Toshiya Murai,1 Keita Ueda1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 2Department of Rehabilitation Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan Abstract: Deficits in social cognition are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, little is known about how such deficits affect functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social cognition and functional outcomes in patients with TBI. We studied this relationship in 20 patients with TBI over the course of 1 year post-injury. Patients completed neurocognitive assessments and social cognition tasks. The social cognition tasks included an emotion-perception task and three theory of mind tasks: the Faux Pas test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes (Eyes test, and the Moving-Shapes paradigm. The Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique was used to assess functional outcomes. Compared with our database of normal subjects, patients showed impairments in all social cognition tasks. Multiple regression analysis revealed that theory of mind ability as measured by the Eyes test was the best predictor of the cognitive aspects of functional outcomes. The findings of this pilot study suggest that the degree to which a patient can predict what others are thinking is an important measure that can estimate functional outcomes over 1 year following TBI. Keywords: Eyes test, social emotion perception, social function, social participation, theory of mind

  10. Social cognition in schizophrenia, Part 2: 12-month stability and prediction of functional outcome in first-episode patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, William P; Green, Michael F; DeGroot, Michael; Fiske, Alan; Hellemann, Gerhard; Kee, Kimmy; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Sergi, Mark J; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Sugar, Catherine A; Ventura, Joseph; Nuechterlein, Keith H

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the longitudinal stability and functional correlates of social cognition during the early course of schizophrenia. Fifty-five first-episode schizophrenia patients completed baseline and 12-month follow-up assessments of 3 key domains of social cognition (emotional processing, theory of mind, and social/relationship perception), as well as clinical ratings of real-world functioning and symptoms. Scores on all 3 social cognitive tests demonstrated good longitudinal stability with test-retest correlations exceeding .70. Higher baseline and 12-month social cognition scores were both robustly associated with significantly better work functioning, independent living, and social functioning at the 12-month follow-up assessment. Furthermore, cross-lagged panel analyses were consistent with a causal model in which baseline social cognition drove later functional outcome in the domain of work, above and beyond the contribution of symptoms. Social cognitive impairments are relatively stable, functionally relevant features of early schizophrenia. These results extend findings from a companion study, which showed stable impairments across patients in prodromal, first-episode, and chronic phases of illness on the same measures. Social cognitive impairments may serve as useful vulnerability indicators and early clinical intervention targets.

  11. Parental Cognitive Impairment, Mental Health, and Child Outcomes in a Child Protection Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice; McConnell, David; Aunos, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    Parents with cognitive impairments (CI) are overrepresented in child custody cases and their children are at risk for adverse outcomes. Ecological-transactional researchers propose that child outcomes are a function of the interaction of multiple distal, intermediate, and proximal risk and resilience factors. This study tested the fit of, and…

  12. Cognitive Dysfunction, Locus of Control and Treatment Outcome among Chronic Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max W.

    While alcoholism is no longer regarded as a unitary disorder, conventional measures of congition and personality have yet to be shown capable of consistently predicting clinical outcomes. To investigate cognitive dysfunction and locus of control as predictors of post treatment outcome in a large sample of alcoholics, 106 alcoholics (74 men, 32…

  13. Parental Cognitive Impairment, Mental Health, and Child Outcomes in a Child Protection Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice; McConnell, David; Aunos, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    Parents with cognitive impairments (CI) are overrepresented in child custody cases and their children are at risk for adverse outcomes. Ecological-transactional researchers propose that child outcomes are a function of the interaction of multiple distal, intermediate, and proximal risk and resilience factors. This study tested the fit of, and…

  14. Course and cognitive outcome in major affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    . Further case register studies and a clinical follow-up study by the author showed in accordance with previous studies that unipolar and bipolar affective disorders seem to be associated with increased risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia and that the risk seems to increase with the number...... the individual is changed biologically by experiencing an affective episode or not. A biological change may be reflected in a changed risk of experiencing new episodes and changed chances of recovery from these episodes for the individual, and may possibly also be reflected in persisting altered cognitive...

  15. The outcome of cognitive bibliotherapy with depressed adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, C; Scogin, F

    1995-08-01

    The effectiveness of minimal-contact cognitive bibliotherapy was examined with a group of 80 depressed adults who were recruited from the community. Minimal-contact cognitive bibliotherapy was found to be superior to a waiting-list control group. The results were both statistically and clinically significant, and the treatment group maintained their levels of improvement at 3-month follow-up. The results also indicated significant decreases in dysfunctional attitudes and automatic negative thoughts after treatment. It appeared that the treatment also served a psychoeducational function. The interventive and preventive implications of these results are discussed.

  16. Schizophrenia: an integrated sociodevelopmental-cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Oliver D; Murray, Robin M

    2014-05-10

    Schizophrenia remains a major burden on patients and society. The dopamine hypothesis attempts to explain the pathogenic mechanisms of the disorder, and the neurodevelopmental hypothesis the origins. In the past 10 years an alternative, the cognitive model, has gained popularity. However, the first two theories have not been satisfactorily integrated, and the most influential iteration of the cognitive model makes no mention of dopamine, neurodevelopment, or indeed the brain. In this Review we show that developmental alterations secondary to variant genes, early hazards to the brain, and childhood adversity sensitise the dopamine system, and result in excessive presynaptic dopamine synthesis and release. Social adversity biases the cognitive schema that the individual uses to interpret experiences towards paranoid interpretations. Subsequent stress results in dysregulated dopamine release, causing the misattribution of salience to stimuli, which are then misinterpreted by the biased cognitive processes. The resulting paranoia and hallucinations in turn cause further stress, and eventually repeated dopamine dysregulation hardwires the psychotic beliefs. Finally, we consider the implications of this model for understanding and treatment of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Supported employment among veterans with serious mental illness: the role of cognition and social cognition on work outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Felice Reddy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is a primary functional deficit for the majority of adults with schizophrenia. Research indicates that over two-thirds of adults living in the community with schizophrenia are unemployed. Despite effective programs to assist with job identification and placement, the ability to attain and maintain employment remains a pressing concern. Neurocognitive functioning is widely acknowledged to be a determinant of work outcome; however, effect sizes tend to be in the small to medium range. The present study sought to further understand the determinants of work outcome among a sample of 104 veterans with schizophrenia enrolled in a supported employment program. A small percentage of veterans in the study got competitive jobs; 53% who secured jobs maintained employment for longer than 6 months. Cognition, social cognition, and symptoms were unrelated to job attainment. However, speed of processing and social cognition were significant predictors of work outcomes such as wages and tenure. These findings suggest that cognitive abilities including processing speed and the ability to accurately interpret and respond to social cues are significant determinants of whether individuals with schizophrenia remain employed. The results are discussed in light of current available treatment options and domains to target in synergy with work rehabilitation efforts.

  18. Assessing the effect of cognitive styles with different learning modes on learning outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chechen; Chuang, Shu-Hui

    2007-08-01

    In this study, similarities and differences in learning outcome associated with individual differences in cognitive styles are examined using the traditional (face-to-face) and web-based learning modes. 140 undergraduate students were categorized as having analytic or holistic cognitive styles by their scores on the Style of Learning and Thinking questionnaire. Four different conditions were studies; students with analytic cognitive style in a traditional learning mode, analytic cognitive style in a web-based learning mode, holistic cognitive style in a traditional learning mode, and holistic cognitive style in a web-based learning mode. Analysis of the data show that analytic style in traditional mode lead to significantly higher performance and perceived satisfaction than in other conditions. Satisfaction did not differ significantly between students with analytic style in web-based learning and those with holistic style in traditional learning. This suggest that integrating different learning modes into the learning environment may be insufficient to improve learners' satisfaction.

  19. Assessing Fit of Cognitive Diagnostic Models: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip; Almond, Russell G.

    2007-01-01

    A cognitive diagnostic model uses information from educational experts to describe the relationships between item performances and posited proficiencies. When the cognitive relationships can be described using a fully Bayesian model, Bayesian model checking procedures become available. Checking models tied to cognitive theory of the domains…

  20. A Multiple Deficit Model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for Shared Cognitive Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shanahan, Michelle A.; Santerre-Lemmon, Laura E.; Barnard, Holly D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study tests a multiple cognitive deficit model of reading disability (RD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their comorbidity. Methods: A structural equation model (SEM) of multiple cognitive risk factors and symptom outcome variables was constructed. The model included phonological awareness as a unique…

  1. Social Cognition in Children: A Model for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Robert D.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt to formulate a model of social cognition which will describe what may be involved in making social cognitive inferences in children. Techniques for intervention are then derived from the model. (Author/NG)

  2. Cognitive rehabilitation reduces cognitive impairment and normalizes hippocampal CA1 architecture in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Kristopher D; Granter-Button, Shirley; Harley, Carolyn W; Moody-Corbett, Frances; Peeling, James; Corbett, Dale

    2013-06-01

    Dementia is a major cause of morbidity in the western society. Pharmacological therapies to delay the progression of cognitive impairments are modestly successful. Consequently, new therapies are urgently required to improve cognitive deficits associated with dementia. We evaluated the effects of physical and cognitive activity on learning and memory in a rat model of vascular dementia (VasD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 months old) were exposed to either regular chow or a diet rich in saturated fats and sucrose and chronic bilateral common carotid artery occlusion or sham surgery. First, this model of VasD was validated using a 2 × 2 experimental design (surgery × diet) and standard cognitive outcomes. Next, using identical surgical procedures, we exposed animals to a paradigm of cognitive rehabilitation or a sedentary condition. At 16 weeks post surgery, VasD animals demonstrated significant learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze, independent of diet. Rehabilitation significantly attenuated these cognitive deficits at this time point as well as at 24 weeks. Further, rehabilitation normalized hippocampal CA1 soma size (area and volume) to that of control animals, independent of cell number. Importantly, these findings demonstrate beneficial neuroplasticity in early middle-aged rats that promoted cognitive recovery, an area rarely explored in preclinical studies.

  3. Early experiences matter: lasting effect of concentrated disadvantage on children's language and cognitive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jennifer E V; Li, Leah; Hertzman, Clyde

    2010-03-01

    A small but provocative literature suggests that neighbourhood socioeconomic conditions experienced by children early in life influence a variety of health and developmental outcomes later in life. We contribute to this literature by testing the degree to which neighbourhood socioeconomic conditions that children experience in Kindergarten influence their later language and cognitive outcomes in early adolescence, over and above current neighbourhood context and various child-level covariates including scores on a Kindergarten measure of school readiness. Cross-classified random effects modelling (CCREM) analyses were performed on a study population of 2648 urban children residing throughout the province of British Columbia, Canada, who were followed longitudinally from Kindergarten (age 5/6) to Grade 7 (age 12/13). Findings demonstrate that neighbourhood concentrated disadvantage experienced during Kindergarten has a durable, negative effect on children's reading comprehension outcomes seven years later-providing evidence that early social contextual experiences play a critical role in the lives of children. Possible explanations and future directions are discussed.

  4. A Mutual Self- and Informant-Report of Cognitive Complaint Correlates with Neuropathological Outcomes in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Gifford

    Full Text Available This study examines whether different sources of cognitive complaint (i.e., self and informant predict Alzheimer's disease (AD neuropathology in elders with mild cognitive impairment (MCI.Data were drawn from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform and Neuropathology Datasets (observational studies for participants with a clinical diagnosis of MCI and postmortem examination (n = 1843, 74±8 years, 52% female. Cognitive complaint (0.9±0.5 years prior to autopsy was classified into four mutually exclusive groups: no complaint, self-only, informant-only, or mutual (both self and informant complaint. Postmortem neuropathological outcomes included amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Proportional odds regression related complaint to neuropathology, adjusting for age, sex, race, education, depressed mood, cognition, APOE4 status, and last clinical visit to death interval.Mutual complaint related to increased likelihood of meeting NIA/Reagan Institute (OR = 6.58, p = 0.004 and Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease criteria (OR = 5.82, p = 0.03, and increased neurofibrillary tangles (OR = 3.70, p = 0.03, neuritic plaques (OR = 3.52, p = 0.03, and diffuse plaques (OR = 4.35, p = 0.02. Informant-only and self-only complaint was not associated with any neuropathological outcome (all p-values>0.12.In MCI, mutual cognitive complaint relates to AD pathology whereas self-only or informant-only complaint shows no relation to pathology. Findings support cognitive complaint as a marker of unhealthy brain aging and highlight the importance of obtaining informant corroboration to increase confidence of underlying pathological processes.

  5. Evaluation of Model Fit in Cognitive Diagnosis Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinxiang; Miller, M. David; Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne; Chen, Yi-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) estimate student ability profiles using latent attributes. Model fit to the data needs to be ascertained in order to determine whether inferences from CDMs are valid. This study investigated the usefulness of some popular model fit statistics to detect CDM fit including relative fit indices (AIC, BIC, and CAIC),…

  6. Children's resilience and trauma-specific cognitive behavioral therapy: Comparing resilience as an outcome, a trait, and a process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happer, Kaitlin; Brown, Elissa J; Sharma-Patel, Komal

    2017-09-20

    Resilience, which is associated with relatively positive outcomes following negative life experiences, is an important research target in the field of child maltreatment (Luthar et al., 2000). The extant literature contains multiple conceptualizations of resilience, which hinders development in research and clinical utility. Three models emerge from the literature: resilience as an immediate outcome (i.e., behavioral or symptom response), resilience as a trait, and resilience as a dynamic process. The current study compared these models in youth undergoing trauma-specific cognitive behavioral therapy. Results provide the most support for resilience as a process, in which increase in resilience preceded associated decrease in posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. There was partial support for resilience conceptualized as an outcome, and minimal support for resilience as a trait. Results of the models are compared and discussed in the context of existing literature and in light of potential clinical implications for maltreated youth seeking treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Analysis of Taiwanese Eighth Graders' Science Achievement, Scientific Epistemological Beliefs and Cognitive Structure Outcomes After Learning Basic Atomic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    1998-01-01

    Explores the interrelationships between students' general science achievement, scientific epistemological beliefs, and cognitive structure outcomes derived from instruction of basic atomic theory. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  8. Cognitive outcomes and age of detection of severe mucopolysaccharidosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D; Lam, Wendy K K; Wiggins, Lisa D; Kemper, Alex R

    2017-01-26

    The US Secretary of Health and Human Services recommended in February 2016 that mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS I) be added to the recommended uniform screening panel for state newborn screening programs. One of the key factors in this decision was the evidence suggesting that earlier treatment with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for the most severe form, Hurler syndrome (MPS IH), would lead to improved cognitive outcomes. Consistent evidence from peer-reviewed studies suggests that transplantation in the first year of life is associated with improved developmental quotient or intelligence quotient and continued cognitive growth, with earlier age of treatment associated with improved outcomes. However, available evidence suggests that cognitive functioning and attention can still lag behind unaffected age-matched children, leading to the need for special education services. Verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities outcomes may be affected differently by HCT. With the recent addition of MPS I to the recommended uniform screening panel, future work is needed to evaluate the impact of earlier, presymptomatic detection and treatment initiation and other supportive therapies on cognitive outcomes.Genet Med advance online publication 26 January 2017Genetics in Medicine (2017); doi:10.1038/gim.2016.223.

  9. Cognitive behavioral therapy for compulsive buying behavior: Predictors of treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, R; Fernández-Aranda, F; Mestre-Bach, G; Steward, T; Baño, M; Agüera, Z; Mallorquí-Bagué, N; Aymamí, N; Gómez-Peña, M; Sancho, M; Sánchez, I; Menchón, J M; Martín-Romera, V; Jiménez-Murcia, S

    2017-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) is receiving increasing consideration in both consumer and psychiatric-epidemiological research, yet empirical evidence on treatment interventions is scarce and mostly from small homogeneous clinical samples. To estimate the short-term effectiveness of a standardized, individual cognitive behavioral therapy intervention (CBT) in a sample of n=97 treatment-seeking patients diagnosed with CBB, and to identify the most relevant predictors of therapy outcome. The intervention consisted of 12 individual CBT weekly sessions, lasting approximately 45minutes each. Data on patients' personality traits, psychopathology, sociodemographic factors, and compulsive buying behavior were used in our analysis. The risk (cumulative incidence) of poor adherence to the CBT program was 27.8%. The presence of relapses during the CBT program was 47.4% and the dropout rate was 46.4%. Significant predictors of poor therapy adherence were being male, high levels of depression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, low anxiety levels, high persistence, high harm avoidance and low self-transcendence. Cognitive behavioral models show promise in treating CBB, however future interventions for CBB should be designed via a multidimensional approach in which patients' sex, comorbid symptom levels and the personality-trait profiles play a central role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Immigrant and Native Children's Cognitive Outcomes and the Effect of Ethnic Concentration in Danish Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Wurtz Rasmussen, Astrid

    to the ethnic concentration in the schools they attend and their relatively low socioeconomic status. Instrumenting for ethnic concentration reveals that even after taking into consideration that individuals may sort across neighborhoods, ethnic concentration in the school and the child's own ethnicity...... are still important factors in determining the child.s cognitive outcome. However, the negative effect of ethnic concentration in the school is only significant for the native Danish children. Finally, there is a strong positive effect on the children.s cognitive outcome of speaking Danish at home....

  11. Secondary science classroom dissections: Informing policy by evaluating cognitive outcomes and exploring affective outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allspaw, Kathleen M.

    Animal protection organizations claim that dissection is pedagogically unsound and that it will cause students to lose respect for non-human animals. Science teacher organizations support curricula that teach respect for animal life and include dissection. Prior research compared dissection to dissection alternatives. Four of the six studies revealed no difference between groups on tests of cognitive outcomes. One study revealed that dissection was superior, and one revealed that the alternative was superior. No differences in attitudes toward science, dissection or school were found. Attitudes toward non-human animals were not measured. This study focused on the dissections of earthworms and frogs in middle and high school classrooms. Pre and post-tests of conceptual understanding revealed failing scores and no significant pre/post differences. Because these tests required critical thinking skills, and the dissection activities did not, it is difficult to determine if the poor performance on these tests indicates the inability of the students to think critically, and/or if it indicates the ineffectiveness of dissection. Further studies of dissections that focus on critical thinking would be necessary to make this distinction. Classroom observations, student written narratives, and student and adult interviews revealed mixed attitudes toward non-human animals. Student behaviors during dissection were similar to those behaviors exhibited during non-dissection activities. Most students and adults readily supported worm dissections while they expressed some trepidation about frog dissections. Students and adults universally expressed affection for their pets and opposed the use of their own pets for dissection/research. There was slight support for the use of dogs and cats for dissection/research, but only those students who expressed hate for cats said that they could dissect cats. None of the students or adults expressed a willingness to dissect dogs. Some students

  12. Quantum-like Modeling of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei eKhrennikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with a historical review of the mutual influence of physics and psychology, from Freud's invention of psychic energy inspired by von Boltzmann' thermodynamics to the enrichment quantum physics gained from the side of psychology by the notion of complementarity (the invention of Niels Bohr who was inspired by William James, besides we consider the resonance of the correspondence between Wolfgang Pauli and Carl Jung in both physics and psychology. Then we turn to the problem of development of mathematical models for laws of thought starting with Boolean logic and progressing towards foundations of classical probability theory. Interestingly, the laws of classical logic and probability are routinely violated not only by quantum statistical phenomena but by cognitive phenomena as well. This is yet another common feature between quantum physics and psychology.In particular, cognitive data can exhibit a kind of the probabilistic interference effect. This similarity with quantum physics convinced a multi-disciplinary group of scientists (physicists, psychologists, economists, sociologists to apply the mathematical apparatus of quantum mechanics to modeling of cognition. We illustrate this activity by considering a few concrete phenomena: the order and disjunction effects, recognition of ambiguous figures, categorization-decision making.In Appendix 1 we briefly present essentials of theory of contextual probability and a method of representations of contextual probabilities by complex probability amplitudes(solution of the ``inverse Born's problem'' based on a quantum-like representation algorithm (QLRA.

  13. Quantum-like Modeling of Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-09-01

    This paper begins with a historical review of the mutual influence of physics and psychology, from Freud's invention of psychic energy inspired by von Boltzmann' thermodynamics to the enrichment quantum physics gained from the side of psychology by the notion of complementarity (the invention of Niels Bohr who was inspired by William James), besides we consider the resonance of the correspondence between Wolfgang Pauli and Carl Jung in both physics and psychology. Then we turn to the problem of development of mathematical models for laws of thought starting with Boolean logic and progressing towards foundations of classical probability theory. Interestingly, the laws of classical logic and probability are routinely violated not only by quantum statistical phenomena but by cognitive phenomena as well. This is yet another common feature between quantum physics and psychology. In particular, cognitive data can exhibit a kind of the probabilistic interference effect. This similarity with quantum physics convinced a multi-disciplinary group of scientists (physicists, psychologists, economists, sociologists) to apply the mathematical apparatus of quantum mechanics to modeling of cognition. We illustrate this activity by considering a few concrete phenomena: the order and disjunction effects, recognition of ambiguous figures, categorization-decision making. In Appendix 1 we briefly present essentials of theory of contextual probability and a method of representations of contextual probabilities by complex probability amplitudes (solution of the ``inverse Born's problem'') based on a quantum-like representation algorithm (QLRA).

  14. An introduction to model-based cognitive neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    Two recent innovations, the emergence of formal cognitive models and the addition of cognitive neuroscience data to the traditional behavioral data, have resulted in the birth of a new, interdisciplinary field of study: model-based cognitive neuroscience. Despite the increasing scientific interest

  15. Agent-based modeling as a research method for exploring joint decision making in organizations – a distributed cognition perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Svend Erik

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an agent-based model to explore aspects of decision making in organizations from a distributed cognition perspective. Within distributed cognition research cognition is conceptualized as a process that takes place - not only within individuals’ minds but also between them...... decision making and distributed cognition......., as they interact with each other. This means that the interactions between individuals impact both the outcome of the decision process and the individuals’ cognition, which in turn will impact their subsequent decisions. The paper outlines how this dynamic and complex task can be modeled taking into account...

  16. DOES COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT AFFECT REHABILITATION OUTCOME IN PARKINSON’S DISEASE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Ferrazzoli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cognitive status is generally considered as a major determinant of rehabilitation outcome in Parkinson’s disease. No studies about the effect of cognitive impairment on motor rehabilitation outcomes in Parkinson’s disease have been performed before.Objective: This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of cognitive decline on rehabilitation outcomes in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Methods: We retrospectively identified 485 patients with Parkinson’s disease hospitalized for a 4-week Multidisciplinary Intensive Rehabilitation Treatment between January 2014 and September 2015. According to Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, patients were divided into: group 1 - normal cognition (score 27-30, group 2 - mild cognitive impairment (score 21-26, group 3 - moderate or severe cognitive impairment (score ≤ 20. According to Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB, subjects were divided into patients with normal (score ≥ 13.8 and pathological (score < 13.8 executive functions. The outcomes measures were: Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, Parkinson’s Disease Disability Scale, Six Minutes Walking, Timed Up and Go Test and Berg Balance Scale. Results: All scales had worse values with the increasing of cognitive impairment and passing from normal to pathological executive functions. After rehabilitation, all the outcome measures improved in all groups (p<0.0001. Between groups, the percentage of improvement was significantly different for total UPDRS (p=0.0009, best improvement in normal MMSE group; p=0.019, best improvement in normal FAB group, and Berg Balance Scale (p<0.0001, all pairwise comparisons significant, best improvement in patients with worse MMSE score; p<0.0001, best improvement in patients with pathological FAB. Timed Up and Go Test (p=0.006 and Berg Balance Scale (p<0.0001 improved in patients with pathological FAB score, more than in those with normal FAB score.Conclusions: Patients gain benefit in the

  17. User-oriented and cognitive models of information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvelin, Kalervo; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The domain of user-oriented and cognitive IR is first discussed, followed by a discussion on the dimensions and types of models one may build for the domain.  The focus of the present entry is on the models of user-oriented and cognitive IR, not on their empirical applications. Several models...... with different emphases on user-oriented and cognitive IR are presented - ranging from overall approaches and relevance models to procedural models, cognitive models, and task-based models. The present entry does not discuss empirical findings based on the models....

  18. User-oriented and cognitive models of information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvelin, Kalervo; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The domain of user-oriented and cognitive IR is first discussed, followed by a discussion on the dimensions and types of models one may build for the domain.  The focus of the present entry is on the models of user-oriented and cognitive IR, not on their empirical applications. Several models...... with different emphases on user-oriented and cognitive IR are presented - ranging from overall approaches and relevance models to procedural models, cognitive models, and task-based models. The present entry does not discuss empirical findings based on the models....

  19. Course and cognitive outcome in major affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    the individual is changed biologically by experiencing an affective episode or not. A biological change may be reflected in a changed risk of experiencing new episodes and changed chances of recovery from these episodes for the individual, and may possibly also be reflected in persisting altered cognitive...... function as an expression of brain function affected during a longer period. Previous studies of the course of affective episodes are flawed by a number of drawbacks such as various definitions of recovery and recurrence, various kinds of bias and confounders, low statistical power, and statistical...... of illness played a role. The chances of recovery from an episode were found not to change during the course of unipolar or bipolar disorder. In contrast, a review of studies from the era before active treatment revealed that the duration of untreated episodes seemed to increase during the course of illness...

  20. Exploration for Understanding in Cognitive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Kevin; Stanley, Clayton; Moore, L.; Reitter, David; Halbrügge, Marc

    2010-12-01

    The cognitive modeling and artificial general intelligence research communities may reap greater scientific return on research investments - may achieve an improved understanding of architectures and models - if there is more emphasis on systematic sensitivity and necessity analyses during model development, evaluation, and comparison. We demonstrate this methodological prescription with two of the models submitted for the Dynamic Stocks and Flows (DSF) Model Comparison Challenge, exploring the complex interactions among architectural mechanisms, knowledge-level strategy variants, and task conditions. To cope with the computational demands of these analyses we use a predictive analytics approach similar to regression trees, combined with parallelization on high performance computing clusters, to enable large scale, simultaneous search and exploration.

  1. Compulsive buying: a cognitive-behavioural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Stephen; Bolton, Jessica V

    2009-01-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) has only relatively recently become a topic of interest for researchers and clinicians alike. This hiatus means that (unlike other impulse control disorders) there is currently little theoretical guidance for clinicians attempting to intervene with CB clients and no established model for researchers to evaluate, distil and refine. The current paper summarizes and organizes the main extant identified factors in the CB literature into four distinct phases: (1) antecedents; (2) internal/external triggers; (3) the act of buying; and finally, (4) post-purchase. The relationships and interactions between the identified phases are then hypothesized, within the proposed cognitive-behavioural model. The model distinguishes the key cognitive, affective and behavioural factors within each phase and identifies how CB can become self-reinforcing over time. The over-arching treatment implication is that CB can be re-conceptualized as chronic and repetitive failure in self-regulation efforts, and that psychological interventions can accommodate this in attempting to facilitate change. A successful case example is provided of a 'co-dependent compulsive buyer' using the model, with psychometric evaluation of key aspects of CB and mental health at assessment, termination and 6-month follow-up. The research and clinical implications of the proposed model are discussed, alongside identified short-comings and the need for psychological services to respond appropriately to CB clients seeking help.

  2. Novel Virtual User Models of Mild Cognitive Impairment for Simulating Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Segkouli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual user modeling research has attempted to address critical issues of human-computer interaction (HCI such as usability and utility through a large number of analytic, usability-oriented approaches as cognitive models in order to provide users with experiences fitting to their specific needs. However, there is demand for more specific modules embodied in cognitive architecture that will detect abnormal cognitive decline across new synthetic task environments. Also, accessibility evaluation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs requires considerable effort for enhancing ICT products accessibility for older adults. The main aim of this study is to develop and test virtual user models (VUM simulating mild cognitive impairment (MCI through novel specific modules, embodied at cognitive models and defined by estimations of cognitive parameters. Well-established MCI detection tests assessed users’ cognition, elaborated their ability to perform multitasks, and monitored the performance of infotainment related tasks to provide more accurate simulation results on existing conceptual frameworks and enhanced predictive validity in interfaces’ design supported by increased tasks’ complexity to capture a more detailed profile of users’ capabilities and limitations. The final outcome is a more robust cognitive prediction model, accurately fitted to human data to be used for more reliable interfaces’ evaluation through simulation on the basis of virtual models of MCI users.

  3. States-of-Mind Model: Cognitive Balance in the Treatment of Agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert M.; Michelson, Larry

    1987-01-01

    Used states-of-mind model to track therapeutic changes in cognitive balance of 39 agoraphobics. Descriptive and statistical analyses from an outcome study of graduated exposure, relaxation training, and paradoxical intention supported the model. Agoraphobics evinced negative dialogue at pretreatment, positive dialogue at mid and posttreatment, and…

  4. Discounting Models for Outcomes over Continuous Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Charles M.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    Events that occur over a period of time can be described either as sequences of outcomes at discrete times or as functions of outcomes in an interval of time. This paper presents discounting models for events of the latter type. Conditions on preferences are shown to be satisfied if and only if t...

  5. A preliminary longitudinal study on the cognitive and functional outcome of bipolar excellent lithium responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, E; Portella, M J; Forcada, I; Vieta, E; Mur, M

    2016-11-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder represents a possible marker of underlying pathophysiology, but to date, most studies are cross-sectional and heterogeneous with regard to pharmacological treatments. In the present study we investigated the 6-year cognitive and functional outcome of a sample of euthymic excellent lithium responders (ELR). A total sample of twenty subjects was assessed at baseline and 6years later: ten diagnosed of bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV criteria and ten healthy matched controls. The sample size was enough to find statistical differences between groups, with a statistical power of 0.8. Bipolar patients were on lithium treatment during all this follow-up period and fulfilled ELR criteria as measured by the Alda scale. A neuropsychological test battery tapping into the main cognitive domains was used at baseline and at after 6-year of follow-up. Functional outcome was evaluated by means of the Functioning Assessment Short Test at study endpoint. Repeated measures multivariate analyses of variance showed that bipolar patients were cognitively impaired in the executive functioning, inhibition, processing speed and verbal memory domains (p<0.03) compared to controls and such deficits were stable over time. Longer duration of illness and lower psychosocial outcome were significantly related to cognitive impairment (p<0.05). Cognitive dysfunction was present even in euthymic ELR. These deficits remain stable over the long term, and are basically associated with greater symptoms and poorer psychosocial adjustment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Measuring cognitive outcomes in a pre-clinical bioethics course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ashley K; Borges, Nicole; Rodabaugh, Heather

    2012-05-01

    Medical schools universally accept the idea that bioethics courses are essential components of education, but few studies which measure outcomes (i.e., knowledge or retention) have demonstrated their educational value in the literature. The goal of this study was to examine whether core concepts of a pre-clinical bioethics course were learned and retained. Over the course of 2 years, a pre-test comprising 25 multiple-choice questions was administered to two classes (2008-2010) of first-year medical students prior to the start of a 15-week ethics course, and an identical post-test was administered at the end of the course. A total of 189 students participated. Paired t tests showed a significant difference between pre-test scores and post-test scores. The pre-test average score was 69.8 %, and the post-test average was 82.6 %, an increase of 12.9 % after the ethics course. The pre- and post-test results also suggested a shift in difficulty level of the questions, with students finding identical questions easier after the intervention. Given the increase in post-test scores after the 15-week intervention, the study suggests that core concepts in medical ethics were learned and retained. These results demonstrate that an introductory bioethics course can improve short-term outcomes in knowledge and comprehension, and should provide impetus to educators to demonstrate improved educational outcomes in ethics at higher levels of B.S. Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning.

  7. Defining Optimal Aerobic Exercise Parameters to Affect Complex Motor and Cognitive Outcomes after Stroke: A Systematic Review and Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mahmudul Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although poststroke aerobic exercise (AE increases markers of neuroplasticity and protects perilesional tissue, the degree to which it enhances complex motor or cognitive outcomes is unknown. Previous research suggests that timing and dosage of exercise may be important. We synthesized data from clinical and animal studies in order to determine optimal AE training parameters and recovery outcomes for future research. Using predefined criteria, we included clinical trials of stroke of any type or duration and animal studies employing any established models of stroke. Of the 5,259 titles returned, 52 articles met our criteria, measuring the effects of AE on balance, lower extremity coordination, upper limb motor skills, learning, processing speed, memory, and executive function. We found that early-initiated low-to-moderate intensity AE improved locomotor coordination in rodents. In clinical trials, AE improved balance and lower limb coordination irrespective of intervention modality or parameter. In contrast, fine upper limb recovery was relatively resistant to AE. In terms of cognitive outcomes, poststroke AE in animals improved memory and learning, except when training was too intense. However, in clinical trials, combined training protocols more consistently improved cognition. We noted a paucity of studies examining the benefits of AE on recovery beyond cessation of the intervention.

  8. The Outcome of a Social Cognitive Training for Mainstream Adolescents with Social Communication Deficits in a Chinese Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy Y. S.; Crooke, Pamela J.; Lui, Aster L. Y.; Kan, Peggy P. K.; Mark, Yuen-mai; van Hasselt, Charles Andrew; Tong, Michael C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of cognitive-based strategies for improving social communication behaviours for individuals who have solid language and cognition is an important question. This study investigated the outcome of teaching Social Thinking®, a framework based in social-cognition, to Chinese adolescents with social communication deficits. Thirty-nine students…

  9. Predictors of outcome for cognitive behaviour therapy in binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Mirjam W; Vroling, Maartje S; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this naturalistic study was to identify pretreatment predictors of response to cognitive behaviour therapy in treatment-seeking patients with binge eating disorder (BED; N = 304). Furthermore, we examined end-of-treatment factors that predict treatment outcome 6 months later (N = 190). We assessed eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, personality characteristics and demographic variables using self-report questionnaires. Treatment outcome was measured using the bulimia subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory 1. Predictors were determined using hierarchical linear regression analyses. Several variables significantly predicted outcome, four of which were found to be both baseline predictors of treatment outcome and end-of-treatment predictors of follow-up: Higher levels of drive for thinness, higher levels of interoceptive awareness, lower levels of binge eating pathology and, in women, lower levels of body dissatisfaction predicted better outcome in the short and longer term. Based on these results, several suggestions are made to improve treatment outcome for BED patients.

  10. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: Feasibility and Initial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Sarah A.; Kendall, Philip C.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Wei, Chiaying; Beidas, Rinad S.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Mauro, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a brief (8-session) version of cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxiety disorders in youth ages 6 to 13. This report describes the design and development of the BCBT program and intervention materials (therapist treatment manual and child treatment workbook) and an initial evaluation of child treatment outcomes.…

  11. Predicting Outcome in Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Primary Care: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, L. Esther; Hollon, Steven D.; Huibers, Marcus J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore pretreatment and short-term improvement variables as potential moderators and predictors of 12-month follow-up outcome of unsupported online computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT), usual care, and CCBT combined with usual care for depression. Method: Three hundred and three depressed patients were randomly allocated…

  12. Alliance and Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Kaplinski, Heather Crisp; McMakin, Dana L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Fifty-four adolescents met criteria for a depressive disorder and were treated in school-based clinics. Alliance was measured after the third session from both therapist and…

  13. Coping Strategies in Bulimia Nervosa Treatment: Impact on Outcome in Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binford, Roslyn B.; Mussell, Melissa Pederson; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.

    2005-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the extent to which participants (N = 143) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) reported implementing therapeutic strategies to abstain from BN behaviors, and to assess whether use of specific strategies predicts outcome at treatment end and 1-and 6-month follow-up. Frequency of…

  14. The relation between maternal work hours and cognitive outcomes of young school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Künn-Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first that analyzes the relation between maternal work hours and the cognitive outcomes of young school-going children. When children attend school, the potential time working mothers miss out with their children, is smaller than when children do not yet attend school. At the same

  15. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: Feasibility and Initial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Sarah A.; Kendall, Philip C.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Wei, Chiaying; Beidas, Rinad S.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Mauro, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a brief (8-session) version of cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxiety disorders in youth ages 6 to 13. This report describes the design and development of the BCBT program and intervention materials (therapist treatment manual and child treatment workbook) and an initial evaluation of child treatment outcomes.…

  16. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Århus Universitet, Marianne

    Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment generating variation in the take-up of pre-school across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...

  17. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudoexperiment generating variation in the take-up of preschool across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...

  18. Meat supplementation improves growth, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes in Kenyan children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, C.G.; Murphy, S.P.; Gewa, C.; Grillenberger, M.; Bwibo, N.O.

    2007-01-01

    A randomized, controlled school feeding study was conducted in rural Embu District, Kenya to test for a causal link between animal-source food intake and changes in micronutrient nutrition and growth, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. Twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups.

  19. Predictive value of cognition for different domains of outcome in recent-onset schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthausen, Esther A. E.; Wiersma, Durk; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, Rene S.; Dingemans, Peter M.; Schene, Aart H.; van den Bosch, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to see whether and how cognition predicts outcome in recent-onset schizophrenia in a large range of domains such as course of illness, self-care, interpersonal functioning, vocational functioning and need for care. At inclusion, 115 recent-onset patients were tested on a co

  20. Applying Social Cognitive Theory to Academic Advising to Assess Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene

    2011-01-01

    Review of social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning is applied to academic advising for the purposes of assessing student learning. A brief overview of the history of student learning outcomes in higher education is followed by an explanation of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning constructs and how they…

  1. Physical activity and sedentary behavior associated with learning outcomes and cognition in adult distance learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 7 November). Physical activity and sedentary behavior associated with learning outcomes and cognition in adult distance learners. Paper presentation at the ICO [Interuniversity Center for Educational Research] National Fall School,

  2. Cognitive performance and poor long-term functional outcome after young stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Synhaeve, N.E.; Schaapsmeerders, P.; Arntz, R.M.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.; Kort, P.L. de; Dijk, E.J. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of cognitive performance on long-term functional outcome after ischemic stroke (IS) in young adults aged 18 through 50 years (young IS). METHODS: This study is part of a prospective cohort study among 277 stroke survivors with a young IS admitted to our depart

  3. Effect of Mastery Learning on Senior Secondary School Students' Cognitive Learning Outcome in Quantitative Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitee, Telimoye Leesi; Obaitan, Georgina N.

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive learning outcome of Senior Secondary School chemistry students has been poor over the years in Nigeria. Poor mathematical skills and inefficient teaching methods have been identified as some of the major reasons for this. Bloom's theory of school learning and philosophy of mastery learning assert that virtually all students are…

  4. Predictors of outcome for cognitive behaviour therapy in binge eating disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, M.W.; Vroling, M.S.; Ouwens, M.A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Strien, T. van

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this naturalistic study was to identify pretreatment predictors of response to cognitive behaviour therapy in treatment-seeking patients with binge eating disorder (BED; N=304). Furthermore, we examined end-of-treatment factors that predict treatment outcome 6months later (N=190). We asse

  5. Alliance and Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Kaplinski, Heather Crisp; McMakin, Dana L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Fifty-four adolescents met criteria for a depressive disorder and were treated in school-based clinics. Alliance was measured after the third session from both therapist and…

  6. Predicting Outcome in Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Primary Care: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, L. Esther; Hollon, Steven D.; Huibers, Marcus J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore pretreatment and short-term improvement variables as potential moderators and predictors of 12-month follow-up outcome of unsupported online computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT), usual care, and CCBT combined with usual care for depression. Method: Three hundred and three depressed patients were randomly allocated…

  7. Coping with Challenge and Hindrance Stressors in Teams: Behavioral, Cognitive, and Affective Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Matthew J.; Ellis, Aleksander P. J.; Stein, Jordan H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize the challenge-hindrance framework to examine the discrete and combined effects of different environmental stressors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective outcomes at the team level. Results from 83 teams working on a command and control simulation indicated that the introduction of a challenge stressor…

  8. Interpersonal Accuracy of Interventions and the Outcome of Cognitive and Interpersonal Therapies for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Temes, Christina M.; Elkin, Irene; Gallop, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the interpersonal accuracy of interventions in cognitive therapy and interpersonal therapy as a predictor of the outcome of treatment for patients with major depressive disorder. Method: The interpersonal accuracy of interventions was rated using transcripts of treatment sessions…

  9. Physical activity and sedentary behavior associated with learning outcomes and cognition in adult distance learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 7 November). Physical activity and sedentary behavior associated with learning outcomes and cognition in adult distance learners. Paper presentation at the ICO [Interuniversity Center for Educational Research] National Fall School,

  10. Coping Strategies in Bulimia Nervosa Treatment: Impact on Outcome in Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binford, Roslyn B.; Mussell, Melissa Pederson; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.

    2005-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the extent to which participants (N = 143) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) reported implementing therapeutic strategies to abstain from BN behaviors, and to assess whether use of specific strategies predicts outcome at treatment end and 1-and 6-month follow-up. Frequency of…

  11. Long-Term Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes following Resolution of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Preschool Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah N Biggs

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the long term effects of resolution of SDB in preschool children, either following treatment or spontaneous recovery, on cognition and behavior. Children diagnosed with SDB at 3-5y (N = 35 and non-snoring controls (N = 25, underwent repeat polysomnography (PSG and cognitive and behavioral assessment 3 years following a baseline study. At follow-up, children with SDB were grouped into Resolved and Unresolved. Resolution was defined as: obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI ≤1 event/h; no snoring detected on PSG; and no parental report of habitual snoring. 57% (20/35 of children with SDB received treatment, with SDB resolving in 60% (12/20. 43% (15/35 were untreated, of whom 40% (6/15 had spontaneous resolution of SDB. Cognitive reduced between baseline and follow-up, however this was not related to persistent disease, with no difference in cognitive outcomes between Resolved, Unresolved or Control groups. Behavioral functioning remained significantly worse in children originally diagnosed with SDB compared to control children, regardless of resolution. Change in OAHI did not predict cognitive or behavioral outcomes, however a reduction in nocturnal arousals, irrespective of full resolution, was associated with improvement in attention and aggressive behavior. These results suggest that resolution of SDB in preschool children has little effect on cognitive or behavioral outcomes over the long term. The association between sleep fragmentation and behavior appears independent of SDB, however may be moderated by concomitant SDB. This challenges the assumption that treatment of SDB will ameliorate associated cognitive and behavioural deficits and supports the possibility of a SDB phenotype.

  12. Long-Term Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes following Resolution of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N.; Walter, Lisa M.; Jackman, Angela R.; Nisbet, Lauren C.; Weichard, Aidan J.; Hollis, Samantha L.; Davey, Margot J.; Anderson, Vicki; Nixon, Gillian M.; Horne, Rosemary S. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the long term effects of resolution of SDB in preschool children, either following treatment or spontaneous recovery, on cognition and behavior. Children diagnosed with SDB at 3-5y (N = 35) and non-snoring controls (N = 25), underwent repeat polysomnography (PSG) and cognitive and behavioral assessment 3 years following a baseline study. At follow-up, children with SDB were grouped into Resolved and Unresolved. Resolution was defined as: obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI) ≤1 event/h; no snoring detected on PSG; and no parental report of habitual snoring. 57% (20/35) of children with SDB received treatment, with SDB resolving in 60% (12/20). 43% (15/35) were untreated, of whom 40% (6/15) had spontaneous resolution of SDB. Cognitive reduced between baseline and follow-up, however this was not related to persistent disease, with no difference in cognitive outcomes between Resolved, Unresolved or Control groups. Behavioral functioning remained significantly worse in children originally diagnosed with SDB compared to control children, regardless of resolution. Change in OAHI did not predict cognitive or behavioral outcomes, however a reduction in nocturnal arousals, irrespective of full resolution, was associated with improvement in attention and aggressive behavior. These results suggest that resolution of SDB in preschool children has little effect on cognitive or behavioral outcomes over the long term. The association between sleep fragmentation and behavior appears independent of SDB, however may be moderated by concomitant SDB. This challenges the assumption that treatment of SDB will ameliorate associated cognitive and behavioural deficits and supports the possibility of a SDB phenotype. PMID:26418065

  13. Do Demographic Characteristics Make Differences? Demographic Characteristics as Moderators in the Associations between Only Child Status and Cognitive/Non-cognitive Outcomes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Chen, Yiting; Yang, Xiangdong; Hu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Different family compositions and sizes may affect child development through the different modes of interaction between family members. Previous studies have compared only children with non-only children in cognitive/non-cognitive outcomes. However, relatively little research has systematically investigated the potential moderators among them. Using a large and representative sample of Chinese students (Grades 7–8; N = 5,752), this study examines the roles of demographic characteristics, such as gender, region, parental educational level, parental expectations, family socio-economic status and family structure, in the associations between only child status and cognitive/non-cognitive outcomes. For the cognitive outcomes, only child status exerts an influence on the students' academic performance in Chinese and mathematics in the sample of three districts' students. The examined associations between only child status and cognitive outcomes are different in region, parental education, parental expectations and family structure, while gender and family socio-economic status did not. For the non-cognitive outcomes, only child status exerts an influence on the students' school well-being, academic self-efficacy, academic self-concept, and internal academic motivation in the full sample of students, but not on external academic motivation. Further, the examined associations between only child status and non-cognitive outcomes are different in region, parental education, family socio-economic status and family structure, while gender and parental expectations did not. These findings suggest that the associations between only child status and cognitive/non-cognitive outcomes are heterogeneous in terms of some of the demographic characteristics. Possible explanations are proposed in some concepts of region and family environment in China. PMID:28421006

  14. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment generating variation in the take-up of pre-school across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...... universal pre-school programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in pre-school at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other...... poorer child outcomes....

  15. Avian Models for Human Cognitive Neuroscience: A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J

    2015-06-17

    Research on avian cognitive neuroscience over the past two decades has revealed the avian brain to be a better model for understanding human cognition than previously thought, despite differences in the neuroarchitecture of avian and mammalian brains. The brain, behavior, and cognition of songbirds have provided an excellent model of human cognition in one domain, namely learning human language and the production of speech. There are other important behavioral candidates of avian cognition, however, notably the capacity of corvids to remember the past and plan for the future, as well as their ability to think about another's perspective, and physical reasoning. We review this work and assess the evidence that the corvid brain can support such a cognitive architecture. We propose potential applications of these behavioral paradigms for cognitive neuroscience, including recent work on single-cell recordings and neuroimaging in corvids. Finally, we discuss their impact on understanding human developmental cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Some Instructional Implications from a Mathematical Model of Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierkiewicz, Diane B.

    Cognitive development and various educational implications are discussed in terms of Donald Saari's model of the interaction of a learner and the enviroment and the constraints imposed by the inefficiency of the learner's cognitive system. Saari proposed a hierarchical system of cognitive structures such that the relationships between structures…

  17. Divergent Outcomes in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Pharmacotherapy for Adult Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Jarrett, Robin B; Weitz, Erica; Hollon, Steven D; Twisk, Jos; Cristea, Ioana; David, Daniel; DeRubeis, Robert J; Dimidjian, Sona; Dunlop, Boadie W; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Hegerl, Ulrich; Kennedy, Sidney H; Kheirkhah, Farzan; Mergl, Roland; Miranda, Jeanne; Mohr, David C; Rush, A John; Segal, Zindel V; Siddique, Juned; Simons, Anne D; Cuijpers, Pim

    2016-05-01

    Although the average depressed patient benefits moderately from cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or pharmacotherapy, some experience divergent outcomes. The authors tested frequencies, predictors, and moderators of negative and unusually positive outcomes. Sixteen randomized clinical trials comparing CBT and pharmacotherapy for unipolar depression in 1,700 patients provided individual pre- and posttreatment scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and/or Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The authors examined demographic and clinical predictors and treatment moderators of any deterioration (increase ≥1 HAM-D or BDI point), reliable deterioration (increase ≥8 HAM-D or ≥9 BDI points), extreme nonresponse (posttreatment HAM-D score ≥21 or BDI score ≥31), superior improvement (HAM-D or BDI decrease ≥95%), and superior response (posttreatment HAM-D or BDI score of 0) using multilevel models. About 5%-7% of patients showed any deterioration, 1% reliable deterioration, 4%-5% extreme nonresponse, 6%-10% superior improvement, and 4%-5% superior response. Superior improvement on the HAM-D only (odds ratio=1.67) and attrition (odds ratio=1.67) were more frequent in pharmacotherapy than in CBT. Patients with deterioration or superior response had lower pretreatment symptom levels, whereas patients with extreme nonresponse or superior improvement had higher levels. Deterioration and extreme nonresponse and, similarly, superior improvement and superior response, both occur infrequently in randomized clinical trials comparing CBT and pharmacotherapy for depression. Pretreatment symptom levels help forecast negative and unusually positive outcomes but do not guide selection of CBT versus pharmacotherapy. Pharmacotherapy may produce clinician-rated superior improvement and attrition more frequently than does CBT.

  18. Modeling neurodevelopmental cognitive deficits in tasks with cross-species translational validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Z A; Powell, S B; Young, J W

    2016-01-01

    Numerous psychiatric disorders whose cognitive dysfunction links to functional outcome have neurodevelopmental origins including schizophrenia, autism and bipolar disorder. Treatments are needed for these cognitive deficits, which require development using animal models. Models of neurodevelopmental disorders are as varied and diverse as the disorders themselves, recreating some but not all aspects of the disorder. This variety may in part underlie why purported procognitive treatments translated from these models have failed to restore functioning in the targeted patient populations. Further complications arise from environmental factors used in these models that can contribute to numerous disorders, perhaps only impacting specific domains, while diagnostic boundaries define individual disorders, limiting translational efficacy. The Research Domain Criteria project seeks to 'develop new ways to classify mental disorders based on behavioral dimensions and neurobiological measures' in hopes of facilitating translational research by remaining agnostic toward diagnostic borders derived from clinical presentation in humans. Models could therefore recreate biosignatures of cognitive dysfunction irrespective of disease state. This review highlights work within the field of neurodevelopmental models of psychiatric disorders tested in cross-species translational cognitive paradigms that directly inform this newly developing research strategy. By expounding on this approach, the hopes are that a fuller understanding of each model may be attainable in terms of the cognitive profile elicited by each manipulation. Hence, conclusions may begin to be drawn on the nature of cognitive neuropathology on neurodevelopmental and other disorders, increasing the chances of procognitive treatment development for individuals affected in specific cognitive domains.

  19. Computational Grounded Cognition: A New Alliance between Grounded Cognition and Computational Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni ePezzulo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theories assume that there is no central module for cognition. According to this view, all cognitive phenomena, including those considered the province of amodal cognition such as reasoning, numeric and language processing, are ultimately grounded in (and emerge from a variety of bodily, affective, perceptual and motor processes. The development and expression of cognition is constrained by the embodiment of cognitive agents and various contextual factors (physical and social in which they are immersed. The grounded framework has received numerous empirical confirmations. Still, there are very few explicit computational models that implement grounding in sensory, motor and affective processes as intrinsic to cognition, and demonstrate that grounded theories can mechanistically implement higher cognitive abilities. We propose a new alliance between grounded cognition and computational modeling towards a novel multidisciplinary enterprise: Computational Grounded Cognition. We clarify the defining features of this novel approach and emphasize the importance of using the methodology of Cognitive Robotics, which permits simultaneous consideration of multiple aspects of grounding, embodiment, and situatedness, showing how they constrain the development and expression of cognition.

  20. Cyberpsychology: a human-interaction perspective based on cognitive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Bruno; West, Robert L

    2003-10-01

    This paper argues for the relevance of cognitive modeling and cognitive architectures to cyberpsychology. From a human-computer interaction point of view, cognitive modeling can have benefits both for theory and model building, and for the design and evaluation of sociotechnical systems usability. Cognitive modeling research applied to human-computer interaction has two complimentary objectives: (1) to develop theories and computational models of human interactive behavior with information and collaborative technologies, and (2) to use the computational models as building blocks for the design, implementation, and evaluation of interactive technologies. From the perspective of building theories and models, cognitive modeling offers the possibility to anchor cyberpsychology theories and models into cognitive architectures. From the perspective of the design and evaluation of socio-technical systems, cognitive models can provide the basis for simulated users, which can play an important role in usability testing. As an example of application of cognitive modeling to technology design, the paper presents a simulation of interactive behavior with five different adaptive menu algorithms: random, fixed, stacked, frequency based, and activation based. Results of the simulation indicate that fixed menu positions seem to offer the best support for classification like tasks such as filing e-mails. This research is part of the Human-Computer Interaction, and the Broadband Visual Communication research programs at the National Research Council of Canada, in collaboration with the Carleton Cognitive Modeling Lab at Carleton University.

  1. Cognitive outcome after spinal anesthesia and surgery during infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert K; Black, Ian H; Howard, Diantha B; Adams, David C; Mathews, Donald M; Friend, Alexander F; Meyers, H W Bud

    2014-09-01

    Observational studies on pediatric anesthesia neurotoxicity have been unable to distinguish long-term effects of general anesthesia (GA) from factors associated with the need for surgery. A recent study on elementary school children who had received a single GA during the first year of life demonstrated an association in otherwise healthy children between the duration of anesthesia and diminished test scores and also revealed a subgroup of children with "very poor academic achievement" (VPAA), scoring below the fifth percentile on standardized testing. Analysis of postoperative cognitive function in a similar cohort of children anesthetized with an alternative to GA may help to begin to separate the effects of anesthesia from other confounders. We used a novel methodology to construct a combined medical and educational database to search for these effects in a similar cohort of children receiving spinal anesthesia (SA) for the same procedures. We compared former patients with a control population of students matched by grade, gender, year of testing, and socioeconomic status. Vermont Department of Education records were analyzed for 265 students who had a single exposure to SA during infancy for circumcision, pyloromyotomy, or inguinal hernia repair. Exposure to SA and surgery had no significant effect on the odds of children having VPAA. (mathematics: P = 0.18; odds ratio 1.50, confidence interval (CI), 0.83-2.68; reading: P = 0.55; odds ratio = 1.19, CI, 0.67-2.1). There was no relationship between duration of exposure to SA and surgery and performance on mathematics (P = 0.73) or reading (P = 0.57) standardized testing. There was a small but statistically significant decrease in reading and math scores in the exposed group (mathematics: P = 0.03; reading: P = 0.02). We found no link between duration of surgery with infant SA and scores on academic achievement testing in elementary school. We also found no relationship between infant SA and surgery with VPAA on

  2. The impact of cognitive impairment at admission on short-term functional outcome of elderly hip fracture patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubljanin-Raspopović Emilija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The number of patents with dementia increases among hip fracture patients. Cognitive dysfunction is defined as a premorbid state which is potentionally negatively related to short-term functional outcome. Objective To assess the relationship between cognitive status on admission and functional gain during an early rehabilitation period in elderly hip fracture patients. Methods Forty-five elderly patients with surgically treated hip fracture were examined. Cognitive status was assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE at admission; functional status was assessed by the motor subscale of Functional Independence Measure (FIM at admission and before discharge, while absolute functional gain was determined by the motor FIM gain (FIM discharge - FIM admission. Absolute functional gain was analyzed in respect to cognitive status. Results Both cognitively impaired and cognitively intact hip fracture patients exhibited overall FIM motor improvements, as well as functional gains in specific FIM motor areas (p<0.01. Absolute functional gain, however, was higher in 1 cognitively intact compared to cognitively impaired patients (p<0.01, and 2 cognitively moderately impaired patients compared to severely cognitively impaired patients (p<0.01. No difference in functional gain was detected between the patients with moderately cognitively impaired compared to the cognitive intact patients (p>0.05. Conclusion The systematic use of MMSE identifies cognitively impaired hip fracture patients, and effectively predicts their short-term functional outcome. A higher admission cognitive status is related to a more favorable short term rehabilitation outcome. In spite of cognitive impairment, elderly patients with hip fracture can benefit from participation in rehabilitation programmes. The systematic identification of cognitively impaired hip fracture patients at admission facilitates optimal treatment and rehabilitation, and thus enables the best

  3. Dynamics of a stressful encounter: cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkman, S; Lazarus, R S; Dunkel-Schetter, C; DeLongis, A; Gruen, R J

    1986-05-01

    Despite the importance that is attributed to coping as a factor in psychological and somatic health outcomes, little is known about actual coping processes, the variables that influence them, and their relation to the outcomes of the stressful encounters people experience in their day-to-day lives. This study uses an intraindividual analysis of the interrelations among primary appraisal (what was at stake in the encounter), secondary appraisal (coping options), eight forms of problem- and emotion-focused coping, and encounter outcomes in a sample of community-residing adults. Coping was strongly related to cognitive appraisal; the forms of coping that were used varied depending on what was at stake and the options for coping. Coping was also differentially related to satisfactory and unsatisfactory encounter outcomes. The findings clarify the functional relations among appraisal and coping variables and the outcomes of stressful encounters.

  4. Hippocampal volume in relation to clinical and cognitive outcome after electroconvulsive therapy in depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanskog, P; Larsson, M R; Larsson, E-M; Johanson, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective In a previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, we found a significant increase in hippocampal volume immediately after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate hippocampal volume up to 1 year after ECT and investigate its possible relation to clinical and cognitive outcome. Method Clinical and cognitive outcome in 12 in-patients with depression receiving antidepressive pharmacological treatment referred for ECT were investigated with the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and a broad neuropsychological test battery within 1 week before and after ECT. The assessments were repeated 6 and 12 months after baseline in 10 and seven of these patients, respectively. Hippocampal volumes were measured on all four occasions with 3 Tesla MRI. Results Hippocampal volume returned to baseline during the follow-up period of 6 months. Neither the significant antidepressant effect nor the significant transient decrease in executive and verbal episodic memory tests after ECT could be related to changes in hippocampal volume. No persistent cognitive side effects were observed 1 year after ECT. Conclusion The immediate increase in hippocampal volume after ECT is reversible and is not related to clinical or cognitive outcome. PMID:23745780

  5. Cognitive Outcomes following Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Laura Jayne; Battle, Ceri Elisabeth; Lawrence, Matthew; Evans, Phillip Adrian; Dennis, Michael Stuart

    2016-12-01

    Patients treated with thrombolytic therapy within 4.5 hours after stroke onset appear to have improved survival and functional outcomes. Poststroke cognitive impairment is associated with reduced quality of life and survival and needs to be reviewed in consideration of the administration of thrombolysis. This review aims to systematically evaluate literature exploring the effect of thrombolysis for ischemic stroke on cognition. An electronic search was conducted to identify articles and gray literature applying broad Medical Subject Heading terms. Literature was reviewed with a 2-step process against predetermined inclusion criteria. All relevant studies were included if they investigated global or individual cognitive domains. Three studies satisfied the inclusion criteria but were diverse in outcome measures and duration, their heterogeneity limiting any possible pooled analysis. One study examined long-term treatment effects on global cognition and did not find a positive effect at 6 months. A positive treatment effect was reported in the acute phase in 1 study examining domains of visuoconstructive and perceptive abilities. One study retrospectively analyzed treatment effects on language and found improvement in the acute phase but not in the long term. The limited existing evidence on the effects of thrombolytic therapy on long- and short-term cognition is varied in both outcome measures and diagnostic classifications, making it difficult to extrapolate results to a global stroke population. This review should be used to inform future research in stroke treatment outcomes and highlights the immediate need for larger, more robust studies in this area. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cognitive impairment on health outcomes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sandy S; Chen, Shu; McAvay, Gail J; Tinetti, Mary E

    2012-10-01

    To determine the extent to which the co-occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cognitive impairment affect adverse health outcomes in older adults. Multicenter longitudinal cohort study. California, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina. Three thousand ninety-three community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Four hundred thirty-one had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at study baseline. Follow-up began at the second CHS visit and continued for 3 years. Spirometric criteria for airflow limitation served to establish COPD using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma method, which accounts for age-related changes in lung function. Cognitive impairment was evaluated using the modified Mini-Mental State Examination and claims data. Outcomes were respiratory-related and all-cause hospitalizations and death. Participants with coexisting COPD and cognitive impairment had the highest rates of respiratory-related (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 4.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.86-9.05) and all-cause hospitalizations (aHR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.00-1.80) and death (aHR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.18-4.45). In particular, individuals with both conditions had a 48% higher rate of all-cause hospitalizations (adjusted synergy index (aSI) = 1.48, 95% CI = 0.19-11.31) and a rate of death nearly three times as high (aSI = 2.74, 95% CI = 0.43-17.32) as the sum of risks for each respective outcome associated with having COPD or cognitive impairment alone. Nevertheless, tests for interaction were not statistically significant for the presence of synergism between the two conditions contributing to each of the outcomes. Therefore, it cannot be concluded that the combined effect of COPD and cognitive impairment is greater than additive. Coexisting COPD and cognitive impairment have an additive effect on respiratory-related and all-cause hospitalizations and death. Optimizing outcomes in older adults with COPD and

  7. Complex versus Complicated Models of Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartigh, Ruud; Cox, Ralf; van Geert, Paul; Magnani, Lorenzo; Bertolotti, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    As humans, we continuously adapt our behavior to changes in our environment, and our cognitive abilities continuously develop over time. A major question for scientists has been to discover the (cognitive) mechanism that underlies the control of human behavior in real-time, as well as cognitive deve

  8. Cognitive enhancement or cognitive cost: trait-specific outcomes of brain stimulation in the case of mathematics anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Amar; Dowker, Ann; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2014-12-10

    The surge in noninvasive brain stimulation studies investigating cognitive enhancement has neglected the effect of interindividual differences, such as traits, on stimulation outcomes. Using the case of mathematics anxiety in a sample of healthy human participants in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover experiment, we show that identical transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) exerts opposite behavioral and physiological effects depending on individual trait levels. Mathematics anxiety is the negative emotional response elicited by numerical tasks, impairing mathematical achievement. tDCS was applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a frequent target for modulating emotional regulation. It improved reaction times on simple arithmetic decisions and decreased cortisol concentrations (a biomarker of stress) in high mathematics anxiety individuals. In contrast, tDCS impaired reaction times for low mathematics anxiety individuals and prevented a decrease in cortisol concentration compared with sham stimulation. Both groups showed a tDCS-induced side effect-impaired executive control in a flanker task-a cognitive function subserved by the stimulated region. These behavioral and physiological double dissociations have implications for brain stimulation research by highlighting the role of individual traits in experimental findings. Brain stimulation clearly does not produce uniform benefits, even applied in the same configuration during the same tasks, but may interact with traits to produce markedly opposed outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Sarkar et al.

  9. Cognitive-Operative Model of Intelligent Learning Systems Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Cruces, Ana Lilia; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Javier; Mora-Torres, Martha; de Arriaga, Fernando; Escarela-Perez, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper behavior during the teaching-learning process is modeled by means of a fuzzy cognitive map. The elements used to model such behavior are part of a generic didactic model, which emphasizes the use of cognitive and operative strategies as part of the student-tutor interaction. Examples of possible initial scenarios for the…

  10. Cognitive-Operative Model of Intelligent Learning Systems Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Cruces, Ana Lilia; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Javier; Mora-Torres, Martha; de Arriaga, Fernando; Escarela-Perez, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper behavior during the teaching-learning process is modeled by means of a fuzzy cognitive map. The elements used to model such behavior are part of a generic didactic model, which emphasizes the use of cognitive and operative strategies as part of the student-tutor interaction. Examples of possible initial scenarios for the…

  11. An introduction to good practices in cognitive modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Heathcote; S.D. Brown; E.-J. Wagenmakers

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive modeling can provide important insights into the underlying causes of behavior, but the validity of those insights rests on careful model development and checking. We provide guidelines on five important aspects of the practice of cognitive modeling: parameter recovery, testing selective i

  12. Cognitive and outcome measures seem sub-optimal in children with cochlear implants - A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udholm, Nichlas; Aaberg, Kirsten; Bloch, Chanett;

    2016-01-01

    . Cognitive tests included Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Bayley-III), Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test Revised (SON-R) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), depending on the age of the child. Outcome measures of hearing and speech capacity after CI consisted......OBJECTIVE: This study investigates whether cognition as a single variable significantly influences the hearing and speech outcomes of children with cochlear implants (CIs). More specifically, it identifies various types of cognitive disorders among children with CI, comparing these children......'s cognitive abilities to the outcomes of CI in terms of hearing and speech performance. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional cognitive testing of children with CIs. SETTING: West Danish CI Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 58 CI children underwent postoperative cognitive evaluation...

  13. Cognitive load imposed by ultrasound-facilitated teaching does not adversely affect gross anatomy learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamniczky, Heather A; Cotton, Darrel; Paget, Michael; Ramji, Qahir; Lenz, Ryan; McLaughlin, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Ma, Irene W Y

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasonography is increasingly used in medical education, but its impact on learning outcomes is unclear. Adding ultrasound may facilitate learning, but may also potentially overwhelm novice learners. Based upon the framework of cognitive load theory, this study seeks to evaluate the relationship between cognitive load associated with using ultrasound and learning outcomes. The use of ultrasound was hypothesized to facilitate learning in anatomy for 161 novice first-year medical students. Using linear regression analyses, the relationship between reported cognitive load on using ultrasound and learning outcomes as measured by anatomy laboratory examination scores four weeks after ultrasound-guided anatomy training was evaluated in consenting students. Second anatomy examination scores of students who were taught anatomy with ultrasound were compared with historical controls (those not taught with ultrasound). Ultrasound's perceived utility for learning was measured on a five-point scale. Cognitive load on using ultrasound was measured on a nine-point scale. Primary outcome was the laboratory examination score (60 questions). Learners found ultrasound useful for learning. Weighted factor score on "image interpretation" was negatively, but insignificantly, associated with examination scores [F (1,135) = 0.28, beta = -0.22; P = 0.61]. Weighted factor score on "basic knobology" was positively and insignificantly associated with scores; [F (1,138) = 0.27, beta = 0.42; P = 0.60]. Cohorts exposed to ultrasound had significantly higher scores than historical controls (82.4% ± SD 8.6% vs. 78.8% ± 8.5%, Cohen's d = 0.41, P learning and may improve learning outcomes. Anat Sci Educ 10: 144-151. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Antiepileptic drug teratogenesis: what are the risks for congenital malformations and adverse cognitive outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Cynthia L

    2008-01-01

    Antiepileptic drug (AED) exposure in utero has been associated with major congenital malformations (MCMs) and adverse cognitive outcomes in the offspring of women with epilepsy (WWE). However, determining the exact risk and the relative risks of AEDs for these outcomes has been challenging, and only in recent years has improved study designs enabled us to get a clearer picture of the risks. Still, there is a startling lack of information for many of the newer and widely used AEDs. At this point of time, studies clearly show that valproate (VPA) as a part of polytherapy or when used as a monotherapy is associated with an increased risk of MCMs, and that it poses about threefold the risk of carbamazepine (CBZ). It is unclear if any other AEDs studied pose an increased risk of MCM occurrence; in the best available large study the absolute rates of MCMs with other several other AEDs were not different from untreated WWE. The absolute risks have been reported as CBZ 2.2%, lamotrigine (LTG) 3.2%, phenytoin (PHT) 3.7%, untreated WWE 3.5%, with VPA as the outlier at 6.2%. In utero VPA exposure is also associated with a risk of lower verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) in children, at approximately 10 points lower than controls. CBZ appears to pose no risk to cognitive outcome, and there is some evidence that PHT and phenobarbital (PB) may be associated with risk of reduced cognitive outcome. Polytherapy is associated with greater risk than monotherapy for both MCMs and cognitive outcome. Although more information is needed and hopefully will be obtained from ongoing prospective studies, it is clear that WWE taking VPA and planning pregnancy should have a discussion with their physician about considering changing to another AED before pregnancy, if possible.

  15. Evaluation of the Sustainability and Clinical Outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) in a Child Protection Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, David J.; Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; Gully, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the sustainability and outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) as delivered by practitioners in a community-based child protection program who had received training in the model several years earlier. Formerly described as Abuse-Focused CBT, AF-CBT is an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for…

  16. Repetitive Noninvasive Brain Stimulation to Modulate Cognitive Functions in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review of Primary and Secondary Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Strube, Wolfgang; Palm, Ulrich; Wobrock, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Despite many years of research, there is still an urgent need for new therapeutic options for the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been proposed to be such a novel add-on treatment option. The main objective of this review was to systematically evaluate the cognitive effects of repetitive NIBS in schizophrenia. As most studies have not been specifically designed to investigate cognition as primary outcome, we have focused on both, primary and secondary outcomes. The PubMed/MEDLINE database (1985-2015) was systematically searched for interventional studies investigating the effects of repetitive NIBS on schizophrenia symptoms. All interventional clinical trials using repetitive transcranial stimulation, transcranial theta burst stimulation, and transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of schizophrenia were extracted and analyzed with regard to cognitive measures as primary or secondary outcomes. Seventy-six full-text articles were assessed for eligibility of which 33 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Of these 33 studies, only 4 studies included cognition as primary outcome, whereas 29 studies included cognitive measures as secondary outcomes. A beneficial effect of frontal NIBS could not be clearly established. No evidence for a cognitive disruptive effect of NIBS (temporal lobe) in schizophrenia could be detected. Finally, a large heterogeneity between studies in terms of inclusion criteria, stimulation parameters, applied cognitive measures, and follow-up intervals was observed. This review provides the first systematic overview regarding cognitive effects of repetitive NIBS in schizophrenia.

  17. Longitudinal Test of the Social Cognitive Model of Choice in Engineering Students at Historically Black Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Sheu, Hung-Bin; Gloster, Clay S.; Wilkins, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    We tested the social cognitive model of choice (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) using a longitudinal design. Participants were 116 students taking beginning engineering courses at two historically Black universities. They completed measures of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, goals, and environmental supports and barriers near the end…

  18. Maternal Thyroxine Levels During Pregnancy and Outcomes of Cognitive Development in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pingping; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Shihua; Guo, Yong; Wang, Zengfang; Qi, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Though there were many studies assessing the relationship between maternal thyroxine levels during pregnancy and cognitive development in children, there was still lack of evidence for the association from a comprehensive assessment of published data. To get a more comprehensive estimate of the influence of low maternal thyroxine levels on cognitive function, a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was performed. Two electronic databases, MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched for relevant prospective cohort studies. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were pooled using random-effect model of meta-analysis to assess the risk of delayed cognitive development in children. Seven prospective cohort studies with a total of 8273 mother-child pairs were included into the meta-analysis. There was obvious between-study heterogeneity in the meta-analysis (I(2) = 69.6%). Meta-analysis of using random-effect model showed that low maternal thyroxine level was significantly associated with a threefold risk of delayed cognitive development in children (random RR = 3.08, 95% CI 1.83-5.18, P cognitive development in children (random RR = 3.76, 95% CI 2.14-6.58, P cognitive development in children. Low maternal thyroxine level is significantly associated with a threefold risk of delayed cognitive development in children.

  19. Models and theories of brain function in cognition within a framework of behavioral cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaş, Sirel; Başar, Erol

    2006-05-01

    The present article presents a nonexhaustive collection of contemporary models and theories on brain function and discusses these models and theories within a framework of explanatory formulations in behavioral cognitive psychology. Such a mission was accomplished by evaluating the cognitive implications in the explanatory formulations with respect to established laws/principles and models/theories of behavioral cognitive psychology. The article also points to problem areas of behavioral cognitive psychology for which the explanatory formulations have solutions to offer. The article shows that the cinematographic hypothesis, the new visual model, the synergetic model, and the theory of whole-brain-work emphasize various aspects of perception. The formulations on P300 theory emphasize attention and also working memory. The theory on cognits is a comprehensive account of memory. Characteristic to all of these explanatory formulations and also to that on the complexity and its evolution and that on neurocognitive networks is the emphasis on selective distribution, integration to the point of supersynergy, and dynamicity. Such a viewpoint was not only applied to the operations of the brain but also of cognition. With such a conceptualization, the explanatory formulations could account for cognitive processes other than the ones emphasized. A common aspect in a majority of the formulations is the utilization of the oscillatory activity as the valid activity of the brain. The article points out that a frontier in cognitive psychophysiology would be the study of the genetics of brain oscillations.

  20. Visual behaviour analysis and driver cognitive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baujon, J.; Basset, M.; Gissinger, G.L. [Mulhouse Univ., (France). MIPS/MIAM Lab.

    2001-07-01

    Recent studies on driver behaviour have shown that perception - mainly visual but also proprioceptive perception - plays a key role in the ''driver-vehicle-road'' system and so considerably affects the driver's decision making. Within the framework of the behaviour analysis and studies low-cost system (BASIL), this paper presents a correlative, qualitative and quantitative study, comparing the information given by visual perception and by the trajectory followed. This information will help to obtain a cognitive model of the Rasmussen type according to different driver classes. Many experiments in real driving situations have been carried out for different driver classes and for a given trajectory profile, using a test vehicle and innovative, specially designed, real-time tools, such as the vision system or the positioning module. (orig.)

  1. Brain development, intelligence and cognitive outcome in children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bie, H M A; Oostrom, K J; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    2010-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as short stature, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia and end-stage renal disease in adulthood. In addition, SGA children have decreased levels of intelligence and cognition, although the effects are mostly subtle. The overall outcome of each child is the result of a complex interaction between intrauterine and extrauterine factors. Animal and human studies show structural alterations in the brains of individuals with IUGR/SGA. The presence of growth hormone (GH) receptors in the brain implies that the brain is also a target for GH. Exogenous GH theoretically has the ability to act on the brain. This is exemplified by the effects of GH on cognition in GH-deficient adults. In SGA children, data on the effect of exogenous GH on intelligence and cognition are scant and contradictory.

  2. Perceived Control is a Transdiagnostic Predictor of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Outcome for Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Matthew W.; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Brown, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Perceived control has been proposed to be a general psychological vulnerability factor that confers an elevated risk for developing anxiety disorders, but there is limited research examining perceived control during cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT). The present study examined whether treatment resulted in improvements in perceived control, and the indirect effects of CBT on changes in symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic disorder via changes in perceived control. Participants (n = 606) were a large clinical sample presenting for treatment at an outpatient anxiety disorders clinic. Participants completed a series of self-report questionnaires and a structured clinical interview at an intake evaluation and at two follow-up assessments 12 and 24 months later, with the majority of participants initiating CBT between the first two assessments. Results of latent growth curve models indicated that individuals initiating CBT subsequently reported large increases in perceived control and significant indirect effects of treatment on intraindividual changes in each of the four anxiety disorders examined via intraindividual changes in perceived control. These results suggest that the promotion of more adaptive perceptions of control is associated with recovery from anxiety disorders. Furthermore, the consistent finding of indirect effects across the four anxiety disorders examined underscores the transdiagnostic importance of perceived control in predicting CBT outcomes. PMID:24563563

  3. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    universal preschool programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in preschool at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or the mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other...... hand, seems to significantly deteriorate outcomes for boys whose mothers have a lower level of education. Finally, longer hours in non-parental care lead to poorer child outcomes.......Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudoexperiment generating variation in the take-up of preschool across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...

  4. Does motivational interviewing improve retention or outcome in cognitive behaviour therapy for overweight and obese adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Leah

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether motivational interviewing improved retention and/or outcome in cognitive behaviour therapy for overweight and obese adolescents (M=14.4, SD=2.0; 52% female). The first 23 participants were allocated to a standard semi-structure assessment interview, the remaining 19 to a motivational interview, prior to commencing the intervention. The groups did not differ at baseline or on anthropometric (weight, BMI, BMI-z-score, waist circumference, waist-hip or waist-height ratio), body composition (percent body fat, fat mass, lean mass) or attrition measures post-treatment or post-maintenance (p>.01). MI did not improve retention or outcome of cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescent overweight and obesity.

  5. Cognitive dysfunction at baseline predicts symptomatic 1-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, S; Krausz, M; Gottwalz, E; Lambert, M; Perro, C; Ganzer, S; Naber, D

    2000-01-01

    The present study addresses the consequences of cognitive disturbances on symptomatic outcome. Fifty-three first-episode schizophrenics were reassessed (n = 32) 1 year after admission. Simple regression analyses revealed that several self-perceived cognitive deficits at baseline as measured with the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire significantly predicted increased Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale global scores at follow-up (p = 0.05 to p = 0.005). A stepwise regression analysis proved memory dysfunction to be the strongest predictor of symptomatic worsening (p = 0.005). It is suggested that the exploration and treatment of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia is of great clinical importance with regard to its impact on both functional and symptomatic outcome in schizophrenia. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Exploring Learning Outcomes in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and Existential Therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Dræby

    This is a presentation of a research project, which explores lived experience of psychotherapy in terms of learning outcomes. This includes both Existential therapy (ET) and Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and their possible differences and similarities. I can describe learning as any...... experiential change that occurs in the participants understanding as result of the therapy in which they participate. Learning outcomes are concerned with the achievements of the learner rather than the intentions of the educator, as expressed in the objectives of an educational effort. This research points...

  7. Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia: developmental and cognitive outcome in three adolescent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tortorella Gaetano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pontine Tegmental Cap Dysplasia (PTCD is a recently described, rare disorder characterized by a peculiar cerebellar and brainstem malformation. Nineteen patients have been reported to date, of which only one in the adolescent age, and data on the clinical, cognitive and behavioural outcome of this syndrome are scarce. Here we describe three adolescent patients with PTCD. All presented bilateral deafness and multiple cranial neuropathies, variably associated with skeletal, cardiac and gastro-intestinal malformations. Feeding and swallowing difficulties, that are often causative of recurrent aspiration pneumonias and death in the first years of life, completely resolved with age in all three patients. Neuropsychological assessment showed borderline to moderate cognitive impairment, with delay in adaptive functioning, visual-spatial and language deficits. Two of three patients also showed mild behavioural problems, although their overall socialization abilities were well preserved. Cochlear implantation in two patients significantly improved their relational and learning abilities. Fibre tractography confirmed the abnormal bundle of transversely oriented fibres forming the typical pontine "tegmental cap" and absence of decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles, supporting the hypothesis that PTCD results from abnormal axonal guidance and/or migration. These data indicate that PTCD may have a favourable long-term outcome, with borderline cognitive deficit or even normal cognition and partially preserved speech.

  8. Predicting recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke: differential modeling of logarithmic and linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Sugimura, Yuko; Yamada, Sumio; Omori, Yoshitsugu; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive disorders in the acute stage of stroke are common and are important independent predictors of adverse outcome in the long term. Despite the impact of cognitive disorders on both patients and their families, it is still difficult to predict the extent or duration of cognitive impairments. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to provide data on predicting the recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke by differential modeling with logarithmic and linear regression. This study included two rounds of data collection comprising 57 stroke patients enrolled in the first round for the purpose of identifying the time course of cognitive recovery in the early-phase group data, and 43 stroke patients in the second round for the purpose of ensuring that the correlation of the early-phase group data applied to the prediction of each individual's degree of cognitive recovery. In the first round, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were assessed 3 times during hospitalization, and the scores were regressed on the logarithm and linear of time. In the second round, calculations of MMSE scores were made for the first two scoring times after admission to tailor the structures of logarithmic and linear regression formulae to fit an individual's degree of functional recovery. The time course of early-phase recovery for cognitive functions resembled both logarithmic and linear functions. However, MMSE scores sampled at two baseline points based on logarithmic regression modeling could estimate prediction of cognitive recovery more accurately than could linear regression modeling (logarithmic modeling, R(2) = 0.676, Plinear regression modeling, R(2) = 0.598, P<0.0001). Logarithmic modeling based on MMSE scores could accurately predict the recovery of cognitive function soon after the occurrence of stroke. This logarithmic modeling with mathematical procedures is simple enough to be adopted in daily clinical practice.

  9. Predicting recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke: differential modeling of logarithmic and linear regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Suzuki

    Full Text Available Cognitive disorders in the acute stage of stroke are common and are important independent predictors of adverse outcome in the long term. Despite the impact of cognitive disorders on both patients and their families, it is still difficult to predict the extent or duration of cognitive impairments. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to provide data on predicting the recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke by differential modeling with logarithmic and linear regression. This study included two rounds of data collection comprising 57 stroke patients enrolled in the first round for the purpose of identifying the time course of cognitive recovery in the early-phase group data, and 43 stroke patients in the second round for the purpose of ensuring that the correlation of the early-phase group data applied to the prediction of each individual's degree of cognitive recovery. In the first round, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores were assessed 3 times during hospitalization, and the scores were regressed on the logarithm and linear of time. In the second round, calculations of MMSE scores were made for the first two scoring times after admission to tailor the structures of logarithmic and linear regression formulae to fit an individual's degree of functional recovery. The time course of early-phase recovery for cognitive functions resembled both logarithmic and linear functions. However, MMSE scores sampled at two baseline points based on logarithmic regression modeling could estimate prediction of cognitive recovery more accurately than could linear regression modeling (logarithmic modeling, R(2 = 0.676, P<0.0001; linear regression modeling, R(2 = 0.598, P<0.0001. Logarithmic modeling based on MMSE scores could accurately predict the recovery of cognitive function soon after the occurrence of stroke. This logarithmic modeling with mathematical procedures is simple enough to be adopted in daily clinical practice.

  10. Early Cognitive Outcomes Following Proton Radiation in Pediatric Patients With Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulsifer, Margaret B., E-mail: mpulsifer@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sethi, Roshan V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kuhlthau, Karen A. [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); MacDonald, Shannon M.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To report, from a longitudinal study, cognitive outcome in pediatric patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT) for central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients receiving PRT for medulloblastoma (38.3%), gliomas (18.3%), craniopharyngioma (15.0%), ependymoma (11.7%), and other CNS tumors (16.7%) were administered age-appropriate measures of cognitive abilities at or near PRT initiation (baseline) and afterward (follow-up). Patients were aged ≥6 years at baseline to ensure consistency in neurocognitive measures. Results: Mean age was 12.3 years at baseline; mean follow-up interval was 2.5 years. Treatment included prior surgical resection (76.7%) and chemotherapy (61.7%). Proton radiation therapy included craniospinal irradiation (46.7%) and partial brain radiation (53.3%). At baseline, mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ was 104.6; means of all 4 Index scores were also in the average range. At follow-up, no significant change was observed in mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning/Organization, or Working Memory. However, Processing Speed scores declined significantly (mean 5.2 points), with a significantly greater decline for subjects aged <12 years at baseline and those with the highest baseline scores. Cognitive outcome was not significantly related to gender, extent of radiation, radiation dose, tumor location, histology, socioeconomic status, chemotherapy, or history of surgical resection. Conclusions: Early cognitive outcomes after PRT for pediatric CNS tumors are encouraging, compared with published outcomes from photon radiation therapy.

  11. Modeling Cognitive Dysfunction in Neurofibromatosis-1

    OpenAIRE

    Diggs-Andrews, Kelly A.; David H Gutmann

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction, including significant impairments in learning, behavior, and attention, is found in over 10% of children in the general population. However, in the common inherited cancer predisposition syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), the prevalence of these cognitive deficits approaches 70%. As a monogenic disorder, NF1 provides a unique genetic tool to identify and mechanistically dissect the molecular and cellular bases underlying cognitive dysfunction. In this review, we ...

  12. Developing a model of cognitive lockup for user interface engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mioch, T.; Looije, R.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a cognitive model of cognitive lockup: the tendency of humans to deal with disturbances sequentially, possibly overseeing crucial data from unattended resources so that serious task failures can appear—e.g., in a cockpit or control centre. The proposed model sh

  13. Developing a model of cognitive lockup for user interface engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mioch, T.; Looije, R.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a cognitive model of cognitive lockup: the tendency of humans to deal with disturbances sequentially, possibly overseeing crucial data from unattended resources so that serious task failures can appear—e.g., in a cockpit or control centre. The proposed model sh

  14. Framework of Pattern Recognition Model Based on the Cognitive Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to the fundamental theory of visual cognition mechanism and cognitive psychology,the visual pattern recognition model is introduced briefly.Three pattern recognition models,i.e.template-based matching model,prototype-based matching model and feature-based matching model are built and discussed separately.In addition,the influence of object background information and visual focus point to the result of pattern recognition is also discussed with the example of recognition for fuzzy letters and figures.

  15. Cognitive Modeling of Video Game Player User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohil, Corey J.; Biocca, Frank A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues for the use of cognitive modeling to gain a detailed and dynamic look into user experience during game play. Applying cognitive models to game play data can help researchers understand a player's attentional focus, memory status, learning state, and decision strategies (among other things) as these cognitive processes occurred throughout game play. This is a stark contrast to the common approach of trying to assess the long-term impact of games on cognitive functioning after game play has ended. We describe what cognitive models are, what they can be used for and how game researchers could benefit by adopting these methods. We also provide details of a single model - based on decision field theory - that has been successfUlly applied to data sets from memory, perception, and decision making experiments, and has recently found application in real world scenarios. We examine possibilities for applying this model to game-play data.

  16. The relationship of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) to functional capacity and real-world functional outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Richard S E; Poe, Margaret; Walker, Trina M; Harvey, Philip D

    2006-02-01

    The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) assesses five different domains of cognitive function with six tests, and takes about 30-35 minutes to complete in patients with schizophrenia. Previous work has demonstrated the reliability of this measure, and its sensitivity to the deficits of schizophrenia. However, the relationship of this brief cognitive measure to functional outcome has not been determined. Further, future registration trials for potentially cognitive enhancing compounds may not only assess efficacy with cognitive performance measures, but with assessments of real-world functional outcome and functional capacity. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the BACS and a potential co-primary measure for treatment studies of cognition in schizophrenia, and to determine if such a measure accounts for significant variance in functioning beyond that provided by cognitive function. The current study assessed 60 patients with schizophrenia over the course of six months. Cognitive functions were measured with the BACS. Functional capacity was measured with the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA). Real-world functional outcome was measured with the Independent Living Skills Inventory (ILSI). BACS composite scores were significantly correlated with functional capacity as measured by the UPSA (r = .65, df = 55, p BACS. These data suggest that brief cognitive assessments such as the BACS are able to assess aspects of cognition that are related to important functional measures in clinical trials of cognitive enhancement. They also suggest that the measures being considered as potential co-primary indicators of cognitive function for registration trials are significantly correlated with cognition as assessed by brief cognitive assessments.

  17. Cognitive mechanisms of mindfulness: A test of current models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbel, Ben; Mahar, Doug

    2015-12-15

    Existing models of mindfulness describe the self-regulation of attention as primary, leading to enhanced decentering and ability to access and override automatic cognitive processes. This study compared 23 experienced and 21 non-meditators on tests of mindfulness, attention, decentering, and ability to override automatic cognitive processes to test the cognitive mechanisms proposed to underlie mindfulness practice. Experienced meditators had significantly higher mindfulness and decentering than non-meditators. No significant difference between groups was found on measures of attention or ability to override automatic processes. These findings support the prediction that mindfulness leads to enhanced decentering, but do not support the cognitive mechanisms proposed to underlie such enhancement. Since mindfulness practice primarily involves internally directed attention, it may be the case that cognitive tests requiring externally directed attention and timed responses do not accurately assess mindfulness-induced cognitive changes. Implications for the models of mindfulness and future research are discussed.

  18. Cognitive engineering models in space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    NASA space systems, including mission operations on the ground and in space, are complex, dynamic, predominantly automated systems in which the human operator is a supervisory controller. Models of cognitive functions in complex systems are needed to describe human performance and form the theoretical basis of operator workstation design, including displays, controls, and decision aids. Currently, there several candidate modeling methodologies. They include the Rasmussen abstraction/aggregation hierarchy and decision ladder, the goal-means network, the problem behavior graph, and the operator function model. The research conducted under the sponsorship of this grant focuses on the extension of the theoretical structure of the operator function model and its application to NASA Johnson mission operations and space station applications. The initial portion of this research consists of two parts. The first is a series of technical exchanges between NASA Johnson and Georgia Tech researchers. The purpose is to identify candidate applications for the current operator function model; prospects include mission operations and the Data Management System Testbed. The second portion will address extensions of the operator function model to tailor it to the specific needs of Johnson applications. At this point, we have accomplished two things. During a series of conversations with JSC researchers, we have defined the technical goal of the research supported by this grant to be the structural definition of the operator function model and its computer implementation, OFMspert. Both the OFM and OFMspert have matured to the point that they require infrastructure to facilitate use by researchers not involved in the evolution of the tools. The second accomplishment this year was the identification of the Payload Deployment and Retrieval System (PDRS) as a candidate system for the case study. In conjunction with government and contractor personnel in the Human-Computer Interaction Lab

  19. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diviacco, P.

    2012-04-01

    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  20. Computational EEG modelling of decision making under ambiguity reveals spatio-temporal dynamics of outcome evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollans, Lee; Whelan, Robert; Venables, Louise; Turnbull, Oliver H; Cella, Matteo; Dymond, Simon

    2017-03-15

    Complex human cognition, such as decision-making under ambiguity, is reflected in dynamic spatio-temporal activity in the brain. Here, we combined event-related potentials with computational modelling of the time course of decision-making and outcome evaluation during the Iowa Gambling Task. Measures of choice probability generated using the Prospect Valence Learning Delta (PVL-Delta) model, in addition to objective trial outcomes (outcome magnitude and valence), were applied as regressors in a general linear model of the EEG signal. The resulting three-dimensional spatio-temporal characterization of task-related neural dynamics demonstrated that outcome valence, outcome magnitude, and PVL-Delta choice probability were expressed in distinctly separate event related potentials. Our findings showed that the P3 component was associated with an experience-based measure of outcome expectancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiscale Modeling of Gene-Behavior Associations in an Artificial Neural Network Model of Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S C; Forrester, Neil A; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-01-01

    In the multidisciplinary field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, statistical associations between levels of description play an increasingly important role. One example of such associations is the observation of correlations between relatively common gene variants and individual differences in behavior. It is perhaps surprising that such associations can be detected despite the remoteness of these levels of description, and the fact that behavior is the outcome of an extended developmental process involving interaction of the whole organism with a variable environment. Given that they have been detected, how do such associations inform cognitive-level theories? To investigate this question, we employed a multiscale computational model of development, using a sample domain drawn from the field of language acquisition. The model comprised an artificial neural network model of past-tense acquisition trained using the backpropagation learning algorithm, extended to incorporate population modeling and genetic algorithms. It included five levels of description-four internal: genetic, network, neurocomputation, behavior; and one external: environment. Since the mechanistic assumptions of the model were known and its operation was relatively transparent, we could evaluate whether cross-level associations gave an accurate picture of causal processes. We established that associations could be detected between artificial genes and behavioral variation, even under polygenic assumptions of a many-to-one relationship between genes and neurocomputational parameters, and when an experience-dependent developmental process interceded between the action of genes and the emergence of behavior. We evaluated these associations with respect to their specificity (to different behaviors, to function vs. structure), to their developmental stability, and to their replicability, as well as considering issues of missing heritability and gene-environment interactions. We argue that gene

  2. Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results from a 2-Year Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method: Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or an enriched supportive therapy (EST) control and…

  3. Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results from a 2-Year Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method: Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or an enriched supportive therapy (EST) control and…

  4. Translating patient reported outcome measures: methodological issues explored using cognitive interviewing with three rheumatoid arthritis measures in six European languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hewlett, Sarah E.; Nicklin, Joanna; Bode, Christina; Carmona, Loretto; Dures, Emma; Engelbrecht, Matthias; Hagel, Sofia; Kirwan, John R.; Molto, Anna; Redondo, Marta; Gossec, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Cross-cultural translation of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) is a lengthy process, often performed professionally. Cognitive interviewing assesses patient comprehension of PROMs. The objective was to evaluate the usefulness of cognitive interviewing to assess translations and c

  5. Role of gender in depressive disorder outcome for individual and group cognitive-behavioral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hunna J; Nathan, Paula R

    2008-12-01

    Gender in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for outcome for depression has been inadequately examined in previous research. Thirty-five men and 55 women diagnosed with a depressive disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) completed individual CBT at an outpatient community mental health clinic and 56 men and 105 women completed group CBT. Depression severity was measured before treatment and at endpoint using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) along with secondary outcomes of anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory; Beck, Epstein, Brown, & Steer, 1988) and quality of life (Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire; Endicott, Nee, Harrison, & Blumenthal, 1993). Men and women demonstrated equivalent pretreatment and posttreatment illness severity, a comparable gradient of improvement on outcomes, and attainment of clinically meaningful benchmarks. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cognitive and functional outcomes of terror victims who suffered from traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Isabella; Tuchner, Maya; Tsenter, Jeanna; Shochina, Mara; Shoshan, Yigal; Katz-Leurer, Michal; Meiner, Zeev

    2008-03-01

    To describe the outcomes of terror victims suffered from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Retrospective chart review of 17 terror and 39 non-terror TBI patients treated in a rehabilitation department during the same period. Variables include demographic data, Injury Severity Scale (ISS), length of stay (LOS) and imaging results. ADL was measured using the Functional Independence Measurement (FIM), cognitive and memory functions were measured using the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) battery and the Rivermead Battery Memory Test (RBMT), respectively. Terror TBI patients were significantly younger, had higher ISS score and higher rates of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), brain surgery and penetrating brain injuries than the non-terror TBI group. There was no difference in mean LOS, mean FIM values, mean FIM gain and mean cognitive and memory improvement between groups. Terror victims suffered from a higher percentage of post-traumatic epilepsy (35% vs. 10%, p=0.05), whereas the rate of PTSD and the rate of return to previous occupation were similar between groups. Although TBI terror victims had more severe injury, they gained most of ADL functions and their rehabilitation outcomes were similar to non-terror TBI patients. These favourable results were achieved due to a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach to terror victims and also by national support which allowed an adequate period of treatment and sufficient resources as needed.

  7. Cognitive Outcomes in Early-Treated Adults With Phenylketonuria (PKU): A Comprehensive Picture Across Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic disease which affects cognitive functions due to an inability to metabolize phenylalanine which leads to the accumulation of toxic by-products (Phe) in the brain. PKU can be effectively treated with a low phenylalanine diet, but some cognitive deficits remain. Studies have reported impairments, especially for processing speed and executive functions, but there is a lack of comprehensive assessment across cognitive domains. Moreover, it is important to establish outcomes in early treated adults with PKU (AwPKU) who have better metabolic control than groups previously reported in the literature. Method: We tested 37 AwPKU with an unprecedented number of tasks (N = 28) and measures (N = 44) and compared results with 30 controls matched for age and education. Results: We found (a) group impairments, particularly in tasks tapping speed of processing and complex executive functions; (b) high variability across participants, with a sizable number of AwPKU with completely normal performance (about 38%); (c) but also a sizable number of participants who were clearly impaired (about 24%); and (d) good performance in tasks tapping verbal learning, verbal memory and orthographic processing, indicating no generalized learning impairment. Conclusion: Our results indicate good outcomes, but also that deficits are still present with current treatment policies. PMID:28080075

  8. Development of cognitive model for navigating on the web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juvina, I.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to build a cognitive model of human performance in Web-assisted tasks. The research is driven by the following questions: What are the most important factors in determining success in Web-assisted tasks? What cognitive mechanisms are involved in these factors? What

  9. A Cognitive Developmental Model of Rigidity in Senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Enright, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    The rigidity construct is reinterpreted in terms of the cognitive developmental approach. A review reveals both cognitive and developmental themes, with an emphasis on the structural and operational properties of rigidity. Notes weaknesses of previous approaches to rigidity and discusses implications and predictions from the proposed model.…

  10. Using of Structural Equation Modeling Techniques in Cognitive Levels Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Curkovic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available When constructing knowledge tests, cognitive level is usually one of the dimensions comprising the test specifications with each item assigned to measure a particular level. Recently used taxonomies of the cognitive levels most often represent some modification of the original Bloom’s taxonomy. There are many concerns in current literature about existence of predefined cognitive levels. The aim of this article is to investigate can structural equation modeling techniques confirm existence of different cognitive levels. For the purpose of the research, a Croatian final high-school Mathematics exam was used (N = 9626. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural regression modeling were used to test three different models. Structural equation modeling techniques did not support existence of different cognitive levels in this case. There is more than one possible explanation for that finding. Some other techniques that take into account nonlinear behaviour of the items as well as qualitative techniques might be more useful for the purpose of the cognitive levels validation. Furthermore, it seems that cognitive levels were not efficient descriptors of the items and so improvements are needed in describing the cognitive skills measured by items.

  11. Longitudinal mixed-effects models for latent cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hout, van den Ardo; Fox, Jean-Paul; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-effects regression model with a bent-cable change-point predictor is formulated to describe potential decline of cognitive function over time in the older population. For the individual trajectories, cognitive function is considered to be a latent variable measured through an item response t

  12. Outcome expectancy as a predictor of treatment response in cognitive behavioral therapy for public speaking fears within social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2012-06-01

    Outcome expectancy, the extent that clients anticipate benefiting from therapy, is theorized to be an important predictor of treatment response for cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, there is a relatively small body of empirical research on outcome expectancy and the treatment of social anxiety disorder. This literature, which has examined the association mostly in group-based interventions, has yielded mixed findings. The current study sought to further evaluate the effect of outcome expectancy as a predictor of treatment response for public-speaking fears across both individual virtual reality and group-based cognitive-behavioral therapies. The findings supported outcome expectancy as a predictor of the rate of change in public-speaking anxiety during both individual virtual reality exposure therapy and group cognitive-behavioral therapy. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest that the impact of outcome expectancy differed across virtual reality or group treatments.

  13. Cognitive control in majority search: A computational modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin eWang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of cognitive control in many cognitive tasks involving uncertainty, the computational mechanisms of cognitive control in response to uncertainty remain unclear. In this study, we develop biologically realistic neural network models to investigate the instantiation of cognitive control in a majority function task, where one determines the category to which the majority of items in a group belong. Two models are constructed, both of which include the same set of modules representing task-relevant brain functions and share the same model structure. However, with a critical change of a model parameter setting, the two models implement two different underlying algorithms: one for grouping search (where a subgroup of items are sampled and re-sampled until a congruent sample is found and the other for self-terminating search (where the items are scanned and counted one-by-one until the majority is decided. The two algorithms hold distinct implications for the involvement of cognitive control. The modeling results show that while both models are able to perform the task, the grouping search model fit the human data better than the self-terminating search model. An examination of the dynamics underlying model performance reveals how cognitive control might be instantiated in the brain via the V4-ACC-LPFC-IPS loop for computing the majority function.

  14. Cognitive control in majority search: a computational modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbin; Liu, Xun; Fan, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of cognitive control in many cognitive tasks involving uncertainty, the computational mechanisms of cognitive control in response to uncertainty remain unclear. In this study, we develop biologically realistic neural network models to investigate the instantiation of cognitive control in a majority function task, where one determines the category to which the majority of items in a group belong. Two models are constructed, both of which include the same set of modules representing task-relevant brain functions and share the same model structure. However, with a critical change of a model parameter setting, the two models implement two different underlying algorithms: one for grouping search (where a subgroup of items are sampled and re-sampled until a congruent sample is found) and the other for self-terminating search (where the items are scanned and counted one-by-one until the majority is decided). The two algorithms hold distinct implications for the involvement of cognitive control. The modeling results show that while both models are able to perform the task, the grouping search model fit the human data better than the self-terminating search model. An examination of the dynamics underlying model performance reveals how cognitive control might be instantiated in the brain for computing the majority function.

  15. Improving a newly developed patient-reported outcome for thyroid patients, using cognitive interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Groenvold, Mogens;

    2008-01-01

    was within the set of problems involving attribution. Conclusion The cognitive interview methodology was effective in identifying and reducing problems within the questionnaire responding process. Patients tended to selectively report problems they considered to be caused by their thyroid disease even when......Objective To improve a newly developed patient-reported outcome measure for thyroid patients using cognitive interviewing. Methods Thirty-one interviews using immediate retrospective and expansive probing were conducted among patients with non-toxic goiter (n = 4), nodular toxic goiter (n = 5.......e. whether or not to report only issues considered of thyroid causality. Within each round of interviews, the number of problems declined from an initial average of six per interview to two, mainly due to a reduction in the number of problems associated with comprehension. The least amount of reduction...

  16. Cognitive Impairment after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Clinical Course and Impact on Outcome: A Swedish-Icelandic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Maud; Godbolt, Alison K; Nygren De Boussard, Catharina; Levi, Richard; Stålnacke, Britt-Marie

    2015-01-01

    To assess the clinical course of cognitive and emotional impairments in patients with severe TBI (sTBI) from 3 weeks to 1 year after trauma and to study associations with outcomes at 1 year. Prospective, multicenter, observational study of sTBI in Sweden and Iceland. Patients aged 18-65 years with acute Glasgow Coma Scale 3-8 were assessed with the Barrow Neurological Institute Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNIS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Outcome measures were Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) and Rancho Los Amigos Cognitive Scale-Revised (RLAS-R). Cognition was assessed with the BNIS assessed for 42 patients out of 100 at 3 weeks, 75 patients at 3 months, and 78 patients at 1 year. Cognition improved over time, especially from 3 weeks to 3 months. The BNIS subscales "orientation" and "visuospatial and visual problem solving" were associated with the GOSE and RLAS-R at 1 year. Cognition seemed to improve over time after sTBI and appeared to be rather stable from 3 months to 1 year. Since cognitive function was associated with outcomes, these results indicate that early screening of cognitive function could be of importance for rehabilitation planning in a clinical setting.

  17. Cognitive Impairment after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Clinical Course and Impact on Outcome: A Swedish-Icelandic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Stenberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the clinical course of cognitive and emotional impairments in patients with severe TBI (sTBI from 3 weeks to 1 year after trauma and to study associations with outcomes at 1 year. Methods. Prospective, multicenter, observational study of sTBI in Sweden and Iceland. Patients aged 18–65 years with acute Glasgow Coma Scale 3–8 were assessed with the Barrow Neurological Institute Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNIS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Outcome measures were Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE and Rancho Los Amigos Cognitive Scale-Revised (RLAS-R. Results. Cognition was assessed with the BNIS assessed for 42 patients out of 100 at 3 weeks, 75 patients at 3 months, and 78 patients at 1 year. Cognition improved over time, especially from 3 weeks to 3 months. The BNIS subscales “orientation” and “visuospatial and visual problem solving” were associated with the GOSE and RLAS-R at 1 year. Conclusion. Cognition seemed to improve over time after sTBI and appeared to be rather stable from 3 months to 1 year. Since cognitive function was associated with outcomes, these results indicate that early screening of cognitive function could be of importance for rehabilitation planning in a clinical setting.

  18. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-yan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

  19. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-yan Sun; Qiang Li; Xi-ping Chen; Lu-yang Tao

    2015-01-01

    Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocogni-tion with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, re-spectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most signiifcant positive correlations were found be-tween mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most signiifcant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positive-ly associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental ifndings suggest that mismatch negativity might efifciently relfect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

  20. Interactions between causal models, theories, and social cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, David M; Buchanan, David W; Butterfield, Jesse; Jenkins, Odest Chadwicke

    2010-01-01

    We propose a model of social cognitive development based not on a single modeling framework or the hypothesis that a single model accounts for children's developing social cognition. Rather, we advocate a Causal Model approach (cf. Waldmann, 1996), in which models of social cognitive development take the same position as theories of social cognitive development, in that they generate novel empirical hypotheses. We describe this approach and present three examples across various aspects of social cognitive development. Our first example focuses on children's understanding of pretense and involves only considering assumptions made by a computational framework. The second example focuses on children's learning from "testimony". It uses a modeling framework based on Markov random fields as a computational description of a set of empirical phenomena, and then tests a prediction of that description. The third example considers infants' generalization of action learned from imitation. Here, we use a modified version of the Rational Model of Categorization to explain children's inferences. Taken together, these examples suggest that research in social cognitive development can be assisted by considering how computational modeling can lead researchers towards testing novel hypotheses.

  1. Long-term follow-up of cognitive outcome after breech presentation at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Olsen, Jørn;

    1999-01-01

    with the Boerge Prien IQ test. A total of 164 conscripts were born in breech presentation and 70 (42.7%) of these were delivered after Caesarean section. The mean Boerge Prien test score was 43.2 among men born in cephalic presentation and 39.9 among those born in breech presentation for a difference of 3.3 (95......% confidence interval = 1.8-4.7). The negative association between breech presentation and cognitive outcome persisted after stratifying by Caesarean section and after adjustment for confounders. It also persisted when we restricted the analyses to term singleton pregnancies....

  2. Examining the Relation between the Therapeutic Alliance, Treatment Adherence, and Outcome of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Children with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Juliette M.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; Goedhart, Arnold W.; van der Leeden, Adelinde J. M.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Treffers, Philip D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the contribution of technical and relational factors to child outcomes in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children with anxiety disorders. This study investigated the association between treatment adherence, the child-therapist alliance, and child clinical outcomes in manual-guided individual- and group-based CBT for…

  3. Can Research Design Explain Variation in Head Start Research Results? A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive and Achievement Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which differences in research design explain variation in Head Start program impacts. We employ meta-analytic techniques to predict effect sizes for cognitive and achievement outcomes as a function of the type and rigor of research design, quality and type of outcome measure, activity level of control group, and…

  4. Can Research Design Explain Variation in Head Start Research Results? A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive and Achievement Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which differences in research design explain variation in Head Start program impacts. We employ meta-analytic techniques to predict effect sizes for cognitive and achievement outcomes as a function of the type and rigor of research design, quality and type of outcome measure, activity level of control group, and…

  5. Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy for social phobia: outcomes and moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G; Niles, Andrea N; Burklund, Lisa J; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B; Vilardaga, Jennifer C Plumb; Arch, Joanna J; Saxbe, Darby E; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an empirically supported treatment for social phobia. However, not all individuals respond to treatment and many who show improvement do not maintain their gains over the long-term. Thus, alternative treatments are needed. The current study (N = 87) was a 3-arm randomized clinical trial comparing CBT, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), and a wait-list control group (WL) in participants with a diagnosis of social phobia based on criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Participants completed 12 sessions of CBT or ACT or a 12-week waiting period. All participants completed assessments at baseline and posttreatment, and participants assigned to CBT and ACT also completed assessments 6 and 12 months following baseline. Assessments consisted of self-report measures, a public-speaking task, and clinician ratings. Multilevel modeling was used to examine between-group differences on outcomes measures. Both treatment groups outperformed WL, with no differences observed between CBT and ACT on self-report, independent clinician, or public-speaking outcomes. Lower self-reported psychological flexibility at baseline was associated with greater improvement by the 12-month follow-up in CBT compared with ACT. Self-reported fear of negative evaluation significantly moderated outcomes as well, with trends for both extremes to be associated with superior outcomes from CBT and inferior outcomes from ACT. Across treatment groups, higher perceived control and extraversion were associated with greater improvement, whereas comorbid depression was associated with poorer outcomes. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  6. Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy for social phobia: outcomes and moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G; Niles, Andrea N.; Burklund, Lisa J.; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Vilardaga, Jennifer C. Plumb; Arch, Joanna J.; Saxbe, Darby E.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an empirically supported treatment for social phobia. However, not all individuals respond to treatment and many who show improvement do not maintain their gains over the long-term. Thus, alternative treatments are needed. Method The current study (N=87) was a 3-arm randomized clinical trial comparing CBT, Acceptance and Commitment therapy (ACT), and a waitlist control group (WL) in participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of social phobia. Participants completed 12 sessions of CBT or ACT or a 12-week waiting period. All participants completed assessments at baseline and post-treatment, and participants assigned to CBT and ACT also completed assessments at 6 and 12 months following baseline. Assessments consisted of self-report measures, a public speaking task, and clinician ratings. Results Multilevel modeling was used to examine between-group differences on outcomes measures. Both treatment groups outperformed WL, with no differences observed between CBT and ACT on self-report, independent clinician, or public speaking outcomes. Lower self-reported psychological flexibility at baseline was associated with greater improvement by the 12-mo follow-up in CBT compared to ACT. Self-reported fear of negative evaluation significantly moderated outcomes as well, with trends for both extremes to be associated with superior outcomes from CBT and inferior outcomes from ACT. Across treatment groups, higher perceived control, and extraversion were associated with greater improvement, whereas comorbid depression was associated with poorer outcomes. Conclusions Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:24999670

  7. Impact of Cannabis Use on Treatment Outcomes among Adults Receiving Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for PTSD and Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesia M. Ruglass

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: Research has demonstrated a strong link between trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and substance use disorders (SUDs in general and cannabis use disorders in particular. Yet, few studies have examined the impact of cannabis use on treatment outcomes for individuals with co-occurring PTSD and SUDs. Methods: Participants were 136 individuals who received cognitive-behavioral therapies for co-occurring PTSD and SUD. Multivariate regressions were utilized to examine the associations between baseline cannabis use and end-of-treatment outcomes. Multilevel linear growth models were fit to the data to examine the cross-lagged associations between weekly cannabis use and weekly PTSD symptom severity and primary substance use during treatment. Results: There were no significant positive nor negative associations between baseline cannabis use and end-of-treatment PTSD symptom severity and days of primary substance use. Cross-lagged models revealed that as cannabis use increased, subsequent primary substance use decreased and vice versa. Moreover, results revealed a crossover lagged effect, whereby higher cannabis use was associated with greater PTSD symptom severity early in treatment, but lower weekly PTSD symptom severity later in treatment. Conclusion: Cannabis use was not associated with adverse outcomes in end-of-treatment PTSD and primary substance use, suggesting independent pathways of change. The theoretical and clinical implications of the reciprocal associations between weekly cannabis use and subsequent PTSD and primary substance use symptoms during treatment are discussed.

  8. Impact of Cannabis Use on Treatment Outcomes among Adults Receiving Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for PTSD and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruglass, Lesia M.; Shevorykin, Alina; Radoncic, Vanja; Smith, Kathryn M. Z.; Smith, Philip H.; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.; Papini, Santiago; Hien, Denise A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research has demonstrated a strong link between trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) in general and cannabis use disorders in particular. Yet, few studies have examined the impact of cannabis use on treatment outcomes for individuals with co-occurring PTSD and SUDs. Methods: Participants were 136 individuals who received cognitive-behavioral therapies for co-occurring PTSD and SUD. Multivariate regressions were utilized to examine the associations between baseline cannabis use and end-of-treatment outcomes. Multilevel linear growth models were fit to the data to examine the cross-lagged associations between weekly cannabis use and weekly PTSD symptom severity and primary substance use during treatment. Results: There were no significant positive nor negative associations between baseline cannabis use and end-of-treatment PTSD symptom severity and days of primary substance use. Cross-lagged models revealed that as cannabis use increased, subsequent primary substance use decreased and vice versa. Moreover, results revealed a crossover lagged effect, whereby higher cannabis use was associated with greater PTSD symptom severity early in treatment, but lower weekly PTSD symptom severity later in treatment. Conclusion: Cannabis use was not associated with adverse outcomes in end-of-treatment PTSD and primary substance use, suggesting independent pathways of change. The theoretical and clinical implications of the reciprocal associations between weekly cannabis use and subsequent PTSD and primary substance use symptoms during treatment are discussed. PMID:28178207

  9. Decision Making, Models of Mind, and the New Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Colin W.

    1998-01-01

    Explores implications for understanding educational decision making from a cognitive science perspective. Examines three models of mind providing the methodological framework for decision-making studies. The "absent mind" embodies the behaviorist research tradition. The "functionalist mind" underwrites traditional cognitivism…

  10. Decision Making, Models of Mind, and the New Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Colin W.

    1998-01-01

    Explores implications for understanding educational decision making from a cognitive science perspective. Examines three models of mind providing the methodological framework for decision-making studies. The "absent mind" embodies the behaviorist research tradition. The "functionalist mind" underwrites traditional cognitivism…

  11. Structural Equation Modeling of the Effects of Family, Preschool, and Stunting on the Cognitive Development of School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi Rachel; Matthews, Glenda Beverley; Taylor, Myra; Kvalsvig, Jane Dene; Davidson, Leslie; Kauchali, Shuaib; Mellins, Claude

    2017-01-01

    A recent study based on a sample of 1,580 children from five adjacent geographical locations in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, was carried out to examine the association of nutrition, family influence, preschool education, and disadvantages in geographical location with the cognitive development of school children. Data were collected on the children from 2009 to 2011 for this developmental study and included cognitive scores and information on the health and nutrition of the children. The current study analyzed the association of demographic variables (geographical location (site)), child variables (sex, preschool education and socioeconomic status), parental level of education (maternal and paternal), child’s health (HIV status and hemoglobin level) and anthropometric measures of nutritional status (height-for-age) with children’s cognitive outcomes. The hypothesis is that the nutritional status of children is a pathway through which the indirect effects of the variables of interest exert influence on their cognitive outcomes. Factor analysis based on principal components was used to create a variable based on the cognitive measures, correlations were used to examine the bivariate association between the variables of interest in the preliminary analysis and a path analysis was constructed, which was used for the disaggregation of the direct and indirect effects of the predictors for each cognitive test in a structural equation model. The results revealed that nutritional status directly predicts cognitive test scores and is a path through which other variables indirectly influence children’s cognitive outcome and development. PMID:28555186

  12. Structural Equation Modeling of the Effects of Family, Preschool, and Stunting on the Cognitive Development of School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Rachel Ajayi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A recent study based on a sample of 1,580 children from five adjacent geographical locations in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, was carried out to examine the association of nutrition, family influence, preschool education, and disadvantages in geographical location with the cognitive development of school children. Data were collected on the children from 2009 to 2011 for this developmental study and included cognitive scores and information on the health and nutrition of the children. The current study analyzed the association of demographic variables (geographical location (site, child variables (sex, preschool education and socioeconomic status, parental level of education (maternal and paternal, child’s health (HIV status and hemoglobin level and anthropometric measures of nutritional status (height-for-age with children’s cognitive outcomes. The hypothesis is that the nutritional status of children is a pathway through which the indirect effects of the variables of interest exert influence on their cognitive outcomes. Factor analysis based on principal components was used to create a variable based on the cognitive measures, correlations were used to examine the bivariate association between the variables of interest in the preliminary analysis and a path analysis was constructed, which was used for the disaggregation of the direct and indirect effects of the predictors for each cognitive test in a structural equation model. The results revealed that nutritional status directly predicts cognitive test scores and is a path through which other variables indirectly influence children’s cognitive outcome and development.

  13. Utilization-Based Modeling and Optimization for Cognitive Radio Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanbing; Huang, Jun; Liu, Zhangxiong

    The cognitive radio technique promises to manage and allocate the scarce radio spectrum in the highly varying and disparate modern environments. This paper considers a cognitive radio scenario composed of two queues for the primary (licensed) users and cognitive (unlicensed) users. According to the Markov process, the system state equations are derived and an optimization model for the system is proposed. Next, the system performance is evaluated by calculations which show the rationality of our system model. Furthermore, discussions among different parameters for the system are presented based on the experimental results.

  14. Simulation modeling of outcomes and cost effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, S D; McIntosh, M; Etzioni, R; Urban, N

    2000-08-01

    Modeling will continue to be used to address important issues in clinical practice and health policy issues that have not been adequately studied with high-quality clinical trials. The apparent ad hoc nature of models belies the methodologic rigor that is applied to create the best models in cancer prevention and care. Models have progressed from simple decision trees to extremely complex microsimulation analyses, yet all are built using a logical process based on objective evaluation of the path between intervention and outcome. The best modelers take great care to justify both the structure and content of the model and then test their assumptions using a comprehensive process of sensitivity analysis and model validation. Like clinical trials, models sometimes produce results that are later found to be invalid as other data become available. When weighing the value of models in health care decision making, it is reasonable to consider the alternatives. In the absence of data, clinical policy decisions are often based on the recommendations of expert opinion panels or on poorly defined notions of the standard of care or medical necessity. Because such decision making rarely entails the rigorous process of data collection, synthesis, and testing that is the core of well-conducted modeling, it is usually not possible for external audiences to examine the assumptions and data that were used to derive the decisions. One of the modeler's most challenging tasks is to make the structure and content of the model transparent to the intended audience. The purpose of this article is to clarify the process of modeling, so that readers of models are more knowledgeable about their uses, strengths, and limitations.

  15. Exploring predictors of treatment outcome in cognitive behavior therapy for sleep disturbance following acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sylvia; McKenzie, Dean; McKay, Adam; Wong, Dana; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Spitz, Gershon; Williams, Gavin; Mansfield, Darren; Ponsford, Jennie

    2017-04-19

    To identify predictors of treatment response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for sleep disturbance following acquired brain injury (ABI). Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was conducted on individual patient data from two pilot randomized controlled trials (RCTs): one in traumatic brain injury (TBI), the other in stroke. The combined sample comprised 32 participants; 15 receiving CBT and 17 allocated to treatment as usual (TAU). The outcome was reliable improvement on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Study group was a statistically significant predictor of outcome, with CBT participants more likely to achieve reliable improvements than TAU (OR = 4.88, p = 0.042). Study group (CBT vs. TAU) exhibited an area under the ROC curve (AUROC) of 69%. In separate CART analyzes, verbal memory (CVLT-II >45.5), age ( 6) predicted positive outcomes in CBT recipients. Each of these variables added a small (∼5%) but not statistically significant amount to AUROC over study group. In this ABI sample, better memory, younger age, and higher baseline depression were associated with positive treatment response to CBT although individually these variables were not better than group alone in predicting outcomes. The present findings generate hypotheses for further investigation in future studies. Implications for rehabilitation Cognitive behavior therapy improves sleep quality over treatment as usual in persons with acquired brain injury. Individuals who are younger in age with better memory and co-morbid symptoms of depression are more likely to respond to the treatment. These findings are based on a small sample and can be considered hypothesis generating for future clinical studies.

  16. Reasoning and Rehabilitation cognitive skills programme for mentally disordered offenders: Predictors of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; Das, Mrigendra; Gudjonsson, Gisli H

    2016-12-22

    To investigate factors predicting treatment completion and treatment outcome of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation Mental Health Programme (R&R2MHP) cognitive skills programme for mentally disordered offenders. Secondary analysis of data previously obtained from 97 male patients who were sectioned and detained under the United Kingdom Mental Health Act in low, medium and high security hospitals and who had completed R&R2MHP. Predictors of treatment completion included background variables and five outcome measures: Four self-reported measures of violent attitudes, social problem-solving skills, reactive anger and locus of control and an objective measure of behaviour on the ward that was completed by staff. Completion of the 16 session programme, which was delivered on a weekly basis, was classified as ≥ 12 sessions. It was found that the R&R2MHP is appropriate for delivery to participants of different ages, ethnic background, and at different levels of security without the completion rate or treatment effectiveness being compromised. Participants taking oral typical psychotropic medication were over seven times more likely to complete the programme than other participants. Behavioural disturbance on the ward prior to commencing the programme predicted non-completion (medium effect size). As far as treatment completion was concerned, none of the background factors predicted treatment effectiveness (age, ethnic background, level of security, number of previous convictions and number of previous hospital admissions). The best predictor of treatment effectiveness was attitude towards violence suggesting that this should be the primary outcome measure in future research evaluating outcomes of the R&R2MHP cognitive skills program. The findings suggest that a stable mental state is a key factor that predicts treatment completion.

  17. Relative and Absolute Fit Evaluation in Cognitive Diagnosis Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinsong; de la Torre, Jimmy; Zhang, Zao

    2013-01-01

    As with any psychometric models, the validity of inferences from cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) determines the extent to which these models can be useful. For inferences from CDMs to be valid, it is crucial that the fit of the model to the data is ascertained. Based on a simulation study, this study investigated the sensitivity of various fit…

  18. Cognitive model supported tactical training simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, W.A. van; Bosch, K. van den

    2005-01-01

    Simulation-based tactical training can be made more effective by using cognitive software agents to play key roles (e.g. team mate, adversaries, instructor). Due to the dynamic and complex nature of military tactics, it is hard to create agents that behave realistically and support the training lead

  19. Training tactical decision making using cognitive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Doesburg, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Simulation-based tactical training can be made more effective by using cognitive software agents to play key roles (e.g. team mates, adversaries). For successful use in training, agents should show tactically representative behavior that support trainees in achieving the learning objectives. For a t

  20. Dynamic Cognitive Tracing: Towards Unified Discovery of Student and Cognitive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Brenes, Jose P.; Mostow, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a unified approach to two problems previously addressed separately in Intelligent Tutoring Systems: (i) Cognitive Modeling, which factorizes problem solving steps into the latent set of skills required to perform them; and (ii) Student Modeling, which infers students' learning by observing student performance. The practical…

  1. Outcomes after Cognitive Perceptual Motor Retraining (CPM of Patients with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Christy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Remediation of deficits is one approach used by occupational therapists in the treatment of clients with acquired brain injury (ABI. This retrospective study examined outcomes after participation in Cognitive Perceptual Motor Retraining (CPM of clients with ABI and identified demographic and injury characteristics of clients that were associated with outcomes. CPM was delivered as part of the standard treatment and was not designed for research purposes. Method: A retrospective review of 59 client records was completed. CPM evaluation test scores, demographic information, and injury characteristics were extracted from the records. Results: There were moderate improvements in CPM test scores and good discharge outcomes for most clients. Discharge to home with independent status was associated with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury severity and being married. Longer time since injury and having a concurrent psychiatric diagnosis were associated with longer duration of CPM. Conclusion: This preliminary study demonstrates positive therapy outcomes after CPM. Recommendations were made for future research and considerations in the use of CPM. These include the need for addressing concurrent needs, such as psychological issues and repeated re-evaluations, to determine when clients have met maximum remediation and thereby minimizing cost.

  2. Cognitive-communication disorder following right hemisphere stroke: exploring rehabilitation access and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewetson, Ronelle; Cornwell, Petrea; Shum, David

    2017-07-01

    Rehabilitation positively influences return to activities and social roles in people with aphasia. The cognitive-communication disorder (CCD) found following a right hemisphere stroke has been less extensively researched with rehabilitation access and outcomes yet to be determined. To document rehabilitation access and outcomes for people with CCD post-stroke; and compare outcomes based on presence (viz CCD; aphasia) or absence of communication impairment. A retrospective chart audit was completed for patients with first onset unilateral stroke, with a hospital length of stay (LOS) of at least two days and a communication assessment by a speech pathologist. Data extracted included presence and severity of communication impairment, access to and LOS in a rehabilitation unit, and functional outcome measures recorded at rehabilitation discharge. The majority of the 115 patients who met inclusion criteria were living independently (n = 112, 97.4%) at the time of stroke. CCD (66%) was diagnosed with similar frequency to aphasia (68%). The presence of communication impairment did not result in significant differences in rehabilitation LOS and discharge destination when compared to hemispheric strokes without communication impairment. Severity of CCD was an independent predictor of functional gain by rehabilitation discharge. People with CCD require comparable access to rehabilitation as people with aphasia, and severity of CCD should be considered in determining rehabilitation LOS. A large number of people are discharged with ongoing CCD which warrants exploration of potential participation restrictions created by the communication impairment.

  3. A generalized and parameterized interference model for cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2011-06-01

    For meaningful co-existence of cognitive radios with primary system, it is imperative that the cognitive radio system is aware of how much interference it generates at the primary receivers. This can be done through statistical modeling of the interference as perceived at the primary receivers. In this work, we propose a generalized model for the interference generated by a cognitive radio network, in the presence of small and large scale fading, at a primary receiver located at the origin. We then demonstrate how this model can be used to estimate the impact of cognitive radio transmission on the primary receiver in terms of different outage probabilities. Finally, our analytical findings are validated through some selected computer-based simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Dynamic statistical models of biological cognition: insights from communications theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2014-10-01

    Maturana's cognitive perspective on the living state, Dretske's insight on how information theory constrains cognition, the Atlan/Cohen cognitive paradigm, and models of intelligence without representation, permit construction of a spectrum of dynamic necessary conditions statistical models of signal transduction, regulation, and metabolism at and across the many scales and levels of organisation of an organism and its context. Nonequilibrium critical phenomena analogous to physical phase transitions, driven by crosstalk, will be ubiquitous, representing not only signal switching, but the recruitment of underlying cognitive modules into tunable dynamic coalitions that address changing patterns of need and opportunity at all scales and levels of organisation. The models proposed here, while certainly providing much conceptual insight, should be most useful in the analysis of empirical data, much as are fitted regression equations.

  5. Differential cognitive outcomes in the Hypertensive Old People in Edinburgh study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, John M; Whalley, Lawrence J

    2005-03-15

    Hypertension is associated with cognitive impairment in older adults. The Hypertensive Old People in Edinburgh (HOPE) study reported improved scores in two psychometric tests in those subjects with the greatest fall in diastolic blood pressure during a 24-week randomised, double-blind trial of captopril versus bendrofluazide in 81 elderly hypertensive people with mild cognitive impairment. Three hundred and eighty-seven of the original sample of 603 older people with and without hypertension and/or cognitive impairment from which the trial subsample was drawn were available for adequate psychometric testing 4 years later. Blood pressure was related prospectively to Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM), a measure of fluid intelligence, but not memory differences. RPM scores were obtained at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks and at the end of the randomised controlled trial. For subjects on captopril mean scores at each time point adjusted for blood pressure change were 27.6 (95% CI 25.5-29.6), 27.2 (95% CI 25.1-29.2), 28.4 (95% CI 26.6-30.3) and 28.9 (95% CI 26.9-30.9), and for bendrofluazide 27.1 (95% CI 25.1-29.0), 28.9 (95% CI 26.9-30.9), 28.9 (95% CI 27.2-30.7) and 28.7 (95% CI 26.8-30.6). There was a significant improvement in scores for those on bendrofluazide compared with captopril at week 6 (F=8.10, p=0.006, partial eta2=0.11). There were no significant effects for either drug or blood pressure at any time point for tests of memory. Future trials of the effects of antihypertensive therapy on cognition should focus more on outcomes other than memory. Early differential effects of therapeutic agents may not be maintained.

  6. Predictors of Treatment Outcome in Contextual Cognitive and Behavioral Therapies for Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Helen R; Keyes, Alexandra; Stahl, Daniel R; Greig, Riannon; McCracken, Lance M

    2017-04-26

    There is increasing evidence that contextual forms of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are effective in the management of chronic pain, yet little is understood about the factors that moderate or predict outcomes in these treatments. This systematic review aimed to identify pretreatment participant characteristics associated with positive treatment responses in contextual CBT for chronic pain. Medline, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and CENTRAL were searched to identify eligible studies. Studies were included if the participants were adults with chronic pain, designs were longitudinal, treatments focused on psychological flexibility or mindfulness, and reported results allowed for examination of moderators or predictors of standard treatment outcomes. Of 991 records initially identified, 20 were eligible for inclusion in the review. Some evidence suggested that baseline emotional functioning predicts treatment response, but the direction of this association varied between studies. Substantive findings were inconsistent and inconclusive, however, methodological limitations were consistent. These included treatment heterogeneity, and a lack of theoretical, a priori guidance in examining potential predictors. Future research should adopt a theoretically based approach to examining moderators in relation to specific treatment methods and therapeutic processes. Considering moderation without first considering mediation is probably a limited strategy. In this systematic review we examined evidence for potential predictors or moderators of outcomes in contextual CBT for chronic pain. Substantive findings were inconclusive but important methodological limitations and a lack of theoretical guidance were found. Future research should explicitly plan relevant methods and follow clear theoretical models. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Jump, Hop, or Skip: Modeling Practice Effects in Studies of Determinants of Cognitive Change in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivot, Alexandre; Power, Melinda C; Glymour, M Maria; Mayeda, Elizabeth R; Benitez, Andreana; Spiro, Avron; Manly, Jennifer J; Proust-Lima, Cécile; Dufouil, Carole; Gross, Alden L

    2016-02-15

    Improvements in cognitive test scores upon repeated assessment due to practice effects (PEs) are well documented, but there is no empirical evidence on whether alternative specifications of PEs result in different estimated associations between exposure and rate of cognitive change. If alternative PE specifications produce different estimates of association between an exposure and rate of cognitive change, this would be a challenge for nearly all longitudinal research on determinants of cognitive aging. Using data from 3 cohort studies-the Three-City Study-Dijon (Dijon, France, 1999-2010), the Normative Aging Study (Greater Boston, Massachusetts, 1993-2007), and the Washington Heights-Inwood Community Aging Project (New York, New York, 1999-2012)-for 2 exposures (diabetes and depression) and 3 cognitive outcomes, we compared results from longitudinal models using alternative PE specifications: no PEs; use of an indicator for the first cognitive visit; number of prior testing occasions; and square root of the number of prior testing occasions. Alternative specifications led to large differences in the estimated rates of cognitive change but minimal differences in estimated associations of exposure with cognitive level or change. Based on model fit, using an indicator for the first visit was often (but not always) the preferred model. PE specification can lead to substantial differences in estimated rates of cognitive change, but in these diverse examples and study samples it did not substantively affect estimated associations of risk factors with change.

  8. Cognitive performance modeling based on general systems performance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondraske, George V

    2010-01-01

    General Systems Performance Theory (GSPT) was initially motivated by problems associated with quantifying different aspects of human performance. It has proved to be invaluable for measurement development and understanding quantitative relationships between human subsystem capacities and performance in complex tasks. It is now desired to bring focus to the application of GSPT to modeling of cognitive system performance. Previous studies involving two complex tasks (i.e., driving and performing laparoscopic surgery) and incorporating measures that are clearly related to cognitive performance (information processing speed and short-term memory capacity) were revisited. A GSPT-derived method of task analysis and performance prediction termed Nonlinear Causal Resource Analysis (NCRA) was employed to determine the demand on basic cognitive performance resources required to support different levels of complex task performance. This approach is presented as a means to determine a cognitive workload profile and the subsequent computation of a single number measure of cognitive workload (CW). Computation of CW may be a viable alternative to measuring it. Various possible "more basic" performance resources that contribute to cognitive system performance are discussed. It is concluded from this preliminary exploration that a GSPT-based approach can contribute to defining cognitive performance models that are useful for both individual subjects and specific groups (e.g., military pilots).

  9. A cognitively plausible model for grammar induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Katzir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to bring theoretical linguistics and cognition-general theories of learning into closer contact. I argue that linguists' notions of rich UGs are well-founded, but that cognition-general learning approaches are viable as well and that the two can and should co-exist and support each other. Specifically, I use the observation that any theory of UG provides a learning criterion -- the total memory space used to store a grammar and its encoding of the input -- that supports learning according to the principle of Minimum Description-Length. This mapping from UGs to learners maintains a minimal ontological commitment: the learner for a particular UG uses only what is already required to account for linguistic competence in adults. I suggest that such learners should be our null hypothesis regarding the child's learning mechanism, and that furthermore, the mapping from theories of UG to learners provides a framework for comparing theories of UG.

  10. Schizophrenia: A Cognitive Model and Its Implications for Psychological Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley, David R.

    1996-01-01

    Proposes a cognitive model of schizophrenia stating that schizophrenic behavior is caused by a disturbance in sensory input and stored material integration. Cites research to support this model. Outlines the manner in which a disturbance in sensory input integration relates to schizophrenic symptoms and discusses the model's relevance for…

  11. Cognitive interference modeling with applications in power and admission control

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2012-10-01

    One of the key design challenges in a cognitive radio network is controlling the interference generated at coexisting primary receivers. In order to design efficient cognitive radio systems and to minimize their unwanted consequences, it is therefore necessary to effectively control the secondary interference at the primary receivers. In this paper, a generalized framework for the interference analysis of a cognitive radio network where the different secondary transmitters may transmit with different powers and transmission probabilities, is presented and various applications of this interference model are demonstrated. The findings of the analytical performance analyses are confirmed through selected computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. On a Cognitive Model of Semiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konderak Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available What is the class of possible semiotic systems? What kinds of systems could count as such systems? The human mind is naturally considered the prototypical semiotic system. During years of research in semiotics the class has been broadened to include i.e. living systems (Zlatev, 2002 like animals, or even plants (Krampen, 1992. It is suggested in the literature on artificial intelligence that artificial agents are typical examples of symbol-processing entities. It also seems that (at least some semiotic processes are in fact cognitive processes. In consequence, it is natural to ask the question about the relation between semiotic studies and research on artificial cognitive systems within cognitive science. Consequently, my main question concerns the problem of inclusion or exclusion from the semiotic spectrum at least some artificial (computational systems. I would like to consider some arguments against the possibility of artificial semiotic systems and I will try to repeal them. Then I will present an existing natural-language using agent of the SNePS system and interpret it in terms of Peircean theory of signs. I would like also to show that some properties of semiotic systems in Peircean sense could be also found in a discussed artificial system. Finally, I will have some remarks on the status of semiotics in general.

  13. ARCHITECTURES AND ALGORITHMS FOR COGNITIVE NETWORKS ENABLED BY QUALITATIVE MODELS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balamuralidhar, P.

    2013-01-01

    the qualitative models in a cognitive engine. Further I use the methodology in multiple functional scenarios of cognitive networks including self- optimization and self- monitoring. In the case of self-optimization, I integrate principles from monotonicity analysis to evaluate and enhance qualitative models......Complexity of communication networks is ever increasing and getting complicated by their heterogeneity and dynamism. Traditional techniques are facing challenges in network performance management. Cognitive networking is an emerging paradigm to make networks more intelligent, thereby overcoming...... traditional limitations and potentially achieving better performance. The vision is that, networks should be able to monitor themselves, reason upon changes in self and environment, act towards the achievement of specific goals and learn from experience. The concept of a Cognitive Engine (CE) supporting...

  14. The implicit possibility of dualism in quantum probabilistic cognitive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Donald

    2013-06-01

    Pothos & Busemeyer (P&B) argue convincingly that quantum probability offers an improvement over classical Bayesian probability in modeling the empirical data of cognitive science. However, a weakness related to restrictions on the dimensionality of incompatible physical observables flows from the authors' "agnosticism" regarding quantum processes in neural substrates underlying cognition. Addressing this problem will require either future research findings validating quantum neurophysics or theoretical expansion of the uncertainty principle as a new, neurocognitively contextualized, "local" symmetry.

  15. Resilience of developing brain networks to interictal epileptiform discharges is associated with cognitive outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, George M; Cassel, Daniel; Morgan, Benjamin R; Smith, Mary Lou; Otsubo, Hiroshi; Ochi, Ayako; Taylor, Margot; Rutka, James T; Snead, O Carter; Doesburg, Sam

    2014-10-01

    The effects of interictal epileptiform discharges on neurocognitive development in children with medically-intractable epilepsy are poorly understood. Such discharges may have a deleterious effect on the brain's intrinsic connectivity networks, which reflect the organization of functional networks at rest, and in turn on neurocognitive development. Using a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging-magnetoencephalography approach, we examine the effects of interictal epileptiform discharges on intrinsic connectivity networks and neurocognitive outcome. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the location of regions comprising various intrinsic connectivity networks in 26 children (7-17 years), and magnetoencephalography data were reconstructed from these locations. Inter-regional phase synchronization was then calculated across interictal epileptiform discharges and graph theoretical analysis was applied to measure event-related changes in network topology in the peri-discharge period. The magnitude of change in network topology (network resilience/vulnerability) to interictal epileptiform discharges was associated with neurocognitive outcomes and functional magnetic resonance imaging networks using dual regression. Three main findings are reported: (i) large-scale network changes precede and follow interictal epileptiform discharges; (ii) the resilience of network topologies to interictal discharges is associated with stronger resting-state network connectivity; and (iii) vulnerability to interictal discharges is associated with worse neurocognitive outcomes. By combining the spatial resolution of functional magnetic resonance imaging with the temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography, we describe the effects of interictal epileptiform discharges on neurophysiological synchrony in intrinsic connectivity networks and establish the impact of interictal disruption of functional networks on cognitive outcome in children with epilepsy. The

  16. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: an integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien eHelie; Srinivasa eChakravarthy; Ahmed A. Moustafa

    2013-01-01

    Many computational models of the basal ganglia have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the basal ganglia, computational cognitive neuroscience models have focused on how the basal ganglia can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and how they use the neuroanatomy of the basal gangl...

  17. An exploratory study of the relationship between changes in emotion and cognitive processes and treatment outcome in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMain, Shelley; Links, Paul S; Guimond, Tim; Wnuk, Susan; Eynan, Rahel; Bergmans, Yvonne; Warwar, Serine

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examined specific emotion processes and cognitive problem-solving processes in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and assessed the relationship of these changes to treatment outcome. Emotion and cognitive problem-solving processes were assessed using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, the Derogatis Affect Balance Scale, and the Problem Solving Inventory. Participants who showed greater improvements in affect balance, problem solving, and the ability to identify and describe emotions showed greater improvements on treatment outcome, with affect balance remaining statistically significant under the most conservative conditions. The results provide preliminary evidence to support the theory that specific improvements in emotion and cognitive processes are associated with positive treatment outcomes (symptom distress, interpersonal functioning) in BPD. The implications for treatment are discussed.

  18. The effects of frame, appeal, and outcome extremity of antismoking messages on cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshner, Glenn; Cheng, I-Huei

    2009-04-01

    Research on the impact of antismoking advertisements in countermarketing cigarette advertising is equivocal. Although many studies examined how different message appeal types influence people's attitudes and behavior, there have been few studies that have explored the mechanism of how individuals attend to and remember antismoking information. This study examined how message attributes of antismoking TV ads (frame, appeal type, and outcome extremity) interacted to influence people's attention (secondary task reaction time) and memory (recognition). Antismoking public service announcements were chosen that were either loss- or gain-framed, had either a health or social appeal, or had either a more or less extreme outcome described in the message. Among the key findings were that loss-framed messages with more extreme outcomes required the most processing resources (i.e., had the slowest secondary task reaction times) and were the best remembered (i.e., were best recognized). These findings indicate ways that different message attributes affect individuals' cognitive processing, and they are discussed in light of prior framing and persuasion research.

  19. The role of perfectionism in cognitive behaviour therapy outcomes for clinically anxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jennifer H; Newall, Carol; Broeren, Suzanne; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2013-09-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine whether pre-treatment levels of child perfectionism impacted on anxiety treatment outcomes for school-aged children. In addition, it was investigated whether child perfectionism decreased following treatment for anxiety. Participants were sixty-seven clinically anxious children aged 6-13 years (female = 34; majority Caucasian) who were enrolled in a group-based cognitive behaviour therapy program, and their parents. They completed self-report questionnaires on anxiety and depressive symptoms and were administered a diagnostic interview to determine the type and clinician rated severity of anxiety and related disorders pre- and post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Self- and parent-rated perfectionism were also measured pre-treatment, while a subset of children completed perfectionism measures post-treatment as well. Self-Oriented Perfectionism, but not Socially Prescribed Perfectionism, predicted poorer self-reported treatment outcome (higher levels of anxiety symptoms) immediately following treatment and at 6-month follow-up when using a multi-informant approach. Additionally, both Self-Oriented and Socially Prescribed child perfectionism significantly reduced immediately following treatment. Despite reductions in child perfectionism following anxiety treatment, higher Self-Oriented Perfectionism may impact negatively on child anxiety treatment outcome.

  20. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    universal pre-school programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in pre-school at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other...... hand, seems to significantly deteriorate outcomes for boys whose mothers have a lower level of education. Finally, increasing hours in family day care from 30-40 hours per week to 40-50 hours per week and hours in pre-school from 20-30 hours per week to 30-40 hours per week leads to significantly......Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment generating variation in the take-up of pre-school across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...

  1. Exploring EFL Teachers’ Cognitive Models Through Metaphor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xiong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how a group of Chinese university teachers developed their cognitive models by using “English as a Foreign Language (EFL teachers” metaphors. The research method includes an open-ended questionnaire, a checklist questionnaire, and verbal reports. The goal for this research is twofold. First, we will present those metaphors we believe to be the most frequently used or most central in shaping the thoughts or ideas they have had for EFL teaching and learning. Second, we will provide a description of their internal process of developing cognitive models, as well as factors that could account for such models. The findings showed that (a most of us had three ways of understanding EFL teachers in terms of the educational journey metaphor, the educational building metaphor, and the educational conduit metaphor; (b we used such a cluster of converging cognitive models as the instructor model, the transmitter model, and the builder model to construct definitions for EFL teachers, with the instructor model as a central model; and (c metaphor can actually serve as a useful, effective, and analytic tool for making us aware of the cognitive model underlying our conceptual framework.

  2. Cluster analysis of cognitive deficits may mark heterogeneity in schizophrenia in terms of outcome and response to treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Elsa; Mérette, Chantal; Jomphe, Valérie; Émond, Claudia; Rouleau, Nancie; Bouchard, Roch-Hugo; Roy, Marc-André; Paccalet, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are central to schizophrenia, but their clinical utility for tagging heterogeneity in lifetime outcome and response to treatment is not conclusive. By exploiting four cognitive domains consistently showing large deficits in studies, we tested whether cluster analysis would define separate subsets of patients and then whether the disease heterogeneity marked by these clusters would be related to lifetime outcome and response to treatment. A total of 112 schizophrenia patients completed a neuropsychological evaluation. The PANSS, GAF-S and GAF-F were rated at the onset and endpoint of the illness trajectory. A blind judgment of the lifetime response to treatment was made. The first cluster presented near-normal cognitive performance. Two other clusters of severely impaired patients were identified: one generally impaired in the four cognitive domains and another selectively impaired in visual episodic memory and processing speed, each relating to a different lifetime evolution of disease and treatment response. Although the two impaired clusters were clinically indistinguishable in symptom severity and functioning at disease onset, patients with selective cognitive impairments demonstrated better improvement at outcome, whereas the generally impaired patients were more likely to be treatment refractory. The findings have implications for the management of patients and for clinical trials since particular combinations of cognitive deficits in patients would influence their treatment response. PMID:24173295

  3. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) of longitudinal brain structural and cognitive changes in alcohol-dependent individuals during sobriety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeh, P.H.; Gazdzinski, S.; Durazzo, T.C.;

    2007-01-01

    and unique hierarchical linear models allow assessments of the complex relationships among outcome measures of longitudinal data sets. These HLM applications suggest that chronic cigarette smoking modulates the temporal dynamics of brain structural and cognitive changes in alcoholics during prolonged......Background: Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) can reveal complex relationships between longitudinal outcome measures and their covariates under proper consideration of potentially unequal error variances. We demonstrate the application of FILM to the study of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI...... time points. Using HLM, we modeled volumetric and cognitive outcome measures as a function of cigarette and alcohol use variables. Results: Different hierarchical linear models with unique model structures are presented and discussed. The results show that smaller brain volumes at baseline predict...

  4. Cognitive Modeling for Agent-Based Simulation of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Puddy, Richard

    This paper extends previous work to develop cognitive modeling for agent-based simulation of child maltreatment (CM). The developed model is inspired from parental efficacy, parenting stress, and the theory of planned behavior. It provides an explanatory, process-oriented model of CM and incorporates causality relationship and feedback loops from different factors in the social ecology in order for simulating the dynamics of CM. We describe the model and present simulation results to demonstrate the features of this model.

  5. Outcome Modeling Using Clinical DVH Data

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, JJ

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the ability of correlation and regression analysis to extract the normal lung dose-response function from dose volume histogram (DVH) data. Methods: A local injury model is adopted, in which radiation-induced damage (functional loss) G is the integral of the DVH with function R(D). RP risk is H(G) where H() is the sigmoid cumulative distribution of functional reserve. RP incidence is a Bernoulli function of risk. A homogeneous patient cohort is assumed, allowing non-dose-related factors to be ignored. Clinically realistic DVHs are combined with the injury model to simulate RP data. Results: Correlation analysis is often used to identify predictor variables that are correlated with outcome, for inclusion in a predictive model. In the local injury model, all DVH metrics VD contribute to damage. Correlation analysis therefore has limited value. The subset of VD significantly correlated with incidence varies randomly from trial to trial due to random variations in the DVH set, and does not ne...

  6. Relationship of white matter network topology and cognitive outcome in adolescents with d-transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Schmithorst, Vincent J; Wisnowski, Jessica L; Watson, Christopher G; Bellinger, David C; Newburger, Jane W; Rivkin, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at risk for neurocognitive impairments. Little is known about the impact of CHD on the organization of large-scale brain networks. We applied graph analysis techniques to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data obtained from 49 adolescents with dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) repaired with the arterial switch operation in early infancy and 29 healthy referent adolescents. We examined whether differences in neurocognitive functioning were related to white matter network topology. We developed mediation models revealing the respective contributions of peri-operative variables and network topology on cognitive outcome. Adolescents with d-TGA had reduced global efficiency at a trend level (p = 0.061), increased modularity (p = 0.012), and increased small-worldness (p = 0.026) as compared to controls. Moreover, these network properties mediated neurocognitive differences between the d-TGA and referent adolescents across every domain assessed. Finally, structural network topology mediated the neuroprotective effect of longer duration of core cooling during reparative neonatal cardiac surgery, as well as the detrimental effects of prolonged hospitalization. Taken together, worse neurocognitive function in adolescents with d-TGA is mediated by global differences in white matter network topology, suggesting that disruption of this configuration of large-scale networks drives neurocognitive dysfunction. These data provide new insights into the interplay between perioperative factors, brain organization, and cognition in patients with complex CHD.

  7. Relationship of white matter network topology and cognitive outcome in adolescents with d-transposition of the great arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Panigrahy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with congenital heart disease (CHD are at risk for neurocognitive impairments. Little is known about the impact of CHD on the organization of large-scale brain networks. We applied graph analysis techniques to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data obtained from 49 adolescents with dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA repaired with the arterial switch operation in early infancy and 29 healthy referent adolescents. We examined whether differences in neurocognitive functioning were related to white matter network topology. We developed mediation models revealing the respective contributions of peri-operative variables and network topology on cognitive outcome. Adolescents with d-TGA had reduced global efficiency at a trend level (p = 0.061, increased modularity (p = 0.012, and increased small-worldness (p = 0.026 as compared to controls. Moreover, these network properties mediated neurocognitive differences between the d-TGA and referent adolescents across every domain assessed. Finally, structural network topology mediated the neuroprotective effect of longer duration of core cooling during reparative neonatal cardiac surgery, as well as the detrimental effects of prolonged hospitalization. Taken together, worse neurocognitive function in adolescents with d-TGA is mediated by global differences in white matter network topology, suggesting that disruption of this configuration of large-scale networks drives neurocognitive dysfunction. These data provide new insights into the interplay between perioperative factors, brain organization, and cognition in patients with complex CHD.

  8. A cognitive computational model inspired by the immune system response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo Abd Al-Hady, Mohamed; Badr, Amr Ahmed; Mostafa, Mostafa Abd Al-Azim

    2014-01-01

    The immune system has a cognitive ability to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy cells. The immune system response (ISR) is stimulated by a disorder in the temporary fuzzy state that is oscillating between the healthy and unhealthy states. However, modeling the immune system is an enormous challenge; the paper introduces an extensive summary of how the immune system response functions, as an overview of a complex topic, to present the immune system as a cognitive intelligent agent. The homogeneity and perfection of the natural immune system have been always standing out as the sought-after model we attempted to imitate while building our proposed model of cognitive architecture. The paper divides the ISR into four logical phases: setting a computational architectural diagram for each phase, proceeding from functional perspectives (input, process, and output), and their consequences. The proposed architecture components are defined by matching biological operations with computational functions and hence with the framework of the paper. On the other hand, the architecture focuses on the interoperability of main theoretical immunological perspectives (classic, cognitive, and danger theory), as related to computer science terminologies. The paper presents a descriptive model of immune system, to figure out the nature of response, deemed to be intrinsic for building a hybrid computational model based on a cognitive intelligent agent perspective and inspired by the natural biology. To that end, this paper highlights the ISR phases as applied to a case study on hepatitis C virus, meanwhile illustrating our proposed architecture perspective.

  9. The Cognitive Complexity in Modelling the Group Decision Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Iantovics

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates for some basic contextual factors (such
    us the problem complexity, the users' creativity and the problem space complexity the cognitive complexity associated with modelling the group decision processes (GDP in e-meetings. The analysis is done by conducting a socio-simulation experiment for an envisioned collaborative software tool that acts as a stigmergic environment for modelling the GDP. The simulation results revels some interesting design guidelines for engineering some contextual functionalities that minimize the cognitive complexity associated with modelling the GDP.

  10. Neural and Cognitive Modeling with Networks of Leaky Integrator Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graben, Peter beim; Liebscher, Thomas; Kurths, Jürgen

    After reviewing several physiological findings on oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and their possible explanations by dynamical modeling, we present neural networks consisting of leaky integrator units as a universal paradigm for neural and cognitive modeling. In contrast to standard recurrent neural networks, leaky integrator units are described by ordinary differential equations living in continuous time. We present an algorithm to train the temporal behavior of leaky integrator networks by generalized back-propagation and discuss their physiological relevance. Eventually, we show how leaky integrator units can be used to build oscillators that may serve as models of brain oscillations and cognitive processes.

  11. Computational model of sustained acceleration effects on human cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlly, Richard A; Gallimore, Jennie J

    2013-08-01

    Extreme acceleration maneuvers encountered in modern agile fighter aircraft can wreak havoc on human physiology, thereby significantly influencing cognitive task performance. As oxygen content declines under acceleration stress, the activity of high order cortical tissue reduces to ensure sufficient metabolic resources are available for critical life-sustaining autonomic functions. Consequently, cognitive abilities reliant on these affected areas suffer significant performance degradations. The goal was to develop and validate a model capable of predicting human cognitive performance under acceleration stress. Development began with creation of a proportional control cardiovascular model that produced predictions of several hemodynamic parameters, including eye-level blood pressure and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSo2). An algorithm was derived to relate changes in rSo2 within specific brain structures to performance on cognitive tasks that require engagement of different brain areas. Data from the "precision timing" experiment were then used to validate the model predicting cognitive performance as a function of G(z) profile. The following are value ranges. Results showed high agreement between the measured and predicted values for the rSo2 (correlation coefficient: 0.7483-0.8687; linear best-fit slope: 0.5760-0.9484; mean percent error: 0.75-3.33) and cognitive performance models (motion inference task--correlation coefficient: 0.7103-0.9451; linear best-fit slope: 0.7416-0.9144; mean percent error: 6.35-38.21; precision timing task--correlation coefficient: 0.6856-0.9726; linear best-fit slope: 0.5795-1.027; mean percent error: 6.30-17.28). The evidence suggests that the model is capable of accurately predicting cognitive performance of simplistic tasks under high acceleration stress.

  12. A COGNITIVE APPROACH TO CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: A VISUALIZATION TEST OF MENTAL MODELS WITH THE COGNITIVE MAPPING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garoui NASSREDDINE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to determine the mental models of actors in the fi rm with respect to the cognitive approach of corporate governance. The paper takes a corporate governance perspective, discusses mental models and uses the cognitive map to view the diagrams showing the ways of thinking and the conceptualization of the cognitive approach. In addition, it employs a cognitive mapping technique. Returning to the systematic exploration of grids for each actor, it concludes that there is a balance of concepts expressing their cognitive orientation.

  13. Model of music cognition and amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casares, N; Berthier Torres, M L; Froudist Walsh, S; González-Santos, P

    2013-04-01

    The study of the neural networks involved in music processing has received less attention than work researching the brain's language networks. For the last two decades there has been a growing interest in discovering the functional mechanisms of the musical brain and understanding those disorders in which brain regions linked with perception and production of music are damaged. Congenital and acquired musical deficits in their various forms (perception, execution, music-memory) are grouped together under the generic term amusia. In this selective review we present the "cutting edge" studies on the cognitive and neural processes implicated in music and the various forms of amusia. Musical processing requires a large cortico-subcortical network which is distributed throughout both cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum. The analysis of healthy subjects using functional neuroimaging and examination of selective deficits (e.g., tone, rhythm, timbre, melodic contours) in patients will improve our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in musical processing and the latter's relationship with other cognitive processes. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. EVALUATION OF IMPACT OF INTERACTIVE LECTURES ON LEARNING IN TERMS OF COGNITIVE OUTCOMES AND STUDENT SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To implement interactive activities in lecture and evaluate their impact on learning in terms of cognitive outcomes and student satisfaction. MATERIAL AND METHODS : In our study we compared interactive lectures with didactic lectures. We took an immediate post test and feedback forms from student after each lecture and compared the results. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the post test results between the two lecture types. In the feedback forms significant number of student found the interactive lectures better in terms of attentiveness, learning and understanding at the end of the lecture. CONCLUSIONS: Use of interactive lectures can promote active l earning, heighten attention and motivation, give feedback to the teacher and increase satisfaction for both.

  15. Self-Reported Cognitive Outcomes in Patients With Brain Metastases Before and After Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Ansa Maer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Scherwath, Angela [Department of Medical Psychology, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Ernst, Gundula [Department of Medical Psychology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Lanfermann, Heinrich [Institute for Neuroradiology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Bremer, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Steinmann, Diana, E-mail: steinmann.diana@mh-hannover.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Patients with brain metastases may experience treatment-related cognitive deficits. In this study, we prospectively assessed the self-reported cognitive abilities of patients with brain metastases from any solid primary cancer before and after irradiation of the brain. Methods and Materials: The treatment group (TG) consisted of adult patients (n=50) with brain metastases who received whole or partial irradiation of the brain without having received prior radiation therapy (RT). The control group (CG) consisted of breast cancer patients (n=27) without cranial involvement who were treated with adjuvant RT. Patients were recruited between May 2008 and December 2010. Self-reported cognitive abilities were acquired before RT and 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after irradiation. The information regarding the neurocognitive status was collected by use of the German questionnaires for self-perceived deficits in attention (FEDA) and subjectively experienced everyday memory performance (FEAG). Results: The baseline data showed a high proportion of self-perceived neurocognitive deficits in both groups. A comparison between the TG and the CG regarding the course of self-reported outcomes after RT showed significant between-group differences for the FEDA scales 2 and 3: fatigue and retardation of daily living activities (P=.002) and decrease in motivation (P=.032) with an increase of attention deficits in the TG, but not in the CG. There was a trend towards significance in FEDA scale 1: distractibility and retardation of mental processes (P=.059) between the TG and the CG. The FEAG assessment presented no significant differences. An additional subgroup analysis within the TG was carried out. FEDA scale 3 showed significant differences in the time-related progress between patients with whole-brain RT and those receiving hypofractionated stereotactic RT (P=.025), with less decrease in motivation in the latter group. Conclusion: Self-reported attention declined in

  16. Human strategic reasoning in dynamic games: Experiments, logics, cognitive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Sujata; Halder, Tamoghna; Sharma, Khyati; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2015-01-01

    © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.This article provides a three-way interaction between experiments, logic and cognitive modelling so as to bring out a shared perspective among these diverse areas, aiming towards better understanding and better modelling of human strategic reasoning in

  17. Modeling Epistemic and Ontological Cognition: Philosophical Perspectives and Methodological Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeffrey A.; Azevedo, Roger A.; Torney-Purta, Judith

    2008-01-01

    We propose an integration of aspects of several developmental and systems of beliefs models of personal epistemology. Qualitatively different positions, including realism, dogmatism, skepticism, and rationalism, are characterized according to individuals' beliefs across three dimensions in a model of epistemic and ontological cognition. This model…

  18. Human strategic reasoning in dynamic games: Experiments, logics, cognitive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Sujata; Halder, Tamoghna; Sharma, Khyati; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2015-01-01

    © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.This article provides a three-way interaction between experiments, logic and cognitive modelling so as to bring out a shared perspective among these diverse areas, aiming towards better understanding and better modelling of human strategic reasoning in dynami

  19. Towards improved animal models for evaluating social cognition and its disruption in schizophrenia: the CNTRICS initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, Mark J; Bales, Karen L

    2013-11-01

    Social cognition refers to processes used to monitor and interpret social signals from others, to decipher their state of mind, emotional status and intentions, and select appropriate social behaviour. Social cognition is sophisticated in humans, being embedded with verbal language and enacted in a complex cultural environment. Its disruption characterises the entire course of schizophrenia and is correlated with poor functional outcome. Further, deficits in social cognition are related to impairment in other cognitive domains, positive symptoms (paranoia and delusions) and negative symptoms (social withdrawal and reduced motivation). In light of the significance and inadequate management of social cognition deficits, there is a need for translatable experimental procedures for their study, and identification of effective pharmacotherapy. No single paradigm captures the multi-dimensional nature of social cognition, and procedures for assessing ability to infer mental states are not well-developed for experimental therapeutic settings. Accordingly, a recent CNTRICS meeting prioritised procedures for measuring a specific construct: "acquisition and recognition of affective (emotional) states", coupled to individual recognition. Two complementary paradigms for refinement were identified: social recognition/preference in rodents, and visual tracking of social scenes in non-human primates (NHPs). Social recognition is disrupted in genetic, developmental or pharmacological disease models for schizophrenia, and performance in both procedures is improved by the neuropeptide oxytocin. The present article surveys a broad range of procedures for studying social cognition in rodents and NHPs, discusses advantages and drawbacks, and focuses on development of social recognition/preference and gaze-following paradigms for improved study of social cognition deficits in schizophrenia and their potential treatment.

  20. 多状态Markov模型在社区老年人轻度认知损害转归分析中的应用%Multi-state Markov model in expressing the outcome of mild cognitive impairment among community-based elderly residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨珊珊; 周立业; 梁瑞峰; 罗天娥; 曲成毅; 余红梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To introduce the Multi-state Markov model in studying the outcome prediction of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods Based on the intelligence quotient (IQ)changes that reflecting the trends in cognitive function in the patients under follow-up program, we constructed a four states model and used Multi-state Markov model to analyze the patients. Results Among 600 MCI patients, there were 174(29.0%) males and 426(71.0%) females, with age range of 65-90 years-old (average 69.7±6.6). For univariate analysis, gender, age, education level, marital status, smoking, household income, cerebral hemorrhage, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes,LDL-C, SBP and DBP were found to be associated with cognitive function. For multivariate analysis,female, older age, cerebral hemorrhage and higher SBP were shown to be the risk factors for transition from the state of cognitive stability to the state of severe deterioration, and their coefficients were 0.762,0.366,0.885, and 0.069, respectively. Age (0.038) could influence the transition from the state of cognitive stability to slight deterioration. Higher education level was shown to be the protective factor for these transitions (-0.219 and-0.297). Transition intensity from the state of cognitive stability to the state of slight and severe deterioration was 1.2 times that of transition to the state of improving. Transition intensity from state of slight deterioration to cognitive stability was 11.4times that of transition to severe deterioration. Conclusion Multi-state Markov model was an effective tool in dealing with longitudinal data.%目的 利用多状态Markov模型对社区老年人轻度认知损害(MCI)转归进行研究.方法 通过MCI患者智商(IQ)变化反映随访人群认知功能的变化趋势,构建一个四状态模型,采用多状态Markov模型进行分析.结果 600例MCI患者中,男性174例(29.0%),女性426例(71.0%),年龄65~90岁,平均(69.7±6.6)岁.单因素分析显示,性别、

  1. A cortical network model of cognitive and emotional influences in human decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Azadeh Hassannejad; Liljenström, Hans

    2015-10-01

    Decision making (DM)(2) is a complex process that appears to involve several brain structures. In particular, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) seem to be essential in human decision making, where both emotional and cognitive aspects are taken into account. In this paper, we present a computational network model representing the neural information processing of DM, from perception to behavior. We model the population dynamics of the three neural structures (amygdala, OFC and LPFC), as well as their interaction. In our model, the neurodynamic activity of amygdala and OFC represents the neural correlates of secondary emotion, while the activity of certain neural populations in OFC alone represents the outcome expectancy of different options. The cognitive/rational aspect of DM is associated with LPFC. Our model is intended to give insights on the emotional and cognitive processes involved in DM under various internal and external contexts. Different options for actions are represented by the oscillatory activity of cell assemblies, which may change due to experience and learning. Knowledge and experience of the outcome of our decisions and actions can eventually result in changes in our neural structures, attitudes and behaviors. Simulation results may have implications for how we make decisions for our individual actions, as well as for societal choices, where we take examples from transport and its impact on CO2 emissions and climate change.

  2. Designing e-learning cognitively: TSOI Hybrid Learning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun Fie Tsoi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on learning has proposed various models for learning. However, generally, there has been an inadequate research of the application of these models for learning for example the Kolb’s experiential learning cycle or the Jarvis’s model of reflection and learning to the development of e-learning materials. This is more so especially due to lack of effective yet practical design model for designing interactive e-learning materials. Having this in mind, the TSOI Hybrid Learning Model can be used as a pedagogic model for the cognitive design of e-learning. This Model represents learning as a cyclical cognitive process. A major feature is to promote active cognitive processing in the learner for meaningful learning proceeding from inductive to deductive. Design specificity in science and chemistry education is illustrated in terms of instructional storyboarding and the research-based e-learning product developed. Learners’ cognitive abilities will be addressed as part of the research data collected.

  3. Toward a model-based cognitive neuroscience of mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, G E; Mittner, M; Boekel, W; Heathcote, A; Forstmann, B U

    2015-12-03

    People often "mind wander" during everyday tasks, temporarily losing track of time, place, or current task goals. In laboratory-based tasks, mind wandering is often associated with performance decrements in behavioral variables and changes in neural recordings. Such empirical associations provide descriptive accounts of mind wandering - how it affects ongoing task performance - but fail to provide true explanatory accounts - why it affects task performance. In this perspectives paper, we consider mind wandering as a neural state or process that affects the parameters of quantitative cognitive process models, which in turn affect observed behavioral performance. Our approach thus uses cognitive process models to bridge the explanatory divide between neural and behavioral data. We provide an overview of two general frameworks for developing a model-based cognitive neuroscience of mind wandering. The first approach uses neural data to segment observed performance into a discrete mixture of latent task-related and task-unrelated states, and the second regresses single-trial measures of neural activity onto structured trial-by-trial variation in the parameters of cognitive process models. We discuss the relative merits of the two approaches, and the research questions they can answer, and highlight that both approaches allow neural data to provide additional constraint on the parameters of cognitive models, which will lead to a more precise account of the effect of mind wandering on brain and behavior. We conclude by summarizing prospects for mind wandering as conceived within a model-based cognitive neuroscience framework, highlighting the opportunities for its continued study and the benefits that arise from using well-developed quantitative techniques to study abstract theoretical constructs.

  4. Psychosocial and Clinical Outcomes of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Asians and Pacific Islanders with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Jillian; Li, Dongmei; Davis, James; Arakaki, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are twice as likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes compared to Caucasians. The objective was to determine the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on quality of life, general health perceptions, depressive symptoms, and glycemia in Asians and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes. The design was a randomized controlled clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy to diabetes education and support for six weekly sessions. Participants were recruited from two endocrinology practices; 207 were enrolled. The cognitive behavioral therapy group was provided self-management tools which included biofeedback, breathing exercises, and stress relievers, while the diabetes education and support group included diabetes education and group discussions. Assessments of psychosocial and clinical outcomes were obtained before and after sessions and 12 months PostSession. Differences between the two groups were examined using linear mixed-effects models with linear contrasts. The cognitive behavioral therapy group had improved depressive symptom scores from PreSession to EndSession compared to the diabetes education and support group (P < .03), but the improvement did not extend to 12 months PostSession. Similar results were observed with misguided support scores in the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire (P < .03) and susceptibility in health beliefs (P < .01), but no significant differences in HbA1c improvement were found between the two groups. Both interventions improved outcomes from baseline but were not sustained for 1 year.

  5. Burden and Cognitive Appraisal of Stroke Survivors' Informal Caregivers: An Assessment of Depression Model With Mediating and Moderating Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Chen; Pai, Hsiang-Chu

    2016-04-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a model of depression that concerns the role of burden and cognitive appraisal as mediators or moderators of outcomes among stroke survivor caregivers. A total of 105 informal caregivers of stroke survivor completed the self-report measures of Caregiver Burden Inventory, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Cognitive Impact of Appraisal Scale. The Glasgow Coma Scale and Barthel Index were used by the researcher to examine the physical functional status of the survivor. Partial least squares (PLS) path modeling was used to estimate the parameters of a depression model that included mediating or moderating effects. The model shows that burden and impact of cognitive appraisal have a significant direct and indirect impact on depression, while survivor physical functional status does not have a direct impact. The model also demonstrates that burden and impact of cognitive appraisal separately play a mediating role between survivor physical functional status and caregiver depression. In addition, cognitive appraisal has a moderating influence on the relationship between burden and depression. Overall, survivor physical functional status, burden, and cognitive appraisal were the predictors of caregiver depression, explaining 47.1% of the variance. This study has shown that burden and cognitive appraisal are mediators that more fully explain the relationship between patient severity and caregiver depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Can quantum probability provide a new direction for cognitive modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothos, Emmanuel M; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2013-06-01

    Classical (Bayesian) probability (CP) theory has led to an influential research tradition for modeling cognitive processes. Cognitive scientists have been trained to work with CP principles for so long that it is hard even to imagine alternative ways to formalize probabilities. However, in physics, quantum probability (QP) theory has been the dominant probabilistic approach for nearly 100 years. Could QP theory provide us with any advantages in cognitive modeling as well? Note first that both CP and QP theory share the fundamental assumption that it is possible to model cognition on the basis of formal, probabilistic principles. But why consider a QP approach? The answers are that (1) there are many well-established empirical findings (e.g., from the influential Tversky, Kahneman research tradition) that are hard to reconcile with CP principles; and (2) these same findings have natural and straightforward explanations with quantum principles. In QP theory, probabilistic assessment is often strongly context- and order-dependent, individual states can be superposition states (that are impossible to associate with specific values), and composite systems can be entangled (they cannot be decomposed into their subsystems). All these characteristics appear perplexing from a classical perspective. However, our thesis is that they provide a more accurate and powerful account of certain cognitive processes. We first introduce QP theory and illustrate its application with psychological examples. We then review empirical findings that motivate the use of quantum theory in cognitive theory, but also discuss ways in which QP and CP theories converge. Finally, we consider the implications of a QP theory approach to cognition for human rationality.

  7. Computational cognitive modeling for the diagnosis of Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Jesus; Serrano, J Ignacio; del Castillo, M Dolores; Iglesias, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI), as many other cognitive deficits, is difficult to diagnose given its heterogeneous profile and its overlap with other impairments. Existing techniques are based on different criteria using behavioral variables on different tasks. In this paper we propose a methodology for the diagnosis of SLI that uses computational cognitive modeling in order to capture the internal mechanisms of the normal and impaired brain. We show that machine learning techniques that use the information of these models perform better than those that only use behavioral variables.

  8. Modelling application for cognitive reliability and error analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio De Felice

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The automation of production systems has delegated to machines the execution of highly repetitive and standardized tasks. In the last decade, however, the failure of the automatic factory model has led to partially automated configurations of production systems. Therefore, in this scenario, centrality and responsibility of the role entrusted to the human operators are exalted because it requires problem solving and decision making ability. Thus, human operator is the core of a cognitive process that leads to decisions, influencing the safety of the whole system in function of their reliability. The aim of this paper is to propose a modelling application for cognitive reliability and error analysis method.

  9. Imipramine treatment improves cognitive outcome associated with enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaodi; Tong, Jing; Zhang, Jun; Farahvar, Arash; Wang, Ernest; Yang, Jiankai; Samadani, Uzma; Smith, Douglas H; Huang, Jason H

    2011-06-01

    Previous animal and human studies have demonstrated that chronic treatment with several different antidepressants can stimulate neurogenesis, neural remodeling, and synaptic plasticity in the normal hippocampus. Imipramine is a commonly used tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). We employed a controlled cortical impact (CCI) mouse model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) to assess the effect of imipramine on neurogenesis and cognitive and motor function recovery after TBI. Mice were given daily imipramine injections for either 2 or 4 weeks after injury. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered 3-7 days post-brain injury to label the cells that proliferated as a result of the injury. We assessed the effects of imipramine on post-traumatic motor function using a beam-walk test and an assessment of cognitive function: the novel object recognition test (NOR). Histological analyses were performed at 2 and 4 weeks after CCI. Brain-injured mice treated with imipramine showed significantly improved cognitive function compared to a saline-treated group (pimipramine-treated and saline-treated mice. Histological examination revealed increased preservation of proliferation of Ki-67- and BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) at 2 and 4 weeks after TBI. Immunofluorescence double-labeling with BrdU and neuron-specific markers at 4 weeks after injury showed that most progenitors became neurons in the DG and astrocytes in the hilus. Notably, treatment with imipramine increased preservation of the total number of newly-generated neurons. Our findings provide direct evidence that imipramine treatment contributes to cognitive improvement after TBI, perhaps by enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis.

  10. A computational model of perception and action for cognitive robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

    2011-11-01

    Robots are increasingly expected to perform tasks in complex environments. To this end, engineers provide them with processing architectures that are based on models of human information processing. In contrast to traditional models, where information processing is typically set up in stages (i.e., from perception to cognition to action), it is increasingly acknowledged by psychologists and robot engineers that perception and action are parts of an interactive and integrated process. In this paper, we present HiTEC, a novel computational (cognitive) model that allows for direct interaction between perception and action as well as for cognitive control, demonstrated by task-related attentional influences. Simulation results show that key behavioral studies can be readily replicated. Three processing aspects of HiTEC are stressed for their importance for cognitive robotics: (1) ideomotor learning of action control, (2) the influence of task context and attention on perception, action planning, and learning, and (3) the interaction between perception and action planning. Implications for the design of cognitive robotics are discussed.

  11. For a Cognitive Model of Subjective Memory Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Barba, Gianfranco; La Corte, Valentina; Dubois, Bruno

    2015-09-24

    The clinical challenge in subjective memory decline (SMD) is to identify which individuals will present memory deficits. Since its early description from Babinsky, who coined the term 'anosognosia' (i.e., the lack of awareness of deficit), the awareness of cognitive impairment is crucial in clinical neuropsychology. We propose a cognitive model in which SMD and anosognosia can be considered two opposite forms of distorted awareness of cognitive performance and can be accounted for within a model in which consciousness of memory performance can vary in a continuum from normal awareness of performance (preserved or impaired) to anosognosia through a disorder of consciousness related to SMD that we call "cognitive dysgnosia", i.e., awareness of normal performance as impaired. This model suggests that the neuropsychological assessment of memory performance should always be coupled with a deep evaluation of awareness of the subject's memory profile, which allow to better identify the disorder of consciousness with or without cognitive impairment. In this line, it seems necessary to develop more sensitive neuropsychological tools in order to discriminate, within the SMD, individuals who are likely to develop clinical Alzheimer's disease from those whose memory decline complaint is not associated with an underlying neurodegenerative pathology.

  12. Dynamic scene stitching driven by visual cognition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-hui; Zhang, Dezheng; Wulamu, Aziguli

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic scene stitching still has a great challenge in maintaining the global key information without missing or deforming if multiple motion interferences exist in the image acquisition system. Object clips, motion blurs, or other synthetic defects easily occur in the final stitching image. In our research work, we proceed from human visual cognitive mechanism and construct a hybrid-saliency-based cognitive model to automatically guide the video volume stitching. The model consists of three elements of different visual stimuli, that is, intensity, edge contour, and scene depth saliencies. Combined with the manifold-based mosaicing framework, dynamic scene stitching is formulated as a cut path optimization problem in a constructed space-time graph. The cutting energy function for column width selections is defined according to the proposed visual cognition model. The optimum cut path can minimize the cognitive saliency difference throughout the whole video volume. The experimental results show that it can effectively avoid synthetic defects caused by different motion interferences and summarize the key contents of the scene without loss. The proposed method gives full play to the role of human visual cognitive mechanism for the stitching. It is of high practical value to environmental surveillance and other applications.

  13. Dynamic Scene Stitching Driven by Visual Cognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hui Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic scene stitching still has a great challenge in maintaining the global key information without missing or deforming if multiple motion interferences exist in the image acquisition system. Object clips, motion blurs, or other synthetic defects easily occur in the final stitching image. In our research work, we proceed from human visual cognitive mechanism and construct a hybrid-saliency-based cognitive model to automatically guide the video volume stitching. The model consists of three elements of different visual stimuli, that is, intensity, edge contour, and scene depth saliencies. Combined with the manifold-based mosaicing framework, dynamic scene stitching is formulated as a cut path optimization problem in a constructed space-time graph. The cutting energy function for column width selections is defined according to the proposed visual cognition model. The optimum cut path can minimize the cognitive saliency difference throughout the whole video volume. The experimental results show that it can effectively avoid synthetic defects caused by different motion interferences and summarize the key contents of the scene without loss. The proposed method gives full play to the role of human visual cognitive mechanism for the stitching. It is of high practical value to environmental surveillance and other applications.

  14. Modeling and Evaluating Emotions Impact on Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition . Shanghai, China, April 2013 • Wenji Mao and Jonathan Gratch. Modeling Social...Modeling, Lorentz Center, Leiden. August 2011 • Keynote speaker, IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition , Santa

  15. Prediction of job search intentions and behaviors: Testing the social cognitive model of career self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Robert H; Lent, Robert W; Penn, Lee T

    2016-10-01

    We present 2 studies testing the recently developed social-cognitive model of career self-management (Lent & Brown, 2013) in the context of the job search process. In the first study, a sample of 243 unemployed job seekers completed measures of job search self-efficacy, outcome expectations, social support, search intentions, conscientiousness, and perceived control (or volition) over the outcomes of the job search. The latter variable was added to the social-cognitive model to examine the possibility, derived from the psychology of working perspective, that perceived volition might moderate the relation of self-efficacy to job search intentions. The second study included 240 graduating college seniors and focused on the utility of the social-cognitive, personality, and perceived outcome control variables in predicting active engagement in the job search process. Path analyses indicated that the model generally fit the data well in both studies. In Study 1, self-efficacy and outcome expectations mediated the relations of the other predictors to job search intentions. In Study 2, job search intentions produced the primary direct path to subsequent job search behaviors; conscientiousness, support, and outcome control related to job search behavior indirectly through self-efficacy and its linkage to intentions. Outcome control moderated self-efficacy/intention relations only in Study 2, and the pattern of moderation was contrary to expectations. Implications for further inquiry and practice with job seekers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Long-Term Outcomes of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Female Rape Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resick, Patricia A.; Williams, Lauren F.; Suvak, Michael K.; Monson, Candice M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a long-term follow-up (LTFU) assessment of participants from a randomized controlled trial comparing cognitive processing therapy (CPT) with prolonged exposure (PE) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Competing hypotheses for positive outcomes (i.e., additional therapy, medication) were examined. Method:…

  17. Predicting Outcomes Following Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Child Anxiety Disorders: The Influence of Genetic, Demographic and Clinical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer L.; Lester, Kathryn J.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Tropeano, Maria; Creswell, Cathy; Collier, David A.; Cooper, Peter; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Morris, Talia; Rapee, Ronald M.; Roberts, Susanna; Donald, Jennifer A.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Within a therapeutic gene by environment (G × E) framework, we recently demonstrated that variation in the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism; "5HTTLPR" and marker rs6330 in Nerve Growth Factor gene; "NGF" is associated with poorer outcomes following cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for child anxiety…

  18. Attachment as Moderator of Treatment Outcome in Major Depression: A Randomized Control Trial of Interpersonal Psychotherapy versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Carolina; Atkinson, Leslie; Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Anxiety and avoidance dimensions of adult attachment insecurity were tested as moderators of treatment outcome for interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Fifty-six participants with major depression were randomly assigned to these treatment conditions. Beck Depression Inventory-II, Six-Item Hamilton Rating Scale…

  19. Cognitive and Socio-Affective Outcomes of Project-Based Learning: Perceptions of Greek Second Chance School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrouba, Konstantina; Karageorgou, Elissavet

    2013-01-01

    The present questionnaire-based study was conducted in 2010 in order to examine 677 Greek Second Chance School (SCS) students' perceptions about the cognitive and socio-affective outcomes of project-based learning. Data elaboration, statistical and factor analysis showed that the participants found that project-based learning offered a second…

  20. Effects of Web Based Inquiry Science Environment on Cognitive Outcomes in Biological Science in Correlation to Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj, T. I.; Devanathan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This research study is the report of an experiment conducted to find out the effects of web based inquiry science environment on cognitive outcomes in Biological science in correlation to Emotional intelligence. Web based inquiry science environment (WISE) provides a platform for creating inquiry-based science projects for students to work…

  1. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for hypochondriasis/health anxiety: A meta-analysis of treatment outcome and moderators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olatunji, B.O.; Kauffman, B.Y.; Meltzer, S.; Davis, M.L.; Smits, J.A.J.; Powers, M.B.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation employed meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for hypochondriasis/health anxiety as well as potential moderators that may be associated with outcome. A literature search revealed 15 comparisons among 13 randomized-controlled trials (RC

  2. The impact of interpersonal patient and therapist behavior on outcome in cognitive-behavior therapy. A review of empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, G.P.J.; Schaap, C.P.D.R.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Empirical studies are reviewed, the aim being to investigate characteristics of the therapeutic relationship in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) and to identify therapist or patient interpersonal behavior that affects treatment outcome. CBT is characterized by a more active and directive stance on t

  3. The Relation of Severity and Comorbidity to Treatment Outcome with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Juliette Margo; van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; van der Leeden, Adelinde J. M.; Goedhart, Arnold W.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Treffers, Philip D. A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of comorbidity over and above the impact of symptom severity on treatment outcome of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for children with anxiety disorders. Children (aged 8-12, n = 124) diagnosed with an anxiety disorder were treated with a short-term CBT protocol. Severity was assessed with a composite measure…

  4. Predicting Outcomes Following Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Child Anxiety Disorders: The Influence of Genetic, Demographic and Clinical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer L.; Lester, Kathryn J.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Tropeano, Maria; Creswell, Cathy; Collier, David A.; Cooper, Peter; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Morris, Talia; Rapee, Ronald M.; Roberts, Susanna; Donald, Jennifer A.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Within a therapeutic gene by environment (G × E) framework, we recently demonstrated that variation in the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism; "5HTTLPR" and marker rs6330 in Nerve Growth Factor gene; "NGF" is associated with poorer outcomes following cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for child anxiety…

  5. Multi-level prediction of short-term outcome of depression : non-verbal interpersonal processes, cognitions and personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, E; Bouhuys, N

    1998-01-01

    It was hypothesized that personality factors determine the short-term outcome of depression, and that they may do this via non-verbal interpersonal interactions and via cognitive interpretations of non-verbal behaviour. Twenty-six hospitalized depressed patients entered the study. Personality factor

  6. The Role of Cognitive Modeling in Achieving Communicative Intentions

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, M; Walker, Marilyn; Rambow, Owen

    1994-01-01

    A discourse planner for (task-oriented) dialogue must be able to make choices about whether relevant, but optional information (for example, the "satellites" in an RST-based planner) should be communicated. We claim that effective text planners must explicitly model aspects of the Hearer's cognitive state, such as what the hearer is attending to and what inferences the hearer can draw, in order to make these choices. We argue that a mere representation of the Hearer's knowledge is inadequate. We support this claim by (1) an analysis of naturally occurring dialogue, and (2) by simulating the generation of discourses in a situation in which we can vary the cognitive parameters of the hearer. Our results show that modeling cognitive state can lead to more effective discourses (measured with respect to a simple task).

  7. MAGELLAN: a cognitive map-based model of human wayfinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Jeremy R; Lew, Timothy F; Li, Ningcheng; Sekuler, Robert; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    In an unfamiliar environment, searching for and navigating to a target requires that spatial information be acquired, stored, processed, and retrieved. In a study encompassing all of these processes, participants acted as taxicab drivers who learned to pick up and deliver passengers in a series of small virtual towns. We used data from these experiments to refine and validate MAGELLAN, a cognitive map-based model of spatial learning and wayfinding. MAGELLAN accounts for the shapes of participants' spatial learning curves, which measure their experience-based improvement in navigational efficiency in unfamiliar environments. The model also predicts the ease (or difficulty) with which different environments are learned and, within a given environment, which landmarks will be easy (or difficult) to localize from memory. Using just 2 free parameters, MAGELLAN provides a useful account of how participants' cognitive maps evolve over time with experience, and how participants use the information stored in their cognitive maps to navigate and explore efficiently.

  8. The potential of using quantum theory to build models of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Busemeyer, Jerome R; Atmanspacher, Harald; Pothos, Emmanuel M

    2013-10-01

    Quantum cognition research applies abstract, mathematical principles of quantum theory to inquiries in cognitive science. It differs fundamentally from alternative speculations about quantum brain processes. This topic presents new developments within this research program. In the introduction to this topic, we try to answer three questions: Why apply quantum concepts to human cognition? How is quantum cognitive modeling different from traditional cognitive modeling? What cognitive processes have been modeled using a quantum account? In addition, a brief introduction to quantum probability theory and a concrete example is provided to illustrate how a quantum cognitive model can be developed to explain paradoxical empirical findings in psychological literature.

  9. Computational Modeling and Simulation of Attitude Change. Part 1, Connectionist Models and Simulations of Cognitive Dissonance: an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Voinea, Camelia Florela

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive Dissonance Theory is considered part of the cognitive consistency theories in Social Psychology. They uncover a class of conceptual models which describe the attitude change as a cognitive consistency-seeking issue. As these conceptual models requested more complex operational expression, algebraic, mathematical and, lately, computational modeling approaches of cognitive consistency have been developed. Part 1 of this work provides an overview of the connectionist modeling of cognit...

  10. Computational Modeling and Simulation of Attitude Change. Part 1, Connectionist Models and Simulations of Cognitive Dissonance: an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Voinea, Camelia Florela

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive Dissonance Theory is considered part of the cognitive consistency theories in Social Psychology. They uncover a class of conceptual models which describe the attitude change as a cognitive consistency-seeking issue. As these conceptual models requested more complex operational expression, algebraic, mathematical and, lately, computational modeling approaches of cognitive consistency have been developed. Part 1 of this work provides an overview of the connectionist modeling of cognit...

  11. Computational models of music perception and cognition I: The perceptual and cognitive processing chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwins, Hendrik; Herrera, Perfecto; Grachten, Maarten; Hazan, Amaury; Marxer, Ricard; Serra, Xavier

    2008-09-01

    We present a review on perception and cognition models designed for or applicable to music. An emphasis is put on computational implementations. We include findings from different disciplines: neuroscience, psychology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and musicology. The article summarizes the methodology that these disciplines use to approach the phenomena of music understanding, the localization of musical processes in the brain, and the flow of cognitive operations involved in turning physical signals into musical symbols, going from the transducers to the memory systems of the brain. We discuss formal models developed to emulate, explain and predict phenomena involved in early auditory processing, pitch processing, grouping, source separation, and music structure computation. We cover generic computational architectures of attention, memory, and expectation that can be instantiated and tuned to deal with specific musical phenomena. Criteria for the evaluation of such models are presented and discussed. Thereby, we lay out the general framework that provides the basis for the discussion of domain-specific music models in Part II.

  12. Do programs designed to train working memory, other executive functions, and attention benefit children with ADHD? A meta-analytic review of cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Mark D; Orban, Sarah A; Kofler, Michael J; Friedman, Lauren M

    2013-12-01

    Children with ADHD are characterized frequently as possessing underdeveloped executive functions and sustained attentional abilities, and recent commercial claims suggest that computer-based cognitive training can remediate these impairments and provide significant and lasting improvement in their attention, impulse control, social functioning, academic performance, and complex reasoning skills. The present review critically evaluates these claims through meta-analysis of 25 studies of facilitative intervention training (i.e., cognitive training) for children with ADHD. Random effects models corrected for publication bias and sampling error revealed that studies training short-term memory alone resulted in moderate magnitude improvements in short-term memory (d=0.63), whereas training attention did not significantly improve attention and training mixed executive functions did not significantly improve the targeted executive functions (both nonsignificant: 95% confidence intervals include 0.0). Far transfer effects of cognitive training on academic functioning, blinded ratings of behavior (both nonsignificant), and cognitive tests (d=0.14) were nonsignificant or negligible. Unblinded raters (d=0.48) reported significantly larger benefits relative to blinded raters and objective tests (both pexecutive functions that are (a) most impaired in ADHD, and (b) functionally related to the behavioral and academic outcomes these training programs are intended to ameliorate. Collectively, meta-analytic results indicate that claims regarding the academic, behavioral, and cognitive benefits associated with extant cognitive training programs are unsupported in ADHD. The methodological limitations of the current evidence base, however, leave open the possibility that cognitive training techniques designed to improve empirically documented executive function deficits may benefit children with ADHD.

  13. Using data-driven model-brain mappings to constrain formal models of cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Jelmer P; Nijboer, Menno; Taatgen, Niels A; van Rijn, Hedderik; Anderson, John R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method to create data-driven mappings from components of cognitive models to brain regions. Cognitive models are notoriously hard to evaluate, especially based on behavioral measures alone. Neuroimaging data can provide additional constraints, but this requires a mapping f

  14. Neurobiological factors as predictors of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in individuals with antisocial behavior: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Liza J M; de Kogel, Catharina H; Nijman, Henk L I; Raine, Adrian; van der Laan, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses on the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Ten relevant studies were found. Although the literature on this topic is scarce and diverse, it appears that specific neurobiological characteristics, such as physiological arousal levels, can predict treatment outcome. The predictive value of neurobiological factors is important as it could give more insight into the causes of variability in treatment outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, results can contribute to improvement in current treatment selection procedures and to the development of alternative treatment options.

  15. Exploring the dynamics of collective cognition using a computational model of cognitive dissonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Paul R.; Sycara, Katia; Richardson, Darren P.

    2013-05-01

    The socially-distributed nature of cognitive processing in a variety of organizational settings means that there is increasing scientific interest in the factors that affect collective cognition. In military coalitions, for example, there is a need to understand how factors such as communication network topology, trust, cultural differences and the potential for miscommunication affects the ability of distributed teams to generate high quality plans, to formulate effective decisions and to develop shared situation awareness. The current paper presents a computational model and associated simulation capability for performing in silico experimental analyses of collective sensemaking. This model can be used in combination with the results of human experimental studies in order to improve our understanding of the factors that influence collective sensemaking processes.

  16. Computational Models of Relational Processes in Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Graeme S.; Andrews, Glenda; Wilson, William H.; Phillips, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Acquisition of relational knowledge is a core process in cognitive development. Relational knowledge is dynamic and flexible, entails structure-consistent mappings between representations, has properties of compositionality and systematicity, and depends on binding in working memory. We review three types of computational models relevant to…

  17. A Tutorial Introduction to Bayesian Models of Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfors, Amy; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Xu, Fei

    2011-01-01

    We present an introduction to Bayesian inference as it is used in probabilistic models of cognitive development. Our goal is to provide an intuitive and accessible guide to the "what", the "how", and the "why" of the Bayesian approach: what sorts of problems and data the framework is most relevant for, and how and why it may be useful for…

  18. Computational Models of Relational Processes in Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Graeme S.; Andrews, Glenda; Wilson, William H.; Phillips, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Acquisition of relational knowledge is a core process in cognitive development. Relational knowledge is dynamic and flexible, entails structure-consistent mappings between representations, has properties of compositionality and systematicity, and depends on binding in working memory. We review three types of computational models relevant to…

  19. Building Bridges between Neuroscience, Cognition and Education with Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Steve; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    As the field of Mind, Brain, and Education seeks new ways to credibly bridge the gap between neuroscience, the cognitive sciences, and education, various connections are being developed and tested. This article presents a framework and offers examples of one approach, predictive modeling within a virtual educational system that can include…

  20. Dynamical Cognitive Models of Social Issues in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitina, Olga; Abraham, Fred; Petrenko, Victor

    We examine and model dynamics in three areas of social cognition: (1) political transformations within Russia, (2) evaluation of political trends in other countries by Russians, and (3) evaluation of Russian stereotypes concerning women. We try to represent consciousness as vectorfields and trajectories in a cognitive state space. We use psychosemantic techniques that allow definition of the state space and the systematic construction of these vectorfields and trajectories and their portrait from research data. Then we construct models to fit them, using multiple regression methods to obtain linear differential equations. These dynamical models of social cognition fit the data quite well. (1) The political transformations were modeled by a spiral repellor in a two-dimensional space of a democratic-totalitarian factor and social depression-optimism factor. (2) The evaluation of alien political trends included a flow away from a saddle toward more stable and moderate political regimes in a 2D space, of democratic-totalitarian and unstable-stable cognitive dimensions. (3) The gender study showed expectations (attractors) for more liberated, emancipated roles for women in the future.

  1. Building Bridges between Neuroscience, Cognition and Education with Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Steve; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    As the field of Mind, Brain, and Education seeks new ways to credibly bridge the gap between neuroscience, the cognitive sciences, and education, various connections are being developed and tested. This article presents a framework and offers examples of one approach, predictive modeling within a virtual educational system that can include…

  2. Cognitive Outcomes for Congenital Hypothyroid and Healthy Children: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab ORDOOEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ordooei M, MottaghiPisheh H, Fallah R, Rabiee A. Cognitive Outcomes for Congenital Hypothyroid andHealthy Children: A Comparative Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4: 28-32.AbstractObjectiveEarly diagnosis and treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH and the prevention of developmental retardation is the main goal of public health national screening programs. This study compares the cognitive ability of children with CH diagnosed by neonatal screening with a healthy control group (2007 in Yazd, Iran.Materials & MethodsIn a case-controlled study, the intelligent quotient (IQ of 40 five-year-old children with early treated CH and good compliance were evaluated by the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligent test and compared to 40 healthy age and gender matched children as controls.Results22 boys (55% and 18 girls (45% in both groups were evaluated. In children with CH, 19 (47.5% and 21 (52.5% persons had transient and permanent hypothyroidism, respectively.Range of TSH and T4 level at the onset of diagnosis were 11.41–81 mu/l and 1.50–14.20 μg/dl, respectively.The intelligence levels of all children with CH were within the average or normal range and IQs ranged from 91–108.Children with CH had lower full-scale IQs (107.25 ± 2. 9 versus 110.50 ± 2.66, p=0.001, verbal IQ (106.95 ± 3.5 versus 109.90 ± 3.44, P-value=0.001 and performance IQ (106.3 ± 3.68 versus 108.87 ± 3.70 than the control group.However, no statistically significant differences were observed for mean IQ scores in permanent and transient CH.ConclusionChildren with CH who had early treatment and good compliance had normal cognitive abilities, but may have a decreased IQ relative to the healthy control group.ReferencesLeFranchi S. Hypothyroidism. Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, Schor NF, St. Geme JW, Behrman RE. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Philadelphia, Saunders 2011; 19th edition, Pp: 1895-1900.Nouri-Shadkam M, Jafarizadeh M

  3. Computational modeling in cognitive science: a manifesto for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addyman, Caspar; French, Robert M

    2012-07-01

    Computational modeling has long been one of the traditional pillars of cognitive science. Unfortunately, the computer models of cognition being developed today have not kept up with the enormous changes that have taken place in computer technology and, especially, in human-computer interfaces.  For all intents and purposes, modeling is still done today as it was 25, or even 35, years ago. Everyone still programs in his or her own favorite programming language, source code is rarely made available, accessibility of models to non-programming researchers is essentially non-existent, and even for other modelers, the profusion of source code in a multitude of programming languages, written without programming guidelines, makes it almost impossible to access, check, explore, re-use, or continue to develop. It is high time to change this situation, especially since the tools are now readily available to do so. We propose that the modeling community adopt three simple guidelines that would ensure that computational models would be accessible to the broad range of researchers in cognitive science. We further emphasize the pivotal role that journal editors must play in making computational models accessible to readers of their journals.

  4. Optimizing Cognitive Development over the Life Course and Preventing Cognitive Decline: Introducing the Cognitive Health Environment Life Course Model (CHELM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal cognitive development is defined in this article as the highest level of cognitive function reached in each cognitive domain given a person's biological and genetic disposition, and the highest possible maintenance of cognitive function over the adult life course. Theoretical perspectives underpinning the development of a framework…

  5. Optimizing Cognitive Development over the Life Course and Preventing Cognitive Decline: Introducing the Cognitive Health Environment Life Course Model (CHELM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal cognitive development is defined in this article as the highest level of cognitive function reached in each cognitive domain given a person's biological and genetic disposition, and the highest possible maintenance of cognitive function over the adult life course. Theoretical perspectives underpinning the development of a framework…

  6. Effect of Cerebellum Radiation Dosimetry on Cognitive Outcomes in Children With Infratentorial Ependymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Sharma, Shelly [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Xiong, Xiaoping; Wu, Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Conklin, Heather [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Cognitive decline is a recognized effect of radiation therapy (RT) in children treated for brain tumors. The importance of the cerebellum and its contribution to cognition have been recognized; however, the effect of RT on cerebellum-linked neurocognitive deficits has yet to be explored. Methods and Materials: Seventy-six children (39 males) at a median 3.3 years of age (range, 1-17 years old) were irradiated for infratentorial ependymoma from 1997 to 2008. The total prescribed dose was 54 to 59.4 Gy administered to the postoperative tumor bed with 5- or 10-mm clinical target volume margin. Age-appropriate cognitive and academic testing was performed prior to the start of RT and was then repeated at 6 months and annually throughout 5 years. The anterior and posterior cerebellum and other normal brain volumes were contoured on postcontrast, T1-weighted postoperative magnetic resonance images registered to treatment planning computed tomography images. Mean doses were calculated and used with time after RT and other clinical covariates to model their effect on neurocognitive test scores. Results: Considering only the statistically significant rates in longitudinal changes for test scores and models that included mean dose, there was a correlation between mean infratentorial dose and intelligence quotient (IQ; −0.190 patients/Gy/year; P=.001), math (−0.164 patients/Gy/year; P=.010), reading (−0.137 patients/Gy/year; P=.011), and spelling scores (−0.147 patients/Gy/year; P=.012), where Gy was measured as the difference between the mean dose received by an individual patient and the mean dose received by the patient group. There was a correlation between mean anterior cerebellum dose and IQ scores (−0.116 patients/Gy/year; P=.042) and mean posterior cerebellum dose and IQ (−0.150 patients/Gy/year; P=.002), math (−0.120 patients/Gy/year; P=.023), reading (−0.111 patients/Gy/year; P=.012), and spelling (−0.117 patients/Gy/year; P=.015

  7. Exercise Induced Neuroplasticity to Enhance Therapeutic Outcomes of Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: Analyzing the Role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Carlos; Rocha, Nuno Bf; Nardi, Antonio E; Lattari, Eduardo; Machado, Sergio

    2016-12-23

    Cognitive impairment is a major manifestation of schizophrenia and a crucial treatment target as these deficits are closely related to patients' functional outcomes. Cognitive remediation is the gold-standard practice to address cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. There is clear evidence stating that cognitive remediation improves cognitive function and promotes structural neuroplastic changes in patients with schizophrenia, with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression emerging as a potential biomarker for its efficacy. This is particularly important as there is clear evidence relating atypical BDNF expression to cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia. Despite the valuable role of cognitive remediation in the management of schizophrenia, there is still a need to develop methods that allow to maximize its efficacy. In this review, we present a hypothesis arguing that cognitive remediation efficacy for patients with schizophrenia can be enhanced by aerobic exercise-induced BDNF upregulation. There have been a few trials reporting where combining aerobic exercise with cognitive training was superior to cognitive training alone to improve cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, there is preliminary evidence suggesting that combined aerobic and cognitive training can increase peripheral BDNF levels. Thereby, engaging in aerobic exercise in close temporal proximity to cognitive remediation may allow to achieve a state of neuroplastic readiness in the brain, facilitating cognitive functioning enhancement. Although this hypothesis still lacks evidence, future clinical trials using cognitive remediation for schizophrenia should explore strategies to maximize neuroplasticity and achieve optimal cognitive improvements.

  8. Cognitive Modeling of Individual Variation in Reference Production and Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A challenge for most theoretical and computational accounts of linguistic reference is the observation that language users vary considerably in their referential choices. Part of the variation observed among and within language users and across tasks may be explained from variation in the cognitive resources available to speakers and listeners. This paper presents a computational model of reference production and comprehension developed within the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Through simulations with this ACT-R model, it is investigated how cognitive constraints interact with linguistic constraints and features of the linguistic discourse in speakers' production and listeners' comprehension of referring expressions in specific tasks, and how this interaction may give rise to variation in referential choice. The ACT-R model of reference explains and predicts variation among language users in their referential choices as a result of individual and task-related differences in processing speed and working memory capacity. Because of limitations in their cognitive capacities, speakers sometimes underspecify or overspecify their referring expressions, and listeners sometimes choose incorrect referents or are overly liberal in their interpretation of referring expressions.

  9. Modeling cognitive and emotional processes: a novel neural network architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashman, Adnan

    2010-12-01

    In our continuous attempts to model natural intelligence and emotions in machine learning, many research works emerge with different methods that are often driven by engineering concerns and have the common goal of modeling human perception in machines. This paper aims to go further in that direction by investigating the integration of emotion at the structural level of cognitive systems using the novel emotional DuoNeural Network (DuoNN). This network has hidden layer DuoNeurons, where each has two embedded neurons: a dorsal neuron and a ventral neuron for cognitive and emotional data processing, respectively. When input visual stimuli are presented to the DuoNN, the dorsal cognitive neurons process local features while the ventral emotional neurons process the entire pattern. We present the computational model and the learning algorithm of the DuoNN, the input information-cognitive and emotional-parallel streaming method, and a comparison between the DuoNN and a recently developed emotional neural network. Experimental results show that the DuoNN architecture, configuration, and the additional emotional information processing, yield higher recognition rates and faster learning and decision making.

  10. Cognitive Modeling of Individual Variation in Reference Production and Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eHendriks

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A challenge for most theoretical and computational accounts of linguistic reference is the observation that language users vary considerably in their referential choices. Part of the variation observed among and within language users and across tasks may be explained from variation in the cognitive resources available to speakers and listeners. This paper presents a computational model of reference production and comprehension developed within the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Through simulations with this ACT-R model, it is investigated how cognitive constraints interact with linguistic constraints and features of the linguistic discourse in speakers’ production and listeners’ comprehension of referring expressions in specific tasks, and how this interaction may give rise to variation in referential choice. The ACT-R model of reference explains and predicts variation among language users in their referential choices as a result of individual and task-related differences in processing speed and working memory capacity. Because of limitations in their cognitive capacities, speakers sometimes underspecify or overspecify their referring expressions, and listeners sometimes choose incorrect referents or are overly liberal in their interpretation of referring expressions.

  11. Maternal Education Level Predicts Cognitive, Language, and Motor Outcome in Preterm Infants in the Second Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Kousiki; Greene, Michelle M; Patel, Aloka L; Meier, Paula

    2016-07-01

    Objective To evaluate the relative impact of maternal education level (MEL) on cognitive, language, and motor outcomes at 20 months' corrected age (CA) in preterm infants. Study Design A total of 177 preterm infants born between 2008 and 2010 were tested at 20 months' CA using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III. Multiple regression analyses were done to determine the relative impact of MEL on cognitive, language, and motor scores. Results Infants born to mothers with high school MEL were 3.74 times more likely to have a subnormal motor index, while those born to mothers with some college and graduate school MEL had reduced odds (0.36 and 0.12, respectively) of having subnormal language index at 20 months. In linear regression, MEL was the strongest predictor of cognitive, language, and motor scores, and graduate school MEL was associated with increases in cognitive, motor, and language scores of 8.49, 8.23, and 15.74 points, respectively. Conclusions MEL is the most significant predictor of cognitive, language, and motor outcome at 20 months' CA in preterm infants. Further research is needed to evaluate if targeted interventions that focus on early childhood learning and parenting practices can ameliorate the impact of low MEL.

  12. Cognitive Modeling at ICCM: State of the Art and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taatgen, Niels A; van Vugt, Marieke K; Borst, Jelmer P; Mehlhorn, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The goal of cognitive modeling is to build faithful simulations of human cognition. One of the challenges is that multiple models can often explain the same phenomena. Another challenge is that models are often very hard to understand, explore, and reuse by others. We discuss some of the solutions that were discussed during the 2015 International Conference on Cognitive Modeling.

  13. Genetic polymorphisms in monoamine systems and outcome of cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Andersson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The role of genetics for predicting the response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for social anxiety disorder (SAD has only been studied in one previous investigation. The serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT val158met, and the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2 G-703T polymorphisms are implicated in the regulation of amygdala reactivity and fear extinction and therefore might be of relevance for CBT outcome. The aim of the present study was to investigate if these three gene variants predicted response to CBT in a large sample of SAD patients. METHOD: Participants were recruited from two separate randomized controlled CBT trials (trial 1: n = 112, trial 2: n = 202. Genotyping were performed on DNA extracted from blood or saliva samples. Effects were analyzed at follow-up (6 or 12 months after treatment for both groups and for each group separately at post-treatment. The main outcome measure was the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report. RESULTS: At long-term follow-up, there was no effect of any genotype, or gene × gene interactions, on treatment response. In the subsamples, there was time by genotype interaction effects indicating an influence of the TPH2 G-703T-polymorphism on CBT short-term response, however the direction of the effect was not consistent across trials. CONCLUSIONS: None of the three gene variants, 5-HTTLPR, COMTval158met and TPH2 G-703T, was associated with long-term response to CBT for SAD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (ID-NCT0056496.

  14. Cognitive outcomes and familial stress after cochlear implantation in deaf children with and without developmental delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghalai, John S.; Caudle, Susan E.; Bentley, Barbara; Abaya, Homer; Lin, Jerry; Baker, Dian; Emery, Claudia; Bortfeld, Heather; Winzelberg, Jody

    2012-01-01

    Objective The benefits of cochlear implantation for children with developmental delays (DD) are often unclear. We compared cognition, adaptive behavior, familial stress, and communication in children with and without DD. Study Design Retrospective review Setting Two tertiary care pediatric hospitals Patients 204 children who underwent cochlear implantation assessed before and >1 year after implantation Main Outcome Measures The Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), Parental Stress Index (PSI), and Preschool Language Scale (PLS). Results We developed a specific definition of DD for hearing-impaired children based upon DSM-IV criteria for mental retardation; 60 children met the criteria for DD and 144 children did not. Prior to implantation, multiple linear regression demonstrated that children with DD had lower scores in every domain of the MSEL and VABS (p0.1) compared to children without DD. After implantation, children without DD demonstrated significant improvements in intelligence as measured by the MSEL, age-appropriate improvements in adaptive behavior as evaluated by the VABS, and their familial stress levels were not increased after cochlear implantation. In contrast, children with DD underwent implantation at a later age and demonstrated less comprehensive developmental improvements after cochlear implantation and higher stress levels. However, when the age differences were taken into account using multiple linear regression analyses, the differences between two cohorts were reduced. Conclusions These data indicate that our definition of DD is a reliable method of stratifying deaf children. While children with DD have a normal developmental rate of adaptive behavior after cochlear implantation, their developmental rate of intelligence is lower and they have higher stress levels than children without DD. However, our data suggest that if children with DD could be implanted as early as children without DD, their

  15. A cognitive model for software architecture complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwers, E.; Lilienthal, C.; Visser, J.; Van Deursen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating the complexity of the architecture of a softwaresystem is a difficult task. Many aspects have to be considered to come to a balanced assessment. Several architecture evaluation methods have been proposed, but very few define a quality model to be used during the evaluation process. In add

  16. Extending Social Cognition Models of Health Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually…

  17. Extending Social Cognition Models of Health Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually…

  18. Long-term cognitive outcome of ischaemic stroke in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, M.A. de; Synhaeve, N.E.; Rijsbergen, M.W. van; Leeuw, F.E. de; Jansen, B.P.; Kort, P.L.M. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term prognosis in terms of cognition in young stroke patients is very important because these patients usually still have a long life expectancy and rather extensive daily life demands. However, little is known on cognitive deficits in these patients. We aimed to evaluate cognitive

  19. Cognitive rehabilitation reduces cognitive impairment and normalizes hippocampal CA1 architecture in a rat model of vascular dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Langdon, Kristopher D.; Granter-Button, Shirley; Carolyn W Harley; Moody-Corbett, Frances; Peeling, James; Corbett, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Dementia is a major cause of morbidity in the western society. Pharmacological therapies to delay the progression of cognitive impairments are modestly successful. Consequently, new therapies are urgently required to improve cognitive deficits associated with dementia. We evaluated the effects of physical and cognitive activity on learning and memory in a rat model of vascular dementia (VasD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 months old) were exposed to either regular chow or a diet rich in satura...

  20. Effect of Co-existing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Cognitive Impairment on Health Outcomes in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sandy S.; Chen, Shu; McAvay, Gail J.; Tinetti, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the extent to which the co-occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cognitive impairment affect adverse health outcomes in older adults. Design Multi-center longitudinal cohort study. Setting California, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina. Participants Three thousand ninety-three community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Four hundred thirty-one participants had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at study baseline. Measurements Follow-up began at the second CHS visit and continued for three years. Spirometric criteria for airflow limitation served to establish COPD, using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma method, which accounts for age-related changes in lung function. Cognitive impairment was evaluated by the modified Mini Mental State Exam and claims data. Outcomes were respiratory-related and all-cause hospitalizations and death. Results Participants with co-existing COPD and cognitive impairment had the highest rates of respiratory-related (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]=4.10, 95%CI=1.86–9.05) and all-cause hospitalizations (HR= 1.34, 95%CI=1.00–1.80) and death (HR=2.29, 95%CI=1.18–4.45). In particular, individuals with both conditions had a 48% higher rate of all-cause hospitalizations (adjusted synergy index [SI]=1.48, 95%CI=0.19–11.31) and nearly a three-fold higher rate of death (SI=2.74, 95%CI=0.43–17.32) than the sum of risks for each respective outcome associated with having COPD or cognitive impairment alone. However, tests for interaction were not statistically significant for the presence of synergism between both conditions relative to any of the outcomes. Therefore, we cannot conclude that the combined effect of COPD and cognitive impairment is greater than additive. Conclusion Co-existing COPD and cognitive impairment have an additive effect on respiratory-related and all-cause hospitalizations and death. Optimizing outcomes in older adults with COPD and

  1. Helping employees sleep well: Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia on work outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher M; Miller, Jared A; Bostock, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from recent research advances indicating the harmful effects of insomnia on negative affect, job satisfaction, self-control, organizational citizenship behavior, and interpersonal deviance, we hypothesized that treating insomnia with Internet based cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia would lead to improvements in these outcomes. In a field experiment with a randomized wait-list control group, we found that treatment had a beneficial direct effect on negative affect, job satisfaction, and self-control. Moreover, the effect of treatment on job satisfaction was mediated by negative affect. We were not able to detect a direct effect of treatment on organizational citizenship behavior or interpersonal deviance. However, treatment had a beneficial indirect effect on organizational citizenship behavior through the mediators of negative affect and job satisfaction, and a beneficial indirect effect on interpersonal deviance through the mediator of self-control. These results move the applied psychology literature on insomnia beyond simply pointing out problematic effects of employee insomnia to providing evidence of a partial solution to such effects. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Predictors of Outcome among Pathological Gamblers Receiving Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon; Aymamí, M Neus; Gómez-Peña, Monica; Tárrega, Salome; Moragas, Laura; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Sauchelli, Sarah; Fagundo, Ana B; Brewin, Nicola; Menchón, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate posttreatment changes of individuals with a diagnosis of gambling disorder (GD) treated with group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), to assess the potential moderator effect of sex on CBT outcome, and to explore the best predictors of posttreatment changes, relapse, and dropout rates. A cohort design was applied with a prospective follow-up. The sample comprised 440 patients and the CBT intervention consisted of 16 weekly outpatient group sessions and a 3-month follow-up period. Patients showed significant improvements in both the level of psychopathology and the severity of the gambling behavior. High self-transcendence and the involvement of the spouse or partner in the therapy predicted a higher risk of relapse. Younger age and low education predicted a higher risk of dropout. Many patients with GD can be treated with strategies to improve self-control and emotional regulation, but other techniques should be incorporated to address the individual characteristics of each patient. This is particularly important in group therapy, in which the same treatment is applied to several patients simultaneously. The involvement of a family member needs to be carefully considered since it may have a negative effect on the response to treatment if not adequately managed.

  3. Defining a Family of Cognitive Diagnosis Models Using Log-Linear Models with Latent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Robert A.; Templin, Jonathan L.; Willse, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses log-linear models with latent variables (Hagenaars, in "Loglinear Models with Latent Variables," 1993) to define a family of cognitive diagnosis models. In doing so, the relationship between many common models is explicitly defined and discussed. In addition, because the log-linear model with latent variables is a general model for…

  4. A Model for Cognitive Process of Neologisms Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Moghadas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades Process-oriented Descriptive Translation Studies has developed noticeably. Think-aloud protocols (TAPs, as a verbal report, are still the most applied empirical method to investigate the complex and conscious processes of translator’s mind during translating. This article deals with the cognitive process of professional translators’ problem-solving to translate a neologism from English source text into Persian by using TAPs. Likewise, the researcher has also used the means of video recording to observe the other behaviors of participants during the problem solving. The results indicate that the professional translators do not use one single way of performing a translation task and the complexity of the process of problem-solving (neologisms translation depends on the translation competence of translators. Finally, the researcher has also presented a cognitive model for the translation process of neologisms in ideal situations. As the translation universals are cognitive phenomena, the cognitive model presented here can be a pattern for trainee translators in education to visualize the natural process of neologism translation.

  5. Hierarchical Heteroclinics in Dynamical Model of Cognitive Processes: Chunking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin S.; Young, Todd R.; Rabinovich, Mikhail I.

    Combining the results of brain imaging and nonlinear dynamics provides a new hierarchical vision of brain network functionality that is helpful in understanding the relationship of the network to different mental tasks. Using these ideas it is possible to build adequate models for the description and prediction of different cognitive activities in which the number of variables is usually small enough for analysis. The dynamical images of different mental processes depend on their temporal organization and, as a rule, cannot be just simple attractors since cognition is characterized by transient dynamics. The mathematical image for a robust transient is a stable heteroclinic channel consisting of a chain of saddles connected by unstable separatrices. We focus here on hierarchical chunking dynamics that can represent several cognitive activities. Chunking is the dynamical phenomenon that means dividing a long information chain into shorter items. Chunking is known to be important in many processes of perception, learning, memory and cognition. We prove that in the phase space of the model that describes chunking there exists a new mathematical object — heteroclinic sequence of heteroclinic cycles — using the technique of slow-fast approximations. This new object serves as a skeleton of motions reflecting sequential features of hierarchical chunking dynamics and is an adequate image of the chunking processing.

  6. Agent-based cognitive model for human resources competence management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Stefan; Gluz, João Carlos

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents an agent-based cognitive model aimed to represent human competency concepts and competence management processes of psychological nature. This model is implemented by a multiagent system application intended to help managers of software development projects to select, based on the competence management model, the right professionals to integrate a development team. There are several software engineering methodologies that can be used to design and develop multiagent systems. However, due to the necessity to handle human competency concepts of cognitive nature, like aptitudes, interests, abilities and knowledge, we were driven to choose methodologies that can handle these concepts since the inception of the system. To do so, we integrated the TROPOS methodology, and a set of software engineering methods derived from intelligent tutoring systems research to successfully analyze and design the proposed system. At the end of the paper we present a study case, showing how the proposed system should be applied to the domain of website development.

  7. Conceptual Commitments of the LIDA Model of Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Stan; Strain, Steve; McCall, Ryan; Baars, Bernard

    2013-06-01

    Significant debate on fundamental issues remains in the subfields of cognitive science, including perception, memory, attention, action selection, learning, and others. Psychology, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence each contribute alternative and sometimes conflicting perspectives on the supervening problem of artificial general intelligence (AGI). Current efforts toward a broad-based, systems-level model of minds cannot await theoretical convergence in each of the relevant subfields. Such work therefore requires the formulation of tentative hypotheses, based on current knowledge, that serve to connect cognitive functions into a theoretical framework for the study of the mind. We term such hypotheses "conceptual commitments" and describe the hypotheses underlying one such model, the Learning Intelligent Distribution Agent (LIDA) Model. Our intention is to initiate a discussion among AGI researchers about which conceptual commitments are essential, or particularly useful, toward creating AGI agents.

  8. Computational modeling for addiction medicine: From cognitive models to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Woo Young; Dai, Junyi; Vassileva, Jasmin; Busemeyer, Jerome R; Stout, Julie C

    2016-01-01

    Decision-making tasks that have good ecological validity, such as simulated gambling tasks, are complex, and performance on these tasks represents a synthesis of several different underlying psychological processes, such as learning from experience, and motivational processes such as sensitivity to reward and punishment. Cognitive models can be used to break down performance on these tasks into constituent processes, which can then be assessed and studied in relation to clinical characteristics and neuroimaging outcomes. Whether it will be possible to improve treatment success by targeting these constituent processes more directly remains unexplored. We review the development and testing of the Expectancy-Valence and Prospect-Valence Learning models from the past 10 years or so using simulated gambling tasks, in particular the Iowa and Soochow Gambling Tasks. We highlight the issues of model generalizability and parameter consistency, and we describe findings obtained from these models in clinical populations including substance use disorders. We then suggest future directions for this research that will help to bring its utility to broader research and clinical applications.

  9. Robot Cognitive Control with a Neurophysiologically Inspired Reinforcement Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamassi, Mehdi; Lallée, Stéphane; Enel, Pierre; Procyk, Emmanuel; Dominey, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in modern robotics is to liberate robots from controlled industrial settings, and allow them to interact with humans and changing environments in the real-world. The current research attempts to determine if a neurophysiologically motivated model of cortical function in the primate can help to address this challenge. Primates are endowed with cognitive systems that allow them to maximize the feedback from their environment by learning the values of actions in diverse situations and by adjusting their behavioral parameters (i.e., cognitive control) to accommodate unexpected events. In such contexts uncertainty can arise from at least two distinct sources – expected uncertainty resulting from noise during sensory-motor interaction in a known context, and unexpected uncertainty resulting from the changing probabilistic structure of the environment. However, it is not clear how neurophysiological mechanisms of reinforcement learning and cognitive control integrate in the brain to produce efficient behavior. Based on primate neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, we propose a novel computational model for the interaction between lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex reconciling previous models dedicated to these two functions. We deployed the model in two robots and demonstrate that, based on adaptive regulation of a meta-parameter β that controls the exploration rate, the model can robustly deal with the two kinds of uncertainties in the real-world. In addition the model could reproduce monkey behavioral performance and neurophysiological data in two problem-solving tasks. A last experiment extends this to human–robot interaction with the iCub humanoid, and novel sources of uncertainty corresponding to “cheating” by the human. The combined results provide concrete evidence for the ability of neurophysiologically inspired cognitive systems to control advanced robots in the real-world. PMID:21808619

  10. Integrating cognitive-behavioral and expressive therapy interventions:applying the trauma outcome process in treating children with sexually abusive behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, L A

    2001-01-01

    This article presents intervention strategies based on the Trauma Outcome Process, an integrated treatment model for guiding clinical practice with children with sexually abusive behavior problems. The steps for completing a comprehensive assessment are reviewed, and strategies are presented to help clinicians create a therapeutic alliance and increase these children's self-awareness of their thoughts, feelings, and body sensations. Treatment techniques based on an integrated approach combining cognitive-behavioral and expressive therapy approaches are described. These exercises help children accept responsibility for sexually inappropriate behavior and select adaptive responses for coping with the effects of traumatic experiences.

  11. Virtual Learning Simulations in High School: Effects on Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Outcomes and Implications on the Development of STEM Academic and Career Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisgaard, Malene Warming; Makransky, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The present study compared the value of using a virtual learning simulation compared to traditional lessons on the topic of evolution, and investigated if the virtual learning simulation could serve as a catalyst for STEM academic and career development, based on social cognitive career theory...... the simulation and lesson were found in their ability to increase the non-cognitive measures. Both interventions increased self-efficacy significantly, and none of them had a significant effect on motivation. In addition, the results showed that the simulation increased interest in biology related tasks......, but not outcome expectations. The findings suggest that virtual learning simulations are at least as efficient in enhancing learning and self-efficacy as traditional lessons, and high schools can thus use them as supplementary educational methods. In addition, the findings indicate that virtual learning...

  12. Acquiring neural signals for developing a perception and cognition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Yunyi; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Lynch, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The understanding of how humans process information, determine salience, and combine seemingly unrelated information is essential to automated processing of large amounts of information that is partially relevant, or of unknown relevance. Recent neurological science research in human perception, and in information science regarding contextbased modeling, provides us with a theoretical basis for using a bottom-up approach for automating the management of large amounts of information in ways directly useful for human operators. However, integration of human intelligence into a game theoretic framework for dynamic and adaptive decision support needs a perception and cognition model. For the purpose of cognitive modeling, we present a brain-computer-interface (BCI) based humanoid robot system to acquire brainwaves during human mental activities of imagining a humanoid robot-walking behavior. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model. The BCI system consists of a data acquisition unit with an electroencephalograph (EEG), a humanoid robot, and a charge couple CCD camera. An EEG electrode cup acquires brainwaves from the skin surface on scalp. The humanoid robot has 20 degrees of freedom (DOFs); 12 DOFs located on hips, knees, and ankles for humanoid robot walking, 6 DOFs on shoulders and arms for arms motion, and 2 DOFs for head yaw and pitch motion. The CCD camera takes video clips of the human subject's hand postures to identify mental activities that are correlated to the robot-walking behaviors. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model.

  13. Lateral specialization in unilateral spatial neglect: a cognitive robotics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Daniela; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo; Di Nuovo, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental results of an embodied cognitive robotic approach for modelling the human cognitive deficit known as unilateral spatial neglect (USN). To this end, we introduce an artificial neural network architecture designed and trained to control the spatial attentional focus of the iCub robotic platform. Like the human brain, the architecture is divided into two hemispheres and it incorporates bio-inspired plasticity mechanisms, which allow the development of the phenomenon of the specialization of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. In this study, we validate the model by replicating a previous experiment with human patients affected by the USN and numerical results show that the robot mimics the behaviours previously exhibited by humans. We also simulated recovery after the damage to compare the performance of each of the two hemispheres as additional validation of the model. Finally, we highlight some possible advantages of modelling cognitive dysfunctions of the human brain by means of robotic platforms, which can supplement traditional approaches for studying spatial impairments in humans.

  14. Machine Cognition Models: EPAM and GPS

    CERN Document Server

    Elouafiq, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Through history, the human being tried to relay its daily tasks to other creatures, which was the main reason behind the rise of civilizations. It started with deploying animals to automate tasks in the field of agriculture(bulls), transportation (e.g. horses and donkeys), and even communication (pigeons). Millenniums after, come the Golden age with "Al-jazari" and other Muslim inventors, which were the pioneers of automation, this has given birth to industrial revolution in Europe, centuries after. At the end of the nineteenth century, a new era was to begin, the computational era, the most advanced technological and scientific development that is driving the mankind and the reason behind all the evolutions of science; such as medicine, communication, education, and physics. At this edge of technology engineers and scientists are trying to model a machine that behaves the same as they do, which pushed us to think about designing and implementing "Things that-Thinks", then artificial intelligence was. In this...

  15. Impact of avolition and cognitive impairment on functional outcome in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder: a prospective one-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wing Chung; Hui, Christy Lai Ming; Chan, Sherry Kit Wa; Lee, Edwin Ho Ming; Chen, Eric Yu Hai

    2016-02-01

    Previous research investigating the relationships between avolition, cognition and functioning in schizophrenia mostly focused on chronic samples and were cross-sectional in design. Impacts of avolition and cognition on longitudinal functional outcome in first-episode patients are under-studied. We assessed 114 Chinese aged 18-55 years presenting with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder aiming to identify baseline predictors of 1-year functional outcome. Results showed that both avolition and global cognition independently predicted functioning, with avolition being the strongest predictor above and beyond cognition and other symptom dimensions. Our findings indicate the central role of in determining longitudinal functional status in the early illness stage.

  16. Neurocognitive and Social Cognitive Approaches for Improving Functional Outcome in Early Psychosis: Theoretical Considerations and Current State of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cali F. Bartholomeusz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving functional outcome, in addition to alleviating psychotic symptoms, is now a major treatment objective in schizophrenia research. Given the large body of evidence suggesting pharmacological treatments generally have minimal effects on indices of functioning, research has turned to psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Among these, neurocognitive and social cognitive interventions are at the forefront of this field and are argued to target core deficits inherent to the schizophrenia illness. However, to date, research trials have primarily focused on chronic schizophrenia populations, neglecting the early psychosis groups who are often as severely impaired in social and occupational functioning. This theoretical paper will outline the rationale for investigating adjunctive cognitive-based interventions in the early phases of psychotic illness, critically examine the current approach strategies used in these interventions, and assess the evidence supporting certain training programs for improving functional outcome in early psychosis. Potential pathways for future research will be discussed.

  17. Integrating trait and social-cognitive views of personality: neuroticism, implicit stress priming, and neuroticism-outcome relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Sara K; Robinson, Michael D; Bresin, Konrad

    2010-05-01

    The trait perspective of personality emphasizes the broad role of traits in outcome prediction, whereas the social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the importance of if-then intrapsychic associations. Three studies (N = 188) were conducted to reconcile these alternative views of personality in the context of stress-related behaviors. Implicit priming tasks were used to quantify the extent to which stress primes activated thoughts of aggression (Studies 1 and 2) or eating (Study 3), and trait levels of neuroticism were also assessed. Neuroticism did not consistently predict stress-related implicit associations, consistent with the independence of these predictors. Of more importance, such implicit associations predicted problematic outcomes (e.g., physical aggression), but only to the extent that relevant individuals were also high in neuroticism. The results highlight an interface of trait and social-cognitive views of personality and do so in the context of understanding stress-reactivity processes, a topic of importance to multiple literatures.

  18. Modeling media as latent semantics based on cognitive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    dimensionality. While top-down, patterns of emotional categorization emerge by defining term vector distances to affective adjectives, that constrain the latent semantic structures according to the neurophysiological dimensions of valence and arousal. The thesis thus combines elements of machine learning...... with aspects of cognitive linguistics that potentially could be utilized in applications ranging from information retrieval and media personalization, to emotional brand building or neuroscientific modeling of syntax and semantics....

  19. Cognition and procedure representational requirements for predictive human performance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, K.

    1992-01-01

    Models and modeling environments for human performance are becoming significant contributors to early system design and analysis procedures. Issues of levels of automation, physical environment, informational environment, and manning requirements are being addressed by such man/machine analysis systems. The research reported here investigates the close interaction between models of human cognition and models that described procedural performance. We describe a methodology for the decomposition of aircrew procedures that supports interaction with models of cognition on the basis of procedures observed; that serves to identify cockpit/avionics information sources and crew information requirements; and that provides the structure to support methods for function allocation among crew and aiding systems. Our approach is to develop an object-oriented, modular, executable software representation of the aircrew, the aircraft, and the procedures necessary to satisfy flight-phase goals. We then encode in a time-based language, taxonomies of the conceptual, relational, and procedural constraints among the cockpit avionics and control system and the aircrew. We have designed and implemented a goals/procedures hierarchic representation sufficient to describe procedural flow in the cockpit. We then execute the procedural representation in simulation software and calculate the values of the flight instruments, aircraft state variables and crew resources using the constraints available from the relationship taxonomies. The system provides a flexible, extensible, manipulative and executable representation of aircrew and procedures that is generally applicable to crew/procedure task-analysis. The representation supports developed methods of intent inference, and is extensible to include issues of information requirements and functional allocation. We are attempting to link the procedural representation to models of cognitive functions to establish several intent inference methods

  20. Does the cognitive reflection test measure cognitive reflection? A mathematical modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campitelli, Guillermo; Gerrans, Paul

    2014-04-01

    We used a mathematical modeling approach, based on a sample of 2,019 participants, to better understand what the cognitive reflection test (CRT; Frederick In Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 25-42, 2005) measures. This test, which is typically completed in less than 10 min, contains three problems and aims to measure the ability or disposition to resist reporting the response that first comes to mind. However, since the test contains three mathematically based problems, it is possible that the test only measures mathematical abilities, and not cognitive reflection. We found that the models that included an inhibition parameter (i.e., the probability of inhibiting an intuitive response), as well as a mathematical parameter (i.e., the probability of using an adequate mathematical procedure), fitted the data better than a model that only included a mathematical parameter. We also found that the inhibition parameter in males is best explained by both rational thinking ability and the disposition toward actively open-minded thinking, whereas in females this parameter was better explained by rational thinking only. With these findings, this study contributes to the understanding of the processes involved in solving the CRT, and will be particularly useful for researchers who are considering using this test in their research.

  1. Cognitive outcomes and familial stress after cochlear implantation in deaf children with and without developmental delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghalai, John S; Caudle, Susan E; Bentley, Barbara; Abaya, Homer; Lin, Jerry; Baker, Dian; Emery, Claudia; Bortfeld, Heather; Winzelberg, Jody

    2012-08-01

    The benefits of cochlear implantation for children with developmental delays (DD) often are unclear. We compared cognition, adaptive behavior, familial stress, and communication in children with and without DD. Retrospective review. Two tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Two hundred four children who underwent cochlear implantation assessed before and more than 1 year after implantation. The Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), vineland adaptive behavior scales (VABS), Parental Stress Index, and Preschool Language Scale. We developed a specific definition of DD for hearing-impaired children based upon diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, criteria for mental retardation; 60 children met the criteria for DD, and 144 children did not. Before implantation, multiple linear regression demonstrated that children with DD had lower scores in every domain of the MSEL and VABS (p 0.1) compared with children without DD. After implantation, children without DD demonstrated significant improvements in intelligence as measured by the MSEL and age-appropriate improvements in adaptive behavior as evaluated by the VABS, and their familial stress levels were not increased after cochlear implantation. In contrast, children with DD underwent implantation at a later age and demonstrated less comprehensive developmental improvements after cochlear implantation and higher stress levels. However, when the age differences were taken into account using multiple linear regression analyses, the differences between the 2 cohorts were reduced. These data indicate that our definition of DD is a reliable method of stratifying deaf children. Although children with DD have a normal developmental rate of adaptive behavior after cochlear implantation, their developmental rate of intelligence is lower, and they have higher stress levels than children without DD. However, our data suggest that if children with DD could be implanted as early as children without DD

  2. Development of a caregiver empowerment model to promote positive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S; Winslow, Betty W; Lee, Jerry W; Burns, Margaret; Zhang, Xinwei Esther

    2011-02-01

    Family members caring for aging parents experience both negative and positive outcomes from providing care. Theoretical explanations for negative outcomes have been developed. There is need for models that explain and predict positive outcomes. This article describes the evolution of the Caregiver Empowerment Model (CEM) to explain and predict positive outcomes of family caregiving. Although empirical findings support positive outcomes of family caregiving, less attention has been given to theoretical rationale for positive effects. The CEM predicts that, in the presence of filial values and certain background variables, caregiving demands are appraised as challenges instead of stressors. Appraising caregiving demands as a challenge, finding meaning, and using certain types of coping strategies are posited to be associated with growth and well-being. The CEM extends our understanding of the complexity of the caregiving experience, and can serve as a framework to guide in developing and testing theory-based interventions to promote positive outcomes.

  3. Long-term outcome of cognitive functions, emotional behavior, and quality of life in a family with familial hemiplegic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Elfriede; Nachbauer, Wolfgang; Bodner, Thomas; Benke, Thomas; Boesch, Sylvia; Delazer, Margarete

    2012-06-01

    To investigate long-term cognitive outcome, mood, and quality of life in a family with genetically proven familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). FHM is a rare autosomal-dominant subtype of migraine with aura, characterized by some degree of hemiparesis during the aura. In a previous study, we showed preserved and impaired cognitive functions in patients with FHM. Until now, the progression of cognitive dysfunctions has not been known. However, the ability to predict progression is important for counseling patients about education, career, and family life. Seven years after extensive baseline neuropsychological testing, we retested 6 members of a family with FHM, including questionnaires about mood and quality of life. The follow-up assessment revealed no global cognitive decline. All the patients' linguistic abilities and verbal memory remained intact; however, their figural memory, attention, and some aspects of executive function were impaired. Half the patients had a slight deterioration in their visuoconstructional functions. Half had higher scores on the trait and state anxiety measures. Cognitive deficits in a family with FHM persisted, but without marked progression. Worsening of visuoconstructional abilities may be related to executive dysfunction, confirming a disturbance of cerebrocerebellar circuits.

  4. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: An integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eHelie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many computational models of the basal ganglia have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the basal ganglia, computational cognitive neuroscience models have focused on how the basal ganglia can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and how they use the neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia to account for cognitive and motor functions such as categorization, instrumental conditioning, probabilistic learning, working memory, sequence learning, automaticity, reaching, handwriting, and eye saccades. A total of 19 basal ganglia models accounting for one or more of these functions are reviewed and compared. The review concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and prescriptions for future modeling, including the need for computational models of the basal ganglia that can simultaneously account for cognitive and motor functions, and the need for a more complete specification of the role of the basal ganglia in behavioral functions.

  5. Modeling the Intention to Choose Natural Vaginal Delivery: Using Reasoned Action and Social Cognitive Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Kanani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Behavioral Intention Model is one of the best and most widely models used regarding attitude of behavioral of pregnancy and decrease the rate of cesarean section (CS among pregnant women, except effect of atti-tude and subjective norms on behavioral intention. Two variables of self-efficacy, and outcome expectation, relate to individual’s behavior in an upcoming situation, and both of them are important at the development of behavior. The purpose of the present study was to develop a model to explain women’s inten-tion to choose natural vaginal delivery (NVD. The variables of self-efficacy and outcome expectations, derived from Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory, and Behavioral Intention Model constructs were used to define the model.Methods: The study was descriptive and cross-sectional in nature and took place in Pars Abad, Iran in 2014. The non-probability sample consisted of 200 pregnant women who voluntarily participated in the study and provided the data. SPSS 21 and MPLUS 6.8 were employed to analyze the data.Results: Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and attitude toward NVD were associated with intention to choose the NVD.Conclusion: The study findings may play a role in designing educational inter-ventions aimed at influencing the NVD and improving childbirth programs.

  6. Applying the Cognitive Vulnerability Model to the analysis of cognitive and family influences on children's dental fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crego, Antonio; Carrillo-Diaz, Maria; Armfield, Jason M; Romero, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Negative experiences, cognitions, and family variables are involved in the etiology of child dental fear, but previous research has frequently considered them separately. This study uses the Cognitive Vulnerability Model to explore the influence of negative dental experiences and family members on children's dental anxiety. The participants were 185 children who completed a questionnaire comprising measures of dental fear and cognitive vulnerability-related perceptions. Measures were obtained for 88 of the participants' fathers and for 97 of the participants' mothers. Cognitive vulnerability perceptions had the strongest association with children's dental fear (β = 0.40), explaining 14-21% of the variance in dental fear scores beyond that explained by other variables. Furthermore, vulnerability perceptions mediated the relationship between negative dental experiences and dental fear. Children's dental fear and cognitive vulnerability perceptions were significantly associated with those of their fathers (r = 0.23 and r = 0.40, respectively) and mothers (r = 0.28 and r = 0.35, respectively). Moreover, fathers' (β = 0.24) and mothers' (β = 0.31) levels of cognitive vulnerability significantly predicted the children's levels of dental fear. The Cognitive Vulnerability Model offers a framework to understand child dental fear. Furthermore, this cognitive approach may help explain why some children develop dental fear problems after suffering a negative dental experience and how dental anxiety is passed on from parents to children.

  7. Working alliance and competence as predictors of outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety and panic disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Thomas; Nordgreen, Tine; Öst, Lars-Göran; Tangen, Tone; Kvale, Gerd; Hovland, Ole Johan; Heiervang, Einar R; Havik, Odd E

    2016-02-01

    The research on the association between the working alliance and therapist competence/adherence and outcome from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is limited and characterized by inconclusive findings. This study investigates the working alliance and competence/adherence as predictors of outcome of CBT for social anxiety disorder (SAD) and panic disorder (PD). Eighty-two clinically referred patients (58.5% female; age: M = 33.6 years, SD = 10.3) with PD (n = 31) or SAD (n = 51) were treated with 12 sessions of manualized CBT by 22 clinicians with limited CBT experience in a randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Independent assessors rated the CBT competence/adherence of the therapists using a revised version of the Cognitive Therapy Adherence and Competence Scale, and the patients rated the quality of the working alliance using the Working Alliance Inventory-short form in therapy sessions 3 and 8. The outcome was assessed by independent assessors as well as by patients self-report. A total of 20.7% of the patients (27.5% SAD, 9.7% PD) dropped out during treatment. The association between the alliance, competence/adherence, outcome and dropout was investigated using multiple regression analyses. Higher therapist' competence/adherence early in the therapy was associated with a better outcome among PD patients, lower competence/adherence was associated with dropout among SAD patients. Higher rating of the alliance late in the therapy was associated with a better outcome, whereas lower alliance rating late in the therapy was associated with dropout. The findings indicate that the therapist competence/adherence and the working alliance have independent contributions to the outcome from CBT for anxiety disorders, but in different phases of the treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Discrete event simulation: Modeling simultaneous complications and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, E.H.; Feenstra, T.L.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To present an effective and elegant model approach to deal with specific characteristics of complex modeling. METHODS: A discrete event simulation (DES) model with multiple complications and multiple outcomes that each can occur simultaneously was developed. In this DES model parameters,

  9. Predictors of treatment outcome in an effectiveness trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for children with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wergeland, Gro Janne H; Fjermestad, Krister W; Marin, Carla E; Bjelland, Ingvar; Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt; Silverman, Wendy K; Öst, Lars-Göran; Bjaastad, Jon Fauskanger; Oeding, Kristin; Havik, Odd E; Heiervang, Einar R

    2016-01-01

    A substantial number of children with anxiety disorders do not improve following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Recent effectiveness studies have found poorer outcome for CBT programs than what is typically found in efficacy studies. The present study examined predictors of treatment outcome among 181 children (aged 8-15 years), with separation anxiety, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder, who participated in a randomized, controlled effectiveness trial of a 10-session CBT program in community clinics. Potential predictors included baseline demographic, child, and parent factors. Outcomes were as follows: a) remission from all inclusion anxiety disorders; b) remission from the primary anxiety disorder; and c) child- and parent-rated reduction of anxiety symptoms at post-treatment and at 1-year follow-up. The most consistent findings across outcome measures and informants were that child-rated anxiety symptoms, functional impairment, a primary diagnosis of social phobia or separation anxiety disorder, and parent internalizing symptoms predicted poorer outcome at post-treatment. Child-rated anxiety symptoms, lower family social class, lower pretreatment child motivation, and parent internalizing symptoms predicted poorer outcome at 1-year follow-up. These results suggest that anxious children with more severe problems, and children of parents with elevated internalizing symptom levels, may be in need of modified, additional, or alternative interventions to achieve a positive treatment outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship Marketing results: proposition of a cognitive mapping model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iná Futino Barreto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This research sought to develop a cognitive model that expresses how marketing professionals understand the relationship between the constructs that define relationship marketing (RM. It also tried to understand, using the obtained model, how objectives in this field are achieved. Design/methodology/approach – Through cognitive mapping, we traced 35 individual mental maps, highlighting how each respondent understands the interactions between RM elements. Based on the views of these individuals, we established an aggregate mental map. Theoretical foundation – The topic is based on a literature review that explores the RM concept and its main elements. Based on this review, we listed eleven main constructs. Findings – We established an aggregate mental map that represents the RM structural model. Model analysis identified that CLV is understood as the final result of RM. We also observed that the impact of most of the RM elements on CLV is brokered by loyalty. Personalization and quality, on the other hand, proved to be process input elements, and are the ones that most strongly impact others. Finally, we highlight that elements that punish customers are much less effective than elements that benefit them. Contributions - The model was able to insert core elements of RM, but absent from most formal models: CLV and customization. The analysis allowed us to understand the interactions between the RM elements and how the end result of RM (CLV is formed. This understanding improves knowledge on the subject and helps guide, assess and correct actions.

  11. Digital Game-Based Learning Supports Student Motivation, Cognitive Success, and Performance Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jeng-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Traditional multimedia learning is primarily based on the cognitive load concept of information processing theory. Recent digital game-based learning (DGBL) studies have focused on exploring content support for learning motivation and related game characteristics. Motivation, volition, and performance (MVP) theory indicates that cognitive load and…

  12. Categorizing Health Outcomes and Efficacy of mHealth Apps for Persons With Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Daniel R; Srinivas, Bhavana; Emmett, Thomas W; Schleyer, Titus K; Holden, Richard J; Hendrie, Hugh C; Callahan, Christopher M

    2017-08-30

    Use of mobile health (mHealth) apps is growing at an exponential rate in the United States and around the world. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer disease, and related dementias are a global health problem. Numerous mHealth interventions exist for this population, yet the effect of these interventions on health has not been systematically described. The aim of this study is to catalog the types of health outcomes used to measure effectiveness of mHealth interventions and assess which mHealth interventions have been shown to improve the health of persons with MCI, Alzheimer disease, and dementia. We searched 13 databases, including Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, the full Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Ei Compendex, IEEE Xplore, Applied Science & Technology Source, Scopus, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google Scholar from inception through May 2017 for mHealth studies involving persons with cognitive impairment that were evaluated using at least one quantitative health outcome. Proceedings of the Annual ACM Conferences on Human Factors in Computing Systems, the ACM User Interface Software and Technology Symposium, and the IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers were searched in the ACM Digital Library from 2012 to 2016. A hand search of JMIR Publications journals was also completed in July 2017. After removal of duplicates, our initial search returned 3955 records. Of these articles, 24 met final inclusion criteria as studies involving mHealth interventions that measured at least one quantitative health outcome for persons with MCI, Alzheimer disease, and dementia. Common quantitative health outcomes included cognition, function, mood, and quality of life. We found that 21.2% (101/476) of the fully reviewed articles were excluded because of a lack of health outcomes. The health outcomes selected were observed to be inconsistent between studies. For those studies with quantitative health outcomes, more than half (58%) reported

  13. Calculus for cognitive scientists derivatives, integrals and models

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, James K

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a self-study program on how mathematics, computer science and science can be usefully and seamlessly intertwined. Learning to use ideas from mathematics and computation is essential for understanding approaches to cognitive and biological science. As such the book covers calculus on one variable and two variables and works through a number of interesting first-order ODE models. It clearly uses MatLab in computational exercises where the models cannot be solved by hand, and also helps readers to understand that approximations cause errors – a fact that must always be kept in mind.

  14. Cognitive interviewing methodology in the development of a pediatric item bank: a patient reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeWalt Darren A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs in health care has seen greater use in recent years, and methods to improve the reliability and validity of PRO instruments are advancing. This paper discusses the cognitive interviewing procedures employed by the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS pediatrics group for the purpose of developing a dynamic, electronic item bank for field testing with children and adolescents using novel computer technology. The primary objective of this study was to conduct cognitive interviews with children and adolescents to gain feedback on items measuring physical functioning, emotional health, social health, fatigue, pain, and asthma-specific symptoms. Methods A total of 88 cognitive interviews were conducted with 77 children and adolescents across two sites on 318 items. From this initial item bank, 25 items were deleted and 35 were revised and underwent a second round of cognitive interviews. A total of 293 items were retained for field testing. Results Children as young as 8 years of age were able to comprehend the majority of items, response options, directions, recall period, and identify problems with language that was difficult for them to understand. Cognitive interviews indicated issues with item comprehension on several items which led to alternative wording for these items. Conclusion Children ages 8–17 years were able to comprehend most item stems and response options in the present study. Field testing with the resulting items and response options is presently being conducted as part of the PROMIS Pediatric Item Bank development process.

  15. Genetic spectrum assignment model with constraints in cognitive radio networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The interference constraints of genetic spectrum assignment model in cognitive radio networks are analyzed in this paper. An improved genetic spectrum assignment model is proposed. The population of genetic algorithm is divided into two sets, the feasible spectrum assignment strategies and the randomly updated spectrum assignment strategies. The penalty function is added to the utility function to achieve the spectrum assignment strategy that satisfies the interference constraints and has better fitness. The proposed method is applicable in both the genetic spectrum assignment model and the quantum genetic spectrum assignment mode. It can ensure the randomness of partial chromosomes in the population to some extent, and reduce the computational complexity caused by the constraints-free procedure after the update of population. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve better performance than the conventional genetic spectrum assignment model and quantum genetic spectrum assignment model

  16. Modeling the situation awareness by the analysis of cognitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Wanyan, Xiaoru; Zhuang, Damin

    2014-01-01

    To predict changes of situation awareness (SA) for pilot operating with different display interfaces and tasks, a qualitative analysis and quantitative calculation joint SA model was proposed. Based on the situational awareness model according to the attention allocation built previously, the pilot cognitive process for the situation elements was analyzed according to the ACT-R (Adaptive Control of Thought, Rational) theory, which explained how the SA was produced. To verify the validity of this model, 28 subjects performed an instrument supervision task under different experiment conditions. Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), 10-dimensional Situational Awareness Rating Technique (10-D SART), performance measure and eye movement measure were adopted for evaluating SAs under different conditions. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the changing trend of SA calculated by this model was highly correlated with the experimental results. Therefore the situational awareness model can provide a reference for designing new cockpit display interfaces and help reducing human errors.

  17. Pre-treatment child and family characteristics as predictors of outcome in cognitive behavioural therapy for youth anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundkvist-Houndoumadi, Irene; Hougaard, Esben; Thastum, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective for children and adolescents (6-18 years) with anxiety disorders, but the non-response rate is high-a fact that may argue for the importance of studies on pre-treatment characteristics of children and their families...... that predict treatment outcome. AIMS: To provide a systematic review of clinical and demographic pre-treatment child and family predictors of treatment outcome in CBT for anxiety disorders in youth. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted based on electronic databases (PsycINFO, Embase and Pub......-treatment child and family predictors of outcome in CBT for youth anxiety disorders have until now resulted in few findings of clinical or theoretical significance....

  18. Effects of combined physical and cognitive training on fitness and neuropsychological outcomes in healthy older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins-Crépeau, Laurence; Berryman, Nicolas; Fraser, Sarah A; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Li, Karen ZH; Bosquet, Laurent; Bherer, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Physical exercise and cognitive training have been shown to enhance cognition among older adults. However, few studies have looked at the potential synergetic effects of combining physical and cognitive training in a single study. Prior trials on combined training have led to interesting yet equivocal results. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of combined physical and cognitive interventions on physical fitness and neuropsychological performance in healthy older adults. Methods Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to one of four training combinations using a 2×2 factorial design. The physical intervention was a mixed aerobic and resistance training program, and the cognitive intervention was a dual-task (DT) training program. Stretching and toning exercises and computer lessons were used as active control conditions. Physical and cognitive measures were collected pre- and postintervention. Results All groups showed equivalent improvements in measures of functional mobility. The aerobic–strength condition led to larger effect size in lower body strength, independently of cognitive training. All groups showed improved speed of processing and inhibition abilities, but only participants who took part in the DT training, independently of physical training, showed increased task-switching abilities. The level of functional mobility after intervention was significantly associated with task-switching abilities. Conclusion Combined training did not yield synergetic effects. However, DT training did lead to transfer effects on executive performance in neuropsychological tests. Both aerobic-resistance training and stretching-toning exercises can improve functional mobility in older adults. PMID:27698558

  19. Cognitive and functional outcomes following inpatient rehabilitation in patients with acquired brain injury: A prospective follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitreyi Patil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the effects of cognitive retraining and inpatient rehabilitation to study the effects of cognitive retraining and inpatient rehabilitation in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI. Design and Setting: This was a prospective follow-up study in a neurological rehabilitation department of quaternary research hospital. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients with ABI, mean age 36.43 years (standard deviation [SD] 12.6, range 18–60, mean duration of illness 77.87 days (SD 91.78, range 21–300 days with cognitive, physical, and motor-sensory deficits underwent inpatient rehabilitation for minimum of 14 sessions over a period of 3 weeks. Nineteen patients (63% reported in the follow-up of minimum 3 months after discharge. Type of ABI, cognitive status (using Montreal Cognitive assessment scale [MoCA] and cognitive Functional Independence Measure [Cog FIM]®, and functional status (motor FIM® were noted at admission, discharge, and follow-up and scores were compared. Results: Patients received inpatient rehabilitation addressing cognitive and functional impairments. Baseline MoCA, motor FIM, and Cog FIM scores were 15.27 (SD = 7.2, range 3–30, 31.57 (SD = 15.6, range 12–63, and 23.47 (SD = 9.7, range 5–35, respectively. All the parameters improved significantly at the time of discharge (MoCA = 19.6 ± 7.4 range 3–30, motor FIM® = 61.33 ± 18.7 range 12–89, Cog FIM® =27.23 ± 8.10 range 9–35. Patients were discharged with home-based programs. Nineteen patients reported in follow-up and observed to have maintained cognition on MoCA (18.8 ± 6.8 range 6–27, significantly improved (P < 0.01 on Cog FIM® (28.0 ± 7.7 range 14–35 and motor FIM® =72.89 ± 16.2 range 40–96 as compare to discharge scores. Conclusions: Cognitive and functional outcomes improve significantly with dedicated and specialized inpatient rehabilitation in ABI patients, which is sustainable over a period.

  20. Nature or nurture: a systematic review of the effect of socio-economic status on the developmental and cognitive outcomes of children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hilary S; Edwards, Phil

    2013-11-01

    The effect of socio-economic status (SES) on the cognitive outcome of preterm-born children is unknown. The objectives of this study were to systematically review the published literature and to report the strength and consistency of the effect of SES on the cognitive outcomes of preterm children, across different SES indicators. We conducted a literature search on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Social Science Citation Index to identify English-language cohort or case-control studies published after 1990 that had reported the effect of at least one SES indicator on cognitive outcome in children born <37 weeks gestation. Fifteen studies (from a total 4,162 identified) were included. Thirteen SES indicators were evaluated [categorized as: "individual-level" (6 indicators), "family-structure" (3), "contextual" (2) and "composite" (2)]. Maternal educational level was the most frequently evaluated SES indicator (by 11/15 studies) and was most consistently associated with cognitive outcome. Maternal education below high school level was associated with severe cognitive deficiency [reported odds ratios (95 % CI) range: OR = 1.4 (1.0-1.9) to OR = 2.3 (1.2-4.5)]. A meta-analytic measure of the effect of SES was not calculated due to heterogeneity in studies. SES appears to confound the association between preterm birth and cognitive deficit and should be adjusted for in studies reporting cognitive outcome.

  1. Parenting Classes, Parenting Behavior, and Child Cognitive Development in Early Head Start: A Longitudinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mido; Park, Boyoung; Kim, Sunha

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed Early Head Start Research and Evaluation (EHSRE) study data, examining the effect of parenting classes on parenting behaviors and children's cognitive outcomes. The study analyzed three sets of dependent variables: parental language and cognitive stimulation, parent-child interactive activities, and the Bayley Mental…

  2. August Knoblauch and amusia: a nineteenth-century cognitive model of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B

    2003-02-01

    Early models of human cognition can be traced to nineteenth-century investigations of brain and behavior. Influential neurologists such as Wernicke, Kussmaul, and Lichtheim constructed diagrammatic models to illustrate current theories of cognition. Language was the most commonly studied cognitive function during this time; however, investigators also studied other cognitive functions, such as music and visual processing. While a number of nineteenth-century neurologists made observations about music abilities in aphasic patients, August Knoblauch, a German physician and anatomist, was the first to propose a diagrammatic model of music (1888/1890). He described a detailed cognitive model of music processing, hypothesized the existence of nine disorders of music production and perception, and coined the term "amusia." Knoblauch's model is the earliest cognitive model of music and is largely unrecognized as an important part of the history of neurology, neuropsychology, and music cognition. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science (USA)

  3. The association between visual, nonverbal cognitive abilities and speech, phonological processing, vocabulary and reading outcomes in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsey; Anderson, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the possibility that specific nonverbal, visual cognitive abilities may be associated with outcomes after pediatric cochlear implantation. The study therefore examined the relationship between visual sequential memory span and visual sequential reasoning ability, and a range of speech, phonological processing, vocabulary knowledge, and reading outcomes in children with cochlear implants. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used. Sixty-six children aged 5 to 12 years completed tests of visual memory span and visual sequential reasoning, along with tests of speech intelligibility, phonological processing, vocabulary knowledge, and word reading ability (the outcome variables). Auditory memory span was also assessed, and its relationship with the other variables examined. Significant, positive correlations were found between the visual memory and reasoning tests, and each of the outcome variables. A series of regression analyses then revealed that for all the outcome variables, after variance attributable to the age at implantation was accounted for, visual memory span and visual sequential reasoning ability together accounted for significantly more variance (up to 25%) in each outcome measure. These findings have both clinical and theoretical implications. Clinically, the findings may help improve the identification of children at risk of poor progress after implantation earlier than has been possible to date as the nonverbal tests can be administered to children as young as 2 years of age. The results may also contribute to the identification of children with specific learning or language difficulties as well as improve our ability to develop intervention strategies for individual children based on their specific cognitive processing strengths or difficulties. Theoretically, these results contribute to the growing body of knowledge about learning and development in deaf children with cochlear implants.

  4. Integral-Value Models for Outcomes over Continuous Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Charles M.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    Models of preferences between outcomes over continuous time are important for individual, corporate, and social decision making, e.g., medical treatment, infrastructure development, and environmental regulation. This paper presents a foundation for such models. It shows that conditions...... on preferences between real- or vector-valued outcomes over continuous time are satisfied if and only if the preferences are represented by a value function having an integral form...

  5. An evidence-based method for examining and reporting cognitive processes in nutrition research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Stough, Con

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive outcomes are frequently implemented as endpoints in nutrition research. To reduce the number of statistical comparisons it is commonplace for nutrition researchers to combine cognitive test results into a smaller number of broad cognitive abilities. However, there is a clear lack of understanding and consensus as to how best execute this practice. The present paper reviews contemporary models of human cognition and proposes a standardised, evidence-based method for grouping cognitive test data into broader cognitive abilities. Both Carroll's model of human cognitive ability and the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence provide empirically based taxonomies of human cognition. These models provide a cognitive 'map' that can be used to guide the handling and analysis of cognitive outcomes in nutrition research. Making use of a valid cognitive nomenclature can provide the field of clinical nutrition with a common cognitive language enabling efficient comparisons of cognitive outcomes across studies. This will make it easier for researchers, policymakers and readers to interpret and compare cognitive outcomes for different interventions. Using an empirically derived cognitive nomenclature to guide the creation of cognitive composite scores will ensure that cognitive endpoints are theoretically valid and meaningful. This will increase the generalisability of trial results to the general population. The present review also discusses how the CHC model of cognition can also guide the synthesis of cognitive outcomes in systematic reviews and meta-analysis.

  6. Exploring Sex Differences in Worry with a Cognitive Vulnerability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalta, Alyson K.; Chambless, Dianne L.

    2008-01-01

    A multivariate model was developed to examine the relative contributions of mastery, stress, interpretive bias, and coping to sex differences in worry. Rumination was incorporated as a second outcome variable to test the specificity of these associations. Participants included two samples of undergraduates totaling 302 men and 379 women. A path…

  7. Cholinergic modulation of cognitive processing: insights drawn from computational models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehren L Newman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine plays an important role in cognitive function, as shown by pharmacological manipulations that impact working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory function. Acetylcholine also shows striking modulatory influences on the cellular physiology of hippocampal and cortical neurons. Modeling of neural circuits provides a framework for understanding how the cognitive functions may arise from the influence of acetylcholine on neural and network dynamics. We review the influences of cholinergic manipulations on behavioral performance in working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory tasks, the physiological effects of acetylcholine on neural and circuit dynamics, and the computational models that provide insight into the functional relationships between the physiology and behavior. Specifically, we discuss the important role of acetylcholine in governing mechanisms of active maintenance in working memory tasks and in regulating network dynamics important for effective processing of stimuli in attention and episodic memory tasks. We also propose that theta rhythm play a crucial role as an intermediary between the physiological influences of acetylcholine and behavior in episodic and spatial memory tasks. We conclude with a synthesis of the existing modeling work and highlight future directions that are likely to be rewarding given the existing state of the literature for both empiricists and modelers.

  8. A group-mediated physical activity intervention in older knee osteoarthritis patients: effects on social cognitive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, Brian C; Garver, Matthew J; Lucas, Alexander R; Devor, Steven T; Emery, Charles F; Hackshaw, Kevin V; Fairman, Ciaran M; Bowman, Jessica; Rejeski, W Jack

    2017-01-20

    The objective of the present study was to compare a group-mediated cognitive behavioral (GMCB) physical activity intervention with traditional exercise therapy (TRAD) upon select social cognitive outcomes in sedentary knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) patients. A total of 80 patients (mean age = 63.5 years; 84% women) were recruited using clinic and community-based strategies to a 12-month, single-blind, two-arm, randomized controlled trial. Mobility-related self-efficacy, self-regulatory self-efficacy (SRSE), and satisfaction with physical function (SPF) were assessed at baseline, 3, and 12 months. Results of intent-to-treat 2 (Treatment: GMCB and TRAD) × 2 (Time: 3 and 12 month) analyses of covariance yielded significantly greater increases in SRSE and SPF (P physical activity and mobility at 3 and 12-months. The GMCB intervention yielded more favorable effects on important social cognitive outcomes than TRAD; these effects were related to improvements in physical activity and mobility.

  9. Cognitive load and modelling of an algebra problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnappan, Mohan

    2010-09-01

    In the present study, I examine a modelling strategy as employed by a teacher in the context of an algebra lesson. The actions of this teacher suggest that a modelling approach will have a greater impact on enriching student learning if we do not lose sight of the need to manage associated cognitive loads that could either aid or hinder the integration of core concepts with processes that are at play. Results here also show that modelling a problem that is set within an authentic context helps learners develop a better appreciation of variables and relations that constitute the model. The teacher's scaffolding actions revealed the use of strategies that foster the development of connected, meaningful and more useable algebraic knowledge.

  10. Imaging a cognitive model of apraxia: the neural substrate of gesture-specific cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peigneux, Philippe; Van der Linden, Martial; Garraux, Gaetan; Laureys, Steven; Degueldre, Christian; Aerts, Joel; Del Fiore, Guy; Moonen, Gustave; Luxen, Andre; Salmon, Eric

    2004-03-01

    The present study aimed to ascertain the neuroanatomical basis of an influential neuropsychological model for upper limb apraxia [Rothi LJ, et al. The Neuropsychology of Action. 1997. Hove, UK: Psychology Press]. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured in healthy volunteers using H2 15O PET during performance of four tasks commonly used for testing upper limb apraxia, i.e., pantomime of familiar gestures on verbal command, imitation of familiar gestures, imitation of novel gestures, and an action-semantic task that consisted in matching objects for functional use. We also re-analysed data from a previous PET study in which we investigated the neural basis of the visual analysis of gestures. First, we found that two sets of discrete brain areas are predominantly engaged in the imitation of familiar and novel gestures, respectively. Segregated brain activation for novel gesture imitation concur with neuropsychological reports to support the hypothesis that knowledge about the organization of the human body mediates the transition from visual perception to motor execution when imitating novel gestures [Goldenberg Neuropsychologia 1995;33:63-72]. Second, conjunction analyses revealed distinctive neural bases for most of the gesture-specific cognitive processes proposed in this cognitive model of upper limb apraxia. However, a functional analysis of brain imaging data suggested that one single memory store may be used for "to-be-perceived" and "to-be-produced" gestural representations, departing from Rothi et al.'s proposal. Based on the above considerations, we suggest and discuss a revised model for upper limb apraxia that might best account for both brain imaging findings and neuropsychological dissociations reported in the apraxia literature. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Comparing different approach and avoidance models of learning and personality in the prediction of work, university, and leadership outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Chris J; Hobman, Elizabeth V; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Martin, Robin

    2009-05-01

    Jackson (2005) developed a hybrid model of personality and learning, known as the learning styles profiler (LSP) which was designed to span biological, socio-cognitive, and experiential research foci of personality and learning research. The hybrid model argues that functional and dysfunctional learning outcomes can be best understood in terms of how cognitions and experiences control, discipline, and re-express the biologically based scale of sensation-seeking. In two studies with part-time workers undertaking tertiary education (N = 137 and 58), established models of approach and avoidance from each of the three different research foci were compared with Jackson's hybrid model in their predictiveness of leadership, work, and university outcomes using self-report and supervisor ratings. Results showed that the hybrid model was generally optimal and, as hypothesized, that goal orientation was a mediator of sensation-seeking on outcomes (work performance, university performance, leader behaviours, and counterproductive work behaviour). Our studies suggest that the hybrid model has considerable promise as a predictor of work and educational outcomes as well as dysfunctional outcomes.

  12. Bayesian Network Models for Local Dependence among Observable Outcome Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Russell G.; Mulder, Joris; Hemat, Lisa A.; Yan, Duanli

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian network models offer a large degree of flexibility for modeling dependence among observables (item outcome variables) from the same task, which may be dependent. This article explores four design patterns for modeling locally dependent observations: (a) no context--ignores dependence among observables; (b) compensatory context--introduces…

  13. Cognitive Performance associated to functional outcomes in stable outpatients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Zaragoza Domingo, MA

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Most prevalent impairments were on executive function and processing speed domains; however, working memory showed the strongest relationship to functional disability. Monitoring cognitive function during follow up is critical to understand patient’s everyday functional capacity.

  14. Predicting the outcome of anomia therapy for people with aphasia post CVA: both language and cognitive status are key predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Snell, Claerwen; Fillingham, Joanne K; Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether it was possible to predict therapy gain from participants' performance on background tests of language and cognitive ability. To do this, we amalgamated the assessment and therapy results from 33 people with aphasia following cerebral vascular accident (CVA), all of whom had received the same anomia therapy (based on progressive phonemic and orthographic cueing). Previous studies with smaller numbers of participants had found a possible relationship between anomia therapy performance and some language and cognitive assessments. Because this study had access to a larger data set than previous studies, we were able to replicate the previous findings and also to verify two overarching factors which were predictive of therapy gain: a cognitive factor and a phonological factor. The status of these two domains was able to predict both immediate and longer-term therapy gain. Pre-treatment naming ability also predicted gain after the anomia therapy. When combined, both cognitive and language (naming or phonological) skills were found to be independent predictors of therapy outcome.

  15. Functional, cognitive and psychological outcomes, and recurrent vascular events in Pakistani stroke survivors: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Maria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little direct data describing the outcomes and recurrent vascular morbidity and mortality of stroke survivors from low and middle income countries like Pakistan. This study describes functional, cognitive and vascular morbidity and mortality of Pakistani stroke survivors discharged from a dedicated stroke center within a nonprofit tertiary care hospital based in a multiethnic city with a population of more than 20 million. Methods Patients with stroke, aged > 18 years, discharged alive from a tertiary care centre were contacted via telephone and a cross sectional study was conducted. All the discharges were contacted. Patients or their legal surrogate were interviewed regarding functional, cognitive and psychological outcomes and recurrent vascular events using standardized, pretested and translated scales. A verbal autopsy was carried out for patients who had died after discharge. Stroke subtype and risk factors data was collected from the medical records. Subdural hemorrhages, traumatic ICH, subarachnoid hemorrhage, iatrogenic stroke within hospital and all other diagnoses that presented like stroke but were subsequently found not to have stroke were also excluded. Composites were created for functional outcome variable and depression. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results 309 subjects were interviewed at a median of 5.5 months post discharge. 12.3% of the patients had died, mostly from recurrent vascular events or stroke complications. Poor functional outcome defined as Modified Rankin Score (mRS of > 2 and a Barthel Index (BI score of p = 0.01, moderate to severe dementia (Adj-OR-19.1, p p = 0.02 and multiple post stroke complications (Adj-OR-3.6, p = 0.02 were independent predictors of poor functional outcome. Cognitive outcomes were poor in 42% and predictors of moderate to severe dementia were depression (Adj-OR-6.86, p p = 0.01, presence of bed sores (Adj-OR-17.13, p = 0.01 and history of

  16. Cerebral Malaria; Mechanisms Of Brain Injury And Strategies For Improved Neuro-Cognitive Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Idro, Richard; Marsh, Kevin; John, Chandy C.; Newton, Charles RJ

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum. With over 575,000 cases annually, children in sub-Saharan Africa are the most affected. Surviving patients have an increased risk of neurological and cognitive deficits, behavioral difficulties and epilepsy making cerebral malaria a leading cause of childhood neuro-disability in the region. The pathogenesis of neuro-cognitive sequelae is poorly understood: coma develops through multiple mech...

  17. The relationship between outcomes based education and cognitive development : an exploration of South African learners

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    M.A. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) played a major role in laying the groundwork for many of our current beliefs about cognitive development. By examining children's answers to particular questions and how they reached those answers, Piaget concluded that children's thinking was qualitatively different from adults and that it had its own special logic. Piaget was concerned with explaining the universal aspects of cognitive development rather than individual differences between people. While speci...

  18. Predictors of cognitive and psychosocial outcome after STN DBS in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Smeding, H M M; Speelman, J D; Huizenga, H.M.; Schuurman, P R; Schmand, B

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To find predictors of cognitive decline and quality of life one year after bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods: A total of 105 patients were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment before and 12 months after surgery. A control group of 40 PD patients was included to control for effects of repeated testing and disease progression. We determined individual changes in cognition, mood and quality of life using a ...

  19. Using data-driven model-brain mappings to constrain formal models of cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelmer P Borst

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a method to create data-driven mappings from components of cognitive models to brain regions. Cognitive models are notoriously hard to evaluate, especially based on behavioral measures alone. Neuroimaging data can provide additional constraints, but this requires a mapping from model components to brain regions. Although such mappings can be based on the experience of the modeler or on a reading of the literature, a formal method is preferred to prevent researcher-based biases. In this paper we used model-based fMRI analysis to create a data-driven model-brain mapping for five modules of the ACT-R cognitive architecture. We then validated this mapping by applying it to two new datasets with associated models. The new mapping was at least as powerful as an existing mapping that was based on the literature, and indicated where the models were supported by the data and where they have to be improved. We conclude that data-driven model-brain mappings can provide strong constraints on cognitive models, and that model-based fMRI is a suitable way to create such mappings.

  20. Sparse multivariate autoregressive modeling for mild cognitive impairment classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Jie, Biao; Peng, Ziwen; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-07-01

    Brain connectivity network derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is becoming increasingly prevalent in the researches related to cognitive and perceptual processes. The capability to detect causal or effective connectivity is highly desirable for understanding the cooperative nature of brain network, particularly when the ultimate goal is to obtain good performance of control-patient classification with biological meaningful interpretations. Understanding directed functional interactions between brain regions via brain connectivity network is a challenging task. Since many genetic and biomedical networks are intrinsically sparse, incorporating sparsity property into connectivity modeling can make the derived models more biologically plausible. Accordingly, we propose an effective connectivity modeling of resting-state fMRI data based on the multivariate autoregressive (MAR) modeling technique, which is widely used to characterize temporal information of dynamic systems. This MAR modeling technique allows for the identification of effective connectivity using the Granger causality concept and reducing the spurious causality connectivity in assessment of directed functional interaction from fMRI data. A forward orthogonal least squares (OLS) regression algorithm is further used to construct a sparse MAR model. By applying the proposed modeling to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) classification, we identify several most discriminative regions, including middle cingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, lingual gyrus and caudate regions, in line with results reported in previous findings. A relatively high classification accuracy of 91.89 % is also achieved, with an increment of 5.4 % compared to the fully-connected, non-directional Pearson-correlation-based functional connectivity approach.

  1. Dynamic simulation of sustainable farm development scenarios using cognitive modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuzhyk Kateryna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation of sustainable farm development scenarios using cognitive modeling. The paper presents a dynamic simulation system of sustainable development scenarios on farms using cognitive modeling. The system incorporates relevant variables which affect the sustainable development of farms. Its user provides answers to strategic issues connected with the level of farm sustainability over a long-term perspective of dynamic development. The work contains a description of the model structure as well as the results of simulations carried out on 16 farms in northern Ukraine. The results show that the process of sustainability is based mainly on the potential for innovation in agricultural production and biodiversity. The user is able to simulate various scenarios for the sustainable development of a farm and visualize the influence of factors on the economic and social situation, as well as on environmental aspects. Upon carrying out a series of simulations, it was determined that the development of farms characterized by sustainable development is based on additional profit, which serves as the main motivation for transforming a conventional farm into a sustainable one. Nevertheless, additional profit is not the only driving force in the system of sustainable development. The standard of living, market condition, and legal regulations as well as government support also play a significant motivational role.

  2. Assessing cognitive processes related to insomnia: A review and measurement guide for Harvey's cognitive model for the maintenance of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Rachel M; Johnston, Anna; Dohnt, Hayley; Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive processes play an important role in the maintenance, and treatment of sleep difficulties, including insomnia. In 2002, a comprehensive model was proposed by Harvey. Since its inception the model has received >300 citations, and provided researchers and clinicians with a framework for understanding and treating insomnia. The aim of this review is two-fold. First, we review the current literature investigating each factor proposed in Harvey's cognitive model of insomnia. Second, we summarise the psychometric properties of key measures used to assess the model's factors and mechanisms. From these aims, we demonstrate both strengths and limitations of the current knowledge of appropriate measurements associated with the model. This review aims to stimulate and guide future research in this area; and provide an understanding of the resources available to measure, target, and resolve cognitive factors that may maintain chronic insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhancing Learning Outcomes: The Internet Mirror Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    The author redesigned an undergraduate physiology course using a novel Internet mirror model: parallel lecture and Internet-based sections conducted so that students can move freely from one to the other (or choose both) during the semester. Within the constraints of this paradigm, he used technology to enhance student learning: adding…

  4. Rasch modeling of accuracy and confidence measures from cognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Insu; Lee, Jihyun; Stankov, Lazar; Wilson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The use of IRT models has not been rigorously applied in studies of the relationship between test-takers' confidence and accuracy. This study applied the Rasch measurement models to investigate the relationship between test-takers' confidence and accuracy on English proficiency tests, proposing potentially useful measures of under or overconfidence. The Rasch approach provided the scaffolding to formulate indices that can assess the discrepancy between confidence and accuracy at the item or total test level, as well as at particular ability levels locally. In addition, a "disattenuated" measure of association between accuracy and confidence, which takes measurement error into account, was obtained through a multidimensional Rasch modeling of the two constructs where the latent variance-covariance structure is directly estimated from the data. The results indicate that the participants tend to show overconfidence bias in their own cognitive abilities.

  5. Cooperative cognitive radio networking system model, enabling techniques, and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Bin; Mark, Jon W

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief examines the active cooperation between users of Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networking (CCRN), exploring the system model, enabling techniques, and performance. The brief provides a systematic study on active cooperation between primary users and secondary users, i.e., (CCRN), followed by the discussions on research issues and challenges in designing spectrum-energy efficient CCRN. As an effort to shed light on the design of spectrum-energy efficient CCRN, they model the CCRN based on orthogonal modulation and orthogonally dual-polarized antenna (ODPA). The resource allocation issues are detailed with respect to both models, in terms of problem formulation, solution approach, and numerical results. Finally, the optimal communication strategies for both primary and secondary users to achieve spectrum-energy efficient CCRN are analyzed.

  6. Predicting the STEM outcomes of academically qualified women: A longitudinal examination of social cognitive career theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Jillian Woodford

    There is a well-documented gender disparity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, which has been the focus of research for several decades (i.e., Betz & Hackett, 1981; Ceci & Williams, 2009, 2010; Wang, Eccles, & Kenny, 2013). Questions as to why this is the case are not new; however, with the growing body of research, there seem to be more questions than answers. This study drew primarily from the vocational psychology literature, particularly Social Cognitive Career Theory, building on previous literature in this area by examining differences in career choices made over time by qualified women across different stages in the education-to-career pathway. The results of the present study indicate that among qualified women many of the SCCT personal and contextual variables are relevant to STEM career development. Moreover, findings from the present study support the hypothesis (Lent et al., 1994) that personal, environmental, and behavioral variables affect one another. An important aspect of the SCCT model is the acknowledgment that at any given point in time, certain variables will carry different weight (Lent et al., 1994). The current study provides further support for this and underscores the necessity of understanding and framing career development as a process, unfolding across several developmental stages. These findings, their generalizability, and implications for practice should be carefully considered in the context of several limitations that this sample was influenced by: limitations in reliability and selection of variables, lack of diversity within the sample, as well as the extraneous variables related to overall economic and political backdrop.

  7. Unpacking buyer-seller differences in valuation from experience: A cognitive modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Scheibehenne, Benjamin

    2017-03-06

    People often indicate a higher price for an object when they own it (i.e., as sellers) than when they do not (i.e., as buyers)-a phenomenon known as the endowment effect. We develop a cognitive modeling approach to formalize, disentangle, and compare alternative psychological accounts (e.g., loss aversion, loss attention, strategic misrepresentation) of such buyer-seller differences in pricing decisions of monetary lotteries. To also be able to test possible buyer-seller differences in memory and learning, we study pricing decisions from experience, obtained with the sampling paradigm, where people learn about a lottery's payoff distribution from sequential sampling. We first formalize different accounts as models within three computational frameworks (reinforcement learning, instance-based learning theory, and cumulative prospect theory), and then fit the models to empirical selling and buying prices. In Study 1 (a reanalysis of published data with hypothetical decisions), models assuming buyer-seller differences in response bias (implementing a strategic-misrepresentation account) performed best; models assuming buyer-seller differences in choice sensitivity or memory (implementing a loss-attention account) generally fared worst. In a new experiment involving incentivized decisions (Study 2), models assuming buyer-seller differences in both outcome sensitivity (as proposed by a loss-aversion account) and response bias performed best. In both Study 1 and 2, the models implemented in cumulative prospect theory performed best. Model recovery studies validated our cognitive modeling approach, showing that the models can be distinguished rather well. In summary, our analysis supports a loss-aversion account of the endowment effect, but also reveals a substantial contribution of simple response bias.

  8. Cognitive-behavioural therapy effects on employment-related outcomes for individuals with mental illness: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Minjoo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: To identify the effects of interventions in cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT on employment-related outcomes world-wide for individuals with mental illness.Research purpose: A search of the relevant literature was conducted through PsychInfo, Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar™, covering the period between 1995 and August 2011. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the criteria from Evidence Based Library and Information Practice (EBLIP. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria.Motivation for the study: Evidence is needed on best practices to support work participation by people with mental illness. Effective cognitive-behavioural intervention might enhance their personal control over participation in employment aside from systemic or policy-oriented interventions.Research approach, design and method: A scoping review was done to map trends in the evidence for CBT as an intervention to support employment participation by people with mental illness. A scoping review is exploratory, the evidence of which lays the basis for subsequent studies. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the EBLIP Critical Appraisal Checklist.Main findings: Cognitive-behaviour therapy was an effective intervention approach for better work productivity, longer work hours, higher re-employment rate and enhanced mental health for individuals with mental illness.Practical/managerial implications: Cognitive-behaviour therapy is a promising strategy for industrial and organisational psychologists dealing with people who have a mental illness. It enhances employment and maintains work adjustment. Additional clinical trials in diverse populations and contexts will further establish its efficacy.Contribution/value-add: This scoping review aggregated the preliminary evidence for the efficacy of cognitive-behaviour therapy as a work-participation intervention for people with mental illness.

  9. Early Clinical Outcomes Demonstrate Preserved Cognitive Function in Children With Average-Risk Medulloblastoma When Treated With Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Tejpal, E-mail: tejpalgupta@rediffmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Jalali, Rakesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Goswami, Savita [Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Nair, Vimoj [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Moiyadi, Aliasgar [Division of Neuro-Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Epari, Sridhar [Department of Pathology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Sarin, Rajiv [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report on acute toxicity, longitudinal cognitive function, and early clinical outcomes in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty children {>=}5 years of age classified as having average-risk medulloblastoma were accrued on a prospective protocol of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) alone. Radiotherapy was delivered with two daily fractions (1 Gy/fraction, 6 to 8 hours apart, 5 days/week), initially to the neuraxis (36 Gy/36 fractions), followed by conformal tumor bed boost (32 Gy/32 fractions) for a total tumor bed dose of 68 Gy/68 fractions over 6 to 7 weeks. Cognitive function was prospectively assessed longitudinally (pretreatment and at specified posttreatment follow-up visits) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to give verbal quotient, performance quotient, and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Results: The median age of the study cohort was 8 years (range, 5-14 years), representing a slightly older cohort. Acute hematologic toxicity was mild and self-limiting. Eight (40%) children had subnormal intelligence (FSIQ <85), including 3 (15%) with mild mental retardation (FSIQ 56-70) even before radiotherapy. Cognitive functioning for all tested domains was preserved in children evaluable at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after completion of HFRT, with no significant decline over time. Age at diagnosis or baseline FSIQ did not have a significant impact on longitudinal cognitive function. At a median follow-up time of 33 months (range, 16-58 months), 3 patients had died (2 of relapse and 1 of accidental burns), resulting in 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 83.5% and 83.2%, respectively. Conclusion: HFRT without upfront chemotherapy has an acceptable acute toxicity profile, without an unduly increased risk of relapse, with preserved cognitive functioning in children with average-risk medulloblastoma.

  10. The Impact of Phenylalanine Levels on Cognitive Outcomes in Adults With Phenylketonuria: Effects Across Tasks and Developmental Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is due to an inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe), leading to its accumulation in the brain. Phe levels can be controlled following a protein-free diet, but cognitive impairments are still present. A number of questions remain to be answered related to which type of metabolic control is important, the age when it is important, the cognitive functions which are most affected and, the best tests to use to monitor cognitive health. Method: We investigated the impact of metabolic control at different ages on cognitive performance in 37 early treated adults with PKU. Results: (a) Phe variation was as associated to performance as average Phe showing that stable dietary control is as important as strict control; (b) For some tasks, current and adult Phe were stronger predictors of performance than childhood or adolescent Phe, showing the importance of a strict diet even in adulthood; and (c) The relationship between performance and Phe levels varied depending on time and cognitive domain. For some functions (sustained attention, visuomotor coordination), Phe at the time of testing was the best predictor. While for other functions (visual attention, executive functions) there was a diminishing or stable relationship across time. Conclusion: Results show the importance of selecting the right tasks to monitor outcomes across ages, but also that the impact of bio-chemical disruptions is different for different functions, at different ages. We show how inherited metabolic diseases offer us a unique vantage point to inform our understanding of brain development and functioning. PMID:28240926

  11. Deconstructing Constructivism: Modeling Causal Relationships Among Constructivist Learning Environment Factors and Student Outcomes in Introductory Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komperda, Regis

    The purpose of this dissertation is to test a model of relationships among factors characterizing aspects of a student-centered constructivist learning environment and student outcomes of satisfaction and academic achievement in introductory undergraduate chemistry courses. Constructivism was chosen as the theoretical foundation for this research because of its widespread use in chemical education research and practice. In a constructivist learning environment the role of the teacher shifts from delivering content towards facilitating active student engagement in activities that encourage individual knowledge construction through discussion and application of content. Constructivist approaches to teaching introductory chemistry courses have been adopted by some instructors as a way to improve student outcomes, but little research has been done on the causal relationships among particular aspects of the learning environment and student outcomes. This makes it difficult for classroom teachers to know which aspects of a constructivist teaching approach are critical to adopt and which may be modified to better suit a particular learning environment while still improving student outcomes. To investigate a model of these relationships, a survey designed to measure student perceptions of three factors characterizing a constructivist learning environment in online courses was adapted for use in face-to-face chemistry courses. These three factors, teaching presence, social presence, and cognitive presence, were measured using a slightly modified version of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) instrument. The student outcomes investigated in this research were satisfaction and academic achievement, as measured by standardized American Chemical Society (ACS) exam scores and course grades. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to statistically model relationships among the three presence factors and student outcome variables for 391 students enrolled in six sections of a

  12. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) of longitudinal brain structural and cognitive changes in alcohol-dependent individuals during sobriety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ping-Hong; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Durazzo, Timothy C; Sjöstrand, Karl; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2007-12-01

    Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) can reveal complex relationships between longitudinal outcome measures and their covariates under proper consideration of potentially unequal error variances. We demonstrate the application of HLM to the study of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived brain volume changes and cognitive changes in abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals as a function of smoking status, smoking severity, and drinking quantities. Twenty non-smoking recovering alcoholics (nsALC) and 30 age-matched smoking recovering alcoholics (sALC) underwent quantitative MRI and cognitive assessments at 1 week, 1 month, and 7 months of sobriety. Eight non-smoking light drinking controls were studied at baseline and 7 months later. Brain and ventricle volumes at each time point were quantified using MRI masks, while the boundary shift integral method measured volume changes between time points. Using HLM, we modeled volumetric and cognitive outcome measures as a function of cigarette and alcohol use variables. Different hierarchical linear models with unique model structures are presented and discussed. The results show that smaller brain volumes at baseline predict faster brain volume gains, which were also related to greater smoking and drinking severities. Over 7 months of abstinence from alcohol, sALC compared to nsALC showed less improvements in visuospatial learning and memory despite larger brain volume gains and ventricular shrinkage. Different and unique hierarchical linear models allow assessments of the complex relationships among outcome measures of longitudinal data sets. These HLM applications suggest that chronic cigarette smoking modulates the temporal dynamics of brain structural and cognitive changes in alcoholics during prolonged sobriety.

  13. Cognitive Model of Trust Dynamics Predicts Human Behavior within and between Two Games of Strategic Interaction with Computerized Confederate Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael G; Juvina, Ion; Gluck, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner's Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game's optimal outcome) as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game's optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game). The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model's a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model's predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair.

  14. Calculus for cognitive scientists partial differential equation models

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, James K

    2016-01-01

    This book shows cognitive scientists in training how mathematics, computer science and science can be usefully and seamlessly intertwined. It is a follow-up to the first two volumes on mathematics for cognitive scientists, and includes the mathematics and computational tools needed to understand how to compute the terms in the Fourier series expansions that solve the cable equation. The latter is derived from first principles by going back to cellular biology and the relevant biophysics.  A detailed discussion of ion movement through cellular membranes, and an explanation of how the equations that govern such ion movement leading to the standard transient cable equation are included. There are also solutions for the cable model using separation of variables, as well an explanation of why Fourier series converge and a description of the implementation of MatLab tools to compute the solutions. Finally, the standard Hodgkin - Huxley model is developed for an excitable neuron and is solved using MatLab.

  15. A cognitive learning model of clinical nursing leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Jacinthe; Dubois, Sylvie; Girard, Francine; Tardif, Jacques; Ha, Laurence

    2011-04-01

    Cognitive modeling of competencies is important to facilitate learning and evaluation. Clinical nursing leadership is considered a competency, as it is a "complex know-act" that students and nurses develop for the quality of care of patients and their families. Previous research on clinical leadership describes the attributes and characteristics of leaders and leadership, but, to our knowledge, a cognitive learning model (CLM) has yet to be developed. The purpose of our research was to develop a CLM of the clinical nursing leadership competency, from the beginning of a nursing program to expertise. An interpretative phenomenological study design was used 1) to document the experience of learning and practicing clinical leadership, and 2) to identify critical-learning turning points. Data was gathered from interviews with 32 baccalaureate students and 21 nurses from two clinical settings. An inductive analysis of data was conducted to determine the learning stages experienced: awareness of clinical leadership in nursing; integration of clinical leadership in actions; active leadership with patient/family; active leadership with the team; and, embedded clinical leadership extended to organizational level and beyond. The resulting CLM could have significant impact on both basic and continuing nursing education. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bariatric Outcomes and Obesity Modeling: Study Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    from Picot et al ( HTA , 2009) BMI LOSS IS NON-LINEAR Source: Picot et al ( HTA , 2009) NATURAL HISTORY MODEL OVERVIEW Source: BOOM Research ANNUAL ESTIMATES...those above 30 BMI Source: BOOM Research ONE-WAY SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS Variables Reference values Minimum Maximum Early Mortality rate (%) 0.23 0 0.5... Early complication rate (%) 2.5 0 5 Sex F M F Age 45 18 70 BMI change at 5 years (%) 20% AGB or 30% GB -10% +10% Discount rate (%) 3 0 5 BMI at

  17. Cognitive, functional, and psychosocial outcome after severe traumatic brain injury: A cross-sectional study at a tertiary care trauma center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI constitutes a significant public health problem. Objectives: To assess cognitive, functional, and psychosocial outcome in patients with severe TBI (STBI. Materials and Methods: A total of 77 survivors of STBI treated at our center were prospectively assessed in the outpatient department 1 year after the injury. These patients were assessed for cognitive, functional, and psychosocial outcome using cognitive outcome tests, dysfunctional analysis questionnaire, and personality trait inventory, respectively. Cognitive and functional outcome was graded as average and above average recovery (good recovery or below average recovery (poor recovery. Psychosocial outcome was assessed as average recovery (good recovery or mild impairment and severe impairment (poor to very poor recovery. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square and Fisher′s exact tests. Results: The ability to learn new things was most affected aspect of cognitive function and only 1% of patients had good recovery in this domain. However, 44% had good outcome for simple memory. A total of 61% showed good recovery in several aspects of functional status. At the end of 1 year, 62.5% patients still remained unemployed. 45.4% patients had good recovery, while 37% had severe impairment for various personality traits and 40% of patients had impaired emotional stability, while 57% patients showed impaired recovery in depressive tendency. Conclusion: In this study 61% patients with STBI had good recovery in functional outcome and 45.4% in psychosocial outcome at 1 year follow-up. However, improvement in cognitive outcome was not so optimistic with the ability to learn new things being most affected.

  18. Psychiatric disorders and cognitive outcomes in children and adolescent with perinatally acquired HIV – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielińska, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of research on consequences of HIV infection is on adult population and not much attention is given to children, especially to children with perinatally acquired HIV. Researches have shown higher frequency of mental disorders in this group. HIV infection also has a negative impact on cognitive functions, especially attention concentration. Among the possible causes of mental disorders and cognitive impairment, attention is not only paid to the neurotoxic effects of HIV on the CNS, but also on other factors, such as awareness of chronic disease, the impact of opportunistic infections and side effects of antiviral therapy. Comorbid psychiatric disorders correlate with worse compliance and higher prevalence of risk behaviors among infected adolescents. This article reviews what is known about psychiatric disorders and cognitive disorders among perinatal HIV-infected children.

  19. Virtual Learning Simulations in High School: Effects on Cognitive and Non-cognitive Outcomes and Implications on the Development of STEM Academic and Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thisgaard, Malene; Makransky, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The present study compared the value of using a virtual learning simulation compared to traditional lessons on the topic of evolution, and investigated if the virtual learning simulation could serve as a catalyst for STEM academic and career development, based on social cognitive career theory. The investigation was conducted using a crossover repeated measures design based on a sample of 128 high school biology/biotech students. The results showed that the virtual learning simulation increased knowledge of evolution significantly, compared to the traditional lesson. No significant differences between the simulation and lesson were found in their ability to increase the non-cognitive measures. Both interventions increased self-efficacy significantly, and none of them had a significant effect on motivation. In addition, the results showed that the simulation increased interest in biology related tasks, but not outcome expectations. The findings suggest that virtual learning simulations are at least as efficient in enhancing learning and self-efficacy as traditional lessons, and high schools can thus use them as supplementary educational methods. In addition, the findings indicate that virtual learning simulations may be a useful tool in enhancing student's interest in and goals toward STEM related careers.

  20. Α Markov model for longitudinal studies with incomplete dichotomous outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiou, Orestis; Welton, Nicky; Samara, Myrto; Leucht, Stefan; Salanti, Georgia

    2017-03-01

    Missing outcome data constitute a serious threat to the validity and precision of inferences from randomized controlled trials. In this paper, we propose the use of a multistate Markov model for the analysis of incomplete individual patient data for a dichotomous outcome reported over a period of time. The model accounts for patients dropping out of the study and also for patients relapsing. The time of each observation is accounted for, and the model allows the estimation of time-dependent relative treatment effects. We apply our methods to data from a study comparing the effectiveness of 2 pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. The model jointly estimates the relative efficacy and the dropout rate and also allows for a wide range of clinically interesting inferences to be made. Assumptions about the missingness mechanism and the unobserved outcomes of patients dropping out can be incorporated into the analysis. The presented method constitutes a viable candidate for analyzing longitudinal, incomplete binary data.

  1. Preoperative prediction model of outcome after cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borly, L; Anderson, I B; Bardram, Linda

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease 20%-30% of the patients continue to have abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether preoperative variables could predict the symptomatic outcome after cholecystectomy. METHODS: One hundred and two patients...... and sonography evaluated gallbladder motility, gallstones, and gallbladder volume. Preoperative variables in patients with or without postcholecystectomy pain were compared statistically, and significant variables were combined in a logistic regression model to predict the postoperative outcome. RESULTS: Eighty...

  2. Effects of combined physical and cognitive training on fitness and neuropsychological outcomes in healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desjardins-Crépeau L

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau,1,2 Nicolas Berryman,2,3 Sarah A Fraser,4 Thien Tuong Minh Vu,5,6 Marie-Jeanne Kergoat,2,6 Karen ZH Li,7 Laurent Bosquet,8 Louis Bherer2,7 1Department of Psychology, University of Quebec at Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Research Center, Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Department of Sports Studies, Bishop’s University, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada; 4Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 5Research Center, Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 6Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 7Department of Psychology and PERFORM Centre, Concordia University, Montréal, QC, Canada; 8Faculté des sciences du sport, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France Purpose: Physical exercise and cognitive training have been shown to enhance cognition among older adults. However, few studies have looked at the potential synergetic effects of combining physical and cognitive training in a single study. Prior trials on combined training have led to interesting yet equivocal results. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of combined physical and cognitive interventions on physical fitness and neuropsychological performance in healthy older adults.Methods: Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to one of four training combinations using a 2×2 factorial design. The physical intervention was a mixed aerobic and resistance training program, and the cognitive intervention was a dual-task (DT training program. Stretching and toning exercises and computer lessons were used as active control conditions. Physical and cognitive measures were collected pre- and postintervention.Results: All groups showed equivalent improvements in measures of functional mobility. The aerobic–strength condition led to larger effect size in lower body strength, independently of cognitive training

  3. Integral-Value Models for Outcomes over Continuous Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Charles M.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    Models of preferences between outcomes over continuous time are important for individual, corporate, and social decision making, e.g., medical treatment, infrastructure development, and environmental regulation. This paper presents a foundation for such models. It shows that conditions on prefere...

  4. Measurement equivalence of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS® Applied Cognition – General Concerns, short forms in ethnically diverse groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fieo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The goals of these analyses were to examine the psychometric properties and measurement equivalence of a self-reported cognition measure, the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System® (PROMIS® Applied Cognition – General Concerns short form. These items are also found in the PROMIS Cognitive Function (version 2 item bank. This scale consists of eight items related to subjective cognitive concerns. Differential item functioning (DIF analyses of gender, education, race, age, and (Spanish language were performed using an ethnically diverse sample (n = 5,477 of individuals with cancer. This is the first analysis examining DIF in this item set across ethnic and racial groups. Methods: DIF hypotheses were derived by asking content experts to indicate whether they posited DIF for each item and to specify the direction. The principal DIF analytic model was item response theory (IRT using the graded response model for polytomous data, with accompanying Wald tests and measures of magnitude. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using ordinal logistic regression (OLR with a latent conditioning variable. IRT-based reliability, precision and information indices were estimated. Results: DIF was identified consistently only for the item, brain not working as well as usual. After correction for multiple comparisons, this item showed significant DIF for both the primary and sensitivity analyses. Black respondents and Hispanics in comparison to White non-Hispanic respondents evidenced a lower conditional probability of endorsing the item, brain not working as well as usual. The same pattern was observed for the education grouping variable: as compared to those with a graduate degree, conditioning on overall level of subjective cognitive concerns, those with less than high school education also had a lower probability of endorsing this item. DIF was observed for age for two items after correction for multiple comparisons for both the IRT and

  5. Dysfunctional cognitions and their emotional, behavioral, and functional correlates in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): is the cognitive-behavioral model valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Fernando; López, Pablo; Alvarez Prado, Dolores; Kichic, Rafael; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Lischinsky, Alicia; Manes, Facundo

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the presence of dysfunctional cognitions in adults with ADHD and to determine whether these cognitions are associated with emotional symptoms, maladaptive coping, and functional impairment, as predicted by the cognitive-behavioral model. A total of 35 adult participants with ADHD, 20 nonclinical controls, and 20 non-ADHD clinical controls were assessed with measures of ADHD symptoms, dysfunctional cognitions, depression and anxiety symptoms, coping strategies, and quality of life. ADHD group showed elevated scores of dysfunctional cognitions relative to nonclinical control group and comparable with clinical control group. Dysfunctional cognitions were strongly associated with emotional symptoms. ADHD group also showed elevated scores in maladaptive coping strategies of the escape-avoidance type. Life impairment was satisfactorily predicted in data analysis when ADHD symptoms, dysfunctional cognitions, and emotional symptoms were fitted into a regression model. Cognitive-behavioral therapy model appears to be a valid complementary model for understanding emotional and life impairment in adults with ADHD. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  6. Treatment of a Child With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder With Limited Motivation: Course and Outcome of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidle, Bernhard; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur

    2016-11-01

    Motivation is a key ingredient in the successful treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As a first-line treatment, cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) requires extensive client engagement, including participating in exposures and doing homework tasks. A lack of motivation to comply with these tasks may seriously affect treatment outcome. This case study identifies factors interfering with motivation and illustrates motivational strategies to enhance compliance of a child with OCD. The patient was an 11-year-old boy with severe OCD and symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). He had extensive OCD-related avoidance behavior but denied the presence of symptoms or did not acknowledge them as a problem. In this article, we discuss the different techniques used to enhance motivation, which subsequently led to a favorable outcome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Physiotherapy and low back pain - part iii: outcomes research utilising the biosychosocial model: psychosocial outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Bardin

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of low back pain (LBPhas evolved that necessitates the use of a biopsychosocial model, focusing on illness rather than disease and incorporating the biological, psychological and social aspects that are important to understand and to study LBP in its chronic form. Traditional outcome measures that measure elements within the biological component are limited to assess the spectrum of impacts caused by chronic low back pain (CLBP and the validity, reliability and sensitivity of some of these measures has been questioned.Few physiologic tests of spine function are clinically meaningful to patients, objective physical findings can be absent, and in CLBP disability and activity intolerance are often disproportional to the original injury. Biological outcomes should be complemented by outcomes of the psychosocial aspects of back pain that measure the considerable functional and emotional impact on the quality of life of patients experiencing low back dysfunction. Outcomes research is an analysis of clinical practice as it actually occurs and can  make a valuable contribution to understanding the multidimensional impact of LBP. Psychosocial aspects of the biopsychosocial model for outcomes research are discussed in part III: functional status/disability, psychological impairment, patient satisfaction, health related quality of life

  8. Interaction of genotype and environment: Effect of strain and housing condition on cognitive behaviour in rodent models of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karly M. Turner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with many genetic and environmental risk factors and there is growing evidence that the interactions between genetic and environmental ‘hits’ are critical for disease onset. Animal models of schizophrenia have traditionally used specific strain and housing conditions to test potential risk factors. As the field moves towards testing gene (G x environment (E interactions the impact of these choices should be considered. Given the surge of research focused on cognitive deficits, we have examined studies of cognition in rodents from the perspective of GxE interactions, in which strain or housing manipulations have been varied. Behaviour is clearly altered by these factors, yet few animal models of schizophrenia have investigated cognitive deficits using different strain and housing conditions. It is important to recognise the large variation in behaviour observed when using different strain and housing combinations because GxE interactions may mask or exacerbate cognitive outcomes. Further consideration will improve our understanding of GxE interactions and the underlying neurobiology of cognitive impairments in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  9. Cognitive Elements of Empowerment: An "Interpretive" Model of Intrinsic Task Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Kenneth W.; Velthouse, Betty A.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents a cognitive model of empowerment. Here, empowerment is defined as increased intrinsic task motivation, and our subsequent model identifies four cognitions (task assessments) as the basis for worker empowerment: sense of impact, competence, meaningfulness, and choice. Adopting an interpretive perspective, we have used the model also to describe cognitive processes through which workers reach these conclusions. Central to the processes we describe are ...

  10. Model-based cognitive neuroscience: a conceptual introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter shows how the separate fields of mathematical psychology and cognitive neuroscience can interact to their mutual benefit. Historically, the field of mathematical psychology is mostly concerned with formal theories of behavior, whereas cognitive neuroscience is mostly concerned

  11. Model-based cognitive neuroscience: a conceptual introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter shows how the separate fields of mathematical psychology and cognitive neuroscience can interact to their mutual benefit. Historically, the field of mathematical psychology is mostly concerned with formal theories of behavior, whereas cognitive neuroscience is mostly concerned

  12. Latent Variable Models, Cognitive Modelling, and Working Memory: a Meeting Point

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Villagra, Odir Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Latent variable models and formal cognitive models share some elements of their object of study, variousphilosophical aspects, and some parts of their methodology. Nevertheless, little communication exists between their theories and findings. In order to highlight similarities and differences, this study implemented and tested a formal model proposing that interference among representations is a mechanism limiting working memory capacity (i.e., the interference model of Oberauer & Kliegl, 200...

  13. Cognitive aging and hearing acuity: modeling spoken language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Arthur; Amichetti, Nicole M; Lash, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The comprehension of spoken language has been characterized by a number of "local" theories that have focused on specific aspects of the task: models of word recognition, models of selective attention, accounts of thematic role assignment at the sentence level, and so forth. The ease of language understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) stands as one of the few attempts to offer a fully encompassing framework for language understanding. In this paper we discuss interactions between perceptual, linguistic, and cognitive factors in spoken language understanding. Central to our presentation is an examination of aspects of the ELU model that apply especially to spoken language comprehension in adult aging, where speed of processing, working memory capacity, and hearing acuity are often compromised. We discuss, in relation to the ELU model, conceptions of working memory and its capacity limitations, the use of linguistic context to aid in speech recognition and the importance of inhibitory control, and language comprehension at the sentence level. Throughout this paper we offer a constructive look at the ELU model; where it is strong and where there are gaps to be filled.

  14. Assessing Outcome in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Child Depression: An Illustrative Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    Recent meta-analytic data suggest a need for ongoing evaluation of treatments for youth depression. The present article calls attention to a number of issues relevant to the empirical evaluation of if and how cognitive behavior therapy for child depression works. A case series of 6 children and a primary caregiver received treatment--individual…

  15. The Joint Influence of Mother and Father Parenting on Child Cognitive Outcomes at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    Few studies of parenting have considered the possibility that the association between one parent's supportive parenting and a child's early cognition is moderated by the other parent's supportiveness. We test this proposition using a low-income sample of coresident couples. In addition, we cross-classify parents within couples according to their…

  16. Assessing Academic Advising Outcomes Using Social Cognitive Theory: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2012-01-01

    The validity and reliability of three instruments, the "Counselor Rubric for Gauging Student Understanding of Academic Planning," micro-analytic questions, and the "Student Survey for Understanding Academic Planning," all based on social cognitive theory, were tested as means to assess self-efficacy and self-regulated learning in college academic…

  17. Cognitive and Behavioral Treatments of Agoraphobia: Clinical, Behavioral, and Psychophysiological Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Larry; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Agoraphobics (N=37) were randomly assigned to one of three cognitive-behavioral treatments: paradoxical intention, graduated exposure, or progressive deep muscle relaxation training. Results of follow-up analyses revealed statistically significant differences across treatments, tripartite response systems, and assessment phases. (Author/BL)

  18. Assessing Academic Advising Outcomes Using Social Cognitive Theory: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2012-01-01

    The validity and reliability of three instruments, the "Counselor Rubric for Gauging Student Understanding of Academic Planning," micro-analytic questions, and the "Student Survey for Understanding Academic Planning," all based on social cognitive theory, were tested as means to assess self-efficacy and self-regulated learning in college academic…

  19. Illness cognitions in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Predicting quality of life outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Scharloo (Margreet); R.J.B. de Jong; T.P.M. Langeveld (ton); E. van Velzen-Verkaik (Els); M.M. den Doorn-op den Akker (Margreet); A.A. Kaptein (Adrian)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGoals of work: This paper presents an observational study of the longitudinal effects of cancer treatment on quality of life (QoL) in patients treated for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and evaluated the contribution of patients' baseline illness cognitions to the predict

  20. Cognitive and developmental outcome of conservatively treated children with congenital hyperinsulinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Shraga, Yael; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Kraus-Houminer, Efrat; Landau, Heddy; Mazor-Aronovitch, Kineret; Modan-Moses, Dalit; Gillis, David; Koren, Ilana; Dollberg, Daphna; Gabis, Lidia V

    2013-01-01

    Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in infants. Its management can be extremely complicated, and may involve medical therapy and surgery. The mainstay of the treatment is to maintain normoglycemia, since hypoglycemia during infancy can have severe neurological consequences. To assess the cognitive and developmental levels and the adaptive skills achieved by children with CHI who were treated medically over the past decade. Fourteen children with CHI, under the age of 10 years, who received medical treatment only, underwent a physical and neurological examination and standardized assessments that included the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Edition, or Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) parent questionnaire form. Twelve children (86%) achieved normal range scores in the cognitive and development assessments (Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development or Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children). Only two showed cognitive achievements below the normal range. The Vineland questionnaire, which was based on parental report, showed below normal adaptive skills in eight patients (57%). In contrast to previous studies showing a high prevalence of neurodevelopmental difficulties in children with congenital hyperinsulinism, our study showed normal cognitive achievements in most children. This may be attributed to the earlier recognition and better management of the disease in the past decade.

  1. Pretreatment and Process Predictors of Outcome in Interpersonal and Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Saelens, Brian E.; Stein, Richard I.; Mockus, Danyte S.; Welch, R. Robinson; Matt, Georg E.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined pretreatment and process predictors of individual nonresponse to psychological group treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized trial, 162 overweight patients with BED were treated with either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group interpersonal psychotherapy. Treatment nonresponse, which was defined…

  2. Predictors of cognitive and psychosocial outcome after STN DBS in Parkinson's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeding, H.M.M.; Speelman, J.D.; Huizenga, H.M.; Schuurman, P.R.; Schmand, B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To find predictors of cognitive decline and quality of life one year after bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods: A total of 105 patients were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment before and 12 months after surgery

  3. Assessing Outcome in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Child Depression: An Illustrative Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    Recent meta-analytic data suggest a need for ongoing evaluation of treatments for youth depression. The present article calls attention to a number of issues relevant to the empirical evaluation of if and how cognitive behavior therapy for child depression works. A case series of 6 children and a primary caregiver received treatment--individual…

  4. Modeling cognitive loads for evolving shared mental models in human-agent collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaocong; Yen, John

    2011-04-01

    Recent research on human-centered teamwork highly demands the design of cognitive agents that can model and exploit human partners' cognitive load to enhance team performance. In this paper, we focus on teams composed of human-agent pairs and develop a system called Shared Mental Models for all--SMMall. SMMall implements a hidden Markov model (HMM)-based cognitive load model for an agent to predict its human partner's instantaneous cognitive load status. It also implements a user interface (UI) concept called shared belief map, which offers a synergic representation of team members' information space and allows them to share beliefs. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the HMM-based load models. The results indicate that the HMM-based load models are effective in helping team members develop a shared mental model (SMM), and the benefit of load-based information sharing becomes more significant as communication capacity increases. It also suggests that multiparty communication plays an important role in forming/evolving team SMMs, and when a group of agents can be partitioned into subteams, splitting messages by their load status can be more effective for developing subteam SMMs.

  5. Fuzzy cognitive mapping in support of integrated ecosystem assessments: Developing a shared conceptual model among stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasslides, James M; Jensen, Olaf P

    2016-01-15

    Ecosystem-based approaches, including integrated ecosystem assessments, are a popular methodology being used to holistically address management issues in social-ecological systems worldwide. In this study we utilized fuzzy logic cognitive mapping to develop conceptual models of a complex estuarine system among four stakeholder groups. The average number of categories in an individual map was not significantly different among groups, and there were no significant differences between the groups in the average complexity or density indices of the individual maps. When ordered by their complexity scores, eight categories contributed to the top four rankings of the stakeholder groups, with six of the categories shared by at least half of the groups. While non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analysis displayed a high degree of overlap between the individual models across groups, there was also diversity within each stakeholder group. These findings suggest that while all of the stakeholders interviewed perceive the subject ecosystem as a complex series of social and ecological interconnections, there are a core set of components that are present in most of the groups' models that are crucial in managing the system towards some desired outcome. However, the variability in the connections between these core components and the rest of the categories influences the exact nature of these outcomes. Understanding the reasons behind these differences will be critical to developing a shared conceptual model that will be acceptable to all stakeholder groups and can serve as the basis for an integrated ecosystem assessment.

  6. Relationship of collegiate football experience and concussion with hippocampal volume and cognitive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rashmi; Meier, Timothy B; Kuplicki, Rayus; Savitz, Jonathan; Mukai, Ikuko; Cavanagh, LaMont; Allen, Thomas; Teague, T Kent; Nerio, Christopher; Polanski, David; Bellgowan, Patrick S F

    2014-05-14

    Concussion and subconcussive impacts have been associated with short-term disrupted cognitive performance in collegiate athletes, but there are limited data on their long-term neuroanatomic and cognitive consequences. To assess the relationships of concussion history and years of football experience with hippocampal volume and cognitive performance in collegiate football athletes. Cross-sectional study conducted between June 2011 and August 2013 at a US psychiatric research institute specializing in neuroimaging among collegiate football players with a history of clinician-diagnosed concussion (n = 25), collegiate football players without a history of concussion (n = 25), and non-football-playing, age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (n = 25). History of clinician-diagnosed concussion and years of football experience. High-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify brain volumes. Baseline scores on a computerized concussion-related cognitive battery were used for cognitive assessment in athletes. Players with and without a history of concussion had smaller hippocampal volumes relative to healthy control participants (with concussion: t48 = 7.58; P football played (t46 = -3.62; P football and reaction time (ρ42 = -0.43; 95% CI, -0.46 to -0.40; P = .005). Among a group of collegiate football athletes, there was a significant inverse relationship of concussion and years of football played with hippocampal volume. Years of football experience also correlated with slower reaction time. Further research is needed to determine the temporal relationships of these findings.

  7. Cognitive Systems Modeling and Analysis of Command and Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Military operations, counter-terrorism operations and emergency response often oblige operators and commanders to operate within distributed organizations and systems for safe and effective mission accomplishment. Tactical commanders and operators frequently encounter violent threats and critical demands on cognitive capacity and reaction time. In the future they will make decisions in situations where operational and system characteristics are highly dynamic and non-linear, i.e. minor events, decisions or actions may have serious and irreversible consequences for the entire mission. Commanders and other decision makers must manage true real time properties at all levels; individual operators, stand-alone technical systems, higher-order integrated human-machine systems and joint operations forces alike. Coping with these conditions in performance assessment, system development and operational testing is a challenge for both practitioners and researchers. This paper reports on research from which the results led to a breakthrough: An integrated approach to information-centered systems analysis to support future command and control systems research development. This approach integrates several areas of research into a coherent framework, Action Control Theory (ACT). It comprises measurement techniques and methodological advances that facilitate a more accurate and deeper understanding of the operational environment, its agents, actors and effectors, generating new and updated models. This in turn generates theoretical advances. Some good examples of successful approaches are found in the research areas of cognitive systems engineering, systems theory, and psychophysiology, and in the fields of dynamic, distributed decision making and naturalistic decision making.

  8. Cognitive bias in the chick anxiety-depression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmeto, Amy L; Hymel, Kristen A; Carpenter, Erika C; Brilot, Ben O; Bateson, Melissa; Sufka, Kenneth J

    2011-02-10

    Cognitive bias is a phenomenon that presents in clinical populations where anxious individuals tend to adopt a more pessimistic-like interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli whereas depressed individuals tend to adopt a less optimistic-like interpretation of ambiguous appetitive stimuli. To further validate the chick anxiety-depression model as a neuropsychiatric simulation we sought to quantify this cognitive endophenotype. Chicks exposed to an isolation stressor of 5m to induce an anxiety-like or 60 m to induce a depressive-like state were then tested in a straight alley maze to a series of morphed ambiguous appetitive (chick silhouette) to aversive (owl silhouette) cues. In non-isolated controls, runway start and goal latencies generally increased as a function of greater amounts of aversive characteristics in the cues. In chicks in the anxiety-like state, runway latencies were increased to aversive ambiguous cues, reflecting more pessimistic-like behavior. In chicks in the depression-like state, runway latencies were increased to both aversive and appetitive ambiguous cues, reflecting more pessimistic-like and less optimistic-like behavior, respectively.

  9. Characterizing cognitive aging of associative memory in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, James R; Barnes, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    An overview is provided of the simple single-cue delay and trace eyeblink conditioning paradigms as techniques to assess associative learning and memory in the aged. We highlight and focus this review on the optimization of the parameter space of eyeblink conditioning designs in the aged to avoid and control for potential confounds that may arise when studying aged mammals. The need to examine the contribution of non-associative factors that can contribute to performance outcomes is emphasized, and how age-related changes in the central nervous system as well as peripheral sensory factors can potentially bias the interpretation of the data in the aged is discussed. The way in which slight alterations of the parameter space in the delay and trace eyeblink conditioning paradigms can lead to delayed but intact conditioning, rather than impaired performance in aged animals is also discussed. Overall, the eyeblink conditioning paradigm, when optimized for the age of the animal in the study, is an elegantly simple technique for assessment of associative learning and memory. When design caveats described above are taken into account, this important type of memory, with its well-defined neural substrates, should definitely be included in cognitive assessment batteries for the aged.

  10. Characterizing cognitive aging of associative memory in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Engle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An overview is provided of the simple single-cue delay and trace eyeblink conditioning paradigms as techniques to assess associative learning and memory in the aged. We highlight and focus this review on the optimization of the parameter space of eyeblink conditioning designs in the aged to avoid and control for potential confounds that may arise when studying aged mammals. The need to examine the contribution of non-associative factors that can contribute to performance outcomes is emphasized, and how age-related changes in the central nervous system as well as peripheral sensory factors can potentially bias the interpretation of the data in the aged is discussed. The way in which slight alterations of the parameter space in the delay and trace eyeblink conditioning paradigms can lead to delayed but intact conditioning, rather than impaired performance in aged animals is also discussed. Overall, the eyeblink conditioning paradigm, when optimized for the age of the animal in the study, is an elegantly simple technique for assessment of associative learning and memory. When design caveats described above are taken into account, this important type of memory, with its well-defined neural substrates, should definitely be included in cognitive assessment batteries for the aged.

  11. The impact of interpersonal patient and therapist behavior on outcome in cognitive-behavior therapy. A review of empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, G P; Schaap, C P; Hoogduin, C A

    2000-04-01

    Empirical studies are reviewed, the aim being to investigate characteristics of the therapeutic relationship in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) and to identify therapist or patient interpersonal behavior that affects treatment outcome. CBT is characterized by a more active and directive stance on the part of the therapists and higher levels of emotional support than are found in insight-oriented psychotherapies. Therapists express high levels of empathy and unconditional positive regard, similar to those expressed by insight-oriented psychotherapists. Two clusters of interpersonal behavior have been identified that are clearly associated with CBT outcome: (a) the Rogerian therapist variables--empathy, nonpossessive warmth, positive regard, and genuineness; and (b) therapeutic alliance. There is some evidence for the impact on outcome of three additional clusters of patient behavior: (a) the patients' perception of the therapist as being self-confident, skillful, and active; (b) the patients' openness to discuss their problems; and (c) the patients' pretreatment predisposition to change and to accept psychological treatment as a means of achieving this. It is further concluded that relationship factors in general have a consistent but moderate impact on CBT outcome.

  12. Cognitive Model Exploration and Optimization: A New Challenge for Computational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    colleagues is called MindModeling@Home, and it too runs on the BOINC infrastructure (Harris, Gluck, Mielke & Moore, 2009). Projects that work well with...mathematical and cognitive modeling. Cognitive Science, 33(5), 880-910. Harris, J., Gluck, K. A., Mielke , T., & Moore, L. R. (2009). MindModeling

  13. Parental Attachment, Cognitive Working Models, and Depression among African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Keisha M.; Murdock, Tamera B.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the cognitive mechanisms by which parental attachments predict depression among African American college students, the authors examined a mediational path model containing parental attachment, cognitive working models, and depression. The model demonstrated a close fit to the data, and several significant paths emerged.…

  14. Distributed Cognition and the Shared Knowledge Model of the Mazahua: A Cultural Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Mariette

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of distributed cognition and school reform focuses on the teaching and learning practices of a Native American group, the Mexican Mazahuas. Topics include knowledge construction; a shared knowledge model of learning; interconnectedness between knowledge and practice; models of guidance; cognitive apprenticeship models; shared…

  15. Ability, Breadth, and Parsimony in Computational Models of Higher-Order Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimatis, Nicholas L.; Bello, Paul; Langley, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Computational models will play an important role in our understanding of human higher-order cognition. How can a model's contribution to this goal be evaluated? This article argues that three important aspects of a model of higher-order cognition to evaluate are (a) its ability to reason, solve problems, converse, and learn as well as people do;…

  16. Implications of Neuroscientific Evidence for the Cognitive Models of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruwys, Tegan; O'Kearney, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Brewin's dual representation theory, Ehlers and Clark's cognitive appraisal model, and Dalgleish's schematic, propositional, analogue and associative representational systems model are considered in the light of recent evidence on the neural substrates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The models' proposals about the cognitive mechanism of…

  17. COGNITIVE MODELS OF PREDICTION THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DIVERSIFIED CORPORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranovskaya T. P.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of classical forecasting methods applied to a diversified corporation faces some certain difficulties, due to its economic nature. Unlike other businesses, diversified corporations are characterized by multidimensional arrays of data with a high degree of distortion and fragmentation of information due to the cumulative effect of the incompleteness and distortion of accounting information from the enterprises in it. Under these conditions, the applied methods and tools must have high resolution and work effectively with large databases with incomplete information, ensure the correct common comparable quantitative processing of the heterogeneous nature of the factors measured in different units. It is therefore necessary to select or develop some methods that can work with complex poorly formalized tasks. This fact substantiates the relevance of the problem of developing models, methods and tools for solving the problem of forecasting the development of diversified corporations. This is the subject of this work, which makes it relevant. The work aims to: 1 analyze the forecasting methods to justify the choice of system-cognitive analysis as one of the effective methods for the prediction of semi-structured tasks; 2 to adapt and develop the method of systemic-cognitive analysis for forecasting of dynamics of development of the corporation subject to the scenario approach; 3 to develop predictive model scenarios of changes in basic economic indicators of development of the corporation and to assess their credibility; 4 determine the analytical form of the dependence between past and future scenarios of various economic indicators; 5 develop analytical models weighing predictable scenarios, taking into account all prediction results with positive levels of similarity, to increase the level of reliability of forecasts; 6 to develop a calculation procedure to assess the strength of influence on the corporation (sensitivity of its

  18. An evaluation of the effects of diagnostic composition on individual treatment outcome within transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral group therapy for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Lance D; Norton, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Recently, studies have supported the efficacy of treating anxiety disorders utilizing a transdiagnostic, or non-diagnosis-specific, framework (Erickson, D. H. (2003). Group cognitive behavioural therapy for heterogeneous anxiety disorders. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 32, 179-186; Garcia, M. S. (2004). Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with anxiety disorders. Psychology in Spain, 8, 89-97; Norton, P. J., & Hope, D. A. (2005). Preliminary evaluation of a broad-spectrum cognitive-behavioral group therapy for anxiety. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 36, 79-97). Transdiagnostic group treatment packages focus on the common aspects inherent across the anxiety disorders such as behavioral and cognitive avoidance, and faulty cognitive appraisals of threat potential or meaning (Barlow, D. H., Allen, L. B., & Choate, M. L. (2004). Toward a unified treatment for emotional disorders. Behavior Therapy, 35, 205-230). Although research supports the overall efficacy of transdiagnostic cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders (Norton, P. J., & Philipp, L. M. (2008). Transdiagnostic approaches to the treatment of anxiety disorders: A quantitative review. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice and Training, 45, 214-226), the effect of diagnostically mixed group composition on individual outcomes is less clear. This study investigated the relationship between group composition and treatment outcome within diagnostically heterogeneous groups with the purpose of determining if diagnostic heterogeneity differentially impacted treatment outcome for 84 individuals during a 12-week transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral group anxiety treatment program (Norton, P. J. (2012a). Group cognitive-behavioral therapy of anxiety: A transdiagnostic treatment manual. New York: Guilford). The diagnostic makeup of the treatment group was examined at the beginning of treatment and at the end of treatment, and the results indicated

  19. Overgeneralized Beliefs, Accommodation, and Treatment Outcome in Youth Receiving Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, C Beth; Hayes, Adele M; Yasinski, Carly W; Webb, Charles; Gallop, Robert; Deblinger, Esther; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Inhibition of fear generalization with new learning is an important process in treatments for anxiety disorders. Generalization of maladaptive cognitions related to traumatic experiences (overgeneralized beliefs) have been demonstrated to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult populations, whereas more balanced, accommodated beliefs are associated with symptom improvement. It is not yet clear whether (a) overgeneralization and accommodation are associated with PTSD treatment outcome in youth, or (b whether accommodated beliefs can interact with or inhibit cognitive overgeneralization, as has been demonstrated in research on behavior-based fear generalization. The current study examined the relationships between overgeneralized and accommodated beliefs, child age, and symptom reduction in a sample of 81 youth (age 7-17 years), who received Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Overgeneralized and accommodated beliefs expressed during the exposure phase of treatment were coded in audio-recorded therapy sessions. Overgeneralization predicted (a) higher internalizing symptom scores at posttreatment, particularly for younger children, and less improvement over treatment, and (b) higher externalizing scores at 1-year follow-up and steeper symptom increases over this period. In contrast, accommodation was associated with (a) lower posttreatment internalizing symptoms and greater improvement over treatment, and (b) lower externalizing scores at 1-year follow-up, particularly for younger children. High levels of accommodation moderated the relationship between overgeneralization and worse symptom outcomes, except when predicting the slope of internalizing scores over treatment, and age did not moderate these effects. There were no significant predictors of child-reported PTSD-specific symptoms, although PTSD symptoms did decrease significantly over the course of treatment and maintain 1year after treatment.

  20. Models of cognitive behavior in nuclear power plant personnel. A feasibility study: main report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, D.D.; Roth, E.M.; Hanes, L.F.

    1986-07-01

    This report contains the results of a feasibility study to determine if the current state of models human cognitive activities can serve as the basis for improved techniques for predicting human error in nuclear power plants emergency operations. Based on the answer to this questions, two subsequent phases of research are planned. Phase II is to develop a model of cognitive activities, and Phase III is to test the model. The feasibility study included an analysis of the cognitive activities that occur in emergency operations and an assessment of the modeling concepts/tools available to capture these cognitive activities. The results indicated that a symbolic processing (or artificial intelligence) model of cognitive activities in nuclear power plants is both desirable and feasible. This cognitive model can be built upon the computational framework provided by an existing artificial intelligence system for medical problem solving called Caduceus. The resulting cognitive model will increase the capability to capture the human contribution to risk in probabilistic risk assessments studies. Volume I summarizes the major findings and conclusions of the study. Volume II provides a complete description of the methods and results, including a synthesis of the cognitive activities that occur during emergency operations, and a literature review on cognitive modeling relevant to nuclear power plants. 112 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Multi-dimensional profiling of medical students' cognitive models about learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askell-Williams, Helen; Lawson, Michael J

    2006-02-01

    In current constructivist paradigms, learners' previous subject-matter knowledge, or cognitive models, provide the foundations for the construction of new knowledge. Learners' cognitive models about learning also mediate students' capacities to learn in their chosen topics of study. The diverse backgrounds of students entering medicine suggest that they might come to medical studies equipped with a wide variety of cognitive models about learning. Some current theories tend to reduce students' cognitions about learning to parsimonious representations, such as surface-deep approaches or mastery-performance goals. It is possible that such reduced representations underrepresent, or misrepresent, the complexity of students' cognitive models about learning. Good quality teaching needs to take account of learners' cognitive models, not just about subject matter, but also about learning. This study investigated the diversity and complexity of medical students' cognitive models about learning. A total of 7 graduate entry, clinical-year medical students volunteered for in-depth interviews about learning. NUD*IST text analysis software and correspondence analysis were employed to identify dimensions and to profile students' responses. The correspondence analysis identified a significant 4-dimensional solution that illustrates the contributions of multiple variables to students' cognitive models about learning. Individual profiles highlight diversity between participants. This study provides evidence that students' cognitive models about learning are complex and highly differentiated. Representations of what students know about learning need to take account of such complexity in order to inform instructional practice more adequately.

  2. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence From Word Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's cognitive plausibility. We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition model can aim to be cognitively plausible in multiple ways. We discuss these cognitive plausibility checkpoints generally and then apply them to a case study in word segmentation, investigating a promising Bayesian segmentation strategy. We incorporate cognitive plausibility by using an age-appropriate unit of perceptual representation, evaluating the model output in terms of its utility, and incorporating cognitive constraints into the inference process. Our more cognitively plausible model shows a beneficial effect of cognitive constraints on segmentation performance. One interpretation of this effect is as a synergy between the naive theories of language structure that infants may have and the cognitive constraints that limit the fidelity of their inference processes, where less accurate inference approximations are better when the underlying assumptions about how words are generated are less accurate. More generally, these results highlight the utility of incorporating cognitive plausibility more fully into computational models of language acquisition.

  3. The expected-outcome model of two-player games

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The Expected-Outcome Model of Two-Player Games deals with the expected-outcome model of two-player games, in which the relative merit of game-tree nodes, rather than board positions, is considered. The ambiguity of static evaluation and the problems it generates in the search system are examined and the development of a domain-independent static evaluator is described. Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the rationale for the mathematical study of games, followed by a discussion on some previous artificial intelligence (AI) research efforts on game-trees. The nex

  4. Linear Growth and Fat and Lean Tissue Gain during Childhood: Associations with Cardiometabolic and Cognitive Outcomes in Adolescent Indian Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghattu V Krishnaveni

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine how linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during discrete age periods from birth to adolescence are related to adolescent cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive ability.Adolescents born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy from an Indian birth cohort (N = 486, age 13.5 years had detailed anthropometry and measurements of body fat (fat%, fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations, blood pressure and cognitive function. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and statistically independent measures (conditional SD scores representing linear growth, and fat and lean tissue gain during birth-1, 1-2, 2-5, 5-9.5 and 9.5-13.5 years in 414 of the children with measurements at all these ages.Birth length and linear growth at all ages were positively associated with current height. Fat gain, particularly during 5-9.5 years was positively associated with fat% at 13.5 years (0.44 SD per SD [99.9% confidence interval: 0.29,0.58]. Greater fat gain during mid-late childhood was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (5-9.5 years: 0.23 SD per SD [0.07,0.40] and HOMA-IR (5-9.5 years: 0.24 [0.08,0.40], 9.5-13.5 years: 0.22 [0.06,0.38]. Greater infant growth (up to age 2 years in linear, fat or lean components was unrelated to cardiometabolic risk factors or cognitive function.This study suggests that factors that increase linear, fat and lean growth in infancy have no adverse cardiometabolic effects in this population. Factors that increase fat gain in mid-late childhood may increase cardiometabolic risk, without any benefit to cognitive abilities.

  5. Patient outcomes up to 15 years after stroke: survival, disability, quality of life, cognition and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Siobhan L; Bray, Benjamin D; McKevitt, Christopher; Rudd, Anthony G; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2016-10-01

    The global epidemiological shift of disease burden towards long-term conditions means understanding long-term outcomes of cardiovascular disease is increasingly important. More people are surviving stroke to experience its long-term consequences, but outcomes in people living more >10 years after stroke have not been described in detail. Data were collected for the population-based South London Stroke Register, with participants followed up annually until death. Outcomes were survival, disability, activity, cognitive impairment, quality of life, depression and anxiety. Of 2625 people having first-ever stroke, 262 (21%) survived to 15 years. By 15 years, 61% (95% CI 55% to 67%) of the survivors were male, with a median age of stroke onset of 58 years (IQR 48-66). 87% of the 15-year survivors were living at home and 33.8% (26.2% to 42.4%) had mild disability, 14.3% (9.2% to 21.4%) moderate disability and 15.0% (9.9% to 22.3%) severe disability. The prevalence of disability increased with time but 1 in 10 of the 15-year survivors had lived with moderate-severe disability since their stroke. At 15 years, the prevalence of cognitive impairment was 30.0% (19.5% to 43.1%), depression 39.1% (30.9% to 47.9%) and anxiety 34.9% (27.0% to 43.8%), and survivors reported greater loss of physical than mental quality of life. One in five people live at least 15 years after a stroke and poor functional, cognitive and psychological outcomes affect a substantial proportion of these long-term survivors. As the global population of individuals with cardiovascular long-term conditions grows, research and health services will need to increasingly focus on preventing and managing the long-term consequences of stroke. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Neuroimaging Biomarkers Predict Brain Structural Connectivity Change in a Mouse Model of Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Sturm, Philipp; Füchtemeier, Martina; Foddis, Marco; Mueller, Susanne; Trueman, Rebecca C.; Zille, Marietta; Rinnenthal, Jan Leo; Kypraios, Theodore; Shaw, Laurence; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Chronic hypoperfusion in the mouse brain has been suggested to mimic aspects of vascular cognitive impairment, such as white matter damage. Although this model has attracted attention, our group has struggled to generate a reliable cognitive and pathological phenotype. This study aimed to identify neuroimaging biomarkers of brain pathology in aged, more severely hypoperfused mice. Methods— We used magnetic resonance imaging to characterize brain degeneration in mice hypoperfused by refining the surgical procedure to use the smallest reported diameter microcoils (160 μm). Results— Acute cerebral blood flow decreases were observed in the hypoperfused group that recovered over 1 month and coincided with arterial remodeling. Increasing hypoperfusion resulted in a reduction in spatial learning abilities in the water maze that has not been previously reported. We were unable to observe severe white matter damage with histology, but a novel approach to analyze diffusion tensor imaging data, graph theory, revealed substantial reorganization of the hypoperfused brain network. A logistic regression model from the data revealed that 3 network parameters were particularly efficient at predicting group membership (global and local efficiency and degrees), and clustering coefficient was correlated with performance in the water maze. Conclusions— Overall, these findings suggest that, despite the autoregulatory abilities of the mouse brain to compensate for a sudden decrease in blood flow, there is evidence of change in the brain networks that can be used as neuroimaging biomarkers to predict outcome. PMID:28070001

  7. Neuroimaging Biomarkers Predict Brain Structural Connectivity Change in a Mouse Model of Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Sturm, Philipp; Füchtemeier, Martina; Foddis, Marco; Mueller, Susanne; Trueman, Rebecca C; Zille, Marietta; Rinnenthal, Jan Leo; Kypraios, Theodore; Shaw, Laurence; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Farr, Tracy D

    2017-02-01

    Chronic hypoperfusion in the mouse brain has been suggested to mimic aspects of vascular cognitive impairment, such as white matter damage. Although this model has attracted attention, our group has struggled to generate a reliable cognitive and pathological phenotype. This study aimed to identify neuroimaging biomarkers of brain pathology in aged, more severely hypoperfused mice. We used magnetic resonance imaging to characterize brain degeneration in mice hypoperfused by refining the surgical procedure to use the smallest reported diameter microcoils (160 μm). Acute cerebral blood flow decreases were observed in the hypoperfused group that recovered over 1 month and coincided with arterial remodeling. Increasing hypoperfusion resulted in a reduction in spatial learning abilities in the water maze that has not been previously reported. We were unable to observe severe white matter damage with histology, but a novel approach to analyze diffusion tensor imaging data, graph theory, revealed substantial reorganization of the hypoperfused brain network. A logistic regression model from the data revealed that 3 network parameters were particularly efficient at predicting group membership (global and local efficiency and degrees), and clustering coefficient was correlated with performance in the water maze. Overall, these findings suggest that, despite the autoregulatory abilities of the mouse brain to compensate for a sudden decrease in blood flow, there is evidence of change in the brain networks that can be used as neuroimaging biomarkers to predict outcome. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Identifying potential misfit items in cognitive process of learning engineering mathematics based on Rasch model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataei, Sh; Mahmud, Z.; Khalid, M. N.

    2014-04-01

    The students learning outcomes clarify what students should know and be able to demonstrate after completing their course. So, one of the issues on the process of teaching and learning is how to assess students' learning. This paper describes an application of the dichotomous Rasch measurement model in measuring the cognitive process of engineering students' learning of mathematics. This study provides insights into the perspective of 54 engineering students' cognitive ability in learning Calculus III based on Bloom's Taxonomy on 31 items. The results denote that some of the examination questions are either too difficult or too easy for the majority of the students. This analysis yields FIT statistics which are able to identify if there is data departure from the Rasch theoretical model. The study has identified some potential misfit items based on the measurement of ZSTD where the removal misfit item was accomplished based on the MNSQ outfit of above 1.3 or less than 0.7 logit. Therefore, it is recommended that these items be reviewed or revised to better match the range of students' ability in the respective course.

  9. Overview of cost-consequence modeling in outcomes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergachis, A

    1995-01-01

    Outcomes research has developed in response to the need for information on costs, risks, and benefits of clinical treatments, including data regarding the effectiveness of prescription drugs. It attempts to consider more than the biologic effects of pharmaceuticals, that is, to encompass wider measures of the results of their use, issues that are not routinely addressed during clinical trials. Cost-effectiveness analysis compares the outcome of different treatment options in terms of monetary cost per unit of effectiveness. Examples of measures of effectiveness are years of life saved, number of days of hospitalization avoided, and number of treatment successes. Cost-consequence models, also referred to as cost-outcome models, deal with costs and a variety of outcomes ranging from clinical to humanistic. Direct medical costs are those for prevention, detection, treatment, and rehabilitation; they are amounts spent to treat an illness, including hospitalization, professional services, pharmaceuticals, and medical supplies. Indirect medical costs are associated with changes in productivity, such as earnings lost because of illness. Humanistic outcomes deal primarily with functional status, quality of life, and satisfaction, and may include pain, anxiety, self-esteem, ability to carry out normal activities, and overall impressions. Since it is not possible to study all effects of treatments with clinical trials, modeling techniques are useful in making therapeutic decisions.

  10. Modeling Educational Content: The Cognitive Approach of the PALO Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Felisa Verdejo Maíllo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a reference framework to describe educational material. It introduces the PALO Language as a cognitive based approach to Educational Modeling Languages (EML. In accordance with recent trends for reusability and interoperability in Learning Technologies, EML constitutes an evolution of the current content-centered specifications of learning material, involving the description of learning processes and methods from a pedagogical and instructional perspective. The PALO Language, thus, provides a layer of abstraction for the description of learning material, including the description of learning activities, structure and scheduling. The framework makes use of domain and pedagogical ontologies as a reusable and maintainable way to represent and store instructional content, and to provide a pedagogical level of abstraction in the authoring process.

  11. Cognitive modeling and multi criteria decision making in macroeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonova Nina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in macroeconomics belongs to the class of ill-structured tasks with strong external factors interdependence, a limited number of management tools and experts groups' subjectivity. This paper suggests a technique of macroeconomic analysis which includes methods of cognitive modeling for formalizing a problem situation and scenario generation as a basis of the typical multicriteria decision making task. In turn, for solving this task is suggested a method based on measuring the distance to the 'ideal' solution with determining importance of criteria by finding objective, common component of all values measured by experts groups. For extracting this 'commonality' means of factor analysis are used. Such an approach allows separating of the objective part in experts' value from a subjective one, while the technique at whole provides formalization of macroeconomic problems and substantiation of decision-making in macroeconomics.

  12. Clinical outcomes of a new cognitive-behaviour bibliotherapy for premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Kempeneers, Philippe; Andrianne, Robert; Bauwens, Sabrina; Blairy, Sylvie; Georis, Isabelle; Pairoux, Jean-françois

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual disorder. However, only few affected people consult clinicians in order to overcome this problem. Although no definitive consensus about its aetiology emerges, some mechanisms of PE are now well known. This allows more precise and efficient treatments, both at pharmacological as well as cognitive-behavioural levels. Further, studies have shown that reading didactical documents about their PE problem might be useful to men. Such appro...

  13. Cognitive model of trust dynamics predicts human behavior within and between two games of strategic interaction with computerized confederate agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gordon Collins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game’s optimal outcome as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game’s optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game. The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model’s a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model’s predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair.

  14. Cognitive outcome in adult women affected by congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, Matthew A; Migeon, Claude J; Carson, Kathryn A; Petrucci, Loredana; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2006-01-01

    Some research suggests that girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), who are exposed to higher than normal levels of prenatal androgens, perform better on spatial tasks, worse on verbal tasks and have a greater incidence of left-handedness than unaffected controls, all of which suggests the development of a more male-typical cognitive pattern. However, research in all three areas has produced inconsistent findings. To determine if prenatal androgen exposure has an organizing effect on female cognitive development and to what extent. 24 women, 21-71 years, with either the salt-losing (SL) or simple virilizing (SV) forms of CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, and 18 controls, 21-73 years, who were unaffected female relatives or women with polycystic ovary syndrome, were assessed with IQ, handedness, executive function, verbal learning and memory, non-verbal learning and memory, perceptual speed, visuospatial processing and visuomotor ability measures. The battery included tests known to elicit sex differences and control measures. The findings did not support the hypothesis that women with CAH develop a more male-typical cognitive pattern. This study differs from others in the older age of its participants, grouping by SL/SV diagnosis and assessment of medical treatment and compliance as determined through hormone assays. Our findings provide additional support for the conclusion that, in adult women with CAH, previous prenatal androgen exposure does not enhance spatial abilities, impair verbal abilities nor alter hand preferences in a long-lasting way.

  15. Learner differences and learning outcomes in an introductory biochemistry class: attitude toward images, visual cognitive skills, and learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    The practice of using images in teaching is widespread, and in science education images are used so extensively that some have argued they are now the "main vehicle of communication" (C. Ferreira, A. Arroio Problems Educ. 21st Century 2009, 16, 48-53). Although this phenomenon is especially notable in the field of biochemistry, we know little about the role and importance of images in communicating concepts to students in the classroom. This study reports the development of a scale to assess students' attitude toward biochemical images, particularly their willingness and ability to use the images to support their learning. In addition, because it is argued that images are central in the communication of biochemical concepts, we investigated three "learner differences" which might impact learning outcomes in this kind of classroom environment: attitude toward images, visual cognitive skills, and learning approach. Overall, the students reported a positive attitude toward the images, the majority agreeing that they liked images and considered them useful. However, the participants also reported that verbal explanations were more important than images in helping them to understand the concepts. In keeping with this we found that there was no relationship between learning outcomes and the students' self-reported attitude toward images or visual cognitive skills. In contrast, learning outcomes were significantly correlated with the students' self-reported approach to learning. These findings suggest that images are not necessarily the main vehicle of communication in a biochemistry classroom and that verbal explanations and encouragement of a deep learning approach are important considerations in improving our pedagogical approach.

  16. Granularity as a Cognitive Factor in the Effectiveness of Business Process Model Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschke, Oliver; Rake, Jannis; Levina, Olga

    Reusing design models is an attractive approach in business process modeling as modeling efficiency and quality of design outcomes may be significantly improved. However, reusing conceptual models is not a cost-free effort, but has to be carefully designed. While factors such as psychological anchoring and task-adequacy in reuse-based modeling tasks have been investigated, information granularity as a cognitive concept has not been at the center of empirical research yet. We hypothesize that business process granularity as a factor in design tasks under reuse has a significant impact on the effectiveness of resulting business process models. We test our hypothesis in a comparative study employing high and low granularities. The reusable processes provided were taken from widely accessible reference models for the telecommunication industry (enhanced Telecom Operations Map). First experimental results show that Recall in tasks involving coarser granularity is lower than in cases of finer granularity. These findings suggest that decision makers in business process management should be considerate with regard to the implementation of reuse mechanisms of different granularities. We realize that due to our small sample size results are not statistically significant, but this preliminary run shows that it is ready for running on a larger scale.

  17. Explorations in combining cognitive models of individuals and system dynamics models of groups.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.

    2008-07-01

    This report documents a demonstration model of interacting insurgent leadership, military leadership, government leadership, and societal dynamics under a variety of interventions. The primary focus of the work is the portrayal of a token societal model that responds to leadership activities. The model also includes a linkage between leadership and society that implicitly represents the leadership subordinates as they directly interact with the population. The societal model is meant to demonstrate the efficacy and viability of using System Dynamics (SD) methods to simulate populations and that these can then connect to cognitive models depicting individuals. SD models typically focus on average behavior and thus have limited applicability to describe small groups or individuals. On the other hand, cognitive models readily describe individual behavior but can become cumbersome when used to describe populations. Realistic security situations are invariably a mix of individual and population dynamics. Therefore, the ability to tie SD models to cognitive models provides a critical capability that would be otherwise be unavailable.

  18. Bloodstream Amyloid-beta (1-40) Peptide, Cognition, and Outcomes in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Barallat, Jaume; de Antonio, Marta; Domingo, Mar; Zamora, Elisabet; Vila, Joan; Subirana, Isaac; Gastelurrutia, Paloma; Pastor, M Cruz; Januzzi, James L; Lupón, Josep

    2017-03-06

    In the brain, amyloid-beta generation participates in the pathophysiology of cognitive disorders; in the bloodstream, the role of amyloid-beta is uncertain but may be linked to sterile inflammation and senescence. We explored the relationship between blood levels of amyloid-beta 1-40 peptide (Aβ40), cognition, and mortality (all-cause, cardiovascular, and heart failure [HF]-related) in ambulatory patients with HF. Bloodstream Aβ40 was measured in 939 consecutive patients with HF. Cognition was evaluated with the Pfeiffer questionnaire (adjusted for educational level) at baseline and during follow-up. Multivariate Cox regression analyses and measurements of performance (discrimination, calibration, and reclassification) were used, with competing risk for specific causes of death. Over 5.1 ± 2.9 years, 471 patients died (all-cause): 250 from cardiovascular causes and 131 HF-related. The median Aβ40 concentration was 519.1 pg/mL [Q1-Q3: 361.8-749.9 pg/mL]. The Aβ40 concentration correlated with age, body mass index, renal dysfunction, and New York Heart Association functional class (all P < .001). There were no differences in Aβ40 in patients with and without cognitive impairment at baseline (P = .97) or during follow-up (P = .20). In multivariable analysis, including relevant clinical predictors and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, Aβ40 remained significantly associated with all-cause death (HR, 1.22; 95%CI, 1.10-1.35; P < .001) and cardiovascular death (HR, 1.18; 95%CI, 1.03-1.36; P = .02), but not with HF-related death (HR, 1.13; 95%CI, 0.93-1.37; P = .22). Circulating Aβ40 improved calibration and patient reclassification. Blood levels of Aβ40 are not associated with cognitive decline in HF. Circulating Aβ40 was predictive of mortality and may indicate systemic aging. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Computational models of music perception and cognition II: Domain-specific music processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwins, Hendrik; Grachten, Maarten; Herrera, Perfecto; Hazan, Amaury; Marxer, Ricard; Serra, Xavier

    2008-09-01

    In Part I [Purwins H, Herrera P, Grachten M, Hazan A, Marxer R, Serra X. Computational models of music perception and cognition I: The perceptual and cognitive processing chain. Physics of Life Reviews 2008, in press, doi:10.1016/j.plrev.2008.03.004], we addressed the study of cognitive processes that underlie auditory perception of music, and their neural correlates. The aim of the present paper is to summarize empirical findings from music cognition research that are relevant to three prominent music theoretic domains: rhythm, melody, and tonality. Attention is paid to how cognitive processes like category formation, stimulus grouping, and expectation can account for the music theoretic key concepts in these domains, such as beat, meter, voice, consonance. We give an overview of computational models that have been proposed in the literature for a variety of music processing tasks related to rhythm, melody, and tonality. Although the present state-of-the-art in computational modeling of music cognition definitely provides valuable resources for testing specific hypotheses and theories, we observe the need for models that integrate the various aspects of music perception and cognition into a single framework. Such models should be able to account for aspects that until now have only rarely been addressed in computational models of music cognition, like the active nature of perception and the development of cognitive capacities from infancy to adulthood.

  20. Social Cognitive Model of College Satisfaction: A Test of Measurement and Path Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldt, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined a model that integrates social-cognitive and trait-personality constructs to examine two domains of college satisfaction. Direct and indirect effects were observed for conscientiousness, perception of institutional resources, self-efficacy, and goal progress. Paths differed for personal and institutional satisfaction. Most…

  1. The effects of the interaction between cognitive style and instructional strategy on the educational outcomes for a science exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappenberger, Naomi

    This dissertation examines factors which may affect the educational effectiveness of science exhibits. Exhibit effectiveness is the result of a complex interaction among exhibit features, cognitive characteristics of the museum visitor, and educational outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative proportions of field-dependent and field-independent visitors in the museum audience, and to ascertain if the cognitive style of visitors interacted with instructional strategies to affect the educational outcomes for a computer-based science exhibit. Cognitive style refers to the self-consistent modes of selecting and processing information that an individual employs throughout his or her perceptual and intellectual activities. It has a broad influence on many aspects of personality and behavior, including perception, memory, problem solving, interest, and even social behaviors and self-concept. As such, it constitutes essential dimensions of individual differences among museum visitors and has important implications for instructional design in the museum. The study was conducted in the spring of 1998 at the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum in Chicago. Two experimental treatments of a computer-based exhibit were tested in the study. The first experimental treatment utilized strategies designed for field-dependent visitors that limited the text and provided more structure and cueing than the baseline treatment of the computer program. The other experimental treatment utilized strategies designed for field-independent visitors that provided hypothesis-testing and more contextual information. Approximately two-thirds of the visitors were field-independent. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that there was a significant interaction between cognitive style and instructional strategy that affected visitors' posttest scores on a multiple-choice test of the content. Field-independent visitors out- performed the field

  2. Synchrony-desynchrony in the tripartite model of fear: Predicting treatment outcome in clinically phobic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit Allen, Kristy; Allen, Ben; Austin, Kristin E; Waldron, Jonathan C; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2015-08-01

    The tripartite model of fear posits that the fear response entails three loosely coupled components: subjective distress, behavioral avoidance, and physiological arousal. The concept of synchrony vs. desynchrony describes the degree to which changes in the activation of these components vary together (synchrony), independently, or inversely (both forms of desynchrony) over time. The present study assessed synchrony-desynchrony and its relationship to treatment outcome in a sample of 98 children with specific phobias both prior to and 1 week after receiving one-session treatment, a 3 h cognitive-behavioral intervention. The results suggest an overall pattern of desynchronous change whereby youth improved on behavioral avoidance and subjective distress following treatment, but their level of cardiovascular reactivity remained stable. However, we found evidence that synchronous change on the behavioral avoidance and subjective distress components was related to better treatment outcome, whereas desynchronous change on these components was related to poorer treatment outcome. These findings suggest that a fuller understanding of the three response systems and their interrelations in phobic youth may assist us in the assessment and treatment of these disorders, potentially leading to a more person-centered approach and eventually to enhanced treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction of outcome in internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy for paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: A machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, Fabian; Sauer, Sebastian; Andersson, Erik; Månsson, Kristoffer Nt; Mataix-Cols, David; Rück, Christian; Serlachius, Eva

    2017-07-28

    There are no consistent predictors of treatment outcome in paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One reason for this might be the use of suboptimal statistical methodology. Machine learning is an approach to efficiently analyse complex data. Machine learning has been widely used within other fields, but has rarely been tested in the prediction of paediatric mental health treatment outcomes. To test four different machine learning methods in the prediction of treatment response in a sample of paediatric OCD patients who had received Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT). Participants were 61 adolescents (12-17 years) who enrolled in a randomized controlled trial and received ICBT. All clinical baseline variables were used to predict strictly defined treatment response status three months after ICBT. Four machine learning algorithms were implemented. For comparison, we also employed a traditional logistic regression approach. Multivariate logistic regression could not detect any significant predictors. In contrast, all four machine learning algorithms performed well in the prediction of treatment response, with 75 to 83% accuracy. The results suggest that machine learning algorithms can successfully be applied to predict paediatric OCD treatment outcome. Validation studies and studies in other disorders are warranted. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance. I: a review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzelier, John H

    2014-07-01

    A re-emergence of research on EEG-neurofeedback followed controlled evidence of clinical benefits and validation of cognitive/affective gains in healthy participants including correlations in support of feedback learning mediating outcome. Controlled studies with healthy and elderly participants, which have increased exponentially, are reviewed including protocols from the clinic: sensory-motor rhythm, beta1 and alpha/theta ratios, down-training theta maxima, and from neuroscience: upper-alpha, theta, gamma, alpha desynchronisation. Outcome gains include sustained attention, orienting and executive attention, the P300b, memory, spatial rotation, RT, complex psychomotor skills, implicit procedural memory, recognition memory, perceptual binding, intelligence, mood and well-being. Twenty-three of the controlled studies report neurofeedback learning indices along with beneficial outcomes, of which eight report correlations in support of a meditation link, results which will be supplemented by further creativity and the performing arts evidence in Part II. Validity evidence from optimal performance studies represents an advance for the neurofeedback field demonstrating that cross fertilisation between clinical and optimal performance domains will be fruitful. Theoretical and methodological issues are outlined further in Part III.

  5. Measuring Learning Outcomes. Evolution of Cognitive Skills among Graduate Students in Auditing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Steenholdt, Niels

    ) being able to set up challenging yet fair exams for the total student body. Assessing learning outcomes for the purpose of knowledge management plays a major role in accounting firms too. Knowledge transfer among auditors is a part of dayly life within most accounting firms. Developing a sound on......The ability to provide sensible measures for learning outcomes in accounting education is under increased scrutiny. Students taking accounting classes are often also provided with on-the-job training in accounting firms. Hence knowledge about learning outcomes for different groups of students...... is essential information for educators as well as the accounting profession. Sensible measures is needed by educators in order to (1) chose teaching methods matching prerequisite skills among a heterogenous student body, (2) assess the need for de-learning existing knowledge (i.e., cleaning the slate), and (3...

  6. A Prospective Test of Cognitive Vulnerability Models of Depression with Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Burton, Emily; Fudell, Molly; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to provide a more rigorous prospective test of two cognitive vulnerability models of depression with longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results supported the cognitive vulnerability model in that stressors predicted future increases in depressive symptoms and onset of clinically significant major depression for…

  7. A Note on Comparing Examinee Classification Methods for Cognitive Diagnosis Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Alan; Wang, Chun

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive diagnosis models have received much attention in the recent psychometric literature because of their potential to provide examinees with information regarding multiple fine-grained discretely defined skills, or attributes. This article discusses the issue of methods of examinee classification for cognitive diagnosis models, which are…

  8. Cognitive Modeling and Self-Efficacy: Effects on Preservice Teachers' Learning of Teaching Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrell, Jeffrey; Capron, Earl

    1990-01-01

    Examines how cognitive modeling and self-efficacy affected preservice teachers' learning of teaching strategies. Two groups of students viewed videotaped training sessions with direct instruction or cognitive modeling. They then viewed either self-efficacy or task-oriented commentaries. Results indicated significant effects favoring cognitive…

  9. A Model for Developing Meta-Cognitive Tools in Teacher Apprenticeships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Paige; Schatz, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates a model for developing meta-cognitive tools to be used by pre-service teachers during apprenticeship (student teaching) experience to operationalise the epistemological model of Cook and Brown (2009). Meta-cognitive tools have proven to be effective for increasing performance and retention of undergraduate students.…

  10. Test of a Social Cognitive Model of Work Satisfaction in Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Lent, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Lent and Brown [Lent, R. W., & Brown, S. D. (2006). "Integrating person and situation perspectives on work satisfaction: A social-cognitive view." "Journal of Vocational Behavior,69", 236-247] recently proposed an integrative model of work satisfaction linked to social cognitive career theory. The model posits that work satisfaction is predicted…

  11. A Biblical-Theological Model of Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Relevance for Christian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Danny Ray

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this content analysis research was to develop a biblical-theological model of Cognitive Dissonance Theory applicable to pedagogy. Evidence of cognitive dissonance found in Scripture was used to infer a purpose for the innate drive toward consonance. This inferred purpose was incorporated into a model that improves the descriptive…

  12. Flexible Design and Implementation of Cognitive Models for Predicting Pilot Errors in Cockpit Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, J. van; Janssen, J.; Mioch, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated design and implementation framework for cognitive models in complex task environments. We propose a task- and humancentered development methodology for deriving the cognitive models, and present a goal-based framework for implementing them. We illustrate our approa

  13. Cognitive Models of Writing: Writing Proficiency as a Complex Integrated Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Paul; Odendahl, Nora; Quinlan, Thomas; Fowles, Mary; Welsh, Cyndi; Bivens-Tatum, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This paper undertakes a review of the literature on writing cognition, writing instruction, and writing assessment with the goal of developing a framework and competency model for a new approach to writing assessment. The model developed is part of the Cognitively Based Assessments of, for, and as Learning (CBAL) initiative, an ongoing research…

  14. A Biblical-Theological Model of Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Relevance for Christian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Danny Ray

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this content analysis research was to develop a biblical-theological model of Cognitive Dissonance Theory applicable to pedagogy. Evidence of cognitive dissonance found in Scripture was used to infer a purpose for the innate drive toward consonance. This inferred purpose was incorporated into a model that improves the descriptive…

  15. Strength in Cognitive Self-Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Failures in self-regulation are predictive of adverse cognitive, academic and vocational outcomes, yet the interplay between cognition and self-regulation failure remains elusive. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that lapses in self-regulation, as predicted by the strength model, can be induced in individuals using cognitive paradigms and whether such failures are related to cognitive performance. In Experiments 1, the stop-signal task (SST) was used to show reduced behavioral inhibition...

  16. Therapist adherence is associated with outcome in cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Sofie; Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Gondan, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Studies of therapist adherence in relation to treatment outcome have produced mixed results. The aim of the present study was to investigate change in therapist adherence to cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa over time, and to investigate the relationship between adherence...... and client outcome in early, middle, and late phases of treatment. Thirty-six clients received the focused form of “enhanced” CBT (CBT-E) for bulimia nervosa. Trained observers rated audiotapes of 92 full-length therapy sessions from early (Session 3), middle (Session 11), and late phases (Session 20...

  17. Cognitive Modeling for Closed-Loop Task Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As flightdeck equipment becomes more sophisticated and complex, operations become significantly more cognitively demanding. When tasks demands exceed the operator's...

  18. Parental factors in cognitive outcome of non-handicapped low birthweight infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerfelt, K.; Ellertsen, B; Markestad, T.

    1995-01-01

    A population based cohort of 144 children weighing less than 2000 g who were without major handicap, and a random control sample of 163 children born at term and weighing over 3000 g were investigated. The aim was to assess the relative importance for cognitive development at 5 years of age, of birthweight, parental demographic factors, and factors related to the environment in which the child was reared. The mean non-verbal IQ was 6.1 points lower (95% CI, 2.3 to 10) for the low birthweight ...

  19. Combined exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy improves outcomes in patients with heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveThe purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a combined 12-week home-based exercise (EX)/cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program (n=18) with CBT alone (n=19), EX alone (n=20), and with usual care (UC, n=17) in stable New York Heart Association Class II to III heart failure (HF) patients diagnosed with depression.MethodsDepressive symptom severity [Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D)], physical function [6-min walk test (6MWT)], and health-related quality o...

  20. Determinants of work outcome in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: role of cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Yasuhiro; Jayathilak, Karuna; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2009-09-30

    Cognitive impairment has been reported to be more important than clinical symptomatology as a determinant of work and social function in schizophrenia. In a retrospective analysis of a group of 152 patients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests was contrasted in employed (32, 21.1%) versus unemployed subgroups. As predicted, neurocognitive performance was more important than clinical symptoms in predicting employment status. Among neurocognitive functions, verbal working memory (as reflected by the Consonant Trigram Test) was the strongest predictor of employment status.